Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits: Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Paramecium tetraurelia: A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit: A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.Protamine Kinase: An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Nucleotides, CyclicElectrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Peptide T: N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.PhosphoproteinsRabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I: A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine: A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Receptors, Cyclic AMP: Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.Protein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.

Protein kinase A translocation and insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells: studies with adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis. (1/64)

Activation of protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase; PKA) triggers insulin secretion in the beta-cell. Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT), a bacterial exotoxin with adenylate cyclase activity, and forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, both dose-dependently increased insulin secretion in the presence, but not the absence, of glucose in insulin-secreting betaTC3 cells. The stimulation of cAMP release by either agent was dose-dependent but glucose-independent. Omission of extracellular Ca(2+) totally abolished the effects of ACT on insulin secretion and cytosolic cAMP accumulation. ACT and forskolin caused rapid and dramatic increases in cytosolic Ca(2+), which were blocked by nifedipine and the omission of extracellular Ca(2+). Omission of glucose completely blocked the effects of forskolin and partially blocked the effects of ACT on cytosolic Ca(2+). PKA alpha, beta and gamma catalytic subunits (Calpha, Cbeta and Cgamma respectively) were identified in betaTC6 cells by confocal microscopy. Glucose and glucagon-like polypeptide-1 (GLP-1) caused translocation of Calpha to the nucleus and of Cbeta to the plasma membrane and the nucleus, but did not affect the distribution of Cgamma. In conclusion, glucose and GLP-1 amplify insulin secretion via cAMP production and PKAbeta activation.  (+info)

c-MYC activates protein kinase A (PKA) by direct transcriptional activation of the PKA catalytic subunit beta (PKA-Cbeta) gene. (2/64)

The c-MYC proto-oncogene encodes a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation and broadly implicated in tumorigenesis. Understanding the function of c-MYC and its role in cancer depends upon the identification of c-MYC target genes. Here we show that c-MYC induces the activity of Protein Kinase A (PKA), a key effector of cAMP-mediated signal transduction, by inducing the transcription of the gene encoding the PKA catalytic subunit beta (PKA-Cbeta). c-MYC-mediated induction of PKA-Cbeta gene transcription occurs in multiple tissues, is independent of cell proliferation and is mediated by direct binding of c-MYC to the PKA-Cbeta gene promoter sequences. Constitutive expression of PKA-Cbeta in Rat1A cells induces their transformation, and c-MYC-induced transformation can be reverted by pharmacological inhibition of PKA, suggesting that up-regulation of PKA is critical for c-MYC-associated tumorigenesis. These results indicate that, by activating PKA, c-MYC can provide endogenous activation of the cAMP signal transduction pathway independently of extracellular signals.  (+info)

Loss of protein kinase Calpha expression may enhance the tumorigenic potential of Gli1 in basal cell carcinoma. (3/64)

Activation of the Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway, primarily through mutational inactivation of the PTCH1 gene, is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Gli1, a member of the Gli family of transcription factors, is expressed in BCC and in transgenic mice targeted expression of Gli1 in basal keratinocytes leads to BCC development. In addition to BCC, previous studies have shown that Gli1 is expressed in the outer root sheath (ORS) of the hair follicle but is absent in interfollicular epidermis. In this study, we have characterized the expression pattern of two protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms expressed in BCC and hair follicles. We have then used reporter assays to investigate the effects of these isoforms on Gli1 transcriptional activity. We report that in BCC sections, PKCalpha but not PKCdelta was weakly expressed in the epidermis, whereas in the hair follicle, PKCalpha was expressed in the ORS and PKCdelta in the inner root sheath. In contrast, neither PKCalpha nor PKCdelta was expressed in BCC tumor islands, although both isoforms were often expressed in the surrounding stroma. In mammalian 293T cells, coexpression of constitutively active PKCalpha reduced the activity of Gli1 in a dose-dependent manner, whereas constitutively active PKCdelta increased the activity of Gli1, although this required higher expression levels. Regulation of mutant Gli1 protein localized exclusively to the nucleus was similar to that of the wild-type protein, indicating that nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling is not a determinant of Gli1 control by either PKC isoform. Furthermore, PKC regulation of Gli1 did not involve activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Finally, we show that exogenous Gli1 does not alter the expression of PKCalpha in human primary keratinocytes, suggesting that loss of this isoform in BCC is not via Hedgehog signaling. As BCCs have been proposed to originate from the ORS, loss of PKCalpha expression may be relevant to tumor formation; this may, in part, be because of the predicted increase in Gli1 transcriptional activity.  (+info)

Addicting drugs utilize a synergistic molecular mechanism in common requiring adenosine and Gi-beta gamma dimers. (4/64)

The mesolimbic dopamine system and cAMP-dependent/protein kinase A (PKA) pathways are strongly implicated in addictive behaviors. Here we determine the role of dopamine D2 receptors (D2) in PKA signaling responses to delta-opioid (DOR) and cannabinoid (CB1) receptors. We find in NG108-15/D2 cells and in cultured primary neurons that a brief exposure to saturating concentrations of DOR and CB1 agonists increases cAMP, promotes PKA C alpha translocation and increases cAMP-dependent gene expression. Activation of PKA signaling is mediated by Gi-beta gamma dimers. Importantly, subthreshold concentrations of DOR or CB1 agonists with D2 agonists, which are without effect when added separately, together activate cAMP/PKA signaling synergistically. There is also synergy between DOR or CB1 with ethanol, another addicting agent. In all instances, synergy requires adenosine activation of adenosine A2 receptors and is mediated by beta gamma dimers. Synergy by this molecular mechanism appears to confer hypersensitivity to opioids and cannabinoids while simultaneously increasing the sensitivity of D2 signaling when receptors are expressed on the same cells. This mechanism may account, in part, for drug-induced activation of medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens.  (+info)

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates merlin at serine 518 independently of p21-activated kinase and promotes merlin-ezrin heterodimerization. (5/64)

