Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits: Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Paramecium tetraurelia: A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit: A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.Protamine Kinase: An aspect of protein kinase (EC 22.214.171.124) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Nucleotides, CyclicElectrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Peptide T: N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.PhosphoproteinsRabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I: A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine: A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Receptors, Cyclic AMP: Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.Protein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Protein kinase A translocation and insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells: studies with adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis. (1/64)Activation of protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase; PKA) triggers insulin secretion in the beta-cell. Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT), a bacterial exotoxin with adenylate cyclase activity, and forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, both dose-dependently increased insulin secretion in the presence, but not the absence, of glucose in insulin-secreting betaTC3 cells. The stimulation of cAMP release by either agent was dose-dependent but glucose-independent. Omission of extracellular Ca(2+) totally abolished the effects of ACT on insulin secretion and cytosolic cAMP accumulation. ACT and forskolin caused rapid and dramatic increases in cytosolic Ca(2+), which were blocked by nifedipine and the omission of extracellular Ca(2+). Omission of glucose completely blocked the effects of forskolin and partially blocked the effects of ACT on cytosolic Ca(2+). PKA alpha, beta and gamma catalytic subunits (Calpha, Cbeta and Cgamma respectively) were identified in betaTC6 cells by confocal microscopy. Glucose and glucagon-like polypeptide-1 (GLP-1) caused translocation of Calpha to the nucleus and of Cbeta to the plasma membrane and the nucleus, but did not affect the distribution of Cgamma. In conclusion, glucose and GLP-1 amplify insulin secretion via cAMP production and PKAbeta activation. (+info)
c-MYC activates protein kinase A (PKA) by direct transcriptional activation of the PKA catalytic subunit beta (PKA-Cbeta) gene. (2/64)The c-MYC proto-oncogene encodes a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation and broadly implicated in tumorigenesis. Understanding the function of c-MYC and its role in cancer depends upon the identification of c-MYC target genes. Here we show that c-MYC induces the activity of Protein Kinase A (PKA), a key effector of cAMP-mediated signal transduction, by inducing the transcription of the gene encoding the PKA catalytic subunit beta (PKA-Cbeta). c-MYC-mediated induction of PKA-Cbeta gene transcription occurs in multiple tissues, is independent of cell proliferation and is mediated by direct binding of c-MYC to the PKA-Cbeta gene promoter sequences. Constitutive expression of PKA-Cbeta in Rat1A cells induces their transformation, and c-MYC-induced transformation can be reverted by pharmacological inhibition of PKA, suggesting that up-regulation of PKA is critical for c-MYC-associated tumorigenesis. These results indicate that, by activating PKA, c-MYC can provide endogenous activation of the cAMP signal transduction pathway independently of extracellular signals. (+info)
Loss of protein kinase Calpha expression may enhance the tumorigenic potential of Gli1 in basal cell carcinoma. (3/64)Activation of the Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway, primarily through mutational inactivation of the PTCH1 gene, is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Gli1, a member of the Gli family of transcription factors, is expressed in BCC and in transgenic mice targeted expression of Gli1 in basal keratinocytes leads to BCC development. In addition to BCC, previous studies have shown that Gli1 is expressed in the outer root sheath (ORS) of the hair follicle but is absent in interfollicular epidermis. In this study, we have characterized the expression pattern of two protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms expressed in BCC and hair follicles. We have then used reporter assays to investigate the effects of these isoforms on Gli1 transcriptional activity. We report that in BCC sections, PKCalpha but not PKCdelta was weakly expressed in the epidermis, whereas in the hair follicle, PKCalpha was expressed in the ORS and PKCdelta in the inner root sheath. In contrast, neither PKCalpha nor PKCdelta was expressed in BCC tumor islands, although both isoforms were often expressed in the surrounding stroma. In mammalian 293T cells, coexpression of constitutively active PKCalpha reduced the activity of Gli1 in a dose-dependent manner, whereas constitutively active PKCdelta increased the activity of Gli1, although this required higher expression levels. Regulation of mutant Gli1 protein localized exclusively to the nucleus was similar to that of the wild-type protein, indicating that nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling is not a determinant of Gli1 control by either PKC isoform. Furthermore, PKC regulation of Gli1 did not involve activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Finally, we show that exogenous Gli1 does not alter the expression of PKCalpha in human primary keratinocytes, suggesting that loss of this isoform in BCC is not via Hedgehog signaling. As BCCs have been proposed to originate from the ORS, loss of PKCalpha expression may be relevant to tumor formation; this may, in part, be because of the predicted increase in Gli1 transcriptional activity. (+info)
Addicting drugs utilize a synergistic molecular mechanism in common requiring adenosine and Gi-beta gamma dimers. (4/64)The mesolimbic dopamine system and cAMP-dependent/protein kinase A (PKA) pathways are strongly implicated in addictive behaviors. Here we determine the role of dopamine D2 receptors (D2) in PKA signaling responses to delta-opioid (DOR) and cannabinoid (CB1) receptors. We find in NG108-15/D2 cells and in cultured primary neurons that a brief exposure to saturating concentrations of DOR and CB1 agonists increases cAMP, promotes PKA C alpha translocation and increases cAMP-dependent gene expression. Activation of PKA signaling is mediated by Gi-beta gamma dimers. Importantly, subthreshold concentrations of DOR or CB1 agonists with D2 agonists, which are without effect when added separately, together activate cAMP/PKA signaling synergistically. There is also synergy between DOR or CB1 with ethanol, another addicting agent. In all instances, synergy requires adenosine activation of adenosine A2 receptors and is mediated by beta gamma dimers. Synergy by this molecular mechanism appears to confer hypersensitivity to opioids and cannabinoids while simultaneously increasing the sensitivity of D2 signaling when receptors are expressed on the same cells. This mechanism may account, in part, for drug-induced activation of medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens. (+info)
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates merlin at serine 518 independently of p21-activated kinase and promotes merlin-ezrin heterodimerization. (5/64)Mutations in the NF2 tumor suppressor gene encoding merlin induce the development of tumors of the nervous system. Merlin is highly homologous to the ERM (ezrin-radixin-moesin) family of membrane/cytoskeleton linker proteins. However, the mechanism for the tumor suppressing activity of merlin is not well understood. Previously, we characterized a novel role for merlin as a protein kinase A (PKA)-anchoring protein, which links merlin to the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. In this study we show that merlin is also a target for PKA-induced phosphorylation. In vitro [gamma-(33)P]ATP labeling revealed that both the merlin N and C termini are phosphorylated by PKA. Furthermore, both in vitro and in vivo phosphorylation studies of the wild-type and mutated C termini demonstrated that PKA can phosphorylate merlin at serine 518, a site that is phosphorylated also by p21-activated kinases (PAKs). Merlin was phosphorylated by PKA in cells in which PAK activity was suppressed, indicating that the two kinases function independently. Both in vitro and in vivo interaction studies indicated that phosphorylation of serine 518 promotes heterodimerization between merlin and ezrin, an event suggested to convert merlin from a growth-suppressive to a growth-permissive state. This study provides further evidence on the connection between merlin and cAMP/PKA signaling and suggests a role for merlin in the cAMP/PKA transduction pathway. (+info)
Sperm-specific protein kinase A catalytic subunit Calpha2 orchestrates cAMP signaling for male fertility. (6/64)An unusual cAMP signaling system mediates many of the events that prepare spermatozoa to meet the egg. Its components include the atypical, bicarbonate-stimulated, sperm adenylyl cyclase and a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) with the unique catalytic subunit termed Calpha(2) or C(s). We generated mice that lack Calpha(2) to determine its importance in the events downstream of cAMP production. Male Calpha(2) null mice produce normal numbers of sperm that swim spontaneously in vitro. Thus, Calpha(2) has no required role in formation of a functional flagellum or the initiation of motility. In contrast, we find that Calpha(2) is required for bicarbonate to speed the flagellar beat and facilitate Ca(2+) entry channels. In addition, Calpha(2) is needed for the protein tyrosine phosphorylation that occurs late in the sequence of sperm maturation and for a negative feedback control of cAMP production, revealed here. Consistent with these specific defects in several important sperm functions, Calpha(2) null males are infertile despite normal mating behavior. These results define several crucial roles of PKA in sperm cell biology, bringing together both known and unique PKA-mediated events that are necessary for male fertility. (+info)
Changes in cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and progesterone secretion in luteinizing human granulosa cells. (7/64)Luteinization of follicular granulosa cells leads to an increase in progesterone secretion that is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH). LH acts mainly by elevating intracellular cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and activating cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In this study, we have examined the role of PKA in relation to progesterone output by luteinizing human granulosa cells. Human granulosa cells were obtained by percoll gradient centrifugation of follicular aspirates of patients undergoing oocyte retrieval for assisted conception. Cells were cultured in serum-supplemented medium for up to 3 days in the presence and/or absence of human (h)LH and other cAMP-elevating agents. Spent medium was assayed for cAMP and progesterone content by specific RIA. Cell lysates were collected and assessed for PKA regulatory (R)IIalpha/catalytic (C)alpha expression by Western blotting. Although basal progesterone secretion increased progressively throughout culture, cAMP levels remained unchanged. Under basal conditions, PKA RIIalpha/Calpha expression appeared to increase throughout the 3-day culture period. In the presence of hLH and other cAMP-elevating agents, progesterone secretion increased in a dose-dependent manner coincident with an increase in cAMP. However, despite the increase in both progesterone secretion and cAMP accumulation, there was a dose-dependent decrease in both PKA RIIalpha and Calpha expression. Thus, data presented in this study show that increases in progesterone secretion in luteinizing human granulosa cells can be dissociated from increases in PKA expression. This notion implies that progesterone secretion may be regulated by PKA-dependent as well as PKA-independent mechanisms. (+info)
Stress stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase and meiotic resumption in mouse oocytes. (8/64)This study examined the effects of three different cellular stresses on oocyte maturation in meiotically arrested mouse oocytes. Cumulus-cell enclosed oocytes (CEO) or denuded oocytes (DO) from immature, eCG-primed mice were cultured for 17-18 h in dbcAMP-containing medium plus increasing concentrations of the metabolic poison, sodium arsenite, or the free radical-generating agent, menadione. Alternatively, oocytes were exposed to osmotic stress by pulsing with sorbitol and returned to control inhibitory conditions for the duration of culture. Arsenite and menadione each dose-dependently induced germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB) in both DO and CEO. DO, but not CEO, pulsed for 60 min with 500 mM sorbitol were stimulated to resume maturation. The lack of effect in CEO suggests that the cumulus cells may be playing a protective role in osmotic stress-induced GVB. The AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKA; formerly known as AMPK) inhibitors, compound C and araA, completely blocked the meiosis-stimulating effects of all the tested stresses. Western blots showed that acetyl-CoA carboxylase, an important substrate of PRKA, was phosphorylated before GVB, supporting a role for PRKA in stress-induced maturation. Together, these data show that a variety of stresses stimulate GVB in meiotically arrested mouse oocytes in vitro and suggest that this effect is mediated through activation of PRKA. (+info)
PRKACA - PRKACA (untagged)-Human protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, alpha (PRKACA), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
PRKACA Human Recombinant produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 578 amino acids.
