Lichens: Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Lichen Planus: An inflammatory, pruritic disease of the skin and mucous membranes, which can be either generalized or localized. It is characterized by distinctive purplish, flat-topped papules having a predilection for the trunk and flexor surfaces. The lesions may be discrete or coalesce to form plaques. Histologically, there is a "saw-tooth" pattern of epidermal hyperplasia and vacuolar alteration of the basal layer of the epidermis along with an intense upper dermal inflammatory infiltrate composed predominantly of T-cells. Etiology is unknown.Lichen Planus, Oral: Oral lesions accompanying cutaneous lichen planus or often occurring alone. The buccal mucosa, lips, gingivae, floor of the mouth, and palate are usually affected (in a descending order of frequency). Typically, oral lesions consist of radiating white or gray, velvety, threadlike lines, arranged in a reticular pattern, at the intersection of which there may be minute, white, elevated dots or streaks (Wickham's striae). (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry)Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus: A chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease usually affecting the female genitalia (VULVAR LICHEN SCLEROSUS) and BALANITIS XEROTICA OBLITERANS in males. It is also called white spot disease and Csillag's disease.Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus: Atrophy and shriveling of the SKIN of the VULVA that is characterized by the whitish LICHEN SCLEROSUS appearance, inflammation, and PRURITUS.Synechococcus: A form-genus of spherical to rod-shaped CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. They contain THYLAKOIDS and are found in a wide range of habitats.Synechocystis: A form-genus of unicellular CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. None of the strains fix NITROGEN, there are no gas vacuoles, and sheath layers are never produced.Lichen Nitidus: A chronic inflammatory disease characterized by shiny, flat-topped, usually flesh-colored micropapules no larger than the head of a pin. Lesions are localized in the early stages, found chiefly on the lower abdomen, penis, and inner surface of the thighs. Distribution may become generalized as the disease progresses.Microcystis: A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. Many species are planktonic and possess gas vacuoles.Microcystins: Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.Anabaena: A genus of CYANOBACTERIA consisting of trichomes that are untapered with conspicuous constrictions at cross-walls. A firm individual sheath is absent, but a soft covering is often present. Many species are known worldwide as major components of freshwater PLANKTON and also of many saline lakes. The species ANABAENA FLOS-AQUAE is responsible for acute poisonings of various animals.Nostoc: A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales. Trichomes composed of spherical or ovoid vegetative cells along with heterocysts and akinetes. The species form symbiotic associations with a wide range of eukaryotes.Lichenoid Eruptions: Conditions in which there is histological damage to the lower epidermis along with a grouped chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the papillary dermis disturbing the interface between the epidermis and dermis. LICHEN PLANUS is the prototype of all lichenoid eruptions. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p398)Phycobilisomes: Light energy harvesting structures attached to the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of CYANOBACTERIA and RED ALGAE. These multiprotein complexes contain pigments (PHYCOBILIPROTEINS) that transfer light energy to chlorophyll a.Phycocyanin: The metal-free blue phycobilin pigment in a conjugated chromoprotein of blue-green algae. It functions as light-absorbing substance together with chlorophylls.Prochlorococcus: A genus of marine planktonic CYANOBACTERIA in the order PROCHLOROPHYTES. They lack PHYCOBILISOMES and contain divinyl CHLOROPHYLL, a and b.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Marine Toxins: Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins: A broad category of proteins that regulate the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM of an organism. Included here are proteins that transmit intracellular and intercellular signals in a chronological manner along with proteins that sense light and time-dependent changes in the environment such as the PHOTOPERIOD.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Phycoerythrin: The metal-free red phycobilin pigment in a conjugated chromoprotein of red algae. It functions as a light-absorbing substance together with chlorophylls.Cylindrospermopsis: A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales, characterized by thin trichomes, cylindrical akinetes, and terminal heterocysts.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Acitretin: An oral retinoid effective in the treatment of psoriasis. It is the major metabolite of ETRETINATE with the advantage of a much shorter half-life when compared with etretinate.