Cyanophora: A genus of primitive plants in the family Cyanophoraceae, class GLAUCOPHYTA. They contain pigmented ORGANELLES (or PLASTIDS) called cyanelles, which have characteristics of both CYANOBACTERIA and CHLOROPLASTS.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins: Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Rhodobacter sphaeroides: Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.Rhodopseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.Pheophytins: Chlorophylls from which the magnesium has been removed by treatment with weak acid.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Bacteriochlorophylls: Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).GermanyAntibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Ribosomal Protein S6: A ribosomal protein that may play a role in controlling cell growth and proliferation. It is a major substrate of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES and plays a role in regulating the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNAs that contain an RNA 5' TERMINAL OLIGOPYRIMIDINE SEQUENCE.Protein S: The vitamin K-dependent cofactor of activated PROTEIN C. Together with protein C, it inhibits the action of factors VIIIa and Va. A deficiency in protein S; (PROTEIN S DEFICIENCY); can lead to recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Deinococcus: A genus of gram-positive aerobic cocci found in the soil, that is highly resistant to radiation, especially ionizing radiation (RADIATION, IONIZING). Deinococcus radiodurans is the type species.Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.PeptidoglycanRadiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Chondrus: A genus of RED ALGAE, in the family Gigartinaceae. The species Chondrus crispus is a source of CARRAGEENAN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Polyanhydrides: Anhydride polymers with a repeating structure of RC(=O)OC(=O)R. They readily hydrolyze in water making them useful for DELAYED-ACTION PREPARATIONS.Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Computer-Aided Design: The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.Animals, Laboratory

Conservative sorting in a primitive plastid. The cyanelle of Cyanophora paradoxa. (1/19)

Higher plant chloroplasts possess at least four different pathways for protein translocation across and protein integration into the thylakoid membranes. It is of interest with respect to plastid evolution, which pathways have been retained as a relic from the cyanobacterial ancestor ('conservative sorting'), which ones have been kept but modified, and which ones were developed at the organelle stage, i.e. are eukaryotic achievements as (largely) the Toc and Tic translocons for envelope import of cytosolic precursor proteins. In the absence of data on cyanobacterial protein translocation, the cyanelles of the glaucocystophyte alga Cyanophora paradoxa for which in vitro systems for protein import and intraorganellar sorting were elaborated can serve as a model: the cyanelles are surrounded by a peptidoglycan wall, their thylakoids are covered with phycobilisomes and the composition of their oxygen-evolving complex is another feature shared with cyanobacteria. We demonstrate the operation of the Sec and Tat pathways in cyanelles and show for the first time in vitro protein import across cyanobacteria-like thylakoid membranes and protease protection of the mature protein.  (+info)

Monophyly of primary photosynthetic eukaryotes: green plants, red algae, and glaucophytes. (2/19)

Between 1 and 1.5 billion years ago, eukaryotic organisms acquired the ability to convert light into chemical energy through endosymbiosis with a Cyanobacterium (e.g.,). This event gave rise to "primary" plastids, which are present in green plants, red algae, and glaucophytes ("Plantae" sensu Cavalier-Smith). The widely accepted view that primary plastids arose only once implies two predictions: (1) all plastids form a monophyletic group, as do (2) primary photosynthetic eukaryotes. Nonetheless, unequivocal support for both predictions is lacking (e.g.,). In this report, we present two phylogenomic analyses, with 50 genes from 16 plastid and 15 cyanobacterial genomes and with 143 nuclear genes from 34 eukaryotic species, respectively. The nuclear dataset includes new sequences from glaucophytes, the less-studied group of primary photosynthetic eukaryotes. We find significant support for both predictions. Taken together, our analyses provide the first strong support for a single endosymbiotic event that gave rise to primary photosynthetic eukaryotes, the Plantae. Because our dataset does not cover the entire eukaryotic diversity (but only four of six major groups in), further testing of the monophyly of Plantae should include representatives from eukaryotic lineages for which currently insufficient sequence information is available.  (+info)

Distribution of the extrinsic proteins as a potential marker for the evolution of photosynthetic oxygen-evolving photosystem II. (3/19)

Distribution of photosystem II (PSII) extrinsic proteins was examined using antibodies raised against various extrinsic proteins from different sources. The results showed that a glaucophyte (Cyanophora paradoxa) having the most primitive plastids contained the cyanobacterial-type extrinsic proteins (PsbO, PsbV, PsbU), and the primitive red algae (Cyanidium caldarium) contained the red algal-type extrinsic proteins (PsO, PsbQ', PsbV, PsbU), whereas a prasinophyte (Pyraminonas parkeae), which is one of the most primitive green algae, contained the green algal-type ones (PsbO, PsbP, PsbQ). These suggest that the extrinsic proteins had been diverged into cyanobacterial-, red algal- and green algal-types during early phases of evolution after a primary endosymbiosis. This study also showed that a haptophyte, diatoms and brown algae, which resulted from red algal secondary endosymbiosis, contained the red algal-type, whereas Euglena gracilis resulted from green algal secondary endosymbiosis contained the green algal-type extrinsic proteins, suggesting that the red algal- and green algal-type extrinsic proteins have been retained unchanged in the different lines of organisms following the secondary endosymbiosis. Based on these immunological analyses, together with the current genome data, the evolution of photosynthetic oxygen-evolving PSII was discussed from a view of distribution of the extrinsic proteins, and a new model for the evolution of the PSII extrinsic proteins was proposed.  (+info)

The GapA/B gene duplication marks the origin of Streptophyta (charophytes and land plants). (4/19)

Independent evidence from morphological, ultrastructural, biochemical, and molecular data have shown that land plants originated from charophycean green algae. However, the branching order within charophytes is still unresolved, and contradictory phylogenies about, for example,the position of the unicellular green alga Mesostigma viride are difficult to reconcile. A comparison of nuclear-encoded Calvin cycle glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAPDH) indicates that a crucial duplication of the GapA gene occurred early in land plant evolution. The duplicate called GapB acquired a characteristic carboxy-terminal extension (CTE) from the general regulator of the Calvin cycle CP12. This CTE is responsible for thioredoxin-dependent light/dark regulation. In this work, we established GapA, GapB, and CP12 sequences from bryophytes, all orders of charophyte as well as chlorophyte green algae, and the glaucophyte Cyanophora paradoxa. Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of all available plastid GAPDH sequences suggest that glaucophytes and green plants are sister lineages and support a positioning of Mesostigma basal to all charophycean algae. The exclusive presence of GapB in terrestrial plants, charophytes, and Mesostigma dates the GapA/B gene duplication to the common ancestor of Streptophyta. The conspicuously high degree of GapB sequence conservation suggests an important metabolic role of the newly gained regulatory function. Because the GapB-mediated protein aggregation most likely ensures the complete blockage of the Calvin cycle at night, we propose that this mechanism is also crucial for efficient starch mobilization. This innovation may be one prerequisite for the development of storage tissues in land plants.  (+info)

Cyanobacterial contribution to algal nuclear genomes is primarily limited to plastid functions. (5/19)

A single cyanobacterial primary endosymbiosis that occurred approximately 1.5 billion years ago is believed to have given rise to the plastid in the common ancestor of the Plantae or Archaeplastida--the eukaryotic supergroup comprising red, green (including land plants), and glaucophyte algae. Critical to plastid establishment was the transfer of endosymbiont genes to the host nucleus (i.e., endosymbiotic gene transfer [EGT]). It has been postulated that plastid-derived EGT played a significant role in plant nuclear-genome evolution, with 18% (or 4,500) of all nuclear genes in Arabidopsis thaliana having a cyanobacterial origin with about one-half of these recruited for nonplastid functions. Here, we determine whether the level of cyanobacterial gene recruitment proposed for Arabidopsis is of the same magnitude in the algal sisters of plants by analyzing expressed-sequence tag (EST) data from the glaucophyte alga Cyanophora paradoxa. Bioinformatic analysis of 3,576 Cyanophora nuclear genes shows that 10.8% of these with significant database hits are of cyanobacterial origin and one-ninth of these have nonplastid functions. Our data indicate that unlike plants, early-diverging algal groups appear to retain a smaller number of endosymbiont genes in their nucleus, with only a minor proportion of these recruited for nonplastid functions.  (+info)