PRKACB - Lenti ORF clone of Human protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, beta (PRKACB), transcript variant 3 , Myc-DDK-tagged available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
DLX3 is a novel target of PRKACA, and PRKACA mediates BMP signaling during osteoblast differentiation, at least in part, by phosphorylating DLX3 and modulating the protein stability and function of DLX3 ...
Homo sapiens protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, beta (PRKACB), transcript variant 3, mRNA. (H00005567-R05) - Products - Abnova
KAPCA_HUMAN] Phosphorylates a large number of substrates in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Regulates the abundance of compartmentalized pools of its regulatory subunits through phosphorylation of PJA2 which binds and ubiquitinates these subunits, leading to their subsequent proteolysis. Phosphorylates CDC25B, ABL1, NFKB1, CLDN3, PSMC5/RPT6, PJA2, RYR2, RORA, TRPC1 and VASP. RORA is activated by phosphorylation. Required for glucose-mediated adipogenic differentiation increase and osteogenic differentiation inhibition from osteoblasts. Involved in the regulation of platelets in response to thrombin and collagen; maintains circulating platelets in a resting state by phosphorylating proteins in numerous platelet inhibitory pathways when in complex with NF-kappa-B (NFKB1 and NFKB2) and I-kappa-B-alpha (NFKBIA), but thrombin and collagen disrupt these complexes and free active PRKACA stimulates platelets and leads to platelet aggregation by phosphorylating VASP. Prevents the antiproliferative and ...
Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a partial recombinant RAPGEF3. RAPGEF3 (AAH17728, 772 a.a. ~ 881 a.a) partial recombinant protein with GST tag. (H00010411-A01) - Products - Abnova
Guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (RAPGEF3/RAPGEF4) induce sperm membrane depolarization and acrosomal exocytosis in...
Capacitation encompasses the molecular changes sperm undergo to fertilize an oocyte, some of which are postulated to occur via a cAMP-PRKACA (protein kinase A)-mediated pathway. Due to the recent discovery of cAMP-activated guanine nucleotide exchange factors RAPGEF3 and RAPGEF4, we sought to investigate the separate roles of PRKACA and RAPGEF3/RAPGEF4 in modulating capacitation and acrosomal exocytosis. Indirect immunofluorescence localized RAPGEF3 to the acrosome and subacrosomal ring and RAPGEF4 to the midpiece in equine sperm. Addition of the RAPGEF3/RAPGEF4-specific cAMP analogue 8-(p-chlorophenylthio)-2-O-methyladenosine-3,5-cyclic monophosphate (8pCPT) to sperm incubated under both noncapacitating and capacitating conditions had no effect on protein tyrosine phosphorylation, thus supporting a PRKACA-mediated event. Conversely, activation of RAPGEF3/RAPGEF4 with 8pCPT induced acrosomal exocytosis in capacitated equine sperm at rates (34%) similar (P > 0.05) to those obtained in ...
Expression of RAPGEF3 (bcm910, cAMP-GEFI, EPAC) in cancer tissue. The cancer tissue page shows antibody staining of the protein in 20 different cancers.
Expression of RAPGEF3 (bcm910, cAMP-GEFI, EPAC) in breast tissue. Antibody staining with HPA040365, HPA043518 and CAB004386 in immunohistochemistry.
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
Complete information for RAPGEF3 gene (Protein Coding), Rap Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FHCC) is a rare form of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that typically affects young adults and is characterized, under the microscope, by laminated fibrous layers interspersed between the tumour cells. Approximately 200 new cases are diagnosed worldwide each year. A recent study showed the presence of the DNAJB1-PRKACA chimeric transcript (resulting from a 400kb somatic deletion on chromosome 19) in 100% of the FHCCs examined (15/15) This gene fusion has been confirmed in a second study. The histopathology of FHCC is characterized by laminated fibrous layers, interspersed between the tumor cells. Cytologically, the tumor cells have a low nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Tumors are non-encapsulated, but well circumscribed, when compared to conventional HCC (which typically has an invasive border). Due to lack of symptoms, until the tumor is sizable, this form of cancer is often advanced when diagnosed. Symptoms include ...
PHACE association with intracranial, oropharyngeal hemangiomas, and an atypical patent ductus arteriosus arising from the...
PHACE association is a rare neurocutaneous condition in which facial hemangiomas associate with a spectrum of posterior fossa malformations, arterial cerebrovascular anomalies, cardiovascular anomalies, and eye anomalies. We reported a case of PHACE
Lockheed Martin unveiled the HULC system at the Association of the United States Army Winter Symposium held in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, in February 2009.. In July 2010, the company signed a $1.1m contract with the US Army Natick Soldier Center for testing and evaluating the ruggedised HULC design.. Under the contract, the Natick Soldier Center tested the HULC for its effect on the soldiers performance, the energy that a soldier spends while using it and the adaptability of the system while carrying various loads and moving at various speeds. The contract has also provided provision for field trials of the system.. The HULC underwent laboratory testing in October 2010, after Lockheed Martin upgraded the ruggedised system for flexibility and suitability to a variety of users. The system was put through biomechanical, dynamic load and environmental testing.. Treadmill testing measured the decrease in metabolic cost of the user. The systems sustainability in various environmental conditions was ...
The adoptive parents may be acquainted with to these problems, but in other situations wee if any story may be available. N L H Genes 50 10 10 KREMEN2, ST8SIA1, TNFSF10, ATF6 150 30 30 HADHB, BAX, MAPK13, CYP1A1, ATF2 250 49 51 NFKBIA, PLCB1, ITGB1, MYC, KRAS 350 69 71 PRKACB, FOS, PRKACG, FASN, NFKB1 450 85 95 RAC1, MAP2K2, JUN, TP53, RELA 551 100 119 RAF1, GRB2, PIK3CA, RPS27A, MAPK8 647 117 145 HRAS, MAP2K1, AKT1, RAF1, GRB2 765 125 185 MAPK3, MAPK1, HRAS, MAP2K1, AKT1 Provisions 7. Pregnancy and Yeast InfectionThe Main Benefits: 1 cheap kamagra effervescent 100mg fast delivery erectile dysfunction injections videos. At hand drowning is described as an fact in which a offspring has suffered a submersion injury and has survived for at least 24 hours. It involves removing the little one from the fine kettle of fish area and placing him or her in a dispassionate, nonthreatening, safe square footage where no interaction occurs between the daughter and parents or others exchange for a specifically ...
Highly up-regulated in liver cancer (HULC) was originally identified as the most overexpressed long non-coding RNA in hepatocellular carcinoma. Since its discovery, the aberrant up-regulation of HULC has been demonstrated in other cancer types, including gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, osteosarcoma and hepatic metastasis of colorectal cancer. Recent discoveries have also shed new light on the upstream molecular mechanisms underlying HULC .... Read More » ...
Berkeley Bionics/Lockheed Martin Human Universal Load Carrier (HULC) Biomechanical Military Combat Exoskeleton Developed for...
