Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.

Protein kinase A translocation and insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells: studies with adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis. (1/64)

Activation of protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase; PKA) triggers insulin secretion in the beta-cell. Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT), a bacterial exotoxin with adenylate cyclase activity, and forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, both dose-dependently increased insulin secretion in the presence, but not the absence, of glucose in insulin-secreting betaTC3 cells. The stimulation of cAMP release by either agent was dose-dependent but glucose-independent. Omission of extracellular Ca(2+) totally abolished the effects of ACT on insulin secretion and cytosolic cAMP accumulation. ACT and forskolin caused rapid and dramatic increases in cytosolic Ca(2+), which were blocked by nifedipine and the omission of extracellular Ca(2+). Omission of glucose completely blocked the effects of forskolin and partially blocked the effects of ACT on cytosolic Ca(2+). PKA alpha, beta and gamma catalytic subunits (Calpha, Cbeta and Cgamma respectively) were identified in betaTC6 cells by confocal microscopy. Glucose and glucagon-like polypeptide-1 (GLP-1) caused translocation of Calpha to the nucleus and of Cbeta to the plasma membrane and the nucleus, but did not affect the distribution of Cgamma. In conclusion, glucose and GLP-1 amplify insulin secretion via cAMP production and PKAbeta activation.  (+info)

c-MYC activates protein kinase A (PKA) by direct transcriptional activation of the PKA catalytic subunit beta (PKA-Cbeta) gene. (2/64)

The c-MYC proto-oncogene encodes a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation and broadly implicated in tumorigenesis. Understanding the function of c-MYC and its role in cancer depends upon the identification of c-MYC target genes. Here we show that c-MYC induces the activity of Protein Kinase A (PKA), a key effector of cAMP-mediated signal transduction, by inducing the transcription of the gene encoding the PKA catalytic subunit beta (PKA-Cbeta). c-MYC-mediated induction of PKA-Cbeta gene transcription occurs in multiple tissues, is independent of cell proliferation and is mediated by direct binding of c-MYC to the PKA-Cbeta gene promoter sequences. Constitutive expression of PKA-Cbeta in Rat1A cells induces their transformation, and c-MYC-induced transformation can be reverted by pharmacological inhibition of PKA, suggesting that up-regulation of PKA is critical for c-MYC-associated tumorigenesis. These results indicate that, by activating PKA, c-MYC can provide endogenous activation of the cAMP signal transduction pathway independently of extracellular signals.  (+info)

Loss of protein kinase Calpha expression may enhance the tumorigenic potential of Gli1 in basal cell carcinoma. (3/64)

Activation of the Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway, primarily through mutational inactivation of the PTCH1 gene, is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Gli1, a member of the Gli family of transcription factors, is expressed in BCC and in transgenic mice targeted expression of Gli1 in basal keratinocytes leads to BCC development. In addition to BCC, previous studies have shown that Gli1 is expressed in the outer root sheath (ORS) of the hair follicle but is absent in interfollicular epidermis. In this study, we have characterized the expression pattern of two protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms expressed in BCC and hair follicles. We have then used reporter assays to investigate the effects of these isoforms on Gli1 transcriptional activity. We report that in BCC sections, PKCalpha but not PKCdelta was weakly expressed in the epidermis, whereas in the hair follicle, PKCalpha was expressed in the ORS and PKCdelta in the inner root sheath. In contrast, neither PKCalpha nor PKCdelta was expressed in BCC tumor islands, although both isoforms were often expressed in the surrounding stroma. In mammalian 293T cells, coexpression of constitutively active PKCalpha reduced the activity of Gli1 in a dose-dependent manner, whereas constitutively active PKCdelta increased the activity of Gli1, although this required higher expression levels. Regulation of mutant Gli1 protein localized exclusively to the nucleus was similar to that of the wild-type protein, indicating that nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling is not a determinant of Gli1 control by either PKC isoform. Furthermore, PKC regulation of Gli1 did not involve activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Finally, we show that exogenous Gli1 does not alter the expression of PKCalpha in human primary keratinocytes, suggesting that loss of this isoform in BCC is not via Hedgehog signaling. As BCCs have been proposed to originate from the ORS, loss of PKCalpha expression may be relevant to tumor formation; this may, in part, be because of the predicted increase in Gli1 transcriptional activity.  (+info)

Addicting drugs utilize a synergistic molecular mechanism in common requiring adenosine and Gi-beta gamma dimers. (4/64)

The mesolimbic dopamine system and cAMP-dependent/protein kinase A (PKA) pathways are strongly implicated in addictive behaviors. Here we determine the role of dopamine D2 receptors (D2) in PKA signaling responses to delta-opioid (DOR) and cannabinoid (CB1) receptors. We find in NG108-15/D2 cells and in cultured primary neurons that a brief exposure to saturating concentrations of DOR and CB1 agonists increases cAMP, promotes PKA C alpha translocation and increases cAMP-dependent gene expression. Activation of PKA signaling is mediated by Gi-beta gamma dimers. Importantly, subthreshold concentrations of DOR or CB1 agonists with D2 agonists, which are without effect when added separately, together activate cAMP/PKA signaling synergistically. There is also synergy between DOR or CB1 with ethanol, another addicting agent. In all instances, synergy requires adenosine activation of adenosine A2 receptors and is mediated by beta gamma dimers. Synergy by this molecular mechanism appears to confer hypersensitivity to opioids and cannabinoids while simultaneously increasing the sensitivity of D2 signaling when receptors are expressed on the same cells. This mechanism may account, in part, for drug-induced activation of medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens.  (+info)

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates merlin at serine 518 independently of p21-activated kinase and promotes merlin-ezrin heterodimerization. (5/64)

Mutations in the NF2 tumor suppressor gene encoding merlin induce the development of tumors of the nervous system. Merlin is highly homologous to the ERM (ezrin-radixin-moesin) family of membrane/cytoskeleton linker proteins. However, the mechanism for the tumor suppressing activity of merlin is not well understood. Previously, we characterized a novel role for merlin as a protein kinase A (PKA)-anchoring protein, which links merlin to the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. In this study we show that merlin is also a target for PKA-induced phosphorylation. In vitro [gamma-(33)P]ATP labeling revealed that both the merlin N and C termini are phosphorylated by PKA. Furthermore, both in vitro and in vivo phosphorylation studies of the wild-type and mutated C termini demonstrated that PKA can phosphorylate merlin at serine 518, a site that is phosphorylated also by p21-activated kinases (PAKs). Merlin was phosphorylated by PKA in cells in which PAK activity was suppressed, indicating that the two kinases function independently. Both in vitro and in vivo interaction studies indicated that phosphorylation of serine 518 promotes heterodimerization between merlin and ezrin, an event suggested to convert merlin from a growth-suppressive to a growth-permissive state. This study provides further evidence on the connection between merlin and cAMP/PKA signaling and suggests a role for merlin in the cAMP/PKA transduction pathway.  (+info)

Sperm-specific protein kinase A catalytic subunit Calpha2 orchestrates cAMP signaling for male fertility. (6/64)

