Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Product Line Management: Management control systems for structuring health care delivery strategies around case types, as in DRGs, or specific clinical services.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Directory3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.Rolipram: A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is found predominantly in inflammatory cells and may play a role in the regulation of CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. The enzyme family includes over twenty different variants that occur due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA of at least four different genes.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 1: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.Mossy Fibers, Hippocampal: Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Rodenticides: Substances used to destroy or inhibit the action of rats, mice, or other rodents.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Rodent Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous rodents through chemical, biological, or other means.Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Latent Tuberculosis: The dormant form of TUBERCULOSIS where the person shows no obvious symptoms and no sign of the causative agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the SPUTUM despite being positive for tuberculosis infection skin test.Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Receptors, Angiotensin: Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Capillary Resistance: The vascular resistance to the flow of BLOOD through the CAPILLARIES portions of the peripheral vascular bed.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.Glomerular Mesangium: The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Basophils: Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.Histamine Release: The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.Cell Degranulation: The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.Receptors, IgE: Specific molecular sites on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes which combine with IgEs. Two subclasses exist: low affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RII) and high affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RI).Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).

The MAP kinase ERK2 inhibits the cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase HSPDE4D3 by phosphorylating it at Ser579. (1/18083)

The extracellular receptor stimulated kinase ERK2 (p42(MAPK))-phosphorylated human cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE4D3 at Ser579 and profoundly reduced ( approximately 75%) its activity. These effects could be reversed by the action of protein phosphatase PP1. The inhibitory state of PDE4D3, engendered by ERK2 phosphorylation, was mimicked by the Ser579-->Asp mutant form of PDE4D3. In COS1 cells transfected to express PDE4D3, challenge with epidermal growth factor (EGF) caused the phosphorylation and inhibition of PDE4D3. This effect was blocked by the MEK inhibitor PD98059 and was not apparent using the Ser579-->Ala mutant form of PDE4D3. Challenge of HEK293 and F442A cells with EGF led to the PD98059-ablatable inhibition of endogenous PDE4D3 and PDE4D5 activities. EGF challenge of COS1 cells transfected to express PDE4D3 increased cAMP levels through a process ablated by PD98059. The activity of the Ser579-->Asp mutant form of PDE4D3 was increased by PKA phosphorylation. The transient form of the EGF-induced inhibition of PDE4D3 is thus suggested to be due to feedback regulation by PKA causing the ablation of the ERK2-induced inhibition of PDE4D3. We identify a novel means of cross-talk between the cAMP and ERK signalling pathways whereby cell stimuli that lead to ERK2 activation may modulate cAMP signalling.  (+info)

The paired-domain transcription factor Pax8 binds to the upstream enhancer of the rat sodium/iodide symporter gene and participates in both thyroid-specific and cyclic-AMP-dependent transcription. (2/18083)

The gene encoding the Na/I symporter (NIS) is expressed at high levels only in thyroid follicular cells, where its expression is regulated by the thyroid-stimulating hormone via the second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP). In this study, we demonstrate the presence of an enhancer that is located between nucleotides -2264 and -2495 in the 5'-flanking region of the NIS gene and that recapitulates the most relevant aspects of NIS regulation. When fused to either its own or a heterologous promoter, the NIS upstream enhancer, which we call NUE, stimulates transcription in a thyroid-specific and cAMP-dependent manner. The activity of NUE depends on the four most relevant sites, identified by mutational analysis. The thyroid-specific transcription factor Pax8 binds at two of these sites. Mutations that interfere with Pax8 binding also decrease transcriptional activity of the NUE. Furthermore, expression of Pax8 in nonthyroid cells results in transcriptional activation of NUE, strongly suggesting that the paired-domain protein Pax8 plays an important role in NUE activity. The NUE responds to cAMP in both protein kinase A-dependent and -independent manners, indicating that this enhancer could represent a novel type of cAMP responsive element. Such a cAMP response requires Pax8 but also depends on the integrity of a cAMP responsive element (CRE)-like sequence, thus suggesting a functional interaction between Pax8 and factors binding at the CRE-like site.  (+info)

Identification of a cAMP response element within the glucose- 6-phosphatase hydrolytic subunit gene promoter which is involved in the transcriptional regulation by cAMP and glucocorticoids in H4IIE hepatoma cells. (3/18083)

The expression of a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the human glucose 6-phosphatase gene promoter was stimulated by both dexamethasone and dibutyryl cAMP in H4IIE hepatoma cells. A cis-active element located between nucleotides -161 and -152 in the glucose 6-phosphatase gene promoter was identified and found to be necessary for both basal reporter-gene expression and induction of expression by both dibutyryl cAMP and dexamethasone. Nucleotides -161 to -152 were functionally replaced by the consensus sequence for a cAMP response element. An antibody against the cAMP response element-binding protein caused a supershift in gel-electrophoretic-mobility-shift assays using an oligonucleotide probe representing the glucose 6-phosphatase gene promoter from nucleotides -161 to -152. These results strongly indicate that in H4IIE cells the glucose 6-phosphatase gene-promoter sequence from -161 to -152 is a cAMP response element which is important for the regulation of transcription of the glucose 6-phosphatase gene by both cAMP and glucocorticoids.  (+info)

PrKX is a novel catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulated by the regulatory subunit type I. (4/18083)

The human X chromosome-encoded protein kinase X (PrKX) belongs to the family of cAMP-dependent protein kinases. The catalytically active recombinant enzyme expressed in COS cells phosphorylates the heptapeptide Kemptide (LRRASLG) with a specific activity of 1.5 micromol/(min.mg). Using surface plasmon resonance, high affinity interactions were demonstrated with the regulatory subunit type I (RIalpha) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (KD = 10 nM) and the heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor (KD = 15 nM), but not with the type II regulatory subunit (RIIalpha, KD = 2.3 microM) under physiological conditions. Kemptide and autophosphorylation activities of PrKX are strongly inhibited by the RIalpha subunit and by protein kinase inhibitor in vitro, but only weakly by the RIIalpha subunit. The inhibition by the RIalpha subunit is reversed by addition of nanomolar concentrations of cAMP (Ka = 40 nM), thus demonstrating that PrKX is a novel, type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase that is activated at lower cAMP concentrations than the holoenzyme with the Calpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Microinjection data clearly indicate that the type I R subunit but not type II binds to PrKX in vivo, preventing the translocation of PrKX to the nucleus in the absence of cAMP. The RIIalpha subunit is an excellent substrate for PrKX and is phosphorylated in vitro in a cAMP-independent manner. We discuss how PrKX can modulate the cAMP-mediated signal transduction pathway by preferential binding to the RIalpha subunit and by phosphorylating the RIIalpha subunit in the absence of cAMP.  (+info)