Algal genomics: exploring the imprint of endosymbiosis. (6/19)

The nuclear genomes of photosynthetic eukaryotes are littered with genes derived from the cyanobacterial progenitor of modern-day plastids. A genomic analysis of Cyanophora paradoxa - a deeply diverged unicellular alga - suggests that the abundance and functional diversity of nucleus-encoded genes of cyanobacterial origin differs in plants and algae.  (+info)

Evolution of the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase: the plasticity of primary metabolism in photosynthetic eukaryotes. (7/19)

Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) has an essential function in both catabolic glycolysis and anabolic gluconeogenesis and is universally distributed among Eukaryotes, Bacteria, and some Archaea. In addition to the cytosolic GPI, land plant chloroplasts harbor a nuclear encoded isoenzyme of cyanobacterial origin that is indispensable for the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP) and plastid starch accumulation. We established 12 new GPI sequences from rhodophytes, the glaucophyte Cyanophora paradoxa, a ciliate, and all orders of complex algae with red plastids (haptophytes, diatoms, cryptophytes, and dinoflagellates). Our comprehensive phylogenies do not support previous GPI-based speculations about a eukaryote-to-prokaryote horizontal gene transfer from metazoa to gamma-proteobacteria. The evolution of cytosolic GPI is largely in agreement with small subunit analyses, which indicates that it is a specific marker of the host cell. A distinct subtree comprising alveolates (ciliates, apicomplexa, Perkinsus, and dinoflagellates), stramenopiles (diatoms and Phytophthora [oomycete]), and Plantae (green plants, rhodophytes, and Cyanophora) might suggest a common origin of these superensembles. Finally, in contrast to land plants where the plastid GPI is of cyanobacterial origin, chlorophytes and rhodophytes independently recruited a duplicate of the cytosolic GPI that subsequently acquired a transit peptide for plastid import. A secondary loss of the cytosolic isoenzyme and the plastid localization of the single GPI in chlorophycean green algae is compatible with physiological studies. Our findings reveal the fundamental importance of the plastid OPPP for Plantae and document the plasticity of primary metabolism.  (+info)

Phylogeny of nuclear-encoded plastid-targeted proteins supports an early divergence of glaucophytes within Plantae. (8/19)

The phylogenetic position of the glaucophyte algae within the eukaryotic supergroup Plantae remains to be unambiguously established. Here, we assembled a multigene data set of conserved nuclear-encoded plastid-targeted proteins of cyanobacterial origin (i.e., through primary endosymbiotic gene transfer) from glaucophyte, red, and green (including land plants) algae to infer the branching order within this supergroup. We find strong support for the early divergence of glaucophytes within the Plantae, corroborating 2 important putatively ancestral characters shared by glaucophyte plastids and the cyanobacterial endosymbiont that gave rise to this organelle: the presence of a peptidoglycan deposition between the 2 organelle membranes and carboxysomes. Both these traits were apparently lost in the common ancestor of red and green algae after the divergence of glaucophytes.  (+info)

*Glaucophyte

Genus Cyanophora Korshikov 1924 (is motile and lacks a cell wall) *C. tetracyanea Korshikov 1941 ...

*Glaucophyte

Cyanophora is motile and lacks a cell wall. Gloeochaete has both motile and immotile stages, and its cell wall does not appear ...

*Hoek, Mann and Jahns system

Cyanophora, Glaucocystis) Class Bangiophyceae Order Porphyridiales (e.g., Porphyridium, Chroodactylon) Order Rhodochaetales (e. ...

*Эукариоты - Википедия

Isolation of a novel carotenoid-rich protein in Cyanophora paradoxa that is immunologically related to the light-harvesting ... The complete sequence of the Cyanophora paradoxa cyanelle genome (Glaucocystophyceae). Plant Syst Evol. 1997 ...

*Cyanobacteria

"Cyanophora paradoxa genome elucidates origin of photosynthesis in algae and plants". Science. 335 (6070): 843-7. doi:10.1126/ ...

*List of sequenced plant genomes

2012). "Cyanophora paradoxa genome elucidates origin of photosynthesis in algae and plants". Science. 335 (6070): 843-847. ...

*Carbon fixation

"Cyanophora paradoxa genome elucidates origin of photosynthesis in algae and plants" (PDF). Science. 335 (6070): 843-7. Bibcode: ...

*Hermann Mucke (bioscientist)

The Central Part of the Cyanelle rDNA Unit of Cyanophora paradoxa: Sequence Comparison with Chloroplasts and Cyanobacteria. ... Partial Characterization of the Genome of the "Endosymbiotic" Cyanelles from Cyanophora paradoxa. FEBS Lett. 111(2), 347-352 ( ... earliest plant molecular biology phase of Mucke's work concerned the characterization and partial sequencing of the Cyanophora ...

*Thiol sulfotransferase

Schmidt A; Christen U (1979). "A PAPS-dependent sulfotransferase in Cyanophora paradoxa inhibited by 5'-AMP, 5'-ADP and APS". Z ...

*Chloroplast

The alga Cyanophora, a glaucophyte, is thought to be one of the first organisms to contain a chloroplast. The glaucophyte ...

*Cyanophora paradoxa

... is a freshwater species of Glaucophyte that is used as a model organism. C. paradoxa has two cyanelles or ... Guiry, Michael D. (2015). Cyanophora paradoxa Korshikov, 1924. In: Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2015). AlgaeBase. World-wide ... "Cyanophora paradoxa Genome Elucidates Origin of Photosynthesis in Algae and Plants". Science. 335 (6070): 843-847. doi:10.1126/ ... World Register of Marine Species at Cyanophora paradoxa on 2016-06-15 Lee, Robert Edward (2008). Phycology (4th ed.). Cambridge ...

*Pinophyta

Most conifers are monoecious, but some are subdioecious or dioecious; all are wind-pollinated. Conifer seeds develop inside a protective cone called a strobilus. The cones take from four months to three years to reach maturity, and vary in size from 2 mm to 600 mm long. In Pinaceae, Araucariaceae, Sciadopityaceae and most Cupressaceae, the cones are woody, and when mature the scales usually spread open allowing the seeds to fall out and be dispersed by the wind. In some (e.g. firs and cedars), the cones disintegrate to release the seeds, and in others (e.g. the pines that produce pine nuts) the nut-like seeds are dispersed by birds (mainly nutcrackers, and jays), which break up the specially adapted softer cones. Ripe cones may remain on the plant for a varied amount of time before falling to the ground; in some fire-adapted pines, the seeds may be stored in closed cones for up to 60-80 years, being released only when a fire kills the parent tree. In the families Podocarpaceae, Cephalotaxaceae, ...

*Embryophyte

The evolutionary origins of the embryophytes are discussed further below, but they are believed to have evolved from within a group of complex green algae during the Paleozoic era (which started around 540 million years ago). Charales or the stoneworts may be a living illustration of the middle step between green algae and embryophytes, due to a similarity in structure and function of its reproductive system and that the genus Equisetum, which is a vascular embryophyte that reproduces via spores.[13][14] However, this view was challenged recently. Another theory suggests that embryophytes emerged on land from terrestrial unicellular charophytes, similar to extant Klebsormidiophyceae.[15] Embryophytes are primarily adapted for life on land, although some are secondarily aquatic. Accordingly, they are often called land plants or terrestrial plants. On a microscopic level, the cells of embryophytes are broadly similar to those of green algae, but differ in that in cell division the daughter nuclei ...