Mutations in the NF2 tumor suppressor gene encoding merlin induce the development of tumors of the nervous system. Merlin is highly homologous to the ERM (ezrin-radixin-moesin) family of membrane/cytoskeleton linker proteins. However, the mechanism for the tumor suppressing activity of merlin is not well understood. Previously, we characterized a novel role for merlin as a protein kinase A (PKA)-anchoring protein, which links merlin to the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. In this study we show that merlin is also a target for PKA-induced phosphorylation. In vitro [gamma-(33)P]ATP labeling revealed that both the merlin N and C termini are phosphorylated by PKA. Furthermore, both in vitro and in vivo phosphorylation studies of the wild-type and mutated C termini demonstrated that PKA can phosphorylate merlin at serine 518, a site that is phosphorylated also by p21-activated kinases (PAKs). Merlin was phosphorylated by PKA in cells in which PAK activity was suppressed, indicating that the two kinases function independently. Both in vitro and in vivo interaction studies indicated that phosphorylation of serine 518 promotes heterodimerization between merlin and ezrin, an event suggested to convert merlin from a growth-suppressive to a growth-permissive state. This study provides further evidence on the connection between merlin and cAMP/PKA signaling and suggests a role for merlin in the cAMP/PKA transduction pathway.  (+info)

Sperm-specific protein kinase A catalytic subunit Calpha2 orchestrates cAMP signaling for male fertility. (6/64)

An unusual cAMP signaling system mediates many of the events that prepare spermatozoa to meet the egg. Its components include the atypical, bicarbonate-stimulated, sperm adenylyl cyclase and a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) with the unique catalytic subunit termed Calpha(2) or C(s). We generated mice that lack Calpha(2) to determine its importance in the events downstream of cAMP production. Male Calpha(2) null mice produce normal numbers of sperm that swim spontaneously in vitro. Thus, Calpha(2) has no required role in formation of a functional flagellum or the initiation of motility. In contrast, we find that Calpha(2) is required for bicarbonate to speed the flagellar beat and facilitate Ca(2+) entry channels. In addition, Calpha(2) is needed for the protein tyrosine phosphorylation that occurs late in the sequence of sperm maturation and for a negative feedback control of cAMP production, revealed here. Consistent with these specific defects in several important sperm functions, Calpha(2) null males are infertile despite normal mating behavior. These results define several crucial roles of PKA in sperm cell biology, bringing together both known and unique PKA-mediated events that are necessary for male fertility.  (+info)

Changes in cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and progesterone secretion in luteinizing human granulosa cells. (7/64)

Luteinization of follicular granulosa cells leads to an increase in progesterone secretion that is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH). LH acts mainly by elevating intracellular cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and activating cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In this study, we have examined the role of PKA in relation to progesterone output by luteinizing human granulosa cells. Human granulosa cells were obtained by percoll gradient centrifugation of follicular aspirates of patients undergoing oocyte retrieval for assisted conception. Cells were cultured in serum-supplemented medium for up to 3 days in the presence and/or absence of human (h)LH and other cAMP-elevating agents. Spent medium was assayed for cAMP and progesterone content by specific RIA. Cell lysates were collected and assessed for PKA regulatory (R)IIalpha/catalytic (C)alpha expression by Western blotting. Although basal progesterone secretion increased progressively throughout culture, cAMP levels remained unchanged. Under basal conditions, PKA RIIalpha/Calpha expression appeared to increase throughout the 3-day culture period. In the presence of hLH and other cAMP-elevating agents, progesterone secretion increased in a dose-dependent manner coincident with an increase in cAMP. However, despite the increase in both progesterone secretion and cAMP accumulation, there was a dose-dependent decrease in both PKA RIIalpha and Calpha expression. Thus, data presented in this study show that increases in progesterone secretion in luteinizing human granulosa cells can be dissociated from increases in PKA expression. This notion implies that progesterone secretion may be regulated by PKA-dependent as well as PKA-independent mechanisms.  (+info)

Stress stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase and meiotic resumption in mouse oocytes. (8/64)

This study examined the effects of three different cellular stresses on oocyte maturation in meiotically arrested mouse oocytes. Cumulus-cell enclosed oocytes (CEO) or denuded oocytes (DO) from immature, eCG-primed mice were cultured for 17-18 h in dbcAMP-containing medium plus increasing concentrations of the metabolic poison, sodium arsenite, or the free radical-generating agent, menadione. Alternatively, oocytes were exposed to osmotic stress by pulsing with sorbitol and returned to control inhibitory conditions for the duration of culture. Arsenite and menadione each dose-dependently induced germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB) in both DO and CEO. DO, but not CEO, pulsed for 60 min with 500 mM sorbitol were stimulated to resume maturation. The lack of effect in CEO suggests that the cumulus cells may be playing a protective role in osmotic stress-induced GVB. The AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKA; formerly known as AMPK) inhibitors, compound C and araA, completely blocked the meiosis-stimulating effects of all the tested stresses. Western blots showed that acetyl-CoA carboxylase, an important substrate of PRKA, was phosphorylated before GVB, supporting a role for PRKA in stress-induced maturation. Together, these data show that a variety of stresses stimulate GVB in meiotically arrested mouse oocytes in vitro and suggest that this effect is mediated through activation of PRKA.  (+info)

