An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. It was subsequently shown to regulate several functions unrelated to catabolism, and to be both a negative and a positive regulator of transcription. Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins, which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. EC 3.5.4.6.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.
One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.
2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.
Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A drug combination that contains THEOPHYLLINE and ethylenediamine. It is more soluble in water than theophylline but has similar pharmacologic actions. It's most common use is in bronchial asthma, but it has been investigated for several other applications.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is found predominantly in inflammatory cells and may play a role in the regulation of CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. The enzyme family includes over twenty different variants that occur due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA of at least four different genes.
Cyclic AMP response element modulator is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is regulated by CYCLIC AMP. It plays an important role in SPERMATID development in the mammalian TESTIS.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Nucleoside-2',3'-cyclic phosphate nucleotidohydrolase. Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the 2'- or 3'- phosphate bonds of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. Also hydrolyzes nucleoside monophosphates. Includes EC 3.1.4.16 and EC 3.1.4.37. EC 3.1.4.-.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
A class of glucosyltransferases that catalyzes the degradation of storage polysaccharides, such as glucose polymers, by phosphorolysis in animals (GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE) and in plants (STARCH PHOSPHORYLASE).
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is an inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal side effect is nephrotoxicity. In vivo, dideoxyadenosine is rapidly metabolized to DIDANOSINE (ddI) by enzymatic deamination; ddI is then converted to dideoxyinosine monophosphate and ultimately to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, the putative active metabolite.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Inosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). An inosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonym: IRPPP.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.
A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotides with the elimination of ammonia.
A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H2 receptors act via G-proteins to stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are gastric acid secretion, smooth muscle relaxation, inotropic and chronotropic effects on heart muscle, and inhibition of lymphocyte function. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A histamine H2 receptor antagonist that is used as an anti-ulcer agent.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. Classical antihistaminics block the histamine H1 receptors only.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A division of organisms that exist vegetatively as complex mobile plasmodia, reproduce by means of spores, and have complex life cycles. They are now classed as protozoa but formerly were considered fungi.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.
A genetically related subfamily of RAP GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that share homology with RAS PROTEINS. They bind to Ras effectors but do not activate them, therefore they may antagonize the effects of RAS PROTEINS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and water to D-fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.11.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-TYROSINE and 2-oxoglutarate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE. It is a pyridoxal-phosphate protein. L-PHENYLALANINE is hydroxylated to L-tyrosine. The mitochondrial enzyme may be identical with ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASES (EC 2.6.1.1.). Deficiency of this enzyme may cause type II Tyrosinemia (see TYROSINEMIAS). EC 2.6.1.5.
Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They show pressor activity, are mediators of inflammation, and have potential antithrombotic effects.

The MAP kinase ERK2 inhibits the cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase HSPDE4D3 by phosphorylating it at Ser579. (1/18083)

The extracellular receptor stimulated kinase ERK2 (p42(MAPK))-phosphorylated human cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE4D3 at Ser579 and profoundly reduced ( approximately 75%) its activity. These effects could be reversed by the action of protein phosphatase PP1. The inhibitory state of PDE4D3, engendered by ERK2 phosphorylation, was mimicked by the Ser579-->Asp mutant form of PDE4D3. In COS1 cells transfected to express PDE4D3, challenge with epidermal growth factor (EGF) caused the phosphorylation and inhibition of PDE4D3. This effect was blocked by the MEK inhibitor PD98059 and was not apparent using the Ser579-->Ala mutant form of PDE4D3. Challenge of HEK293 and F442A cells with EGF led to the PD98059-ablatable inhibition of endogenous PDE4D3 and PDE4D5 activities. EGF challenge of COS1 cells transfected to express PDE4D3 increased cAMP levels through a process ablated by PD98059. The activity of the Ser579-->Asp mutant form of PDE4D3 was increased by PKA phosphorylation. The transient form of the EGF-induced inhibition of PDE4D3 is thus suggested to be due to feedback regulation by PKA causing the ablation of the ERK2-induced inhibition of PDE4D3. We identify a novel means of cross-talk between the cAMP and ERK signalling pathways whereby cell stimuli that lead to ERK2 activation may modulate cAMP signalling.  (+info)

The paired-domain transcription factor Pax8 binds to the upstream enhancer of the rat sodium/iodide symporter gene and participates in both thyroid-specific and cyclic-AMP-dependent transcription. (2/18083)

The gene encoding the Na/I symporter (NIS) is expressed at high levels only in thyroid follicular cells, where its expression is regulated by the thyroid-stimulating hormone via the second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP). In this study, we demonstrate the presence of an enhancer that is located between nucleotides -2264 and -2495 in the 5'-flanking region of the NIS gene and that recapitulates the most relevant aspects of NIS regulation. When fused to either its own or a heterologous promoter, the NIS upstream enhancer, which we call NUE, stimulates transcription in a thyroid-specific and cAMP-dependent manner. The activity of NUE depends on the four most relevant sites, identified by mutational analysis. The thyroid-specific transcription factor Pax8 binds at two of these sites. Mutations that interfere with Pax8 binding also decrease transcriptional activity of the NUE. Furthermore, expression of Pax8 in nonthyroid cells results in transcriptional activation of NUE, strongly suggesting that the paired-domain protein Pax8 plays an important role in NUE activity. The NUE responds to cAMP in both protein kinase A-dependent and -independent manners, indicating that this enhancer could represent a novel type of cAMP responsive element. Such a cAMP response requires Pax8 but also depends on the integrity of a cAMP responsive element (CRE)-like sequence, thus suggesting a functional interaction between Pax8 and factors binding at the CRE-like site.  (+info)

Identification of a cAMP response element within the glucose- 6-phosphatase hydrolytic subunit gene promoter which is involved in the transcriptional regulation by cAMP and glucocorticoids in H4IIE hepatoma cells. (3/18083)

The expression of a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the human glucose 6-phosphatase gene promoter was stimulated by both dexamethasone and dibutyryl cAMP in H4IIE hepatoma cells. A cis-active element located between nucleotides -161 and -152 in the glucose 6-phosphatase gene promoter was identified and found to be necessary for both basal reporter-gene expression and induction of expression by both dibutyryl cAMP and dexamethasone. Nucleotides -161 to -152 were functionally replaced by the consensus sequence for a cAMP response element. An antibody against the cAMP response element-binding protein caused a supershift in gel-electrophoretic-mobility-shift assays using an oligonucleotide probe representing the glucose 6-phosphatase gene promoter from nucleotides -161 to -152. These results strongly indicate that in H4IIE cells the glucose 6-phosphatase gene-promoter sequence from -161 to -152 is a cAMP response element which is important for the regulation of transcription of the glucose 6-phosphatase gene by both cAMP and glucocorticoids.  (+info)

PrKX is a novel catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulated by the regulatory subunit type I. (4/18083)

The human X chromosome-encoded protein kinase X (PrKX) belongs to the family of cAMP-dependent protein kinases. The catalytically active recombinant enzyme expressed in COS cells phosphorylates the heptapeptide Kemptide (LRRASLG) with a specific activity of 1.5 micromol/(min.mg). Using surface plasmon resonance, high affinity interactions were demonstrated with the regulatory subunit type I (RIalpha) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (KD = 10 nM) and the heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor (KD = 15 nM), but not with the type II regulatory subunit (RIIalpha, KD = 2.3 microM) under physiological conditions. Kemptide and autophosphorylation activities of PrKX are strongly inhibited by the RIalpha subunit and by protein kinase inhibitor in vitro, but only weakly by the RIIalpha subunit. The inhibition by the RIalpha subunit is reversed by addition of nanomolar concentrations of cAMP (Ka = 40 nM), thus demonstrating that PrKX is a novel, type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase that is activated at lower cAMP concentrations than the holoenzyme with the Calpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Microinjection data clearly indicate that the type I R subunit but not type II binds to PrKX in vivo, preventing the translocation of PrKX to the nucleus in the absence of cAMP. The RIIalpha subunit is an excellent substrate for PrKX and is phosphorylated in vitro in a cAMP-independent manner. We discuss how PrKX can modulate the cAMP-mediated signal transduction pathway by preferential binding to the RIalpha subunit and by phosphorylating the RIIalpha subunit in the absence of cAMP.  (+info)

A2B adenosine and P2Y2 receptors stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinase in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. cross-talk between cyclic AMP and protein kinase c pathways. (5/18083)

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades underlie long-term mitogenic, morphogenic, and secretory activities of purinergic receptors. In HEK-293 cells, N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) activates endogenous A2BARs that signal through Gs and Gq/11. UTP activates P2Y2 receptors and signals only through Gq/11. The MAPK isoforms, extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK), are activated by NECA and UTP. H-89 blocks ERK activation by forskolin, but weakly affects the response to NECA or UTP. ERK activation by NECA or UTP is unaffected by a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (genistein), attenuated by a phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122), and is abolished by a MEK inhibitor (PD098059) or dominant negative Ras. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) by GF 109203X failed to block ERK activation by NECA or UTP, however, another PKC inhibitor, Ro 31-8220, which unlike GF 109203X, can block the zeta-isoform, and prevents UTP- but not NECA-induced ERK activation. In the presence of forskolin, Ro 31-8220 loses its ability to block UTP-stimulated ERK activation. PKA has opposing effects on B-Raf and c-Raf-1, both of which are found in HEK-293 cells. The data are explained by a model in which ERK activity is modulated by differential effects of PKC zeta and PKA on Raf isoforms.  (+info)

CRE-mediated gene transcription in neocortical neuronal plasticity during the developmental critical period. (6/18083)

Neuronal activity-dependent processes are believed to mediate the formation of synaptic connections during neocortical development, but the underlying intracellular mechanisms are not known. In the visual system, altering the pattern of visually driven neuronal activity by monocular deprivation induces cortical synaptic rearrangement during a postnatal developmental window, the critical period. Here, using transgenic mice carrying a CRE-lacZ reporter, we demonstrate that a calcium- and cAMP-regulated signaling pathway is activated following monocular deprivation. We find that monocular deprivation leads to an induction of CRE-mediated lacZ expression in the visual cortex preceding the onset of physiologic plasticity, and this induction is dramatically downregulated following the end of the critical period. These results suggest that CRE-dependent coordinate regulation of a network of genes may control physiologic plasticity during postnatal neocortical development.  (+info)

Prior exposure to neurotrophins blocks inhibition of axonal regeneration by MAG and myelin via a cAMP-dependent mechanism. (7/18083)