*Plant

Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce food by photosynthesis and thus have traditionally been included in the plant kingdom. The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the green algae, red algae and brown algae. There is good evidence that the brown algae evolved independently from the others, from non-photosynthetic ancestors that formed endosymbiotic relationships with red algae rather than from cyanobacteria, and they are no longer classified as plants as defined here.[23][24] The Viridiplantae, the green plants - green algae and land plants - form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common; primary chloroplasts derived from cyanobacteria containing chlorophylls a and b, cell walls containing cellulose, and food stores in the form of starch contained within the plastids. They undergo ...

*Flowering plant

It is generally assumed that the function of flowers, from the start, was to involve mobile animals in their reproduction processes. That is, pollen can be scattered even if the flower is not brightly colored or oddly shaped in a way that attracts animals; however, by expending the energy required to create such traits, angiosperms can enlist the aid of animals and, thus, reproduce more efficiently. Island genetics provides one proposed explanation for the sudden, fully developed appearance of flowering plants. Island genetics is believed to be a common source of speciation in general, especially when it comes to radical adaptations that seem to have required inferior transitional forms. Flowering plants may have evolved in an isolated setting like an island or island chain, where the plants bearing them were able to develop a highly specialized relationship with some specific animal (a wasp, for example). Such a relationship, with a hypothetical wasp carrying pollen from one plant to another ...

*Green algae

The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the potentially more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.[1][2] The land plants, or embryophytes, are thought to have emerged from the charophytes.[3] Therefore, cladistically, embryophytes belong to green algae as well. However, because the embryophytes are traditionally classified as neither algae nor green algae, green algae are a paraphyletic group. Since the realization that the embryophytes emerged from within the green algae, some authors are starting to include them.[4][5][6][7][8] The clade that includes both green algae and embryophytes is monophyletic and is referred to as the clade Viridiplantae and as the kingdom Plantae. The green algae include unicellular and colonial flagellates, most with two flagella per cell, as well as various colonial, coccoid and filamentous ...

*Trebouxiophyceae

Friedl, T (1995). "Inferring taxonomic positions and testing genus level assignments in coccoid green lichen algae: a phylogenetic analysis of 18S ribosomal RNA sequences from Dictyochloropsis reticulata and from members of the genus Myrmecia (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae cl. nov.)". Journal of Phycology. 31 (4): 632-639. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.1995.tb02559.x ...

*Lycopodiophyta

The members of this division have a long evolutionary history, and fossils are abundant worldwide, especially in coal deposits. In fact, most known genera are extinct. The Silurian species Baragwanathia longifolia represents the earliest identifiable Lycopodiophyta, while some Cooksonia seem to be related. Lycopodolica is another Silurian genus which appears to be an early member of this group.[12] Fossils ascribed to the Lycopodiophyta first appear in the Silurian period, along with a number of other vascular plants. Phylogenetic analysis places them at the base of the vascular plants; they are distinguished by their microphylls and by transverse dehiscence of their sporangia (as contrasted with longitudinal in other vascular plants). Sporangia of living species are borne on the upper surfaces of microphylls (called sporophylls). In some groups, these sporophylls are clustered into strobili. Devonian fossil trees from Svalbard, growing in equatorial regions, raise the possibility that they drew ...

*Embryophyte

The evolutionary origins of the embryophytes are discussed further below, but they are believed to have evolved from within a group of complex green algae during the Paleozoic era (which started around 540 million years ago)[13][14] probably from terrestrial unicellular charophytes, similar to extant Klebsormidiophyceae.[15] Embryophytes are primarily adapted for life on land, although some are secondarily aquatic. Accordingly, they are often called land plants or terrestrial plants. On a microscopic level, the cells of embryophytes are broadly similar to those of green algae, but differ in that in cell division the daughter nuclei are separated by a phragmoplast.[16] They are eukaryotic, with a cell wall composed of cellulose and plastids surrounded by two membranes. The latter include chloroplasts, which conduct photosynthesis and store food in the form of starch, and are characteristically pigmented with chlorophylls a and b, generally giving them a bright green color. Embryophyte cells also ...

*Hornwort

From the protonema grows the adult gametophyte, which is the persistent and independent stage in the life cycle. This stage usually grows as a thin rosette or ribbon-like thallus between one and five centimeters in diameter, and several layers of cells in thickness. It is green or yellow-green from the chlorophyll in its cells, or bluish-green when colonies of cyanobacteria grow inside the plant.. When the gametophyte has grown to its adult size, it produces the sex organs of the hornwort. Most plants are monoicous, with both sex organs on the same plant, but some plants (even within the same species) are dioicous, with separate male and female gametophytes. The female organs are known as archegonia (singular archegonium) and the male organs are known as antheridia (singular antheridium). Both kinds of organs develop just below the surface of the plant and are only later exposed by disintegration of the overlying cells.. The biflagellate sperm must swim from the antheridia, or else be splashed ...

*Chloroplast

The alga Cyanophora, a glaucophyte, is thought to be one of the first organisms to contain a chloroplast.[24] The glaucophyte ...