A2B adenosine and P2Y2 receptors stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinase in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. cross-talk between cyclic AMP and protein kinase c pathways. (5/18083)

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades underlie long-term mitogenic, morphogenic, and secretory activities of purinergic receptors. In HEK-293 cells, N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) activates endogenous A2BARs that signal through Gs and Gq/11. UTP activates P2Y2 receptors and signals only through Gq/11. The MAPK isoforms, extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK), are activated by NECA and UTP. H-89 blocks ERK activation by forskolin, but weakly affects the response to NECA or UTP. ERK activation by NECA or UTP is unaffected by a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (genistein), attenuated by a phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122), and is abolished by a MEK inhibitor (PD098059) or dominant negative Ras. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) by GF 109203X failed to block ERK activation by NECA or UTP, however, another PKC inhibitor, Ro 31-8220, which unlike GF 109203X, can block the zeta-isoform, and prevents UTP- but not NECA-induced ERK activation. In the presence of forskolin, Ro 31-8220 loses its ability to block UTP-stimulated ERK activation. PKA has opposing effects on B-Raf and c-Raf-1, both of which are found in HEK-293 cells. The data are explained by a model in which ERK activity is modulated by differential effects of PKC zeta and PKA on Raf isoforms.  (+info)

CRE-mediated gene transcription in neocortical neuronal plasticity during the developmental critical period. (6/18083)

Neuronal activity-dependent processes are believed to mediate the formation of synaptic connections during neocortical development, but the underlying intracellular mechanisms are not known. In the visual system, altering the pattern of visually driven neuronal activity by monocular deprivation induces cortical synaptic rearrangement during a postnatal developmental window, the critical period. Here, using transgenic mice carrying a CRE-lacZ reporter, we demonstrate that a calcium- and cAMP-regulated signaling pathway is activated following monocular deprivation. We find that monocular deprivation leads to an induction of CRE-mediated lacZ expression in the visual cortex preceding the onset of physiologic plasticity, and this induction is dramatically downregulated following the end of the critical period. These results suggest that CRE-dependent coordinate regulation of a network of genes may control physiologic plasticity during postnatal neocortical development.  (+info)

Prior exposure to neurotrophins blocks inhibition of axonal regeneration by MAG and myelin via a cAMP-dependent mechanism. (7/18083)

MAG is a potent inhibitor of axonal regeneration. Here, inhibition by MAG, and myelin in general, is blocked if neurons are exposed to neurotrophins before encountering the inhibitor; priming cerebellar neurons with BDNF or GDNF, but not NGF, or priming DRG neurons with any of these neurotrophins blocks inhibition by MAG/myelin. Dibutyryl cAMP also overcomes inhibition by MAG/myelin, and cAMP is elevated by neurotrophins. A PKA inhibitor present during priming abrogates the block of inhibition. Finally, if neurons are exposed to MAG/myelin and neurotrophins simultaneously, but with the Gi protein inhibitor, inhibition is blocked. We suggest that priming neurons with particular neurotrophins elevates cAMP and activates PKA, which blocks subsequent inhibition of regeneration and that priming is required because MAG/myelin activates a Gi protein, which blocks increases in cAMP. This is important for encouraging axons to regrow in vivo.  (+info)

Mechanisms for generating the autonomous cAMP-dependent protein kinase required for long-term facilitation in Aplysia. (8/18083)

The formation of a persistently active cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is critical for establishing long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF) in Aplysia. The injection of bovine catalytic (C) subunits into sensory neurons is sufficient to produce protein synthesis-dependent LTF. Early in the LTF induced by serotonin (5-HT), an autonomous PKA is generated through the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated proteolysis of regulatory (R) subunits. The degradation of R occurs during an early time window and appears to be a key function of proteasomes in LTF. Lactacystin, a specific proteasome inhibitor, blocks the facilitation induced by 5-HT, and this block is rescued by injecting C subunits. R is degraded through an allosteric mechanism requiring an elevation of cAMP coincident with the induction of a ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase.  (+info)

*Cyclic AMP receptors

... from slime molds are a distinct family of G-protein coupled receptors. These receptors control development ... In D. discoideum, the cyclic AMP receptors coordinate aggregation of individual cells into a multicellular organism, and ...

*3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase

... cyclic-AMP 5'-nucleotidohydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction adenosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate + H2O ... 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.53, cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, cAMP-specific PDE, PDE1, PDE2A, PDE2B, PDE4, ... 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and ... Lugnier, C.; Keravis, T.; Le Bec, A.; Pauvert, O.; Proteau, S.; Rousseau, E. (1999). "Characterization of cyclic nucleotide ...

*Cyclic di-AMP

... (also called c-di-AMP and c-di-adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger used in signal transduction in ... Corrigan, Rebecca (1 July 2013). "Cyclic di-AMP: another second messenger enters the fray". Nature Reviews Microbiology. doi: ... Cyclic di-GMP Dey, Bappaditya (2 March 2015). "A bacterial cyclic dinucleotide activates the cytosolic surveillance pathway and ...

*Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase

"Cyclic [G(2′,5′)pA(3′,5′)p] Is the Metazoan Second Messenger Produced by DNA-Activated Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase". Cell. 153 (5 ... Gao, D; Wu, J; Wu, YT; Du, F; Aroh, C; Yan, N; Sun, L; Chen, ZJ (Aug 23, 2013). "Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase is an innate immune ... Wu, J; Sun, L; Chen, X; Du, F; Shi, H; Chen, C; Chen, ZJ (Dec 20, 2012). "Cyclic GMP-AMP is an endogenous second messenger in ... Sun, L; Wu, J; Du, F; Chen, X; Chen, ZJ (Dec 20, 2012). "Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase is a cytosolic DNA sensor that activates the ...

*Lac operon

Botsford, J L; Harman, J G (March 1992). "Cyclic AMP in prokaryotes". Microbiological Reviews. 56 (1): 100-122. ISSN 0146-0749 ... Montminy, M. (1997). "Transcriptional regulation by cyclic AMP". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 66: 807-822. doi:10.1146/ ... Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a signal molecule whose prevalence is inversely proportional to that of glucose. It ...

*Pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1

... and cyclic AMP.[supplied by OMIM] Pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1 has been shown to interact with GATA2 and ...

*Anagrelide

Jones GH, Venuti MC, Alvarez R, Bruno JJ, Berks AH, Prince A (February 1987). "Inhibitors of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. 1. ...

*Forskolin

Cyclic AMP acts by activating cAMP-sensitive pathways such as protein kinase A and Epac. The heterocyclic ring is synthesized ... Forskolin is commonly used as a tool in biochemistry to raise levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in the study and research of cell ... Adenylyl cyclase Cyclic AMP "Forskolin" (pdf). Sigma Aldrich. Alasbahi, RH; Melzig, MF (January 2012). "Forskolin and ...