MAG is a potent inhibitor of axonal regeneration. Here, inhibition by MAG, and myelin in general, is blocked if neurons are exposed to neurotrophins before encountering the inhibitor; priming cerebellar neurons with BDNF or GDNF, but not NGF, or priming DRG neurons with any of these neurotrophins blocks inhibition by MAG/myelin. Dibutyryl cAMP also overcomes inhibition by MAG/myelin, and cAMP is elevated by neurotrophins. A PKA inhibitor present during priming abrogates the block of inhibition. Finally, if neurons are exposed to MAG/myelin and neurotrophins simultaneously, but with the Gi protein inhibitor, inhibition is blocked. We suggest that priming neurons with particular neurotrophins elevates cAMP and activates PKA, which blocks subsequent inhibition of regeneration and that priming is required because MAG/myelin activates a Gi protein, which blocks increases in cAMP. This is important for encouraging axons to regrow in vivo.  (+info)

Mechanisms for generating the autonomous cAMP-dependent protein kinase required for long-term facilitation in Aplysia. (8/18083)

The formation of a persistently active cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is critical for establishing long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF) in Aplysia. The injection of bovine catalytic (C) subunits into sensory neurons is sufficient to produce protein synthesis-dependent LTF. Early in the LTF induced by serotonin (5-HT), an autonomous PKA is generated through the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated proteolysis of regulatory (R) subunits. The degradation of R occurs during an early time window and appears to be a key function of proteasomes in LTF. Lactacystin, a specific proteasome inhibitor, blocks the facilitation induced by 5-HT, and this block is rescued by injecting C subunits. R is degraded through an allosteric mechanism requiring an elevation of cAMP coincident with the induction of a ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase.  (+info)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Capsaicinoids regulate airway anion transporters through rho kinase- and cyclic AMP-dependent mechanisms. AU - Hibino, Yoshitaka. AU - Morise, Masahiro. AU - Ito, Yasushi. AU - Mizutani, Takefumi. AU - Matsuno, Tadakatsu. AU - Ito, Satoru. AU - Hashimoto, Naozumi. AU - Sato, Mitsuo. AU - Kondo, Masashi. AU - Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi. AU - Hasegawa, Yoshinori. PY - 2011/10/1. Y1 - 2011/10/1. N2 - To investigate the effects of capsaicinoids on airway anion transporters, we recorded and analyzed transepithelial currents in human airway epithelial Calu-3 cells. Application of capsaicin (100 μM) attenuated vectorial anion transport, estimated as short-circuit currents (I SC), before and after stimulation by forskolin (10 μM) with concomitant reduction of cytosolic cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels. The capsaicin-induced inhibition of I SC was also observed in the response to 8-bromo-cAMP (1 mM, a cell-permeable cAMP analog) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (1 mM, an inhibitor of ...
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BioAssay record AID 720707 submitted by NCGC: qHTS for Agonist of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor 3 (EPAC1): primary screen.
Looking for online definition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP, 3',5'-cAMP) in the Medical Dictionary? cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP, 3',5'-cAMP) explanation free. What is cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP, 3',5'-cAMP)? Meaning of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP, 3',5'-cAMP) medical term. What does cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP, 3',5'-cAMP) mean?
The subcellular distribution of protein kinase activity in isolated islets of Langerhans was determined. The majority (70%) of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was located in the S-100 (soluble) fraction, while the majority (42%) of cyclic AMP-independent activity was located in the solublised P-100 (containing mitochondria, secretory granules and microsomes) fraction. Partial characterisation of the islet cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity revealed the presence of two isozymes designated Type I and Type II. Type II kinase was the predominant isozyme of the S-100 fraction and Type I was the predominant isozyme found in the solublised P-100 fraction. Nonidet-P40 (a non-ionic detergent) was found to activate the S-100 cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity, although no significant increase in protein kinase activity was observed when the P-0.6 (containing nuclei and cellular debris) fraction and P-100 fraction were solublised with Nonidet-P40. This activation was ...
Phototaxis and thermotaxis by Dictyostelium discoideum slugs on water agar were impaired by the presence in the agar of adenosine, which is a cyclic AMP receptor antagonist in aggregating amoebae. Caffeine, and presumably its analogue theophylline, inhibit cyclic AMP signalling in aggregating amoebae of D. discoideum. Both compounds perturbed slug behaviour in a similar manner to adenosine, as did both ammonium and sulphate ions. (NH4)3SO4 is known to perturb cyclic AMP binding to its receptor, and ammonia is an inhibitor of cyclic AMP signalling in aggregating amoebae. The receptor agonist, cyclic AMPS, disrupted slug organization and impaired phototaxis when present at concentrations high enough to saturate cyclic AMP receptors and compete effectively with endogenous cyclic AMP signals of similar magnitude to those observed during aggregation. Taken together with the considerable circumstantial evidence for cyclic AMP signalling in slugs, these results support a role for cyclic AMP signalling ...
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The mechanisms by which adenosine triphosphate, thrombin, and trypsin cause relaxation of vascular smooth muscle were investigated. Relaxation of the rat thoracic aorta with adenosine triphosphate, thrombin, and/or trypsin was associated with increased levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate in both time- and concentration-dependent manners. Thrombin and trypsin did not alter cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels, whereas adenosine triphosphate increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels after significant relaxation occurred. Removal of the endothelium abolished adenosine triphosphate-, thrombin-, and trypsin-induced relaxation and the associated increased levels of cyclic nucleotides. Relaxation due to these agents was also inhibited by exposure to nordihydroguaiaretic acid, a lipoxygenase inhibitor, and eicosatetraynoic acid, a lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, potentiated relaxation to these agents, whereas the increased levels of cyclic ...
By differential hybridization, we identified a number of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are activated by addition of cyclic AMP (cAMP) to cAMP-depleted cells. A majority, but not all, of these genes encode ribosomal proteins. While expression of these genes is also induced by addition of the appropriate nutrient to cells starved for a nitrogen source or for a sulfur source, the pathway for nutrient activation of ribosomal protein gene transcription is distinct from that of cAMP activation: (i) cAMP-mediated transcriptional activation was blocked by prior addition of an inhibitor of protein synthesis whereas nutrient-mediated activation was not, and (ii) cAMP-mediated induction of expression occurred through transcriptional activation whereas nutrient-mediated induction was predominantly a posttranscriptional response. Transcriptional activation of the ribosomal protein gene RPL16A by cAMP is mediated through a upstream activation sequence element consisting of a pair of RAP1 binding ...
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Bradykinin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulate adenylate cyclase activity in serum-depleted cultured airway smooth muscle via a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway. The probable target is the type II adenylate cyclase, which can integrate coincident signals from both PKC and Gs. Therefore, activation of Gs (by cholera-toxin pre-treatment) amplified the bradykinin-stimulated cyclic AMP signal and concurrently attenuated the partial activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK-2) by bradykinin. We have previously demonstrated that, in order to induce full activation of ERK-2 with bradykinin, it is necessary to obliterate PKC-stimulated cyclic AMP formation. We concluded that the cyclic AMP signal limits the magnitude of ERK-2 activation [Pyne, Moughal, Stevens, Tolan and Pyne (1994) Biochem. J. 304, 611-616]. The present study indicates that the bradykinin-stimulated ERK-2 pathway is entirely cyclic AMP-sensitive, and suggests that coincident signal detection by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunocytochemical expression of human muscle cell p75 neurotrophin receptor is down-regulated by cyclic adenosine 3,5-monophosphate. AU - Baron, Pierluigi. AU - Scarpini, Elio. AU - Pizzul, Silvia. AU - Zotti, Fabrizio. AU - Conti, Giancarlo. AU - Pleasure, David E. AU - Scarlato, Guglielmo. PY - 1997/10/3. Y1 - 1997/10/3. N2 - To investigate whether the immunocytochemical expression of low affinity neurotrophin receptor (p75) in human muscle is modulated by increased levels of intracellular cyclic adenosine 3,5-monophoshate (cAMP), human cultured myogenic cells were treated with cAMP analogues dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP 0.5-1 mM) and 8-bromo cAMP (1 mM) or the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (10- 100 μM). Cultures were processed for indirect immunofluorescence microscopy using an anti-human p75 mAb. The treatment of cultured muscle cells with cAMP analogues or forskolin for two days induced a decrease of immunoreactivity for p75 and a reduction of both myotube formation ...
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An antiserum against the catalytic subunit C of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, isolated from bovine heart type II protein kinase, was produced in rabbits. Reaction of the catalytic subunit with antiserum and separation of the immunoglobulin G fraction by Protein A-Sepharose quantitatively removed the enzyme from solutions. Comparative immunotitration of protein kinases showed that the amount of antiserum required to eliminate 50% of the enzymic activity was identical for pure catalytic subunit, and for holoenzymes type I and type II. The reactivity of the holoenzymes with the antiserum was identical in the absence or the presence of dissociating concentrations of cyclic AMP. Most of the holoenzyme (type II) remains intact when bound to the antibodies as shown by quantification of the regulatory subunit in the supernatant of the immunoprecipitate. Titration with the antibodies also revealed the presence of a cyclic AMP-independent histone kinase in bovine heart protein kinase I preparations ...
The regulatory subunits of protein kinase A, or cyclic AMP-binding proteins, were measured in a series of 107 human ovarian tumors (89 malignant, 7 borderline, and 11 benign tumors) and related to tumor clinicopathological features and patient survival. Total cyclic AMP-binding protein levels were not significantly different between malignant tumors and either borderline or benign tumors. However, serous tumors showed significantly higher levels of total cyclic AMP-binding proteins than other malignant tumors (P = 0.007). Poorly differentiated tumors also possessed significantly higher levels of binding proteins as compared with well/moderately differentiated tumors (P , 0.01). Retrospective analysis of follow-up data also revealed a significant trend for patients with high tumor cyclic AMP-binding proteins to have poorer survival (P = 0.03). Individual binding proteins were identified by photoaffinity labeling, and the RI (Mr 48,000) protein was expressed as a percentage of total cyclic ...
Tisdale, M J. and Phillips, B J., Apparent correlation between adenosine 3.5 Cyclic monophosphate levels and malignancy in somatic cell hybrids. (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 1875 ...