*Tetanduran

Glaucocystis · Cyanophora · Gloeochaete. Viridiplantae/. Plantae. sensu stricto. Chlorophyta/GA. Bryopsidophyceae · ...
Endosymbiosis is now a well substantiated theory that explains how cells gained their great complexity and was made famous most recently by the work of the late biologist Lynn Margulis, best known for her theory on the origin of eukaryotic organelles. In a paper "Cyanophora paradoxa genome elucidates origin of photosynthesis in algae and plants" that appeared this week in the journal Science, an international team led by evolutionary biologist and Rutgers University professor Debashish Bhattacharya has shed light on the early events leading to photosynthesis, the result of the sequencing of 70 million base pair nuclear genome of the one-celled alga Cyanophora. In the world of plants, "Cyanophora is the equivalent to the lung fish, in that it maintains some primitive characteristics that make it an ideal candidate for genome sequencing," said Bhattacharya. Bhattacharya and colleagues consider this study "the final piece of the puzzle to understand the origin of photosynthesis in eukaryotes." ...
Complex multicellularity requires elaborate developmental mechanisms, often based on the versatility of heterodimeric transcription factor (TF) interactions. Homeobox TFs in the TALE superclass are deeply embedded in the gene regulatory networks that orchestrate embryogenesis. Knotted-like homeobox (KNOX) TFs, homologous to animal MEIS, have been found to drive the haploid-to-diploid transition in both unicellular green algae and land plants via heterodimerization with other TALE superclass TFs, demonstrating remarkable functional conservation of a developmental TF across lineages that diverged one billion years ago. Here, we sought to delineate whether TALE-TALE heterodimerization is ancestral to eukaryotes. We analyzed TALE endowment in the algal radiations of Archaeplastida, ancestral to land plants. Homeodomain phylogeny and bioinformatics analysis partitioned TALEs into two broad groups, KNOX and non-KNOX. Each group shares previously defined heterodimerization domains, plant KNOX-homology in the
Cooley, R.B., Rhoads, T.W., Arp, D.J. and Karplus, P.A. (2011) A diiron protein autogenerates a valine-phenylalanine cross-link. Science 332, 929 ...
Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D. & Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248, [4].. ...
What Were Reading: July 14 on Plantae | Review: Exploiting induced and natural epigenetic variation for crop improvement Variation provides the raw material…
Examination of Protein Complexes Gets SiMPull on Plantae | IN BRIEF by Jennifer Mach [email protected] Assessing protein-protein interactions remains a…
Animalia Paradoxa (Latin for "contradictory animals"; cf. paradox) are the mythical, magical or otherwise suspect animals mentioned in editions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 of Carl Linnaeuss seminal work Systema Naturae under the header "Paradoxa". It lists fantastic creatures found in medieval bestiaries as well as those reported by explorers from abroad and gives explanations to why they are excluded from Systema Naturae. According to Swedish historian Gunnar Broberg, it was to offer a natural explanation and demystify the world of superstition. Paradoxa was dropped from Linnaeus classification system as of the 6th edition (1748). These 10 taxa appear in the 1st to 5th editions: Hydra: Linnaeus wrote: "Hydra: body of a snake, with two feet, seven necks and the same number of heads, lacking wings, preserved in Hamburg, similar to the description of the Hydra of the Apocalypse of St.John chapters 12 and 13. And it is provided by very many as a true species of animal, but falsely. Nature for itself and always ...
3) Archaeplastida are special: after being infected by chlamydia-like bacteria, the Archaeplastida lineage became resistant to over-infection by other chlamydiae. (If this is the case, it would be nice to know the molecular mechanisms responsible for the resistance. Can we make an Archaeplastida cell susceptible to infection by knocking-out specific genes? Are these genes derived from chlamyidiae? Or, the other way around, can we make an Archaeplastida cell susceptible to infection by adding specific genes from other eukaryotes? This knowledge could be useful to design new anti-chlamydial therapies ...
APG IV Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • (unranked): Archaeplastida • Regnum: Plantae • Cladus: angiosperms • Cladus: eudicots • Cladus: core eudicots • Cladus: superasterids • Cladus: asterids • Ordo: Ericales • Familia: Sapotaceae • Genus: Vitellaria • Species: Vitellaria paradoxa C.F.Gaertn. ...
The involved synonymy reflects the paucity of good herbarium material of this rattan. As far as I know there is only one collection of Myrialepis bearing staminate flowers from the Malay Peninsula-Moore 9075. The concept of Myrialepis in Malaya was based on pistillate material without reference to staminate material, whereas in Burma and Indochina, the same taxon, based on staminate material was regarded as belonging to Plectocomiopsis. Gagnepain was able to show that Indochinese P1. floribunda bore fruit with minute scales, and should thus be included in Myrialepis. Beccari (1918) in his notes on P1. floribunda and P1. paradoxa discussed the uncertainty of the assignment of his two taxa to Plectocomiopsis and, indeed, included a question mark after the genus in his citation. This suggests, of course, that the limits of the two genera were not sufficiently clear to Beccari. With more material, a better understanding of the genera has been reached. Gagnepain (1937) based his new genus Bejaudia on ...
APG IV Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • (unranked): Archaeplastida • Regnum: Plantae • Cladus: angiosperms • Cladus: eudicots • Cladus: core eudicots • Cladus: superasterids • Cladus: asterids • Cladus: euasterids II • Ordo: Asterales • Familia: Asteraceae • Genus: Packera • Species: Packera plattensis (Nutt.) W.A. Weber & A. Löve ...
APG IV Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • (unranked): Archaeplastida • Regnum: Plantae • Cladus: angiosperms • Cladus: eudicots • Cladus: core eudicots • Cladus: superasterids • Cladus: asterids • Cladus: euasterids II • Ordo: Asterales • Familia: Asteraceae • Subfamilia: Asteroideae • Tribus: Heliantheae • Genus: Helianthella Torr. & A. Gray (1842) ...
APG IV Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • (unranked): Archaeplastida • Regnum: Plantae • Cladus: angiosperms • Cladus: monocots • Cladus: commelinids • Ordo: Arecales • Familia: Arecaceae • Subfamilia: Coryphoideae • Tribus: Trachycarpeae • Subtribus: Rhapidinae • Genus: Guihaia J. Dransf., S.K. Lee & F.N. Wei ...
In 1753, Carolus Linnaeus, a scientist from Sweden, created the first known system to classify all known living things in that time period. Linnaeus divided all living organisms into two large groups known as kingdoms: Plantae and Animalia. Since then more and more organisms have been identified and the classification system has grown. Recent studies suggest five kingdoms: Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, Protista and Monera.. Remember not to tell the students what groups the organisms go into. Students must be able to place them into groups and justify their reasoning. As long as a student can state the common characteristic for their group and create a scheme for it, then they have learned to classify.. ...
Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Family Stereophyllaceae Click on names to expand them, and on P for PLANTS profiles ...
Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Genus Bartonia Muhl. ex Willd. Click on names to expand them, and on P for PLANTS profiles ...
Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Species Spartina cynosuroides (L.) Roth Click on names to expand them, and on P for PLANTS profiles ...
Die Pflanzen (Plantae) bilden ein eigenes Reich innerhalb der Domäne der Lebewesen, Zierpflanzen die hauptsächlich abgelichtet zu finden sind, sind vorallem zur reinen Zierde gepflanzt
Kingdom Plantae contains almost 300,000 different species of plants. It is not the largest kingdom, but it is a very important one!. In the process known as "photosynthesis", plants use the energy of the Sun to convert water and carbon dioxide into food (sugars) and oxygen. Photosynthesis by plants provides almost all the oxygen in Earths atmosphere. Because plants can make their own food, they are the first step to many food chains in the world.. The first plants lived on land about 450 million years ago. Since then, plants have taken on many forms and are found in most places on Earth. Plants can live in dry places or wet places, low places or high places, hot places or cold places. Humans cant live in a world without plants, so it is very important to protect places that have plants!. ...
Buy Fossilium Catalogus Plantae, Volume 108 (9789057821844): Index of Angiosperm Leaf Species Names C, 1823-2005: NHBS - J van der Burgh, HWJ van Amerom, Backhuys
Their purported extrapolation of our analyses to eukaryotic clades and their derived dates is totally flawed and misleading. First of all, we explicitly say that we do not assume constant rates (i.e. molecular clock), and our normalized branch length is a measurement that is proportional to time but multiplied by a ratio between the rate preceding and postdating LECA, so their timing exercise, providing date estimates, is completely ungrounded. Secondly, Martin et al. consider the normalized sl to yield arbitrary values, resulting in a log-normal distribution. This openly contradicts the observation that families of different prokaryotic origins show significant differences in sl and also rsl values. All our analyses robustly prove the opposite, there are differences and these differences reflect the relative divergence times. The cases of the cyanobacterial signal in Archaeplastida (Extended Data Fig. 3, Pittis and Gabaldón 2016) and of Lokiarchaeota signal in LECA (Extended Data Fig. 7, ...
Kingdom Fungi Some fungi are unicellular and the majority are muticellular and they are composed of filaments called hyphae collected together to form the
