Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.

Protein kinase A translocation and insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells: studies with adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis. (1/64)

Activation of protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase; PKA) triggers insulin secretion in the beta-cell. Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT), a bacterial exotoxin with adenylate cyclase activity, and forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, both dose-dependently increased insulin secretion in the presence, but not the absence, of glucose in insulin-secreting betaTC3 cells. The stimulation of cAMP release by either agent was dose-dependent but glucose-independent. Omission of extracellular Ca(2+) totally abolished the effects of ACT on insulin secretion and cytosolic cAMP accumulation. ACT and forskolin caused rapid and dramatic increases in cytosolic Ca(2+), which were blocked by nifedipine and the omission of extracellular Ca(2+). Omission of glucose completely blocked the effects of forskolin and partially blocked the effects of ACT on cytosolic Ca(2+). PKA alpha, beta and gamma catalytic subunits (Calpha, Cbeta and Cgamma respectively) were identified in betaTC6 cells by confocal microscopy. Glucose and glucagon-like polypeptide-1 (GLP-1) caused translocation of Calpha to the nucleus and of Cbeta to the plasma membrane and the nucleus, but did not affect the distribution of Cgamma. In conclusion, glucose and GLP-1 amplify insulin secretion via cAMP production and PKAbeta activation.  (+info)

c-MYC activates protein kinase A (PKA) by direct transcriptional activation of the PKA catalytic subunit beta (PKA-Cbeta) gene. (2/64)

The c-MYC proto-oncogene encodes a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation and broadly implicated in tumorigenesis. Understanding the function of c-MYC and its role in cancer depends upon the identification of c-MYC target genes. Here we show that c-MYC induces the activity of Protein Kinase A (PKA), a key effector of cAMP-mediated signal transduction, by inducing the transcription of the gene encoding the PKA catalytic subunit beta (PKA-Cbeta). c-MYC-mediated induction of PKA-Cbeta gene transcription occurs in multiple tissues, is independent of cell proliferation and is mediated by direct binding of c-MYC to the PKA-Cbeta gene promoter sequences. Constitutive expression of PKA-Cbeta in Rat1A cells induces their transformation, and c-MYC-induced transformation can be reverted by pharmacological inhibition of PKA, suggesting that up-regulation of PKA is critical for c-MYC-associated tumorigenesis. These results indicate that, by activating PKA, c-MYC can provide endogenous activation of the cAMP signal transduction pathway independently of extracellular signals.  (+info)

Loss of protein kinase Calpha expression may enhance the tumorigenic potential of Gli1 in basal cell carcinoma. (3/64)

Activation of the Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway, primarily through mutational inactivation of the PTCH1 gene, is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Gli1, a member of the Gli family of transcription factors, is expressed in BCC and in transgenic mice targeted expression of Gli1 in basal keratinocytes leads to BCC development. In addition to BCC, previous studies have shown that Gli1 is expressed in the outer root sheath (ORS) of the hair follicle but is absent in interfollicular epidermis. In this study, we have characterized the expression pattern of two protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms expressed in BCC and hair follicles. We have then used reporter assays to investigate the effects of these isoforms on Gli1 transcriptional activity. We report that in BCC sections, PKCalpha but not PKCdelta was weakly expressed in the epidermis, whereas in the hair follicle, PKCalpha was expressed in the ORS and PKCdelta in the inner root sheath. In contrast, neither PKCalpha nor PKCdelta was expressed in BCC tumor islands, although both isoforms were often expressed in the surrounding stroma. In mammalian 293T cells, coexpression of constitutively active PKCalpha reduced the activity of Gli1 in a dose-dependent manner, whereas constitutively active PKCdelta increased the activity of Gli1, although this required higher expression levels. Regulation of mutant Gli1 protein localized exclusively to the nucleus was similar to that of the wild-type protein, indicating that nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling is not a determinant of Gli1 control by either PKC isoform. Furthermore, PKC regulation of Gli1 did not involve activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Finally, we show that exogenous Gli1 does not alter the expression of PKCalpha in human primary keratinocytes, suggesting that loss of this isoform in BCC is not via Hedgehog signaling. As BCCs have been proposed to originate from the ORS, loss of PKCalpha expression may be relevant to tumor formation; this may, in part, be because of the predicted increase in Gli1 transcriptional activity.  (+info)

Addicting drugs utilize a synergistic molecular mechanism in common requiring adenosine and Gi-beta gamma dimers. (4/64)

The mesolimbic dopamine system and cAMP-dependent/protein kinase A (PKA) pathways are strongly implicated in addictive behaviors. Here we determine the role of dopamine D2 receptors (D2) in PKA signaling responses to delta-opioid (DOR) and cannabinoid (CB1) receptors. We find in NG108-15/D2 cells and in cultured primary neurons that a brief exposure to saturating concentrations of DOR and CB1 agonists increases cAMP, promotes PKA C alpha translocation and increases cAMP-dependent gene expression. Activation of PKA signaling is mediated by Gi-beta gamma dimers. Importantly, subthreshold concentrations of DOR or CB1 agonists with D2 agonists, which are without effect when added separately, together activate cAMP/PKA signaling synergistically. There is also synergy between DOR or CB1 with ethanol, another addicting agent. In all instances, synergy requires adenosine activation of adenosine A2 receptors and is mediated by beta gamma dimers. Synergy by this molecular mechanism appears to confer hypersensitivity to opioids and cannabinoids while simultaneously increasing the sensitivity of D2 signaling when receptors are expressed on the same cells. This mechanism may account, in part, for drug-induced activation of medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens.  (+info)

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates merlin at serine 518 independently of p21-activated kinase and promotes merlin-ezrin heterodimerization. (5/64)

Mutations in the NF2 tumor suppressor gene encoding merlin induce the development of tumors of the nervous system. Merlin is highly homologous to the ERM (ezrin-radixin-moesin) family of membrane/cytoskeleton linker proteins. However, the mechanism for the tumor suppressing activity of merlin is not well understood. Previously, we characterized a novel role for merlin as a protein kinase A (PKA)-anchoring protein, which links merlin to the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. In this study we show that merlin is also a target for PKA-induced phosphorylation. In vitro [gamma-(33)P]ATP labeling revealed that both the merlin N and C termini are phosphorylated by PKA. Furthermore, both in vitro and in vivo phosphorylation studies of the wild-type and mutated C termini demonstrated that PKA can phosphorylate merlin at serine 518, a site that is phosphorylated also by p21-activated kinases (PAKs). Merlin was phosphorylated by PKA in cells in which PAK activity was suppressed, indicating that the two kinases function independently. Both in vitro and in vivo interaction studies indicated that phosphorylation of serine 518 promotes heterodimerization between merlin and ezrin, an event suggested to convert merlin from a growth-suppressive to a growth-permissive state. This study provides further evidence on the connection between merlin and cAMP/PKA signaling and suggests a role for merlin in the cAMP/PKA transduction pathway.  (+info)

Sperm-specific protein kinase A catalytic subunit Calpha2 orchestrates cAMP signaling for male fertility. (6/64)

An unusual cAMP signaling system mediates many of the events that prepare spermatozoa to meet the egg. Its components include the atypical, bicarbonate-stimulated, sperm adenylyl cyclase and a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) with the unique catalytic subunit termed Calpha(2) or C(s). We generated mice that lack Calpha(2) to determine its importance in the events downstream of cAMP production. Male Calpha(2) null mice produce normal numbers of sperm that swim spontaneously in vitro. Thus, Calpha(2) has no required role in formation of a functional flagellum or the initiation of motility. In contrast, we find that Calpha(2) is required for bicarbonate to speed the flagellar beat and facilitate Ca(2+) entry channels. In addition, Calpha(2) is needed for the protein tyrosine phosphorylation that occurs late in the sequence of sperm maturation and for a negative feedback control of cAMP production, revealed here. Consistent with these specific defects in several important sperm functions, Calpha(2) null males are infertile despite normal mating behavior. These results define several crucial roles of PKA in sperm cell biology, bringing together both known and unique PKA-mediated events that are necessary for male fertility.  (+info)

Changes in cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and progesterone secretion in luteinizing human granulosa cells. (7/64)

Luteinization of follicular granulosa cells leads to an increase in progesterone secretion that is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH). LH acts mainly by elevating intracellular cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and activating cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In this study, we have examined the role of PKA in relation to progesterone output by luteinizing human granulosa cells. Human granulosa cells were obtained by percoll gradient centrifugation of follicular aspirates of patients undergoing oocyte retrieval for assisted conception. Cells were cultured in serum-supplemented medium for up to 3 days in the presence and/or absence of human (h)LH and other cAMP-elevating agents. Spent medium was assayed for cAMP and progesterone content by specific RIA. Cell lysates were collected and assessed for PKA regulatory (R)IIalpha/catalytic (C)alpha expression by Western blotting. Although basal progesterone secretion increased progressively throughout culture, cAMP levels remained unchanged. Under basal conditions, PKA RIIalpha/Calpha expression appeared to increase throughout the 3-day culture period. In the presence of hLH and other cAMP-elevating agents, progesterone secretion increased in a dose-dependent manner coincident with an increase in cAMP. However, despite the increase in both progesterone secretion and cAMP accumulation, there was a dose-dependent decrease in both PKA RIIalpha and Calpha expression. Thus, data presented in this study show that increases in progesterone secretion in luteinizing human granulosa cells can be dissociated from increases in PKA expression. This notion implies that progesterone secretion may be regulated by PKA-dependent as well as PKA-independent mechanisms.  (+info)

Stress stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase and meiotic resumption in mouse oocytes. (8/64)

This study examined the effects of three different cellular stresses on oocyte maturation in meiotically arrested mouse oocytes. Cumulus-cell enclosed oocytes (CEO) or denuded oocytes (DO) from immature, eCG-primed mice were cultured for 17-18 h in dbcAMP-containing medium plus increasing concentrations of the metabolic poison, sodium arsenite, or the free radical-generating agent, menadione. Alternatively, oocytes were exposed to osmotic stress by pulsing with sorbitol and returned to control inhibitory conditions for the duration of culture. Arsenite and menadione each dose-dependently induced germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB) in both DO and CEO. DO, but not CEO, pulsed for 60 min with 500 mM sorbitol were stimulated to resume maturation. The lack of effect in CEO suggests that the cumulus cells may be playing a protective role in osmotic stress-induced GVB. The AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKA; formerly known as AMPK) inhibitors, compound C and araA, completely blocked the meiosis-stimulating effects of all the tested stresses. Western blots showed that acetyl-CoA carboxylase, an important substrate of PRKA, was phosphorylated before GVB, supporting a role for PRKA in stress-induced maturation. Together, these data show that a variety of stresses stimulate GVB in meiotically arrested mouse oocytes in vitro and suggest that this effect is mediated through activation of PRKA.  (+info)