*RAPGEF2

... is a cyclic AMP binding protein. Members of the RAS subfamily of GTPases function in signal transduction as GTP/GDP- ...

*Chlorpyrifos

... likely associated with changes to the cyclic AMP system. Adults may develop lingering health effects following acute exposure ... affect components of the cyclic AMP system; and influence other chemical pathways. The enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) detoxifies ...

*Earl Wilbur Sutherland Jr.

... was later termed cyclic AMP. Even though the discovery of cyclic AMP and the idea of second messengers were of great importance ... Cyclic AMP)". Circulation 37: 279-306. Robison, G.A.; Sutherland, E.W (1969). "The role of cyclic AMP in the control of ... namely cyclic adenosine monophosphate, or cyclic AMP. Sutherland died on March 9, 1974 in Miami, Florida, at the age of 58. ... Sutherland, Earl W (16 November 1970). "On the Biological Role of Cyclic AMP". The Journal of the American Medical Association ...

*Gene Shearer

Modulation of inflammation and immunity by cyclic AMP. Science 184: 19 28, 1974. Shearer GM. Cell mediated cytotoxicity to ...

*RAPGEF3

"Differential signaling of cyclic AMP: opposing effects of exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP and cAMP-dependent ... Rehmann H, Arias-Palomo E, Hadders MA, Schwede F, Llorca O, Bos JL (Sep 2008). "Structure of Epac2 in complex with a cyclic AMP ... Ponsioen B, Gloerich M, Ritsma L, Rehmann H, Bos JL, Jalink K (May 2009). "Direct spatial control of Epac1 by cyclic AMP". ... Rehmann H, Das J, Knipscheer P, Wittinghofer A, Bos JL (Feb 2006). "Structure of the cyclic-AMP-responsive exchange factor ...

*Mauthner cell

Bhatt DH, Otto SJ, Depoister B, Fetcho JR (July 2004). "Cyclic AMP-induced repair of zebrafish spinal circuits". Science. 305 ( ...

*Skin whitening

Rodríguez, Carlos Iván; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi (2014). "Cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling in melanocytes and melanoma". Arch. ... MC1R/cAMP signaling pathway: Activation of MC1R causes activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC), which produces cyclic adenosine ... a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) analogue) increase melanin synthesis. MC1R ligands: alpha-melanocyte stimulating ... regulates melanogenesis via a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent pathway [references omitted]. When binding to its ...

*PRKAR1A

Guild BC, Strominger JL (1984). "HLA-A2 antigen phosphorylation in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Sites of ... Bourdeau I, Stratakis CA (2002). "Cyclic AMP-dependent signaling aberrations in macronodular adrenal disease". Ann. N. Y. Acad ... transforming sequence formed by the fusion of ret tyrosine kinase and the regulatory subunit RI alpha of cyclic AMP-dependent ...

*ARPP-19

"Entrez Gene: ARPP-19 cyclic AMP phosphoprotein, 19 kD". Human ARPP19 genome location and ARPP19 gene details page in the UCSC ...

*Carla J. Shatz

Stellwagen, David; Shatz, Carla J; Feller, Marla B (1999). "Dynamics of Retinal Waves Are Controlled by Cyclic AMP". Neuron. 24 ...

*Striatum

Table 1 McDonald, M-L; MacMullen, C; Liu, D J; Leal, S M; Davis, R L (October 2012). "Genetic association of cyclic AMP ...

*OLR1

Its gene is regulated through the cyclic AMP signaling pathway. The protein binds, internalizes and degrades oxidized low- ...

*ARPP-21

Cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21 kD, also known as ARPP-21, is a human gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000172995 ... ARPP-21 cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21 kD". Human ARPP21 genome location and ARPP21 gene details page in the UCSC ... a cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein enriched in the basal ganglia". Neuropharmacology. 39 (9): 1637-44. doi:10.1016/s0028- ...

*Pacemaker current

DiFrancesco, D., Tortora, P. (1991). Direct activation of cardiac pacemaker channels by intracellular cyclic AMP. Nature, 351, ... Another unusual feature of If is its dual activation by voltage and by cyclic nucleotides. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP ... The molecular determinants of the pacemaker current belong to the HCN channel (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide- ...

*GPR6

... up-regulates cyclic AMP levels and promotes neurite outgrowth. Lysophospholipid receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... and GPR12 up-regulates cyclic AMP levels and promotes neurite outgrowth". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (14): 10506- ...

*Glycogenesis

The latter enzyme causes the formation of cyclic AMP from ATP; two molecules of cyclic AMP bind to the regulatory subunit of ... Calcium ions or cyclic AMP (cAMP) act as secondary messengers. This is an example of negative control. The calcium ions ... PDE then will inhibit cyclic AMP (cAMP) action and cause inactivation of PKA which will cause Hormone Sensitive Lipase (HSL) to ...

*Cyclic guanosine monophosphate

... is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). cGMP acts as a second messenger much like cyclic AMP. Its ... Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) 8-Bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) Francis SH, Corbin JD (August ... Numerous cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) can degrade cGMP by hydrolyzing cGMP into 5'-GMP. PDE 5, -6 and -9 are cGMP ... R. Lane Brown; Timothy Strassmaier; James D. Brady; Jeffrey W. Karpen (2006). "The Pharmacology of Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated ...