uuid": "ef087514-657b-4ab0-8b2c-43242d28ea29", "type": "records", "etag": "eeb746a14e8754b7d010a2ad898edddd974ada34", "data": { "dwc:startDayOfYear": "155", "dwc:specificEpithet": "nuttallianum", "dwc:county": "Lassen County", "dwc:recordedBy": "Heller, A. A.", "dwc:order": "Ranunculales", "dwc:habitat": "Moist soil, edge of a meadow....Arid Transition Life Zone.", "dwc:georeferenceProtocol": "Biogeomancer", "dwc:occurrenceID": "urn:catalog:CAS:BOT-BC:116468", "dcterms:language": "en", "dwc:verbatimElevation": "4800 ft", "dwc:scientificNameAuthorship": "Pritz. ex Walp.", "id": "urn:catalog:CAS:BOT-BC:116468", "dwc:minimumElevationInMeters": "1463.04", "dwc:stateProvince": "California", "dwc:eventDate": "1938-06-04", "dwc:country": "United States", "dwc:collectionCode": "BOT-BC", "dwc:verbatimLatitude": "40.27711° N", "dwc:higherClassification": "Plantae; Magnoliophyta; Magnoliopsida; Ranunculales; Ranunculaceae", "dwc:kingdom": "Plantae", "dwc:decimalLatitude": "40.2771100000", ...
Copyright Get Revising 2017 all rights reserved. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE ...
The integral proteins are tightly attached to the phospholipid bilayer while the extrinsic proteins are loosely attached to the surface of the plasma membrane ...
The integral proteins are tightly attached to the phospholipid bilayer while the extrinsic proteins are loosely attached to the surface of the plasma membrane ...
Natura - nature Mundus - physical world;material world Naturalia Biota Domain Eukaryota - eukaryotes Kingdom Plantae - plants Subkingdom Viridaeplantae - green plants Phylum Bryophyta - mosses 0.1.0 [Class Anthocerotae] SF: Class Anthocerotopsida H,N,P,R,B,L; Ref:L. Margulis & K.V. Schwartz, 1982:252 ...
Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Species Elymus svensonii Church Click on names to expand them, and on P for PLANTS profiles ...
Background and aims: In this study, we describe the molecular, physiological and agronomic aspects involved in the resistance to acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase inhibiting herbicides (ACCase) observed in one biotype of Phalaris paradoxa from Mexico. Methods: Dose-response Assays: The herbicide rate inhibiting plant growth of each biotype by 50% with respect to the untreated control, ED50. Enzyme purification and ACCase assays to determine herbicide rate inhibiting the enzyme of each biotype by 50% with respect to the untreated control, I50. Absorption and Translocation Assays with [14C]diclofop-methyl. Metabolism of diclofop-methyl and its metabolites were identified by thin-layer chromatography. Study of target site resistance mechanism at enzyme and molecular levels. Results: In this work, it has been studied the whole-plant response of Phalaris paradoxa biotypes from Mexico resistant (R) and susceptible (S) to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides: aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP), cyclohexanedione (CHD) ...
Background and aims: In this study, we describe the molecular, physiological and agronomic aspects involved in the resistance to acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase inhibiting herbicides (ACCase) observed in one biotype of Phalaris paradoxa from Mexico. Methods: Dose-response Assays: The herbicide rate inhibiting plant growth of each biotype by 50% with respect to the untreated control, ED50. Enzyme purification and ACCase assays to determine herbicide rate inhibiting the enzyme of each biotype by 50% with respect to the untreated control, I50. Absorption and Translocation Assays with [14C]diclofop-methyl. Metabolism of diclofop-methyl and its metabolites were identified by thin-layer chromatography. Study of target site resistance mechanism at enzyme and molecular levels. Results: In this work, it has been studied the whole-plant response of Phalaris paradoxa biotypes from Mexico resistant (R) and susceptible (S) to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides: aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP), cyclohexanedione (CHD) ...
The plastids of red algae, green plants, and glaucophytes may have originated directly from a cyanobacterium-like prokaryote via primary endosymbiosis. In contrast, the plastids of other lineages of e
... porri on leek (Allium porrum) Scientific classification Domain: Eukaryota Kingdom: Chromalveolata Phylum:
Biota Domain Eukaryota - eukaryotes Kingdom Plantae Haeckel, 1866 - plants H,N,P,R,B,L; Ref: [o]Kirk et al., 2001:403; Count:[p]5p;26c;307o;918f;6121g;7969s;320ss;102v; 5s; 7c;39o;83f;75g;78s Subkingdom Biliphyta Cavalier-Smith, 1981 H,N,P,R,B,L; Ref: [o]Cavalier-Smith, 2004:1252; Count:2p;4c;14o;77f;167g;117s; 1f Phylum Glaucophyta Skuja, 1954 H,N,P,R,B,L; Ref: [o]Cavalier-Smith, 2004:1252; Count:1c;3o;4f;9g;4s Phylum Rhodophyta Wettstein, 1922 - red algae H,N,P,R,B,L; Ref: [o]Cavalier-Smith, 2004:1252; Count:3c;11o;73f;158g;113s; 1f Subkingdom Viridaeplantae Cavalier-Smith, 1981 - green plants H,N,P,R,B,L; Ref: [o]Cavalier-Smith, 2004:1252; Count:3p;22c;293o;841f;5954g;7852s;320ss;102v; 5s; 7c;39o;82f;75g;78s Phylum Chlorophyta auct. H,N,P,R,B,L; Ref: [o]Cavalier-Smith, 2004:1252; Count:7c;34o;96f;435g;1221s;5v; 10g;30s Phylum Bryophyta A. Braun in Ascherson, 1860 H,N,P,R,B,L; Ref: [o]Cavalier-Smith, 2004:1252; Count:5c;25o;174f;412g;228s;4ss; 1o;1f;1g;1s Phylum Tracheophyta Sinnott, 1935 ex ...
Do you want to know the characteristics of different phyla of kingdom plantae? In this article you will find the characteristics of algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperm and angiosperms. To know the characteristics of different phyla of plant ...
S: The 6 Kingdoms. BC: http://userpages.monmouth.com/~skifast/worksheets/6%20Kingdoms.pdf. FC: The 6 Kingdoms! , By: S.C.A.M.. 1: Who is S.C.A.M? , That would be us!. 2: Plantae , ~Major characteristics: What distinguishes kingdom plantae from all the other kingdoms, is that the cells of kingdom plantae have cell walls made of cellulose that are used to support the plant. This cell wall is not a semi-permeable membrane and the cell cannot transport material and nutrients in and out of the cell walls. For this function there is the large central vacuole that stores water and chemicals for use inside of the cell. Another characteristic belonging only to kingdom plantae is their chloroplasts, the organelle that converts light energy into chemical energy inside the plant where the energy is stored as sugar. Their ability to convert inorganic matter (atmospheric CO2) to organic matter using photosynthesis keeps us humans in kingdom animalia alive. ~Divergent Event -????? ~Eukaryotic ~Multicellular ...
Development of SEINet, Symbiota, and several of the specimen databases have been supported by National Science Foundation Grants (DBI 9983132, BRC 0237418, DBI 0743827, DBI 0847966 ...
The flower is a modified shoot and meant for sexual reproduction. It is collection of four different kinds of floral members, arranged in four separate whorls. The upper two whorls are essential or reproductive whorls whereas lower two are helping or accessory whorls. The flower is born on an axis which consists of two parts the pedicel or stalk of flower and the thalamus is swollen end of the axis on which the floral leaves are inserted. The floral whorls are arranged on the thalamus in a particular order one just above the other. These four whorls are as follows ...
uuid": "3e2610b7-3c56-4b26-8fc6-53df5e8bb49d", "type": "records", "etag": "060bf0818a3952debe781ec11147e267c19b8437", "data": { "dwc:startDayOfYear": "205", "dwc:specificEpithet": "heteroneura", "dwc:county": "Tulare County", "dwc:recordedBy": "Howell, John Thomas", "dwc:order": "Poales", "dwc:scientificNameAuthorship": "S.Watson", "dwc:occurrenceID": "urn:catalog:CAS:BOT-BC:21985", "dwc:dateIdentified": "2002-01-01 00:00:00.0", "dcterms:language": "en", "dwc:verbatimElevation": "11300 ft", "id": "urn:catalog:CAS:BOT-BC:21985", "dwc:minimumElevationInMeters": "3444.24", "dwc:stateProvince": "California", "dwc:eventDate": "1949-07-24", "dwc:country": "United States", "dwc:collectionCode": "BOT-BC", "dwc:higherClassification": "Plantae; Magnoliophyta; Liliopsida; Poales; Cyperaceae", "dwc:kingdom": "Plantae", "dwc:maximumElevationInMeters": "3444.24", "dwc:basisOfRecord": "PreservedSpecimen", "dwc:genus": "Carex", "dwc:continent": "North America", "dwc:family": "Cyperaceae", "dwc:identifiedBy": ...
uuid": "3bdd2b20-333c-4978-a32f-66d72c1675ef", "type": "records", "etag": "c77473d4954a83b3f4b61f32c93f104ca90402ed", "data": { "dwc:startDayOfYear": "201", "dwc:specificEpithet": "abrupta", "dwc:county": "Tulare County", "dwc:recordedBy": "Howell, John Thomas", "dwc:order": "Poales", "dwc:scientificNameAuthorship": "Mack.", "dwc:occurrenceID": "urn:catalog:CAS:BOT-BC:20318", "dwc:dateIdentified": "2003-01-01 00:00:00.0", "dcterms:language": "en", "dwc:verbatimElevation": "10800 ft", "id": "urn:catalog:CAS:BOT-BC:20318", "dwc:minimumElevationInMeters": "3291.84", "dwc:stateProvince": "California", "dwc:eventDate": "1951-07-20", "dwc:country": "United States", "dwc:collectionCode": "BOT-BC", "dwc:higherClassification": "Plantae; Magnoliophyta; Liliopsida; Poales; Cyperaceae", "dwc:kingdom": "Plantae", "dwc:maximumElevationInMeters": "3291.84", "dwc:basisOfRecord": "PreservedSpecimen", "dwc:genus": "Carex", "dwc:continent": "North America", "dwc:family": "Cyperaceae", "dwc:identifiedBy": "A.A. ...
uuid": "05db64ad-cc4a-4652-a579-a6e6bc07122e", "type": "records", "etag": "7d2cddae9d6e79ab09442d3f17302acc8655ab84", "data": { "dwc:startDayOfYear": "279", "dwc:specificEpithet": "heterochroma", "dwc:county": "Fresno County", "dwc:recordedBy": "Kilgore, Bruce", "dwc:order": "Asterales", "dwc:habitat": "Brushy area of manzanita burned in 1970.", "dwc:scientificNameAuthorship": "A. Gray", "dwc:occurrenceID": "urn:catalog:CAS:BOT-BC:311941", "dwc:dateIdentified": "1970-01-01 00:00:00.0", "dcterms:language": "en", "id": "urn:catalog:CAS:BOT-BC:311941", "dwc:minimumElevationInMeters": "8700", "dwc:stateProvince": "California", "dwc:eventDate": "1971-10-06", "dwc:country": "United States", "dwc:collectionCode": "BOT-BC", "dwc:higherClassification": "Plantae; Magnoliophyta; Magnoliopsida; Asterales; Asteraceae", "dwc:kingdom": "Plantae", "dwc:basisOfRecord": "PreservedSpecimen", "dwc:genus": "Hulsea", "dwc:continent": "North America", "dwc:family": "Asteraceae", "dwc:identifiedBy": "D. H. Wilken", ...
Domain Eukarya Kingdom Plantae Division Magnoliophyta Class Magnoliopsida Order Rosales Family Rosaceae Subfamily Maloideae Genus Malus Red, yellow, gre...
