Cyanoketone: 2 alpha-Cyano-17 beta-hydroxy-4,4',17 alpha-trimethylandrost-5-ene-3-one. An androstenolone-nitrile compound with steroidogenesis-blocking activity.Androstenols: Unsaturated androstanes which are substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position in the ring system.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Transition Elements: Elements with partially filled d orbitals. They constitute groups 3-12 of the periodic table of elements.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Group IV Phospholipases A2: A cytosolic phospholipase A2 group that plays an important role in the release of free ARACHIDONIC ACID, which in turn is metabolized to PROSTAGLANDINS by the CYCLOOXYGENASE pathway and to LEUKOTRIENES by the 5-LIPOXYGENASE pathway.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Mifepristone: A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.Abortifacient Agents: Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Cholates: Salts and esters of CHOLIC ACID.Receptors, Glucocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.Gonanes: Steroids containing the fundamental tetracyclic unit with no methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and with no side chain at C-17. The concept includes both saturated and unsaturated derivatives.Contraceptives, Postcoital: Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.Peracetic Acid: A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.beta-Fructofuranosidase: A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Salvia: A genus in the mint family (LAMIACEAE).Libraries, Medical

Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I on in vitro final oocyte maturation and ovarian steroidogenesis in striped bass, Morone saxatilis. (1/12)

Recombinant human (rh) insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) was more potent than rhIGF-II at inducing in vitro germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), a marker for resumption of meiosis, in oocytes of striped bass. Treatment of ovarian fragments containing oocytes in intact follicles with rhIGF-I increased concentrations of estradiol-17beta and maturation-inducing steroid (MIS) 17,20beta, 21-trihydoxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20beta-S) in the culture medium and decreased testosterone levels. The follicles were too immature for oocytes to complete GVBD in response to 20beta-S (MIS incompetent) or hCG. Addition of 20beta-S to cultures did not increase the percentage of oocytes completing GVBD in response to rhIGF-I or rhIGF-II. Bovine insulin was without effect on GVBD or steroid production. Incubation of MIS-competent follicles with actinomycin D, cyanoketone, trilostane, 1-heptanol, or 1-octanol had no effect on rhIGF-I-induced GVBD, but attenuated hCG-induced GVBD and 20beta-S production. Cycloheximide inhibited rhIGF-I-induced GVBD. Collectively, these observations indicate that IGF-I can induce GVBD via MIS- and transcription-independent pathways without coupled gap junctions between oocytes and granulosa cells or among granulosa cells, but requires protein synthesis to do so. An rhIGF-I analogue that does not bind IGF-binding proteins, des(1,3)IGF-I, was more potent than rhIGF-I in inducing GVBD, suggesting ovarian IGF-binding proteins may inhibit IGF-I action.  (+info)

Dominant role of nuclear progesterone receptor in the control of rat periovulatory granulosa cell apoptosis. (2/12)

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Facile iterative synthesis of 2,5-terpyrimidinylenes as nonpeptidic alpha-helical mimics. (3/12)

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Effects of gonadotropin on ovarian intrafollicular processes during the development of oocyte maturational competence in a teleost, the Atlantic croaker: evidence for two distinct stages of gonadotropin control of final oocyte maturation. (4/12)