Looking for online definition of cyclic AMP, 3',5'-cAMP in the Medical Dictionary? cyclic AMP, 3',5'-cAMP explanation free. What is cyclic AMP, 3',5'-cAMP? Meaning of cyclic AMP, 3',5'-cAMP medical term. What does cyclic AMP, 3',5'-cAMP mean?
One of the most promising new targets for trypanocidal drugs to emerge in recent years is the cyclic AMP (cAMP) phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity encoded by TbrPDEB1 and TbrPDEB2. These genes were genetically confirmed as essential, and a high-affinity inhibitor, CpdA, displays potent antitrypanosomal activity. To identify effectors of the elevated cAMP levels resulting from CpdA action and, consequently, potential sites for adaptations giving resistance to PDE inhibitors, resistance to the drug was induced. Selection of mutagenized trypanosomes resulted in resistance to CpdA as well as cross-resistance to membrane-permeable cAMP analogues but not to currently used trypanocidal drugs. Resistance was not due to changes in cAMP levels or in PDEB genes. A second approach, a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) library screen, returned four genes giving resistance to CpdA upon knockdown. Validation by independent RNAi strategies confirmed resistance to CpdA and suggested a role for the identified cAMP ...
Specificity and versatility in cAMP signalling are governed by the spatial localization and temporal dynamics of the signal. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are important for shaping cAMP signals by hydrolyzing the nucleotide. In pancreatic β-cells, glucose triggers sub-plasma membrane cAMP oscillations important for insulin secretion, but the mechanisms underlying the oscillations are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of different PDEs for generating cAMP oscillations by monitoring the sub-membrane cAMP concentration ([cAMP]pm) with ratiometric evanescent wave microscopy in MIN6-cells or mouse pancreatic β-cells expressing a fluorescent translocation biosensor. The general PDE inhibitor IBMX increased [cAMP]pm, and while oscillations were frequently observed at 50 µM IBMX, 300 µM-1 mM of the inhibitor caused stable [cAMP]pm elevation. [cAMP]pm was nevertheless markedly suppressed by the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor 2′,5′-dideoxyadenosine, indicating also IBMX-insensitive cAMP ...
We demonstrate that JunD, a component of the AP-1 transcription factor complex, activates transcription of the human proenkephalin gene in a fashion that is completely dependent upon the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase A. Activation of proenkephalin transcription by JunD is dependent upon a previously characterized cAMP-, phorbol ester-, and Ca(2+)-inducible enhancer, and JunD is shown to bind the enhancer as a homodimer. Another component of the AP-1 transcription complex, JunB, is shown to inhibit activation mediated by JunD. As a homodimer JunB is unable to bind the enhancer; however in the presence of c-Fos, high-affinity binding is observed. Furthermore, JunD is shown to activate transcription of genes linked to both cAMP and phorbol ester response elements in a protein kinase A-dependent fashion, further blurring the distinction between these response elements. These results demonstrate that the transcriptional activity of an AP-1-related protein is regulated by the ...
The LNCaP cell line is a versatile and useful model that is suitable for the study of human prostate cancer in vitro. The elevation of LNCaP intracellular cAMP levels through the addition of membrane permeable cAMP analogues, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, adenylate cyclase activators, or components of the cAMP signal transduction pathway can induce reversible neuroendocrine differentiation. Elucidation of those genes that are differentially expressed between undifferentiated prostate cancer cells and prostate cancer cells that have been induced to differentiate may present new insights for the molecular mechanisms governing neuroendocrine differentiation, early detection of prostate cancer, and/or potential targets for gene therapy. In this study, differential display PCR was used to identify 226 differentially expressed PCR products. Twelve of the differential display PCR products were confirmed by Northern blot analysis and cloned. DNA sequencing and database comparisons were performed. Among ...
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p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 11.0px Calibri} p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;#39;Times New Roman&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;#39;} p.p3 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Calibri; min-height: 14.0px} p.p4 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font
Nine membrane-bound adenylyl cyclase isoforms catalyze the production of the second messenger cyclic AMPs (cAMP) in response to various stimuli. Reduction of adenylyl cyclase activity has well-documented benefits, including for heart disease and pain. These roles have inspired an attempt to develop isoform selective adenylyl cyclase inhibitors. The lack of true selectivity currently limits exploration of functions and/or treatment of dysfunctions involving adenylyl cyclase/cAMP signaling. The present study demonstrated that a panel of inhibitors described as AC5-selective actually does not discriminate between AC5 and AC6. Likewise, the putative AC1-selective inhibitor, NB001 [5-[[2-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)ethyl]amino]-1-pentanol], does not directly target AC1 to reduce cAMP levels. These results lead to a discussion regarding the need to reinterpret literature using AC5/6-selective molecules.. See article at J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2013, 347:265-275.. ...
Werner, C.G., Godrey, V., Arnold, R.R., Featherstone, G.L., Bender, D., Schlossmann, Jens, Schiemann, M., Hofmann, F. and Pryzwansky, K.B. (2005) Neutrophil dysfunction in guanosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase I-deficient mice. Journal of Immunology 175, pp. 1919-1929 ...
H2O2 and oxygen-derived free radicals modulate vasodilator mechanisms.1 2 3 4 5 6 9 The present studies indicate that H2O2 enhances adenylyl cyclase activation and that the effect is dependent (in part) on the presence of iron and is blunted by agents that act to inhibit tyrosine kinase activity.. Our data suggest that the oxygen-derived species mediating the enhancement of adenylyl cyclase activation is either H2O2 itself or the hydroxyl radical. Incubation of cells with xanthine oxidase and purine resulted in a qualitatively similar enhancement of adenylyl cyclase activation. The effect of purine and xanthine oxidase was not blocked by coincubation with superoxide dismutase (which catalyzes the conversion from superoxide anion to H2O2). This suggests that the generation of the superoxide anion is not involved in the mechanism of enhancement of adenylyl cyclase activation. However, pretreatment with either catalase (which catalyzes conversion of H2O2 to water) or with deferoxamine (which ...
Recent evidence suggests that ethanol initially causes an increase in receptor-dependent cAMP levels, followed by heterologous desensitization of receptors coupled to GS after chronic exposure. Here we investigated the role of adenosine in mediating these responses. We found that ethanol caused accumulation of extracellular adenosine in NG108-15 and S49 lymphoma cells. This adenosine activated adenosine receptors to increase intracellular cAMP levels. The addition of adenosine deaminase, to degrade accumulated extracellular adenosine, or isobutyl-methylxanthine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, completely blocked ethanol-induced increases in cAMP levels in NG108-15 cells. Chronic exposure of NG108-15 and S49 wild type cells to ethanol resulted in heterologous desensitization of adenosine receptor- and prostaglandin E1 receptor-dependent cAMP signal transduction. Coincubation of NG108-15 and S49 wild type cells with adenosine deaminase and ethanol for 48 hr prevented heterologous ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphodiesterase III Inhibition Increases cAMP levels and augments the infarct size limiting effect of a dpp-4 inhibitor in mice with type-2 diabetes mellitus. AU - Birnbaum, Yochai. AU - Castillo, Alexander C.. AU - Qian, Jinqiao. AU - Ling, Shukuan. AU - Ye, Hongmei. AU - Perez-Polo, Jose R.. AU - Bajaj, Mandeep. AU - Ye, Yumei. PY - 2012/12/1. Y1 - 2012/12/1. N2 - Purpose We assessed whether phosphodiesterase-III inhibition with cilostazol (Cil) augments the infarct size (IS)-limiting effects of MK0626 (MK), a dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor, by increasing intracellular cAMP in mice with type-2 diabetes. Methods Db/Db mice received 3-day MK (0, 1, 2 or 3 mg/kg/d) with or without Cil (15 mg/kg/d) by oral gavage and were subjected to 30 min coronary artery occlusion and 24 h reperfusion. Results Cil and MK at 2 and 3 mg/kg/d significantly reduced IS. Cil and MK had additive effects at all three MK doses. IS was the smallest in the MK-3+Cil. MK in a dose dependent manner ...
Adenylyl Cyclase Type V Inhibitor, NKY80 - CAS 299442-43-6 - Calbiochem The Adenylyl Cyclase Type V Inhibitor, NKY80, also referenced under CAS 299442-43-6, controls the biological activity of Adenylyl Cyclase Type V. This small molecule/inhibitor is primarily used for Cell Signaling applications. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
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amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;div&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;img src=https://mc.yandex.ru/watch/35930735 style=position:absolute; left:-9999px; alt= /&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;/div&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt ...
In Schwann cells (SCs), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) not only induces differentiation into a myelinating SC-related phenotype, but also synergistically enhances the mitogenic action of growth factors such as neuregulin. impairment of SC differentiation and myelin formation but not Krox-20 expression, which indicates an independent mechanism of Krox-20 regulation in response to cAMP. In conclusion, our data supports the idea that the outcome of cAMP signaling in SCs depends on the particular set of effectors activated. Whereas the mitogenic action of cAMP relies exclusively on PKA activity, the differentiating action of cAMP requires a PKA-independent (non-canonical) cAMP-specific pathway that is partially transduced by EPAC. Introduction The ubiquitous second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is usually a key regulator of metabolic activity, survival, proliferation and differentiation in a wide variety of cell types. In particular, isolated cultured Schwann cells (SCs), ...
Desensitization is defined as a decreased functional response after continuous or repetitive stimulation of a receptor with its agonist. Thyrotropin (TSH) increases cAMP levels in normal and neoplastic thyroid tissue. The tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanogl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) activates protein kinase C (PKC). The aim was to determine whether TPA induces heterologous desensitization of the TSM-adenylate cyclase (AC) signal transduction system, Three human thyroid neoplasms in culture for 6 months or longer tone papillary carcinoma, one Hurthle cell carcinoma, one follicular adenoma) were incubated with TSH (10 mU/ml) and TPA (1.6 x 10(-8) M) separately and together for various time periods (from 10 minutes to 24 hours). The mixture mas subsequently incubated for 30 minutes with TSH. TPA alone had no effect on cAMP Levels, but co-incubation of TPA and TSH caused a significant reduction in cAMP response when compared to the cAMP response that resulted after stimulation with only TSH (p < ...