According to Berkeley Bionics and Lockheed Martin, the HULC biomechanical combat exoskeleton system enables a soldier between 5′ 4″ and 6′ 2″ to carry loads of up to 200 pounds (200 lbs) on the front or back for extended periods of times over any and all terrains by transfering the load weight and soldiers weight to the ground. The load-carrying augmentation/enhancement ability aspect will continue to work when battery power isnt available. The HULC also allows a soldier to run 7 mph for long periods or 10 mph in short bursts. It provides the soldier with full range of motion and, according to the developers, doesnt hinder or impede the warfighters movement in any way/aspect, so he/she can still jump, squat, kneel, crawl, go prone (for survival and stabilized or long-range shooting), etc., and then get right back up.. One of Defense Reviews immediate and primary concerns is whether or not the HULC combat exoskeleton allows the same level of mobility and dexterity required for ...
မန္မာႏိုင္ငံမွာေတာ့ ေ၀လငါးဖမ္းလုပ္ငန္းကို လုပ္ကိုင္တဲ့လူမရွိေသးဘူးလို႕ ထင္ပါတယ္။ ျမန္မာ့ပင္လယ္ျပင္မွာ ေ၀လငါးဟာ အင္မတန္ေတြ႕ရခဲတာေၾကာင့္ရယ္၊ ေတြ႕ရင္ေတာင္မွ အရြယ္အစားၾကီးမားလြန္းတာရယ္နဲ႕ ေရာင္းခ်မယ့္ေစ်းကြက္မရွိတာရယ္ေၾကာင့္ ဖမ္းဆီးမယ့္လူမရွိပါဘူး။ ေနာက္တစ္ခ်က္ လင္းပိုင္နဲ႕ေ၀လငါးဟာ အသိဥာဏ္ရွိတဲ့ႏို႕တိုက္သတၱ၀ါျဖစ္လို႕ တခါတရံမွာ ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) consists of two catalytic subunits and a regulatory subunit dimer. This gene encodes ... "Characterization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit Cgamma expressed and purified from sf9 cells". Protein ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit gamma is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKACG gene. ... 1998). "Effects of [D-Ala1] peptide T-NH2 and HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases in normal ...
... encodes a serine threonine protein kinase that has similarity to the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases ... Huang S, Li Q, Alberts I, Li X (2016). "PRKX, a Novel cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Member, Plays an Important Role in ... Protein kinase, X-linked is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRKX gene. This gene ... a phylogenetically and functionally distinct cAMP-dependent protein kinase, activates renal epithelial cell migration and ...
... cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinases have identical catalytic subunits but different regulatory subunits that bind cyclic AMP. ... Activation loop Autophosphorylation Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Cell signaling Cyclin-dependent kinase G protein- ... the JAK kinases (a family of protein tyrosine kinases), and the PIP3-dependent kinase cascade were discovered. Kinases are ... For this reason protein kinases are named based on what regulates their activity (i.e. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinases). ...
... subunits, creating a tetrameric holoenzyme. Cyclic AMP binds to the regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and ... The protein kinase is composed of two regulatory (R) subunits and two catalytic (C) ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase is unique in its mechanism of activation. ... Originally named Protein I, it was found as an endogenous substrate for cAMP-dependent protein kinase in the synaptic membrane ...
... on the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase from cow as n-Tetradecanoyl. Almost simultaneously in Claude B ... "n-Tetradecanoyl is the NH2-terminal blocking group of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase from bovine ... membrane-protein and protein-protein interactions. Further modifications on N-myristoylated proteins can add another level of ... In addition, in signal transduction via G protein, palmitoylation of the α subunit, prenylation of the γ subunit, and ...
In eukaryotes, cyclic AMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, or cAMP-dependent protein kinase). PKA is normally ... thus enabling those catalytic units to phosphorylate substrate proteins. The active subunits catalyze the transfer of phosphate ... Not all protein kinases respond to cAMP. Several classes of protein kinases, including protein kinase C, are not cAMP-dependent ... It should not be confused with 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP-activated protein kinase). Earl Sutherland of Vanderbilt ...
"Structure of a peptide inhibitor bound to the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". ... Protein kinase A, more precisely known as adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase was discovered by ... "cAMP-dependent protein kinase" redirects here. It is not to be confused with AMP-activated protein kinase or cyclin-dependent ... Cyclic+AMP-Dependent+Protein+Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
"Structure of a peptide inhibitor bound to the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". ... Protein kinase A, more precisely known as adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase was discovered by ... In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKA) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP ( ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila cAMP- ...
"Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". Science. 253 (5018): ... enzyme called phosphorylase kinase was activated by another kinase that was dependent on the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP ... Induction by regulatory subunit and inhibition by catalytic subunit of adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase ... Protein kinase A catalytic subunit (PKA Cα) is a member of the AGC kinase family, and contributes to the control of cellular ...
"Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". Science. 253 (5018): ... or cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. 1992: Elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 1996: Elected to the ... She is known for her research on protein kinases, particularly protein kinase A. She was elected to the Institute of Medicine ... Taylor's research group has focused on the structure and function of protein kinases, particularly protein kinase A, since ...
Gαs activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. This is accomplished by ... This is an alternate form of regulation for the Gα subunit. Such Gα GAPs do not have catalytic residues (specific amino acid ... cAMP can then act as a second messenger that goes on to interact with and activate protein kinase A (PKA). PKA can ... turning the G protein on). RGS proteins stimulate GTP hydrolysis (creating GDP, thus turning the G protein off). G protein can ...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKACB gene. cAMP is a ... 1998). "Effects of [D-Ala1] peptide T-NH2 and HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases in normal ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family and is a catalytic subunit of PKA. Three ... 1992). "Assignment of the gene encoding the catalytic subunit C beta of cAMP-dependent protein kinase to the p36 band on ...
ARPP-21: Cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21 kDa. *AZI2: encoding protein 5-azacytidine-induced protein 2 ... PIK3CA: phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide. *PROSER1: Proline and serine rich protein 1 ... CACNA2D3: calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 3. *CCR5: chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 ... C3orf14-Chromosome 3 open reading frame 14: predicted DNA binding protein.. *C3orf23: encoding protein Uncharacterized protein ...
In the yeast protein, Syg1, the N-terminus directly binds to the G-protein beta subunit and inhibits transduction of the mating ... cyclic AMP (cAMP) and PPi. Thiamine triphosphatase is a soluble cytosolic enzyme which converts thiamine triphosphate to ... VTC exposes its catalytic domain to the cytosol and has nine vacuolar transmembrane segments (TMSs). Mutations in the VTC ... This SPX-dependent inhibition is mediated by a physical interaction with Spl2. NUC-2 contains several ankyrin repeats. Several ...
Cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21 kDa AZI2: encoding protein 5-azacytidine-induced protein 2 BRK1: SCAR/WAVE actin ... voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 3 CCR5: chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 CGGBP1: CGG triplet repeat binding protein 1 ... phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide PROSER1: Proline and serine rich protein 1 RAB7: RAB7, member RAS ... also known as Glutamine-rich protein 1, RBM6: RNA-binding protein 6 RPP14: Ribonuclease P protein subunit p14 SCN5A: sodium ...
... cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase. The gene spans approximately 23 kilobases and is composed of 21 exons interrupted by 20 ... with a protein kinase catalytic domain that bears greatest sequence similarity to protein kinase C and the cyclic adenosine ... gamma subunit of the type 6 retinal cGMP phosphodiesterase functions to link c-Src and G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 in a ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and protein kinase C occurs via distinct molecular mechanisms". Biochemistry. 31 (12): 3193-7. ...
Phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinasesEdit. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by ... The protein enzyme contains two catalytic subunits and two regulatory subunits. When there is no cAMP，the complex is inactive. ... The G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are protein kinases that phosphorylate only active GPCRs. G-protein-coupled ... DAG helps activate protein kinase C (PKC), which phosphorylates many other proteins, changing their catalytic activities, ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by the signal chain coming from the G protein (that was ... the catalytic units are released and initiate the phosphorylation of proteins leading to the physiologic action. The cyclic AMP ... "A receptor-binding region in human choriogonadotropin/lutropin beta subunit". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... via adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP (cAMP). These protein kinases are present as tetramers with two regulatory units and two ...
By the late 1960s, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase had been purified, and most attention was centered on kinases and ... Hanks SK, Hunter T (1995). "Protein kinases 6. The eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily: Kinase (catalytic) domain structure ... a protein with essential nuclear and cytoplasmic roles in biogenesis of the 60S subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome. ... "Synergistic phosphorylation of rabbit muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and casein kinase I. ...
... cyclic AMP receptor - cyclic AMP receptor protein - cyclic AMP-responsive DNA-binding protein - cyclic electron flow - Cyclic ... protein subunit - protein synthesis - protein targeting - protein translocation - protein-tyrosine kinase - protein-tyrosine- ... viral envelope protein - viral oncogene protein - viral protein - virology - virus (biology) - vitamin - vitamin D-dependent ... catalytic domain - CCR5 receptor - CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein kinase - cell - cell adhesion ...
"Preferential expression in mushroom bodies of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and its role in learning and memory". ... Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP or cyclic AMP) is a second messenger that has been implicated in facilitating mushroom ... The intermediate term memory trace is dependent on expression of the amn gene located in dorsal paired medial neurons. An ... PKA, also known as protein kinase A, has been found to play an important role in learning and memory in Drosophila. When ...
... cAMP-dependent protein kinase), one of the first few kinases discovered. It has four sub-units two catalytic and two regulatory ... Heterotrimeric G protein *Gs/Gi. *Adenylate cyclase. *cAMP. *3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase ... Main article: function of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, ... cAMP binds to the regulatory sub-units. It causes them to break apart from the catalytic sub-units. The Catalytic sub-units ...