Full-grown oocytes of Atlantic croaker are insensitive to maturation-inducing steroid (MIS) unless they are primed with gonadotropin (GtH). The objective of this study was to examine the mechanism of GtH-induced maturational competence in croaker oocytes. Specifically, we determined the in vitro secretion of steroids by intact ovarian follicles of unprimed or hCG-primed fish, the direct effects of steroids on maturational competence, and the effects of steroid (cyanoketone), protein (cycloheximide), and RNA (actinomycin D) synthesis inhibitors on hCG-induced maturational competence and steroidogenesis in vitro. The steroid content of the incubation medium after hCG treatment was measured by RIA. The effects of hCG or exogenous steroid treatment on maturational competence were determined by recording the incidence of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) after MIS-induced GVBD in a standard bioassay. Our major findings were: (1) induction of maturational competence occurred after exposure of ovarian follicles to hCG either in vivo or in vitro; (2) MIS secretion was detected in follicles of hCG-primed fish but not unprimed fish, and no MIS secretion was observed during hCG induction of maturational competence in vitro; (3) treatment with cyanoketone blocked the hCG-dependent secretion of testosterone and estradiol but not the development of maturational competence; (4) treatment with MIS or various other exogenous steroids in the absence of hCG did not induce maturational competence; and (5) hCG-induced maturational competence was inhibited by cycloheximide and actinomycin D. Therefore, the mechanisms of GtH induction of oocyte maturation in Atlantic croaker can be described in two distinct stages: a delta-4 steroid-(including MIS) and estrogen-independent priming stage followed by a MIS-mediated GVBD stage. The priming stage may involve mechanisms requiring RNA as well as protein synthesis.  (+info)

Alterations of 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in cultured rat granulosa cells by follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone. (5/12)

The effect of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T) on rat granulosa cell progestin metabolism was investigated by incubation of the cells for 24 h with FSH and/or T and subsequent reincubation with an appropriate rabiolabeled steroid for 3 h. Exposure to varying concentrations of FSH (8-1000 ng/ml) and T (4-500 nM) decreased overall 4-[14C] progesterone utilization and accumulation of 20 alpha-reduced metabolites of progesterone in a dose-related manner. The accumulation of 5 alpha-reduced metabolites was not markedly changed by FSH and T treatments. Treatments with FSH and/or T decreased utilization of all progestins studied: progesterone by 30-50%, 20 alpha-hydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one by 23-31%, 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one by 41-64%, and 5 alpha-pregnane-3 alpha,20 alpha-diol by 26-34%. The greatest effects were observed following FSH + T treatments. Decreased utilization of substrates was associated with the decrease of 20 alpha-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase activity; the conversion of progesterone to 20 alpha-hydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one was decreased by 44-62%, the conversion of 20 alpha-hydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one to progesterone was decreased by 41-61%, the conversion of 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one to 5 alpha-pregnane-3 alpha,20 alpha-diol was decreased by 42-69%, and the conversion of 5 alpha-pregnane-3 alpha,20 alpha-diol to 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one was decreased by 53-60%. The incubation of granulosa cells with cyanoketone (10(-6)M), an inhibitor of delta 5,3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, virtually eliminated de novo progesterone production but did not alter the inhibitory effect of FSH and T on radiolabeled progesterone utilization and accumulation of 20 alpha-reduced metabolites, indicating that the observed effects are not influenced by endogenous production of progesterone. It was concluded from these studies that both FSH and testosterone inhibit the 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity and consequently decrease progesterone catabolism by granulosa cells.  (+info)

Effect of cyanoketone on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) induction of receptors for FSH in granulosa cells of the rat. (6/12)

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) enhances the conversion of testosterone or androstenedione into estradiol by stimulating the aromatase enzyme system. Estradiol also enhances FSH action. Thus, a synergistic action of FSH and estradiol may be required for maturation of ovarian follicles. We hypothesized that estradiol may be required for FSH action. Thus, blocking estrogen synthesis should prevent FSH-induced increases in FSH receptors. Hypophysectomized rats were divided into five groups and injected subcutaneously with: 1) saline, 2) cyanoketone (0.05 mg, blocks the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone), 3) ovine FSH (oFSH, 200 micrograms), 4) cyanoketone then oFSH 24 h later, or 5) cyanoketone plus estradiol [or progesterone, testosterone, promegestrone (R5020), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 2 mg], then FSH 24 h later. Animals were decapitated at 0, 12 or 24 h after an injection of oFSH, and membrane receptors for FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH), plus nuclear receptors for estradiol from granulosa cells, were measured. LH receptor levels were increased only after administration of FSH and estradiol. At 0 and 24 h, numbers of FSH or estradiol receptors were similar in saline- and cyanoketone-treated animals. FSH alone increased (P less than 0.01) FSH and estradiol receptors 3-fold and 4-fold, respectively, over controls by 12 and 24 h. Cyanoketone prevented these increases in FSH and estradiol receptors. Estradiol replacement fully reversed the effects of cyanoketone on FSH action. Replacement with progesterone and testosterone was able to only partially restore levels of FSH receptors; however, estradiol receptor numbers were also increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  (+info)