An unusual cAMP signaling system mediates many of the events that prepare spermatozoa to meet the egg. Its components include the atypical, bicarbonate-stimulated, sperm adenylyl cyclase and a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) with the unique catalytic subunit termed Calpha(2) or C(s). We generated mice that lack Calpha(2) to determine its importance in the events downstream of cAMP production. Male Calpha(2) null mice produce normal numbers of sperm that swim spontaneously in vitro. Thus, Calpha(2) has no required role in formation of a functional flagellum or the initiation of motility. In contrast, we find that Calpha(2) is required for bicarbonate to speed the flagellar beat and facilitate Ca(2+) entry channels. In addition, Calpha(2) is needed for the protein tyrosine phosphorylation that occurs late in the sequence of sperm maturation and for a negative feedback control of cAMP production, revealed here. Consistent with these specific defects in several important sperm functions, Calpha(2) null males are infertile despite normal mating behavior. These results define several crucial roles of PKA in sperm cell biology, bringing together both known and unique PKA-mediated events that are necessary for male fertility.  (+info)

Changes in cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and progesterone secretion in luteinizing human granulosa cells. (7/64)

Luteinization of follicular granulosa cells leads to an increase in progesterone secretion that is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH). LH acts mainly by elevating intracellular cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and activating cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In this study, we have examined the role of PKA in relation to progesterone output by luteinizing human granulosa cells. Human granulosa cells were obtained by percoll gradient centrifugation of follicular aspirates of patients undergoing oocyte retrieval for assisted conception. Cells were cultured in serum-supplemented medium for up to 3 days in the presence and/or absence of human (h)LH and other cAMP-elevating agents. Spent medium was assayed for cAMP and progesterone content by specific RIA. Cell lysates were collected and assessed for PKA regulatory (R)IIalpha/catalytic (C)alpha expression by Western blotting. Although basal progesterone secretion increased progressively throughout culture, cAMP levels remained unchanged. Under basal conditions, PKA RIIalpha/Calpha expression appeared to increase throughout the 3-day culture period. In the presence of hLH and other cAMP-elevating agents, progesterone secretion increased in a dose-dependent manner coincident with an increase in cAMP. However, despite the increase in both progesterone secretion and cAMP accumulation, there was a dose-dependent decrease in both PKA RIIalpha and Calpha expression. Thus, data presented in this study show that increases in progesterone secretion in luteinizing human granulosa cells can be dissociated from increases in PKA expression. This notion implies that progesterone secretion may be regulated by PKA-dependent as well as PKA-independent mechanisms.  (+info)

Stress stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase and meiotic resumption in mouse oocytes. (8/64)

This study examined the effects of three different cellular stresses on oocyte maturation in meiotically arrested mouse oocytes. Cumulus-cell enclosed oocytes (CEO) or denuded oocytes (DO) from immature, eCG-primed mice were cultured for 17-18 h in dbcAMP-containing medium plus increasing concentrations of the metabolic poison, sodium arsenite, or the free radical-generating agent, menadione. Alternatively, oocytes were exposed to osmotic stress by pulsing with sorbitol and returned to control inhibitory conditions for the duration of culture. Arsenite and menadione each dose-dependently induced germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB) in both DO and CEO. DO, but not CEO, pulsed for 60 min with 500 mM sorbitol were stimulated to resume maturation. The lack of effect in CEO suggests that the cumulus cells may be playing a protective role in osmotic stress-induced GVB. The AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKA; formerly known as AMPK) inhibitors, compound C and araA, completely blocked the meiosis-stimulating effects of all the tested stresses. Western blots showed that acetyl-CoA carboxylase, an important substrate of PRKA, was phosphorylated before GVB, supporting a role for PRKA in stress-induced maturation. Together, these data show that a variety of stresses stimulate GVB in meiotically arrested mouse oocytes in vitro and suggest that this effect is mediated through activation of PRKA.  (+info)