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is a primary liver cancer that predominantly affects children and young adults with no underlying liver disease. A somatic, 400 Kb deletion on chromosome 19 that fuses part of the DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member B1 gene (DNAJB1) to the protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha gene (PRKACA) has been repeatedly identified in patients with FL-HCC. However, the DNAJB1-PRKACA gene fusion has not been shown to induce liver tumorigenesis. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 technique to delete in mice the syntenic region on chromosome 8 to create a Dnajb1-Prkaca fusion and monitored the mice for liver tumor development.. METHODS: We delivered CRISPR/Cas9 vectors designed to juxtapose exon 1 of Dnajb1 with exon 2 of Prkaca to create the Dnajb1-Prkaca gene fusion associated with FL-HCC, or control Cas9 vector, via hydrodynamic tail vein injection to livers of 8-week-old female FVB/N mice. These mice did not have any other ...
PRKACA - PRKACA (untagged)-Human protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, alpha (PRKACA), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
PRKACA Human Recombinant produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 578 amino acids.
PRKACB - Lenti ORF clone of Human protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, beta (PRKACB), transcript variant 3 , Myc-DDK-tagged available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Wiki-Pi: a web resource for human protein-protein interactions. It shows genes and PPIs with information about pathways, protein-protein interactions (PPIs), Gene Ontology (GO) annotations including cellular localization, molecular function and biological process, drugs, diseases, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), GO enrichments, PDB ID, Uniprot ID, HPRD ID, and word cloud from pubmed abstracts.
Wiki-Pi: a web resource for human protein-protein interactions. It shows genes and PPIs with information about pathways, protein-protein interactions (PPIs), Gene Ontology (GO) annotations including cellular localization, molecular function and biological process, drugs, diseases, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), GO enrichments, PDB ID, Uniprot ID, HPRD ID, and word cloud from pubmed abstracts.
DLX3 is a novel target of PRKACA, and PRKACA mediates BMP signaling during osteoblast differentiation, at least in part, by phosphorylating DLX3 and modulating the protein stability and function of DLX3 ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Homo sapiens protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, beta (PRKACB), transcript variant 3, mRNA. (H00005567-R05) - Products - Abnova
KAPCA_HUMAN] Phosphorylates a large number of substrates in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Regulates the abundance of compartmentalized pools of its regulatory subunits through phosphorylation of PJA2 which binds and ubiquitinates these subunits, leading to their subsequent proteolysis. Phosphorylates CDC25B, ABL1, NFKB1, CLDN3, PSMC5/RPT6, PJA2, RYR2, RORA, TRPC1 and VASP. RORA is activated by phosphorylation. Required for glucose-mediated adipogenic differentiation increase and osteogenic differentiation inhibition from osteoblasts. Involved in the regulation of platelets in response to thrombin and collagen; maintains circulating platelets in a resting state by phosphorylating proteins in numerous platelet inhibitory pathways when in complex with NF-kappa-B (NFKB1 and NFKB2) and I-kappa-B-alpha (NFKBIA), but thrombin and collagen disrupt these complexes and free active PRKACA stimulates platelets and leads to platelet aggregation by phosphorylating VASP. Prevents the antiproliferative and ...
O95819 (MAP4K4) , Q5VT25 (CDC42BPA) , P41279 (MAP3K8) , Q04759 (PRKCQ) , O75116 (ROCK2) , Q13464 (ROCK1) , Q5S007 (LRRK2) , P25098 (GRK2) , P17612 (PRKACA) , Q9Y5S2 (CDC42BPB) , O94804 (STK10 ...
DGIdb, The Drug Gene Interaction Database, is a research resource that can be used to search candidate genes or drugs against the known and potentially druggable genome.
Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a partial recombinant RAPGEF3. RAPGEF3 (AAH17728, 772 a.a. ~ 881 a.a) partial recombinant protein with GST tag. (H00010411-A01) - Products - Abnova
Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is a rare liver tumor affecting adolescents and young adults with no history of primary liver disease or cirrhosis. We identified a chimeric transcript that is expressed in FL-HCC but not in adjacent normal liver and that arises as the result of a ∼400-kilobase deletion on chromosome 19. The chimeric RNA is predicted to code for a protein containing the amino-terminal domain of DNAJB1, a homolog of the molecular chaperone DNAJ, fused in frame with PRKACA, the catalytic domain of protein kinase A. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analyses confirmed that the chimeric protein is expressed in tumor tissue, and a cell culture assay indicated that it retains kinase activity. Evidence supporting the presence of the DNAJB1-PRKACA chimeric transcript in 100% of the FL-HCCs examined (15/15) suggests that this genetic alteration contributes to tumor pathogenesis ...
The Khoikhoi people who lived in the Cape Peninsula when the Dutch began trading with the area during the mid 17th century, had a hunting dog which was described as ugly, but noted for its ferocity when acting as a guard dog. This dog measured approximately 18 inches (46 cm) at the withers, with a lean but muscular frame. The ears have been described both as erect and hanging, but the most distinctive feature was the length of hair often growing in the reverse direction along its back. Within 53 years of Dutch colonisation in Southern Africa and the origins of the wagon-trekking boers later known as Afrikaners, who converted vast stretches of wild veld into farmland, hunted for meat and defended their cattle herds, staff, and homesteads from lion, the Europeans were using these local dogs themselves.[3]. By the 1860s, European colonisers had also imported a variety of mainly European dog breeds to this area of Africa, including such dedicated hunting dogs as Great Danes, Bloodhounds, Greyhounds, ...
Somatic mutations in protein kinase A catalytic α subunit (PRKACA) were found to be causative for 30-40% of cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA) of the adrenal gland, rendering PKA signalling constitutively active. In its resting state, PKA is a stable and inactive heterotetramer, consisting of two catalytic and two regulatory subunits with the latter inhibiting PKA activity. The human genome encodes three different PKA catalytic subunits and four different regulatory subunits that are preferentially expressed in different organs. In normal adrenal glands all regulatory subunits are expressed, while CPA exhibit reduced protein levels of the regulatory subunit IIβ. In this study, we linked for the first time the loss of RIIβ protein levels to the PRKACA mutation status and found the down-regulation of RIIβ to arise post-transcriptionally. We further found the PKA subunit expression pattern of different tumours is also present in the zones of the normal adrenal cortex and demonstrate that the different
Capacitation encompasses the molecular changes sperm undergo to fertilize an oocyte, some of which are postulated to occur via a cAMP-PRKACA (protein kinase A)-mediated pathway. Due to the recent discovery of cAMP-activated guanine nucleotide exchange factors RAPGEF3 and RAPGEF4, we sought to investigate the separate roles of PRKACA and RAPGEF3/RAPGEF4 in modulating capacitation and acrosomal exocytosis. Indirect immunofluorescence localized RAPGEF3 to the acrosome and subacrosomal ring and RAPGEF4 to the midpiece in equine sperm. Addition of the RAPGEF3/RAPGEF4-specific cAMP analogue 8-(p-chlorophenylthio)-2-O-methyladenosine-3,5-cyclic monophosphate (8pCPT) to sperm incubated under both noncapacitating and capacitating conditions had no effect on protein tyrosine phosphorylation, thus supporting a PRKACA-mediated event. Conversely, activation of RAPGEF3/RAPGEF4 with 8pCPT induced acrosomal exocytosis in capacitated equine sperm at rates (34%) similar (P > 0.05) to those obtained in ...
RgdA of A. fumigatus is a homolog of the Mbp1 protein of the budding yeast S. cerevisiae, a putative APSES TF. APSES TFs function as key regulators of fungal morphogenesis and development present in Aspergillus genomes, but only the stuA gene has been studied in A. fumigatus (10, 12, 14, 15, 17). The deletion of rgsA resulted in decreased mycelial growth and conidiation and reduced mRNA levels of key asexual development regulators compared to WT (Fig. 2). The mRNA levels of PKA signaling components were higher in the ΔrgdA strain than in WΤ and complemented strains. Furthermore, the ΔrgdA strain showed higher PKA activity in the absence of cAMP (Fig. 3), suggesting the presence of free PKA catalytic subunits in the cytoplasm (18). Based on these observations, we can propose that RgdA of A. fumigatus is necessary for normal growth and proper asexual development, which may involve regulation of the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway.. The Dpr proteins are known to be activated by the stress-activated ...
Expression of RAPGEF3 (bcm910, cAMP-GEFI, EPAC) in cancer tissue. The cancer tissue page shows antibody staining of the protein in 20 different cancers.
Expression of RAPGEF3 (bcm910, cAMP-GEFI, EPAC) in breast tissue. Antibody staining with HPA040365, HPA043518 and CAB004386 in immunohistochemistry.
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
Complete information for RAPGEF3 gene (Protein Coding), Rap Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FHCC) is a rare form of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that typically affects young adults and is characterized, under the microscope, by laminated fibrous layers interspersed between the tumour cells. Approximately 200 new cases are diagnosed worldwide each year. A recent study showed the presence of the DNAJB1-PRKACA chimeric transcript (resulting from a 400kb somatic deletion on chromosome 19) in 100% of the FHCCs examined (15/15) This gene fusion has been confirmed in a second study. The histopathology of FHCC is characterized by laminated fibrous layers, interspersed between the tumor cells. Cytologically, the tumor cells have a low nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Tumors are non-encapsulated, but well circumscribed, when compared to conventional HCC (which typically has an invasive border). Due to lack of symptoms, until the tumor is sizable, this form of cancer is often advanced when diagnosed. Symptoms include ...
Upregulation of A-kinase-interacting protein 1 (AKIP1) has been observed in breast and esophageal cancers, indicating that AKIP1 may be a potent oncogenic protein. However, the role of AKIP1 in cervical cancer still remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the role of AKIP1 in cervical cancer an …
PHACE association is a rare neurocutaneous condition in which facial hemangiomas associate with a spectrum of posterior fossa malformations, arterial cerebrovascular anomalies, cardiovascular anomalies, and eye anomalies. We reported a case of PHACE
cansSAR 3D Structure of 5N3F | CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE A FROM CRICETULUS GRISEUS IN COMPLEX WITH FRAGMENT LIKE MOLECULE N-[3-(AMINOMETHYL)PHENYL]ACETAMIDE | 5N3F_A | cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha - Also known as KAPCA_CRIGR, PRKACA. Phosphorylates a large number of substrates in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Regulates the abundance of compartmentalized pools of its regulatory subunits through phosphorylation of PJA2 which binds and ubiquitinates these subunits, leading to their subsequent proteolysis. Phosphorylates CDC25B, ABL1, NFKB1, CLDN3, PSMC5/RPT6, PJA2, RYR2, RORA and VASP. RORA is activated by phosphorylation. Required for glucose-mediated adipogenic differentiation increase and osteogenic differentiation inhibition from osteoblasts. Involved in the regulation of platelets in response to thrombin and collagen; maintains circulating platelets in a resting state by phosphorylating proteins in numerous platelet inhibitory pathways when in complex with NF-kappa-B
Lockheed Martin unveiled the HULC system at the Association of the United States Army Winter Symposium held in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, in February 2009.. In July 2010, the company signed a $1.1m contract with the US Army Natick Soldier Center for testing and evaluating the ruggedised HULC design.. Under the contract, the Natick Soldier Center tested the HULC for its effect on the soldiers performance, the energy that a soldier spends while using it and the adaptability of the system while carrying various loads and moving at various speeds. The contract has also provided provision for field trials of the system.. The HULC underwent laboratory testing in October 2010, after Lockheed Martin upgraded the ruggedised system for flexibility and suitability to a variety of users. The system was put through biomechanical, dynamic load and environmental testing.. Treadmill testing measured the decrease in metabolic cost of the user. The systems sustainability in various environmental conditions was ...
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from RAPGEF5 Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 5 available at GenScript, starting from $99.00.
The adoptive parents may be acquainted with to these problems, but in other situations wee if any story may be available. N L H Genes 50 10 10 KREMEN2, ST8SIA1, TNFSF10, ATF6 150 30 30 HADHB, BAX, MAPK13, CYP1A1, ATF2 250 49 51 NFKBIA, PLCB1, ITGB1, MYC, KRAS 350 69 71 PRKACB, FOS, PRKACG, FASN, NFKB1 450 85 95 RAC1, MAP2K2, JUN, TP53, RELA 551 100 119 RAF1, GRB2, PIK3CA, RPS27A, MAPK8 647 117 145 HRAS, MAP2K1, AKT1, RAF1, GRB2 765 125 185 MAPK3, MAPK1, HRAS, MAP2K1, AKT1 Provisions 7. Pregnancy and Yeast InfectionThe Main Benefits: 1 cheap kamagra effervescent 100mg fast delivery erectile dysfunction injections videos. At hand drowning is described as an fact in which a offspring has suffered a submersion injury and has survived for at least 24 hours. It involves removing the little one from the fine kettle of fish area and placing him or her in a dispassionate, nonthreatening, safe square footage where no interaction occurs between the daughter and parents or others exchange for a specifically ...
Highly up-regulated in liver cancer (HULC) was originally identified as the most overexpressed long non-coding RNA in hepatocellular carcinoma. Since its discovery, the aberrant up-regulation of HULC has been demonstrated in other cancer types, including gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, osteosarcoma and hepatic metastasis of colorectal cancer. Recent discoveries have also shed new light on the upstream molecular mechanisms underlying HULC .... Read More » ...
According to Berkeley Bionics and Lockheed Martin, the HULC biomechanical combat exoskeleton system enables a soldier between 5′ 4″ and 6′ 2″ to carry loads of up to 200 pounds (200 lbs) on the front or back for extended periods of times over any and all terrains by transfering the load weight and soldiers weight to the ground. The load-carrying augmentation/enhancement ability aspect will continue to work when battery power isnt available. The HULC also allows a soldier to run 7 mph for long periods or 10 mph in short bursts. It provides the soldier with full range of motion and, according to the developers, doesnt hinder or impede the warfighters movement in any way/aspect, so he/she can still jump, squat, kneel, crawl, go prone (for survival and stabilized or long-range shooting), etc., and then get right back up.. One of Defense Reviews immediate and primary concerns is whether or not the HULC combat exoskeleton allows the same level of mobility and dexterity required for ...
Hard Drive died and I cant find a image file of the operating system. Any help is greatly appreciated. Also...I tried the mfslive.iso test...
reference: ASPP proteins discriminate between PP1 catalytic subunits through their SH3 domain and the PP1 C-tail., Bertran MT, Mouilleron S, Zhou Y, Bajaj R, Uliana F, Kumar GS, van Drogen A, Lee R, Banerjee JJ, Hauri S, OReilly N, Gstaiger M, Page R, Peti W, Tapon N, Nat Commun. 2019 Feb 15;10(1):771. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-08686-0. PMID: 30770806 ...