Misra, K. and Pandey, S.C. (2006). The decreased cyclic-AMP dependent-protein kinase A function in the nucleus accumbens: a ... Ethanol causes translocation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit to the nucleus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 93, ... Some of the kinase families currently linked to alcoholism are Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs), protein ... Ethanol enhances growth factor activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism. Proc ...
... neurite outgrowth and protein phosphorylation by a newly synthesized selective inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... site on the PKA catalytic subunit. However, subsequent work has suggested a variety of additional effects such as inhibition of ... novel and potent inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C". Biochemistry. 23 (21): 5036- ... H-89 is a protein kinase inhibitor with greatest effect on protein kinase A (PKA). H-89, derived from H-8 (N-[2-(methylamino) ...
As AMP binds both Bateman domains the γ subunit undergoes a conformational change which exposes the catalytic domain found on ... It should not be confused with cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase (protein kinase A). AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein complex ... "AMP-activated protein kinase undergoes nucleotide-dependent conformational changes". Nat Struct Mol Biol. 19 (7): 716-718. doi: ... "AMP-activated protein kinase kinase activity and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in contracting muscle of ...
2008). "Metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis through AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent regulation of the orphan ... Mouse models in which the genes for AMPKα1 and α2 catalytic subunits (Prkaa1/2) or LKB1, an upstream kinase of AMPK, had been ... activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), inhibition of glucagon-induced elevation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate ( ... "Metformin and phenformin activate AMP-activated protein kinase in the heart by increasing cytosolic AMP concentration". Am J ...
"Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... Tyrosine hydroxylase is a tetramer of four identical subunits (homotetramer). Each subunit consists of three domains. At the ... The oxidation state of this iron atom is important for the catalytic turnover in the enzymatic reaction. If the iron is ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases. Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase.[ ...
... sequence formed by the fusion of ret tyrosine kinase and the regulatory subunit RI alpha of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... "Exclusion of catalytic and regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase as candidate genes for the defect causing ... Guild BC, Strominger JL (1984). "HLA-A2 antigen phosphorylation in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Sites of ... "A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) interaction and dimerization of the RIalpha and RIbeta regulatory subunits of protein kinase ...
... activated by purified cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase as well as by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. ... activated by purified cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase as well as by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. ... activated by purified cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase as well as by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. ... activated by purified cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase as well as by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. ...
... protein kinase D [EC:126.96.36.199] K05870 CREB1; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 K04450 ATF2; cyclic AMP-dependent ... protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit beta 102478525 PRKACA; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha ... protein kinase C epsilon 102494291 PRKD2; protein kinase D2 102492283 PRKD1; protein kinase D1 102472549 PRKD3; protein kinase ... 102495954 PRKCA; protein kinase C alpha 102469271 PRKCB; protein kinase C beta 102497204 PRKCG; protein kinase C gamma ...
Cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases differ in their regulation of cyclic AMP response element-dependent gene ... Each subunit is composed of three functional domains: (1) an N-terminal domain that mediates homodimerization, suppression of ... 9 that releases the inhibition of the catalytic core by the N-terminus and allows the phosphorylation of substrate proteins. ... cAK indicates cAMP-dependent protein kinase; cGK(I/II), cGMP-dependent protein kinase (type I/II); cGMP, cyclic guanosine-3′,5 ...
Microinjection of catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase enhances calcium action potentials of bag cell ...
Somatic mutations of the catalytic subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACA) gene have recently been ... Somatic mutations of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACA) gene in Japanese patients with ... Somatic mutations of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACA) gene in Japanese patients with ... Somatic mutations of the catalytic subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACA) gene have recently been ...
Prkar1a = cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase RIalpha subunit; Prkaca = cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit) ... Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, alpha 1 Catalytic Subunit ELISA Kits * Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, alpha 2 Catalytic Subunit ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha , sperm cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit ... Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, beta 1 Non-Catalytic Subunit ELISA Kits * Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, beta 2 Non-Catalytic ...
Prkar1a = cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase RIalpha subunit; Prkaca = cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit) ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha , sperm cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit , protein kinase ... protein kinase C, delta IV , protein kinase C, delta V , protein kinase C[d] , protein kinase-delta2 , protein kinase C, delta ... anti-Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, beta 1 Non-Catalytic Subunit Antibodies * anti-Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, beta 2 Non- ...
Localization of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent. Protein kinase in cultured cells using a specific antibody. ... elongation involves cyclic adenosine monophosphate and protein synthesis-dependent prostaglandin formation . ... A wild-type prion protein does not acquire properties of the scrapie isoform when coexpressed with a mutant prion protein in ... Treatment of CHO cells with 8-bromo-cyclic AMP produced no change in the pattern or intensity of immunofluorescence . ...
the molecule activated by the increasing levels of cyclic AMP protein kinase A or PKA,. also called cyclicAMP-dependent protein ... b. is a kinase. c. Activated catalytic subunits of PKA separate from the regulatory subunits. d. activated by cAMP ... T/F) calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase type IV (CAMK IV) is activated by Ca2+ influx ... T/F) hormones such as thyroid-stimulating hormone and glucagon induce the production of cyclic AMP ...
One of the best characterised protein kinases is cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). PKA is a holoenzyme which ... consists of a regulatory (R) dimer and two catalytic (C) subunits. Humans have at least four genes that express four isoforms ... and A kinase interacting protein (AKIP) and last is the protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) which is located both to the cytosol and ... targeting of the R subunit dimer to subcellular structures through proteins that are termed A kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs ...
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits/chemistry*/genetics/metabolism. *Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits/chemistry*/genetics/metabolism. *Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase ... Protein Kinase A (PKA) is the major receptor for the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) secondary messenger in eukaryotes. ... Protein Kinase A (PKA) is the major receptor for the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) secondary messenger in eukaryotes. ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) consists of two catalytic subunits and a regulatory subunit dimer. This gene encodes ... "Characterization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit Cgamma expressed and purified from sf9 cells". Protein ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit gamma is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKACG gene. ... 1998). "Effects of [D-Ala1] peptide T-NH2 and HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases in normal ...
An antiserum against the catalytic subunit C of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, isolated from bovine heart type II protein ... Antiserum against the catalytic subunit of adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Reactivity towards ... Antiserum against the catalytic subunit of adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Reactivity towards ... Antiserum against the catalytic subunit of adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Reactivity towards ...
1980) Microinjection of catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase enhances calcium action potentials of bag cell ... more wide spread set of scaffolding proteins are cAMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs), some of which bring ... 1995) Association of protein kinase A and protein phosphatase 2B with a common anchoring protein. Science 267:108-111. ... Protein Kinase Modulation of a Neuronal Cation Channel Requires Protein-Protein Interactions Mediated by an Src homology 3 ...
1980) Intracellular injection of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase simulates facilitation of ... which elevates cyclic GMP and cAMP dependent protein kinase in the Purkinje cells. As a result, the Purkinje cells become less ... calcium/calmodulin protein kinase II (Malenka et al., 1989; Malinow et al., 1989), (2) protein kinase C (Routtenberg, 1986; ... 1993) Spatially resolved dynamics of cAMP and protein kinase A subunits in Aplysia sensory neurons. Science 260:222-226. ...
cAMP-dependent PKA is an ubiquitous serine/theonine protein kinase present in a variety of tissues (e.g. brain, skeletal muscle ... cAMP level regulates cellular responses by altering the interaction between the catatytic C and regulatory R subunits of PKA. ... which dissociates the tetramer to R2 cAMP 4 and two active catalytic subunits. Free Catalytic subunits of PKA can phosphorylate ... Cyclic AMP Dependent Protein Kinase A Regulatory Subunit 1a, Recombinant (cAMP PKA R1) ...
Turnover of regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in S49 mouse lymphoma cells: Regulation by catalytic ... Crystal structures of catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in complex with isoquinolinesulfonyl protein kinase ... 1990) The expression of cAMP-dependent protein kinase subunits in primary rat hepatocyte cultures: Cyclic AMP down-regulates ... 1991) Isoform C beta 2, an unusual form of the bovine catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem 266:5140- ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is a holoenzyme composed of two catalytic (C) subunits and a regulatory (R) subunit ... Inactive forms of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A are expressed in the brain of higher primates. ... Karakterisering av A-kinase lokaliserende protein, AKAP450 Bornstedt, Mette Eskild (Master thesis / Prosjektoppgave, 2005) ... Protein kinase A, PKA, regulates a number of cellular processes like metabolism, cell growth and differentiation and gene ...
ThePKA1 gene encoding the major cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit was identified and disrupted.pka1 ... Identification of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit Pka1.To identify the catalytic subunit of PKA, primers ... of cyclic AMP and defective glucose repression in yeast strains with reduced activity of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Controls Virulence of the Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans Cletus A. DSouza, J. ...
Protein Coding), Protein Kinase X-Linked, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... encodes a serine threonine protein kinase that has similarity to the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases ... Protein Symbol:. P51817-PRKX_HUMAN. Recommended name:. cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit PRKX. Protein Accession: ... Like other cAMP-dependent protein kinases, the inactive holoenzyme is probably composed of 2 PRKX catalytic subunits and a ...