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) consists of two catalytic subunits and a regulatory subunit dimer. This gene encodes ... "Characterization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit Cgamma expressed and purified from sf9 cells". Protein ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit gamma is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKACG gene. ... 1998). "Effects of [D-Ala1] peptide T-NH2 and HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases in normal ...
... encodes a serine threonine protein kinase that has similarity to the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases ... Huang S, Li Q, Alberts I, Li X (2016). "PRKX, a Novel cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Member, Plays an Important Role in ... Protein kinase, X-linked is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRKX gene. This gene ... a phylogenetically and functionally distinct cAMP-dependent protein kinase, activates renal epithelial cell migration and ...
... cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinases have identical catalytic subunits but different regulatory subunits that bind cyclic AMP. ... Activation loop Autophosphorylation Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Cell signaling Cyclin-dependent kinase G protein- ... the JAK kinases (a family of protein tyrosine kinases), and the PIP3-dependent kinase cascade were discovered. Kinases are ... For this reason protein kinases are named based on what regulates their activity (i.e. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinases). ...
... subunits, creating a tetrameric holoenzyme. Cyclic AMP binds to the regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and ... The protein kinase is composed of two regulatory (R) subunits and two catalytic (C) ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase is unique in its mechanism of activation. ... Originally named Protein I, it was found as an endogenous substrate for cAMP-dependent protein kinase in the synaptic membrane ...
... on the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in cows as n-tetradecanoyl. Almost simultaneously in Claude B. ... "n-Tetradecanoyl is the NH2-terminal blocking group of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase from bovine ... c-Src is a gene that codes for proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, a protein important for normal mitotic cycling. It ... In addition, in signal transduction via G protein, palmitoylation of the α subunit, prenylation of the γ subunit, and ...
In eukaryotes, cyclic AMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, or cAMP-dependent protein kinase). PKA is normally ... thus enabling those catalytic units to phosphorylate substrate proteins. The active subunits catalyze the transfer of phosphate ... Not all protein kinases respond to cAMP. Several classes of protein kinases, including protein kinase C, are not cAMP-dependent ... Cyclic AMP binds to specific locations on the regulatory units of the protein kinase, and causes dissociation between the ...
"Structure of a peptide inhibitor bound to the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". ... It should not be confused with 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP-activated protein kinase). Protein kinase A, more precisely ... In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKA) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP ( ... Cyclic+AMP-Dependent+Protein+Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila cAMP- ...
"Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". Science. 253 (5018): ... enzyme called phosphorylase kinase was activated by another kinase that was dependent on the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP ... Protein kinase A catalytic subunit (PKA Cα) is a member of the AGC kinase family (protein kinases A, G, and C), and contributes ... Induction by regulatory subunit and inhibition by catalytic subunit of adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase ...
Gαs activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. This is accomplished by ... This is an alternate form of regulation for the Gα subunit. Such Gα GAPs do not have catalytic residues (specific amino acid ... cAMP can then act as a second messenger that goes on to interact with and activate protein kinase A (PKA). PKA can ... 5 Gβ proteins, and 12 Gγ proteins. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, ...
"Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". Science. 253 (5018): ... or cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. 1992: Elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 1996: Elected to the ... She is known for her research on protein kinases, particularly protein kinase A. She was elected to the Institute of Medicine ... Taylor's research group has focused on the structure and function of protein kinases, particularly protein kinase A, since ...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKACB gene. cAMP is a ... 1998). "Effects of [D-Ala1] peptide T-NH2 and HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases in normal ... 1992). "Assignment of the gene encoding the catalytic subunit C beta of cAMP-dependent protein kinase to the p36 band on ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family and is a catalytic subunit of PKA. ...
In the yeast protein, Syg1, the N-terminus directly binds to the G-protein beta subunit and inhibits transduction of the mating ... cyclic AMP (cAMP) and PPi. Thiamine triphosphatase is a soluble cytosolic enzyme which converts thiamine triphosphate to ... VTC exposes its catalytic domain to the cytosol and has nine vacuolar transmembrane segments (TMSs). Mutations in the VTC ... This SPX-dependent inhibition is mediated by a physical interaction with Spl2. NUC-2 contains several ankyrin repeats. Several ...
... resulting cAMP acts as a second messenger by interacting with and regulating other proteins such as protein kinase A and cyclic ... cyclic-AMP-forming). It catalyzes the following reaction: ATP = 3′,5′-cyclic AMP + diphosphate It has key regulatory roles in ... Isoforms II, IV and IX are stimulated by alpha subunit of the G protein. Isoforms I, V and VI are most clearly inhibited by Gi ... Class VI enzymes possess a catalytic core similar to the one in Class III. Beta adrenergic receptor kinase pathway "PDB101: ...
Cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21 kDa AZI2: encoding protein 5-azacytidine-induced protein 2 BRK1: SCAR/WAVE actin ... voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 3 CCR5: chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 CGGBP1: CGG triplet repeat binding protein 1 ... phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide PISRT1: long non-coding RNA PROSER1: Proline and serine rich protein 1 ... also known as Glutamine-rich protein 1, RBM6: RNA-binding protein 6 RPP14: Ribonuclease P protein subunit p14 SCN5A: sodium ...
... receptor domain by protein kinases. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by the signal chain ... The protein enzyme contains two catalytic subunits and two regulatory subunits. When there is no cAMP,the complex is inactive. ... The G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are protein kinases that phosphorylate only active GPCRs. G-protein-coupled ... DAG helps activate protein kinase C (PKC), which phosphorylates many other proteins, changing their catalytic activities, ...
By the late 1960s, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase had been purified, and most attention was centered on kinases and ... Hanks SK, Hunter T (May 1995). "Protein kinases 6. The eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily: kinase (catalytic) domain ... a protein with essential nuclear and cytoplasmic roles in biogenesis of the 60S subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome. ... "Synergistic phosphorylation of rabbit muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and casein kinase I. ...
... cyclic AMP receptor - cyclic AMP receptor protein - cyclic AMP-responsive DNA-binding protein - cyclic electron flow - cyclic ... protein subunit - protein synthesis - protein targeting - protein translocation - protein-tyrosine kinase - protein-tyrosine- ... viral envelope protein - viral oncogene protein - viral protein - virology - virus (biology) - vitamin - vitamin D-dependent ... catalytic domain - CCR5 receptor - CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein kinase - cell - cell adhesion ...
Misra, K. and Pandey, S.C. (2006). The decreased cyclic-AMP dependent-protein kinase A function in the nucleus accumbens: a ... Ethanol causes translocation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit to the nucleus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 93, ... Some of the kinase families currently linked to alcoholism are Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs), protein ... Ethanol enhances growth factor activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism. Proc ...
... which is a filamentation induced by cyclic AMP domain, is known to perform AMPylation. This family of proteins are found in all ... which modifies the GyrB subunit of DNA gyrase, the conserved tyrosine residue for ATP binding of ParE subunit at Topoisomerase ... kinases due to their ATP hydrolysis activity and reversible transfer of the metabolite to a hydroxyl side chain of the protein ... Unlike the bacterial GS-ATase, FICD carries out both reactions with same catalytic domain. AMPylation is involved in bacterial ...