*Olfactory receptor neuron

The activated OR in turn activates the intracellular G-protein, GOLF (GNAL), adenylate cyclase and production of cyclic AMP ( ...
amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;br> <a href="http://s20.sitemeter.com/stats.asp?site=s20jilks" target="_top"><b> <img ...
amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;br> <a href="http://s20.sitemeter.com/stats.asp?site=s20jilks" target="_top"><b> <img ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Capsaicinoids regulate airway anion transporters through rho kinase- and cyclic AMP-dependent mechanisms. AU - Hibino, Yoshitaka. AU - Morise, Masahiro. AU - Ito, Yasushi. AU - Mizutani, Takefumi. AU - Matsuno, Tadakatsu. AU - Ito, Satoru. AU - Hashimoto, Naozumi. AU - Sato, Mitsuo. AU - Kondo, Masashi. AU - Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi. AU - Hasegawa, Yoshinori. PY - 2011/10/1. Y1 - 2011/10/1. N2 - To investigate the effects of capsaicinoids on airway anion transporters, we recorded and analyzed transepithelial currents in human airway epithelial Calu-3 cells. Application of capsaicin (100 μM) attenuated vectorial anion transport, estimated as short-circuit currents (I SC), before and after stimulation by forskolin (10 μM) with concomitant reduction of cytosolic cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels. The capsaicin-induced inhibition of I SC was also observed in the response to 8-bromo-cAMP (1 mM, a cell-permeable cAMP analog) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (1 mM, an inhibitor of ...
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amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;a href=" http://s22.sitemeter.com/stats.asp?site=s22kylemacmac" target="_top"&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;br /&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;img src="http://s22.sitemeter.com/meter.asp?site=s22kylemacmac " alt="Site Meter" border="0" ...
amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;div class="statcounter"&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;a title="shopify visitor statistics" href="http://statcounter.com/shopify/" target="_blank"&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;img class="statcounter" src="http://c.statcounter.com/10697571/0/23d82b78/0/" alt="shopify visitor ...
amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;div class="statcounter"&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;a title="shopify visitor statistics" href="http://statcounter.com/shopify/" target="_blank"&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;img class="statcounter" src="http://c.statcounter.com/10697571/0/23d82b78/0/" alt="shopify visitor ...
amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;div class="statcounter"&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;a title="shopify visitor statistics" href="http://statcounter.com/shopify/" target="_blank"&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;img class="statcounter" src="http://c.statcounter.com/10697571/0/23d82b78/0/" alt="shopify visitor ...
BioAssay record AID 438909 submitted by ChEMBL: Agonist activity at human adrenergic beta 2 expressed in CHO-K1 cells assessed as intracellular cAMP accumulation relative to isoprenaline.
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500]. ,/ref,A published index of this collection is Clarence Almon Torrey, New England Marriages Prior to 1700. ,ref,Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1985;&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;nbsp;Family History Library [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;titleno=146171&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=New+England+marriages+prior+to+1700%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 974 V2t; film 1320548 item 14]. ,/ref,A Third Supplement to Torreys New England marriages prior to 1700 was published in 2003. ,ref,Family History Library book ...
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1. Cyclic AMP-stimulated protein kinase activity phosphorylating intrinsic substrates in preparations of synaptic-membrane fragments from ox cerebral cortex was examined in relation to (a) the content of membrane-bound Ca2+in the preparations and (b) added Ca2+in the assay medium. 2. Centrifugal washing of synaptic-membrane fragments with buffered ethane dioxybis(ethylamine)tetra-acetate solutions decreased bound Ca2+from 2.8±0.4 (s.d.) to 0.9±0.3nmol/mg of protein. In washed preparations basal protein kinase activity was increased by about 40% and the cyclic AMP-stimulated activity by about 15%. Addition of Ca2+in the concentration range 5-50μm to the assay medium progressively inhibited the kinase activity of the washed preparations; in this range of Ca2+concentration the basal activity was inhibited more than the stimulated activity. 3. In unwashed preparations concentrations of Ca2+above 100μm inhibited the cyclic AMP-stimulated activity more than the basal activity. 4. The inhibitory ...
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Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by high leucocyte counts, altered cytokine levels and endothelial cell injury. As the removal of inflammatory cells by apoptosis is fundamental for the resolution of inflammation, we aimed to determine whether the leucocyte apoptotic process is altered in SCD. Neutrophils from SCD individuals showed an inhibition of spontaneous apoptosis when cultured in vitro, in the presence of autologous serum for 20 h. Intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels were approximately twofold increased in SCD neutrophils; possible cAMP-upregulating factors present in SCD serum include interleukin-8, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and prostaglandin. Accordingly, co-incubation of SCD neutrophils with KT5720, a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor, abrogated increased SCD neutrophil survival. Caspase-3 activity was also significantly diminished in SCD neutrophils cultured for 16 h and this activity ...
1. Platelet behaviour in vitro in relation to cyclic AMP was studied longitudinally during pregnancy and in the same women when they were not pregnant. Subjects comprised a group of healthy primigravidae and a group of women deemed at risk of pre-eclampsia, on the basis of a previous history of the condition.. 2. There was a progressive decline during pregnancy in sensitivity of platelets to inhibition of the arachidonic acid-induced release reaction by agents which act via cyclic AMP. This effect was maximum at 36 weeks gestation.. 3. Basal platelet cyclic AMP levels, and those in the presence of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, did not change throughout the period of the study.. 4. By contrast, platelet cyclic AMP accumulation in response to a variety of adenylate cyclase stimulators was reduced from early pregnancy, throughout the gestational period, compared with post-natally. This effect was noted when platelets were incubated with prostaglandins acting via different surface receptors or ...
Many manifestations associated with RA result from, or are significantly influenced by, the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF, IL-1, IL-6). Specific inhibition of these cytokines with newer, parenterally administered biologic agents has revolutionized the treatment of RA. Apremilast is a novel, orally administered drug which approaches the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines via inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4).. Apremilast, Acetamide, N-[2-[ (1S)-1-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(methylsulfonyl) ethyl]-2,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-1H-isoindol-4-yl] is a phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) inhibitor under development for use in the treatment of inflammatory conditions.. PDE4 is one of the major phosphodiesterases expressed in leukocytes. Inhibitors of PDE4 cause accumulation of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which in turn activates protein kinase A and other downstream effectors, resulting in inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine transcription and other ...
amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;a href="http://adserver.adtech.de/adlink,3.0,1703.1,5928369,0,6792,ADTECH;loc=300;alias=" target="_blank"&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;img src="http://adserver.adtech.de/adserv,3.0,1703.1,5928369,0,6792,ADTECH;loc=300;alias=" border="0" width="640" height="102"&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;/a&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt ...
amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;a href="http://rafl.es/enable-js"&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;You need javascript enabled to see this giveaway&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;/a&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt ...
Background: Previously weve found out that the decline in β2-adrenoreceptors (β2-AR) function affects airway response to cold air.. Objective: The aim of our study was to reveal the contribution of Arg16Gly SNP (rs1042713) in the development of cold airway hyperresponsiveness (CAHR) in asthmatics.. Methods: The study included examination of 60 mild to moderate asthmatics of Caucasian race, mostly non-smokers (mean age 36±1.39). All the patients underwent spirometry before and after the challenge with 3-minute isocapnic (5% CO2) cold air (-20°C) hyperventilation (ICAH). More than 10% drop in FEV1 was interpreted as a positive result. Intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentration in lymphocytes was measured before and 30 min after ICAH under in vitro stimulation with 10-6M epinephrine. PCR-RFLP analysis was used for genotyping.. Results: Arg16Arg genotype dominated in the group with CAHR (χ2=7.47; p=0.02). Mean FEV1 drop differed between homozygous patients (16.03±2.07 ...
amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;img src="//pixel.quantserve.com/pixel/p-79bqfJWDiX8DQ.gif?labels=_fp.event.Default" style="display: none;" border="0" height="1" width="1" alt="Quantcast"/&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt ...
amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;a href="http://adserver.adtech.de/adlink,3.0,1703.1,5928369,0,6792,ADTECH;loc=300;alias=" target="_blank"&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;img src="http://adserver.adtech.de/adserv,3.0,1703.1,5928369,0,6792,ADTECH;loc=300;alias=" border="0" width="640" height="102"&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;/a&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt ...
1 Endomorphin-1 and -2 (E-1/E-2) have been proposed as endogenous ligands for the mu-opioid receptor. The aims of this study are to characterize the binding of E-1/E-2 and the subsequent effects on cyclic AMP formation and [Ca2+]i levels in SH-SY5Y and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing endogenous and recombinant mu-opioid receptors. 2 E-1 displaced [3H]-diprenorphine ([3H]-DPN) binding in CHO micro and SH-SY5Y membranes with pKi values of 8.02+/-0.09 and 8.54+/-0.13 respectively. E-2 displaced [3H]-DPN binding in CHOmu and SH-SY5Y cells with pKi values of 7.82+/-0.11 and 8.43+/-0.13 respectively. E-1/E-2 bound weakly to CHOdelta and CHOkappa membranes, with IC50 values of greater than 10 microM. 3 In CHOmu cells, E-1/E-2 inhibited forskolin (1 microM) stimulated cyclic AMP formation with pIC50 values of 8.03+/-0.16 (Imax = 53.0+/-9. 3%) and 8.15+/-0.24 (Imax = 56.3+/-3.8%) respectively. In SH-SY5Y cells E1/E2 inhibited forskolin stimulated cyclic AMP formation with pIC50 values of ...