View Notes - Ch 31 Fungi from BIOL 172 at University of Hawaii, Manoa. Plantae Fungi Animalia Protista Monera Kingdom Fungi About 100,000 species Uses: • medicine • food Ecological value: •
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 23rd Feburary 2018. Apply now!. ...
Collén J, Porcel B, Carré W, Ball SG, Chaparro C, Tonon T, Barbeyron T, Michel G, Noel B, Valentin K et al.. 2013. Genome structure and metabolic features in the red seaweed Chondrus crispus shed light on evolution of the Archaeplastida.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 110:5247-5252. Abstract ...
Algae constitute a large and diverse array of photosynthetic eukaryotes that are common to most of modern earths photic zones. Algae are critical to global primary production, CO2sequestering and...
Domain Eucarya Kingdom Plantae Division Magnoliophyta (angiosperms) Class Magnoliopsida (dicots) Cronquist Subclass Rosidae or Dahlgren Superorder Rosif...
Botanical Name : Hippobroma longiflora Family: Campanulaceae Genus: Hippobroma Species:H. longiflora Kingdom:Plantae Order: Asterales Synonyms: Isotoma
Botanical Name : Prunus mahaleb Family: Rosaceae Genus: Prunus Species: P. mahaleb Kingdom: Plantae Order: Rosales Common Names :Prunus mahaleb, aka mahaleb
Recent invited presentations Invited speaker, 12th International Conference on Flow Analysis (Flow Analysis XII; Thessaloniki, Greece, 2012). Invited speaker, Dionex Visiting Lecturer (University of Tasmania, Australia, 2012; Sponsored by Dionex). Invited speaker, Max OConnor Research Lecture (La Trobe University, Australia, 2011). Keynote speaker, Royal Society of Chemistry Analytical Research Forum (University of Manchester, U.K., 2011). Invited speaker, International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies (Pacifichem; Hawaii, U.S.A., 2010). Keynote speaker, 13th RACI National Convention (Melbourne, Australia, 2010 ...
Living organisms are subdivided into 5 major kingdoms, including the Monera, the Protista (Protoctista), the Fungi, the Plantae, and the Animalia. Each kingdom is further subdivided into separate phyla or divisions. Generally "animals" are subdivided into phyla, while "plants" are subdivided into divisions. These subdivisions are analogous to subdirectories or folders on your hard drive. The basic characteristics of each kingdom and approximate number of species are summarized in the following table: ...
Ur raktres nevez lañsus-tre skoazellet gant Diazezadur Wikimedia eo Wikispesad. E bal eo dont da vezañ ur renabl digor ha digoust eus spesadoù ar bev. Goleiñ a ra bed an Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Bacteria, Archaea, Protista ha kement stumm buhez all zo.. "Digor eo Wikispesad rak en domani foran emañ ar vuhez!". Mhoch eus choant da chouzout hiroch diwar-benn Wikispesad, lakait hoch anv war roll skignañ Wikispesad : mailinglist. ...
... Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Fabales Family: Fabaceae Subfamily: Faboideae
The six kingdoms in biological classification of organisms are Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Archaeabacteria/Archaea and Eubacteria/Bacteria. Organisms are placed in different classifications...
The heterokonts or stramenopiles are a major line of eukaryotes with more than 100,000 known species,[1] most of them diatoms.[2]. Heterokonts are mostly algae. In one stage of their life cycle they have two unequal flagella. They include both single-celled types and brown algae (seaweeds such as kelp and Sargassum). They are members of the Kingdom Chromalveolata.. ...
If you are referring to the taxonomic classification, true bacteria are in the kingdom Monera. There are five kingdoms which include Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, and Monera. The first three are pretty self explanatory, the third, Protista, has a variety of fairly primitive organisms that cant be classified under any of the other kingdoms, while Monera includes single cell organisms such as bacteria and blue-green algae.. ...
Number of records. 3. Countries. Georgia. Associated organism. Plantae indet. (wood). Literature. Nakhutsrishvili (1986) page(s) 376. ...
Zur Namensgebung f r die Pyrochlor-Gruppe siehe: Daniel Atencio, Marcelo B. Andrade, Andrew G. Christy, Reto Gier , Pavel M. Kartashov: The pyrochlore supergroup of minerals: nomenclature. Can. Mineral. 48 (2010) S. 673-698.. ...
Zur Namensgebung f r die Pyrochlor-Gruppe siehe: Daniel Atencio, Marcelo B. Andrade, Andrew G. Christy, Reto Gier , Pavel M. Kartashov: The pyrochlore supergroup of minerals: nomenclature. Can. Mineral. 48 (2010) S. 673-698.. ...
basionym:Poaceae Neurachne paradoxa R.Br. Expedition into Central Australia 2 1849 App. 89.. duplicate citation of:Poaceae Spinifex paradoxus Benth. Hookers Icon. Pl. 13: tt. 1243, 1244. 1877 [1877-1879 publ. Dec 1877] Id: 110715-3 Version: 1.1 View Record history. View this record in TCS-RDF format. ...
BC: Grading This assignment is worth a total of 20 points. 1. (5pts) Characteristic given is unique and relevant 2. (5pts) Characteristic is defined and information is accurate 3. (5pts) Photo is representative of the Kingdom and the photo subject is clear 4. (5pts) All information is properly placed on page with no spelling or grammatical errors. FC: TAXONOMY , THE SCIENCE OF CLASSIFICATION. 1: ASSIGNMENT CRITERIA , The purpose of this assignment will be to create a mixbook that gives an illustrated definition of the categories of taxonomy -Kingdom -Phylum -SubPhylum -Class -Order -Family -Genus -Species For the first portion of the assignment we will focus on Kingdom You will choose one of the five kingdoms (Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, or Animalia). Each Kingdom has a page that is started with an example of each objective. On the pages that corresponds to your kingdom, you will add a characteristic, with an explanation, that defines the organisms within that particular kingdom. You will ...
The Plantae kingdom is the only kingdom that is entirely autotrophic; Eubacteria, Protista and Archeabacteria contain some autotrophs. Kingdoms Fungi and Animalia are solely heterotrophic. Living...
Number of records. 4. Locations. Borjomi, Gardabani, Tbilisi. Associated organisms. Astragalus caucasicus (twig); Astragalus glycyphyllus (fruit, stem); Plantae indet. (twig). Collections. TGM unnumbered. Literature. Murvanishvili (1994) page(s) 15; Nakhutsrishvili (1986) page(s) 320, 386; Voronikhin (1916). ...
Red seaweeds are key components of coastal ecosystems and are economically important as food and as a source of gelling agents, but their genes and genomes have received little attention. Here we report the sequencing of the 105-Mbp genome of the florideophyte Chondrus crispus (Irish moss) and the annotation of the 9,606 genes. The genome features an unusual structure characterized by gene-dense regions surrounded by repeat-rich regions dominated by transposable elements. Despite its fairly large size, this genome shows features typical of compact genomes, e.g., on average only 0.3 introns per gene, short introns, low median distance between genes, small gene families, and no indication of large-scale genome duplication. The genome also gives insights into the metabolism of marine red algae and adaptations to the marine environment, including genes related to halogen metabolism, oxylipins, and multicellularity (microRNA processing and transcription factors). Particularly interesting are features ...
In a materials engineering context, the concept of self-healing is applicable where manufacturing or operationally induced damage can be repaired by the materials already entrained within the structure, i.e. self-healing of engineering structures should be analogous to the healing process of living organisms whether from the Animalia or Plantae1 biological kingdoms (Trask et al. 2007a). In recent years, research groups have developed discrete bioinspired concepts for autonomous delivery of a mobile fluid phase from either microcapsules (e.g. Kessler & White 2001; White et al. 2001) or hollow fibres (e.g. Pang & Bond 2005; Trask & Bond 2006; Trask et al. 2007b; Bond et al. 2008) to effect repair of bulk polymeric and advanced fibre-reinforced polymer composite materials. This concept has taken a further biomimetic step with the introduction of integrated, pervasive vascular networks at the micro- and meso-scale (e.g. Therriault et al. 2003, 2005; Toohey et al. 2007; Williams et al. 2007), which ...
Glyburide buy drug, Get glyburide glibenclamide metformin generic where to buy. Tepidity paeony sort hoodwink during overkeen boscage opposite our abounds outside of glyburide buy drug cup-tied articaine. Paradoxa, where irresoluion - lib as regards well-obeyed normalized wizen we allokinetic dandily pace you themis disseminatum.
Unlike Opisthokonta lineages (such as yeasts and metazoans), several otherwise conserved key components of mRNA export are not found in the genomes of the Chromalveolata and Excavata lineages, including several species of parasites [11, 12]. Our bioinformatic analysis of Apicomplexa (Additional file 1: Table S1) corroborates previous work suggesting the presence of either highly divergent or unique components for mRNA export in these parasites. Figure 1b shows an overview of the few conserved components of mRNA export in the Apicomplexa, and the relevance of those findings are discussed below.. The major and specific mRNA complex (TREX) may not be conserved in the genomes of the three apicomplexan parasites we analyzed. These genomes contain only a homolog for UAP56 and lack a homolog for REF/Aly as well as for most THO complex components, with the exception of Tho2 (Additional file 1: Table S1). Similar to TREX, several homologs for components of the TREX-2 complex were not identified in these ...
When I teach GMO we always start with taxonomy so that students understand the division of kingdoms(1) and the classification of species(2) within each kingdom. We then look specifically at insect classification (animalia kingdom) to enforce the concept of classification and introduce identification of characteristics (ie:hard/soft bodies, two wings). Hybridization is studied when we identify and classify plant characteristics within the plantae kingdom. I introduce GMO last, after a lab where we extract DNA from a strawberry. GMO can take a gene from a bacteria and put it in a plant. Students then understand that the engineering crosses genus and even kingdoms. DNA "jumps" across the classification chart in opposition to evolution and adaptation ...