... cAMP-dependent protein kinase), one of the first few kinases discovered. It has four sub-units two catalytic and two regulatory ... concentration of the second messenger cAMP may lead to the activation of cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels exchange proteins ... Molecules that inhibit the cAMP pathway include: cAMP phosphodiesterase converts cAMP into AMP by breaking the phosphodiester ... cAMP binds to the regulatory sub-units. It causes them to break apart from the catalytic sub-units. The Catalytic sub-units ...
... neurite outgrowth and protein phosphorylation by a newly synthesized selective inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... site on the PKA catalytic subunit. However, subsequent work has suggested a variety of additional effects such as inhibition of ... novel and potent inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C". Biochemistry. 23 (21): 5036- ... H-89 is a protein kinase inhibitor with greatest effect on protein kinase A (PKA). H-89, derived from H-8 (N-[2-(methylamino) ...
... by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (30): 20070-8. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... pathways independently on its catalytic activity by serving as a bridge for other proteins thereby regulate protein-protein ... Zhang S, Broxmeyer HE (January 1999). "p85 subunit of PI3 kinase does not bind to human Flt3 receptor, but associates with SHP2 ... this phosphorylation is mediated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). Second allosteric regulation is mediated by binding ...
"Preferential expression in mushroom bodies of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and its role in learning and memory". ... cAMP or cyclic AMP) is a second messenger that has been implicated in facilitating mushroom body calcium influx in Drosophila ... The intermediate term memory trace is dependent on expression of the amn gene located in dorsal paired medial neurons. An ... Protein kinase A (PKA) has been found to play an important role in learning and memory in Drosophila. When calcium enters a ...
As AMP binds both Bateman domains the γ subunit undergoes a conformational change which exposes the catalytic domain found on ... It should not be confused with cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase (protein kinase A). AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein complex ... liver kinase B1 (LKB1), which works in a complex with STRAD and MO25, Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase II-( ... "AMP-activated protein kinase kinase activity and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in contracting muscle of ...
"Proteasome function is regulated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase through phosphorylation of Rpt6". The Journal of ... "O-GlcNAc transferase is in a functional complex with protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunits". The Journal of Biological ... "AMP-activated Protein Kinase and p38 MAPK Activate O-GlcNAcylation of Neuronal Proteins during Glucose Deprivation". Journal of ... regulating protein-protein interactions, altering protein structure or enzyme activity, changing protein subcellular ...
... with the terminal subunits from the A54145 (Factor B1) or calcium-dependent antibiotic pathways to create molecules containing ... The two core catalytic domains are an acyltransferase (AT) and a ketosynthase (KS). The AT acts upon a malonyl-CoA substrate ... Creatine kinase levels are usually checked regularly while individuals undergo daptomycin therapy. In July 2010, the FDA issued ... Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces roseosporus. Daptomycin consists of 13 amino acids, 10 ...
... sequence formed by the fusion of ret tyrosine kinase and the regulatory subunit RI alpha of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... "Exclusion of catalytic and regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase as candidate genes for the defect causing ... Guild BC, Strominger JL (1984). "HLA-A2 antigen phosphorylation in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Sites of ... "A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) interaction and dimerization of the RIalpha and RIbeta regulatory subunits of protein kinase ...
"Phosphorylation and activation of brain aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase". Journal of ... Upon cofactor binding, a large structural transformation occurs as the subunits pull closer and close the active site. This ... Bertoldi M (March 2014). "Mammalian Dopa decarboxylase: structure, catalytic activity and inhibition". Archives of Biochemistry ... AADC has several conserved protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase G recognition sites, with residues S220, S336, S359, T320 ...
1996), "Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAK) in human B cells: co-localization of type I cAK (RIα2C2) with the antigen ... The catalytic subunit of PKA must bind four molecules of cAMP to be activated, whereupon activation consists of cleavage ... 1991), "Cyclic AMP modulation of human B cell proliferative responses: role of cAMP-dependent protein kinases in enhancing B ... Saxena, M. (1999), "Crosstalk between cAMP-dependent kinase and MAP kinase through a protein tyrosine phosphatase", Nat. Cell ...
The MAPK protein is an enzyme, a protein kinase that can attach phosphate to target proteins such as the transcription factor ... Some species use cyclic AMP as the signal; others such as Polysphondylium violaceum use other molecules, in its case N- ... The G protein's α subunit, together with the bound GTP, can then dissociate from the β and γ subunits to further affect ... Hence a catalytic receptor is an integral membrane protein possessing both enzymatic, catalytic, and receptor functions. They ...
... but has no effect on protein kinase C or cyclic AMP-dependent kinase. Mutagenicity does not appear to occur for purified toxins ... the formation of a covalent bond between a methylene group of microcystin-LR and a cystine residue at the catalytic subunit of ... In this way the protein phosphatase is inhibited and more phosphorylated proteins in the liver cells are left, which is ... These large proteins are made up of different protein domains, coined 'modules', that each have their own specific enzymatic ...
... glucagon activates a cyclic AMP pathway; this results in Protein Kinase A, Protein Kinase C, or AMP-activated Protein Kinase ... "Akt-dependent activation of the heart 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFKFB2) isoenzyme by amino acids". ... "Cloning and expression of a catalytic core bovine brain 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase". Biochemical and ... Walker JE, Saraste M, Runswick MJ, Gay NJ (1982). "Distantly related sequences in the alpha- and beta-subunits of ATP synthase ...
... group of protein kinases. Although some features unite their catalytic domains with protein tyrosine kinases, the activity of ... Chow CW, Davis RJ (January 2000). "Integration of calcium and cyclic AMP signaling pathways by 14-3-3". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (2 ... and protein kinase A-dependent signals". Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (2): 921-33. doi:10.1128/mcb.17.2.921. PMC 231818. PMID 9001246. ... "A phosphatase holoenzyme comprised of Shoc2/Sur8 and the catalytic subunit of PP1 functions as an M-Ras effector to modulate ...
An actin protein is the monomeric subunit of two types of filaments in cells: microfilaments, one of the three major components ... Wolyniak MJ, Sundstrom P (Oct 2007). "Role of actin cytoskeletal dynamics in activation of the cyclic AMP pathway and HWP1 gene ... Zhao K, Wang W, Rando OJ, Xue Y, Swiderek K, Kuo A, Crabtree GR (Nov 1998). "Rapid and phosphoinositol-dependent binding of the ... The exact molecular details of the catalytic mechanism are still not fully understood. Although there is much debate on this ...
The Nck (non-catalytic region of tyrosine kinase adaptor protein 1) belongs to the adaptor family of proteins. The nck gene was ... and cyclic AMP". Mol. Cell. Biol. 12 (12): 5816-23. doi:10.1128/MCB.12.12.5816. PMC 360521. PMID 1333046. Meisenhelder J, ... with the p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase". FEBS Lett. 575 (1-3): 35-40. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2004.07.090. PMID ... Hu Q, Milfay D, Williams LT (March 1995). "Binding of NCK to SOS and activation of ras-dependent gene expression". Mol. Cell. ...
... cyclic nucleotide-regulated protein kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150.125 - cyclic amp-dependent protein kinases ... gtp-binding protein alpha subunits MeSH D08.811.277.040.330.300.200.100.100 - gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, g12-g13 MeSH ... catalytic MeSH D08.811.913.696.445.735.270 - dna-directed rna polymerases MeSH D08.811.913.696.445.735.270.375 - dna primase ... map kinase kinase kinase 1 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.200 - map kinase kinase kinase 2 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ...
... two sites on glycogen synthetase phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and their dephosphorylation by protein ... Specifically, The inter-subunit interactions are mediated by the α15/16 helix pairs, forming allosteric sites between subunits ... Although the catalytic mechanisms used by glycogen synthase are not well known, structural similarities to glycogen ... "A reinvestigation of the phosphorylation of rabbit skeletal-muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits Descripteur en anglais: Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits [D12.776.476.563.150.125.750.500] Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits [D12.776.476.563.150.125.875.500] Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIbeta Subunit [D12.776.476.563.150.125.750.750] Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIbeta ...