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Abortifacient Agents: Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Chlorophyta: A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.Photosystem II Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Neurodermatitis: An extremely variable eczematous skin disease that is presumed to be a response to prolonged vigorous scratching, rubbing, or pinching to relieve intense pruritus. It varies in intensity, severity, course, and morphologic expression in different individuals. Neurodermatitis is believed by some to be psychogenic. The circumscribed or localized form is often referred to as lichen simplex chronicus.Nodularia: A form-genus of filamentous CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales. Its members can be planktonic or benthic and the trichomes are composed of disc-shaped vegetative cells.Clobetasol: A derivative of PREDNISOLONE with high glucocorticoid activity and low mineralocorticoid activity. Absorbed through the skin faster than FLUOCINONIDE, it is used topically in treatment of PSORIASIS but may cause marked adrenocortical suppression.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Vulvar Diseases: Pathological processes of the VULVA.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Oscillatoria: A genus of filamentous CYANOBACTERIA in the order Oscillatoriales. It is commonly found in freshwater environments, especially hot springs.Photosystem I Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.Mouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Cyanothece: A form-genus of unicellular coccoid to rod-shaped CYANOBACTERIA, in the order Chroococcales. Three different clusters of strains from diverse habitats are included.Phycobiliproteins: Light harvesting proteins found in phycobilisomes.Aphanizomenon: A form-genus of planktonic CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Usnea: A genus of lichen-forming fungi containing usnic acid and mucilage. Usnea barbata is used in HERBAL MEDICINE.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Keratolytic Agents: Agents that soften, separate, and cause desquamation of the cornified epithelium or horny layer of skin. They are used to expose mycelia of infecting fungi or to treat corns, warts, and certain other skin diseases.Abortifacient Agents: Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Thylakoids: Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.Spirulina: A genus of filamentous CYANOBACTERIA found in most lakes and ponds. It has been used as a nutritional supplement particularly due to its high protein content.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Acids, Carbocyclic: Carboxylic acids that have a homocyclic ring structure in which all the ring atoms are carbon.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins: Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.Tongue DiseasesTetrapyrroles: Four PYRROLES joined by one-carbon units linking position 2 of one to position 5 of the next. The conjugated bond system results in PIGMENTATION.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes: Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.Saxitoxin: A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Anabaena variabilis: A species of ANABAENA that can form SPORES called akinetes.Hyperpigmentation: Excessive pigmentation of the skin, usually as a result of increased epidermal or dermal melanin pigmentation, hypermelanosis. Hyperpigmentation can be localized or generalized. The condition may arise from exposure to light, chemicals or other substances, or from a primary metabolic imbalance.UrobilinHarmful Algal Bloom: An algal bloom where the algae produce powerful toxins that can kill fish, birds, and mammals, and ultimately cause illness in humans. The harmful bloom can also cause oxygen depletion in the water due to the death and decomposition of non-toxic algae species.Atlantic OceanPeptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Vulvar Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.Depsides: Phenolic benzoic acid esters.Administration, Ophthalmic: Application of pharmaceutically active agents on the tissues of the EYE.
It feeds on mosses, algae, lichens and cyanobacteria. It is ovoviviparous, self-fertilization predominates, even in ... It lives often on surfaces encrusted with lichens and other epiphytes. It prefers trees with rough bark. It prefers shady ...
The cyanobacteria which live in cephalodia can function in nitrogen fixation on behalf of the lichen. These cyanobacteria are ... Some lichens contain both green algae and cyanobacteria. In these cases, the cyanobacteria may be enclosed in cephalodia. These ... Cyanolichens are lichens that contain cyanobacteria, otherwise known as blue-green algae. ... more rich in nitrogen-fixing cells called heterocysts than those cyanobacteria which may live in the main thalli of lichens. ...
The larvae feed on tree lichens and algae (cyanobacteria). Teriomima at Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms ...
Badger and Price first suggested the function of the pyrenoid to be analogous to that of the carboxysome in cyanobacteria, in ... Palmqvist, K. (1993). Photosynthetic CO2-use efficiency in lichens and their isolated photobionts: the possible role of a CO2- ... CCM activity in algal and cyanobacterial photobionts of lichen associations was also identified using gas exchange and carbon ... Badger, M. R., & Price, G. D. (1992). The CO2 concentrating mechanism in cyanobacteria and microalgae. Physiologia Plantarum, ...
The early colonizers-often algae, cyanobacteria and lichens-stabilize the substrate. Nitrogen supplies are limited in new soils ... Some cyanobacteria are also capable of nitrogen fixation. These are phototrophs, which carry out photosynthesis. Like other ...