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Studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that activated immune cells produce a soluble inhibitor(s) of cardiac myocyte contractile and cyclic AMP (cAMP) responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation. To examine the mechanism of this effect, metabolic assays were conducted on cultured rat cardiac myocytes incubated in the presence and absence of supernatants harvested from rat activated splenocyte cultures. Intracellular cAMP accumulation in response to isoproterenol was inhibited by up to 74% in a dose-dependent fashion by conditioned media containing soluble cytokines from activated immune cells. By use of myocyte cultures in which contaminating nonmyocyte proliferation was inhibited by nonlethal irradiation, this phenomenon was shown to be independent of mitogenic effects. Isobutylmethylxanthine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, did not ablate cytokine-induced inhibition of cAMP accumulation. Parameters of beta-adrenergic receptor binding and affinity were also unaffected. cAMP ...
Defects in phosphotransferase chemotaxis in cya and cpd mutants previously cited as evidence of a cyclic GMP or cyclic AMP intermediate in signal transduction were not reproduced in a study of chemotaxis in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. In cya mutants, which lack adenylate cyclase, the addition of cyclic AMP was required for synthesis of proteins that were necessary for phosphotransferase transport and chemotaxis. However, the induced cells retained normal phosphotransferase chemotaxis after cyclic AMP was removed. Phosphotransferase chemotaxis was normal in a cpd mutant of S. typhimurium that has elevated levels of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP. S. typhimurium crr mutants are deficient in enzyme III glucose, which is a component of the glucose transport system, and a regulator of adenylate cyclase. After preincubation with cyclic AMP, the crr mutants were deficient in enzyme II glucose-mediated transport and chemotaxis, but other chemotactic responses were normal. It is concluded ...
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The kinetics for activation of the cyclic adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and thymidine incorporation into DNA was investigated in epinephrine- and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1)-treated murine P1798 lymphosarcoma cells. A positive correlation between the duration and extent of PKA activation and Accumulation of cyclic AMP and inhibition of thymidine incorporation into DNA was observed with both hormones. Epinephrine and PGE1 elevated intracellular cyclic AMP 34- and 14-fold, respectively. All hormone concentrations which increased cyclic AMP accumulation also promoted inhibition of thymidine incorporation into DNA. In addition, dibutyryl cyclic AMP (50 µm) inhibited thymidine incorporation.. No difference in the kinetics for activation of PKA was observed when cells were treated with µm epinephrine or PGE1. With both agents, 50% PKA activation was observed when intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations were elevated 6.5-fold, or to 9 pmol/106 cells. In the ...
1. An assay has been developed with sufficient sensitivity for determination of the adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate diesterase activity in islets of Langerhans, and has been used to investigate the response of the enzyme to various agents which are known to affect insulin release. 2. The subcellular distribution of the enzyme in islets of Langerhans prepared from guinea-pig pancreas was investigated and over 70% of the activity present in the original homogenate was recovered in the supernatant fraction. 3. Gel filtration of the activity present in the supernatant fraction on Sephadex G-200 gave a single peak of activity with an apparent molecular weight of 200000. The phosphodiesterase activity in the peak fraction showed two apparent Km values for adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) of 3μm and 30μm, suggesting the presence of two activities. The pH optimum of the activity with the low Km value was 8.7. 4. Theophylline, caffeine, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine ...
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Intracellular cAMP levels are higher in LDLR-/−p110γ−/− than in LDLR−/−p110γ+/−macrophages.LDLR−/−p110γ+/− and LDLR−/−p110γ−/− BMM
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Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3,5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes. cAMP is a derivative of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and used for intracellular signal transduction in many different organisms, conveying the cAMP-dependent pathway. It should not be confused with 5-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP-activated protein kinase ...
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BioAssay record AID 720707 submitted by NCGC: qHTS for Agonist of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor 3 (EPAC1): primary screen.
Niles, R M. and Logue, M P., "Retinoid acid increases cyclic amp-dependent protein kinase activity in b16-f1 mouse melanoma cells. Abstr." (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 1639 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calcium‐dependent enhancement by carbachol of the VIP‐induced cyclic AMP accumulation in cat submandibular gland. AU - ENYEDI, PETER. AU - FREDHOLM, BERTIL B.. PY - 1984/4. Y1 - 1984/4. N2 - The interaction of two coexisting transmitters in the cat submandibular gland has been elucidated by studying effects of VIP and carbachol on cyclic AMP accumulation in isolated acini from the gland. Carbachol was found to potentiate the cyclic AMP increase induced by VIP by an atropine sensitive mechanism. The effect of carbachol on cyclic AMP accumulation was abolished by including EGTA in the incubation medium as was the carbachol mediated potentiation of VIP responses. The calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine had a similar, but less marked effect. The effect of carbachol was mimicked by phenylephrine (30 μM) and by the calcium inophore A 23187 (3 μM), and also by ethanol in a concentration reported to enhance membrane fluidity. The phospholipase A2 inhibitor, mepacrine, tended to ...
Angiotensin II effects on cyclic AMP production and steroid output were studied in a sensitive preparation of isolated rat adrenal glomerulosa cells. With increasing concentrations of angiotensin II logarithmic dose-response curves for aldosterone and cyclic AMP production were similar. The minimum effective dose (0.2nm) for stimulation of aldosterone production also significantly (P,0.001) increased cyclic AMP output. For both aldosterone and cyclic AMP production, the peptide hormone concentration eliciting maximal response (0.2μm) and the ED50 (median effective dose) values (1nm) were the same; this is consistent with cyclic AMP acting as an intracellular mediator for angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone production by glomerulosa cells. The angiotensin II antagonist [Sar1,Ala8]angiotensin II inhibited angiotensin II-stimulated corticosterone and aldosterone production in these cells. An equimolar concentration of antagonist halved the response to 20nm-angiotensin II, and complete inhibition ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell-cell contact, cyclic AMP, and gene expression during differentiation of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.. AU - Blumberg, D. D.. AU - Chung, S.. AU - Landfear, Scott. AU - Lodish, H. F.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0020021927&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0020021927&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 6289353. AN - SCOPUS:0020021927. VL - 85 Pt B. SP - 167. EP - 182. JO - Progress in Clinical and Biological Research. JF - Progress in Clinical and Biological Research. SN - 0361-7742. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purification of a regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from Drosophila heads. AU - Inoue, Hiroko. AU - Yoshioka, Tohru. PY - 1997/6/9. Y1 - 1997/6/9. N2 - The cytosolic extract from Drosophila heads was separated using anion-exchange column chromatography. Two types of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), type I and type II, were detected, and type II PKA was found to be a major isozyme. The regulatory subunit of type II PKA (RII) was purified, and only one isoform was observed. The purified protein had an apparent molecular mass of 51 kDa on SDS gel electrophoresis. Partial amino acid sequences of the protein were almost identical with the RIIα subunit of human. Since PKA has been implicated to be especially important for learning and memory in Drosophila, the RII subunit may play an essential role in the regulation of neuronal activity in the brain of Drosophila, and possibly in human.. AB - The cytosolic extract from Drosophila heads was separated using ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Luteinizing hormone stimulates the formation of inositol trisphosphate and cyclic AMP in rat granulosa cells. Evidence for phospholipase C generated second messengers in the action of luteinizing hormone. AU - Davis, J. S.. AU - Weakland, L. L.. AU - West, L. A.. AU - Farese, R. V.. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - The following studies were conducted to determine whether luteinizing hormone (LH), a hormone which increases cellular levels of cyclic AMP, also provokes increases in second messengers derived from inositol lipid metabolism (i.e. inositol phosphates and diacylglycerol). Rat granulosa cells isolated from mature Graafian follicles were prelabelled for 3 h with myo-[2-3H]inositol. LH provoked rapid (5 min) and sustained (up to 60 min) increases in the levels of inositol mono-, bis-, and trisphosphates (IP, IP2 and IP3, respectively). Time course studies revealed that IP3 was formed more rapidly than IP2 and IP following LH treatment. The response to LH was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A role for protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation in eliciting glucagon desensitization in rat hepatocytes. AU - Savage, A.. AU - Zeng, L.. AU - Houslay, M. D.. PY - 1995/4/1. Y1 - 1995/4/1. N2 - An immobilized hepatocyte preparation was used to show that both vasopressin and glucagon could desensitize the ability of glucagon to increase intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations. This process was not dependent on any influx of extracellular Ca2+ and was not mediated by any rise in the intracellular level of Ca2+. The protein kinase C-selective inhibitors chelerythrine, staurosporine and calphostin C acted as potent inhibitors of the desensitization process but with various degrees of selectivity regarding their ability to inhibit the desensitizing actions of glucagon and vasopressin. The protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid was just as potent as vasopressin and glucagon in causing desensitization. Treatment of hepatocyte membranes with alkaline phosphatase restored to near ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains a factor that can replace adenosine 3:5-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) in the stimulation of rabbit-muscle protein kinase. The factor cochromatographs and coelectrophoreses with authentic cAMP, and is inactivated by beef heart cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. When C. reinhardtii is exposed to aminophylline (theophylline(2) ethylenediamine), the concentration of the factor in the cells increases within 1 hr, from about 25 pmol of cAMP equivalents per g dry weight to more than 250 pmol. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity is present in crude extract of C. reinhardtii and is inhibited by theophylline. We conclude that cAMP occurs in C. reinhardtii and that the endogenous concentration is governed at least in part by a theophylline-sensitive cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. These findings provide a sound basis for attributing the effects of methylxanthines on flagellar function and regeneration in C. reinhardtii to the resultant elevation of endogenous cAMP