PKA catalytic subunit compartmentation regulates contractile and hypertrophic responses to beta-adrenergic signaling Journal ... Proteins - Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases PubMed MeSh Term *Overview. Overview. subject area of * A dual parameter FRET ... Structural characterization of the membrane-associated regulatory subunit of type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase by mass ... Intrathecal injection of adenosine 2A receptor agonists reversed neuropathic allodynia through protein kinase (PK)A/PKC ...
... co-chaperone replaces an amino-terminal segment of the catalytic subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). ... dependent protein kinase A through association with A-kinase anchoring proteins. This configuration creates autonomous ... Mutations in the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKAc) drive the stress hormone disorder adrenal Cushings syndrome. We ... Mutant protein kinase A catalytic subunit (PKAc) drives adrenal Cushings syndrome, though its signaling interactions remain ...
Somatic mutations of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACA) gene in Japanese patients with ...
Expression of catalytic (C) and R subunits was low in embryos. The abundance of C and R increased prior to hatching and was ... Cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase and a transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase in Caenorhabditis elegans: Structure, function and ... the regulatory subunit (R) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAMP-PK) and a tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase).;C. elegans has a ... Protein kinases and protein phosphatases are central components of signal transduction pathways. This thesis characterized two ...
Protein Kinase Type I, Cyclic AMP-Dependent MH - Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits UI - D054751 MN - ... Protein Kinase A, Type II BX - Protein Kinase Type II, Cyclic AMP-Dependent MH - Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIalpha ... catalytic subunits. HN - 2008 BX - Protein Kinase A, Catalytic Subunits MH - Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha ... protein kinase A. HN - 2008(1998) BX - Protein Kinase A, RII alpha Subunit MH - Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIbeta ...
In contrast, Praja2 (Pja2), an AKAP-like E3 ligase protein was identified as a key element in controlling cAMP dependent PKA ... We demonstrate that the inhibition of IGF1R in the IGF1R-dependent CRC subset generates cell death through a novel mechanism ... Importantly, ligand mediated activation of the IGF1R in CRC cells results in the generation of cAMP dependent PKA activity that ... We had identified 2 cytoplasmic pathways dependent upon the same enzymatic activity with opposite effects on cell fate in terms ...
Name: protein kinase, DNA activated, catalytic polypeptide. Synonyms: DOXNPH, XRCC7, dxnph, DNA-PK, slip, DNAPDcs, DNA-PKcs ... Name: cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21. Synonyms: R3hdm3, 0710001E13Rik, Tarpp, ARPP-21, D9Bwg1012e ... Name: solute carrier family 17 (sodium-dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporter), member 7 ... Name: gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, subunit alpha 2. Synonyms: Gabra-2, C630048P16Rik ...
... mediated by activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase cAMP-dependent (PKA)/adenosine monophosphate ... activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, against high-fat-diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. Actually, the mechanisms of ... Hindrance of inflammatory cytokine signaling is likely dependent on the hyperforin content of SJW extract, but recent data ... c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways involved in pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell dysfunction/death and ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits. Subunidades Catalíticas de Proteína Quinasa Dependientes de AMP Cíclico ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIalpha Subunit. Subunidad de Proteína Quinasa RIIalfa Dependiente de AMP Cíclico. ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIbeta Subunit. Subunidad de Proteína Quinasa RIIbeta Dependiente de AMP Cíclico. ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit. Subunidad de Proteína Quinasa RIalfa Dependiente de AMP Cíclico. ...
Neural induction is mediated by cross-talk between the protein kinase C and cyclic AMP pathways. 1989, Pubmed , Xenbase Otte, ... A novel protein kinase C alpha-dependent signal to ERK1/2 activated by alphaVbeta3 integrin in osteoclasts and in Chinese ... Direct binding of syndecan-4 cytoplasmic domain to the catalytic domain of protein kinase C alpha (PKC alpha) increases focal ... MAP kinase is activated during mesoderm induction in Xenopus laevis. 1994, Pubmed , Xenbase Hess, AP-1 subunits: quarrel and ...
... "protein_coding" "AGT25018","N559_3365","Klebsiella pneumoniae","ATP-dependent Clp protease ATP-binding subunit [Ensembl]. AAA ... "diacylglycerol kinase family protein [Ensembl]. Diacylglycerol kinase [Interproscan].","protein_coding" "AKI50539","L2625_02749 ... "cyclic nucleotide-binding domain protein [Ensembl]. Cyclic nucleotide-binding domain [Interproscan].","protein_coding" " ... ","lipoate-protein ligase A [Ensembl]. catalytic domain, Biotin/lipoate A/B protein ligase family [InterProScan].","protein_ ...
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit ... Cyclic Nucleotide-Regulated Protein Kinases. *Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins. *Cyclin-Dependent Kinases ... Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. *3,5-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases. *3,5-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases ... and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is ...
Cyclic ADP-Ribose D3.438.759.646. D3.633.100.759.646. Cyclic AMP D3.438.759.646.138.395 ... Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases D12.776.543.750.60 D12.776.543.750.630 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-like Orphan Receptors D12.776 ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 8 D12.644.360.24.304.500 D12.644.360.24.309.500 D12.776. D12.776. Cyclization ... D3.633.100.759.590.138.264 S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit D12.644.276.87.802 D12.776.631.655.750 D12.776.467.87.875 ...
5-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-2. PRKAA2. P54646. 1 Reference(s). ... Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-4. ATF4. P18848. 1 Reference(s). ... 5-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-1. PRKAA1. Q13131. 2 Reference(s). ... NAD-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin-1. SIRT1. Q96EB6. 1 Reference(s). T01CL0. Tyrosine-protein kinase Lyn. LYN. P07948. 1 ...
This agent may also interfere with amino acid, cyclic AMP, and glutathione metabolism; calmodulin-dependent Ca++ -transport ... It is a protein kinase C agonist and stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA." [MESH:D013755] synonym: "12-O-Tetradecanoyl ... PT is one of the most complex bacterial toxins known, composed of six subunits with an A protomer responsible for biologic ... "Any substance that combines with an enzyme to increase its catalytic activity. These molecules are often involved in the ...
also, lysosomal proteins and capped jazz are dynamical proteoglycan proteins( Sperandeo et al. SLC7A9 occurs the AMP, platelet ... dependent machinery binds the family of mitochondrial residues( release) from ATP. first AMP-activated download физико ... containing a further G-protein-coupled disease to enable cyclic lagging of the hot proliferative dynamics of IRE1-alpha. The ... TRAF6 facilitates viral handy subunits rafts that bind to the PTPN1 thesis of TAK1( TAB2 or TAB3) and IKK(NEMO), depending to ...
and by posttranslational mechanisms like phosphorylation by different kinases. We have found that cGMP-dependent protein kinase ... The cAMP analogue 8-pCPT-2OMe-cAMP (8-CPT) that selectively activates the exchange protein activated by cyclic AMP (Epac) was ... subunits and a range of regulatory proteins. Mutations in Nav1.5 and interacting proteins have been identified in different ... This permits a firmer interaction between the TRPC4 and the catalytic site of the tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates Tyr-959 ...
... which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).. ... and cyclic AMP.. ... Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in ... The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed ... or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic ...
CDC2-CDC28 Kinases D8.811.913.696.620.682.700.200.67 Cdc20 Proteins D12.776.167.74 CDC28 Protein Kinase, S cerevisiae D8.811. ... Cyclic AMP D12.776.543.750.810.150 Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear D12.776.260.698 D12.776.930.669 Receptors, Dopamine ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 D8.811.913.696.620.682.700.200.451 Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 D8.811.913.696.620.682.700.200.67.875 ... S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit D12.644.276.87.802 D12.776.467.87.875 D23.529.87.887 Sadism F3.800.800.600.700 F3.657 ...