Lichens are a symbiotic relationship between fungi and photosynthetic algae or cyanobacteria. The photosynthetic partner in the ... Lichens formed a component of the early terrestrial ecosystems, and the estimated age of the oldest terrestrial lichen fossil ... Lichens occur in every ecosystem on all continents, play a key role in soil formation and the initiation of biological ... Sancho LG, de la Torre R, Horneck G, Ascaso C, de Los Rios A, Pintado A, Wierzchos J, Schuster M (June 2007). "Lichens survive ...
... (jelly lichen) is a genus of lichens in the family Collemataceae. The photobiont is the cyanobacterium genus Nostoc. ... Dobson, F.S. (2000) Lichens, an illustrated guide to the British and Irish species. 4th edition. Richmond publishing Co., ...
... is a species of lichen known by the common names jelly lichen, black lichen, and desert lichen. It occurs in ... It contains a symbiont, the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. It reproduces when pieces of the thallus break off, or when isidia, ... This lichen is terricolous, growing on the soil surface. It is an indicator of basic soils, and is often found on gypsum-rich ... This lichen has a thick black or dark green gelatinous thallus which is variable in size. It is generally 1 to 3 centimeters ...
BSC is composed of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, and mosses living on the soil. In arid regions BSCs colonize the spaces in- ... Belnap, J; Phillips, SL; Troxler, T (2006). "Soil lichen and moss cover and species richness can be highly dynamic: The effects ...
Terrestrial vegetation includes epilithic lichen and moss communities. Invertebrates are abundant. Weddell seals breed on the ... The site contains a diverse range of freshwater habitats supporting algae, cyanobacteria and bryophytes. ...
A number of microscopic algae also occur as symbionts in lichens. Phycologists typically focus on either freshwater or ocean ... Phycology includes the study of prokaryotic forms known as blue-green algae or cyanobacteria. ...
Soredia are common reproductive structures of lichens. Lichens reproduce asexually by employing simple fragmentation and ... Soredia are powdery propagules composed of fungal hyphae wrapped around cyanobacteria or green algae. These can be either ... Fungal hyphae make up the basic body structure of lichen. The soredia are released through openings in the upper cortex of the ... After their release, the soredia disperse to establish the lichen in a new location. Eichorn, Susan E; Evert, Ray F; Raven, ...
Lichens that have both green algal and cyanobacterial symbionts restrict the cyanobacteria to cephalodia. Lichens that have ... instead the cyanobacteria are widely distributed throughout the lichen. Lichens with cephalodia can fix nitrogen, and can be an ... Cephalodia (singular cephalodium) are small gall-like structures found in some species of lichens that contain cyanobacterial ... Cephalodia can occur within the tissues of the lichen, or on its upper or lower surface. ...
... and cyanobacteria in lichens Green algae (UC Berkeley) Monterey Bay green algae. ... can be found in symbiotic associations with fungi to form lichens. In general the fungal species that partner in lichens cannot ... rocks or tree bark or form the photosymbiont in lichens of the family Graphidaceae. Green algae have chloroplasts that contain ... where a heterotrophic eukaryotic cell engulfed a photosynthetic cyanobacterium-like prokaryote that became stably integrated ...
A new genus of lichen, Winfrenatia, has been recovered from the Rhynie chert. The lichen comprises a thallus, made of layered, ... However, bona fide cyanobacteria are preserved in the Rhynie chert. The aquatic organisms are thought to belong to the ... In the rare instances that cyanobacteria are found in the fossil record, their presence is usually the subject of much ... Each depression contains a net of hyphae holding a sheathed cyanobacterium. The fungus appears to be related to the Zygomycetes ...
There may be two separate algae, making the lichen a symbiosis of three organisms. Taylor, T.N.; Hass, H.; Remy, W.; Kerp, H. ( ... Each depression contains a net of hyphae holding a sheathed cyanobacterium. The fungus appears to be related to the Zygomycetes ... Karatygin, I.V.; Snigirevskaya, N.S.; Vikulin, S.V. (2009). "The most ancient terrestrial lichen Winfrenatia reticulata: A new ... Winfrenatia is the oldest known terrestrial lichen, known from fossils preserved in the lower Devonian Rhynie chert. It ...