Comparative studies of aromatase inhibitors in relation to the significance of estrogen synthesis in human mammary tumors. (7/12)

The inhibitory activity of aminoglutethimide, 4-hydroxyandrostenedione, 7 alpha-(4'-amino)phenylthioandrostenedione, and cyanoketone (2 alpha-cyano-4,4,17 alpha-trimethyl-17 beta-hydroxy-5-androstene-3-one) on androgen aromatization by human mammary tumors was examined. Androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone were incubated with mammary tumor homogenates in the presence of a reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-generating system with or without inhibitor. All four compounds were found to be equally effective in inhibiting estrogen synthesis from dehydroepiandrosterone, but only aminoglutethimide, 4-hydroxyandrostenedione, and 7 alpha-(4'-amino)phenylthioandrostenedione were capable of inhibiting androstenedione aromatization. Inhibitions of androgen aromatization ranging between 81 and 97% were found and were essentially similar for both estrogen receptor-negative and estrogen receptor-positive tumors. Kinetic analysis showed 7 alpha-(4'-amino)phenylthioandrostenedione to be the most effective inhibitor with apparent Ki of 0.034 microM, followed by aminoglutethimide (Ki 0.26 microM) and 4-hy droxyandrostenedione (Ki 01.47 microM) using androstenedione as a substrate. These results are discussed in relation to the significance of estrogen synthesis in mammary tumors.  (+info)

Direct regulation of rat testicular steroidogenesis by neurohypophysial hormones. Divergent effects on androgen and progestin biosynthesis. (8/12)

The direct regulation of testis androgen and progestin biosynthesis by neurohypophysial hormones was investigated in a primary culture of rat testis cells. Treatment with arginine vasotocin (AVT; 10(-6) M) over a 10-day period inhibited the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated testosterone accumulation while enhancing hCG-stimulated progesterone accumulation. Furthermore, treatment with increasing doses (10(-11) - 10(-6) M) of AVT by itself led to dose-dependent increases in the accumulation of pregnenolone (ED50: 8.0 +/- 0.2 X 10(-9) M) and progesterone (ED50: 1.6 +/- 0.3 X 10(-8) M) but not testosterone. Under blockade of pregnenolone metabolism using cyanoketone and spironolactone, AVT, like hCG, stimulated pregnenolone accumulation with an ED50 dose of 5.8 +/- 0.3 X 10(-9) M. Similar effects were observed with several related neurohypophysial hormones, but not with nine unrelated peptides. AVT, arginine vasopressin, and lysine vasopressin were about 100-fold more potent than mesotocin, valitocin, and oxytocin. Pressor (but not antidiuretic or oxytocic)-selective agonists of the neurohypophysial hormones also exerted dose-dependent stimulation of pregnenolone accumulation. Potent pressor (but not oxytocic)-selective antagonistic analogs of the neurohypophysial hormones prevented the AVT-stimulated accumulation of pregnenolone. Thus, the neurohypophysial hormones may exert a direct stimulatory effect on testis pregnenolone and progesterone biosynthesis via putative, pressor-selective recognition sites, and this progestin-stimulatory activity may be partly due to stimulation of steroidogenic steps preceding pregnenolone formation. Since the effective doses of neurohypophysial hormones in vitro are higher than the serum hormone levels, the present results suggest an intratesticular paracrine role for these peptides.  (+info)