CDC2-CDC28 Kinases D8.811.913.696.620.682.700.200.67 Cdc20 Proteins D12.776.167.74 CDC28 Protein Kinase, S cerevisiae D8.811. ... Cyclic AMP D12.776.543.750.810.150 Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear D12.776.260.698 D12.776.930.669 Receptors, Dopamine ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 D8.811.913.696.620.682.700.200.451 Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 D8.811.913.696.620.682.700.200.67.875 ... S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit D12.644.276.87.802 D12.776.467.87.875 D23.529.87.887 Sadism F3.800.800.600.700 F3.657 ...
Initial regarding cyclic GMP-AMP synthase by self-DNA leads to auto-immune conditions. ... Phys Rev Lett 2010, 104:176404.CrossRef 2. Rahmani M, Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 Ahmadi MT, Kiani MJ, Ismail R: Monolayer ... Liang W, Malhotra A, Deutscher MP: Acetylation regulates the stability of a bacterial protein: growth stage-dependent ... is involved in the biogenesis of 50S ribosomal subunit. Nucleic Acids Res DNA Damage inhibitor 2004,32(9):2751-2759. ...
Cyclic AMP modulates the functional plasticity of immature dendritic cells by inhibiting Src-like kinases through protein ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 regulates macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. ... Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subunit is an essential regulator of inflammation. * Nitration of tyrosine by hydrogen ... A catalytic antioxidant (AEOL 10150) attenuates expression of inflammatory genes in stroke. ...
... obesity biology Zyxin antagonizes the FERM protein expanded to couple F-actin and yorkie-dependent organ growth Protein kinase ... controls histidine kinase activity in Staphylococcus aureus Mutations in PMPCB encoding the catalytic subunit of the ... virus-1 tat protein increases the number of inhibitory synapses between hippocampal neurons in culture Cyclic AMP stimulates ... a neglected but critical aspect of SARS-CoV-2 infection Inhibition of 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) can ...
  • Thus, more than one third of CPAs associated with overt CS harbor unique somatic mutations of the main cAMP-dependent kinase catalytic subunit, PRKACA resulting in constitutive PKA activation. (nih.gov)
  • Over fifty members of this family exist, most of which bind specifically to regulatory subunits of CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA. (nih.gov)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- The expression of the different PKA regulatory subunits was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and real-time PCR in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples from 20 nonobese and 67 obese patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Using cAMP analogues with different affinities for the A and B sites of the regulatory subunits of PKA types I and II, we found that activation of PKA I, but not PKA II, mimicked the inhibitory effects of CADO on LAK cell cytotoxic activity and cytokine production. (nih.gov)
  • Exome sequencing revealed somatic mutations in PRKACA, which encodes the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A [PKA]), in 8 of 10 adenomas (c.617A→C in 7 and c.595_596insCAC in 1). (nih.gov)
  • 9. Somatic mutations of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACA) gene in Japanese patients with several adrenal adenomas secreting cortisol [Rapid Communication]. (nih.gov)
  • The main protein kinase A catalytic subunit (PRKACA), a likely oncogene, and cortisol-producing tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Exome sequencing revealed somatic mutations in the PRKACA gene, which encodes the main catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA in a total of 22/59 (37%) adenomas from patients with overt CS. (nih.gov)
  • More interestingly, this treatment regimen significantly and consistently reduced the plasma levels of protein kinase A catalytic subunit alpha (PRKACA) and plasma cortisol among the general smokers. (nih.gov)
  • Given the well-established role of PRKACA and cortisol in anxiety and stress, kava may induce its anxiolytic activity via a novel PRKACA-dependent mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, plasma levels of PRKACA, and potentially plasma cortisol and cyclic AMP and urinary N-acetyl serotonin may serve as biomarkers to monitor kava's anxiolytic efficacy. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the R61 phase of this phased clinical trial aims 1) to validate the changes of plasma PRKACA, cortisol, c-AMP and urinary NA-5HT in GAD patients upon kava ingestion and 2) to characterize the safety, compliance, bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of kava. (nih.gov)
  • Protein kinases can covalently link a phosphate group from the ATP donor molecule to serine, threonine, and/or tyrosine residues on their substrates. (yellowcouch.org)
  • Of these protein kinases, approximately 90 are tyrosine kinases, 43 are tyrosine kinase-like, while the remaining majority comprises serine/threonine kinases. (yellowcouch.org)
  • The SH-2 containing proteins further transmit the signal often via non-RTK or serine/threonine protein kinases. (yellowcouch.org)
  • In fact, perturbed activity of more than 50% of the RTK and of several serine/threonine protein kinases have been repeatedly found to be associated with human malignancies [Table S2 in 4, 5]. (yellowcouch.org)
  • Calcineurin ( CaN ) is a calcium and calmodulin dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase (also known as protein phosphatase 3, and calcium-dependent serine-threonine phosphatase). (wikidoc.org)
  • A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. (wakehealth.edu)
  • 7. Modulation of insulin secretion from normal rat islets by inhibitors of the post-translational modifications of GTP-binding proteins. (nih.gov)
  • The last decade has witnessed an exponential increase in the development of specific small protein kinase inhibitors. (yellowcouch.org)
  • This review describes different approaches that are currently applied to develop such specific protein kinase inhibitors and provides an overview of protein kinase inhibitors that are currently in clinical trials or are administered in the clinic. (yellowcouch.org)
  • Focus is directed on inhibitors against receptor tyrosine kinases and protein kinases participating in the signalling cascades. (yellowcouch.org)
  • Inhibitors of the PKA catalytic subunits (H89 and PKI(14-22) peptide) failed to abrogate the inhibitory effects of CADO whereas Rp-8-Br-cAMPS, an antagonist of the RI subunit, blocked the inhibitory effects of CADO. (nih.gov)
  • Shown are residues in contact with the inhibitors that differ between PKA and Rho-kinase according to the alignment from. (fcmorkovice.cz)
  • Several protein kinase inhibitors have been approved for human treatment or are in advanced clinical trials. (fcmorkovice.cz)
  • FGF/ ERK , which is sensitive to dominant-negative FGF receptor and to the inhibitors SU5402 and U0126, and a PKC pathway, which is dependent on the intracellular domain of Syn4 . (xenbase.org)
  • 18. Substrates for cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in islets of Langerhans. (nih.gov)
  • They play a role in focusing the PROTEIN KINASE A activity toward relevant substrates. (nih.gov)
  • Protein kinases possess a wide variety of substrates including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, protein kinases controlling the cell cycle, and transcription factors. (yellowcouch.org)
  • A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. (lookformedical.com)
  • Protein kinases and protein phosphatases are central components of signal transduction pathways. (yu.edu)
  • The phosphorylation pattern of proteins within a cell is determined by the antagonistic action of protein kinases that phosphorylate proteins and protein phosphatases that dephosphorylate proteins [1]. (yellowcouch.org)
  • In contrast to kinases, which phosphorylate substrate, phosphatases dephosphorylate the substrate. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Phosphatases and kinases act as regulators of protein reversible phosphorylation in the cell, which constitutes a major form of signaling and an essential mechanism of regulation in all living organisms. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Protein phosphatases are the enzymes that hydrolyze phospho-ester bonds in phosphorylated proteins. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Eukaryotic protein phosphatases are structurally and functionally diverse enzymes that are represented by three distinct gene families, including the PPPs (phosphoprotein phosphatases), PPMs (metal-dependent protein phosphatases) and PTPs (protein tyrosine phosphatases). (medchemexpress.com)
  • Pde1 phosphodiesterase modulates cyclic AMP levels through a protein kinase A-mediated negative feedback loop in Cryptococcus neoformans. (duke.edu)
  • 5. Novel somatic mutations in the catalytic subunit of the protein kinase A as a cause of adrenal Cushing's syndrome: a European multicentric study. (nih.gov)
  • Tor and cyclic AMP-protein kinase A: two parallel pathways regulating expression of genes required for cell growth. (duke.edu)
  • We had identified 2 cytoplasmic pathways dependent upon the same enzymatic activity with opposite effects on cell fate in terms of life and death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A role for Syndecan-4 in neural induction involving ERK - and PKC-dependent pathways. (xenbase.org)