Association of catalytic and regulatory subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase requires a negatively charged side ... and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation in Xenopus oocytes by microinjection of oncogenic ras protein and protein kinase C. T ... A multicomponent complex is required for the AAUAAA-dependent cross-linking of a 64-kilodalton protein to polyadenylation ... An inducible 50-kilodalton NF kappa B-like protein and a constitutive protein both bind the acute-phase response element of the ...
... cAMP-dependent, catalytic, beta (PRKACB), transcript variant 3 , Myc-DDK-tagged available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene ... The encoded protein is a catalytic subunit of cAMP (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase, which mediates signalling though cAMP ... cAMP dependent, catalytic, beta (Prkacb). $430. Next day. MG218582. Prkacb (GFP-tagged) - Mouse protein kinase cAMP dependent ... Prkacb (untagged) - Mouse protein kinase, cAMP dependent, catalytic, beta (Prkacb), transcript variant 3, (10ug). $390. 3 weeks ...
Multiple genes for regulatrory and catalytic subunits of cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinases are differentially expressed and ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (vertebrates), In G. Hardie & S. Hanks (ed.), The Protein Kinase FactsBook. Elsevier. ISBN ... and regulation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. * Skålhegg, Bjørn Steen & Jahnsen, Tore (1993). Isozymes of cyclic AMP- ... Solberg, Rigmor & Jahnsen, Tore (1994). Human type I regulatory subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. Structure, ...
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) are critical regulators of neuronal differentiation. The expression, ... Evolution of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) catalytic subunit isoforms.Søberg K, Moen LV, Skålhegg BS, Laerdahl JK. ... Evolutionary Paths of the cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Catalytic Subunits. Søberg K, Jahnsen T, Rognes T, Skålhegg BS, ... Four different isoforms of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, termed Calpha, Cbeta,Cgamma and PrKX have ...
One in three CPAs carries a recurrent gain-of-function mutation (L206R) in the PRKACA gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of ... One in three CPAs carries a recurrent gain-of-function mutation (L206R) in the PRKACA gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of ... This mutation causes constitutive PKA activity by abolishing the binding of the inhibitory regulatory subunit to the catalytic ... This mutation causes constitutive PKA activity by abolishing the binding of the inhibitory regulatory subunit to the catalytic ...
AbstractHoloenzymeRegulatesSignalling pathwayCGMP-dependAdenosine CyclicSubstrateSignal TransductionReceptorRegulatory and catalyticPhosphorylateMammalianTarget proteinsABSTRACTIsoformsInhibitsMolecularEncodesSubstratesCalmodulinAlpha catalytic subunitTetramericRegulationInhibitory regulatory subunitCAMPInducesCyclin-dependeMRNAMutationsSignaling moleculesPhosphataseNeuronsPrKXInteractsAKAPsIsoformBindsConserved threonineSubcellularPRKACAAdaptor proteinsPhosphatePlasma membraneExtracellular
- abstract = "Tyrosine hydroxylase purified from rat pheochromycytoma was phosphorylated and activated by purified cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase as well as by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. (elsevier.com)
- PKA is a holoenzyme which consists of a regulatory (R) dimer and two catalytic (C) subunits. (uio.no)
- That is, when the PKA holoenzyme is challenged with cAMP the C subunits are released from the R-AKAP complex, which will leave the C subunits free to unspecifically phosphorylate targets in the cytosol and the nucleus. (uio.no)
- Most of the holoenzyme (type II) remains intact when bound to the antibodies as shown by quantification of the regulatory subunit in the supernatant of the immunoprecipitate. (biochemj.org)
- Like other cAMP-dependent protein kinases, the inactive holoenzyme is probably composed of 2 PRKX catalytic subunits and a dimer of regulatory subunits. (genecards.org)
- The inactive tetrameric PKA holoenzyme R2C2 is activated when cAMP binds to R2, which dissociates the tetramer to R2 cAMP 4 and two active catalytic subunits. (biomol.com)
- On activation by cAMP binding to the R subunits, the holoenzyme dissociates into an R dimer and two free, active C subunits that can then phosphorylate target proteins. (aspetjournals.org)
- The PKA holoenzyme is composed of 2 regulatory and 2 catalytic subunits and dissociates from the regulatory subunits upon binding of cAMP. (abnova.com)
- In the absence of cAMP, PKA exists as an inactive tetrameric holoenzyme with the homodimeric R-subunits bound to two catalytic (C) subunits. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Growth inhibition accompanied reduction in RI α /PKA-I expression and compensatory increases in RII β protein and PKA-II β , the RII β -containing holoenzyme. (aacrjournals.org)
- Separation of the free catalytic subunit from type I and type II protein kinase holoenzyme isozymes via C 6 -aminoalkyl agarose chromatography revealed that only type I protein kinase was activated 4 hr following incubation of lymphocytes with a mitogenic concentration of ConA (10 µg/ml). (aspetjournals.org)
- The holoenzyme, protein kinase A (also known as cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinase), mediates cellular response to changes in cyclic-AMP levels. (avivasysbio.com)
- Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain how the holoenzyme of the A kinase induces transcription. (elsevier.com)
- Two regulatory and two catalytic subunits form the PKA holoenzyme, disbands after cAMP binding. (nih.gov)
- However, recent studies evaluating the intact holoenzyme complexes, including regulatory AKAP-bound signalling complexes, have suggested that the local sub cellular activation of the catalytic activity of PKA might proceed without physical separation of the regulatory and catalytic components, especially at physiological concentrations of cAMP. (wikipedia.org)
- The authors used two-hybrid methods and in vitro binding assays to show that Krh1 bound to Gpa2, but also to the PKA holoenzyme through direct interaction with the catalytic subunit. (sciencemag.org)
- After binding of cAMP to the regulatory subunits the holoenzyme complex dissociates, releasing free catalytic subunits which then are able to phosphorylate suitable substrates. (biolog.de)
- This is normally inactive as a tetrameric holoenzyme , consisting of 2 catalytic and 2 regulatory units (C 2 R 2 ), with the regulatory units blocking the catalytic centers of the catalytic units. (wikidoc.org)
- The intracellular cAMP level regulates cellular responses by altering the interaction between the catatytic C and regulatory R subunits of PKA. (biomol.com)
- Amyloid precursor protein regulates apolipoprotein E and cholesterol metabolism in the brain. (sciencemag.org)
- A rise in cAMP activates protein kinase A (PKA), which regulates microneme secretion. (prolekare.cz)
- We demonstrate that exposure of merozoites to a low K + environment as found in blood plasma activates the bicarbonate-sensitive cytoplasmic adenylyl cyclase β (PfACβ) leading to a rise in cytosolic cAMP levels and activation of protein kinase A (PKA), which regulates microneme secretion. (prolekare.cz)
- FlbA negatively regulates FadA (an α subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein) by stimulating GTP hydrolysis. (asm.org)
- cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulates numerous cellular processes in eukaryotes in response to extracellular and intracellular signals, via a flexible post-translational modification system. (yu.edu)
- Previous physiological and pharmacological experiments have demonstrated that the Chlamydomonas flagellar axoneme contains a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) that regulates axonemal motility and dynein activity. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), ubiquitous in mammalian cells, regulates a plethora of cell processes including development, differentiation, memory, and metabolism and is associated with many diseases including multiple endocrine disorders and cancer. (grantome.com)
- Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), ubiquitous in mammalian cells and associated with many diseases, including cancers, is assembled as a macromolecular complex at specific sites in the cell where it regulates functions such as memory, cell migration, differentiation, and metabolism. (grantome.com)
- A(2A)R activation inhibits OC differentiation and regulates bone turnover via PKA-dependent inhibition of NFκB nuclear translocation, suggesting a mechanism by which adenosine could target bone destruction in inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. (nih.gov)
- Protein kinase Calpha phosphorylates the TRPC1 channel and regulates store-operated Ca2+ entry in endothelial cells. (proteopedia.org)
- The C binding proteins will target the C subunit in close proximity to its substrate, and in this way increase the level of specificity in the cAMP-PKA signalling pathway. (uio.no)
- Our data implies that we have identified a novel binding partner for the C subunit of PKA expressed in all tissues except differentiated skeletal muscle, linking the regulatory role of the cAMP-PKA signalling pathway to protein synthesis. (uio.no)
- We have found that guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) functions directly as a redox sensor. (sciencemag.org)
- Here we report that guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cyclic GMP or cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG), specifically the Iα isoform, is redox-sensitive and that oxidation directly activates the kinase. (sciencemag.org)
- Since the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)/nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylyl cyclase/cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) pathway is one of the major antiaggregating mechanism present in platelets, we tested the WGA or PHA effect on this pathway. (oatext.com)
- Catalytic subunit of adenosine cyclic 2',5'monophosphate-dependent protein kinase from rat muscle: basic properties and factors influencing the activity. (semanticscholar.org)
- Cells were also pretreated with protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors N-[2-(methylaminoethyl)]-5-isoquinoline-sulfonamide (H-8) and Rp-diastereomer of adenosine cyclic 3′5′-phosphorothionate (Rp-cAMPS), and Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak-STAT) inhibitor tyrphostin AG490 prior to the addition of histamine. (elsevier.com)
- Amino acid sequence of the regulatory subunit of bovine type I adenosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate dependent protein kinase. (springer.com)