ABSTRACT The elucidation of Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol as the active principal of Cannabis sativa in 1963 initiated a fruitful half‐century of scientific discovery, culminating in the identification of the endocannabinoid signaling system, a previously unknown neuromodulatory system
The Sympathetic Adrenal Medullary Axis. The Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis. Bodily Responses To Stress. The Nervous System. What is stress, and what does it do to us?. http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=xb7NnEpfvSM&NR=1&feature=endscreen Slideshow 2419590 by cana
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interleukin‐1 and tumor necrosis factor production by tumor‐associated mononuclear leukocytes and peripheral mononuclear leukocytes in cancer patients. AU - Economou, James S.. AU - Colquhoun, Steven D. AU - Anderson, Timothy M.. AU - McBride, William W.. AU - Golub, Sidney. AU - Holmes, E. Carmack. AU - Morton, Donald L.. PY - 1988/1/1. Y1 - 1988/1/1. N2 - The production of interleukin‐I (IL‐I) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by tumor‐associated mononuclear leukocytes (TAML) and peripheral mononuclear leukocytes (PBML) from 9 otherwise untreated patients with a variety of malignancies (lung, sarcoma, stomach, renal) was assessed. Cells were cultured for 24 hr in vitro in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and IL‐I and TNF levels were measured in culture supernatants. TNF production was comparable between TAMLs and PBMLs. However, a striking defect in IL‐I production by TAMLs was noted. There was no basal production of IL‐I and LPS‐stimulated ...
Tumour necrosis factor production by monocytes from cattle infected with Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax and Trypanosoma (Nannomonas) congolense STI possible association with severity of anaemia associated with the ...
Hypoxia is an endocrine disruptor, altering estrogen, testosterone, and progestin hormone levels and stunting gonadal growth in Atlantic croaker. Steroids act through specific hormone receptors to alter reproductive functions, and the hormonal response is dependent on the concentrations of these receptors. However, information is currently lacking on the effects of hypoxia on expression and functions of membrane receptors mediating rapid, non-genomic steroid actions such as final oocyte maturation and apoptosis. Atlantic croakers were exposed to normoxia (7.0 mg DO/L) or hypoxia (1.7 mg DO/L) for 6 weeks during their period of gonadal recrudescence (October-December). Relative gene expression was quantified using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). mRNA expression of the membrane androgen receptor, ZIP9, was increased in hypoxia-exposed fish compared to normoxia-exposed controls, whereas mRNA expression of the membrane estrogen receptor, GPER, and membrane progestin receptor, mPRα, was ...
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iiF, RE"F~~ copy & t, Do Not Remove from the Library lJ. S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Research Center Biological k?pOrt 82( 10.98) JUNE 1985 HABITAT SUITABILITY INDEX MODELS: JUVENILE ATLANTIC CROAKER (Revised) Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Department of the Interior This model is designed to be used by the Division of Ecological Services in conjunction with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures. This is one of the first reports to be published in the new "Biological Report" series. This technical report series, published by the Research and Development branch of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, replaces the "FWS/OBS" series published from 1976 to September 1984. The Biological Report series is designed for the rapid publication of reports with an application orientation, and it continues the focus of the FWS/OBS series on resource management issues and fish and wildlife needs. Biological Report 82(10.98) June 1985 HABITAT SUITABILITY INDEX MODELS: JUVENILE ATLANTIC CROAKER ...
I am all over this theory lately, but for the first time, I have been too busy to research it. I fully expect to hit a dead end (LOL) but at the same time, this is the first time peoples bloodwork has actually matched HPA Dysfunction. That is something that cant be said about any of the other theories I have floated. The beauty of the dysfunction is that it can be in either direction. DHEA can be sky high, or too low. Testosterone usually low. Cortisol can be too high, or too low. Dysfunction leaves it wide open. But as I mentioned to Chrissi on Skype, I still have to somehow correlate twitching with HPA Dysfunction. Or maybe not. You can google adrenal fatigue and see plenty of people reporting systemwide twitching. Your theory may be valid, but I know nothing about it just yet. As a side note: Even if this is the true cause of BFS, the exercise/stress management/diet change theories still fit perfectly. Science has proven that all three of these play significant roles in the ...