  • 3)Parathyroid hormone synergizes with non-cyclic AMP pathways to activate the cyclic AMP response element. (edu.in)
  • 15. Essential arginine residues in isoprenylcysteine protein carboxyl methyltransferase. (nih.gov)
  • Protein S-acylation is the reversible addition of fatty acids to the cysteine residues of target proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • The removal of fatty acids from acylated cysteine residues is catalyzed by acyl protein thioesterases. (frontiersin.org)
  • For the rest of this review, we specifically discuss S-acylation, the covalent linkage of various fatty acids (14-20 carbons) via a thioester bond to the cysteine residues of substrate proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • TPCK (N-α-p-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone) and TLCK (N-α-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone) are alkylation reagents that chemically modify the side chain of His or Cys residues in a protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The specific cysteine residues modified were determined by site-directed mutagenesis and mass spectrometry (MS). The effect of TPCK modification on Nef-CD4 interaction was studied using fluorescence titration of a synthetic CD4 tail peptide with recombinant Nef-His protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HIV-1 Nef protein consists of a conserved core domain of about 120 residues and two flexible regions - the N-terminus 68 amino acids flexible arm and a 32 amino acid loop structure (V148-L181) located in the C-terminal region. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C. elegans has a single gene and mRNA encoding the R subunit of cAMP-PK of 376 amino acid residues. (yu.edu)
  • The C-terminal 577 residues are 55% identical with the PTPase catalytic domains of the human LAR (leucocyte common antigen related protein). (yu.edu)
  • The remaining residues connecting the FN III and the catalytic domain are not related to other proteins in various data bases. (yu.edu)
  • The intracellular catalytic domain of the activated receptor autophosphorylates tyrosine residues. (yellowcouch.org)
  • These phosphotyrosine residues form binding sites for proteins containing src-homology 2 (SH-2) domains. (yellowcouch.org)
  • These residues thus serve as fixed points of reference for other protein kinases [, As indicated above, there are only two small inserts and deletions in the small lobe in these three structures. (fcmorkovice.cz)
  • Small molecule IGF1R kinase inhibitor OSI-906 was used to test the effect of IGF1R inhibition on PKA activation, AKAP association and its downstream cell survival signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have determined the crystal structures of HA-1077, H-1152P, and Y-27632 in complexes with protein kinase A (PKA) as a surrogate kinase to analyze Rho-kinase inhibitor binding properties. (fcmorkovice.cz)
  • Solution structure of the cAMP- dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit and its contraction upon binding the protein kinase inhibitor peptide. (fcmorkovice.cz)
  • Antianginal effect of fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, in patients with stable effort angina a multicenter study. (fcmorkovice.cz)
  • Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase complexed with MgATP and peptide inhibitor. (fcmorkovice.cz)
  • PMID- 214392 TI - Regulation of lipogenesis by adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate in chicken liver in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • His initial studies, as a Postdoctoral Fellow at Rockefeller University, established that the pattern of phosphorylation of nuclear proteins in hepatocytes is modulated by cyclic AMP both in vivo and in vitro (in isolated hepatocyte nuclei), but the in vitro response to cAMP differs significantly from that observed in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro activation of a myelin basic protein/microtubule-associated protein 2 kinase. (fcmorkovice.cz)
  • The former are transmembrane proteins that contain a ligand-binding extracellular domain and an intracellular catalytic domain, whereas nonreceptor tyrosine kinases are intracellular proteins that generally function downstream of the RTK. (yellowcouch.org)
  • CD45 Protein, Human (HEK 293, His) is a type 1 transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) expressed by all the haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) except that of erythrocytes and platelets. (medchemexpress.com)
  • This gene encodes the gamma form of its catalytic subunit. (nih.gov)
  • In its physiological state, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is a tetramer that contains a regulatory (R) subunit dimer and two catalytic (C) subunits. (nih.gov)
  • Diffusion of magnesium adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into these crystals trapped not ATP, but the reaction products, adenosine diphosphate and the phosphorylated RIIβ subunit. (nih.gov)
  • PMID- 214393 TI - Regulation of growth & metabolism of ovariectomised rat uterus by adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that the inhibitory effects of adenosine are probably mediated via cAMP-dependent activation of the RI subunits of PKA I but are independent of the catalytic activity of PKA. (nih.gov)
  • 11. Identification and characterization of a novel protein histidine kinase in the islet beta cell: evidence for its regulation by mastoparan, an activator of G-proteins and insulin secretion. (nih.gov)
  • 17. Mastoparan-induced insulin secretion from insulin-secreting betaTC3 and INS-1 cells: evidence for its regulation by Rho subfamily of G proteins. (nih.gov)
  • In this review, we will explore the recent findings on protein S-acylation, the enzymatic regulation of this process, and discuss examples of dynamic S-acylation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we find that the cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) pathway supports Chk1 in the regulation of mitosis by targeting the mitotic inducer Cdc20. (nih.gov)
  • OBJECTIVE- In human adipocytes, the cAMP-dependent pathway mediates signals originating from β-adrenergic activation, thus playing a key role in the regulation of important metabolic processes, i.e., lipolysis and thermogenesis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Post-translational modifications are important processes in the regulation of protein activity. (yellowcouch.org)
  • Furthermore, while a subunit mRNA levels are abundant in both primary neuronal and primary glial cultures, p subunit mRNA levels are very low (Cβ) or undetectable (Riβ, RIIβ) in primary glial cultures, but are abundant in primary neuronal cultures. (elsevierpure.com)
  • 11/05/2007) TOTAL 2008 NEW DESCRIPTORS = 456 MH - A Kinase Anchor Proteins UI - D054758 MN - D12.644.360.24.65 MN - D12.776.157.57.01 MN - D12.776.476.24.69 MS - A structurally-diverse family of intracellular-signaling adaptor proteins that selectively tether specific protein kinase A subtypes to distinct subcellular sites. (nih.gov)
  • Although each system seems to be independent and finely controlled, the contractile proteins, intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis, and intracellular Zn 2+ signals are strongly linked to each other by the intracellular ROS management in a fascinating way to form a "functional tetrad" which ensures the proper functioning of the myocardium. (hindawi.com)
  • PfNF-YB binds to genes coding for proteins implicated in a range of different biological functions, such as replication protein A large subunit (DNA replication), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (nucleic acid metabolism) and multidrug resistance protein 2 (intracellular transport). (oncotarget.com)
  • Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. (lookformedical.com)
  • His thesis research was carried out in the laboratory of Dr. Paul Greengard and it included the discovery of a synaptic membrane phosphoprotein which is phosphorylated by a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. (nih.gov)
  • The cAMP independent PKA activation pathway is dependent upon mitochondrial AKAP149 for its apoptotic functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although they have conserved catalytic cores, DHHC enzymes vary in their protein substrate selection, lipid substrate preference, and regulatory mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • The activity state of these proteins determines the fate of the cell and aberrant expression and activities of these functional classes of enzymes result in abnormal signal transmission. (yellowcouch.org)
  • protein_coding" "AAC75228","fruA","Escherichia coli","fused fructose-specific PTS enzymes: IIBcomponent/IIC components [Ensembl]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • protein_coding" "AAC75230","fruB","Escherichia coli","fused fructose-specific PTS enzymes: IIA component/HPr component [Ensembl]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • HN - 2008 (1993) MH - Agouti-Related Protein UI - D054369 MN - D12.644.276.74 MN - D12.776.467.74 MN - D23.529.74 MS - A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. (nih.gov)
  • Tyrosine kinases are divided into receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) and nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (non-RTK). (yellowcouch.org)
  • The intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of RTK is activated upon binding of the ligand and subsequent oligomerization of the receptor. (yellowcouch.org)
