Carcinogenic and neurotoxic glycoside occurring in a number of plant species, including Cycas revoluta.
The aglycone of CYCASIN. It acts as a potent carcinogen and neurotoxin and inhibits hepatic DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A plant genus of the family Cycadaceae, order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA of palm-like trees. It is a source of CYCASIN, the beta-D-glucoside of methylazoxymethanol.
A plant family of the order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A division of GYMNOSPERMS which look like palm trees (ARECACEAE) but are more closely related to PINUS. They have large cones and large pinnate leaves and are sometimes called cycads, a term which may also refer more narrowly to cycadales or CYCAS.
A division of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that is responsible for the public health and the provision of medical services to NATIVE AMERICANS in the United States, primarily those residing on reservation lands.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
Inuktitut-speakers generally associated with the northern polar region.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.
Hair grooming, cleansing and modifying products meant for topical application to hair, usually human. They include sprays, bleaches, dyes, conditioners, rinses, shampoos, nutrient lotions, etc.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Fabric or other material used to cover the body.
The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.
Parasitic attack or subsistence on the skin by members of the order Phthiraptera, especially on humans by Pediculus humanus of the family Pediculidae. The hair of the head, eyelashes, and pubis is a frequent site of infestation. (From Dorland, 28th ed; Stedman, 26th ed)
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A plant genus in the ANACARDIACEAE family known for the Pistachio nuts and for gum Mastic.
A species of thermophilic CAMPYLOBACTER found in healthy seagulls and causing ENTERITIS in humans.
Environment un-modified by human activity. Areas in which natural processes operate without human interference.

Is neurodegenerative disease a long-latency response to early-life genotoxin exposure? (1/4)

 (+info)

Mutagenicity of the naturally occurring carcinogen cycasin and synthetic methylazoxymethanol conjugates in Salmonella typhimurium. (2/4)

The aglycone methylazoxymethanol of the naturally occurring carcinogenic glucoside, cycasin, has previously been shown to be mutagenic, but cycasin per se has not. In this work, cycasin was demonstrated to be mutagenic using a modification of the Ames Salmonella test in which it was preincubated with beta-glucosidase and the tester strain in liquid medium. The mutagenicity of cycasin to six histine-depedent Salmonella strains varied considerably with strain HisG46 being the most susceptible. Methylazoxymethyl-beta-D-glucosiduronic acid, which also is nonmutagenic per se, similarly became mutagenic when preincubated with beta-glucuronidase. Methylazoxymethyl acetate, which is slightly mutagenic by the Ames standard pour plate method, became highly mutagenic on preincubation. The mutagenicity of free methylazoxymethanol was confirmed, and a linear dose-response relationship was observed. The common conditions required for activation of nonmutagenic methylazoxymethanol conjugates, the glucoside cycasin and methylazoxymethyl-beta-D-glucosiduronic acid, are 90-min preincubation at 30 degrees, pH 6.5, with an appropriate hydrolase and Salmonella typhimurium HisG46.  (+info)

DNA fragmentation in some organs of rats and mice treated with cycasin. (3/4)

Cycasin (methylazoxymethanol-beta-D-glucoside) is carcinogenic in several animal species. It produces a variety of malignant tumours, mainly in the liver of mice, and in the liver, kidney and large intestine in rats. It does not appear to be mutagenic in the Ames test, even in the presence of liver microsome fraction, and it is among those carcinogens (less than 10%) ranked as "false negatives" in this test. The ability of cycasin to damage in vivo liver, kidney, lung and colonic DNA of Wistar rats and C57BL/L mice was investigated by means of alkaline elution technique. Oral single-dose administration of cycasin, in the range of 50-400 mg/kg body weight, produced in the rat a clearly evident dose-dependent DNA fragmentation in the liver, and less marked damage to DNA from kidney and colon mucosa. In mice, the same treatment produced dose-dependent DNA damage only in the liver. DNA repair up to 18 h appeared to be incomplete both in mice and rats. Methylazoxymethanol acetate is considered to be an active form of cycasin. While in vivo methylazoxymethanol acetate caused DNA damage, in vitro it appeared inactive and required metabolic activation, possibly consisting in its hydrolysis by esterase activity, to be able to cause DNA fragmentation.  (+info)

Activation of cycasin to a mutagen for Saccharomyces cerevisiae by rat intestinal flora. (4/4)