PRKACA - PRKACA (untagged)-Human protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, alpha (PRKACA), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
PRKACA Human Recombinant produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 578 amino acids.
PRKACB - Lenti ORF clone of Human protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, beta (PRKACB), transcript variant 3 , Myc-DDK-tagged available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
DLX3 is a novel target of PRKACA, and PRKACA mediates BMP signaling during osteoblast differentiation, at least in part, by phosphorylating DLX3 and modulating the protein stability and function of DLX3 ...
Homo sapiens protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, beta (PRKACB), transcript variant 3, mRNA. (H00005567-R05) - Products - Abnova
KAPCA_HUMAN] Phosphorylates a large number of substrates in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Regulates the abundance of compartmentalized pools of its regulatory subunits through phosphorylation of PJA2 which binds and ubiquitinates these subunits, leading to their subsequent proteolysis. Phosphorylates CDC25B, ABL1, NFKB1, CLDN3, PSMC5/RPT6, PJA2, RYR2, RORA, TRPC1 and VASP. RORA is activated by phosphorylation. Required for glucose-mediated adipogenic differentiation increase and osteogenic differentiation inhibition from osteoblasts. Involved in the regulation of platelets in response to thrombin and collagen; maintains circulating platelets in a resting state by phosphorylating proteins in numerous platelet inhibitory pathways when in complex with NF-kappa-B (NFKB1 and NFKB2) and I-kappa-B-alpha (NFKBIA), but thrombin and collagen disrupt these complexes and free active PRKACA stimulates platelets and leads to platelet aggregation by phosphorylating VASP. Prevents the antiproliferative and ...
Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a partial recombinant RAPGEF3. RAPGEF3 (AAH17728, 772 a.a. ~ 881 a.a) partial recombinant protein with GST tag. (H00010411-A01) - Products - Abnova
Capacitation encompasses the molecular changes sperm undergo to fertilize an oocyte, some of which are postulated to occur via a cAMP-PRKACA (protein kinase A)-mediated pathway. Due to the recent discovery of cAMP-activated guanine nucleotide exchange factors RAPGEF3 and RAPGEF4, we sought to investigate the separate roles of PRKACA and RAPGEF3/RAPGEF4 in modulating capacitation and acrosomal exocytosis. Indirect immunofluorescence localized RAPGEF3 to the acrosome and subacrosomal ring and RAPGEF4 to the midpiece in equine sperm. Addition of the RAPGEF3/RAPGEF4-specific cAMP analogue 8-(p-chlorophenylthio)-2-O-methyladenosine-3,5-cyclic monophosphate (8pCPT) to sperm incubated under both noncapacitating and capacitating conditions had no effect on protein tyrosine phosphorylation, thus supporting a PRKACA-mediated event. Conversely, activation of RAPGEF3/RAPGEF4 with 8pCPT induced acrosomal exocytosis in capacitated equine sperm at rates (34%) similar (P > 0.05) to those obtained in ...
Expression of RAPGEF3 (bcm910, cAMP-GEFI, EPAC) in cancer tissue. The cancer tissue page shows antibody staining of the protein in 20 different cancers.
Expression of RAPGEF3 (bcm910, cAMP-GEFI, EPAC) in breast tissue. Antibody staining with HPA040365, HPA043518 and CAB004386 in immunohistochemistry.
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
Complete information for RAPGEF3 gene (Protein Coding), Rap Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FHCC) is a rare form of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that typically affects young adults and is characterized, under the microscope, by laminated fibrous layers interspersed between the tumour cells. Approximately 200 new cases are diagnosed worldwide each year. A recent study showed the presence of the DNAJB1-PRKACA chimeric transcript (resulting from a 400kb somatic deletion on chromosome 19) in 100% of the FHCCs examined (15/15) This gene fusion has been confirmed in a second study. The histopathology of FHCC is characterized by laminated fibrous layers, interspersed between the tumor cells. Cytologically, the tumor cells have a low nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Tumors are non-encapsulated, but well circumscribed, when compared to conventional HCC (which typically has an invasive border). Due to lack of symptoms, until the tumor is sizable, this form of cancer is often advanced when diagnosed. Symptoms include ...
PHACE association is a rare neurocutaneous condition in which facial hemangiomas associate with a spectrum of posterior fossa malformations, arterial cerebrovascular anomalies, cardiovascular anomalies, and eye anomalies. We reported a case of PHACE
Lockheed Martin unveiled the HULC system at the Association of the United States Army Winter Symposium held in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, in February 2009.. In July 2010, the company signed a $1.1m contract with the US Army Natick Soldier Center for testing and evaluating the ruggedised HULC design.. Under the contract, the Natick Soldier Center tested the HULC for its effect on the soldiers performance, the energy that a soldier spends while using it and the adaptability of the system while carrying various loads and moving at various speeds. The contract has also provided provision for field trials of the system.. The HULC underwent laboratory testing in October 2010, after Lockheed Martin upgraded the ruggedised system for flexibility and suitability to a variety of users. The system was put through biomechanical, dynamic load and environmental testing.. Treadmill testing measured the decrease in metabolic cost of the user. The systems sustainability in various environmental conditions was ...
The adoptive parents may be acquainted with to these problems, but in other situations wee if any story may be available. N L H Genes 50 10 10 KREMEN2, ST8SIA1, TNFSF10, ATF6 150 30 30 HADHB, BAX, MAPK13, CYP1A1, ATF2 250 49 51 NFKBIA, PLCB1, ITGB1, MYC, KRAS 350 69 71 PRKACB, FOS, PRKACG, FASN, NFKB1 450 85 95 RAC1, MAP2K2, JUN, TP53, RELA 551 100 119 RAF1, GRB2, PIK3CA, RPS27A, MAPK8 647 117 145 HRAS, MAP2K1, AKT1, RAF1, GRB2 765 125 185 MAPK3, MAPK1, HRAS, MAP2K1, AKT1 Provisions 7. Pregnancy and Yeast InfectionThe Main Benefits: 1 cheap kamagra effervescent 100mg fast delivery erectile dysfunction injections videos. At hand drowning is described as an fact in which a offspring has suffered a submersion injury and has survived for at least 24 hours. It involves removing the little one from the fine kettle of fish area and placing him or her in a dispassionate, nonthreatening, safe square footage where no interaction occurs between the daughter and parents or others exchange for a specifically ...
Highly up-regulated in liver cancer (HULC) was originally identified as the most overexpressed long non-coding RNA in hepatocellular carcinoma. Since its discovery, the aberrant up-regulation of HULC has been demonstrated in other cancer types, including gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, osteosarcoma and hepatic metastasis of colorectal cancer. Recent discoveries have also shed new light on the upstream molecular mechanisms underlying HULC .... Read More » ...
According to Berkeley Bionics and Lockheed Martin, the HULC biomechanical combat exoskeleton system enables a soldier between 5′ 4″ and 6′ 2″ to carry loads of up to 200 pounds (200 lbs) on the front or back for extended periods of times over any and all terrains by transfering the load weight and soldiers weight to the ground. The load-carrying augmentation/enhancement ability aspect will continue to work when battery power isnt available. The HULC also allows a soldier to run 7 mph for long periods or 10 mph in short bursts. It provides the soldier with full range of motion and, according to the developers, doesnt hinder or impede the warfighters movement in any way/aspect, so he/she can still jump, squat, kneel, crawl, go prone (for survival and stabilized or long-range shooting), etc., and then get right back up.. One of Defense Reviews immediate and primary concerns is whether or not the HULC combat exoskeleton allows the same level of mobility and dexterity required for ...