Cyanobacteria-there are also symbiotic cyanobacteria. Some associate with fungi as lichens, with liverworts, with a fern, and ... Other cyanobacteria lack heterocysts and can fix nitrogen only in low light and oxygen levels (e.g. Plectonema). Anoxygenic ... the symbiotic associations greatly exceed the free-living species with the exception of cyanobacteria. Puri, Akshit; Padda, ...
The mineral soils contain cyanobacteria and diatoms. Terrestrial arthropods and non-marine microalgae are abundant. The site ... The extensive coastal vegetation includes lichens, mosses and grasses, with Antarctic hairgrass and Antarctic pearlwort. ...
... is a crustose lichen commonly known as volcano lichen, due to the volcano-like appearance of the fruit ... Because cyanobacteria trap nitrogen from the atmosphere and convert it into a form that is usable by other flora and fauna, the ... As in other lichens, Coccotrema species can reproduce sexually by generating tiny spores. Six to eight spores can be found per ... Although many northern lichen species are an important winter food source for many animals, grazers do not appear to consume ...
Members of the genus are commonly called rock-olive lichens. They are cyanolichens, with the cyanobacterium photobiont being ... Lichen spot tests are usually negative. The thallus of members of the genus are similar to members of Heppia, Psora, and ... Peltula is a genus of small dark brown to olive or dark gray squamulose lichens that can be saxicolous (grow on rock)) or ... Field Guide to California Lichens, Stephen Sharnoff, Yale University Press, 2014, ISBN 978-0-300-19500-2 Index Fungorum. ...
This species of cyanobacteria frequently coat coastal rocks and seaweeds. This species may also form the photosynthetic part of ... certain rocky shore lichens, such as Lichina pygmaea. "Calothrix crustacea". WetlandInfo, Department of Environmental and ...
... lichens, green algae, and small cyanobacteria, and of motile cyanobacteria when the soil remains dry. This kills remaining ... Crust lichens include crustose and aerolate lichens that are appressed to the soil substrate, squamulose lichens with scale- or ... Biological soil crusts are most often composed of fungi, lichens, cyanobacteria, bryophytes, and algae in varying proportions. ... Lichens with algal symbionts can fix atmospheric carbon, while lichens with cyanobacterial symbionts can fix nitrogen as well. ...
Lichens are mutualistic associations between fungi, usually an ascomycete with a basidiomycete, and an alga or a cyanobacterium ... Freshwater and marine lichen-forming fungi Retrieved 2012-02-06. Yuan X, Xiao S & Taylor TN. (2005). "Lichen-Like Symbiosis 600 ... Fossil marine lichens 600 million years old have been discovered in the late Neoproterozoic marine phosphate rocks in the ... Several lichens, including Arthopyrenia halodytes, Pharcidia laminariicola, Pharcidia rhachiana and Turgidosculum ulvae, are ...
A lichen is a symbiosis of a macroscopic fungus with photosynthetic microbial algae or cyanobacteria. Microorganisms are useful ... "What is a lichen?". Australian National Botanic Gardens. Retrieved 30 September 2017. "Introduction to Lichens - An Alliance ...
In addition to green algae, the lichen contains cyanobacteria that help contribute to soil fertility by supplying fixed ... "nail lichen"-is also used. The thallus is the vegetative body of a lichen that contains the lichen mycobiont (fungus) and the ... Pilophorus acicularis is a tripartite lichen-containing a fungus, a green alga, and a cyanobacterium. Cephalodia (lichenized ... Pilophorus acicularis, commonly known as the nail lichen or the devil's matchstick, is a species of lichen in the Cladoniaceae ...
If someone knows more (or even a bit) about the lichen story, I'd encourage you to add the info to the endosymbiont article, ... Talk:Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria has been listed as a level-4 vital article in Science, Biology. If you can improve it, please ... DNA samples of Cyanobacteria?Edit. Would Wikipedia ever collect DNA samples of simple organisms like the Cyanobacteria? - ... describe the cyanobacteria present-day environmentEdit. describe the cyanobacteria present-day environment? -Preceding unsigned ...
Macroalgae, cyanobacteria and lichen research. Research includes mapping and recording seaweed biodiversity in the North ... Lichen collections The Museum lichen collection is one of the worlds largest and is an important research resource. ... community structure and biogeography of cyanobacteria in polar regions. ... Atlantic, detailed studies of red algae, the evolution, biodiversity, systematics and symbiosis of lichens, and the diversity, ...