The G Protein-Coupled Receptor Gpr1 Is a Nutrient Sensor That Regulates Pseudohyphal Differentiation in Saccharomyces...The G Protein-Coupled Receptor Gpr1 Is a Nutrient Sensor That Regulates Pseudohyphal Differentiation in Saccharomyces...

1999 Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase regulates pseudohyphal differentiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol. Cell. Biol. ... 1995 SOK2 may regulate cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase-stimulated growth and pseudohyphal development by repressing ...
more infohttp://www.genetics.org/content/154/2/609

Cyclic AMPCyclic AMP

An easy-to-use directory for life science and biomedical research products. Find special deals on products, order catalogs and browse product lines from suppliers of reagents, antibodies, laboratory equipment, and more.
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Cyclic AMP and Early Contractile Failure | SpringerLinkCyclic AMP and Early Contractile Failure | SpringerLink

Cyclic AMP was measured in the isolated rat heart during anoxia in an attempt to demonstrate if this nucleotide is in any way ... The role of cyclic AMP in the modulation of cardiac contractility. Adv. Cyclic Nucleotide Res. 4:163-193.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Cyclic AMP was measured in the isolated rat heart during anoxia in an attempt to demonstrate if this nucleotide is in any way ... Yellon D.M., Boylett A., Hearse D.J. (1983) Cyclic AMP and Early Contractile Failure. In: Chazov E., Saks V., Rona G. (eds) ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-4441-5_30

cyclic amp Protocols and Video...'cyclic amp' Protocols and Video...