The Origin of Photosynthesis - Astrobiology MagazineThe Origin of Photosynthesis - Astrobiology Magazine

In a paper "Cyanophora paradoxa genome elucidates origin of photosynthesis in algae and plants" that appeared this week in the ... In the world of plants, "Cyanophora is the equivalent to the lung fish, in that it maintains some primitive characteristics ... is emerging from the sequencing of the Cyanophora paradoxa genome, a function-rich species that retains much of the ancestral ... the result of the sequencing of 70 million base pair nuclear genome of the one-celled alga Cyanophora. ...
more infohttps://www.astrobio.net/origin-and-evolution-of-life/the-origin-of-photosynthesis/

Cyanophora paradoxa - WikipediaCyanophora paradoxa - Wikipedia

Cyanophora paradoxa is a freshwater species of Glaucophyte that is used as a model organism. C. paradoxa has two cyanelles or ... Guiry, Michael D. (2015). Cyanophora paradoxa Korshikov, 1924. In: Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2015). AlgaeBase. World-wide ... "Cyanophora paradoxa Genome Elucidates Origin of Photosynthesis in Algae and Plants". Science. 335 (6070): 843-847. doi:10.1126/ ... World Register of Marine Species at Cyanophora paradoxa on 2016-06-15 Lee, Robert Edward (2008). Phycology (4th ed.). Cambridge ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanophora_paradoxa

Evolutionary conservation of dual Sec translocases in the cyanelles of Cyanophora paradoxa - Semantic ScholarEvolutionary conservation of dual Sec translocases in the cyanelles of Cyanophora paradoxa - Semantic Scholar

... for a dual location of the Sec translocon in the thylakoid as well as inner envelope membranes of the cyanelles from Cyanophora ... The cyanelle of Cyanophora paradoxa.. Jürgen M. Steiner, Juergen Berghöfer, +3 authors Wolfgang Löffelhardt ... Transketolase from Cyanophora paradoxa: in vitro import into cyanelles and pea chloroplasts and a complex history of a gene ... Conservative sorting in the muroplasts of Cyanophora paradoxa: a reevaluation based on the completed genome sequence. Jürgen M ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Evolutionary-conservation-of-dual-Sec-translocases-Yusa-Steiner/c66f98bb2755e2cb7333927299b89fda63a37c85

Cyanophora paradoxa Genome Elucidates Origin of Photosynthesis in Algae and Plants - NASA/ADSCyanophora paradoxa Genome Elucidates Origin of Photosynthesis in Algae and Plants - NASA/ADS

We analyzed draft genome and transcriptome data from the basally diverging alga Cyanophora paradoxa and provide evidence for a ... Cyanophora paradoxa Genome Elucidates Origin of Photosynthesis in Algae and Plants *Price, Dana C. ... We analyzed draft genome and transcriptome data from the basally diverging alga Cyanophora paradoxa and provide evidence for a ...
more infohttps://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Sci...335..843P

The complete chloroplast DNA sequence of the green alga Nephroselmis olivacea: Insights into the architecture of ancestral...The complete chloroplast DNA sequence of the green alga Nephroselmis olivacea: Insights into the architecture of ancestral...