... was observed in N2 fixing lichen. Depending on its partner, lichens derive the carbon and nitrogen from algal and cyanobacteria ... Both N2-fixing lichens and non-N2-fixing lichens take up nitrogen from the environment as nutrient. Both type of lichen ... Main difference between N2 fixing lichen and non-N2 fixing lichen is their photosynthetic partner. N2 fixing lichen is ... of lichen are partnered with cyanobacteria. In agricultural region, non N2 fixing lichen reflect uptake of NH3 emission ...
Common lichen growth forms A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of ... Lichens that grow immersed inside plant tissues are called endophloidic lichens or endophloidal lichens. Lichens that use ... primarily on lichens Fungi that discovered agriculture The British Lichen Society Lichens of Armenia Lichens of Ireland Lichens ... are called endolithic lichens. A crustose lichen that grows on bark is called a corticolous lichen. A lichen that grows on wood ...
Assessing host specialization in symbiotic cyanobacteria associated with four closely related species of the lichen ... Lichens Database. Duke Herbarium. Arts & Sciences. Duke University. HOME , Arts & Sciences , Duke Herbarium , Lichens. Search ... Lutzoni, FM, Phylogeny of lichen- and non-lichen-forming omphalinoid mushrooms and the utility of testing for combinability ... Francois M. Lutzoni, Professor of Biology and Curator of Lichens, Duke Herbarium. Contact Info:. Office Location: 357 Bio Sci ...
Lichen. Symbionts: Algae, cyanobacteria (Rhizobium, actinomycetes, cyanobacteria). Algae provide photosynthetic sugars and ... A lichen symbiosis consists of partners from two or three kingdoms-a fungus, a protist (algae), and often a cyanobacterium ( ... A much less dramatic, though biologically quite significant, example of interkingdom mutualism is the lichen. Lichen is the ... a lichen is an obligatory symbiotic relationship between an alga or a cyanobacterium and a fungus.. ...
... cyanobacteria contain chlorophyll a and conduct oxygenic photosynthesis. ... Cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae [1]) are microorganisms that structurally resemble bacteria (they lack a nucleus ... Pioneer communities on bare rock surfaces often include cyanobacteria or lichens, the latter existing as symbiotic associations ... Cyanobacteria Plant Sciences COPYRIGHT 2001 The Gale Group Inc.. Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a morphologically diverse ...
The pairing of a cyanobacterium and eukaryotic heterotroph in the artificial lichen of this study demonstrates the importance ... Accumulated reactive oxygen species was observed to severely inhibit axenic growth of cyanobacteria, which was efficiently ... or Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a sucrose-secreting cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. The phototroph S. elongatus showed ... From: Mimicking lichens: incorporation of yeast strains together with sucrose-secreting cyanobacteria improves survival, growth ...
Aims: Cyanobacteria-deprived lichens of the species Canoparmelia caroliniana, Canoparmelia crozalsiana, Canoparmelia texana, ... Nitrogen-fixing chemo-organotrophic bacteria isolated from cyanobacteria-deprived lichens and their ability to solubilize ... of cyanobacteria-deprived lichens. All isolates presented important physiological characteristics, some of which are being ... from the literature on the occurrence of chemo-organotrophic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in cyanobacteria-deprived lichens; the ...
lichenized - a fungus, alga, or cyanobacterium that is in a lichen partnership. ... Lichens Glossary. Lichenologists use many unique terms to describe the structure and biology of lichens. Although we keep the ... isidia - a vegetative means of propagation for lichens; normally found on the top-side or outer cortex of the lichen; both ... cilia - little hairs on the margin of a lichen; for example, black hairs on the margins of a foliose lichen. ...
In addition, some cyanobacteria and lichens fix atmospheric nitrogen, even during the winter. Biological soil crusts can make ... It s a complex mosaic of living organisms algae, cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), bacteria, lichens, mosses, liverworts, and ... However add a little moisture and you may be surrounded by vivid greens, yellows, and oranges as the mosses and lichens come ...
Lichens, mosses and cyanobacteria produce large amounts of nitrous oxide. Inconspicuous creatures surprise with a property that ... is important for our climate: Lichens, mosses and cyanobacteria release large quantities of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide ( ...