I am all over this theory lately, but for the first time, I have been too busy to research it. I fully expect to hit a dead end (LOL) but at the same time, this is the first time peoples bloodwork has actually matched HPA Dysfunction. That is something that cant be said about any of the other theories I have floated. The beauty of the dysfunction is that it can be in either direction. DHEA can be sky high, or too low. Testosterone usually low. Cortisol can be too high, or too low. Dysfunction leaves it wide open. But as I mentioned to Chrissi on Skype, I still have to somehow correlate twitching with HPA Dysfunction. Or maybe not. You can google adrenal fatigue and see plenty of people reporting systemwide twitching. Your theory may be valid, but I know nothing about it just yet. As a side note: Even if this is the true cause of BFS, the exercise/stress management/diet change theories still fit perfectly. Science has proven that all three of these play significant roles in the ...
Laurent, H. K., Leve, L. D., Neiderhiser, J. M., Natsuaki, M. N., Shaw, D. S., Fisher, P. A., Marceau, K., Harold, G., & Reiss, D. (2013). Effects of parental depressive symptoms on child adjustment moderated by Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal activity: Within- and between-family risk. Child Development, 84, 528-542.. ...
wholesale price of the cream is about 0.70 USD per 30 gram tube.[4] In the United States it is less than 25 USD for a course of treatment.[5] It is made from the bacterium, Streptomyces noursei.[2]. ...
Preoperative oral treatment with lactulose is used to prevent complications after surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice. The effect is perhaps the result of an inactivation of gut derived endotoxins but the exact mechanism of action is, however, unknown. Tumour necrosis factor is an important mediator of endotoxin toxicity. The cytokine tumour necrosis factor is mainly produced by mononuclear phagocytes. In this study, the effect of lactulose on the endotoxin induced tumour necrosis factor release by monocytes was investigated. The direct effect of lactulose on endotoxin was tested in a chromogenic limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Polymyxin B a known inactivator of endotoxin was used as control in both experiments. Lactulose has a limited capacity to inactivate endotoxin as measured in the endotoxin assay. In contrast lactulose significantly reduced endotoxin induced tumour necrosis factor production by monocytes. In conclusion lactulose inhibits tumour necrosis factor production by a ...
Intravenous injection of 25 micrograms of bacterial endotoxin on day 9 of growth of the SA1 sarcoma results in extensive necrosis of the core of this tumor and in its subsequent complete regression. Tumor hemorrhagic necrosis and regression failed to occur in mice that were given a subcutaneous injection of cortisone acetate or dexamethasone 12 h before being giving endotoxin. Inhibition of tumor hemorrhagic necrosis and regression by glucocorticoids was associated with inhibition of endotoxin-induced intratumor TNF production that normally takes place several h after endotoxin is given. In contrast, glucocorticoids had no effect on the ability of intravenously injected rTNF to cause tumor hemorrhagic necrosis and regression. The results lend further support to the belief that TNF is the predominant mediator of endotoxin-induced hemorrhagic necrosis of established murine tumors, and that hemorrhagic necrosis is a prerequisite for the immunologically mediated regression that follows. ...
The day when sufficient follicle maturation is observed you will be informed of the exact time for your last injection which will induce final oocyte maturation and ovulation (Pregnyl or Profasi or Ovitrelle) as well as the dose that must be used. This injection is human chorionic gonadotrophin which mimics the LH action and induces final oocyte maturation and ovulation. The injection is administered late in the evening or after midnight. Ovulation is expected about 36 hours later.. This last injection concludes the painful phase of daily injections and marks the end of GnRH analogue and gonadotrophin administration. The following day is a day to rest and prepare for the egg collection. This last injection is very particular in that it must be done at a very specific time, which will be the deciding factor for the time of egg collection. If we attempt to retrieve the eggs before they develop completely, i.e. much earlier than 36 hours after the injection, we shall collect immature eggs. On the ...