မန္မာႏိုင္ငံမွာေတာ့ ေ၀လငါးဖမ္းလုပ္ငန္းကို လုပ္ကိုင္တဲ့လူမရွိေသးဘူးလို႕ ထင္ပါတယ္။ ျမန္မာ့ပင္လယ္ျပင္မွာ ေ၀လငါးဟာ အင္မတန္ေတြ႕ရခဲတာေၾကာင့္ရယ္၊ ေတြ႕ရင္ေတာင္မွ အရြယ္အစားၾကီးမားလြန္းတာရယ္နဲ႕ ေရာင္းခ်မယ့္ေစ်းကြက္မရွိတာရယ္ေၾကာင့္ ဖမ္းဆီးမယ့္လူမရွိပါဘူး။ ေနာက္တစ္ခ်က္ လင္းပိုင္နဲ႕ေ၀လငါးဟာ အသိဥာဏ္ရွိတဲ့ႏို႕တိုက္သတၱ၀ါျဖစ္လို႕ တခါတရံမွာ ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) consists of two catalytic subunits and a regulatory subunit dimer. This gene encodes ... "Characterization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit Cgamma expressed and purified from sf9 cells". Protein ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit gamma is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKACG gene. ... 1998). "Effects of [D-Ala1] peptide T-NH2 and HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases in normal ...
... encodes a serine threonine protein kinase that has similarity to the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases ... Huang S, Li Q, Alberts I, Li X (2016). "PRKX, a Novel cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Member, Plays an Important Role in ... Protein kinase, X-linked is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRKX gene. This gene ... a phylogenetically and functionally distinct cAMP-dependent protein kinase, activates renal epithelial cell migration and ...
... cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinases have identical catalytic subunits but different regulatory subunits that bind cyclic AMP. ... Activation loop Autophosphorylation Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Cell signaling Cyclin-dependent kinase G protein- ... the JAK kinases (a family of protein tyrosine kinases), and the PIP3-dependent kinase cascade were discovered. Kinases are ... For this reason protein kinases are named based on what regulates their activity (i.e. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinases). ...
... subunits, creating a tetrameric holoenzyme. Cyclic AMP binds to the regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and ... The protein kinase is composed of two regulatory (R) subunits and two catalytic (C) ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase is unique in its mechanism of activation. ... Originally named Protein I, it was found as an endogenous substrate for cAMP-dependent protein kinase in the synaptic membrane ...
... on the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase from cow as n-Tetradecanoyl. Almost simultaneously in Claude B ... "n-Tetradecanoyl is the NH2-terminal blocking group of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase from bovine ... membrane-protein and protein-protein interactions. Further modifications on N-myristoylated proteins can add another level of ... In addition, in signal transduction via G protein, palmitoylation of the α subunit, prenylation of the γ subunit, and ...
In eukaryotes, cyclic AMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, or cAMP-dependent protein kinase). PKA is normally ... thus enabling those catalytic units to phosphorylate substrate proteins. The active subunits catalyze the transfer of phosphate ... Not all protein kinases respond to cAMP. Several classes of protein kinases, including protein kinase C, are not cAMP-dependent ... It should not be confused with 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP-activated protein kinase). Earl Sutherland of Vanderbilt ...
"Structure of a peptide inhibitor bound to the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". ... Protein kinase A, more precisely known as adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase was discovered by ... "cAMP-dependent protein kinase" redirects here. It is not to be confused with AMP-activated protein kinase or cyclin-dependent ... Cyclic+AMP-Dependent+Protein+Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
"Structure of a peptide inhibitor bound to the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". ... Protein kinase A, more precisely known as adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase was discovered by ... In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKA) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP ( ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila cAMP- ...
"Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". Science. 253 (5018): ... enzyme called phosphorylase kinase was activated by another kinase that was dependent on the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP ... Induction by regulatory subunit and inhibition by catalytic subunit of adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase ... Protein kinase A catalytic subunit (PKA Cα) is a member of the AGC kinase family, and contributes to the control of cellular ...
"Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". Science. 253 (5018): ... or cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. 1992: Elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 1996: Elected to the ... She is known for her research on protein kinases, particularly protein kinase A. She was elected to the Institute of Medicine ... Taylor's research group has focused on the structure and function of protein kinases, particularly protein kinase A, since ...
Gαs activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. This is accomplished by ... This is an alternate form of regulation for the Gα subunit. Such Gα GAPs do not have catalytic residues (specific amino acid ... cAMP can then act as a second messenger that goes on to interact with and activate protein kinase A (PKA). PKA can ... turning the G protein on). RGS proteins stimulate GTP hydrolysis (creating GDP, thus turning the G protein off). G protein can ...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKACB gene. cAMP is a ... 1998). "Effects of [D-Ala1] peptide T-NH2 and HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases in normal ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family and is a catalytic subunit of PKA. Three ... 1992). "Assignment of the gene encoding the catalytic subunit C beta of cAMP-dependent protein kinase to the p36 band on ...
ARPP-21: Cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21 kDa. *AZI2: encoding protein 5-azacytidine-induced protein 2 ... PIK3CA: phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide. *PROSER1: Proline and serine rich protein 1 ... CACNA2D3: calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 3. *CCR5: chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 ... C3orf14-Chromosome 3 open reading frame 14: predicted DNA binding protein.. *C3orf23: encoding protein Uncharacterized protein ...
In the yeast protein, Syg1, the N-terminus directly binds to the G-protein beta subunit and inhibits transduction of the mating ... cyclic AMP (cAMP) and PPi. Thiamine triphosphatase is a soluble cytosolic enzyme which converts thiamine triphosphate to ... VTC exposes its catalytic domain to the cytosol and has nine vacuolar transmembrane segments (TMSs). Mutations in the VTC ... This SPX-dependent inhibition is mediated by a physical interaction with Spl2. NUC-2 contains several ankyrin repeats. Several ...
Cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21 kDa AZI2: encoding protein 5-azacytidine-induced protein 2 BRK1: SCAR/WAVE actin ... voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 3 CCR5: chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 CGGBP1: CGG triplet repeat binding protein 1 ... phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide PROSER1: Proline and serine rich protein 1 RAB7: RAB7, member RAS ... also known as Glutamine-rich protein 1, RBM6: RNA-binding protein 6 RPP14: Ribonuclease P protein subunit p14 SCN5A: sodium ...
... cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase. The gene spans approximately 23 kilobases and is composed of 21 exons interrupted by 20 ... with a protein kinase catalytic domain that bears greatest sequence similarity to protein kinase C and the cyclic adenosine ... gamma subunit of the type 6 retinal cGMP phosphodiesterase functions to link c-Src and G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 in a ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and protein kinase C occurs via distinct molecular mechanisms". Biochemistry. 31 (12): 3193-7. ...
Phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinasesEdit. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by ... The protein enzyme contains two catalytic subunits and two regulatory subunits. When there is no cAMP,the complex is inactive. ... The G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are protein kinases that phosphorylate only active GPCRs.[53] G-protein-coupled ... DAG helps activate protein kinase C (PKC), which phosphorylates many other proteins, changing their catalytic activities, ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by the signal chain coming from the G protein (that was ... the catalytic units are released and initiate the phosphorylation of proteins leading to the physiologic action. The cyclic AMP ... "A receptor-binding region in human choriogonadotropin/lutropin beta subunit". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... via adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP (cAMP). These protein kinases are present as tetramers with two regulatory units and two ...
By the late 1960s, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase had been purified, and most attention was centered on kinases and ... Hanks SK, Hunter T (1995). "Protein kinases 6. The eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily: Kinase (catalytic) domain structure ... a protein with essential nuclear and cytoplasmic roles in biogenesis of the 60S subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome. ... "Synergistic phosphorylation of rabbit muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and casein kinase I. ...
... cyclic AMP receptor - cyclic AMP receptor protein - cyclic AMP-responsive DNA-binding protein - cyclic electron flow - Cyclic ... protein subunit - protein synthesis - protein targeting - protein translocation - protein-tyrosine kinase - protein-tyrosine- ... viral envelope protein - viral oncogene protein - viral protein - virology - virus (biology) - vitamin - vitamin D-dependent ... catalytic domain - CCR5 receptor - CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein kinase - cell - cell adhesion ...
"Preferential expression in mushroom bodies of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and its role in learning and memory". ... Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP or cyclic AMP) is a second messenger that has been implicated in facilitating mushroom ... The intermediate term memory trace is dependent on expression of the amn gene located in dorsal paired medial neurons. An ... PKA, also known as protein kinase A, has been found to play an important role in learning and memory in Drosophila. When ...
... cAMP-dependent protein kinase), one of the first few kinases discovered. It has four sub-units two catalytic and two regulatory ... Heterotrimeric G protein *Gs/Gi. *Adenylate cyclase. *cAMP. *3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase ... Main article: function of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, ... cAMP binds to the regulatory sub-units.[16] It causes them to break apart from the catalytic sub-units. The Catalytic sub-units ...
Misra, K. and Pandey, S.C. (2006). The decreased cyclic-AMP dependent-protein kinase A function in the nucleus accumbens: a ... Ethanol causes translocation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit to the nucleus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 93, ... Some of the kinase families currently linked to alcoholism are Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs), protein ... Ethanol enhances growth factor activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism. Proc ...
... neurite outgrowth and protein phosphorylation by a newly synthesized selective inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... site on the PKA catalytic subunit. However, subsequent work has suggested a variety of additional effects such as inhibition of ... novel and potent inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C". Biochemistry. 23 (21): 5036- ... H-89 is a protein kinase inhibitor with greatest effect on protein kinase A (PKA). H-89, derived from H-8 (N-[2-(methylamino) ...
As AMP binds both Bateman domains the γ subunit undergoes a conformational change which exposes the catalytic domain found on ... It should not be confused with cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase (protein kinase A). AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein complex ... "AMP-activated protein kinase undergoes nucleotide-dependent conformational changes". Nat Struct Mol Biol. 19 (7): 716-718. doi: ... "AMP-activated protein kinase kinase activity and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in contracting muscle of ...
2008). "Metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis through AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent regulation of the orphan ... Mouse models in which the genes for AMPKα1 and α2 catalytic subunits (Prkaa1/2) or LKB1, an upstream kinase of AMPK, had been ... activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), inhibition of glucagon-induced elevation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate ( ... "Metformin and phenformin activate AMP-activated protein kinase in the heart by increasing cytosolic AMP concentration". Am J ...
"Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... Tyrosine hydroxylase is a tetramer of four identical subunits (homotetramer). Each subunit consists of three domains. At the ... The oxidation state of this iron atom is important for the catalytic turnover in the enzymatic reaction. If the iron is ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases.[12][25] Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase.[ ...
... sequence formed by the fusion of ret tyrosine kinase and the regulatory subunit RI alpha of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... "Exclusion of catalytic and regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase as candidate genes for the defect causing ... Guild BC, Strominger JL (1984). "HLA-A2 antigen phosphorylation in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Sites of ... "A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) interaction and dimerization of the RIalpha and RIbeta regulatory subunits of protein kinase ...
... activated by purified cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase as well as by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. ... activated by purified cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase as well as by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. ... activated by purified cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase as well as by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. ... activated by purified cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase as well as by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. ...
... protein kinase D [EC:2.7.11.13] K05870 CREB1; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 K04450 ATF2; cyclic AMP-dependent ... protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit beta 102478525 PRKACA; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha ... protein kinase C epsilon 102494291 PRKD2; protein kinase D2 102492283 PRKD1; protein kinase D1 102472549 PRKD3; protein kinase ... 102495954 PRKCA; protein kinase C alpha 102469271 PRKCB; protein kinase C beta 102497204 PRKCG; protein kinase C gamma ...
Cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases differ in their regulation of cyclic AMP response element-dependent gene ... Each subunit is composed of three functional domains: (1) an N-terminal domain that mediates homodimerization, suppression of ... 9 that releases the inhibition of the catalytic core by the N-terminus and allows the phosphorylation of substrate proteins. ... cAK indicates cAMP-dependent protein kinase; cGK(I/II), cGMP-dependent protein kinase (type I/II); cGMP, cyclic guanosine-3′,5 ...
Microinjection of catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase enhances calcium action potentials of bag cell ...
Somatic mutations of the catalytic subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACA) gene have recently been ... Somatic mutations of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACA) gene in Japanese patients with ... Somatic mutations of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACA) gene in Japanese patients with ... Somatic mutations of the catalytic subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACA) gene have recently been ...
Prkar1a = cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase RIalpha subunit; Prkaca = cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit) ... Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, alpha 1 Catalytic Subunit ELISA Kits * Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, alpha 2 Catalytic Subunit ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha , sperm cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit ... Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, beta 1 Non-Catalytic Subunit ELISA Kits * Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, beta 2 Non-Catalytic ...
Prkar1a = cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase RIalpha subunit; Prkaca = cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit) ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha , sperm cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit , protein kinase ... protein kinase C, delta IV , protein kinase C, delta V , protein kinase C[d] , protein kinase-delta2 , protein kinase C, delta ... anti-Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, beta 1 Non-Catalytic Subunit Antibodies * anti-Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, beta 2 Non- ...
Localization of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent. Protein kinase in cultured cells using a specific antibody. ... elongation involves cyclic adenosine monophosphate and protein synthesis-dependent prostaglandin formation [24]. ... A wild-type prion protein does not acquire properties of the scrapie isoform when coexpressed with a mutant prion protein in ... Treatment of CHO cells with 8-bromo-cyclic AMP produced no change in the pattern or intensity of immunofluorescence [38]. ...
the molecule activated by the increasing levels of cyclic AMP protein kinase A or PKA,. also called cyclicAMP-dependent protein ... b. is a kinase. c. Activated catalytic subunits of PKA separate from the regulatory subunits. d. activated by cAMP ... T/F) calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase type IV (CAMK IV) is activated by Ca2+ influx ... T/F) hormones such as thyroid-stimulating hormone and glucagon induce the production of cyclic AMP ...
One of the best characterised protein kinases is cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). PKA is a holoenzyme which ... consists of a regulatory (R) dimer and two catalytic (C) subunits. Humans have at least four genes that express four isoforms ... and A kinase interacting protein (AKIP) and last is the protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) which is located both to the cytosol and ... targeting of the R subunit dimer to subcellular structures through proteins that are termed A kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits/chemistry*/genetics/metabolism. *Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits/chemistry*/genetics/metabolism. *Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase ... Protein Kinase A (PKA) is the major receptor for the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) secondary messenger in eukaryotes. ... Protein Kinase A (PKA) is the major receptor for the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) secondary messenger in eukaryotes. ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) consists of two catalytic subunits and a regulatory subunit dimer. This gene encodes ... "Characterization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit Cgamma expressed and purified from sf9 cells". Protein ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit gamma is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKACG gene. ... 1998). "Effects of [D-Ala1] peptide T-NH2 and HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases in normal ...
An antiserum against the catalytic subunit C of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, isolated from bovine heart type II protein ... Antiserum against the catalytic subunit of adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Reactivity towards ... Antiserum against the catalytic subunit of adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Reactivity towards ... Antiserum against the catalytic subunit of adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Reactivity towards ...
1980) Microinjection of catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase enhances calcium action potentials of bag cell ... more wide spread set of scaffolding proteins are cAMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs), some of which bring ... 1995) Association of protein kinase A and protein phosphatase 2B with a common anchoring protein. Science 267:108-111. ... Protein Kinase Modulation of a Neuronal Cation Channel Requires Protein-Protein Interactions Mediated by an Src homology 3 ...
1980) Intracellular injection of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase simulates facilitation of ... which elevates cyclic GMP and cAMP dependent protein kinase in the Purkinje cells. As a result, the Purkinje cells become less ... calcium/calmodulin protein kinase II (Malenka et al., 1989; Malinow et al., 1989), (2) protein kinase C (Routtenberg, 1986; ... 1993) Spatially resolved dynamics of cAMP and protein kinase A subunits in Aplysia sensory neurons. Science 260:222-226. ...
cAMP-dependent PKA is an ubiquitous serine/theonine protein kinase present in a variety of tissues (e.g. brain, skeletal muscle ... cAMP level regulates cellular responses by altering the interaction between the catatytic C and regulatory R subunits of PKA. ... which dissociates the tetramer to R2 cAMP 4 and two active catalytic subunits. Free Catalytic subunits of PKA can phosphorylate ... Cyclic AMP Dependent Protein Kinase A Regulatory Subunit 1a, Recombinant (cAMP PKA R1) ...
Turnover of regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in S49 mouse lymphoma cells: Regulation by catalytic ... Crystal structures of catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in complex with isoquinolinesulfonyl protein kinase ... 1990) The expression of cAMP-dependent protein kinase subunits in primary rat hepatocyte cultures: Cyclic AMP down-regulates ... 1991) Isoform C beta 2, an unusual form of the bovine catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem 266:5140- ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is a holoenzyme composed of two catalytic (C) subunits and a regulatory (R) subunit ... Inactive forms of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A are expressed in the brain of higher primates. ... Karakterisering av A-kinase lokaliserende protein, AKAP450 Bornstedt, Mette Eskild (Master thesis / Prosjektoppgave, 2005) ... Protein kinase A, PKA, regulates a number of cellular processes like metabolism, cell growth and differentiation and gene ...