  • CADO strongly inhibited cytotoxic activity of LAK cells and attenuated the production of IFN-gamma, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha by LAK cells stimulated by cross-linking of the Ly49D receptor. (nih.gov)
  • When an antigen-presenting cell interacts with a T cell receptor on T cells , there is an increase in the cytoplasmic level of calcium, which activates calcineurin by binding a regulatory subunit and activating calmodulin binding. (wikidoc.org)
  • 15)Cross-Linking of a DOPA-Containing Peptide Ligand into its G Protein-Coupled Receptor. (edu.in)
  • 16)New topics in vasopressin receptors and approach to novel drugs:effects of vasopressin receptor on regulations of hormone secretion and metabolisms of glucose, fat, and protein. (edu.in)
  • Schizosaccharomyces pombe Sst4p, a conserved Vps27/Hrs homolog, functions downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Pik3p to mediate proper spore formation. (duke.edu)
  • After 12 days of gestation, coincident with the onset of final cell division in neurons, β cAMPdPK subunits may also mediate the effects of cAMP predominantly in neurons. (elsevierpure.com)
  • it acts essentially as a connector to link CD4, MHC-I, and possibly some other target molecules to adaptor protein (AP) complexes AP-1, AP-2 or AP-3, responsible for the endocytosis and subsequent lysosomal degradation of Nef's targets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3. Characterization of prenylated protein methyltransferase in Leishmania. (nih.gov)
  • 19. Characterization of the prenylated protein methyltransferase in human endometrial carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • 10. Carboxylmethylation of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A in insulin-secreting cells: evidence for functional consequences on enzyme activity and insulin secretion. (nih.gov)
  • Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. (nih.gov)
  • Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits. (nih.gov)
  • Subsequent studies of lymphocyte protein kinases included the observation that the catalytic subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent enzyme is a DNA-binding protein which combines preferentially with mammalian DNA as compared with salmon sperm or E.coli DNA and does not combine with RNA. (nih.gov)
  • Because many of the nucleolar proteins of this organism, including subunits of RNA polymerase I, are phosphoproteins, Dr. Johnson began what has since become his major research program: the mapping of the ribosomal genes on the rDNA molecule, and the comparative analysis of chromatin structure in the transcribing and non-tran- scribing regions of the same rDNA molecule. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) consists of two catalytic subunits and a regulatory subunit dimer. (nih.gov)
  • All known actions of cAMP in the brain require cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAMPdPK), which consists of regulatory (R) and catalytic (C) subunits (R 2 C 2 ). (elsevierpure.com)
  • In general, prenylation is an enzymatically mediated multi-step process that adds hydrophobic prenyl moieties to the C-terminal cysteines of substrate proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1. Alterations in Protein Kinase A Substrate Specificity as a Potential Cause of Cushing Syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • 16. Is Disrupted Nucleotide-Substrate Cooperativity a Common Trait for Cushing's Syndrome Driving Mutations of Protein Kinase A? (nih.gov)
  • In 1975, Dr. Johnson was appointed Assistant Professor at the Rockefeller and the study of nuclear protein phosphorylation entered a new phase with the analysis of the amino acid sequence specificity requirements in the substrate and clarification of the mechanism of action of the purified catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (nih.gov)
  • a substrate-binding site in the protein kinase. (yellowcouch.org)
  • LysR substrate binding domain, Bacterial regulatory helix-turn-helix protein [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • 4. Prenylcysteine analogs mimicking the C-terminus of GTP-binding proteins stimulate exocytosis from permeabilized HIT-T15 cells: comparison with the effect of Rab3AL peptide. (nih.gov)
  • A6: Cyclin B/Cdk1, a cell cycle-dependent kinase, is capable of phosphorylating SIRT1 at T530 and S540. (nih.gov)
  • This thesis characterized two important proteins involved in signaling in C. elegans, the regulatory subunit (R) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAMP-PK) and a tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase). (yu.edu)
  • Haloperidol regulates the state of phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 via activation of PKA and phosphorylation of DARPP-32. (colorado.edu)
  • HN - 2008 BX - Child Abuse, Adult Survivors MH - Agouti Signaling Protein UI - D054366 MN - D12.644.276.49 MN - D12.776.467.49 MN - D23.529.49 MS - A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. (nih.gov)
  • 9. Glucose activates the carboxyl methylation of gamma subunits of trimeric GTP-binding proteins in pancreatic beta cells. (nih.gov)
  • Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. (lookformedical.com)
  • We show that the inactivation of PKA or expression of phosphorylation-defective Cdc20 proteins accelerates securin and Clb2 destruction in chk1 mutants and is sufficient to remove most of the DNA damage-induced delay. (nih.gov)
  • 1) that mitogen activation of the lymphocyte results in a selective influx of proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, and 2) that the phosphorylation of different nuclear proteins is independently modulated during the response. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the interaction of the myofilament proteins, myosin and actin supported by other sarcomeric proteins, would not be possible without the crucial role of Ca 2+ in the excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling mechanism [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Phosphorylation is a fundamental and pervasive mechanism widely known to regulate the functions of proteins. (medchemexpress.com)
  • protein_coding" "AAC73960","hcp","Escherichia coli","hybrid-cluster [4Fe-2S-2O] subunit of anaerobic terminal reductases [Ensembl]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • 2. Mechanisms of Aberrant PKA Activation by Cα Subunit Mutations. (nih.gov)
  • Importantly, ligand mediated activation of the IGF1R in CRC cells results in the generation of cAMP dependent PKA activity that functions in cell survival by inhibiting caspase activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calcineurin-binding protein Cbp1 directs the specificity of calcineurin-dependent hyphal elongation during mating in Cryptococcus neoformans. (duke.edu)
  • Dr. Greengard's enthusiastic recommendation convinced me that Johnson would fit in well with our program on the control of chromatin structure and transcription by the phosphorylation of DNA-binding proteins. (nih.gov)
  • A3: The main protein that degrades PAR polymer is poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) (PMID: 16140981). (nih.gov)
  • PKA activity and glycerol release were evaluated in total protein extract and adipocytes isolated from fresh tissue samples, respectively. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, prior to about 12 days of gestation, cAMP in the brain may act only via the α cAMPdPK subunits in neuronal and glial precursor cells. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Cyclic AMP effects are mainly mediated by protein kinase A (PKA), whose R2B regulatory isoform is the most expressed in mouse adipose tissue, where it protects against diet-induced obesity and fatty liver development. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The tertiary structure that forms the ATP binding site is apparently highly conserved in the active state of the protein, but this conclusion depends upon extrapolation from the still relatively few active structures that have been solved. (fcmorkovice.cz)
  • ATP-BINDING CASSETTE PROTEINS that are highly conserved and widely expressed in nature. (lookformedical.com)
  • 20)Protein components of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the brainstem area postrema-nucleus tractus solitarius region. (edu.in)
  • These inhibitory effects were associated with the ability of CADO to stimulate cyclic AMP (cAMP) production and activate protein kinase A (PKA). (nih.gov)
  • This modification of proteins at the synapse has become one of Dr. Greengard's primary interests. (nih.gov)
  • The gene is intronless and is thought to be a retrotransposon derived from the gene for the alpha form of the PKA catalytic subunit. (nih.gov)
  • Description of the protein which includes the UniProt Function and the NCBI Gene Summary. (nih.gov)
  • Calcineurin is a heterodimer of a 61-kD calmodulin-binding catalytic subunit, calcineurin A and a 19-kD Ca 2+ -binding regulatory subunit, calcineurin B. There are three isozymes of the catalytic subunit, each encoded by a separate gene ( PPP3CA , PPP3CB , and PPP3CC ) and two isoforms of the regulatory, also encoded by separate genes ( PPP3R1 , PPP3R2 ). (wikidoc.org)
  • PTS HPr component phosphorylation site, Phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • As such, protein kinases have merged as key regulators of all aspects of neoplasia, including proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis, hence making cancer fundamentally a disease of aberrant protein kinase activity and signal transmission. (yellowcouch.org)