FRET-based sensors for cyclic Adenosine Mono Phosphate (cAMP) have revolutionized the way in which this important intracellular messenger is studied. The currently prevailing sensors consist of the cAMP-binding protein Epac1, sandwiched between suitable donor- and acceptor fluorescent proteins (FPs). Through a conformational change in Epac1, alterations in cellular cAMP levels lead to a change in FRET that is most commonly detected by either Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM) or by Sensitized Emission (SE), e.g., by simple ratio-imaging. We recently reported a range of different Epac-based cAMP sensors with high dynamic range and signal-to-noise ratio. We showed that constructs with cyan FP as donor are optimal for readout by SE, whereas other constructs with green FP donors appeared much more suited for FLIM detection. In this study, we present a new cAMP sensor, termed TEpacVV, which employs mTurquoise as donor. Spectrally very similar to CFP, mTurquoise has about doubled quantum efficiency ...
Reducing weight is a job on the top of many individuals New Year resolutions every year. Weight-loss not just assists you to look excellent however it likewise serves to enhance general health. Natural weight-loss supplements that kick-start your fitness routine for dropping weight can be an excellent incentive for continuing with your healthy way of life.. Among the natural weight-loss supplements getting steam on the Web has been Forskolin; a substance originated from the roots of the plant Coleus forskolin or Plectranthusbarbarous. Coleus forskolin is a seasonal herb that comes from a genus of the mint family of herbs. It is frequently found in India, Thailand, and Burma.. How Does Forskolin Work?. Forskolin triggers an enzyme called adenylate cyclase which, in turn, increases cyclic AMP levels in the body. The cAMP is a cell regulator and performs a number of functions in the body.. cAMP (cyclic AMP):. ...
In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, cAMP-dependent protein kinase), one of the first few kinases discovered. It has four sub-units two catalytic and two regulatory. cAMP binds to the regulatory sub-units.[16] It causes them to break apart from the catalytic sub-units. The Catalytic sub-units make their way in to the nucleus to influence transcription.Further effects mainly depend on cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which vary based on the type of cell. cAMP-dependent pathway is necessary for many living organisms and life processes. Many different cell responses are mediated by cAMP; these include increase in heart rate, cortisol secretion, and breakdown of glycogen and fat. cAMP is essential for the maintenance of memory in the brain, relaxation in the heart, and water absorbed in the kidney.[17] This pathway can activate enzymes and regulate gene expression. The activation of preexisting enzymes is a much faster process, whereas regulation of gene expression is much longer ...
studies on the Cyclic AMP-Phosphodiesterases and other aspects of the aggregation of Dictyostelium discoideum by Charles John McDonald Membrane bound cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (mPDE) is prematurely induced by cyclic nucleotides during early development of D.discoideum. Factors affecting this induction were studied, including transcriptional inhibitors and an inhibitor of cyclic AMP dependant protein kinases (indomethacin). Amoebae secrete a form of PDE (SPDE) which was chosen as a molecular marker for the induction due to its ease of purification. In preparations free of the protein inhibitor (PDE-I) multiple forms (A, B and C) of sPDE were studied. sPDE-A was purified to homogeneity by column chromatography and consists of one subunit, P50. Antibody, raised against pure sPDE-A, immunoprecipitated all three forms of sPDE. sPDE-B was correlated with equimolar amounts of p50 and p52 and is a dimer. sPDE-C was correlated with P52 and p50 in an approximate 2/l ratio and is thus probably a trimer. ...
The effects of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (dB-cAMP) were studied in fifty cats, twenty anesthetized with pentobarbital and thirty with halothane. Nasopharyngeal temperature and Paco2 were maintained at normal values. Somatosensory evoked response was monitored and used as an indicator of cerebral cortical function. Ischemic hypoxic injury was produced by an orthopedic tourniquet snugly applied around the animals neck and inflated for a period of fifteen minutes. This method produces a reliable and reproducible injury. Times for recovery of the evoked response to 10% of control value, as well as immediate and long-term animal survival, were noted. The dBcAMP was administered at the end of the hypoxic insult. Treated animals recovered the evoked response earlier than the untreated controls and had better immediate and long-term survival rates. ...
Analogs of the cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP have been extensively used to mimic or modulate cellular events mediated by protein kinase A (PKA), Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), or protein kinase G (PKG). We report here that some of the most commonly used cyclic nucleotide analogs inhibit transmembrane transport mediated by the liver specific organic anion transporter peptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, unrelated to actions on Epac, PKA or PKG. Several cAMP analogs, particularly with 8-pCPT-substitution, inhibited nodularin (Nod) induced primary rat hepatocyte apoptosis. Inhibition was not mediated by PKA or Epac, since increased endogenous cAMP, and some strong PKA- or Epacactivating analogs failed to protect cells against Nod induced apoptosis. The cAMP analogs inhibiting Nod induced hepatocyte apoptosis also reduced accumulation of radiolabeled Nod or cholic acid in primary rat hepatocytes. They also inhibited Nod induced apoptosis in HEK293 cells with enforced expression of ...
Since PAM is a potent inhibitor of AC enzyme activity, it was next investigated if the translocation of PAM from the ER to the plasma membrane results in an inhibition of AC activity. Serum-treatment of HeLa cells reduced the intracellular cAMP accumulation (Fig. 19a). Additionally, serum-treatment decreased Gas- and forskolin-stimulated AC activity to 56.7% and 64.7%, respectively, as compared to untreated cells (Fig. 19b). The observed decrease in AC activity was not due to a change in the AC isoform expression or due to an increased AC expression since no changes in the mRNA expression of AC isoforms was detected (Fig. 19c). To determine if the decrease in stimulated AC activity was mediated by PAM, the amount of endogenous PAM was decreased, employing antisense oligonucleotides against PAM as previously described in Scholich et al., 2001. As shown in Fig. 19d, in HeLa cells treated with antisense ODN the amount of PAM, as determined by Western Blot analysis, was decreased as compared to ...
As shown in Fig. 4 C (bottom), the application of isoproterenol also led to a larger fiber deflection, which is indicative of the expected force potentiation. This increase in single-twitch amplitude was paralleled by four interesting phenomena. First, the basal-normalized YFP/CFP ratio increased from 1.00 ± 0.02% to 1.06 ± 0.01% (mean ± SEM; n = 3 fibers) after injection of isoproterenol (Fig. 4 C, top). According to the calibration procedure described in the supplemental material, this would account for a rise in [Ca2+]SR from ∼278 to ∼311 μM. Second, the decrease of YFP/CFP ratio during single twitches was enhanced in the presence of isoproterenol without interim stimulation (Fig. 4 C, top), accounting for drops in [Ca2+]SR of ∼65 and ∼99 μM in the absence and presence of isoproterenol, respectively; this effect was even stronger upon 50 Hz stimulation, where the corresponding changes were calculated to be ∼83 and ∼153 μM. Third, the kinetics of the Ca2+-release/reuptake ...
Using genome-wide microarrays, we recognized 172 genes that are highly expressed at one stage or another during multicellular development of Dictyostelium discoideum. When developed in shaken suspension, 125 of these genes were expressed if the cells were treated with cyclic AMP (cAMP) pulses at 6-min intervals between 2 and 6 h of development followed by high levels of exogenous cAMP. In the absence of cAMP treatment, only three genes, carA, gbaB, and pdsA, were consistently expressed. Surprisingly, 14 other genes were induced by cAMP treatment of mutant cells lacking the activatable adenylyl cyclase, ACA. However, these genes were not cAMP induced if both of the developmental adenylyl cyclases, ACA and ACR, were disrupted, showing that they depend on an internal source of cAMP. Constitutive activity of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase PKA was found to bypass the requirement of these genes for adenylyl cyclase and cAMP pulses, demonstrating the critical role of PKA in transducing the cAMP ...
Cyclic AMP acts by activating cAMP-sensitive pathways such as protein kinase A and EPAC1. Its derivatives include Colforsin, ... Forskolin is commonly used as a tool in biochemistry to raise levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in the study and research of cell ... Adenylyl cyclase Cyclic AMP "Forskolin" (PDF). Sigma Aldrich. "Forskolin". Drugs.com. 2018. Retrieved 23 March 2018. Alasbahi, ... Forskolin is a commonly used material in laboratory research to increase levels of cyclic AMP by stimulation of adenylate ...
... was later termed cyclic AMP. Even though the discovery of cyclic AMP and the idea of second messengers were of great importance ... namely cyclic adenosine monophosphate, or cyclic AMP. Sutherland was born on November 19, 1915, in Burlingame, Kansas. The ... Sutherland, E. W; Robison, G. A (1969). "The role of cyclic AMP in the control of carbohydrate metabolism". Diabetes. 18 (12): ... He continued his work on cyclic AMP, receiving financial support from the Career Investigatorship awarded to him by the ...
This cyclic AMP decreases the smooth muscle tone. This drug is 10,000-times more lipid soluble than the short acting beta-2 ... They act on the enzyme adenyl cyclase which increases the concentration of cAMP (Cyclic adenosine monophosphate). ...
Cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21 kD, also known as ARPP-21, is a human gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000172995 ... "Entrez Gene: ARPP-21 cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21 kD". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Human ARPP21 genome ... a cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein enriched in the basal ganglia". Neuropharmacology. 39 (9): 1637-44. doi:10.1016/s0028- ...
... inhibition of cyclic AMP breakdown by cyclic GMP". Molecular Pharmacology. 37 (5): 671-681. Siess, Wolfgang; Eduardo, Lapetina ... 1990). "Functional relationship between cyclic AMP-dependent protein phosphorylation and platelet inhibition". Journal of ... cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, phosphorylate messengers via protein kinase A (PKA). These signaling elements include ... Inhibition by PGE1 and dibutyryl cyclicl AMP". The Journal of General Physiology. 66 (5): 561-581. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.283.2493. ...
In Escherichia coli, cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) can regulate the transcription of more than 100 genes. The signal to ... activate CRP is the binding of cyclic AMP. Binding of cAMP to CRP leads to a long-distance signal transduction from the N- ...
... cyclic AMP) molecules bind dimeric CAP with negative cooperativity. Cyclic AMP functions as an allosteric effector by ...
1975). "Biologic regulation through opposing influences of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP: the Yin Yang hypothesis". Adv Cyclic ... van Calker D, Müller M, Hamprecht B (1978). "Adenosine inhibits the accumulation of cyclic AMP in cultured brain cells". Nature ... "Positive inotropic effect of the inhibition of cyclic GMP-stimulated 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE2) on guinea ... Wu AY, Tang XB, Martinez SE, Ikeda K, Beavo JA (September 2004). "Molecular determinants for cyclic nucleotide binding to the ...
It acts on the pheromone gland cells using calcium and cyclic AMP. Although the photoperiod regulates the release of PBAN to ...
Gαs activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. This is accomplished by ... An example is adenylate cyclase, which produces the second messenger cyclic AMP. For this discovery, they won the 1994 Nobel ... which produces the second messenger cyclic AMP. The 1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to George H. Hitchings, Sir ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase is unique in its mechanism of activation. The protein kinase is composed of two regulatory ... Cyclic AMP binds to the regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and causes the dissociation of its regulatory ... Greengard, Paul (1978). Cyclic nucleotides, phosphorylated proteins, and neuronal function. New York: Raven Press. ISBN 0-89004 ...