မန္မာႏိုင္ငံမွာေတာ့ ေ၀လငါးဖမ္းလုပ္ငန္းကို လုပ္ကိုင္တဲ့လူမရွိေသးဘူးလို႕ ထင္ပါတယ္။ ျမန္မာ့ပင္လယ္ျပင္မွာ ေ၀လငါးဟာ အင္မတန္ေတြ႕ရခဲတာေၾကာင့္ရယ္၊ ေတြ႕ရင္ေတာင္မွ အရြယ္အစားၾကီးမားလြန္းတာရယ္နဲ႕ ေရာင္းခ်မယ့္ေစ်းကြက္မရွိတာရယ္ေၾကာင့္ ဖမ္းဆီးမယ့္လူမရွိပါဘူး။ ေနာက္တစ္ခ်က္ လင္းပိုင္နဲ႕ေ၀လငါးဟာ အသိဥာဏ္ရွိတဲ့ႏို႕တိုက္သတၱ၀ါျဖစ္လို႕ တခါတရံမွာ ...
Genetic variants in components of the protein kinase A (PKA) enzyme have been associated with various defects and neoplasms in the context of Carney complex (CNC) and in isolated cases, such as in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), cortisol-producing adrenal adenomas (CPAs), and various cancers. PRKAR1A mutations have been found in subjects with impaired cAMP-dependent signaling and skeletal defects; bone tumors also develop in both humans and mice with PKA abnormalities. We studied the PRKACB gene in 148 subjects with PPNAD and related disorders, who did not have other PKA-related defects and identified two subjects with possibly pathogenic PRKACB gene variants and unusual bone and endocrine phenotypes. The first presented with bone and other abnormalities and carried a de novo c.858_860GAA (p.K286del) variant. The second subject carried the c.899C,T (p.T300M or p.T347M in another isoform) variant and had a PPNAD-like phenotype. Both variants are highly conserved in the ...
Authors: Vázquez-Higuera, José Luis , Mateo, Ignacio , Sánchez-Juan, Pascual , Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Eloy , Pozueta, Ana , Calero, Miguel , Dobato, José Luis , Frank-García, Ana , Valdivieso, Fernando , Berciano, José , Bullido, Maria J. , Combarros, Onofre Article Type: Research Article Abstract: Tau abnormal hyperphosphorylation and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles in the Alzheimers disease (AD) brain is the result of upregulation of tau kinases. In a group of 729 Spanish late-onset AD patients and 670 healthy controls, we examined variations into a set of 20 candidate genes of kinases involved in tau phosphorylation at AD-related sites (PRKACB; CAMK2A; MARK1, 2, 3 and 4; CSNK1D; CDC2; RPS6KB1 and 2; p38α and β; IB1; JNK1, 2 and 3; MEK1 and 2; ERK1 and 2), to address hypotheses of genetic variation that might influence both AD risk and age at disease onset. There was …an increased frequency of RPS6KB2 (intron 2, rs917570) minor allele in patients (50%) versus controls (39%) ...
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Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) consists of two catalytic subunits and a regulatory subunit dimer. This gene encodes ... "Characterization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit Cgamma expressed and purified from sf9 cells". Protein ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit gamma is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKACG gene. ... 1998). "Effects of [D-Ala1] peptide T-NH2 and HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases in normal ...
... encodes a serine threonine protein kinase that has similarity to the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases ... Huang S, Li Q, Alberts I, Li X (2016). "PRKX, a Novel cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Member, Plays an Important Role in ... Protein kinase, X-linked is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRKX gene. This gene ... a phylogenetically and functionally distinct cAMP-dependent protein kinase, activates renal epithelial cell migration and ...
... subunits, creating a tetrameric holoenzyme. Cyclic AMP binds to the regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and ... The protein kinase is composed of two regulatory (R) subunits and two catalytic (C) ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase is unique in its mechanism of activation. ... Originally named Protein I, it was found as an endogenous substrate for cAMP-dependent protein kinase in the synaptic membrane ...
"Structure of a peptide inhibitor bound to the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". ... Protein kinase A, more precisely known as adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase, abbreviated to ... In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKA) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP ( ... Cyclic+AMP-Dependent+Protein+Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila cAMP- ...
... cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinases have identical catalytic subunits but different regulatory subunits that bind cyclic AMP. ... Activation loop Autophosphorylation Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Cell signaling Cyclin-dependent kinase G protein- ... the JAK kinases (a family of protein tyrosine kinases), and the PIP3-dependent kinase cascade were discovered. Kinases are ... For this reason protein kinases are named based on what regulates their activity (i.e. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinases). ...
In eukaryotes, cyclic AMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, or cAMP-dependent protein kinase). PKA is normally ... thus enabling those catalytic units to phosphorylate substrate proteins. The active subunits catalyze the transfer of phosphate ... Not all protein kinases respond to cAMP. Several classes of protein kinases, including protein kinase C, are not cAMP-dependent ... It should not be confused with 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP-activated protein kinase). Earl Sutherland of Vanderbilt ...
"Structure of a peptide inhibitor bound to the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". ... Protein kinase A, more precisely known as adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase was discovered by ... "cAMP-dependent protein kinase" redirects here. It is not to be confused with AMP-activated protein kinase or cyclin-dependent ... Cyclic+AMP-Dependent+Protein+Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
... on the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in cows as n-Tetradecanoyl. Almost simultaneously in Claude B. ... "n-Tetradecanoyl is the NH2-terminal blocking group of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase from bovine ... c-Src is a gene that codes for proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, a protein important for normal mitotic cycling. It ... In addition, in signal transduction via G protein, palmitoylation of the α subunit, prenylation of the γ subunit, and ...
"Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". Science. 253 (5018): ... enzyme called phosphorylase kinase was activated by another kinase that was dependent on the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP ... Protein kinase A catalytic subunit (PKA Cα) is a member of the AGC kinase family (protein kinases A, G, and C), and contributes ... Induction by regulatory subunit and inhibition by catalytic subunit of adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase ...
"Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". Science. 253 (5018): ... or cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. 1992: Elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 1996: Elected to the ... She is known for her research on protein kinases, particularly protein kinase A. She was elected to the Institute of Medicine ... Taylor's research group has focused on the structure and function of protein kinases, particularly protein kinase A, since ...
Gαs activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. This is accomplished by ... This is an alternate form of regulation for the Gα subunit. Such Gα GAPs do not have catalytic residues (specific amino acid ... cAMP can then act as a second messenger that goes on to interact with and activate protein kinase A (PKA). PKA can ... 5 Gβ proteins, and 12 Gγ proteins. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, ...
ARPP-21: Cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21 kDa. *AZI2: encoding protein 5-azacytidine-induced protein 2 ... PIK3CA: phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide. *PROSER1: Proline and serine rich protein 1 ... CACNA2D3: calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 3. *CCR5: chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 ... C3orf14-Chromosome 3 open reading frame 14: predicted DNA binding protein.. *C3orf23: encoding protein Uncharacterized protein ...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKACB gene. cAMP is a ... 1998). "Effects of [D-Ala1] peptide T-NH2 and HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases in normal ... 1992). "Assignment of the gene encoding the catalytic subunit C beta of cAMP-dependent protein kinase to the p36 band on ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family and is a catalytic subunit of PKA. ...
... resulting cAMP acts as a second messenger by interacting with and regulating other proteins such as protein kinase A and cyclic ... Isoforms II, IV and IX are stimulated by alpha subunit of the G protein. Isoforms I, V and VI are most clearly inhibited by Gi ... Cyclic AMP is an important molecule in eukaryotic signal transduction, a so-called second messenger. Adenylyl cyclases are ... Class VI enzymes possess a catalytic core similar to the one in Class III. Beta adrenergic receptor kinase pathway "PDB101: ...
In the yeast protein, Syg1, the N-terminus directly binds to the G-protein beta subunit and inhibits transduction of the mating ... cyclic AMP (cAMP) and PPi. Thiamine triphosphatase is a soluble cytosolic enzyme which converts thiamine triphosphate to ... VTC exposes its catalytic domain to the cytosol and has nine vacuolar transmembrane segments (TMSs). Mutations in the VTC ... This SPX-dependent inhibition is mediated by a physical interaction with Spl2. NUC-2 contains several ankyrin repeats. Several ...
Cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21 kDa AZI2: encoding protein 5-azacytidine-induced protein 2 BRK1: SCAR/WAVE actin ... voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 3 CCR5: chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 CGGBP1: CGG triplet repeat binding protein 1 ... phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide PROSER1: Proline and serine rich protein 1 RAB7: RAB7, member RAS ... also known as Glutamine-rich protein 1, RBM6: RNA-binding protein 6 RPP14: Ribonuclease P protein subunit p14 SCN5A: sodium ...
Phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinasesEdit. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by ... The protein enzyme contains two catalytic subunits and two regulatory subunits. When there is no cAMP,the complex is inactive. ... The G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are protein kinases that phosphorylate only active GPCRs.[53] G-protein-coupled ... DAG helps activate protein kinase C (PKC), which phosphorylates many other proteins, changing their catalytic activities, ...
Phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinases[edit]. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated ... the catalytic units are released and initiate the phosphorylation of proteins leading to the physiologic action. The cyclic AMP ... "A receptor-binding region in human choriogonadotropin/lutropin beta subunit". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... via adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP (cAMP). These protein kinases are present as tetramers with two regulatory units and two ...
By the late 1960s, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase had been purified, and most attention was centered on kinases and ... Hanks SK, Hunter T (May 1995). "Protein kinases 6. The eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily: kinase (catalytic) domain ... a protein with essential nuclear and cytoplasmic roles in biogenesis of the 60S subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome. ... "Synergistic phosphorylation of rabbit muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and casein kinase I. ...
... cAMP-dependent protein kinase), one of the first few kinases discovered. It has four sub-units two catalytic and two regulatory ... Heterotrimeric G protein *Gs/Gi. *Adenylate cyclase. *cAMP. *3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase ... Main article: function of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, ... cAMP binds to the regulatory sub-units.[16] It causes them to break apart from the catalytic sub-units. The Catalytic sub-units ...
... cyclic AMP receptor - cyclic AMP receptor protein - cyclic AMP-responsive DNA-binding protein - cyclic electron flow - Cyclic ... protein subunit - protein synthesis - protein targeting - protein translocation - protein-tyrosine kinase - protein-tyrosine- ... viral envelope protein - viral oncogene protein - viral protein - virology - virus (biology) - vitamin - vitamin D-dependent ... catalytic domain - CCR5 receptor - CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein kinase - cell - cell adhesion ...
Misra, K. and Pandey, S.C. (2006). The decreased cyclic-AMP dependent-protein kinase A function in the nucleus accumbens: a ... Ethanol causes translocation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit to the nucleus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 93, ... Some of the kinase families currently linked to alcoholism are Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs), protein ... Ethanol enhances growth factor activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism. Proc ...
... neurite outgrowth and protein phosphorylation by a newly synthesized selective inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... site on the PKA catalytic subunit. However, subsequent work has suggested a variety of additional effects such as inhibition of ... novel and potent inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C". Biochemistry. 23 (21): 5036- ... H-89 is a protein kinase inhibitor with greatest effect on protein kinase A (PKA). H-89, derived from H-8 (N-[2-(methylamino) ...
"Preferential expression in mushroom bodies of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and its role in learning and memory". ... cAMP or cyclic AMP) is a second messenger that has been implicated in facilitating mushroom body calcium influx in Drosophila ... The intermediate term memory trace is dependent on expression of the amn gene located in dorsal paired medial neurons. An ... Protein kinase A (PKA) has been found to play an important role in learning and memory in Drosophila. When calcium enters a ...
... by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (30): 20070-8. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... pathways independently on its catalytic activity by serving as a bridge for other proteins thereby regulate protein-protein ... Zhang S, Broxmeyer HE (January 1999). "p85 subunit of PI3 kinase does not bind to human Flt3 receptor, but associates with SHP2 ... this phosphorylation is mediated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). Second allosteric regulation is mediated by binding ...
... which is a filamentation induced by cyclic AMP domain, is known to perform AMPylation. This family of proteins are found in all ... which modifies the GyrB subunit of DNA gyrase, the conserved tyrosine residue for ATP binding of ParE subunit at Topoisomerase ... kinases due to their ATP hydrolysis activity and reversible transfer of the metabolite to a hydroxyl side chain of the protein ... ER stress increases HypE levels, causing the induction of ATF6 and PERK-dependent pathways. Grp78 AMPylation is an inactivating ...
As AMP binds both Bateman domains the γ subunit undergoes a conformational change which exposes the catalytic domain found on ... It should not be confused with cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase (protein kinase A). AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein complex ... liver kinase B1 (LKB1), which works in a complex with STRAD and MO25, Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase II-( ... "AMP-activated protein kinase kinase activity and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in contracting muscle of ...
"Proteasome function is regulated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase through phosphorylation of Rpt6". The Journal of ... "O-GlcNAc transferase is in a functional complex with protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunits". The Journal of Biological ... "AMP-activated Protein Kinase and p38 MAPK Activate O-GlcNAcylation of Neuronal Proteins during Glucose Deprivation". Journal of ... regulating protein-protein interactions, altering protein structure or enzyme activity, changing protein subcellular ...