Genetic test systems involving microorganisms and liver enzyme preparations may be insufficient to detect compounds that require breakdown by enzymes provided by the microbial flora of the intestinal tract. A method is described for providing such activation and for simultaneously testing the potential genetic activity of breakdown products in an indicator organism. Parabiotic chambers containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae genetic test organisms in one chamber were separated by a membrane filter from rat cecal organisms and test chemical contained in the other chamber. The genetic activities of cycasin breakdown products for mutation, gene conversion, and mitotic crossing-over in samples incubated aerobically are reported. Samples containing cycasin alone had a small but clearly increased frequency of genetic damage. Samples containing rat cecal organisms without cycasin showed no increase in genetic activity. Anaerobic incubation resulted in no increase in genetic activity in any of the samples.  (+info)

Cycasin is a carcinogenic and neurotoxic glucoside found in cycads such as Cycas revoluta and Zamia pumila. Symptoms of poisoning include vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, seizures, and hepatoxicity. In metabolic conditions, cycasin is hydrolyzed into glucose and methylazoxymethanol (MAM), the latter of which dissociates into formaldehyde and methyl-diazonium. It induces hepatotoxicity and Zamia staggers, a fatal nervous disease affecting cattle resulting from browsing on the leaves or fruit of cycads. Cycasin is found in all known cycad genera and is distributed throughout the body of the plant, but with the highest concentration in the seeds. It is one of several toxins found in cycad plants, along with the neurotoxic amino acid BMAA. The origin and biological role of these toxins is unknown, as there does not appear to be a statistically significant correlation between the concentration of toxic material and the types of herbivory observed in animals consuming the plants. The enzyme ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Damage and repair of nerve cell DNA in toxic stress. AU - Kisby, Glen E.. AU - Kabel, Hans. AU - Hugon, Jacques. AU - Spencer, Peter. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - It is generally agreed that ALS/PDC is triggered by a disappearing environmental factor peculiar to the lifestyle of people of the western Pacific (i.e., Guam, Irian Jaya, Indonesia, and the Kii Peninsula of Japan). A strong candidate is the cycad plant genotoxin cycasin, the β-D-glucoside of methylazoxymethanol (MAM). We propose that prenatal or postnatal exposure to low levels of cycasin/MAM may damage neuronal DNA, compromise DNA repair, perturb neuronal gene expression, and irreversibly alter cell function to precipitate a slowly evolving disease (slow-toxin hypothesis). In support of our hypothesis, we have demonstrated the following: 1. DNA from postmitotic rodent central nervous system neurons is particularly sensitive to damage by MAM. 2. MAM reduces DNA repair in human and rodent neurons, whereas DNA- repair ...
Corpet and Pierre (1) reviewed the results of the two animal models that are the most widely used for identifying colon cancer-preventive agents. Are they appropriate for simulating the development of colon cancers in humans?. The AOM rat model, which has been used so extensively in cancer prevention studies, is based on earlier epidemiological studies with the cycad nut and carcinogenesis studies of cycasin (17) . In the classic form of the model described by Reddy (18) , AOM is given to rats as two i.p. injections 1 week apart, the animals are randomized to control and experimental diets 1 week later, and the animals are scored for number of colonic tumors 40 weeks later. An earlier end point, the putative cancer precursor ACF, can be scored for size earlier, at 14 weeks (19) , and appears to give similar results (2) . These protocols assess the promotional or protective effects of the experimental diets and when followed closely provide data that is quite reproducible. AOM is a methylating ...
Table of Contents the cancellation of all outstanding indebtedness, including accrued interest, under the Pfizer convertible promissory note, which had an outstanding balance, including accrued interest, of $7.8 million as of May 29, 2013. The Series A-1 preferred stock issued in connection with this transaction was subsequently converted into 966,218 shares of common stock upon completion of the IPO on July 1, 2013. 4. Warrants In connection with the Credit Facility entered into in June 2014, the Company issued a warrant to purchase 8,230 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $15.19. The Warrant will terminate on the earlier of June 30, 2019 and the closing of a merger or consolidation transaction in which the Company is not the surviving entity. The warrants were recorded at fair value of $0.1 million to additional-paid-in-capital in accordance with ASC 815-10 based upon the allocation of the debt proceeds. The Company estimated the fair value of the warrants using a Black-Scholes ...
Lolodi, O. and G.E. Eriyamremu, 2013. Effect of methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina (common bitter leaf) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in rats exposed to cycasin. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 16: 642-646 ...