Nucleic acid DNA metabolism Cofactor Guanosine Cyclic AMP (cAMP) ATP Wishart, David S.; Djombou Feunang, Yannick; Marcu, Ana; ... is a derivative of the common nucleic acid AMP, or adenosine monophosphate, in which the -OH (hydroxyl) group on the 2' carbon ...
Example- Cobalamine biosynthesis, Cyclic AMP-GMP switch, lysin biosynthesis, glycine biosynthesis, fluroide switch etc. These ...
Cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) is a cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) and the first to be found in metazoans. Other CDNs (c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP ... Upon binding DNA, the protein cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase (cGAS) triggers reaction of GTP and ATP to form cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). ... specifically by the cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). Upon DNA recognition, cGAS dimerizes and stimulates the formation of cyclic ... PDB: 4O6A​ Wu J, Sun L, Chen X, Du F, Shi H, Chen C, Chen ZJ (February 2013). "Cyclic GMP-AMP is an endogenous second messenger ...
Effects of phosphodiesterase 10 inhibition on striatal cyclic AMP and peripheral physiology in rats; An Torremans, Abdellah ... thereby preventing the inactivation of the intracellular second messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic ... 2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 108 (5): 671-80. doi:10.1067/mai ... Fertel R, Weiss B (1976). "Properties and drug responsiveness of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases of rat lung". Mol. ...
"A comparative study on the effects of tetracyclines and lithium on the cyclic AMP second messenger system". Prog. ...
Adenylate cyclase manufactures cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP or cAMP), which activates protein kinase A (cAMP- ...
Keshwani MM, Kanter JR, Ma Y, Wilderman A, Darshi M, Insel PA, Taylor SS (October 2015). "Mechanisms of cyclic AMP/protein ... When the adenylyl cyclase enzyme complex is stimulated, it results in the formation of Cyclic Adenosine 3', 5'-Monophosphate ( ...
The G-protein activates a downstream signalling cascade that causes increased level of cyclic-AMP (cAMP), which trigger ...
Zhao J, Zhang X, Zhou Y, Ansell PJ, Klibanski A (2006). "Cyclic AMP stimulates MEG3 gene expression in cells through a cAMP- ...
"Differential regulation of bovine brain calmodulin dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isozyme by cyclic AMP- ... Huang, C. Y.; Chau, V.; Chock, P. B.; Wang, J. H.; Sharma, R. K. (1982). "Mechanism of activation of cyclic nucleotide ... Sharma, R. K.; Adachi, A. M.; Adachi, K.; Wang, J. H. (1984). "Demonstration of bovine brain calmodulin dependent cyclic ... Sharma, RK; Wirch, E; Wang, JH (May 25, 1978). "Inhibition of Ca2+-activated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase reaction by a ...
Lithium was found to increase the basal levels of cyclic AMP but impair receptor coupled stimulation of cyclic AMP production.[ ... Cyclic AMP secondary messengersEdit. Lithium's therapeutic effects are thought to be partially attributable to its interactions ... 72] It is hypothesized that the dual effects of lithium are due to the inhibition of G-proteins that mediate cyclic AMP ... cyclic AMP and adenylate cyclase levels are further changed by gene transcription factors.[72] ...
The group has subsequently published a number of papers on the dynamics and mechanism of PKA, or cyclic AMP-dependent protein ... "Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". Science. 253 (5018): ...
Its derivatives include the energy carriers adenosine mono-, di-, and triphosphate, also known as AMP/ADP/ATP. Cyclic adenosine ... Adenosine used as a second messenger can be the result of de novo purine biosynthesis via adenosine monophosphate (AMP), though ...
Jones GH, Venuti MC, Alvarez R, Bruno JJ, Berks AH, Prince A (February 1987). "Inhibitors of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. 1. ...
... inhibits G protein coupling that regulates an adenylate cyclase-mediated conversion of ATP to cyclic AMP. The end result is ...
By the late 1960s, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase had been purified, and most attention was centered on kinases and ... Flotow H, Roach PJ (June 1989). "Synergistic phosphorylation of rabbit muscle glycogen synthase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein ... and its activity was shown to not depend on cyclic AMP. The CK1 family of monomeric serine-threonine protein kinases is found ...
... which leads to increased cyclic AMP and eventually reduced cytosolic calcium. Thus camylofin has a comprehensive action to ...
ARPP-21: Cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21 kDa. *AZI2: encoding protein 5-azacytidine-induced protein 2 ...
If necessary, measuring cAMP (cyclic AMP) in the urine after an intravenous dose of PTH can help in the distinction between ...
Cyclic redundancy checks (CRCs) can correct 1-bit errors for messages at most 2. n. −. 1. −. 1. {\displaystyle 2^{n-1}-1}. bits ... Received sentence after deinterleaving: T_isI_AnE_amp_eOfInterle_vin_... No word is completely lost and the missing letters can ...
... and the direction in which the apex progresses responds to cyclic AMP levels, including cAMP cyclization by a pollen signalling ...
D1 receptor stimulation activates adenylyl cyclase and raises intracellular cyclic AMP, resulting in vasodilation of most ...
In 1971 Earl Sutherland, Jr., received the prize for his discovery of Cyclic AMP. Stanley Cohen received a Nobel in 1986, as he ...
環狀(英語:Cyclic nucleotide). *cAMP. *cGMP. *c-di-GMP(英語:Cyclic di-GMP) ...
... coli is regulated transcriptionally by cyclic AMP.[6] In 1970, he and his wife, Constance Casey, moved to San Francisco, where ... he researched the regulation of bacterial gene expression by cyclic AMP. In 1970, he began postdoctoral research in Bishop's ... Varmus, H.E.; Perlman, R.L.; Pastan, I. (1970). "Regulation of lac messenger ribonucleic acid synthesis by cyclic adenosine 3'- ...
By 1972 they had evidence that the second messenger molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) was produced in Aplysia ganglia under conditions ...
3.5.4: Cyclic amidines/. Aminohydrolases. *Guanine deaminase. *Adenosine deaminase. *AMP deaminase. *Inosine monophosphate ... specifically in cyclic amidines. The systematic name of this enzyme class is GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (diphosphate-forming). ...
AANAT is activated through a protein kinase A system in which cyclic AMP (cAMP) is involved. The activation of AANAT leads to ...
3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase A. cGMP:. *Transducin. *Gustducin. *Guanylate cyclase ...
3.5.4: Cyclic amidines/. Aminohydrolases. *Guanine deaminase. *Adenosine deaminase. *AMP deaminase. *Inosine monophosphate ...
"Conversion of protein kinase to a cyclic AMP independent form by affinity chromatography on N0-caproyl 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine ...
... an effect mediated by decreased cyclic AMP-mediated phosphorylation-activation of the enzyme.[25] α2 receptors also cause ... decreased intracellular cyclic AMP expression which results in smooth muscle relaxation or decreased secretion.[26] TCAs ...
Lin B, Morris DW, Chou JY (1997). "The role of HNF1alpha, HNF3gamma, and cyclic AMP in glucose-6-phosphatase gene activation". ...
Cyclic nucleotide. *cAMP. *cGMP. *c-di-GMP. *c-di-AMP. *cADPR. Nucleoside diphosphate. ...
Signals triggered by binding to the receptor are relayed within the cells by the cyclic AMP second messenger system. ...
... which is necessary for lipid mobilization in response to cyclic AMP, which itself is provided by the activation of Gs protein- ...
When released, ADH binds to V2 G-protein coupled receptors within the distal convoluted tubules, increasing cyclic AMP, which ...
Lugnier, C., Keravis, T., Le Bec, A., Pauvert, O., Proteau, S. and Rousseau, E. (1999). "Characterization of cyclic nucleotide ... 3',5'-Ciklični-AMP fosfodiestaraza (EC 3.1.4.53, cAMP-specifična fosfodiesteraza, cAMP-specifična PDE, PDE1, PDE2A, PDE2B, PDE4 ... PDE7, PDE8, PDEB1, PDEB2) je enzim sa sistematskim imenom 3',5'-ciklična-AMP 5'-nukleotidohidrolaza.[1][2][3][4][5][6] Ovaj ... AMP. Za dejstvo ovog enzim je neophodan jon Mg2+ ili Mn2+. ... "Identification of the cpdA gene encoding cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine ...
3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase A. cGMP:. *Transducin. *Gustducin. *Guanylate cyclase ...
S. R. Adams, A. T. Harootunian, Y. J. Buechler, S. S. Taylor un R. Y. Tsien: Fluorescence ratio imaging of cyclic AMP in single ...
"Isolation and characterization of the human spr1 gene and its regulation of expression by phorbol ester and cyclic AMP.". J. ...
Białko CD39 umożliwia rozkład ATP do ADP lub AMP[92]. Drugim istotnym elementem jest cząsteczka CD73, która z kolei przetwarza ... Cyclic adenosine monophosphate is a key component of regulatory T cell-mediated suppression. „J Exp Med". 204 (6), s. 1303-1310 ... Cykliczny AMP jest wytwarzany w dużych ilościach przez limfocyty Treg i przedostaje się do komórek docelowych w wyniku ... Cyclic adenosine monophosphate and IL-10 coordinately contribute to nTreg cell-mediated suppression of dendritic cell ...
response to organic cyclic compound. • negative regulation of gastric acid secretion. • positive regulation of prostaglandin ... non-cyclic) dithiol nonapeptide called oxytoceine.[120] It has been theorized that oxytoceine may act as a free radical ...
Roskoski R, Roskoski LM (Jan 1987). "Activation of tyrosine hydroxylase in PC12 cells by the cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP second ... "Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... response to organic cyclic compound. • eating behavior. • cellular response to growth factor stimulus. • heart morphogenesis. • ...
"Interaction between the antidepressant-like behavioral effects of beta adrenergic agonists and the cyclic AMP PDE inhibitor ...
... nuclear located protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase". 》Frontiers in Bioscience》 13 (13): 1206-26. doi: ...
He later identified the compound as cyclic AMP (cAMP) and with his discovery created the concept of second-messenger-mediated ...
3.5.4: Cyclic amidines/. Aminohidrolaze. *Guanin deaminaza. *Adenozin deaminaza. *AMP deaminaza. *Inozin monofosfat sintaza ...
Cyclic AMP was measured in the isolated rat heart during anoxia in an attempt to demonstrate if this nucleotide is in any way ... The role of cyclic AMP in the modulation of cardiac contractility. Adv. Cyclic Nucleotide Res. 4:163-193.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Cyclic AMP was measured in the isolated rat heart during anoxia in an attempt to demonstrate if this nucleotide is in any way ... Yellon D.M., Boylett A., Hearse D.J. (1983) Cyclic AMP and Early Contractile Failure. In: Chazov E., Saks V., Rona G. (eds) ...
Cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation of the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor inhibits Ca2+ release from platelet membranes ...
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... cyclic AMP) in the mammalian central nervous system is unclear. Brain tissue is rich in cyclic AMP, which is unevenly ... cyclic AMP) in the mammalian central nervous system is unclear. Brain tissue is rich in cyclic AMP, which is unevenly ... Kinetic parameters and renal clearances of plasma cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in man, Clin. Res. 18:73.Google Scholar ... Robison, G. A., Coppen, A. J., Whybrow, P. C., and Prange, A. J., 1970, cyclic AMP in affective disorders. Lancet 2:1028.PubMed ...