Expression of progesterone receptor membrane component (PGRMC) 1 and 2, serpine mRNA binding protein 1 (SERBP1) and nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR) in the bovine endometrium during the estrous cycle and the first trimester of ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. trilostane ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
The overall goal of this research was to verify the involvement of membrane progestin receptor alpha (mPRα) in mediating progestin-stimulated sperm hypermotility in the Atlantic croaker and southern flounder. Sperm motility in Atlantic croaker and southern flounder were tested with both the endogenous progestin, 17,20β,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20β-S) or the selective mPRα agonist, 10-ethenyl-19-norprogesterone (Org OD 02-0). In croaker, the Pi3k/Akt/Pde and ErbB2/Mapk intracellular signaling pathways were examined. The role of mPRα in mediating sperm hypermotility and fertility in southern flounder was also studied. The effects of seasonal hypoxia on sperm motility in croaker were investigated in a field study in the northern Gulf of Mexico in the fall of 2010. Finally, the effects of acidified activator solution (simulating ocean acidification) were studied in the laboratory. In vitro, Org OD 02-0 mimicked the stimulatory actions of 20β-S in inducing sperm hypermotility and ...
I was a critical care medic in FL in the back of the ambulance going code emergency with my patient when we had an accident- my head rotated and I couldnt move my right arm or neck.I was sideways bent...
Expression of genes related totriacylglycerol synthesis and catabolism in the liver of large yellow croaker.Values (means±S.E.M.) in bars that have the same le
Incubation of the human U937 histiocytic lymphoma cell line with granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) rendered the cells responsive to induction of TNF by LPS. Treatment with IL-6 reduced TNF production in GM-CSF-primed U937 cells. The inhibitory effect was most pronounced (approximately equal to 80%) when IL-6 was added either along with GM-CSF or within the first 3 h of GM-CSF treatment. Both GM-CSF or IL-6 inhibited [3H]TdR uptake in U937 cells, and simultaneous treatment with GM-CSF and IL-6 resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. However, the inhibition of TNF production could not be explained by the inhibitory effect of IL-6 on cell growth, nor was it due to a reduction in cell viability. An inhibition of TNF production by IL-6 was also demonstrated in cultured human peripheral blood monocytes. Treatment with IL-6 also resulted in a dose-dependent reduction of the 17-kDa TNF band revealed by SDS-PAGE after labeling monocytes with [35S]cysteine ...
Since I am not able to be in the power tooled shop, Im twiddling away in my spare bedroom doing hand tool stuff. Having never hand cut a joint, and after trying a dovetail, without really knowing what I was doing - I decided to back track a bit and do a simple box joint instead. I say simple, but its not as easy as it looks. First you have to be able to saw straight which, Ive found out, is not an easy task in and of itself.. Anyway, since we learn by our mistakes, and since I know I will make many more, I thought Id share my first hand cut box joint. Im glad we are on the internet so I cant hear the laughing and/or groans. Of course, it would be ok to hear the-- "hey that looks like my first one." But cant have it both ways.. I digress. Here is the joint and the crown saw I used.. ...
Introduction: Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis dysfunction is common in severely ill patients. Even slight impairment of adrenal response to severe illness can increase morbidity and mortality. Relative adrenal insufficiency has been associated with severe sepsis.. Case report: We report a case of 48-year-old lady who was admitted with septic shock secondary to epiglottitis requiring intubation and intensive care. Short synacthen test performed in view of her refractory hypotension confirmed adrenal insufficiency. Her concurrent ACTH level was suppressed which suggested possible secondary adrenal insufficiency. Patient made an uneventful recovery with hydrocortisone treatment. She was investigated further to assess her pituitary function and structure. Anterior pituitary hormonal profile and MRI scan of pituitary fossa were normal. Adrenal auto antibodies were not detected. Long synacthen test performed ten months later revealed a flat cortisol profile with an increment after 24 h consistent ...