... coli E1k subunit. Cofactor TPP and AMP are shown in cyan and blue, respectively. [17] (B) Diagram of the 12 subunit catalytic ... It is a thiamine-pyrophosphate-dependent protein that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate substrate and ... The citric acid cycle is a cyclic metabolic pathway involved in cellular respiration, which eventually converts carbohydrates, ... Aβ oligomers formed are found to be toxic since they can bind to different neurotransmitter receptors and thus stimulate kinase ...
"Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... Tyrosine hydroxylase is a tetramer of four identical subunits (homotetramer). Each subunit consists of three domains. At the ... The oxidation state of this iron atom is important for the catalytic turnover in the enzymatic reaction. If the iron is ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases.[12][25] Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase.[ ...
Gαs activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. This is accomplished by ... This is an alternate form of regulation for the Gα subunit. Such Gα GAPs do not have catalytic residues (specific amino acid ... cAMP can then act as a second messenger that goes on to interact with and activate protein kinase A (PKA). PKA can ... Types of G protein signaling[edit]. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, ...
3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... and an internal catalytic domain homologous to adenylyl cyclases.[7] Recently, a directly light-gated guanylate cyclase has ... see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins. *Calcineurin. *Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... Heterotrimeric G protein *Gs/Gi. *Adenylate cyclase. *cAMP. *3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase ...
An actin protein is the monomeric subunit of two types of filaments in cells: microfilaments, one of the three major components ... "Role of actin cytoskeletal dynamics in activation of the cyclic AMP pathway and HWP1 gene expression in Candida albicans". ... ATPase's catalytic mechanismEdit. Actin is an ATPase, which means that it is an enzyme that hydrolyzes ATP. This group of ... Structural basis of nucleotide-dependent actin dynamics". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (36): 34172-34180. doi: ...
"Mechanisms of cyclic AMP/protein kinase A- and glucocorticoid-mediated apoptosis using S49 lymphoma cells as a model system". ... When the sub-unit binds to the voltage-dependent calcium channel, it produces a voltage-dependant block, which inhibits the ... The PKA enzyme also contains two catalytic PKS-Cα subunits, and a regulator PKA-R subunit dimer. The PKA holoenzyme is inactive ... causing the Gα sub-unit to separate from the Gβγ sub-unit, forming two sections of the G protein. The sub-units are now free to ...
Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases or CaM kinases. are primarily regulated by the Ca2+/calmodulin complex. ... 3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... While the catalytic domain of these kinases is highly conserved, the sequence variation that is observed in the kinome (the ...
3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... links are to the catalytic subunit) All but PPP2C have sequence homology in the catalytic domain, but differ in substrate ... see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins. *Calcineurin. *Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... Heterotrimeric G protein *Gs/Gi. *Adenylate cyclase. *cAMP. *3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase ...
aminoacyl-AMP + tRNA → aminoacyl-tRNA + AMP. Certain organisms can have one or more aminoacyl tRNA synthetases missing. This ... During protein synthesis, tRNAs with attached amino acids are delivered to the ribosome by proteins called elongation factors, ... In the A/T site, the A-site half resides in the small ribosomal subunit where the mRNA decoding site is located. The mRNA ... In fact, tRNA and tRNA-like aggregates have an important catalytic influence (i. e. as ribozymes) on replication still today. ...
... but has no effect on protein kinase C or cyclic AMP-dependent kinase. Mutagenicity does not appear to occur for purified toxins ... the formation of a covalent bond between a methylene group of microcystin-LR and a cystine residue at the catalytic subunit of ... In this way the protein phosphatase is inhibited and more phosphorylated proteins in the liver cells are left, which is ... These large proteins are made up of different protein domains, coined 'modules', that each have their own specific enzymatic ...
... glucagon activates a cyclic AMP pathway; this results in Protein Kinase A, Protein Kinase C, or AMP-activated Protein Kinase ... "Akt-dependent activation of the heart 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFKFB2) isoenzyme by amino acids". ... "Cloning and expression of a catalytic core bovine brain 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase". Biochemical and ... Walker JE, Saraste M, Runswick MJ, Gay NJ (1982). "Distantly related sequences in the alpha- and beta-subunits of ATP synthase ...
... with the terminal subunits from the A54145 (Factor B1) or calcium-dependent antibiotic pathways to create molecules containing ... The two core catalytic domains are an acyltransferase (AT) and a ketosynthase (KS). The AT acts upon a malonyl-CoA substrate ... Creatine kinase levels are usually checked regularly while individuals undergo daptomycin therapy. In July 2010, the FDA issued ... Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces roseosporus. Daptomycin consists of 13 amino acids, 10 ...
... group of protein kinases. Although some features unite their catalytic domains with protein tyrosine kinases, the activity of ... Chow CW, Davis RJ (January 2000). "Integration of calcium and cyclic AMP signaling pathways by 14-3-3". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (2 ... and protein kinase A-dependent signals". Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (2): 921-33. doi:10.1128/mcb.17.2.921. PMC 231818. PMID 9001246. ... "A phosphatase holoenzyme comprised of Shoc2/Sur8 and the catalytic subunit of PP1 functions as an M-Ras effector to modulate ...
... sequence formed by the fusion of ret tyrosine kinase and the regulatory subunit RI alpha of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... "Exclusion of catalytic and regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase as candidate genes for the defect causing ... Guild BC, Strominger JL (1984). "HLA-A2 antigen phosphorylation in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Sites of ... "A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) interaction and dimerization of the RIalpha and RIbeta regulatory subunits of protein kinase ...
... cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase is a tetramer composed of two catalytic (C) subunits and two regulatory (R) subunits ... Association of catalytic and regulatory subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase requires a negatively charged side ... Association of catalytic and regulatory subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase requires a negatively charged side ... protein types , transcription factor , Cyclic AMP. bioinformatics , genomics and proteomics , genetics & nucleic acid ...
Somatic mutations of the catalytic subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACA) gene have recently been ... Somatic mutations of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACA) gene in Japanese patients with ... Somatic mutations of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACA) gene in Japanese patients with ... Somatic mutations of the catalytic subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACA) gene have recently been ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits / genetics * DNA Mutational Analysis * DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics ...
... and GR-associated protein kinase (PK) activity in the immunopurified receptor preparations. Affinity labeling of hepatic ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases Grant support * DK20893/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/United States ... Phosphorylation of immunopurified rat liver glucocorticoid receptor by the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase ... Mg2+ and the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent PK (cAMP-PK) from bovine heart, led to an incorporation of radioactivity in ...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha. A, B, E. 371. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: PKA, PKACA, ... Human cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase PKA inhibitor complex. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3MVJ/pdb ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor alpha. I, J, K. 20. N/A. Mutation(s): 0 ...
Cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase consists of a regulatory dimer bound to two catalytic subunits. ... It has recently been demonstrated that inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) induces a ligand-independent ... We have investigated the effect on EGFR levels after ablating the two catalytic subunits, Cα and Cβ in two different models. ... Our results suggest that PKA may represent a target that when manipulated can maintain EGFR protein levels at the single cell ...
0.4 units/μg protein, lyophilized powder; CAS Number: 9026-43-1; Synonyms: Protein Kinase, 3′,5′-cyclic-AMP-dependent from ... However, when the cyclic-AMP binds to the regulatory subunit, the catalytic subunit is released and can then catalyze the ... Many 3′,5′-cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases have been reported. Structural studies (Traugh, J.A., et al., Meth. Enzymol., ... the regulatory subunit and the catalytic subunit. When both units are linked together, the catalytic activity is inhibited. ...
An antiserum against the catalytic subunit C of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, isolated from bovine heart type II protein ... Antiserum against the catalytic subunit of adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Reactivity towards ... Antiserum against the catalytic subunit of adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Reactivity towards ... Antiserum against the catalytic subunit of adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Reactivity towards ...
Prkar1a = cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase RIalpha subunit; Prkaca = cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit) ... Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, alpha 1 Catalytic Subunit ELISA Kits * Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, alpha 2 Catalytic Subunit ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha , sperm cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit ... Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, beta 1 Non-Catalytic Subunit ELISA Kits * Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, beta 2 Non-Catalytic ...
Prkar1a = cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase RIalpha subunit; Prkaca = cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit) ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha , sperm cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit , protein kinase ... protein kinase C, delta IV , protein kinase C, delta V , protein kinase C[d] , protein kinase-delta2 , protein kinase C, delta ... anti-Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, beta 1 Non-Catalytic Subunit Antibodies * anti-Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, beta 2 Non- ...
2005 A catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, PKAC-1, regulates asexual differentiation in Neurospora crassa ... and indeed an increase in transcripts for the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, pkac-1, was found. We reasoned ... Klein, C., and K. Struhl, 1994 Protein kinase A mediates growth-regulated expression of yeast ribosomal protein genes by ... 2004 Pil1p and Lsp1p negatively regulate the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein pinase-like kinase Pkh1p and downstream ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) consists of two catalytic subunits and a regulatory subunit dimer. This gene encodes ... "Characterization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit Cgamma expressed and purified from sf9 cells". Protein ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit gamma is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKACG gene. ... 1998). "Effects of [D-Ala1] peptide T-NH2 and HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases in normal ...
Localization of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent. Protein kinase in cultured cells using a specific antibody. ... elongation involves cyclic adenosine monophosphate and protein synthesis-dependent prostaglandin formation [24]. ... A wild-type prion protein does not acquire properties of the scrapie isoform when coexpressed with a mutant prion protein in ... Treatment of CHO cells with 8-bromo-cyclic AMP produced no change in the pattern or intensity of immunofluorescence [38]. ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is regulated in part by N-terminal myristylation of its catalytic (C) subunit. ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is regulated in part by N-terminal myristylation of its catalytic (C) subunit. ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha. A. 350. Mus musculus. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: Prkaca, Pkaca. EC: 2.7. ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I-alpha regulatory subunit. B. 290. Bos taurus. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: PRKAR1A. ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits/chemistry*/genetics/metabolism. *Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits/chemistry*/genetics/metabolism. *Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase ... Protein Kinase A (PKA) is the major receptor for the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) secondary messenger in eukaryotes. ... Protein Kinase A (PKA) is the major receptor for the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) secondary messenger in eukaryotes. ...
One of the best characterised protein kinases is cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). PKA is a holoenzyme which ... consists of a regulatory (R) dimer and two catalytic (C) subunits. Humans have at least four genes that express four isoforms ... and A kinase interacting protein (AKIP) and last is the protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) which is located both to the cytosol and ... targeting of the R subunit dimer to subcellular structures through proteins that are termed A kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs ...
1980) Microinjection of catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase enhances calcium action potentials of bag cell ... more wide spread set of scaffolding proteins are cAMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs), some of which bring ... 1995) Association of protein kinase A and protein phosphatase 2B with a common anchoring protein. Science 267:108-111. ... Protein Kinase Modulation of a Neuronal Cation Channel Requires Protein-Protein Interactions Mediated by an Src homology 3 ...
1980) Intracellular injection of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase simulates facilitation of ... which elevates cyclic GMP and cAMP dependent protein kinase in the Purkinje cells. As a result, the Purkinje cells become less ... calcium/calmodulin protein kinase II (Malenka et al., 1989; Malinow et al., 1989), (2) protein kinase C (Routtenberg, 1986; ... 1993) Spatially resolved dynamics of cAMP and protein kinase A subunits in Aplysia sensory neurons. Science 260:222-226. ...
Analysis of BHK cell growth kinetics after microinjection of catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. J K ... Fine-structure mapping of charge-shift mutations in regulatory subunit of type I cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. R A ... Differential phosphorylation of MAP-2 stimulated by calcium-calmodulin and cyclic AMP. H Schulman ... Characterization of heterogeneous nuclear RNA-protein complexes in vivo with monoclonal antibodies. G Dreyfuss, Y D Choi, S A ...
the molecule activated by the increasing levels of cyclic AMP protein kinase A or PKA,. also called cyclicAMP-dependent protein ... b. is a kinase. c. Activated catalytic subunits of PKA separate from the regulatory subunits. d. activated by cAMP ... T/F) calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase type IV (CAMK IV) is activated by Ca2+ influx ... T/F) hormones such as thyroid-stimulating hormone and glucagon induce the production of cyclic AMP ...