... cyclic amp include Drug-induced Sensitization of Adenylyl Cyclase: Assay Streamlining and Miniaturization for Small Molecule ... Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3- and 5-positions of the ...
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Cyclic AMP Antibodies: Novus BiologicalsCyclic AMP Antibodies: Novus Biologicals

Browse our Cyclic AMP Antibodies all backed by our Guarantee+. ... Cyclic AMP Antibodies. We offer Cyclic AMP Antibodies for use ... Alternate Names for Cyclic AMP Antibodies. anti-Cyclic AMP antibody, anti-3 5 cyclic adenosine monophosphate antibody, anti- ... Choose from our Cyclic AMP polyclonal antibodies and browse our Cyclic AMP monoclonal antibody catalog. ... Our Cyclic AMP Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Human, Mouse, Rat. Use the list below to choose the Cyclic ...
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Cyclic AMP - Net Health BookCyclic AMP - Net Health Book

Cyclic amp is low when insulin is elevated;it is needed to make steroid hormones and as a second messenger it mediates between ... Cyclic AMP. Home » Hormones » Cyclic AMP. According to Sears cyclic AMP levels are chronically diminished by elevated insulin ... blood stream without cyclic AMP and the sleep inducing melatonin hormone will not be produced from serotonin without cyclic AMP ... As a result your cyclic AMP levels may be chronically lower than normal changing certain hormone functions…" Bad for business, ...
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Leukocyte Cyclic AMP: Pharmacological Regulation and Possible Physiological Implications | SpringerLinkLeukocyte Cyclic AMP: Pharmacological Regulation and Possible Physiological Implications | SpringerLink

Cyclic AMP is present in almost every mammalian tissue and... ... Knowledge of both cyclic AMP and the prostaglandins, relative ... An epinephrine induced decrease in cyclic AMP synthesis, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 39:783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Field, M., 1971, Intestinal secretion: Effect of cyclic AMP and its role in cholera. New Eng. J. Med. 284:1137.Google Scholar ... Cyclic AMP is present in almost every mammalian tissue and its biological role has been well defined in several systems ranging ...
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Receptors cyclic amp - Biology-Online DictionaryReceptors cyclic amp - Biology-Online Dictionary

receptors, cyclic AMP cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which ... is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of cyclic AMP ... The best characterised cyclic aMP receptors are those of the slime mold dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Receptors_cyclic_amp&oldid=65780" ...
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Regulation of penicillin acylase in Escherichia coli by cyclic AMP.  - PubMed - NCBIRegulation of penicillin acylase in Escherichia coli by cyclic AMP. - PubMed - NCBI

4. Cyclic AMP failed to stimulate enzyme production in cells in which messenger RNA synthesis was arrested by rifampicin or ... 1. Cyclic AMP was found to stimulate penicillin acylase activity. 2. It also overcame the repression of glucose and restored ... 3. The conversion of inactive enzyme precursor into active enzyme was not stimulated by cyclic AMP in cells in which protein ... 5. Cyclic AMP appears to participate in the regulation of this enzyme at the transcriptional level. ...
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cyclic AMP | Tabers Medical Dictionarycyclic AMP | Taber's Medical Dictionary

cyclic AMP answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android ... cyclic AMP is a topic covered in the Tabers Medical Dictionary. To view the entire topic, please sign in or purchase a ... "Cyclic AMP." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Tabers Online, www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/ ... Tabers-Dictionary/750877/all/cyclic_AMP. Cyclic AMP. In: Venes D, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. 23rd ed. F.A. Davis Company; ...
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Biguanides suppress hepatic glucagon signalling by decreasing production of cyclic AMP.  - PubMed - NCBIBiguanides suppress hepatic glucagon signalling by decreasing production of cyclic AMP. - PubMed - NCBI

Biguanides suppress hepatic glucagon signalling by decreasing production of cyclic AMP.. Miller RA1, Chu Q, Xie J, Foretz M, ... reduce levels of cyclic AMP and protein kinase A (PKA) activity, abrogate phosphorylation of critical protein targets of PKA, ... The suggestion a decade ago that metformin reduces glucose synthesis through activation of the enzyme AMP-activated protein ... AMP and (E.) cAMP levels were assayed. N=12 and 9 for water and metformin groups. G-I. Mice fed a high fat diet for 10 weeks ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23292513?dopt=Abstract

cAMPr: A single-wavelength fluorescent sensor for cyclic AMP | Science SignalingcAMPr: A single-wavelength fluorescent sensor for cyclic AMP | Science Signaling

Cyclic AMP compartments and signaling specificity: Role of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. J. Gen. Physiol. 143, 29-38 ( ... The cyclic AMP system and Drosophila learning. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 149-150, 271-278 (1995).. ... Cyclic AMP levels, adenylyl cyclase activity, and their stimulation by serotonin quantified in intact neurons. J. Gen. Physiol. ... cAMPr: A single-wavelength fluorescent sensor for cyclic AMP Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
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Cyclic AMP Response Element - Semantic ScholarCyclic AMP Response Element - Semantic Scholar

Inhibition by antidepressant drugs of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein/cyclic AMP response element-directed gene ... Cyclic AMP Response Element. Known as: CRE, cAMP Response Element A promoter sequence which interacts with CRE binding proteins ... Cyclic AMP regulates the expression of a number of genes through a conserved promoter element, the CRE1. Moreover, transcrip… ( ... Genes regulated by cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) have been reported to suppress apoptosis, induce cell… ( ...
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CYCLIC AMP PHOSPHODIESTERASE 4D7 ISOFORMS AND METHODS OF USE - Memory Pharmaceuticals CorporationCYCLIC AMP PHOSPHODIESTERASE 4D7 ISOFORMS AND METHODS OF USE - Memory Pharmaceuticals Corporation

Agents that inhibit such synthesis and/or activity (antagonists) may, e.g., result in an increased cyclic AMP level within the ... Agents that enhance such synthesis and/or activity (agonists) may, e.g., result in a decreased cyclic AMP level within the ... Such as inhibitors can be used, for example, as a means of increasing cyclic AMP in neurons and thus treating neurological ... See, e.g., Salanova et al, Heterologous Expression and Purification of Recombinant Rolipram-Sensitive Cyclic AMP-Specific ...
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Cyclic AMP | C10H12N5O6P - PubChemCyclic AMP | C10H12N5O6P - PubChem

Cyclic AMP , C10H12N5O6P , CID 6076 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, ...
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Cyclic AMP Response Element Modulator
     Summary Report | CureHunterCyclic AMP Response Element Modulator Summary Report | CureHunter

Cyclic AMP response element modulator is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is regulated by CYCLIC AMP. It plays ... Cyclic AMP response element modulator is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is regulated by CYCLIC AMP. It plays ... Cyclic AMP Response Element Modulator. Subscribe to New Research on Cyclic AMP Response Element Modulator ...
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Mediation of hippocampal mossy fiber long-term potentiation by cyclic AMP | ScienceMediation of hippocampal mossy fiber long-term potentiation by cyclic AMP | Science

Mediation of hippocampal mossy fiber long-term potentiation by cyclic AMP. By MG Weisskopf, PE Castillo, RA Zalutsky, RA Nicoll ... Mediation of hippocampal mossy fiber long-term potentiation by cyclic AMP. By MG Weisskopf, PE Castillo, RA Zalutsky, RA Nicoll ... Mediation of hippocampal mossy fiber long-term potentiation by cyclic AMP Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Experimental elevation of cyclic adenosine 3,5-monophosphate (cAMP) both mimics and interferes with tetanus-induced mossy ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/265/5180/1878