The combined effects of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal were examined on developmental trajectories of childrens comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants were 394 urban dwelling, primarily African American, youth (50% male, age 11-12 years). Parent-reported child behavior problems were obtained initially, 3, 6, and 12 months later. Saliva samples (collected at the initial assessment) were assayed for cortisol (HPA) and alpha-amylase (ANS). Cross-domain latent class growth analysis identified a stable comorbid trajectory and four other distinct short-term developmental trajectories of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. ANS arousal was negatively associated with the probability of stable comorbidity, but only among youth who also had high levels of HPA axis activity. Findings underscore the predictive value of the interaction of HPA axis activity and ANS arousal in differentiating children with ...
Trilostane is the chemical name for a medication that effectively treats Canine Cushings Disease. Worldwide, the only licensed veterinary version of trilostane is manufactured in the U.K. by the Dechra Group under the brand name of Vetoryl. Vetoryl is marketed in four dosage strengths: 10 mg., 30 mg., 60 mg., and 120 mg. capsules. Vetoryl is commonly used in the U.K. and Europe, and it is becoming more widely prescribed in the U.S. subsequent to FDA approval beginning in 2009. All dosage
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of environmentally realistic egg loadings of the polychlorinated biphenyl Aroclor 1254 on the subsequent growth and behavioural survival skills of Atlantic croaker Micropogonias undulatus larvae. Adult fish were given a dietary administration of 0 (control) or 0.4 (dosed) mg Aroclor 1254 kg-1 fish d-1 for 2 wk during the final stages of gonadal recrudescence. Fertilised eggs collected from control and dosed adults immediately after spawning contained 0 and 0.66 µg Aroclor 1254 g-1 egg, respectively. Growth rate (increase in total length) of dosed larvae was significantly lower than that of control larvae between 2 and 13 d post-hatching, with dosed larvae showing a 4 d delay in attaining the same size as control larvae. Behavioural assays were conducted to evaluate survival skills of larvae on Days 5 (complete yolk absorption), 9 (complete oil globule absorption), and 13 (larva wholly dependent on exogenous food sources) post-hatching. ...
Cyanoketone J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. ...
Cooke GM (April 1996). "Differential effects of trilostane and cyanoketone on the 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-isomerase ... cyanoketone, epostane, and trilostane. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and medrogestone are weak inhibitors of 3β-HSD which may ...
... and cyanoketone (an inhibitor of 3 beta-hydroxy-delta 5-steroid dehydrogenase)". The Journal of Experimental Zoology. 224 (2): ...
3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) inhibitors such as amphenone B, azastene, cyanoketone, epostane, mitotane, and ...
... cyanoketone MeSH D04.808.054.079.429.625 --- dehydroepiandrosterone MeSH D04.808.054.079.429.625.300 --- dehydroepiandrosterone ...
... , also known as 2α-cyano-4,4',17α-trimethylandrost-5-en-17β-ol-3-one, is a synthetic androstane steroid and a ... As such, cyanoketone inhibits the production of both gonadal and adrenal steroids, including progesterone, androgens, estrogens ... On account of its structural similarity to pregnenolone, cyanoketone binds to and acts as a potent, selective, and irreversible ... ISBN 978-1-4684-5036-1. Di Prisco, C. L.; Materazzi, G.; Scattolini, B. (1971). "Inhibition of steroidogenesis by cyanoketone ...
注意:此处包括了那些只有微弱男性化效应(或抗男性化
Cyanoketone, also known as 2α-cyano-4,4,17α-trimethylandrost-5-en-17β-ol-3-one, is a synthetic androstane steroid and a ... As such, cyanoketone inhibits the production of both gonadal and adrenal steroids, including progesterone, androgens, estrogens ... On account of its structural similarity to pregnenolone, cyanoketone binds to and acts as a potent, selective, and irreversible ... ISBN 978-1-4684-5036-1. Di Prisco, C. L.; Materazzi, G.; Scattolini, B. (1971). "Inhibition of steroidogenesis by cyanoketone ...