ThePKA1 gene encoding the major cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit was identified and disrupted.pka1 ... Identification of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit Pka1.To identify the catalytic subunit of PKA, primers ... of cyclic AMP and defective glucose repression in yeast strains with reduced activity of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Controls Virulence of the Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans Cletus A. DSouza, J. ...
Protein Coding), Protein Kinase X-Linked, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... encodes a serine threonine protein kinase that has similarity to the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases ... Protein Symbol:. P51817-PRKX_HUMAN. Recommended name:. cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit PRKX. Protein Accession: ... Like other cAMP-dependent protein kinases, the inactive holoenzyme is probably composed of 2 PRKX catalytic subunits and a ...
... cAMP-dependent, catalytic, beta (PRKACB), transcript variant 3 , Myc-DDK-tagged available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene ... The encoded protein is a catalytic subunit of cAMP (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase, which mediates signalling though cAMP ... cAMP dependent, catalytic, beta (Prkacb). $430. Next day. MG218582. Prkacb (GFP-tagged) - Mouse protein kinase cAMP dependent ... Prkacb (untagged) - Mouse protein kinase, cAMP dependent, catalytic, beta (Prkacb), transcript variant 3, (10ug). $390. 3 weeks ...
Multiple genes for regulatrory and catalytic subunits of cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinases are differentially expressed and ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (vertebrates), In G. Hardie & S. Hanks (ed.), The Protein Kinase FactsBook. Elsevier. ISBN ... and regulation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. * Skålhegg, Bjørn Steen & Jahnsen, Tore (1993). Isozymes of cyclic AMP- ... Solberg, Rigmor & Jahnsen, Tore (1994). Human type I regulatory subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. Structure, ...
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) are critical regulators of neuronal differentiation. The expression, ... Evolution of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) catalytic subunit isoforms.Søberg K, Moen LV, Skålhegg BS, Laerdahl JK. ... Evolutionary Paths of the cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Catalytic Subunits. Søberg K, Jahnsen T, Rognes T, Skålhegg BS, ... Four different isoforms of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, termed Calpha, Cbeta,Cgamma and PrKX have ...
Turnover of regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in S49 mouse lymphoma cells: Regulation by catalytic ... Crystal structures of catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in complex with isoquinolinesulfonyl protein kinase ... 1990) The expression of cAMP-dependent protein kinase subunits in primary rat hepatocyte cultures: Cyclic AMP down-regulates ... 1991) Isoform C beta 2, an unusual form of the bovine catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem 266:5140- ...
... encodes a serine threonine protein kinase that has similarity to the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases ... Huang S, Li Q, Alberts I, Li X (2016). "PRKX, a Novel cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Member, Plays an Important Role in ... Protein kinase, X-linked is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRKX gene. This gene ... a phylogenetically and functionally distinct cAMP-dependent protein kinase, activates renal epithelial cell migration and ...
One in three CPAs carries a recurrent gain-of-function mutation (L206R) in the PRKACA gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of ... One in three CPAs carries a recurrent gain-of-function mutation (L206R) in the PRKACA gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of ... This mutation causes constitutive PKA activity by abolishing the binding of the inhibitory regulatory subunit to the catalytic ... This mutation causes constitutive PKA activity by abolishing the binding of the inhibitory regulatory subunit to the catalytic ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunits have divergent roles in virulence factor production in two varieties of ... Regulated expression of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A reveals an influence on cell size and the secretion of virulence ... is inhibited by the cyclic AMP/protein kinase A signal pathway through the glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta homolog Rim11. Mol ... Prior studies have revealed two major signaling pathways, namely, the cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) and high- ...
  • Protein Kinase A (PKA) is a serine/threonine kinase, which exists as a tetrameric holoenzyme. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Most of the holoenzyme (type II) remains intact when bound to the antibodies as shown by quantification of the regulatory subunit in the supernatant of the immunoprecipitate. (biochemj.org)
  • PKA is a holoenzyme which consists of a regulatory (R) dimer and two catalytic (C) subunits. (uio.no)
  • That is, when the PKA holoenzyme is challenged with cAMP the C subunits are released from the R-AKAP complex, which will leave the C subunits free to unspecifically phosphorylate targets in the cytosol and the nucleus. (uio.no)
  • Like other cAMP-dependent protein kinases, the inactive holoenzyme is probably composed of 2 PRKX catalytic subunits and a dimer of regulatory subunits. (genecards.org)
  • On activation by cAMP binding to the R subunits, the holoenzyme dissociates into an R dimer and two free, active C subunits that can then phosphorylate target proteins. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The inactive tetrameric PKA holoenzyme R2C2 is activated when cAMP binds to R2, which dissociates the tetramer to R2 cAMP 4 and two active catalytic subunits. (biomol.com)
  • The PKA holoenzyme is composed of 2 regulatory and 2 catalytic subunits and dissociates from the regulatory subunits upon binding of cAMP. (abnova.com)
  • In the absence of cAMP, PKA exists as an inactive tetrameric holoenzyme with the homodimeric R-subunits bound to two catalytic (C) subunits. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Separation of the free catalytic subunit from type I and type II protein kinase holoenzyme isozymes via C 6 -aminoalkyl agarose chromatography revealed that only type I protein kinase was activated 4 hr following incubation of lymphocytes with a mitogenic concentration of ConA (10 µg/ml). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The holoenzyme, protein kinase A (also known as cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinase), mediates cellular response to changes in cyclic-AMP levels. (avivasysbio.com)
  • Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain how the holoenzyme of the A kinase induces transcription. (elsevier.com)
  • Replacement with the phosphorylatable residue serine resulted in a C subunit with wild-type affinity for the R subunit. (cshl.edu)
  • This gene encodes a serine threonine protein kinase that has similarity to the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases. (genecards.org)
  • Serine/threonine protein kinase regulated by and mediating cAMP signaling in cells. (genecards.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. (origene.com)
  • cAMP-dependent PKA is an ubiquitous serine/theonine protein kinase present in a variety of. (biomol.com)
  • Protein kinase A (PKA) or cyclic-AMP (cAMP)-dependent kinase was among the first serine-threonine kinases to be molecularly and functionally characterized. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The kinase domains that define this group of enzymes contain 12 conserved subdomains that fold into a common catalytic core structure, as revealed by the 3-dimensional structures of several protein-serine kinases. (embl.de)
  • This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. (avivasysbio.com)
  • AMPK is a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in the control of cellular energy homeostasis. (deduveinstitute.be)
  • A novel strategy will use CDNAS encoding the alpha(o) and alpha(i) subunits which have a serine substituted for the cysteine four residues from the C-terminus (the site of ADP ribosylation by PTX). (grantome.com)
  • It has recently been demonstrated that inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) induces a ligand-independent internalization of EGFR. (uio.no)
  • cAMP binds to two tandem cAMP-binding domains (CBD-A and -B) within the regulatory subunit of PKA (R), unleashing the activity of the catalytic subunit (C). While CBD-A in RIα is required for PKA inhibition and activation, CBD-B functions as a "gatekeeper" domain that modulates the control exerted by CBD-A. Preliminary evidence suggests that CBD-B dynamics are critical for its gatekeeper function. (nih.gov)
  • The PKA pathway was also shown to function downstream of the Gα protein Gpa1 and to regulate cAMP production by feedback inhibition. (asm.org)
  • Binding of ATII to the AT1 receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor in the glomerulosa membrane, leads to the inhibition of potassium channels, depolarization and activation of voltage-gated calcium channels, and the release of calcium from intracellular stores (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In response to hormone- induced high cAMP levels, PKA phosphorylates glycogen synthetase (inhibition of the enzyme activity) and phosphorylase kinase to block glycogen synthesis. (biomol.com)
  • A derivative of staurosporine (CGP 41 251) shows selectivity for protein kinase C inhibition and in vitro anti-proliferative as well as in vivo anti-tumor activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To elucidate inhibition mechanisms at atomic resolution and to enable structure-based drug design of potential therapeutic modulators of signaling pathways, we determined the crystal structures of corresponding complexes with the cAPK catalytic subunit. (embl.de)
  • Inhibition of forskolin-induced neurite outgrowth and protein phosphorylation by a newly synthesized selective inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent pr. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of forskolin-induced neurite outgrowth and protein phosphorylation by a newly synthesized selective inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, N-[2-(p-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H-89), of PC12D pheochromocytoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • A newly synthesized isoquinolinesulfonamide, H-89 (N-[2-(p-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinoline-sulfonamide), was shown to have a potent and selective inhibitory action against cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A), with an inhibition constant of 0.048 +/- 0.008 microM. (nih.gov)
  • Pretreatment with H-89 led to a dose-dependent inhibition of the forskolin-induced protein phosphorylation, with no decrease in intracellular cyclic AMP levels in PC12D cells, and the NGF-induced protein phosphorylation was not not inhibited. (nih.gov)
  • Protein synthesis inhibition in response to AMPK activation can partly be explained by increased eEF2 (eukaryotic elongation factor-2) phosphorylation leading to its inactivation, but this is not a direct effect (see below). (deduveinstitute.be)
  • Biguanides such as metformin had previously been shown to antagonize hepatic glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) signalling--- independently of AMPK via direct inhibition of adenylate cyclase by AMP. (deduveinstitute.be)
  • Study of cAMP-induced growth inhibition in mammalian somatic cells has focused mainly on the combined role of protein kinase A (PKA) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in regulation of progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (elsevier.com)
  • The latter is due to a rapid and dramatic loss of mitotic histone H3 phosphorylation caused by a disruption in G2 progression, as evidenced by the inhibition of mitotic entry and decreased activity of the CyclinB/Cdk1 kinase. (elsevier.com)
  • The inhibition of G2 progression induced through cAMP signaling is dependent on expression of the catalytic subunit of PKA and is highly sensitive to intracellular cAMP concentration. (elsevier.com)
  • The second group involves the PTX-sensitive responses, such as the inhibition by norepinephrine (NE) and Leu-enkephalin (Leu-EK) of the voltage-dependent Ca current (ICa,v). G(o) might to mediate these effects. (grantome.com)
  • Phosphorylation of GR was sensitive to the presence of the protein kinase inhibitor, H-8, an isoquinoline sulfonamide derivative. (nih.gov)
  • homologous to AKAP95 (HA95) and A kinase interacting protein (AKIP) and last is the protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) which is located both to the cytosol and the nucleus. (uio.no)
  • This decrease in PKA subunit immunoreactivity was not attenuated by pretreatment of the cells with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The PKA catalytic inhibitor H-89 did not attenuate the forskolin-induced down-regulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation of the 22-kDa polypeptide was inhibited by the protein kinase inhibitor and calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation was inhibited by chlorpromazine and EGTA. (eurekamag.com)
  • However, this protein kinase A inhibitor did not inhibit the NGF-induced neurite outgrowth from PC12D cells. (nih.gov)
  • Cells were also pretreated with protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors N-[2-(methylaminoethyl)]-5-isoquinoline-sulfonamide (H-8) and Rp-diastereomer of adenosine cyclic 3′5′-phosphorothionate (Rp-cAMPS), and Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak-STAT) inhibitor tyrphostin AG490 prior to the addition of histamine. (elsevier.com)
  • H-8 is an inhibitor of the catalytic subunit of PKA while Rp-cAMPS is an inhibitor of the regulatory subunit of PKA. (elsevier.com)
  • The protein inhibitor of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinases. (docphin.com)
  • Not surprisingly, genes encoding transcription factors, cell wall remodeling proteins, and proteins involved in signal transduction were differentially regulated during asexual development. (genetics.org)
  • This article focuses on the role of the signal transduction molecule protein kinase A in the pathophysiology of suicide. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • Protein kinases are important mediators of signal transduction in eukaryotic cells, and identifying the substrates of these enzymes is essential for a complete understanding of most signaling networks. (genetics.org)
  • PROTEIN kinases are key mediators of signal transduction in all eukaryotic cells. (genetics.org)
  • Humans have at least four genes that express four isoforms of the C subunits, designated Cá, Câ, Cã and PrKX. (uio.no)
  • RNA pol II transcribes all protein coding, snoRNA and snRNA genes d. (brainscape.com)
  • To identify more genes responding to nitrogen limitation or sufficiency in an AreA-dependent or -independent manner, we examined changes in gene expression of F. fujikuroi wild-type and Δ areA strains by use of a Fusarium verticillioides microarray representing ∼9,300 genes. (asm.org)
  • Besides AreA-dependent genes, we found an even larger set of genes responding to N starvation and N-sufficient conditions in an AreA-independent manner. (asm.org)
  • Interestingly, certain mutations in genes involved in the G-protein signaling pathway also prevent the formation of spherical fruiting sexual bodies called cleistothecia, where the sexual spores, called ascospores, are formed. (asm.org)
  • Transcriptional regulation of eukaryotic genes by cyclic AMP requires a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A kinase) 1 . (elsevier.com)
  • The catalytic subunit stimulated expression of these genes, whereas the regulatory subnnit did not. (elsevier.com)
  • These results indicate that the catalytic subunit of A kinase is sufficient to induce expression of two cAMP-responsive genes, without increasing levels of cAMP. (elsevier.com)
  • Feramisco, James R. / The catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase induces expression of genes containing cAMP-responsive enhancer elements . (elsevier.com)