- Takio K, Smith SB, Krebs EG, Walsh KA, Titani K. Amino acid sequence of the regulatory subunit of bovine type II adenosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate dependent protein kinase. (springer.com)
- MBD 4--a potential substrate for protein kinase X". Acta Biochim. (wikipedia.org)
- Interestingly, one of these PKA variants was altered at a residue that is conserved in all protein kinases, suggesting that it might be possible to generate substrate-binding versions of other enzymes in this family. (genetics.org)
- These variants of PKA were used here to explore the nature of the protein kinase-substrate interaction. (genetics.org)
- Once released from their inhibitory Regulatory subunit, the catalytic subunits can go on to phosphorylate a huge number of other proteins in the minimal substrate context Arg-Arg-X-Ser/Thr. (wikipedia.org)
- Cyclic AMP binds to specific locations on the regulatory units of the protein kinase, and causes dissociation between the regulatory and catalytic subunits, thus activating the catalytic units and enabling them to phosphorylate substrate proteins. (wikidoc.org)
- This article focuses on the role of the signal transduction molecule protein kinase A in the pathophysiology of suicide. (primarypsychiatry.com)
- Protein kinases are important mediators of signal transduction in eukaryotic cells, and identifying the substrates of these enzymes is essential for a complete understanding of most signaling networks. (genetics.org)
- PROTEIN kinases are key mediators of signal transduction in all eukaryotic cells. (genetics.org)
- Although AKAPs have been identified on the basis of their interaction with PKA, they also bind other signaling molecules, mainly phosphatases and kinases, that regulate AKAP targeting and activate other signal transduction pathways.We suggest that AKAP forms a "transduceosome" by acting as an autonomous multivalent scaffold that assembles and integrates signals derived from multiple pathways. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- Scaffold, anchoring, and adaptor proteins coordinate the assembly and localization of signaling complexes providing efficiency and specificity in signal transduction. (rupress.org)
- Recent research advances have shown that molecular associations regulating subcellular targeting of signaling proteins are crucial for efficient and specific signal transduction ( Smith and Scott, 2002 ). (rupress.org)
- Van Kolen, Slegers: Atypical PKCzeta is involved in RhoA-dependent mitogenic signaling by the P2Y(12) receptor in C6 cells. (antibodies-online.com)
- Protein Kinase A (PKA) is the major receptor for the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) secondary messenger in eukaryotes. (nih.gov)
- Proteins derived from both sides of the synapse contribute to glutamate receptor clustering. (sciencemag.org)
- Although phosphorylated cofilin is inactive for its role as an actin-depolymerizing factor, it does have a role in mediating G protein-coupled receptor stimulation of phospholipase D. (sciencemag.org)
- In glioblastoma cancer cells, drugs that work by inhibiting receptor tyrosine kinases are more powerful in combination than when administered alone. (sciencemag.org)
- The image depicts some of the proteins involved in AMPA receptor clustering. (sciencemag.org)
- E1 serves as the fusogenic subunit and that E2 acts as the receptor binding subunit of the HCV envelope. (biomedcentral.com)
- suggesting a differentiation-dependent regulation of p2x7 receptor expression. (aspetjournals.org)
- Mediates cAMP-dependent signaling triggered by receptor binding to GPCRs. (nih.gov)
- Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase decreases gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor-mediated 36Cl- uptake by brain microsacs. (muscimol.xyz)
- In parallel experiments, PKA and [gamma-32P]ATP were introduced into the microsacs, and we attempted to immunoprecipitate the entire GABAA receptor complex, under nondenaturing conditions, using an anti-alpha 1-subunit antibody. (muscimol.xyz)
- Extracellular hormones such as glucagon and epinephrine begin an intracellular signalling cascade that triggers protein kinase A activation by first binding to a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) on the target cell. (wikipedia.org)
- When a GPCR is activated by its extracellular ligand, a conformational change is induced in the receptor that is transmitted to an attached intracellular heterotrimeric G protein complex by protein domain dynamics . (wikipedia.org)
- Hormonal regulation of cyclic AMP binding to specific receptor proteins in rat ovarian follicles. (springer.com)
- 2011). Src family kinases (SFKs) are non-receptor tyrosine kinases that become activated after the stimulation of a variety of plasma membrane receptors. (uvm.edu)
- 1. A composition comprising an agent selected from a cyclic AMP (cAMP) enhancer and a ligand to a prostaglandin EP receptor, and an organic solvent, wherein the agent or the organic solvent are contained within a sterile and endotoxin free vessel, and wherein the composition is suitable for ex vivo administration to human cells. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- The human 5-ht5A receptor couples to Gi/Go proteins and inhibits adenylate cyclase in HEK 293 cells. (wikipathways.org)
- Specific G protein activation and mu-opioid receptor internalization caused by morphine, DAMGO and endomorphin I. (wikipathways.org)
- Epinephrine (adrenaline) binds its receptor, that associates with an heterotrimeric G protein. (wikidoc.org)
- The transcription factor cAMP receptor protein (CRP) also called: CAP (Catabolite gene Activator Protein) forms a complex with cAMP and thereby is activated to bind to DNA. (wikidoc.org)
- In an environment of a low glucose concentration, cAMP accumulates and binds to the allosteric site on CRP ( cAMP receptor protein ), a transcription activator protein. (wikidoc.org)
- Here we are defining the molecular and dynamic features of this signaling system that is nucleated in an isoform specific way by the regulatory and catalytic subunits of PKA at high resolution by crystallography and at low resolution using solution methods that include small angle X-ray and neutron scattering and single particle EM imaging. (grantome.com)
- A two-hybrid reporter assay showed that interaction of the regulatory and catalytic subunits appeared to decrease in vivo when function of Krh1 and Krh2 was lost. (sciencemag.org)
- Free Catalytic subunits of PKA can phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular target proteins. (biomol.com)
- The most important mechanism of action of cAMP is the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), which is known to phosphorylate a wide array of neuronal phosphoproteins. (aspetjournals.org)
- those that phosphorylate tyrosine residues (protein tyrosine kinases, PTK) and those that phosphorylate serine or threonine residues (serine/threonine kinases, STK). (patentgenius.com)
- A fewprotein kinases have dual specificity and phosphorylate threonine and tyrosine residues. (patentgenius.com)
- This points to a relatively high degree of homology of the catalytic subunit in mammalian tissues and species. (biochemj.org)
- cAMP-dependent protein kinase has a central role in the control of mammalian sperm capacitation and motility. (umassmed.edu)
- A C cDNA was characterized that encodes a C subunit that is highly (82%) identical to mammalian C subunits. (yu.edu)
- By these criteria, the R subunit produced in E. coli was structurally and functionally identical to the natural yeast R subunit and similar to mammalian type II R subunits. (cshl.edu)
- however, report that in yeast, and just maybe in mammalian cells as well, there appears to be a more direct route to activation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). (sciencemag.org)
- It is estimated that more than 1000 of the 10,000 proteins active in a typical mammalian cell are phosphorylated. (patentgenius.com)
- Ideal inhibitors such as Rp-cAMPS are those that preferentially "select" inactive conformations of target proteins by satisfying all "binding" constraints alone without inducing conformational changes necessary for activation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- A striking feature of many E6 functions is its ability to recruit a cellular ubiquitin ligase, E6AP, which it then redirects to induce the ubiquitin proteasome-mediated degradation of many of its target proteins, including p53 ( 12 , 13 ). (asm.org)
- Adipose lipolysis is regulated by cyclic AMP (cAMP), through the activation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA, which phosphorylates target proteins, including perilipin and hormone sensitive lipase. (asnevents.com.au)
- Different isoforms of catalytic and regulatory subunits suggest specific functions. (biomol.com)
- Four different isoforms of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, termed Calpha, Cbeta,Cgamma and PrKX have been identified. (uio.no)
- Evolution of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) catalytic subunit isoforms.Søberg K, Moen LV, Skålhegg BS, Laerdahl JK. (uio.no)
- Previous protein biochemical studies indicated that the only cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (C) in ovine sperm is an unusual isoform, termed C(s), whose amino terminus differs from those of published C isoforms of other species. (umassmed.edu)
- The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) exists in two isoforms, PKA-I (type I) and PKA-II (type II), that contain an identical catalytic (C) subunit but distinct regulatory (R) subunits, RI and RII, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
- The R subunit isoforms may adapt PKA for specialized functions in the tissues in which they are expressed. (yu.edu)
- Recombinant Human PKA regulatory subunit alpha specifically inhibits PKA catalytic subunit (Ki about 0.1nM). (biomol.com)
- Activation of motility in vitro by incubation with cyclic AMP can be completely inhibited by a random copolymer of glutamate and tyrosine that inhibits tyrosine kinase activity. (biologists.org)
- Kinetic analysis indicated that H-89 inhibits protein kinase A, in competitive fashion against ATP. (nih.gov)
- We also showed that AMPK activation inhibits protein synthesis in anoxic rat hepatocytes and in ischaemic rat hearts. (deduveinstitute.be)
- A high molecular mass dynein ATPase polypeptide and a 18-20 kDa dynein light chain of Ciona sperm flagella are phosphorylated during in vivo activation of motility or in vitro activation of motility by incubation with cyclic AMP. (biologists.org)
- Analysis of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase system using molecular genetic approaches. (springer.com)
- The molecular cloning of a type H regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase from rat skeletal muscle and mouse brain. (springer.com)
- Molecular cloning, cDNA structure, and regulation of the regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from rat ovarian granulosa cells. (springer.com)