ThePKA1 gene encoding the major cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit was identified and disrupted.pka1 ... Identification of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit Pka1.To identify the catalytic subunit of PKA, primers ... of cyclic AMP and defective glucose repression in yeast strains with reduced activity of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Controls Virulence of the Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans Cletus A. DSouza, J. ...
Protein Coding), Protein Kinase X-Linked, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... encodes a serine threonine protein kinase that has similarity to the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases ... Protein Symbol:. P51817-PRKX_HUMAN. Recommended name:. cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit PRKX. Protein Accession: ... Like other cAMP-dependent protein kinases, the inactive holoenzyme is probably composed of 2 PRKX catalytic subunits and a ...
Association of catalytic and regulatory subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase requires a negatively charged side ... and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation in Xenopus oocytes by microinjection of oncogenic ras protein and protein kinase C. T ... A multicomponent complex is required for the AAUAAA-dependent cross-linking of a 64-kilodalton protein to polyadenylation ... An inducible 50-kilodalton NF kappa B-like protein and a constitutive protein both bind the acute-phase response element of the ...
... cAMP-dependent, catalytic, beta (PRKACB), transcript variant 3 , Myc-DDK-tagged available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene ... The encoded protein is a catalytic subunit of cAMP (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase, which mediates signalling though cAMP ... cAMP dependent, catalytic, beta (Prkacb). $430. Next day. MG218582. Prkacb (GFP-tagged) - Mouse protein kinase cAMP dependent ... Prkacb (untagged) - Mouse protein kinase, cAMP dependent, catalytic, beta (Prkacb), transcript variant 3, (10ug). $390. 3 weeks ...
Multiple genes for regulatrory and catalytic subunits of cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinases are differentially expressed and ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (vertebrates), In G. Hardie & S. Hanks (ed.), The Protein Kinase FactsBook. Elsevier. ISBN ... and regulation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. * Skålhegg, Bjørn Steen & Jahnsen, Tore (1993). Isozymes of cyclic AMP- ... Solberg, Rigmor & Jahnsen, Tore (1994). Human type I regulatory subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. Structure, ...
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) are critical regulators of neuronal differentiation. The expression, ... Evolution of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) catalytic subunit isoforms.Søberg K, Moen LV, Skålhegg BS, Laerdahl JK. ... Evolutionary Paths of the cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Catalytic Subunits. Søberg K, Jahnsen T, Rognes T, Skålhegg BS, ... Four different isoforms of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, termed Calpha, Cbeta,Cgamma and PrKX have ...
One in three CPAs carries a recurrent gain-of-function mutation (L206R) in the PRKACA gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of ... One in three CPAs carries a recurrent gain-of-function mutation (L206R) in the PRKACA gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of ... This mutation causes constitutive PKA activity by abolishing the binding of the inhibitory regulatory subunit to the catalytic ... This mutation causes constitutive PKA activity by abolishing the binding of the inhibitory regulatory subunit to the catalytic ...
  • Here we are defining the molecular and dynamic features of this signaling system that is nucleated in an isoform specific way by the regulatory and catalytic subunits of PKA at high resolution by crystallography and at low resolution using solution methods that include small angle X-ray and neutron scattering and single particle EM imaging. (grantome.com)
  • A two-hybrid reporter assay showed that interaction of the regulatory and catalytic subunits appeared to decrease in vivo when function of Krh1 and Krh2 was lost. (sciencemag.org)
  • Ideal inhibitors such as Rp-cAMPS are those that preferentially "select" inactive conformations of target proteins by satisfying all "binding" constraints alone without inducing conformational changes necessary for activation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A striking feature of many E6 functions is its ability to recruit a cellular ubiquitin ligase, E6AP, which it then redirects to induce the ubiquitin proteasome-mediated degradation of many of its target proteins, including p53 ( 12 , 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Adipose lipolysis is regulated by cyclic AMP (cAMP), through the activation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA, which phosphorylates target proteins, including perilipin and hormone sensitive lipase. (asnevents.com.au)
  • A high molecular mass dynein ATPase polypeptide and a 18-20 kDa dynein light chain of Ciona sperm flagella are phosphorylated during in vivo activation of motility or in vitro activation of motility by incubation with cyclic AMP. (biologists.org)
  • Analysis of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase system using molecular genetic approaches. (springer.com)
  • The molecular cloning of a type H regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase from rat skeletal muscle and mouse brain. (springer.com)
  • Molecular cloning, cDNA structure, and regulation of the regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from rat ovarian granulosa cells. (springer.com)
  • While our studies of PKA structure and function have given us a molecular understanding of individual PKA catalytic and regulatory subunits, over the past four years we have added a new dimension to our understanding of PKA signaling by solving structures of PKA tetrameric holoenzymes. (grantome.com)
  • Protein kinases have evolved to be dynamic and highly regulated molecular switches, not efficient catalysts, and we simply cannot appreciate or understand how this PKA signaling system works and how it is allosterically regulated by cAMP without seeing the full-length holoenzymes. (grantome.com)
  • The goal of my research was to investigate this interaction in wild type PKA catalytic subunit (PKA-C) and Y69F-PKA-C using cell culture and other molecular techniques. (uvm.edu)
  • Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important regulator of energy homeostasis1,2,3 and is a molecular target of drugs used for the treatment of metabolic diseases, including obesity4,5. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Intrinsically disordered regions within each PKA regulatory subunit impart the molecular plasticity that affords an ∼16 nanometer radius of motion to the associated catalytic subunits. (nih.gov)
  • These networks were identified through coupling systematic analyses of the expression and epistatic relationships of TF and kinase mutant libraries in the presence of diverse melanin substrates with transcriptome profiling of the core TF mutants. (asm.org)
  • The phosphorylated proteins may reside in or on the cell membrane, in which case they are referred to as "endogenous" substrates. (springer.com)
  • Most wild-type protein kinases, including PKA, interact only transiently with their substrates. (genetics.org)
  • This spatial organization is conserved among the entire eukaryotic protein kinase family, and alteration of these residues in a second, unrelated protein kinase also resulted in a stable association with substrates. (genetics.org)