  • This thesis describes the characterization of PKA subunits and their mRNAs and genes in C. elegans. (yu.edu)
  • C. lunata and B. maydis have a similar proportion of protein-encoding genes highly homologous to experimentally proven pathogenic genes from pathogen-host interaction database. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase bound to a regulatory subunit reveals how this enzyme activates two different signaling pathways. (sciencemag.org)
  • Identification of the different elements in the cAMP-dependent signaling pathways that regulate microneme secretion during invasion provides novel targets to block erythrocyte invasion, inhibit blood stage parasite growth and prevent malaria. (prolekare.cz)
  • These two proteins subvert a large number of critical cellular control pathways, which can ultimately result in the development of malignancy. (asm.org)
  • The discovery of several hundred different protein kinases involved in highly diverse cellular signaling pathways is in stark contrast to the much smaller number of known modulators of cell signaling. (embl.de)
  • Of these, the H series protein kinase inhibitors (1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7), N-[2-(methylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H8) N-[2-(p-Bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H89)) are frequently used to block signaling pathways in studies of cellular regulation. (embl.de)
  • However, more recently PKA-independent pathways have been established through the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPases Rap1 and Rap2. (rupress.org)
  • AMPK catalyzes the phosphorylation of other proteins, notably key enzymes of metabolic pathways, switching them on or off. (deduveinstitute.be)
  • In general, AMPK activation in tissues and cells switches on energy-producing pathways, such as glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation, while at the same time switching off energy-consuming processes, such as protein synthesis. (deduveinstitute.be)
  • Regulation of the upstream eEF2 kinase (eEF2K) is complex involving phosphorylation-induced activation/inactivation by kinases from various signalling pathways. (deduveinstitute.be)
  • abstract = "Tyrosine hydroxylase purified from rat pheochromycytoma was phosphorylated and activated by purified cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase as well as by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "In failing human myocardium changes occur, in particular, in isoform composition and phosphorylation level of the troponin T (TnT) and troponin I (TnI) subunits of the actin filament and the myosin light chains (MLC-1 and -2), but it is unclear to what extent they influence cardiac performance. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Protein kinase A (PKA) has been suggested as a regulator of stage differentiation in Trypanosoma cruzi. (elsevier.com)
  • This gene encodes the gamma form of its catalytic subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes the alpha catalytic subunit of protein kinase A. Protein kinase A-mediated signaling is transduced via phosphorylation of target proteins, and is important for many cellular functions, including mammalian sperm maturation and motility. (avivasysbio.com)
  • Drosophila encodes three catalytic subunits (PKA-C1-3) and whereas PKA-C1 has been well studied, the functions of the other two subunits were unknown. (elsevier.com)
  • A C cDNA was characterized that encodes a C subunit that is highly (82%) identical to mammalian C subunits. (yu.edu)
  • Immunofluorescent localization of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases on the mitotic apparatus of cultured cells. (rupress.org)
  • Cyclic nucleotides and cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases have been implicated in the regulation of cell motility and division, processes that depend on the cell cytoskeleton. (rupress.org)
  • Four different isoforms of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, termed Calpha, Cbeta,Cgamma and PrKX have been identified. (uio.no)
  • Evolution of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) catalytic subunit isoforms.Søberg K, Moen LV, Skålhegg BS, Laerdahl JK. (uio.no)
  • Different isoforms of catalytic and regulatory subunits suggest specific functions. (biomol.com)
  • Previous protein biochemical studies indicated that the only cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (C) in ovine sperm is an unusual isoform, termed C(s), whose amino terminus differs from those of published C isoforms of other species. (umassmed.edu)
  • The R subunit isoforms may adapt PKA for specialized functions in the tissues in which they are expressed. (yu.edu)
  • Free Catalytic subunits of PKA can phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular target proteins. (biomol.com)
  • Through phosphorylation of target proteins, PKA controls many biochemical events in the cell including regulation of metabolism, ion transport, and gene transcription. (abnova.com)
  • Ideal inhibitors such as Rp-cAMPS are those that preferentially "select" inactive conformations of target proteins by satisfying all "binding" constraints alone without inducing conformational changes necessary for activation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A striking feature of many E6 functions is its ability to recruit a cellular ubiquitin ligase, E6AP, which it then redirects to induce the ubiquitin proteasome-mediated degradation of many of its target proteins, including p53 ( 12 , 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Somatic mutations of the catalytic subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACA) gene have recently been identified in about 35% of cortisol-producing adenomas (CPAs), with the affected patients showing overt Cushing's syndrome. (cdc.gov)
  • Fine-structure mapping of charge-shift mutations in regulatory subunit of type I cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. (asm.org)
  • Identification and Characterization of Novel Mutations in the Human Gene Encoding the Catalytic Subunit Calpha of Protein Kinase A (PKA). (uio.no)
  • Mutations in the Na + /K + -ATPase subunit ATP1A1 and the plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase ATP2B3 similarly cause Na + or H + permeability and depolarization, whereas mutations in the Ca 2+ channel CACNA1D directly lead to increased calcium influx. (frontiersin.org)
  • Heterotrimeric G proteins positively regulate adenylate cyclase in Neurospora crassa , and mutation of gna-3 has the most dramatic effect of the three G-alpha subunit mutations in derepressing conidiation, suggesting that GNA-3 plays the greatest role in stimulating cAMP levels under vegetative growth conditions. (asmscience.org)
  • Finally, the structure provides a basis for rationalizing the effects of kinase mutations in FGF receptors that lead to developmental disorders in nematodes and humans. (embl.de)
  • Specifically, these mutants are dominant activating mutations in fadA and loss-of-function mutations in sfaD (the β subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein [Fig. 1 ]) ( 42 ) and overexpression of pkaA ( 43 ). (asm.org)
  • The analogous residue in the mammalian C subunit is known to be phosphorylated. (cshl.edu)
  • This points to a relatively high degree of homology of the catalytic subunit in mammalian tissues and species. (biochemj.org)
  • In mammalian cells there are four functionally non-redundant PKA regulatory subunits (RIα, RIβ, RIIα, and RIIβ). (rcsb.org)
  • cAMP-dependent protein kinase has a central role in the control of mammalian sperm capacitation and motility. (umassmed.edu)
  • PKA-C3 is the orthologue of mammalian PRKX/Pkare and they are structurally more closely related to each other than to other catalytic subunits within their species. (elsevier.com)
  • By these criteria, the R subunit produced in E. coli was structurally and functionally identical to the natural yeast R subunit and similar to mammalian type II R subunits. (cshl.edu)
  • A large number of G protein-coupled receptors are known to elicit diverse physiological effects in the brain via regulation of the cAMP pathway. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Many of the key parasite proteins that bind host receptors are localized in apical organelles called micronemes. (prolekare.cz)
  • Invasion of erythrocytes by P. falciparum merozoites is a complex multi-step process that is mediated by specific molecular interactions between red cell surface receptors and parasite protein ligands [1] , [2] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Subsequently, binding of EBA175 and its homologs to their erythrocyte receptors triggers secretion of rhoptry proteins such as PfRH2b, Clag3.1 and PfTRAMP [5] , [6] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Much evidence indicates that, in addition to the extracellular receptors for ATP, many types of cells possess on their outer membrane surface one or more kinase enzymes, referred to as "ecto-kinases" ("EK") because of their location, that utilize the γ-phosphate of ATP to phos-phorylate proteins. (springer.com)
  • but these techniques are difficult to apply to low-density G protein-coupled receptors such as adenosine receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The transduction of extracellular signals into intracellular responses is mediated in part by a family of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) which couple receptors to effectors. (grantome.com)
  • Use of label-free optical biosensors to detect modulation of potassium channels by G-protein coupled receptors. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Reaction of the catalytic subunit with antiserum and separation of the immunoglobulin G fraction by Protein A-Sepharose quantitatively removed the enzyme from solutions. (biochemj.org)
  • Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase purified from the particulate fraction of bovine heart reacted with the antiserum to the same degree as the soluble enzyme, whereas two cyclic AMP-independent kinases separated from the particle fraction neither reacted with the antiserum nor influenced the reaction of the antibodies with the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. (biochemj.org)
  • Immunotitration of the protein kinase catalytic subunit C from rat liver revealed that the antibodies had rather similar reactivities towards the rat liver and the bovine heart enzyme. (biochemj.org)
  • cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit gamma is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKACG gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barua, M., Haldar, S., and Majumder, G.C. (1990) Occurrence of a coupled-enzyme system on the intact-sperm outer surface that phosphorylates and dephosphorylates ecto-proteins. (springer.com)
  • Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is an essential enzyme in the signaling pathway of the second messenger cAMP. (abnova.com)
  • a tetrameric protein composed of two regulatory subunits that bind cAMP, and two catalytic subunits that catalyze the transfer of a phosphoryl group from ATP to a target enzyme. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The specific activity of the isolated recombinant enzyme was high (i.e. 1440 nmol of tyrosine.min-1.mg-1 with tetrahydrobiopterin as the cofactor) and its catalytic and physicochemical properties are essentially the same as those reported for the enzyme isolated from human liver. (biochemj.org)
  • The recombinant enzyme, both as a fusion protein and as purified full-length hPAH, was phosphorylated in vitro by the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. (biochemj.org)
  • Metformin's action can partly be explained by activation of an enzyme, called a protein kinase, in this case the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). (deduveinstitute.be)
  • Phosphorylation of substrate proteins leads to control of enzyme activity and/or gene expression. (yu.edu)
  • Reversible protein phosphorylation is one of the most important mechanisms for regulation and coordination of cellular processes, and is uttered through the actions of protein kinases and phosphatases. (uio.no)
  • Here, we examine the protein-protein interactions required for regulation of an Aplysia bag cell neuron cation channel by a closely associated protein kinase C (PKC). (jneurosci.org)
  • The PKA subunit down-regulation was blocked, however, by treatment of the cells with Leu-Leu-Leu or lactacystin, inhibitors of proteasomes that are implicated in the regulated proteolysis of specific cellular proteins. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Together, these findings demonstrate that regulation of PKA subunit expression by forskolin or a cAMP antagonist occurs primarily through post-transcriptional mechanisms and suggests the involvement of proteasome-mediated degradation in these phenomena. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The regulation of the guinea-pig pancreatic acinar plasma membrane Ca2+ pump by protein kinase A, protein kinase C and calmodulin was investigated. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Regulation of erythrocyte Ca2+ pump activity by protein kinase C. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These new results suggest that regulation of motility of these spermatozoa may involve a multicomponent kinase cascade rather than a simple phosphorylation of a protein 'switch' by the cyclic AMP-dependent kinase. (biologists.org)
  • suggesting a differentiation-dependent regulation of p2x7 receptor expression. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, E6-mediated regulation of the subcellular distribution of phospho-E6AP appears to be dependent, in part, upon the 14-3-3 family of proteins. (asm.org)
  • These are the first examples of an AreA-dependent regulation of secondary metabolites that do not have any nitrogen in their structure. (asm.org)
  • Most of our knowledge on the molecular mechanism of AreA-dependent nitrogen regulation derives from studies of A. nidulans and N. crassa , where AreA activity is negatively affected by binding to the nitrogen metabolite regulators NmrA and NMR1, respectively, when rich nitrogen sources are available. (asm.org)
  • The association between specific components of the cyclic neucleotide system and the mitotic spindle suggests that cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphorylation of spindle proteins, such as those of microtubules, may play a fundamental role in the regulation of spindle assembly and chromosome motion. (rupress.org)
  • The regulation of the levels of cAMP-dependent protein kinases during myogenesis in L6 was studied, as these enzymes have been proposed to be involved in the control of this process. (uwo.ca)
  • Studies on the regulation of the catalytic subunit (C) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase showed that the increase in this subunit, which also occurs during myogenesis, is probably regulated at the level of transcription, and not by a change in its rate of degradation. (uwo.ca)
  • Transfected NG108-15 cell lines expressing the individual mutated alpha subunits will be isolated and the regulation of Ica,v under whole-cell voltage-clamp recording conditions examined. (grantome.com)
  • It is known that alterations of the intrinsic electrical excitability of specific neurons are the key feature of such events, and that these are caused by the short-term and long-term regulation of proteins termed ion channels. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) are autoinhibited through multiple interactions between their respective regulatory and catalytic domains. (bioscience.org)
  • The Tat protein of HIV-1 induces tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. (wikipedia.org)
  • cAMP binding to the CNBs of the R-subunits induces conformational changes, leading to dissociation of the C-subunit and activation of PKA ( 4 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A rise in cAMP activates protein kinase A (PKA), which regulates microneme secretion. (prolekare.cz)
  • We demonstrate that exposure of merozoites to a low K + environment as found in blood plasma activates the bicarbonate-sensitive cytoplasmic adenylyl cyclase β (PfACβ) leading to a rise in cytosolic cAMP levels and activation of protein kinase A (PKA), which regulates microneme secretion. (prolekare.cz)
  • Importantly, a recently characterized cAMP analogue, 8-(4-chloro-phenylthio)-2′- O -methyladenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate, which specifically activates Epac but not PKA, induced Rap-dependent cell adhesion. (rupress.org)