The existence of eukaryotic CNB domains not associated with binding of cyclic nucleotides suggests that orphan CNB domains in ... Toxoplasma gondii cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subunit 3 is involved in the switch from tachyzoite to bradyzoite ... Nucleoside analogue activators of cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase A of Trypanosoma. *Sabine Bachmaier1. , ... Cyclic AMP effectors in African trypanosomes revealed by genome-scale RNA interference library screening for resistance to the ...
... FEMS Yeast Res. 2004 Jan;4(4-5):361-7. doi: 10.1016/S1567-1356(03)00241-1. ...
Discovery of cyclic AMP-GMP-sensing riboswitches. Colleen A. Kellenberger, Stephen C. Wilson, Scott F. Hickey, Tania L. ... Discovery of cyclic AMP-GMP-sensing riboswitches. Colleen A. Kellenberger, Stephen C. Wilson, Scott F. Hickey, Tania L. ... A synthase for cyclic AMP-GMP (cAG, also referenced as 3′-5′, 3′-5′ cGAMP) called DncV is associated with hyperinfectivity of ... GEMM-I riboswitches from Geobacter sense the bacterial second messenger cyclic AMP-GMP. Colleen A. Kellenberger, Stephen C. ...
Human cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase PKA inhibitor complex. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3MVJ/pdb ...
Agents that inhibit such synthesis and/or activity (antagonists) may, e.g., result in an increased cyclic AMP level within the ... Agents that enhance such synthesis and/or activity (agonists) may, e.g., result in a decreased cyclic AMP level within the ... Such as inhibitors can be used, for example, as a means of increasing cyclic AMP in neurons and thus treating neurological ... See, e.g., Salanova et al, Heterologous Expression and Purification of Recombinant Rolipram-Sensitive Cyclic AMP-Specific ...
Nucleotidyltransferase that catalyzes the formation of cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) from ATP and GTP (PubMed:23258413, PubMed: ... ATP + GTP = 2 diphosphate + cyclic G-P2-5A-P3-5. UniProt ...
Browse our Cyclic AMP Antibodies all backed by our Guarantee+. ... Cyclic AMP Antibodies. We offer Cyclic AMP Antibodies for use ... Alternate Names for Cyclic AMP Antibodies. anti-Cyclic AMP antibody, anti-3 5 cyclic adenosine monophosphate antibody, anti- ... Choose from our Cyclic AMP polyclonal antibodies and browse our Cyclic AMP monoclonal antibody catalog. ... Our Cyclic AMP Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Human, Mouse, Rat. Use the list below to choose the Cyclic ...
Cyclic AMP compartments and signaling specificity: Role of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. J. Gen. Physiol. 143, 29-38 ( ... The cyclic AMP system and Drosophila learning. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 149-150, 271-278 (1995).. ... Cyclic AMP levels, adenylyl cyclase activity, and their stimulation by serotonin quantified in intact neurons. J. Gen. Physiol. ... cAMPr: A single-wavelength fluorescent sensor for cyclic AMP Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
The Hardcover of the Prostaglandins and Cyclic AMP: Biological Actions and Clinical Applications by Raymond H. Kahn at Barnes ... Prostaglandins and Cyclic AMP: Biological Actions and Clinical Applications. by Raymond H. Kahn (Editor), Lands William E. M. ( ...
Mediation of hippocampal mossy fiber long-term potentiation by cyclic AMP. By MG Weisskopf, PE Castillo, RA Zalutsky, RA Nicoll ... Mediation of hippocampal mossy fiber long-term potentiation by cyclic AMP. By MG Weisskopf, PE Castillo, RA Zalutsky, RA Nicoll ... Mediation of hippocampal mossy fiber long-term potentiation by cyclic AMP Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Experimental elevation of cyclic adenosine 3,5-monophosphate (cAMP) both mimics and interferes with tetanus-induced mossy ...
Since cyclic AMP is involved in the release as well as several of the actions of insulin, the possible role of cyclic AMP in ... but there is also evidence that the cyclic AMP mechanism may be defective. At another level, the role of cyclic AMP is more ... and may also antagonize the action of cyclic AMP in muscle. Cyclic AMP is thus seen to mediate the actions of several catabolic ... The Role of Cyclic AMP in the Control of Carbohydrate Metabolism Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Cyclic amp is low when insulin is elevated;it is needed to make steroid hormones and as a second messenger it mediates between ... Cyclic AMP. Home » Hormones » Cyclic AMP. According to Sears cyclic AMP levels are chronically diminished by elevated insulin ... blood stream without cyclic AMP and the sleep inducing melatonin hormone will not be produced from serotonin without cyclic AMP ... As a result your cyclic AMP levels may be chronically lower than normal changing certain hormone functions…" Bad for business, ...
Here we describe a novel regulatory mechanism in which the dynamics of signaling through cyclic AMP are mediated by activity- ... Activity-dependent regulation of HCN pacemaker channels by cyclic AMP: signaling through dynamic allosteric coupling.. Wang J1 ...
Directional Effects of Cyclic Amp on Platelets F. S. Barnes; F. S. Barnes ... Importance of the Cyclic AMP Concentration for the Rate of Lipolysis in Human Adipose Tissue Clin Sci (Lond) (September,1980) ... Cyclic AMP Responses to Parathyroid Hormone and Glucagon during Lithium Treatment Clin Sci (Lond) (May,1984) ... F. S. Barnes, Elfriede Gamow, Anne Burns, Ann De Boisfleury; Directional Effects of Cyclic Amp on Platelets. Clin Sci Mol Med 1 ...
J Cyclic Nucleotide Protein Phosphor Res. 1983;9(3):181-9. Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S. ... Pre-treatment with isoproterenol or the cyclic AMP analogue, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, induced refractoriness to forskolin. When C6 ... a general activator of cyclic AMP-generating systems. Forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation peaked at 30 min and ... J Cyclic Nucleotide Protein Phosphor Res. 1983;9(3):181-9.. Forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation mediates protein ...
... Yan ... Yan Wang, Guo-Hua Su, Fang Zhang, Jing-Xue Chu, and Yun-Shan Wang, "Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase Is Required for Cell Proliferation ...
Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a cytosolic DNA sensor that induces immune activation. In this study, we examined whether ... Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase Is Required for Cell Proliferation and Inflammatory Responses in Rheumatoid Arthritis Synoviocytes. Yan ...
1998) Cyclic AMP elevation is sufficient to promote the survival of spinal motor neurons in vitro. J Neurosci 18:7361-7371. ... Neuronal Cyclic AMP Controls the Developmental Loss in Ability of Axons to Regenerate. Dongming Cai, Jin Qiu, Zixuan Cao, ... 1997) Immunochemical visualization and quantitation of cyclic AMP in single cells. J Biol Chem 272:31489-31495. ... Immunoassay for cAMP. For each cAMP assay, neurons were dissociated, and cyclic AMP was measured immediately using a ...
One of the important candidates is cyclic AMP (cAMP) which is long known as a potent suppressor at least of T cell activation ... One of the important candidates is cyclic AMP (cAMP) which is long known as a potent suppressor at least of T cell activation ... Cyclic AMP Represents a Crucial Component of Treg Cell-Mediated Immune Regulation. Matthias Klein and Tobias Bopp* ... One of the important candidates is cyclic AMP (cAMP), which is long known as a potent suppressor at least of T cell activation ...
Blocking CXCR4-Mediated Cyclic AMP Suppression Inhibits Brain Tumor Growth In vivo. Lihua Yang, Erin Jackson, B. Mark Woerner, ... Cyclic AMP-induced G1 phase arrest mediated by an inhibitor (p27Kip1) of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 activation. Cell 1994; 79: ... Furman MA, Shulman K. Cyclic AMP and adenyl cyclase in brain tumors. J Neurosurg 1977; 46: 477-83. ... DeltaRaf-1:ER* bypasses the cyclic AMP block of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 activation but not CDK2 ...
Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1Add BLAST. 341. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). Description ... "Cyclic AMP-responsive DNA-binding protein: structure based on a cloned placental cDNA.". Hoeffler J.P., Meyer T.E., Yun Y., ... sp,P16220,CREB1_HUMAN Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=CREB1 PE=1 SV=2 ... "Serum/glucocorticoid-inducible kinase can phosphorylate the cyclic AMP response element binding protein, CREB.". David S., Kalb ...
Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1Add BLAST. 341. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). Description ... sp,P15337,CREB1_RAT Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 OS=Rattus norvegicus GN=Creb1 PE=1 SV=1 ... p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and ... p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and ...
Activation of protein kinase C potentiates isoprenaline-induced cyclic AMP accumulation in rat pinealocytes Nature. 1985 Mar 28 ... An essential step in both the induction and maintenance of high NAT activity is an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP. ... Noradrenaline acts via beta-adrenoceptors to increase pineal cyclic AMP by activating adenylate cyclase, and the activation of ... pineal alpha 1-adrenoceptors potentiates beta-adrenergic stimulation not only of NAT but of both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. ...
where to buy 60-92-4(Cyclic AMP).Also offer free database of 60-92-4(Cyclic AMP) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, ... Adenosine cyclic 3,5-monophosphate;Adenosine cyclic monophosphate;Cyclic 3,5-AMP;Cyclic3,5-adenylic acid;Cyclic adenosine ... Product Name: Cyclic AMP Synonyms: cyclic3,5-adenylicacid;cyclic3,5-amp;cyclicadenosine3,5-phosphate;(S)-CYCLIC 3 5-( ... 99%min Adenosin Cyclophosphate/3,5-cyclic AMP/Adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate CAS 60-92-4 ...
Subpressor infusions of angiotensin II alter glomerular binding, prostaglandin E2, and cyclic AMP production.. J G Douglas ... Subpressor infusions of angiotensin II alter glomerular binding, prostaglandin E2, and cyclic AMP production. ... Subpressor infusions of angiotensin II alter glomerular binding, prostaglandin E2, and cyclic AMP production. ... Subpressor infusions of angiotensin II alter glomerular binding, prostaglandin E2, and cyclic AMP production. ...
Cyclic AMP is degraded by the phosphodiesterase (PDE) family of enzymes (4, 5). Because many PDE isoforms are targeted to ... Targeting of Cyclic AMP Degradation to β2-Adrenergic Receptors by β-Arrestins ... Targeting of Cyclic AMP Degradation to β2-Adrenergic Receptors by β-Arrestins ... Targeting of Cyclic AMP Degradation to β2-Adrenergic Receptors by β-Arrestins ...
  • In mouse hepatocytes, metformin leads to the accumulation of AMP and related nucleotides, which inhibit adenylate cyclase, reduce levels of cyclic AMP and protein kinase A (PKA) activity, abrogate phosphorylation of critical protein targets of PKA, and block glucagon-dependent glucose output from hepatocytes. (nih.gov)
  • However, blocking cyclic AMP formation with 2′5′-ddAdo, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, greatly reversed the antiplatelet activity of MP407 and related platelet-activating pathways. (ovid.com)
  • In cya mutants, which lack adenylate cyclase, the addition of cyclic AMP was required for synthesis of proteins that were necessary for phosphotransferase transport and chemotaxis. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, the concentration of cAMP in a cell is a function of the ratio of the rate of synthesis from ATP by adenylate cyclase and its rate of breakdown to AMP by specific phosphodiesterases. (biomol.com)
  • This activates an enzyme, adenylate cyclase, which produces cyclic AMP from ATP. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cyclic AMP is produced from ATP by the enzyme adenylate cyclase (AC) and is hydrolyzed by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases. (moleculardevices.com)
  • 4. By contrast, platelet cyclic AMP accumulation in response to a variety of adenylate cyclase stimulators was reduced from early pregnancy, throughout the gestational period, compared with post-natally. (clinsci.org)
  • 5. Compared with healthy women, platelets from women with a previous history of pre-eclampsia tended to accumulate less cyclic AMP in response to adenylate cyclase stimulators. (clinsci.org)
  • Salmonella typhimurium deletion mutants lacking adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP receptor protein are avirulent and immunogenic. (asm.org)