Peltigera collina, dog-pelt lichen. The dark color of this species is due to the cyanobacteria layer under the cortex. Photo by ... Everything in the lichens environment is absorbed into the lichens structure. Lichens get their water and nutrients from ... These types of lichens are called jelly lichens.. Lobaria oregana with L. pulmonaria growing in the middle. These species are ... When a lichen is dry, its color is usually gray or colored like the fungal cells on the upper cortex. When a lichen is wet, ...
Lichens are defined as the specific symbiotic structure comprising a fungus and a green alga and/or cyanobacterium. Up until ... Lichens are defined as the specific symbiotic structure comprising a fungus and a green alga and/or cyanobacterium. Up until ... Palmqvist K, Dahlman L, Jonsson A, Nash TH (2008) The carbon economy of lichens. In: Nash TH (ed) Lichen biology. Cambridge ... Beckett RP, Zavarzina AG, Liers C (2013) Oxidoreductases and cellulases in lichens: possible roles in lichen biology and soil ...
... growth of lichens, mosses and cyanobacteria [22]; and (iii) non-biological processes, such as weathering and leaching [23]. ...
Lichens, cyanobacteria, mosses and algae coat many terrestrial surfaces. These biological covers turn out to play an important ... Belnap, J., 1990, Effects of air pollutants on cold-desert cyanobacterial-lichen crusts and rock lichens: Chlorophyll ... lichens, cyanobacteria and fungi) play in dryland ecosystems, including soil stability, nutrient cycling, and hydrologic cycles ... Belnap, J., 2005, Cyanobacteria and Algae, in Sylvia, D. M., Fuhrmann, J. J., Hartel, P. G., and Zuberer, D. A., eds., ...
Esser, K., 1982 Cryptogams-Cyanobacteria, Algae, Fungi, Lichens. Cambridge University Press, London. ...
cyanobacteria, green algae, lichens, mosses, nitrogen fixation, prescribed burn. Source:. Rangeland Ecology and Management. 68( ...
Single locus phylogenies were used to establish the identity of both photobionts, Nostoc (cyanobacterium) and Coccomyxa (green ... Single locus phylogenies were used to establish the identity of both photobionts, Nostoc (cyanobacterium) and Coccomyxa (green ... framework was used to assess the biodiversity and symbiotic patterns of association among partners in trimembered lichens from ... framework was used to assess the biodiversity and symbiotic patterns of association among partners in trimembered lichens from ...
The photobiont[1] partner may be a green alga and/or a cyanobacterium.[2]p5,6,13 ... Lichen-covered tree, Isles of Scilly, UK. Grey, leafy lichen upper half of trunk; yellowy-green lichen on middle, lower half ... Lichen survives in space [1] European Space Agency 2005.. *↑ Sancho L.G. et al (2007). "Lichens survive in space: results from ... Lichen are the main winter food for reindeer. The deer can get at shrubby lichen under the snow.[17] In summer they have much ...
Some lichens contain both green algae and cyanobacteria as photobionts; in these cases, the cyanobacteria symbiont component ... Some lichens have the aspect of leaves (foliose lichens); others cover the substratum like a crust (crustose lichens); others ... In lichens that include both green algal and cyanobacterial symbionts, the cyanobacteria may be held on the upper or lower ... The photobiont is usually either green algae or cyanobacteria. A few lichens are known to contain yellow-green algae or, in one ...
This study should look at the lichens and cyanobacteria that fix nitrogen. ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,Finally, I strongly urge ... 8. Macroscopic Components of the Biological Soil Crust 3cm Ladder Lichen Reindeer Moss Burned Ground Moss Cyanobacteria British ... Cyanobacteria and Moss Lichen Lycopod This biological soil crust is found in the Central Range of the Dominican Republic. ... Cladonia rangiferina Ladder Lichen Cladonia verticillata British Soldiers Cladonia cristatella Uncommon Species Reindeer Lichen ...
The Costa Rican lichen biodiversity inventory as a model for lichen inventories in the tropics. The 5th IAL Symposium, Lichens ... Evidence from a previously unrecognized lineage of filamentous cyanobacteria. American Journal of Botany 96: 1409-1418. ( ... Foliicolous Lichens - A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Lichen Flora of Costa Rica, Central America. Beihefte zur Nova ... Lichens from the Brazilian Amazon: new taxa and interesting records. The 7th IAL Symposium "Lichens: From Genome to Ecosystems ...