Warning: This plant is poisonous, producing a toxin called cycasin that affects the gastrointestinal tract and nervous system. Itis known in Honduras as yuca de ratón, meaning mouse manioc and referring to their use as a rodenticide. The allusion is to Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), a poisonous tuber with high starchy ontent made edible through a process similar to that used for zamias. The Pech indigenous group call Z. standleyi, yojni unicej (venomous yuca). Its root is highly poisonous, and has been employed at times for criminal poisonings, as well as for poisoning noxious animals. There is a popular belief that the root, if out of the ground two days, kills its human victim in two days; if dug in a week, it kills in a week, and so on. Poisonous Parts: Fleshy seeds, stems, roots, leaves. Protect pets and instruct children to never eat or chew any plant material without permission ...
|p>Special Olympics is a global organization that serves athletes with intellectual disabilities working with hundreds of thousands of volunteers and coaches each year. Since the establishment of Special Olympics in 1968, the number of people with and without intellectual disabilities who are involved with the organization has been growing, but the unmet need to reach more people with intellectual disabilities is staggering.|/p>
Buy Lift Body Weight at wholesale prices from leading Chinese wholesalers, enjoy online wholesale and become a wholesaler now。Lift Body Weight is on sale, shop now before its too late!
TEHRAN - Head of the Iranian Staff of Armed Forces Mohammad Baqeri held high-level talks with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Defense Minister Nurettin Canikli on Wednesday, discussing a range of regional issues including a referendum decision by the Iraqi Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG).
"Plant toxin-induced liver damage - Cycasin". Health Grades Inc. Retrieved 28 December 2009. Sacks, Oliver (1996). The Island of ... most parts of the plant contain the neurotoxins cycasin and BMAA. Consumption of cycad seeds has been implicated in the ...
The cycad seed contains cycasin toxin and should not be eaten as it is possible for cycasin toxin to survive the most vigorous ... All parts of the plant are toxic; however, the seeds contain the highest level of the toxin cycasin. Cycasin causes ... Cycasin toxin can cause ALS, Parkinson's, prostate cancer and fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. Aulacaspis yasumatsui is ...
... contains poisonous glycosides known as cycasins. Hill, K.D. 2003. Macrozamia fraseri. 2006 IUCN Red List of ...
Its derivatives include methylazoxymethanol acetate and cycasin, which they are found in cycad. "Methylazoxymethanol - Compound ...
Tadera K, Yagi F, Arima M, Kobayashi A (1985). "Formation of cycasin from methylazoxymethanol by UDP-glucosyltransferase from ... Other names in common use include cycasin synthase, uridine diphosphoglucose-methylazoxymethanol glucosyltransferase, and UDP- ... cycasin Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are UDP-glucose and methyl-ONN-azoxymethanol, whereas its two products are UDP ... and cycasin. This enzyme belongs to the family of glycosyltransferases, specifically the hexosyltransferases. The systematic ...
The role of macrozamin and cycasin in cycads as antiherbivore defenses "KZN Wildlife". Archived from the original on 2012-10-17 ... The seeds are poisonous, containing the azoxyglycosides macrozamin and cycasin, and these are also present in the flesh, roots ...
The toxins macrozamin and cycasin are produced by cyanobacteria engaged in nitrogen fixing at their coralloid roots. Hill, K.D ...
This plant is poisonous, producing a toxin called cycasin that affects the gastrointestinal tract and nervous system. The toxin ...
Ample research on the cycad hypothesis found a component of the seeds, cycasin, was a potent toxin; it was discovered in the ... Kisby GE, Ellison M, Spencer PS (July 1992). "Content of the neurotoxins cycasin (methylazoxymethanol beta-D-glucoside) and ...
Examples include: Ackee fruit, Bajiaolian, Camphor, Copaltra, Cycasin, Garcinia, Kava leaves, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, Horse ...
As with all cycads, members of the Zamiaceae are poisonous, producing poisonous glycosides known as cycasins. Subfamily ...
The toxins contained in the cone and other parts of the plant, macrozamin and cycasin, are produced in coralloid roots by ...
The brightly colored larva or caterpillar feeds on cycads that contain a toxic secondary plant chemical (cycasin) which it ...
Cycasin: Radiomimetic effects (1965, with Karl Sax and H.J. Teas) Radiomimetic beverages, drugs, and mutagens (1966, with Karl ...
... cycasin MeSH D02.172.080.600 - methylazoxymethanol acetate MeSH D02.172.383.383 - diazomethane MeSH D02.203.087.050 - ...