- While our studies of PKA structure and function have given us a molecular understanding of individual PKA catalytic and regulatory subunits, over the past four years we have added a new dimension to our understanding of PKA signaling by solving structures of PKA tetrameric holoenzymes. (grantome.com)
- Protein kinases have evolved to be dynamic and highly regulated molecular switches, not efficient catalysts, and we simply cannot appreciate or understand how this PKA signaling system works and how it is allosterically regulated by cAMP without seeing the full-length holoenzymes. (grantome.com)
- The goal of my research was to investigate this interaction in wild type PKA catalytic subunit (PKA-C) and Y69F-PKA-C using cell culture and other molecular techniques. (uvm.edu)
- Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important regulator of energy homeostasis1,2,3 and is a molecular target of drugs used for the treatment of metabolic diseases, including obesity4,5. (imperial.ac.uk)
- Intrinsically disordered regions within each PKA regulatory subunit impart the molecular plasticity that affords an ∼16 nanometer radius of motion to the associated catalytic subunits. (nih.gov)
- This gene encodes the gamma form of its catalytic subunit. (wikidoc.org)
- This gene encodes a serine threonine protein kinase that has similarity to the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases. (genecards.org)
- This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. (avivasysbio.com)
- We examined the morphogenetic behavior of C. albicans yeast cells lacking the BCY1 gene, which encodes the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A. We cloned the BCY1 gene and generated a bcy1 tpk2 double mutant strain because a homozygous bcy1 mutant in a wild-type genetic background could not be obtained. (asm.org)
- These networks were identified through coupling systematic analyses of the expression and epistatic relationships of TF and kinase mutant libraries in the presence of diverse melanin substrates with transcriptome profiling of the core TF mutants. (asm.org)
- The phosphorylated proteins may reside in or on the cell membrane, in which case they are referred to as "endogenous" substrates. (springer.com)
- Most wild-type protein kinases, including PKA, interact only transiently with their substrates. (genetics.org)
- This spatial organization is conserved among the entire eukaryotic protein kinase family, and alteration of these residues in a second, unrelated protein kinase also resulted in a stable association with substrates. (genetics.org)
- This binding is novel as most wild-type protein kinases, including PKA, interact only transiently with their substrates ( M anning and C antley 2002 ). (genetics.org)
- The affinity of the kinase for substrates it phosphorylates was enhanced by disulfide formation. (sciencemag.org)
- Anchoring proteins sequester kinases with their substrates to locally disseminate intracellular signals and avert indiscriminate transmission of these responses throughout the cell. (nih.gov)
- The regulation of the guinea-pig pancreatic acinar plasma membrane Ca2+ pump by protein kinase A, protein kinase C and calmodulin was investigated. (semanticscholar.org)
- We have reexamined the effects of added cAMP-dependent protein kinase and endogenous calmodulin-dependent kinase on Ca2+ transport in purified internal membranes from human platelets. (eurekamag.com)
- In addition, concerted stimulation of Ca2+-ATPase by exogenous calmodulin and added catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase was observed. (eurekamag.com)
- A 22-kDa protein was phosphorylated by both cAMP-dependent and calmodulin-dependent kinases at the same rate as stimulation of the Ca2+-ATPase. (eurekamag.com)
- Previous studies reported that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CAMKK2) expression is increased in human prostate cancer. (imperial.ac.uk)
- Loss of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV in dopaminoceptive neurons enhances behavioral effects of cocaine. (wikipathways.org)
- Sustained entry of Ca2+ is required to activate Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase 1A. (wikipathways.org)
- Here, we examine the protein-protein interactions required for regulation of an Aplysia bag cell neuron cation channel by a closely associated protein kinase C (PKC). (jneurosci.org)
- The PKA subunit down-regulation was blocked, however, by treatment of the cells with Leu-Leu-Leu or lactacystin, inhibitors of proteasomes that are implicated in the regulated proteolysis of specific cellular proteins. (aspetjournals.org)
- Together, these findings demonstrate that regulation of PKA subunit expression by forskolin or a cAMP antagonist occurs primarily through post-transcriptional mechanisms and suggests the involvement of proteasome-mediated degradation in these phenomena. (aspetjournals.org)
- Regulation of erythrocyte Ca2+ pump activity by protein kinase C. (semanticscholar.org)
- These results allowed us to use these pathological platelets to study the relationship between the expression of Rap1 protein and the regulation of Ca2+ transport by selecting a patient with severe heart failure. (biochemj.org)
- Furthermore, E6-mediated regulation of the subcellular distribution of phospho-E6AP appears to be dependent, in part, upon the 14-3-3 family of proteins. (asm.org)
- It is known that alterations of the intrinsic electrical excitability of specific neurons are the key feature of such events, and that these are caused by the short-term and long-term regulation of proteins termed ion channels. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
- Protein kinase A has several functions in the cell, including regulation of glycogen , sugar , and lipid metabolism . (wikipedia.org)
- It serves as a prototype for the protein kinase superfamily and its activation by cAMP is a classic example of allosteric regulation. (grantome.com)
- T. Peeters, W. Louwet, R. Geladé, D. Nauwelaers, J. M. Thevelein, M. Versele, Kelch-repeat proteins interacting with the G α protein Gpa2 bypass adenylate cyclase for direct regulation of protein kinase A in yeast. (sciencemag.org)
- Since the discovery of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a central regulator of energy homeostasis, many exciting insights into its structure, regulation and physiological roles have been revealed. (imperial.ac.uk)
- Recent research may indicate that cAMP affects the function of higher order thinking in the prefrontal cortex through its regulation of ion channels called hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (HCN). (wikidoc.org)
- How specificity is maintained in the cAMP-PKA pathway is not fully understood but involves targeting of the R subunit dimer to subcellular structures through proteins that are termed A kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). (uio.no)
- 1993). "Human immunodeficiency virus proteins induce the inhibitory cAMP/protein kinase A pathway in normal lymphocytes" . (wikidoc.org)
- These findings define a Gα protein-cAMP-PKA signaling pathway regulating differentiation and virulence of a human fungal pathogen. (asm.org)
- Serine/threonine protein kinase regulated by and mediating cAMP signaling in cells. (genecards.org)
- cAMP-dependent PKA is an ubiquitous serine/theonine protein kinase present in a variety of. (biomol.com)
- The encoded protein is a catalytic subunit of cAMP (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase, which mediates signalling though cAMP. (origene.com)
- These adaptations include altered levels of the catalytic (C) and regulatory (R) subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in specific neuronal cell types. (aspetjournals.org)
- In contrast, treatment of cells with a cAMP antagonist (Rp-8-bromo-cAMPS) dramatically increased levels of PKA subunit immunoreactivity, particularly that of RI. (aspetjournals.org)
- Evolutionary Paths of the cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Catalytic Subunits. (uio.no)
- Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) are critical regulators of neuronal differentiation. (uio.no)
- Identification of novel splice variants of the human catalytic subunit cbeta of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (uio.no)
- The unique catalytic subunit of sperm cAMP-dependent protein kinase is" by Jovenal T. San Agustin, Curtis G. Wilkerson et al. (umassmed.edu)
- Here, we demonstrate that cAMP serves as a key regulator that controls the timely secretion of microneme proteins during invasion. (prolekare.cz)
- Here, we demonstrate that another ubiquitous second messenger, namely, 3'-5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), plays a central role in regulating cytosolic Ca 2+ levels and microneme secretion during merozoite invasion of red blood cells. (prolekare.cz)
- Dey, C. S. and Majumder, G. C. (1990) Type I and II cAMP-dependent ecto-protein kinases in goat epididymal spermatozoa and their enriched activities in forward-motile spermatozoa. (springer.com)
- The regulatory (R) subunit of protein kinase A serves to modulate the activity of protein kinase A in a cAMP-dependent manner and exists in two distinct and structurally dissimilar, end point cAMP-bound "B" and C-subunit-bound "H"-conformations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- X-ray crystallography shows cAMP-bound R-subunit in the B form but surprisingly the antagonist Rp-cAMPS-bound R-subunit crystallized in the H conformation, which was previously assumed to be induced only by C-subunit-binding. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Thus contrary to earlier studies that explained the basis for cAMP action through "induced fit" alone, we report evidence for conformational selection, where the ligand-free apo form of the R-subunit exists as an ensemble of both B and H conformations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- CNBs function as regulatory modules in different classes of proteins, such as catabolite activator protein, cyclic nucleotide gated channels, Epac proteins, and guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors, where effector protein and domain activity is controlled by cAMP binding to CNB ( 3 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In eukaryotes, one of the principal targets of cAMP is the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase A (PKA), whose regulatory subunit (R-subunit) contains two tandem CNBs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- cAMP binding to the CNBs of the R-subunits induces conformational changes, leading to dissociation of the C-subunit and activation of PKA ( 4 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- PKA is the only known example where cAMP-dependent conformational changes lead to dissociation of the effector protein (C-subunit), whereas in all other CNB-containing proteins, the consequences of cAMP removal and binding result in induced conformational changes without dissociation of the target domains and proteins ( 3 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Both Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-ATPase activity was maximally stimulated about 2-fold by addition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (eurekamag.com)