Lichens Mutualistic association of fungi and algae or cyanobacteria. Mainly species from phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. ...
Cyanobacteria, Bacteria, Microalgae. Fungi. Lichens. Bioprotection of Stones by Biofilms and Lichens. Mosses and Vascular ... lichens, plants, and birds. Although much has been learned about these problems, information is scattered across meeting ... a discussion on the bioprotection of stones by biofilms and lichens, a review of the main analytical techniques, and a section ...
Lichens and bryophytes were shown to be deterioration agents in different building materials. The colonization by these ... Endolithic and epilithic cyanobacteria and algae were isolated from European cathedrals. Combining observations in both field ... Some basic studies on diazotrophic growth of cyanobacteria were also undertaken. Fungi were found to be associated with ...
  • However add a little moisture and you may be surrounded by vivid greens, yellows, and oranges as the mosses and lichens come out of dormancy and spring to life. (blm.gov)
  • Lichens do not have a waxy cuticle like plants have on their leaves, nor do they have vascular tissue such as xylem and phloem to move nutrients and water around their thalli as a plant does. (fed.us)
  • Büdel B, Lange OL (1991) Water status of green and blue-green phycobionts in lichen thalli after hydration by water vapor uptake: do they become turgid? (springer.com)
  • The same is true for AL thalli (especially their microalgae and cyanobacteria), which host diverse ELF and lichenicolous fungi 2 . (nature.com)
  • For example, the PF1140 molecule was concentrated in the bottommost layer of the lichen, a portion not exposed to the sun. (eurekalert.org)
  • Lichens occur in all major ecosystems apart from the deep sea. (scribd.com)
  • The ecology of lichens, productive pioneers that dominate the photic zone in rocky coastal ecosystems and complement the productivity of forest habitats, is well demonstrated (chapter 8). (bioone.org)
  • At the same time, the researchers extracted metabolites from lab-grown cultures of 70 microbes isolated from the lichen and performed the same analysis. (eurekalert.org)
  • In a study led by the University of Montana and co-authored by Purdue mycologist M. Catherine Aime , researchers show that lichens across six continents also contain basidiomycete yeasts, single-celled fungi that likely produce chemicals that help lichens ward off predators and repel microbes. (purdue.edu)
  • The high amounts of yeast in B. tortuosa enable the lichen to produce the acid that helps defend it against invasion from other microbes. (purdue.edu)
  • Different kinds of lichens have adapted to survive in some of the most extreme environments on Earth: arctic tundra, hot dry deserts, rocky coasts, and toxic slag heaps. (wikipedia.org)
  • p19 There are about 200 different kinds of lichens in Antarctica . (wikipedia.org)
  • cephalodia - little pockets of cyanobacteria that form on top of a chlorolichen, normally black in color. (fed.us)
  • Further contributions to the classification of cyanobacteria (Komarek 2006, 2010) have supported the systematic arrangement proposed by Hoffmann et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • At all taxonomic levels above species, sequence analysis of genes encoding small-subunit rRNA (16S rRNA) is currently the most promising approach for the phylogenetic classification of cyanobacteria, and the comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences provides a new means to investigate the discrepancy between strain collections and natural communities ( 17 , 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Algae may be sometimes the dominant partner in so-called 'jelly lichens', Collema and Leptogium , but this is rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is still some discussion about how to classify lichens, though many taxonomists rely on genetic analyses in addition to traditional morphological data. (britannica.com)
  • While microscopic analyses apparently underestimated the biodiversity of thin filamentous cyanobacteria, molecular analyses failed to retrieve signals for otherwise conspicuous heterocystous cyanobacteria with thick sheaths. (asm.org)
  • but they are phylogenetically distant from thin filamentous cyanobacteria from other environments. (asm.org)
  • Production of volatile organic compounds, conferring antibacterial and antifungal activity, has also been demonstrated for several lichen-associated isolates. (springer.com)
  • The cell extracts of the cyanobacteria did not show antimicrobial activities, but four isolates were shown to be cytotoxic to human cells. (frontiersin.org)