  • This binding is novel as most wild-type protein kinases, including PKA, interact only transiently with their substrates ( M anning and C antley 2002 ). (genetics.org)
  • The affinity of the kinase for substrates it phosphorylates was enhanced by disulfide formation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Anchoring proteins sequester kinases with their substrates to locally disseminate intracellular signals and avert indiscriminate transmission of these responses throughout the cell. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we examine the protein-protein interactions required for regulation of an Aplysia bag cell neuron cation channel by a closely associated protein kinase C (PKC). (jneurosci.org)
  • The PKA subunit down-regulation was blocked, however, by treatment of the cells with Leu-Leu-Leu or lactacystin, inhibitors of proteasomes that are implicated in the regulated proteolysis of specific cellular proteins. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Together, these findings demonstrate that regulation of PKA subunit expression by forskolin or a cAMP antagonist occurs primarily through post-transcriptional mechanisms and suggests the involvement of proteasome-mediated degradation in these phenomena. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Regulation of erythrocyte Ca2+ pump activity by protein kinase C. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These results allowed us to use these pathological platelets to study the relationship between the expression of Rap1 protein and the regulation of Ca2+ transport by selecting a patient with severe heart failure. (biochemj.org)
  • Furthermore, E6-mediated regulation of the subcellular distribution of phospho-E6AP appears to be dependent, in part, upon the 14-3-3 family of proteins. (asm.org)
  • It is known that alterations of the intrinsic electrical excitability of specific neurons are the key feature of such events, and that these are caused by the short-term and long-term regulation of proteins termed ion channels. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Protein kinase A has several functions in the cell, including regulation of glycogen , sugar , and lipid metabolism . (wikipedia.org)
  • It serves as a prototype for the protein kinase superfamily and its activation by cAMP is a classic example of allosteric regulation. (grantome.com)
  • T. Peeters, W. Louwet, R. Geladé, D. Nauwelaers, J. M. Thevelein, M. Versele, Kelch-repeat proteins interacting with the G α protein Gpa2 bypass adenylate cyclase for direct regulation of protein kinase A in yeast. (sciencemag.org)
  • Since the discovery of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a central regulator of energy homeostasis, many exciting insights into its structure, regulation and physiological roles have been revealed. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Recent research may indicate that cAMP affects the function of higher order thinking in the prefrontal cortex through its regulation of ion channels called hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (HCN). (wikidoc.org)
  • Moreover, exposure of the cell lines to forskolin had no effect on levels of mRNA for these PKA subunits over a wide time course. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Involvement of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and of HA95 in pre-mRNA splicing. (uio.no)
  • We demonstrate that the antisense depletion of RI α in cancer cells results in increased RII β protein without increasing the rate of RII β synthesis or RII β mRNA levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this report, we demonstrate, using cultured cancer cells, that the loss of RI α by antisense treatment results in biochemical compensation by RII β and that this compensation is attributable to an increase in the half-life of RII β protein without changes in the rate of RII β protein synthesis or RII β mRNA levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The novel mRNA predicts a C subunit with a unique carboxyl-terminus relative to previously described C subunits. (yu.edu)
  • Cellular localization and age-dependent changes in mRNA for cyclic adensoine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinases in rat testis. (springer.com)
  • Somatic mutations of the catalytic subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACA) gene have recently been identified in about 35% of cortisol-producing adenomas (CPAs), with the affected patients showing overt Cushing's syndrome. (cdc.gov)
  • Identification and Characterization of Novel Mutations in the Human Gene Encoding the Catalytic Subunit Calpha of Protein Kinase A (PKA). (uio.no)
  • Mutations in the Na + /K + -ATPase subunit ATP1A1 and the plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase ATP2B3 similarly cause Na + or H + permeability and depolarization, whereas mutations in the Ca 2+ channel CACNA1D directly lead to increased calcium influx. (frontiersin.org)
  • Specifically, these mutants are dominant activating mutations in fadA and loss-of-function mutations in sfaD (the β subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein [Fig. 1 ]) ( 42 ) and overexpression of pkaA ( 43 ). (asm.org)
  • Accumulating evidence suggests that many ion channels reside within a multiprotein complex that contains kinases and other signaling molecules. (jneurosci.org)
  • Protein kinase A (PKA) is one of the crucial signaling molecules that, by phosphorylating proteins, affects a wide array of physiologic functions in the brain. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • We also detected FRET between CaNA and PKA-RII bound simultaneously to AKAP79 within 50 Å of each other, thus providing the first direct evidence of a ternary kinase-scaffold-phosphatase complex in living cells. (rupress.org)
  • Full length wt PKG II and wt regulatory PKG JJ proteins, when overexpressed in hippocampal neurons targeted to the synapse, however, a G2A PKG II mutant, which does not undergo myristoylation had a much more diffuse distribution in the entire cell and did not target to the synapse. (ubc.ca)
  • AKAPs contain an amphipathic helix domain that binds to the type II regulatory subunit of PKA (RII). (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • These data suggest that sperm contains several proteins that bind to AKAPs in a manner similar to RII and imply that AKAPs may have additional and perhaps unique functions in spermatozoa. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The Iα isoform, PKGIα, formed an interprotein disulfide linking its two subunits in cells exposed to exogenous hydrogen peroxide. (sciencemag.org)
  • The protein assumes its active shape and binds to a specific site beside the lac promoter, making it easier for RNA polymerase to bind to the adjacent promoter to start transcription of the lac operon, increasing the rate of lac operon transcription. (wikidoc.org)
  • The subcellular localization of a Tpk1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein was examined in wild-type, tpk2 null, and bcy1 tpk2 double mutant strains. (asm.org)
  • The role of the adaptor proteins that physically link these complexes together for the purposes of ion channel modulation, however, has been little explored. (jneurosci.org)
  • Drp1 is recruited from the cytosolic compartment to mitochondria by adaptor proteins, including the outer mitochondrial transmembrane protein Fis1. (embopress.org)
  • First, exposure of extracellular merozoites to a low [K + ] environment typical of blood plasma leads to a rise in cytosolic Ca 2+ via a phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent pathway, which triggers translocation of microneme proteins such as 175 kD erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA175) and apical merozoite antigen-1 (PfAMA1) to the merozoite surface . (prolekare.cz)