cyanoketone V A m P g cyclic AMP response element cAMP z ACRE ...
Cyanoketone J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. ...
Inhibition of cholesterol side chain cleavage by cyanoketone. Steroids. 1970 Feb; 15(2):245-50. PMID: 5459077. ...
The effect of azastene, cyanoketone and trilostane upon respiration and cleavage of the cholesterol side chain in mitochondria ...
Inter- and subcellular localization and inhibition by cyanoketone and nagarse. Biochem Biophys Acta. 1974, 348: 404-414.View ...
Takahashi M, Luu-The V, Labrie F: Inhibitory effect of synthetic progestins, 4-MA and cyanoketone on human placental 3 beta- ... Takahashi M, Luu-The V, Labrie F: Inhibitory effect of synthetic progestins, 4-MA and cyanoketone on human placental 3 beta- ... Cooke GM: Differential effects of trilostane and cyanoketone on the 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-isomerase reactions in ... Cooke GM: Differential effects of trilostane and cyanoketone on the 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-isomerase reactions in ...
World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
Medroxyprogesterone acetate: | | Medroxyprogesterone acetate | | | ||| | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
... cyano, ketone, ester, anhydride, amino, and the like, provided such substituents do not interfere with thedesired epoxidation ...
注意:此处包括了那些只有微弱男性化效应(或抗男性化
Enzyme: | | ||| | The enzyme |glucosidase| converts sugar |maltose|... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
Single-crystal X-ray analysis was performed with the cyano, ketone, tertiary alcohol, and phenol compounds. Changing the ...
Mifepristone is a synthetic steroid compound used as a pharmaceutical. It is a progesterone receptor antagonist used as an abortifacient in the first months of pregnancy, and in smaller doses as an emergency contraceptive. Mifepristone is also a powerful glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, and has occasionally been used in refractory Cushings Syndrome (due to ectopic/neoplastic ACTH/Cortisol secretion). During early trials, it was known as RU-38486 or simply RU-486, its designation at the Roussel Uclaf company, which designed the drug. The drug was initially made available in France, and other countries then followed-often amid controversy. It is marketed under tradenames Mifegyne, Zacafemyl and Mifeprex. ...
and the presence of the desired cyanoketone intermediate was verified by LCMS. A solution of 32% peracetic acid in dilute ... C for 3h and the presence of the desired cyanoketone intermediate was verified by LCMS. A solution of 32% peracetic acid in ... The reaction was stirred 2h and the presence of the desired cyanoketone intermediate was verified by LCMS. A solution of 32% ... The reaction mixture was stirred 3h and the presence of the desired cyanoketone intermediate was verified by LCMS. The reaction ...
... steroids and cyanoketone (an inhibitor of 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase). J Exp Zool. 1982, 224: 265-275.PubMedView ...
Dhabhar et al., 1996; Dhabhar and McEwen, 1999b). Cyanoketone treatment, which virtually eliminates the corticosterone stress ...
Cyanoketone D4.808.54.79.429.320 D4.210.500.54.79.429.320 Cyclacillin D3.438.260.825.249 D3.633.100.300.750.249 D3.605.84.737. ...
... to the cyanoketone 363 i n 76% o v e r a l l y i e l d f o l l o w e d by a r e p o r t e d 88% y i e l d o f the o c t a l o n ...
... in pseudomonas testosteroni and in bovine adrenals 2 alpha cyano 4 4 17 alpha trimethyl androst 5 one 17 beta ol 3 one cyano ketone ...
Isoflavones genistein and daidzein bind to and transactivate all three PPAR isoforms, α, δ, and γ.[18] For example, membrane-bound PPARγ-binding assay showed that genistein can directly interact with the PPARγ ligand binding domain and has a measurable Ki of 5.7 mM.[19] Gene reporter assays showed that genistein at concentrations between 1 and 100 uM activated PPARs in a dose dependent way in KS483 mesenchymal progenitor cells, breast cancer MCF-7 cells, T47D cells and MDA-MD-231 cells, murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells, endothelial cells and in Hela cells. Several studies have shown that both ERs and PPARs influenced each other and therefore induce differential effects in a dose-dependent way. The final biological effects of genistein are determined by the balance among these pleiotrophic actions.[18][20][21]. ...
甾体激素(英语:Steroid hormone、又称甾体激素),是一类四环脂肪烃化合物,具有环戊烷多氢菲母核。类

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