  • Cyclic AMP activates the cAMP-dependent proteins kinase (PKA) by binding to both regulatory subunits, liberating both energetic catalytic subunits. (thetechnoant.info)
  • The bradykinin (BK) receptor activates a PI- phospholipase C (PI-PLC), which leads to transient activation of a Ca- dependent potassium current IK(Ca). The same transmitter also slowly inhibits the M-type potassium current (IM). (grantome.com)
  • PRKX (Protein Kinase X-Linked) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Protein kinase, X-linked is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRKX gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein kinase X (PRKX) can rescue the effects of polycystic kidney disease-1 gene (PKD1) deficiency" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human PRKX. (genetex.com)
  • Amyloid precursor protein regulates apolipoprotein E and cholesterol metabolism in the brain. (sciencemag.org)
  • The intracellular cAMP level regulates cellular responses by altering the interaction between the catatytic C and regulatory R subunits of PKA. (biomol.com)
  • FlbA negatively regulates FadA (an α subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein) by stimulating GTP hydrolysis. (asm.org)
  • Here we show that cAMP signaling regulates histone H3 phosphorylation in a cell cycle-dependent fashion, increasing it in quiescent cells but dramatically reducing it in cycling cells. (elsevier.com)
  • cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulates numerous cellular processes in eukaryotes in response to extracellular and intracellular signals, via a flexible post-translational modification system. (yu.edu)
  • Regulates the abundance of compartmentalized pools of its regulatory subunits through phosphorylation of PJA2 which binds and ubiquitinates these subunits, leading to their subsequent proteolysis. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase consists of a regulatory dimer bound to two catalytic subunits. (uio.no)
  • The encoded protein is a catalytic subunit of cAMP (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase, which mediates signalling though cAMP. (origene.com)
  • Mediates cAMP-dependent signaling triggered by receptor binding to GPCRs. (nih.gov)
  • Protein Kinase A (PKA) is the major receptor for the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) secondary messenger in eukaryotes. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we demonstrate that another ubiquitous second messenger, namely, 3'-5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), plays a central role in regulating cytosolic Ca 2+ levels and microneme secretion during merozoite invasion of red blood cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • Oocytes find the capability to continue meiosis during this time period and depend on 3'5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to avoid premature resumption. (thetechnoant.info)
  • In both models we observed a significant reduction of EGFR expression at the protein but not mRNA level. (uio.no)
  • Involvement of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and of HA95 in pre-mRNA splicing. (uio.no)
  • Moreover, exposure of the cell lines to forskolin had no effect on levels of mRNA for these PKA subunits over a wide time course. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Measurement of the mRNA levels for the type I regulatory subunit (R{dollar}\sb{lcub}\rm I{rcub}{dollar}) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and studies on the rates of transcription from the gene coding for this protein, showed that the increase in R{dollar}\sb{lcub}\rm I{rcub}{dollar} which occurs during myogenesis is is not regulated transcriptionally. (uwo.ca)
  • The novel mRNA predicts a C subunit with a unique carboxyl-terminus relative to previously described C subunits. (yu.edu)
  • In the absence of cAMP, the phosphotransferase activity of the C subunit is inhibited by the tight association with R. Mutation of Thr-241 to Ala in the C1 subunit of S. cerevisiae reduces the affinity of this subunit for the R subunit approximately 30-fold and results in a monomeric cAMP-independent C subunit. (cshl.edu)
  • One in three CPAs carries a recurrent gain-of-function mutation (L206R) in the PRKACA gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of PKA. (frontiersin.org)
  • This mutation causes constitutive PKA activity by abolishing the binding of the inhibitory regulatory subunit to the catalytic subunit. (frontiersin.org)
  • pde1 and pde2 were non-allelic to cpkA, a mutation in the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A with a very similar phenotype. (apsnet.org)
  • Recent studies identified an autism-linked mutation within E6AP at T485, which was identified as a protein kinase A phosphoacceptor site and which could directly regulate E6AP ubiquitin ligase activity. (asm.org)
  • Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibits hormone-sensitive lipase translocation from cytosol to storage droplets and blocks lipolysis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Recombinant Human PKA regulatory subunit alpha specifically inhibits PKA catalytic subunit (Ki about 0.1nM). (biomol.com)
  • Activation of motility in vitro by incubation with cyclic AMP can be completely inhibited by a random copolymer of glutamate and tyrosine that inhibits tyrosine kinase activity. (biologists.org)
  • Kinetic analysis indicated that H-89 inhibits protein kinase A, in competitive fashion against ATP. (nih.gov)
  • We also showed that AMPK activation inhibits protein synthesis in anoxic rat hepatocytes and in ischaemic rat hearts. (deduveinstitute.be)
  • Protein Kinase A from bovine heart has been used to determine its activity using a molecular beacon probe. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A high molecular mass dynein ATPase polypeptide and a 18-20 kDa dynein light chain of Ciona sperm flagella are phosphorylated during in vivo activation of motility or in vitro activation of motility by incubation with cyclic AMP. (biologists.org)
  • The chimeric RNA is predicted to code for a protein containing the amino-terminal domain of DNAJB1, a homolog of the molecular chaperone DNAJ, fused in frame with PRKACA, the catalytic domain of protein kinase A. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analyses confirmed that the chimeric protein is expressed in tumor tissue, and a cell culture assay indicated that it retains kinase activity. (mskcc.org)
  • Titration with the antibodies also revealed the presence of a cyclic AMP-independent histone kinase in bovine heart protein kinase I preparations obtained by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. (biochemj.org)
  • Pretreatment of PC12D cells with H-89 (30 microM) inhibited significantly cAMP-dependent histone IIb phosphorylation activity in cell lysates but did not affect other protein phosphorylation activity such as cGMP-dependent histone IIb phosphorylation activity, Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent histone IIIs phosphorylation activity, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain phosphorylation activity, and alpha-casein phosphorylation activity. (nih.gov)
  • Adenosine diphosphate ribosylation of histone and nonhistone chromosomal proteins with oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and 2'-deoxynicotinamide adenine dinucleotide using nuclei isolated from rat liver and HeLa cells. (docphin.com)
  • Identification, purification, and characterization of phosphotyrosine-specific protein phosphatases from cultured chicken embryo fibroblasts. (asm.org)
  • A dominant activated G-alpha subunit stimulates conidiation. (asmscience.org)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans mating and virulence are regulated by the G-protein alpha subunit GPA1 and cAMP. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Search, Find and Buy Antibodies, ELISA Kits and Proteins. (antibodies-online.com)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 49 Protein Kinase C, delta (PKCd) ELISA Kits from 10 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping PKC delta Antibodies (296) and PKC delta Proteins (25) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Characterization of heterogeneous nuclear RNA-protein complexes in vivo with monoclonal antibodies. (asm.org)
  • To determine whether cyclic nucleotides or their kinases are physically associated with the cytoskeleton during cell division, fluorescently labeled antibodies directed against cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, and the cyclic nucleotide-dpendent protein kinases were used to localize these molecules in mitotic PtK1 cells. (rupress.org)
  • Antibodies to cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, and the type I regulatory and catalytic subunits of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase did not label the mitotic apparatus. (rupress.org)
  • Immunoprecitation demonstrated that a TcPKAc monoclonal antibody was able to pull-down proteins recognized by trans-sialidase antibodies as well as a SA85-1.1 antibody and vice versa. (elsevier.com)
  • How specificity is maintained in the cAMP-PKA pathway is not fully understood but involves targeting of the R subunit dimer to subcellular structures through proteins that are termed A kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). (uio.no)
  • The C binding proteins will target the C subunit in close proximity to its substrate, and in this way increase the level of specificity in the cAMP-PKA signalling pathway. (uio.no)
  • Our data implies that we have identified a novel binding partner for the C subunit of PKA expressed in all tissues except differentiated skeletal muscle, linking the regulatory role of the cAMP-PKA signalling pathway to protein synthesis. (uio.no)
  • These findings define a Gα protein-cAMP-PKA signaling pathway regulating differentiation and virulence of a human fungal pathogen. (asm.org)
  • A genome-wide screen in Caenorhabditis elegans reveals components of a mitochondrial unfolded protein response pathway. (sciencemag.org)
  • First, exposure of extracellular merozoites to a low [K + ] environment typical of blood plasma leads to a rise in cytosolic Ca 2+ via a phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent pathway, which triggers translocation of microneme proteins such as 175 kD erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA175) and apical merozoite antigen-1 (PfAMA1) to the merozoite surface [5] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Thus, the forskolin- and dibutyryl cAMP-induced neurite outgrowth is apparently mediated by protein kinase A while the NGF-induced neurite outgrowth is mediated by a protein kinase A-independent pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Both the cAMP effect and the Epac effect on cell adhesion were abolished by the expression of Rap1-GTPase-activating protein, indicating the involvement of Rap1 in the signaling pathway. (rupress.org)
  • 25 ) reported that aflR expression leading to ST biosynthesis is genetically linked with the production of asexual spores (conidia) in A. nidulans through a G-protein signaling pathway (Fig. 1 ). (asm.org)
  • By recording Ica,v, in the presence of PTX, we will examine which PTX- sensitive pathway can be rescued by virtue of the expression of these mutant PTX-insensitive G proteins. (grantome.com)
  • The PTX-sensitive transmitter actions on Ica,v, will then be investigated, to examine which pathway can be reconstituted by the exogenous G proteins. (grantome.com)
  • A 23 degrees C incubation of the immunoprecipitated protein A-Sepharose adsorbed GR with [gamma-32P]ATP,Mg2+ and the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent PK (cAMP-PK) from bovine heart, led to an incorporation of radioactivity in the 94 kDa protein. (nih.gov)
  • Protein Kinase A from bovine heart has been used to inhibit the phosphorylation of myosin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • An antiserum against the catalytic subunit C of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, isolated from bovine heart type II protein kinase, was produced in rabbits. (biochemj.org)
  • Isolation and characterization of the calcium- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C) subtypes from bovine heart. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitory reduced both Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-ATPase activities at concentrations which also inhibited cAMP-dependent protein phosphorylation. (eurekamag.com)
  • The addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP at the same time as ConA (10 µg/ml) resulted in nearly total activation of both type I and type II protein kinases at 4 hr but was inhibitory to the later induction of ornithine decarboxylase and to increased synthesis of RNA and DNA. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity . (genecards.org)
  • Uncharged and positively charged residues substituted at this site resulted in C subunits that failed to associate with the R subunit. (cshl.edu)
  • Residues in the activation loop of FGFR1K appear to interfere with substrate peptide binding but not with ATP binding, revealing a second and perhaps more general autoinhibitory mechanism for receptor tyrosine kinases. (embl.de)
  • They are related by virtue of their kinase domains (also known as catalytic domains), which consist of approximately 250-300 amino acid residues. (embl.de)
  • A large portion of this autoinhibition occurs through interactions between residues within the catalytic domain and those within either a substrate-like sequence (-RRXSX-) or pseudosubstrate sequence (-RRXAX-) in the regulatory domains. (bioscience.org)
  • This spatial organization is conserved among the entire eukaryotic protein kinase family, and alteration of these residues in a second, unrelated protein kinase also resulted in a stable association with substrates. (genetics.org)
  • Allosteric signaling in proteins requires long-range communication mediated by highly conserved residues, often triggered by ligand binding. (nyu.edu)
  • Interestingly, one of these PKA variants was altered at a residue that is conserved in all protein kinases, suggesting that it might be possible to generate substrate-binding versions of other enzymes in this family. (genetics.org)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Allosteric cooperativity in protein kinase A'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (nyu.edu)
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as in higher eucaryotes, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase is a tetramer composed of two catalytic (C) subunits and two regulatory (R) subunits. (cshl.edu)
  • The results of this study demonstrate that GR is an effective substrate for action of cAMP-PK and that the immunopurified protein A-Sepharose adsorbed GR lacks intrinsic kinase activity but can be conveniently used for the characterization of the phosphorylation reaction in the presence of an exogenous kinase. (nih.gov)
  • The PKA1 gene encoding the major cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit was identified and disrupted. (asm.org)
  • Evolutionary Paths of the cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Catalytic Subunits. (uio.no)
  • Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) are critical regulators of neuronal differentiation. (uio.no)
  • Identification of novel splice variants of the human catalytic subunit cbeta of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (uio.no)
  • These adaptations include altered levels of the catalytic (C) and regulatory (R) subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in specific neuronal cell types. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In contrast, treatment of cells with a cAMP antagonist (Rp-8-bromo-cAMPS) dramatically increased levels of PKA subunit immunoreactivity, particularly that of RI. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The most important mechanism of action of cAMP is the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), which is known to phosphorylate a wide array of neuronal phosphoproteins. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that cAMP serves as a key regulator that controls the timely secretion of microneme proteins during invasion. (prolekare.cz)