  • Here we explored a role for the signaling pathway mediated by cyclic AMP (cAMP), which is synthesized by the regulated action of adenylate cyclase (encoded by CDC35 in Candida albicans and CYR1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) and cyclase-associated protein (encoded by CAP1 and SRV2 , respectively). (asm.org)
  • Defects in phosphotransferase chemotaxis in cya and cpd mutants previously cited as evidence of a cyclic GMP or cyclic AMP intermediate in signal transduction were not reproduced in a study of chemotaxis in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. (asm.org)
  • Cyclic AMP is a ubiquitous cellular second messenger that is a critical component of a signal transduction pathway linking membrane receptors and their ligands to the activation of internal cellular enzymatic activity and gene expression. (biomol.com)
  • Increasing evidence suggests that ethanol-induced changes in cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal transduction play a critical role in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol. (biochemj.org)
  • Regulation of penicillin acylase in Escherichia coli by cyclic AMP. (nih.gov)
  • 5. Cyclic AMP appears to participate in the regulation of this enzyme at the transcriptional level. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclic AMP plays an important role in the regulation of metabolism generally. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) is a second messenger that plays an important role in intracellular regulation. (biovendor.com)
  • Regulation of the expression of the inflammatory nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) by cyclic AMP. (biovendor.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that adenosine 3´, 5´cyclic monophosphoric acid (cyclic AMP) is a key factor in the regulation of narcosis [1]. (springer.com)
  • Cohn ML (1975) Cyclic AMP, thryrotropin-releasing factor and somatostatin: key factors in the regulation of the duration of narcosis. (springer.com)
  • Lysophosphatidic acid regulation of cyclic AMP accumulation in cultured human airway smooth muscle cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The results demonstrated that two cyclic AMP responsive elements (CREs) in the proximal promoter region of C/EBPβ were involved in the positive regulation of C/EBPβ transcription during granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-induced differentiation of bone marrow cells. (harvard.edu)
  • In enterobacteria, cyclic AMP (cAMP) is involved in the regulation of the majority of genes expressed under starvation ( 43 ), including those coding for high-affinity sugar transport systems ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Abstract Endogenous cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) binds and activates STING to induce type I interferons. (doaj.org)
  • The stimulatory signal wanes as cAMP is degraded to AMP by a phosphodiesterase, and phosphorylated proteins are dephosphorylated and inactivated. (oxfordreference.com)
  • cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behaviour of cells . (biology-online.org)
  • The transcription regulator cyclic AMP receptor protein of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases . (biology-online.org)
  • The only known role of cyclic AMP is in the synthesis of some proteins that are subject to catabolite repression. (asm.org)
  • CNBs function as regulatory modules in different classes of proteins, such as catabolite activator protein, cyclic nucleotide gated channels, Epac proteins, and guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors, where effector protein and domain activity is controlled by cAMP binding to CNB ( 3 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In vertebrates, the best-characterized nuclear targets of PKA are the cyclic AMP response element-binding (CREB) proteins. (kuleuven.be)
  • The cyclic AMP response element modulator regulates transcription of the TCR zeta-chain," Journal of Immunology , vol. 175, no. 9, pp. 5975-5980, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Cyclic AMP response element modulator is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is regulated by CYCLIC AMP. (curehunter.com)
  • We previously showed that the expression of the transcriptional repressor cyclic AMP response element modulator α (CREMα) is increased in SLE T cells and contributes to reduced IL-2 production. (springer.com)
  • The IL-2 promoter defines a consensus CRE site at position -180, which can bind the cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB) and cyclic AMP response element modulator (CREM) transcription factors. (springer.com)
  • Here, we define IFI16 dynamics in space and time and its distinct functions from the DNA sensor cyclic dinucleotide GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). (asm.org)
  • Cyclic AMP receptors from slime molds are a distinct family of G-protein coupled receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In D. discoideum, the cyclic AMP receptors coordinate aggregation of individual cells into a multicellular organism, and regulate the expression of a large number of developmentally-regulated genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The best characterised cyclic aMP receptors are those of the slime mold dictyostelium discoideum. (biology-online.org)
  • Because it has been previously shown that endothelial cells contain β-receptors and respond to catecholamines by raising their intracellular concentrations of cyclic AMP, and that PMN adherence is attenuated by cyclic AMP, it would appear that diminished PMN adherence after epinephrine administration is mediated through endothelial cell β-receptor activity, which in turn impairs PMN margination in vivo and could account for the rise in circulating PMN. (jci.org)
  • Cyclic AMP receptors and cation fluxes in the turkey erythrocyte. (aspetjournals.org)
  • gamma-Aminobutyric acid-B receptors inhibit glutamate release from cerebellar granule cells: consequences of inhibiting cyclic AMP formation and calcium influx. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In cerebellar granule cells, baclofen acted with micromolar concentrations at proposed gamma-aminobutyric acid-B receptors to inhibit the formation of cyclic AMP and depolarization-induced release of glutamate. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Adenosine 3´, 5´-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP) is a universal secondary messenger that connects changes in the extracellular environment, as detected by cell surface receptors, to changes in the nucleus, which results in altered patterns of gene expression. (moleculardevices.com)
  • The receptor agonist, cyclic AMPS, disrupted slug organization and impaired phototaxis when present at concentrations high enough to saturate cyclic AMP receptors and compete effectively with endogenous cyclic AMP signals of similar magnitude to those observed during aggregation. (biologists.org)
  • A synthase for cyclic AMP-GMP (cAG, also referenced as 3′-5′, 3′-5′ cGAMP) called DncV is associated with hyperinfectivity of Vibrio cholerae but has not been found in many bacteria, raising questions about the prevalence and function of cAG signaling. (pnas.org)
  • To date, several DNA sensors that activate the canonical STING/TBK-1/IRF3 signaling axis have been proposed, including IFI16 ( 4 - 6 ) and, most recently, the DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) ( 15 - 18 ). (asm.org)
  • The cAMP signal is neutralized by hydrolysis of cAMP to AMP by phosphodiesterases. (biomol.com)
  • Deactivated by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases which convert it to 5 ¢ -adenylic acid. (drugfuture.com)
  • Two C-terminal cyclic nucleotide binding (CNB) domains cooperatively bind two molecules of cAMP, resulting in a conformational change of the R subunit that releases the active catalytic kinase subunit(s) from the inhibitory pseudo-substrate or substrate site of PKAR. (nature.com)
  • Dibutyryl-cAMP is a cell-permeable cyclic AMP (cAMP) analog that activates cAMP-dependent protein kinases (Schwede et al. (stemcell.com)
  • Experimental elevation of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) both mimics and interferes with tetanus-induced mossy fiber LTP, and blockers of the cAMP cascade block mossy fiber LTP. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we report that the endogenous levels of the cyclic nucleotide, cAMP, are dramatically higher in young neurons in which axonal growth is promoted both by myelin in general and by a specific myelin component, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), than in the same types of neurons that, when older, are inhibited by myelin-MAG. (jneurosci.org)
  • One of the important candidates is cyclic AMP (cAMP), which is long known as a potent suppressor at least of T cell activation and function. (frontiersin.org)
  • ANG II infusion diminished glomerular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, increased basal cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) production, and enhanced ANG II-induced decrements in cAMP production. (ahajournals.org)
  • The cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) strongly enhanced hapA transcription in the deceleration phase. (asm.org)
  • sra5 mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were previously shown to suppress the inefficient growth of ras2 strains on nonfermentable carbon sources and to result in deficient low-Km cyclic AMP (cAMP) phosphodiesterase activity. (asm.org)
  • Two isoforms of the regulatory subunits of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase that bind cAMP are inversely expressed during ontogeny and cell differentiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The TOR (target of rapamycin) and RAS/cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathways are the two major pathways controlling cell growth in response to nutrients in yeast. (asm.org)
  • The decoding of dynamic Ca 2+ signals is, in part, mediated by the ability of Ca 2+ to regulate other second messengers, including cyclic AMP (cAMP). (biologists.org)
  • However, prime candidates, the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-producing Ca 2+ -dependent adenylyl cyclases (ACs), have until recently ( Gorbunova and Spitzer, 2002 ) been refractory to the display of such behaviour. (biologists.org)
  • The somatostatin (SS) gene is transcriptionally regulated via the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element (CRE), located in the proximal promoter (-41 to -48 bp). (biochemj.org)
  • A further and pronounced increase in cultivation success was accomplished by the addition of cyclic AMP (cAMP), N -butyryl homoserine lactone, or N -oxohexanoyl- dl -homoserine lactone at a low concentration of 10 μM. (asm.org)
  • Bacterial cells of strain G100 that were starved for 6 weeks attained a higher growth rate and a higher biomass yield when resuscitated in the presence of cAMP instead of AMP. (asm.org)
  • One of the most promising new targets for trypanocidal drugs to emerge in recent years is the cyclic AMP (cAMP) phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity encoded by TbrPDEB1 and TbrPDEB2 . (asm.org)
  • In this study we have examined the relationship of azole susceptibility to the evolutionary conserved cyclic AMP (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway (Fig. 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that activated immune cells produce a soluble inhibitor(s) of cardiac myocyte contractile and cyclic AMP (cAMP) responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Dibutyryl cyclic AMP induces differentiation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells into a noradrenergic phenotype. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) and retinoic acid (RA) have been demonstrated to be the inducers of morphological differentiation in SH-SY5Y cells, a human catecholaminergic neuroblastoma cell line. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Although the analogue dibutyryl cyclic AMP appeared to increase settlement, the effect was not significant. (biologists.org)