- To examine the role of protein kinase A in neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells, H-89 was applied along with nerve growth factor (NGF), forskolin, or dibutyryl cAMP. (nih.gov)
- Thus, the forskolin- and dibutyryl cAMP-induced neurite outgrowth is apparently mediated by protein kinase A while the NGF-induced neurite outgrowth is mediated by a protein kinase A-independent pathway. (nih.gov)
- This article is focused on the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) from the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (genetics.org)
- cAMP controls many cellular processes mainly through the activation of protein kinase A (PKA). (rupress.org)
- Both the cAMP effect and the Epac effect on cell adhesion were abolished by the expression of Rap1-GTPase-activating protein, indicating the involvement of Rap1 in the signaling pathway. (rupress.org)
- The regulatory subunits of the A kinase, which bind cAMP 2 and DNA 3 , and have amino-acid homology with the Escherichia coli catabolite activator protein 4 could directly stimulate gene expression 5,6 . (elsevier.com)
- To distinguish between these models, we microinjected purified preparations of the catalytic and regulatory subunits of A kinase into tissue culture cells and monitored expression of a stably integrated fusion gene containing a cAMP-responsive human promoter 10 fused to a bacterial reporter gene, or of the endogenous c-fos gene. (elsevier.com)
- The regulatory (R) subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was expressed in Escherichia coli by engineering the gene for yeast R, BCY1, in an E. coli expression vector that contained a promoter from phage T7. (cshl.edu)
- The protein was treated with urea to remove bound cAMP. (cshl.edu)
- Addition of purified R subunit to a preparation of yeast C subunit (TPK1) rendered catalytic activity cAMP-dependent with an activity ratio of 4.6. (cshl.edu)
- The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is targeted to specific subcellular compartments through its interaction with A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). (embl-heidelberg.de)
- cAMP-dependent protein kinase is targeted to discrete subcellular locations by a family of specific anchor proteins (A-kinase anchor proteins, AKAPs). (embl-heidelberg.de)
- Muscimol-stimulated 36Cl- uptake was studied in mouse brain microsacs permeabilized to introduce the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). (muscimol.xyz)
- Regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases involved in cAMP signaling in cells. (nih.gov)
- The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), which is involved in the signaling pathway of the second messenger cAMP. (nih.gov)
- cAMP-dependent protein kinase" redirects here. (wikipedia.org)
- PKA is also known as cAMP-dependent protein kinase ( EC 188.8.131.52 ). (wikipedia.org)
- PKA is also commonly known as cAMP-dependent protein kinase, because it has traditionally been thought to be activated through release of the catalytic subunits when levels of the second messenger cAMP rise in response to a variety of signals. (wikipedia.org)
- In contrast, experimentally induced supra physiological concentrations of cAMP are able to cause separation of the holoenzymes, and release of the catalytic subunits. (wikipedia.org)
- Four cAMP molecules are able to bind to the two R-subunits. (wikipedia.org)
- This is done by two cAMP molecules binding to each of the two cAMP binding sites (CNB-B and CNB-A) which induces a conformational change in the regulatory subunits of PKA causing the subunits to detach and unleash the two (now activated) catalytic subunits. (wikipedia.org)
- Genetic characterization of a brain-specific form of the type I regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (springer.com)
- The neural type II regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is present and regulated by hormones in the rat ovary. (springer.com)
- Identification of two subclasses of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinases. (springer.com)
- Identification and differential expression of two forms of regulatory subunits (RH) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase II in Friend erythroleukemic cells. (springer.com)
- Eucaryotic cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAK) exists as two different isozymes type I and II. (biolog.de)
- Each regulatory subunit offers two cooperative binding sites A and B for the allosteric activator cyclic AMP (cAMP). (biolog.de)
- Chemically modified analogues of cAMP were shown to bind with different affinity to the A and B sites of the regulatory subunits (site selectivity) and in contrast to cAMP itself thus can discriminate between them. (biolog.de)
- If a pair of differently modified cAMP analogues with opposite site selectivity is used simultaneously for kinase activation, a synergism is observed which exceeds the normally additive effect of both compounds. (biolog.de)
- Cell-based analyses suggest that the catalytic subunit remains within type-II PKA-AKAP18γ complexes upon cAMP elevation. (nih.gov)
- In humans, cyclic AMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, also known as cAMP-dependent protein kinase ). (wikidoc.org)
- Further effects thus depends on cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which are found in function of cAMP-dependent protein kinase . (wikidoc.org)
- Moreover, exposure of the cell lines to forskolin had no effect on levels of mRNA for these PKA subunits over a wide time course. (aspetjournals.org)
- Involvement of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and of HA95 in pre-mRNA splicing. (uio.no)
- We demonstrate that the antisense depletion of RI α in cancer cells results in increased RII β protein without increasing the rate of RII β synthesis or RII β mRNA levels. (aacrjournals.org)
- In this report, we demonstrate, using cultured cancer cells, that the loss of RI α by antisense treatment results in biochemical compensation by RII β and that this compensation is attributable to an increase in the half-life of RII β protein without changes in the rate of RII β protein synthesis or RII β mRNA levels. (aacrjournals.org)
- The novel mRNA predicts a C subunit with a unique carboxyl-terminus relative to previously described C subunits. (yu.edu)
- Cellular localization and age-dependent changes in mRNA for cyclic adensoine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinases in rat testis. (springer.com)
- Somatic mutations of the catalytic subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACA) gene have recently been identified in about 35% of cortisol-producing adenomas (CPAs), with the affected patients showing overt Cushing's syndrome. (cdc.gov)
- Identification and Characterization of Novel Mutations in the Human Gene Encoding the Catalytic Subunit Calpha of Protein Kinase A (PKA). (uio.no)
- Mutations in the Na + /K + -ATPase subunit ATP1A1 and the plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase ATP2B3 similarly cause Na + or H + permeability and depolarization, whereas mutations in the Ca 2+ channel CACNA1D directly lead to increased calcium influx. (frontiersin.org)
- Specifically, these mutants are dominant activating mutations in fadA and loss-of-function mutations in sfaD (the β subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein [Fig. 1 ]) ( 42 ) and overexpression of pkaA ( 43 ). (asm.org)
- Accumulating evidence suggests that many ion channels reside within a multiprotein complex that contains kinases and other signaling molecules. (jneurosci.org)
- Protein kinase A (PKA) is one of the crucial signaling molecules that, by phosphorylating proteins, affects a wide array of physiologic functions in the brain. (primarypsychiatry.com)
- Protein kinase A-anchoring protein AKAP95 interacts with MCM2, a regulator of DNA replication. (uio.no)
- and (ii) a tethering domain that interacts with PKA regulatory subunits. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- The regulatory subunit has domains to bind to cyclic AMP, a domain that interacts with catalytic subunit and an auto inhibitory domain. (wikipedia.org)
- AKAPs contain an amphipathic helix domain that binds to the type II regulatory subunit of PKA (RII). (embl-heidelberg.de)
- These data suggest that sperm contains several proteins that bind to AKAPs in a manner similar to RII and imply that AKAPs may have additional and perhaps unique functions in spermatozoa. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- Association of catalytic and regulatory subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase requires a negatively charged side group at a conserved threonine. (asm.org)
- The role of the adaptor proteins that physically link these complexes together for the purposes of ion channel modulation, however, has been little explored. (jneurosci.org)
- Drp1 is recruited from the cytosolic compartment to mitochondria by adaptor proteins, including the outer mitochondrial transmembrane protein Fis1. (embopress.org)
- Comparable stoichiometric ratios (0.6 mol phosphate/mol tyrosine hydroxylase subunit) were obtained at maximal concentrations of either cyclic AMP-dependent or cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases. (elsevier.com)
- This reveals the unique importance of the equatorial oxygen of the cyclic phosphate in mediating conformational transitions from H to B forms highlighting a novel approach for rational structure-based drug design. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- 1,3-BPG is converted to 3-phosphoglycerate ATP is formed at this step (2 from each entering glucose) phosphoglycerate kinase transfers the phosphate from position 1 to ADP G ' = kcal/mol G' = reversible Stage 3: formation of pyruvate 8. (docplayer.net)
- Boman, B. M., Zschunke, M. A., and Scott, R. E. (1984) Topography of protein kinases and phosphoproteins in the plasma membrane of 3T3 cells. (springer.com)
- In their research article , Jiří Friml and colleagues describe PATELLINs, plasma membrane-localized proteins required for auxin-induced PIN1 relocalization and multiple developmental processes. (biologists.org)
- A small novel A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) that localizes specifically protein kinase A-regulatory subunit I (PKA-RI) to the plasma membrane. (nih.gov)
- First, exposure of extracellular merozoites to a low [K + ] environment typical of blood plasma leads to a rise in cytosolic Ca 2+ via a phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent pathway, which triggers translocation of microneme proteins such as 175 kD erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA175) and apical merozoite antigen-1 (PfAMA1) to the merozoite surface . (prolekare.cz)