The whole plant contains a toxin called cycasin which can cause liver failure that can lead to death but if proper precautions ... afterwards they would rinse it with running water for several hours to remove the rest of the water-soluble toxin cycasin. The ...
It is caused by the toxins cycasin and macrozamin, β-glycosides (the sugars of which are glucose and primeverose, respectively ...
This repeated pounding and leaching process insures that there is as little cycasin as possible left behind. Cycasin is a ... Cycasin is found in all known cycad genera and is distributed throughout the body of the plant, but with the highest ... Cycasin is a carcinogenic and neurotoxic glucoside found in cycads such as Cycas revoluta and Zamia pumila. Symptoms of ... Exposure to cycasin by injection does not cause any permanent ill effects. As a consequence, consumption is not immediately ...
This repeated pounding and leaching process insures that there is as little cycasin as possible left behind. Cycasin is a ... Cycasin is found in all known cycad genera and is distributed throughout the body of the plant, but with the highest ... Cycasin is a carcinogenic and neurotoxic glucoside found in cycads such as Cycas revoluta and Zamia pumila. Symptoms of ... Exposure to cycasin by injection does not cause any permanent ill effects. As a consequence, consumption is not immediately ...
Cycasin definition, a naturally occurring toxic glucoside, C8H16N2O7, obtained from the seeds of cycad plants, carcinogenic in ...
Germination and growth in an aqueous solution of cycasin at a concentration of only 3 percent of that found in Cycas circinalis ... Cycasin, methylazoxy-methanol-β-glucoside, a carcinogenic compound that occurs naturally in cycad plants, induces chromosome ...
Cycasin information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention ... Plant toxin-induced liver damage -- Cycasin: Damage or injury to the liver caused by exposure to a toxin called cycasin found ... Contents for Plant toxin-induced liver damage -- Cycasin: *Plant toxin-induced liver damage -- Cycasin *What is Plant toxin- ... Videos related to Plant toxin-induced liver damage -- Cycasin *Types of Plant toxin-induced liver damage -- Cycasin *Causes of ...
Crystal data for cycasin, methylazoxymethyl β-D-glucoside. M. Kawaminami, I. Kawano, K. Tadera and A. Kobayashi ...
"Plant toxin-induced liver damage - Cycasin". Health Grades Inc. Retrieved 28 December 2009. Sacks, Oliver (1996). The Island of ... most parts of the plant contain the neurotoxins cycasin and BMAA. Consumption of cycad seeds has been implicated in the ...
CYCASIN 1,2-DICHLOROETHANE. CYCLAMATES DICHLOROETHYL ETHER. CYCLOHEXANE 1,1 - DICHLOROETHYLENE. CYCLOHEXANOL 1,2 - ...
Current Awareness Program ; Cycasin ; MAM-beta-D-glucoside ; beta-D-glucosyloxyazoxymethane ; Neocycasin A ; 3-0-D- ... Nitrosamine congener alkylazoxymethanol-derived alkylating agents : cycasin and related compounds : carcinogenicity and ...
Cycasin Diazomethane p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene* 3 -Mrthyl-4-aminoazobenzene. Carboxylic acid derivatives Ethionine b - ...
Lehman College is a senior liberal arts college in The City University of New York, founded in 1968 and offering more than 50 undergraduate majors and programs; over 40 graduate degree programs; 17 advanced certificates; and 11 doctoral programs in conjunction with the CUNY Graduate Center.
Cycasin {5459896} Toxic glycoside Members of the gut microbiota hydrolyze cycasin into the carcinogenic derivative, ... Spatz M,Smith DW,McDaniel EG,Laqueur GL,Role of intestinal microorganisms in determining cycasin toxicityProc Soc Exp Biol Med ...
cycasin. (methyl-ONN-azoxy)methyl β-D-glucopyranoside. cyclopeptine. an alkaloid*. cystathionine. 2-amino-4-[(2-amino-2- ...
Teas H.J. (1967) Cycasin synthesis in Seirarctia echo (Lepidoptera) larvae fed Methylazoxymethanol. Biochem. biophys. Res. ...
Castillo-Guevara, C., and Rico-Gray, V. (2002). Is cycasin in Eumaeus minyas (Lepiodoptera : Lycaenidae) a predator deterrent? ...
Cycasin. Dacarbazine. Dantron (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone). Daunomycin. DDT. N,N-Diacetylbenzidine. 4,4-Diaminodiphenyl ether ...