  • Cohn ML, Yamaoka H, Taylor FH, Kraynack B (1973) Action of intracerebroventricular dibutyryl cyclic AMP on amobarbital anaesthesia in rats. (springer.com)
  • Cohn ML, Cohn M, Taylor FH, Scattaregia F (1975) A direct effect of dibutyryl cyclic AMP on the duration of narcosis induced by sedative, hypnotic, tranquilizer and anaesthetic drugs in the rat. (springer.com)
  • The suggestion a decade ago that metformin reduces glucose synthesis through activation of the enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has recently been challenged by genetic loss-of-function experiments. (nih.gov)
  • This increase in the level of .cyclic AMP leads to a net increase in hepatic glucose production by at least three mechanisms: stimulation of phosphorylase activation, suppression of glycogen synthetase activity, and stimulation of gluconeogenesis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2011. MPYS is required for IFN response factor 3 activation and type I IFN production in the response of cultured phagocytes to bacterial second messengers cyclic-di-AMP and cyclic-di-GMP. (invivogen.com)
  • Cyclic AMP-responsive element-dependent activation of Epstein-Barr virus zebra promoter by human herpesvirus 6. (asm.org)
  • Effects of dopamine receptor activation on the level of cyclic AMP in the trabecular meshwork. (arvojournals.org)
  • Among the principal effects of cyclic AMP in these tissues are glycogenolysis in muscle and lipolysis in adipose tissue. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Nucleotidyltransferase that catalyzes the formation of cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) from ATP and GTP (PubMed:23258413, PubMed:23707061, PubMed:23722159, PubMed:24077100, PubMed:25131990). (rcsb.org)
  • Phosphotransferase chemotaxis was normal in a cpd mutant of S. typhimurium that has elevated levels of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP. (asm.org)
  • We examined the effects of dopamine and of a selective DA1 agonist, fenoldopam, on the levels of cyclic AMP in the trabecular meshwork, freshly excised from porcine and canine eyes. (arvojournals.org)
  • Effects of a selective inhibitor of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase on the pial microcirculation in feline cerebral ischemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • NH4)3SO4 is known to perturb cyclic AMP binding to its receptor, and ammonia is an inhibitor of cyclic AMP signalling in aggregating amoebae. (biologists.org)
  • Biguanides suppress hepatic glucagon signalling by decreasing production of cyclic AMP. (nih.gov)
  • At another level, the role of cyclic AMP is more obvious: insulin deficiency leaves unopposed the actions of hormones which stimulate the production of cyclic AMP, thereby contributing to the glucose plethora and ketosis so often seen in the later stages of the disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • cGAS-dependent apoptosis upon DNA stimulation requires both the enzymatic production of cyclic dinucleotides and STING. (asm.org)
  • The second messenger cyclic AMP, for example, regulates a striking number of physiologic processes, including intermediary metabolism, cellular proliferation, and neuronal signaling, by altering basic patterns of gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclic AMP regulates the expression of a number of genes through a conserved promoter element, the CRE1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Prostaglandin E2 regulates Th17 cell differentiation and function through cyclic AMP and EP2/EP4 receptor signaling. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cyclic AMP is an intracellular messenger that regulates numerous processes in various types of cells. (dissertations.se)
  • The involvement of cyclic AMP in the settlement of the cypris larva of Balanus amphitrite amphitrite Darwin has been examined through the use of compounds that affect intracellular cyclic AMP levels. (biologists.org)
  • We conclude that compounds that alter intracellular cyclic AMP levels alter normal patterns of cyprid settlement. (biologists.org)
  • Finally, secretions induced a transient rise in the intracellular cyclic AMP concentration in monocytes and Rp-cyclic AMPS inhibited the effects of secretions. (springermedizin.de)
  • 3. Basal platelet cyclic AMP levels, and those in the presence of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, did not change throughout the period of the study. (clinsci.org)
  • In tissue samples from canine eyes, fenoldopam at a concentration of 10(-4) M increased the endogenous cyclic AMP level from a basal value of 26.0 +/- 4.6 to 64.2 +/- 5.7 pmol/mg protein. (arvojournals.org)
  • 3. The conversion of inactive enzyme precursor into active enzyme was not stimulated by cyclic AMP in cells in which protein synthesis was inhibited by chloramphenicol. (nih.gov)
  • 4. Cyclic AMP failed to stimulate enzyme production in cells in which messenger RNA synthesis was arrested by rifampicin or inducer removal. (nih.gov)
  • After preincubation with cyclic AMP, the crr mutants were deficient in enzyme II glucose-mediated transport and chemotaxis, but other chemotactic responses were normal. (asm.org)
  • One is to stimulate the enzyme adenyl cyclase to synthesize cyclic AMP, which, in turn, stimulates cation transport. (biologists.org)
  • We offer Cyclic AMP Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA, Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
  • Our Cyclic AMP Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Human, Mouse, Rat. (novusbio.com)
  • Choose from our Cyclic AMP polyclonal antibodies and browse our Cyclic AMP monoclonal antibody catalog. (novusbio.com)
  • Detection of c-di-AMP by the host cytoplasmic surveillance pathway (CSP) is known to elicit type I IFN responses through a signaling axis that involves STING, TBK1 and IRF3 [1, 2]. (invivogen.com)
  • It is concluded that cyclic GMP does not determine the frequency of tumbling and is probably not a component of the transduction pathway. (asm.org)
  • The existence of eukaryotic CNB domains not associated with binding of cyclic nucleotides suggests that orphan CNB domains in other eukaryotes may bind undiscovered signalling molecules. (nature.com)
  • In eukaryotes, CNB domains are bound and regulated by cyclic nucleotides. (nature.com)
  • It was of interest to determine whether the dibutyryl analog of cyclic AMP and other adenine nucleotides regulate conduction anesthesia as well. (springer.com)
  • 1971). The specific distribution of cyclic AMP in various brain regions reflects the relative activities of the synthetic and degradative enzymes, adenyl cyclase, and phosphodiesterase. (springer.com)
  • recently am understandable whites that could store this cyclic amp 1971 year century expansion in und of quantifying Increasing a Great grade or behavior, a SQL treatment or financial tracks. (rollwithitmn.org)
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  • On the other hand, vasopressin's mitogenic action (also like that of cyclic AMP) is blocked by imidazole, an activator of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity. (dtic.mil)
  • Each Cyclic AMP Antibody is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • As measured by radioimmunoassay, fenoldopam at a concentration of 10(-5) M caused a 4-fold increase in the cyclic AMP content, from a basal level of 24.4 +/- 1.9 to 101.8 +/- 6.3 pmol/mg protein, of the trabecular meshwork samples from porcine eyes. (arvojournals.org)
  • Phototaxis and thermotaxis by Dictyostelium discoideum slugs on water agar were impaired by the presence in the agar of adenosine, which is a cyclic AMP receptor antagonist in aggregating amoebae. (biologists.org)
  • Insulin then travels to the liver and adipose tissue to suppress the accumulation of cyclic AMP, and may also antagonize the action of cyclic AMP in muscle. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Whether or not cyclic AMP plays a regulatory role in basement membrane synthesis is presently unknown. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2011. STING is a direct innate immune sensor of cyclic di-GMP. (invivogen.com)
  • The role of cyclic AMP in the modulation of cardiac contractility. (springer.com)
  • The hormone, thyrocalcitonin (calcitonin) which is known to block the cyclic AMP-mediated mitogenic effect of parathyroid hormone by interfering with cyclic AMP action, also blocks the mitogenic action of vasopressin. (dtic.mil)
  • Free energy is supplied to drive metabolic reactions, to transport molecules against concentration gradients (active transport), and to produce mechanical motion (contraction of myofibrils and microtubules), when ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and inorganic phosphate or to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Serezani CH, Ballinger MN, Aronoff DM, Peters-Golden M. Cyclic AMP: master regulator of innate immune cell function. (biovendor.com)
  • Our understanding of cyclic AMP signaling in the nucleus has expanded considerably over the past decade, owing in large part to the characterization of cyclic AMP-responsive promoter elements, transcription factors that bind them, and signal-dependent coactivators that mediate target gene induction. (nih.gov)
  • Such as inhibitors can be used, for example, as a means of increasing cyclic AMP in neurons and thus treating neurological problems, such as long term memory loss, if not preventing such maladies entirely. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The purpose of this review is to describe the components of the cyclic AMP response unit and to analyze how these components cooperate to induce target gene expression in response to hormonal stimulation. (nih.gov)
  • The secretion of cyclic di-AMP was dependent on MdrT, a multidrug resistance transporter, and LO28 exhibited a very high level of mdrT expression. (asm.org)
  • Maggot secretions inhibit the pro-inflammatory responses of human monocytes through a cyclic AMP-dependent mechanism. (springermedizin.de)
  • 2. If a gradient of cyclic AMP is generated in such a preparation a large fraction of the spread platelets are oriented with their veils into the gradient. (portlandpress.com)
  • Moreover, MP407 is able to increase the cyclic AMP formation both in resting and activated platelets. (ovid.com)
  • Cyclic AMP is thus seen to mediate the actions of several catabolic hormones as well as promote the release of an anabolic hormone which acts in part by opposing cyclic AMP. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For instance, all the steroid hormones (testosterone, estrogen, progesterone) require cyclic AMP for their production. (nethealthbook.com)
  • It is only possible to determine the changes in the metabolic pathways in time consuming research settings by measuring the various "substrates" , "enzymes" and hormones that are involved in the complex biochemical pathways involving cyclic AMP. (nethealthbook.com)
  • Cyclic AMP is also involved in controlling gene expression and cell division, in immune responses, and in nervous transmission. (oxfordreference.com)
  • The chief role of cyclic AMP in several tissues seems to be to facilitate or promote the mobilization of glucose and fatty acid reserves. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Another role of cyclic AMP is to enhance or promote the release of insulin from pancreatic beta cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Since cyclic AMP is involved in the release as well as several of the actions of insulin, the possible role of cyclic AMP in diabetes has been discussed. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • AMP may play a role in limiting postherpetic neuralgia , which is the pain that sometimes lingers after a bout of shingles (herpes zoster). (online-vitamins-guide.com)
  • 1. The role of cyclic AMP in mediating the action of 5-HT on salivary glands has been studied by measuring transepithelial potentials. (biologists.org)
  • Hannila SS, Filbin MT. The role of cyclic AMP signaling in promoting axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury. (biovendor.com)
  • Role of cyclic AMP response element binding protein in human leukemias. (biovendor.com)
  • Taken together with the considerable circumstantial evidence for cyclic AMP signalling in slugs, these results support a role for cyclic AMP signalling in slug behaviour. (biologists.org)