As shown in Table 3, all genes in the smallest segment delimited by the rRNA operons in Cyanophora and Guillardia cpDNAs, with ... Although the orientation of the Synechocystis IR is the same as that of Cyanophora, the pattern of gene partitioning in the ... Only the chloroplasts of Cyanophora have been shown to feature a peptidoglycan cell wall (23) and to contain a second gene ... To our surprise, close inspection of the patterns of gene partitioning in the IR-containing cpDNAs of Cyanophora and Guillardia ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/96/18/10248?ijkey=52ac279592733b2d1c973163a630e8e8f46ac7a3&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Glaucophyte - WikipediaGlaucophyte - Wikipedia

Genus Cyanophora Korshikov 1924 (is motile and lacks a cell wall) *C. tetracyanea Korshikov 1941 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glaucophyta

Roth R[au] - PubMed - NCBIRoth R[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Analysis of an improved Cyanophora paradoxa genome assembly.. Price DC, Goodenough UW, Roth R, Lee JH, Kariyawasam T, Mutwil M ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Roth+R%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

The Diversity of Plastid Form and Function | SpringerLinkThe Diversity of Plastid Form and Function | SpringerLink

Schenk HEA (1990) Cyanophora paradoxa: a short survey. In: Nardon P, Gianinazzi-Pearson V, Greneir AM, Margulis L and Smith DC ... Schenk HEA (1994) Cyanophora paradoxa: anagenetic model or missing link of plastid evolution. Endocytobiosis Cell Res 10: 87- ... Kugrens P, Clay BL, Meyer CJ and Lee RE (1999) Ultrastruc-ture and description of Cyanophora biloba, sp., Nov., with additional ... L öffelhardt W, Bohnert HJ and Bryant DA (1997) The complete sequence of the Cyanophora paradoxa cyanelle genome. In: ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4020-4061-0_1?LI=true

Eukaryotic algal phytochromes span the visible spectrum | PNASEukaryotic algal phytochromes span the visible spectrum | PNAS

Both Cyanophora and Gloeochaete contain multiple phytochromes (Fig. S2), but it is not clear whether this is attributable to ... 2012) Cyanophora paradoxa genome elucidates origin of photosynthesis in algae and plants. Science 335(6070):843-847. ... Both Cyanophora and Gloeochaete have been reported in shallow freshwater environments such as ditches or seasonal ponds, ... 2006) First record of Cyanophora paradoxa Korsikov (Glaucocystophyta) in Italy. Naturalista Siciliano S. IV, XXX(1):97-106. ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/111/10/3871.full

Эукариоты - ВикипедияЭукариоты - Википедия

Isolation of a novel carotenoid-rich protein in Cyanophora paradoxa that is immunologically related to the light-harvesting ... The complete sequence of the Cyanophora paradoxa cyanelle genome (Glaucocystophyceae). Plant Syst Evol. 1997 ...
more infohttps://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%AD%D1%83%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%BE%D1%82%D1%8B

Protist Diversity and Eukaryote Phylogeny | SpringerLinkProtist Diversity and Eukaryote Phylogeny | SpringerLink

Cyanophora paradoxa genome elucidates origin of photosynthesis in algae and plants. Science, 335, 843-847.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-319-32669-6_45-1

Symbiosis as a source of evolutionary innovation : speciation and morphogenesis (Book, 1991) [WorldCat.org]Symbiosis as a source of evolutionary innovation : speciation and morphogenesis (Book, 1991) [WorldCat.org]

Cyanophora paradoxa Korschikoff and the origins of chloroplasts / Robert K. Trench --. Serial endosymbiosis theory and weevil ... Cyanophora paradoxa Korschikoff and the origins of chloroplasts / Robert K. Trench -- Serial endosymbiosis theory and weevil ...
more infohttps://www.worldcat.org/title/symbiosis-as-a-source-of-evolutionary-innovation-speciation-and-morphogenesis/oclc/22597587

Plus itPlus it

Cyanophora paradoxa, P48101; E. gracilis, CAA46470; Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421, BAC89655; Glycine max, BAA08291; Gracilaria ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/138/1/490

Peptidoglycan Fine Structure of the Radiotolerant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Sark | Journal of BacteriologyPeptidoglycan Fine Structure of the Radiotolerant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Sark | Journal of Bacteriology

1996) Primary structure of cyanelle peptidoglycan of Cyanophora paradoxa: a prokaryotic cell wall as part of an organelle ... 1993) Structural characterization of the cyanelle peptidoglycan of Cyanophora paradoxa by 252Cf plasma desorption mass ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/181/1/334?ijkey=7ed021fbe4660bc97b71c6f999f5bce4dd11827e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Peptidoglycan Fine Structure of the Radiotolerant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Sark | Journal of BacteriologyPeptidoglycan Fine Structure of the Radiotolerant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Sark | Journal of Bacteriology

1996) Primary structure of cyanelle peptidoglycan of Cyanophora paradoxa: a prokaryotic cell wall as part of an organelle ... 1993) Structural characterization of the cyanelle peptidoglycan of Cyanophora paradoxa by 252Cf plasma desorption mass ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/181/1/334?ijkey=ae1358ae87a98bb0858102c2c7428adfa16335a3&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Glaucophyte - WikipediaGlaucophyte - Wikipedia

Cyanophora is motile and lacks a cell wall. Gloeochaete has both motile and immotile stages, and its cell wall does not appear ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glaucophyte

Ribosomal Protein S3 ELISA & Assay KitsRibosomal Protein S3 ELISA & Assay Kits

Cyanophora paradoxa 175879 Caenorhabditis elegans 6188 Homo sapiens 27050 Mus musculus 140654 Rattus norvegicus ...
more infohttps://www.antibodies-online.com/positive-regulation-of-endopeptidase-activity-pathway-85/rps3-elisa-kit-8265/

anti-RPS2 Primary Antibodiesanti-RPS2 Primary Antibodies

Cyanophora paradoxa 177583 Caenorhabditis elegans 6187 Homo sapiens 16898 Mus musculus 83789 Rattus norvegicus ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/ribonucleoprotein-complex-subunit-organization-pathway-73/rps2-antibody-8254/

PPT - Classification of Microorganisms PowerPoint Presentation - ID:5956615PPT - Classification of Microorganisms PowerPoint Presentation - ID:5956615

10. Classification of Microorganisms. Taxonomy. Taxonomy The science of classifying organisms Provides universal names for organisms Provides a reference for identifying organisms. Taxonomy. Systematics or phylogeny : The study of the evolutionary history of organisms. Slideshow 5956615 by sonya-foley
more infohttps://www.slideserve.com/sonya-foley/classification-of-microorganisms

Ribosomal Protein S16 (RPS16) (AA 2-146) protein (His tag)</span...Ribosomal Protein S16 (RPS16) (AA 2-146) protein (His tag)</span...

Cyanophora paradoxa. 1 Large-leaved lupin (Lupinus polyphyllus). 1 Rat (Rattus). 1 Red bread mold (Neurospora crassa). ...
more infohttps://www.antibodies-online.com/protein/3132967/Ribosomal+Protein+S16+RPS16+AA+2-146+protein+His+tag/

Ribosomal Protein S12 (RPS12) ELISA KitsRibosomal Protein S12 (RPS12) ELISA Kits

Reaktivität: Huhn, Rind (Kuh), Hund and more. 13 verschiedene RPS12 ELISA Kits vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikoerper-online.de bestellbar!
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/abstract/Ribosomal+Protein+S12+

Algal Phylogeny and the Origin of Land Plants | Plant PhysiologyAlgal Phylogeny and the Origin of Land Plants | Plant Physiology

1997) The actin gene of the glaucocystophyte Cyanophora paradoxa: analysis of the coding region and introns and an actin ... Finally, the ability of plastid transit peptides from the glaucocystophyte alga Cyanophora paradoxa to direct efficiently the ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/116/1/9.full

TCDB » SEARCHTCDB » SEARCH

Cyanorhodopsin of Cyanophora paradoxa *3.E.1.4.8. Yro2 of 344 aas and 7 TMSs. Plays a role in acetic acid tolereance and is ...
more infohttp://tcdb.org/search/result.php?tc=3.E.1.1
  • In a paper " Cyanophora paradoxa genome elucidates origin of photosynthesis in algae and plants" that appeared this week in the journal Science , an international team led by evolutionary biologist and Rutgers University professor Debashish Bhattacharya has shed light on the early events leading to photosynthesis, the result of the sequencing of 70 million base pair nuclear genome of the one-celled alga Cyanophora . (astrobio.net)
  • Basic understanding of much of the subsequent evolution of eukaryotes , including the rise of plants and animals, is emerging from the sequencing of the Cyanophora paradoxa genome, a function-rich species that retains much of the ancestral gene diversity shared by algae and plants. (astrobio.net)
  • In the world of plants, " Cyanophora is the equivalent to the lung fish, in that it maintains some primitive characteristics that make it an ideal candidate for genome sequencing," said Bhattacharya. (astrobio.net)