The cycasin in the plant is what makes it toxic. Symptoms: Liver failure, liver damage, coagulopathy, bruising, hemorrhagic ...
Induction of mammary cancer in rats with cycasin;A preliminary report(Notes) (1968) ...
Plant toxin-induced liver damage -- Cycasin ... liver failure*Plant toxin-induced liver damage -- Icterogenin ... liver failure ...
Spatz, M., D. Smith, E. McDaniel, and G. Laqueur (1966) Role of intestinal microorganisms in determining cycasin toxicity. Proc ...
2002) were unable to find cycasin in the wing scales. Cycasin is a toxin and carcinogen (Rothschild et al. 1986; Nash et al. ... Ants may preferentially attack newly hatched larvae that have not yet ingested enough cycasin from the host plants to be ... 1986). Bowers and Larin (1989) stated that both cycasin and adult Atala butterflies are a deterrent to the carpenter ant, ... The primary toxin in coontie is cycasin, heavily concentrated in the new coontie growth favored by the Atala larvae. ...
cycasin. cyclamates. 1,4-cyclohexadiene. cyclophosphamide (anhydrous). cyclophosphamide (hydrated) D. D&C Orange No. 17. D&C ...
The sago palm is a cycad and contains cycasin. Even very young plants are toxic enough to cause death in animals. Dogs and cats ...
Sago palm: This striking, cold-hardy plant features long feathery leaves that contain a toxin called cycasin, which causes ...
Toxic properties: Cycasin, methylazoxymethanol (MAM), B-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA) and unidentified. ... bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract metabolise cycasin into its active compound methylazoxymethanol (MAM), which is toxic to ...
Finally, seeds from queen sago (Cycas circinalis) contain cycasin which can cause vomiting and liver and kidney damage. ...
2021). They rarely eat old leaves, which are too tough, or very young leaves, which have very high azoxyglycoside (= cycasin) ... produced by the hydrolysis of glycosides such as cycasin (a monosaccharide) and macrozamin (with a disaccharide). BMAA is a ...
Freshly harvested zamia roots are poisonous, containing the toxin cycasin which is also found in the seeds and foliage. ...
Laqueur, G. L., And Spatz, M., 1968, Toxicology of cycasin, Cancer Res. 28: 2262.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Matsumoto, H., And Higa, H. H., 1966, Studies on methylazoxymethanol, the aglycone of cycasin: Methylation of nucleic acids in ... Nagasawa, H. T., Shirota, F. N., And Matsumoto, H., 1972, Decomposition of methylazoxymethanol, the aglycone of cycasin, in D20 ... Shank, R. C., And Magee, P. N., 1967, Similarities between the biochemical actions of cycasin and dimethylnitrosamine, Biochem ...
  • We propose that prenatal or postnatal exposure to low levels of cycasin/MAM may damage neuronal DNA, compromise DNA repair, perturb neuronal gene expression, and irreversibly alter cell function to precipitate a slowly evolving disease ('slow-toxin' hypothesis). (elsevier.com)
  • The seeds contain the highest levels of cycasin and are therefore the deadliest part of the plant. (wagwalking.com)
  • They contain the highest levels of cycasin which causes gastrointestinal irritation and in high doses, liver failure. (mindyourdirt.com)
  • Cycasin is a glucose-derived glycoside with a methylazoxymethanol substitution at the beta position. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flour was not considered an adequate source of BMAA as it was washed to remove free cycasin (a cycad glycoside toxin), which also removed free BMAA (Duncan et al. (scielo.org.za)
  • Toxic cycads contain two major toxins, cycasin (a glycoside) and beta-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA, an amino acid). (criticalcaredvm.com)
  • When a dog chews the seeds, enzymes called glycosidases convert the other glycoside to cycasin. (criticalcaredvm.com)
  • In order to produce sago, cycasin and other cycad toxins must be removed from the flesh of the plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cycad flour we use does not contain the toxins traditionally associated with PDC (BMAA [β-methylamino-L-alanine] or cycasin), suggesting that the causative toxin(s) is(are) novel, at least to studies of ALS- PDC. (nybgshop.org)
  • As a result of extensive research into Guamanian ALS, it is now thought that these high incidence rates were due to specific dietary toxins (for example, Aluminium, cycasin). (medigoo.com)
  • Finally, seeds from queen sago ( Cycas circinalis ) contain cycasin which can cause vomiting and liver and kidney damage. (royalgazette.com)
  • There is no specific antidote for poisoning by the cycasin in a sago palm plant. (cathealth.com)
  • All parts of sago palms are poisonous - especially the seeds, which contain large amounts of the poison cycasin. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • Charlie's alarming symptoms result from liver damage caused by cycasin, a dangerous toxin contained in sago palm leaves. (jensenbeachveterinary.com)