  • The unique catalytic subunit of sperm cAMP-dependent protein kinase is" by Jovenal T. San Agustin, Curtis G. Wilkerson et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • Dey, C. S. and Majumder, G. C. (1990) Type I and II cAMP-dependent ecto-protein kinases in goat epididymal spermatozoa and their enriched activities in forward-motile spermatozoa. (springer.com)
  • We have reexamined the effects of added cAMP-dependent protein kinase and endogenous calmodulin-dependent kinase on Ca2+ transport in purified internal membranes from human platelets. (eurekamag.com)
  • Both Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-ATPase activity was maximally stimulated about 2-fold by addition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (eurekamag.com)
  • In addition, concerted stimulation of Ca2+-ATPase by exogenous calmodulin and added catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase was observed. (eurekamag.com)
  • A 22-kDa protein was phosphorylated by both cAMP-dependent and calmodulin-dependent kinases at the same rate as stimulation of the Ca2+-ATPase. (eurekamag.com)
  • The regulatory (R) subunit of protein kinase A serves to modulate the activity of protein kinase A in a cAMP-dependent manner and exists in two distinct and structurally dissimilar, end point cAMP-bound "B" and C-subunit-bound "H"-conformations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • X-ray crystallography shows cAMP-bound R-subunit in the B form but surprisingly the antagonist Rp-cAMPS-bound R-subunit crystallized in the H conformation, which was previously assumed to be induced only by C-subunit-binding. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thus contrary to earlier studies that explained the basis for cAMP action through "induced fit" alone, we report evidence for conformational selection, where the ligand-free apo form of the R-subunit exists as an ensemble of both B and H conformations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CNBs function as regulatory modules in different classes of proteins, such as catabolite activator protein, cyclic nucleotide gated channels, Epac proteins, and guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors, where effector protein and domain activity is controlled by cAMP binding to CNB ( 3 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In eukaryotes, one of the principal targets of cAMP is the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase A (PKA), whose regulatory subunit (R-subunit) contains two tandem CNBs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • PKA is the only known example where cAMP-dependent conformational changes lead to dissociation of the effector protein (C-subunit), whereas in all other CNB-containing proteins, the consequences of cAMP removal and binding result in induced conformational changes without dissociation of the target domains and proteins ( 3 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Crystal structures of catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in complex with isoquinolinesulfonyl protein kinase inhibitors H7, H8, and H89. (embl.de)
  • To examine the role of protein kinase A in neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells, H-89 was applied along with nerve growth factor (NGF), forskolin, or dibutyryl cAMP. (nih.gov)
  • cAMP controls many cellular processes mainly through the activation of protein kinase A (PKA). (rupress.org)
  • In this report, novel substrate-binding variants of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) were used to identify substrate domains required for efficient phosphorylation in vivo . (genetics.org)
  • This article is focused on the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) from the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (genetics.org)
  • The regulatory subunits of the A kinase, which bind cAMP 2 and DNA 3 , and have amino-acid homology with the Escherichia coli catabolite activator protein 4 could directly stimulate gene expression 5,6 . (elsevier.com)
  • To distinguish between these models, we microinjected purified preparations of the catalytic and regulatory subunits of A kinase into tissue culture cells and monitored expression of a stably integrated fusion gene containing a cAMP-responsive human promoter 10 fused to a bacterial reporter gene, or of the endogenous c-fos gene. (elsevier.com)
  • Appressorium formation occurs following conidial germination on hydrophobic surfaces and may involve a cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent signaling mechanism. (apsnet.org)
  • Recently, gene replacement mutants of CPKA , a gene encoding a proposed catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, were shown to be defective in appressorium formation, cAMP responsiveness, and lesion formation (T. K. Mitchell and R. A. Dean, Plant Cell, 7:1869--1878, 1995). (apsnet.org)
  • These findings indicate an additional role for cAMP signaling involved in appressorial penetration and suggest the presence of additional cAMP-dependent protein kinase(s) involved in surface sensing in M. grisea . (apsnet.org)
  • The regulatory (R) subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was expressed in Escherichia coli by engineering the gene for yeast R, BCY1, in an E. coli expression vector that contained a promoter from phage T7. (cshl.edu)
  • The protein was treated with urea to remove bound cAMP. (cshl.edu)
  • Addition of purified R subunit to a preparation of yeast C subunit (TPK1) rendered catalytic activity cAMP-dependent with an activity ratio of 4.6. (cshl.edu)
  • This includes members of the pRb family of pocket proteins, as well as cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, among many others ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • The conservation of the ATP-binding site of protein kinases allows evaluation of factors governing general selectivity of these inhibitors among kinases. (embl.de)
  • These results should assist efforts in the design of protein kinase inhibitors with specific properties. (embl.de)
  • MBD 4--a potential substrate for protein kinase X". Acta Biochim. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, a phospho-(Ser/Thr) PKA substrate antibody detected bands on immunoblot analysis of trans-sialidase antibody precipitated proteins from parasite lysate and the media of L 6 E 9 myoblasts infected with trypomastigotes as well as from a SA85-1.1 antibody precipitated proteins from parasite lysate. (elsevier.com)
  • These variants of PKA were used here to explore the nature of the protein kinase-substrate interaction. (genetics.org)
  • We have examined phosphorylation of the rat liver glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and GR-associated protein kinase (PK) activity in the immunopurified receptor preparations. (nih.gov)
  • When both units are linked together, the catalytic activity is inhibited. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Comparative immunotitration of protein kinases showed that the amount of antiserum required to eliminate 50% of the enzymic activity was identical for pure catalytic subunit, and for holoenzymes type I and type II. (biochemj.org)
  • eEF1A1 is associated with ribosome activity and protein synthesis and brings the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA in a GTP-dependent manner to a site within the ribosome referred to as the aminoacyl (A) site. (uio.no)
  • Dusenbery, K. E., Mendiola, J. R., and Skubitz, K. M. (1988) Evidence for ecto-protein kinase activity on the surface of human neutrophils. (springer.com)
  • Catalytic subunit of adenosine cyclic 2',5'monophosphate-dependent protein kinase from rat muscle: basic properties and factors influencing the activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The catalytic (C) subunit of isoenzyme II of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase from rat muscle, purified to apparent homogeneity, was investigated for some of its basic properties and factors that influence its activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase stimulated Ca2+ transport 2-fold, but had no effect on Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Between 1 and 2 hr after mitogen administration, the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity ratio increased markedly and was 0.23 unit above control values by 4 hr. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A high concentration of ConA (100 µg/ml), which also activated both isozyme forms of the kinase at 4 hr, produced only a small increase in ornithine decarboxylase activity and RNA synthesis at later times and no elevation in DNA synthesis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Its activity is mediated by the catalytic subunits whereby many species express several paralogs. (elsevier.com)
  • This post-transcriptional effect is the direct result of PKA C subunit activity, since it is reproduced in Friend cells that overexpress C from an expression vector under the control of a metallothionein promoter. (yu.edu)
  • The phosphorylated proteins may reside in or on the cell membrane, in which case they are referred to as "endogenous" substrates. (springer.com)
  • Agren, G. and Ronquist, G. (1974) (32-P) Phosphoryl transfer by endogenous protein kinase at the glia and glioma cell surface in culture into extrinsic acceptor proteins. (springer.com)
  • The polyprotein is co- and posttranslationally processed by cellular and virally encoded proteases to produce the mature structural and non-structural (NS) proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The HCV polyprotein is cleaved co- and post-translationally by cellular and viral proteases into ten different products, with the structural proteins (core (C), E1 and E2) located in the N-terminal third and the nonstructural (NS2-5) replicative proteins in the remainder. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A major function of E7 is to target cellular proteins that are critical for regulating normal cell cycle progression. (asm.org)
  • Protein kinase A (PKA) has been shown to play a role in a plethora of cellular processes ranging from development to memory formation. (elsevier.com)
  • Protein kinase A-anchoring protein AKAP95 interacts with MCM2, a regulator of DNA replication. (uio.no)
  • In glioblastoma cancer cells, drugs that work by inhibiting receptor tyrosine kinases are more powerful in combination than when administered alone. (sciencemag.org)
  • We studied the role of protein kinase PKB in the stimulation of lipogenesis by insulin in white adipose tissue. (deduveinstitute.be)
  • Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) consists of two catalytic subunits and a regulatory subunit dimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catalytically active tetramer-dimer (in equilibrium) forms of the fusion protein were separated from inactive, aggregated forms by size-exclusion h.p.l.c. (biochemj.org)
  • It has also been used to study the interaction of staurosporine with the ATP-binding site of kinases. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To determine whether the association between the kinase and the cation channel involves specific forms of protein-protein interactions, we have tested the ability of different interaction domains and motifs to interfere with the functional link between channel and kinase in excised, inside-out patches. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our data indicate that the cation channel-kinase "association" requires src homology 3 (SH3) domain protein-protein interactions, and that disruption of this interaction prevents channel modulation and attenuates the long-lasting depolarization produced by cation channel activation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Interestingly, E6AP phosphorylation at T485 confers association with 14-3-3 proteins, and this interaction seems to be important, in part, for the ability of E6 to recruit phospho-E6AP into the nucleus. (asm.org)
  • Analysis of BHK cell growth kinetics after microinjection of catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. (asm.org)
  • Microinjection of Xenopus oocytes using the catalytic subunit of PKA also keeps 1616113-45-1 them in the GV stage [8]. (thetechnoant.info)
  • In addition to the PKA R subunit RI, a novel potential binding partner was identified as the nearly ubiquitously expressed eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 (eEF1A1). (uio.no)
  • The eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily: kinase (catalytic) domain structure and classification. (embl.de)
  • The eukaryotic protein kinases make up a large superfamily of homologous proteins. (embl.de)
  • Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit A (PRKACA): the expected, the unexpected, and what might be next. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The reactivity of the holoenzymes with the antiserum was identical in the absence or the presence of dissociating concentrations of cyclic AMP. (biochemj.org)
  • Comparable stoichiometric ratios (0.6 mol phosphate/mol tyrosine hydroxylase subunit) were obtained at maximal concentrations of either cyclic AMP-dependent or cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases. (elsevier.com)
  • The expression, levels and activities of PKA subunits were studied prior to and during differentiation of the human neuronal precursor cell line NTera 2 (NT2). (uio.no)
  • In all cases, the α forms of the PKA subunits are ubiquitously expressed, whereas the β forms display a more tissue-specific expression with the highest levels in brain. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Notably, Gsk3 also regulated expression of HOB1 , USV101 , and MBS1 , indicating that it is a critical melanin-regulating kinase. (asm.org)
  • These networks were identified through coupling systematic analyses of the expression and epistatic relationships of TF and kinase mutant libraries in the presence of diverse melanin substrates with transcriptome profiling of the core TF mutants. (asm.org)
  • Expression of recombinant human phenylalanine hydroxylase as fusion protein in Escherichia coli circumvents proteolytic degradation by host cell proteases. (biochemj.org)
  • We also investigate protein covalent modification and differential protein expression by electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) techniques. (deduveinstitute.be)
  • We routinely use MS for phosphorylation site identification and for the quantification of differential protein expression. (deduveinstitute.be)
  • Expression in Escherichia coli of BCY1, the regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (cshl.edu)
  • Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was used to create an NdeI restriction site at the natural ATG of the yeast R. This facilitated construction of the T7 expression vector so that the sequence of the protein produced was identical to the natural R subunit. (cshl.edu)
  • Differential phosphorylation of MAP-2 stimulated by calcium-calmodulin and cyclic AMP. (asm.org)
  • N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed that the expressed protein began with the natural sequence. (cshl.edu)
  • The degree of activation of soluble cyclic 3',5'-AMP-dependent protein kinase(s) was determined at various times following ConA stimulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Zhang, Keane, Zhu, Sharma, Rozengurt, Strieter, Dubinett, Huang: Interleukin-7 and transforming growth factor-beta play counter-regulatory roles in protein kinase C-delta-dependent control of fibroblast collagen synthesis in pulmonary fibrosis. (antibodies-online.com)
  • In this study, we uncovered novel melanin synthesis regulatory networks consisting of core transcription factors (TFs), including Bzp4, Usv101, Hob1, and Mbs1, and core kinases Gsk3 and Kic1. (asm.org)
  • According to this model, FluG is involved in the synthesis of an unknown diffusible signal molecule that triggers FlbA (a homolog of GTPase-activating protein). (asm.org)
  • We have made important contributions to the AMPK field by finding new targets in the control of glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, glycolysis and protein synthesis. (deduveinstitute.be)
  • Data show that laminin alpha2beta1gamma1 (Lm211) can inhibit neuregulin 1 (show NRG1 ELISA Kits ) type III (Nrg1III) by limiting protein kinase A (PKA) activation, which is required to initiate myelination. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The data suggest that while the early activation of type I cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase may mediate in a positive manner the induction of ornithine decarboxylase and the mitogenic response of lymphocytes to ConA, concomitant activation of type II protein kinase may inhibit this process. (aspetjournals.org)