The Role of Cyclic AMP in the Control of Carbohydrate Metabolism | DiabetesThe Role of Cyclic AMP in the Control of Carbohydrate Metabolism | Diabetes

Since cyclic AMP is involved in the release as well as several of the actions of insulin, the possible role of cyclic AMP in ... but there is also evidence that the cyclic AMP mechanism may be defective. At another level, the role of cyclic AMP is more ... and may also antagonize the action of cyclic AMP in muscle. Cyclic AMP is thus seen to mediate the actions of several catabolic ... The Role of Cyclic AMP in the Control of Carbohydrate Metabolism Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/18/12/797

Cyclic AMP - Biology Forum | Biology-Online Dictionary, Blog & ForumCyclic AMP - Biology Forum | Biology-Online Dictionary, Blog & Forum

How does Cyclic AMP increase Calcium ions concentration in cardiac muscle and decrease it in smooth muscle (and so the ... How does Cyclic AMP increase Calcium ions concentration in cardiac muscle and decrease it in smooth muscle (and so the ... Cyclic AMP. For discussing the functions of different structures of all organisms. ...
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CAS No.60-92-4,Cyclic AMP Suppliers,MSDS downloadCAS No.60-92-4,Cyclic AMP Suppliers,MSDS download

where to buy 60-92-4(Cyclic AMP).Also offer free database of 60-92-4(Cyclic AMP) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, ... Adenosine cyclic 3,5-monophosphate;Adenosine cyclic monophosphate;Cyclic 3,5-AMP;Cyclic3,5-adenylic acid;Cyclic adenosine ... Product Name: Cyclic AMP Synonyms: cyclic3,5-adenylicacid;cyclic3,5-amp;cyclicadenosine3,5-phosphate;(S)-CYCLIC 3 5-( ... 99%min Adenosin Cyclophosphate/3,5-cyclic AMP/Adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate CAS 60-92-4 ...
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Prostaglandins and Cyclic AMP: Biological Actions and Clinical Applications by Raymond H. Kahn, Hardcover | Barnes & Noble®Prostaglandins and Cyclic AMP: Biological Actions and Clinical Applications by Raymond H. Kahn, Hardcover | Barnes & Noble®

The Hardcover of the Prostaglandins and Cyclic AMP: Biological Actions and Clinical Applications by Raymond H. Kahn at Barnes ... Prostaglandins and Cyclic AMP: Biological Actions and Clinical Applications. by Raymond H. Kahn (Editor), Lands William E. M. ( ...
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cAMP (cyclic AMP) - NB120-832 | acris-antibodies.comcAMP (cyclic AMP) - NB120-832 | acris-antibodies.com

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) plays a key role as an intracellular second messenger for transduction events that follow ... Product Description for cAMP (cyclic AMP). Sheep anti cAMP (cyclic AMP).. Presentation: Serum. Product is tested for Enzyme ... Recommended Secondary Antibodies for cAMP (cyclic AMP) (6 products). Catalog No.. Host. Clone/Iso.. Pres.. React.. Applications ... This reacts with cyclic AMP and to lesser degrees with other 5. ... Properties for cAMP (cyclic AMP). Product Category. Primary ...
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Cyclic AMP ELISA Kit | Cayman Chemical | Biomol.comCyclic AMP ELISA Kit | Cayman Chemical | Biomol.com

Product information "Cyclic AMP ELISA Kit" Caymans cAMP assay is a very sensitive competitive ELISA that permits cAMP ... Cyclic AMP is a ubiquitous cellular second messenger that is a critical component of a signal transduction pathway linking ... Adenosine 3,5-cyclic mononucleotide, Adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate, cAMP EIA Kit. ... The cAMP signal is neutralized by hydrolysis of cAMP to AMP by phosphodiesterases. Therefore, the concentration of cAMP in a ...
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  • Knowledge of both cyclic AMP and the prostaglandins, relative newcomers to biochemical investigation, has burgeoned during the past decade. (springer.com)
  • About two years ago our and other laboratories began investigating possible effects of both cyclic AMP and the prostaglandins in yet another group of cells, mammalian leukocytes. (springer.com)
  • For instance, all the steroid hormones (testosterone, estrogen, progesterone) require cyclic AMP for their production. (nethealthbook.com)
  • It is only possible to determine the changes in the metabolic pathways in time consuming research settings by measuring the various "substrates" , "enzymes" and hormones that are involved in the complex biochemical pathways involving cyclic AMP. (nethealthbook.com)
  • Cyclic AMP is thus seen to mediate the actions of several catabolic hormones as well as promote the release of an anabolic hormone which acts in part by opposing cyclic AMP. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • At another level, the role of cyclic AMP is more obvious: insulin deficiency leaves unopposed the actions of hormones which stimulate the production of cyclic AMP, thereby contributing to the glucose plethora and ketosis so often seen in the later stages of the disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This increase in the level of .cyclic AMP leads to a net increase in hepatic glucose production by at least three mechanisms: stimulation of phosphorylase activation, suppression of glycogen synthetase activity, and stimulation of gluconeogenesis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • According to Sears cyclic AMP levels are chronically diminished by elevated insulin levels, which puts a damper on a multitude of hormone systems (Ref.1). (nethealthbook.com)
  • Another role of cyclic AMP is to enhance or promote the release of insulin from pancreatic beta cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin then travels to the liver and adipose tissue to suppress the accumulation of cyclic AMP, and may also antagonize the action of cyclic AMP in muscle. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Since cyclic AMP is involved in the release as well as several of the actions of insulin, the possible role of cyclic AMP in diabetes has been discussed. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppresses renin gene transcription by blocking the activity of the cyclic AMP response element in the renin gene promoter. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction adenosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } AMP This enzyme requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ for activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/750877/all/cyclic_AMP. (tabers.com)
  • Growth hormone release and release of thyroid stimulating hormone need cyclic AMP before they can be released from the pituitary gland. (nethealthbook.com)
  • Interference with thyroid function from low cyclic AMP levels causes slow mentation, weight gain and low energy (hypothyroidism symptoms). (nethealthbook.com)
  • It means that if we eat the wrong foods such as the typical North American diet with lots of starch in foods such as pasta, bread, potatoes, rice and refined cereal as well as sugar in its various disguises, the chances are that many people end up with chronically low cyclic AMP levels. (nethealthbook.com)
  • As a result your cyclic AMP levels may be chronically lower than normal changing certain hormone functions…" Bad for business, so it is not done. (nethealthbook.com)