  • Unlike metroxylon palms (discussed above), cycads are highly poisonous: most parts of the plant contain the neurotoxins cycasin and BMAA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the effects of cycasin, BMAA interacts with glutamate receptors in the central nervous system to cause hyperexcitability in neurons. (criticalcaredvm.com)
  • In metabolic conditions, cycasin is hydrolyzed into glucose and methylazoxymethanol (MAM), the latter of which dissociates into formaldehyde and diazomethane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment with β-glucosidase causes cycasin to release methylazoxymethanol (MAM), which spontaneously decomposes to form formaldehyde and methyl-diazonium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following ingestion, bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract metabolise cycasin into its active compound methylazoxymethanol (MAM), which is toxic to the liver. (cat-world.com.au)
  • A strong candidate is the cycad plant genotoxin cycasin, the β-D-glucoside of methylazoxymethanol (MAM). (elsevier.com)
  • Several species have been found to contain cycasin and related azoxy glycosides which, in the presence of endogenous or exogenous -glucosidase, release methylazoxymethanol. (botanical-dermatology-database.info)
  • Once in the gastrointestinal tract, cycasin is transformed to methylazoxymethanol. (criticalcaredvm.com)
  • Freshly harvested zamia roots are poisonous, containing the toxin cycasin which is also found in the seeds and foliage. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • however, the seeds contain the highest level of the toxin cycasin. (thedeppeffect.com)
  • Objective: The seeds of cycads contain cycasin and neocycasin, which belong to the family of cyanogenic glycosides. (elsevier.com)
  • Cycasin is a carcinogenic and neurotoxic glucoside found in cycads such as Cycas revoluta and Zamia pumila. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cycasin, methylazoxy-methanol-β-glucoside, a carcinogenic compound that occurs naturally in cycad plants, induces chromosome aberrations in the root-tip cells of Allium cepa . (sciencemag.org)
  • The cardboard palm plant contains cycasin, a carcinogenic toxin that causes mutation of genetic material. (wagwalking.com)
  • Cyanogenic glycosides: -sambunigrin, amygdalin, linamarin, cycasin cyanogenic glycosides found in mescal beans, and coniine, the lethal concentration is required for the behavior. (alsrideforlife.org)
  • These data on cycasin, a toxin obtained from the cycad plant ( Cycas spp. (ndsl.kr)
  • Unfortunately, no antidote currently exists for cycasin. (wagwalking.com)
  • More detailed information about the symptoms , causes , and treatments of Plant toxin-induced liver damage -- Cycasin is available below. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • The dangerous substance that the plant contains is cycasin, which causes liver failure in cats. (cathealth.com)
  • Indeed, exposure to mutagenic nitroso agents such as streptozotocin and cycasin induces long-lasting damage to both β-cells and neurons. (ndsl.kr)
  • The Areca seeds contain the most cycasin concentration and can be lethal if ingested. (authenticdogs.com)
  • The cycasin in the plant is what makes it toxic. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • The seeds especially since they contain the greatest amount of the toxic compound cycasin. (ufl.edu)
  • Exposure to cycasin by injection does not cause any permanent ill effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage or injury to the liver caused by exposure to a toxin called cycasin found in certain plants. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Effect of methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina (common bitter leaf) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in rats exposed to cycasin. (scialert.net)
  • All the parts of palm plants have cycasin, a dangerous substance that can cause intense drooling and diarrhea to dogs. (authenticdogs.com)
  • Cycasin is found in all known cycad genera and is distributed throughout the body of the plant, but with the highest concentration in the seeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germination and growth in an aqueous solution of cycasin at a concentration of only 3 percent of that found in Cycas circinalis induced as many aberrations in chromosomes as did about 200 roentgens of gamma irradiation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Hirono I, Shibuya C, Fushimi K (1969) Tumor induction in C57BL/6 mice by a single injection of cycasin. (springer.com)
  • Cardboard palm (Zamia furfuracea) All parts of sago palms are poisonous - especially the seeds, which contain large amounts of the poison cycasin. (plus-works.com)
  • All parts of the plant are poisonous, but the seeds contain the highest level of the toxin Cycasin. (garden-plants-in-thailand.de)