A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
A form-genus of spherical to rod-shaped CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. They contain THYLAKOIDS and are found in a wide range of habitats.
A form-genus of unicellular CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. None of the strains fix NITROGEN, there are no gas vacuoles, and sheath layers are never produced.
A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. Many species are planktonic and possess gas vacuoles.
A genus of CYANOBACTERIA consisting of trichomes that are untapered with conspicuous constrictions at cross-walls. A firm individual sheath is absent, but a soft covering is often present. Many species are known worldwide as major components of freshwater PLANKTON and also of many saline lakes. The species ANABAENA FLOS-AQUAE is responsible for acute poisonings of various animals.
Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.
A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales. Trichomes composed of spherical or ovoid vegetative cells along with heterocysts and akinetes. The species form symbiotic associations with a wide range of eukaryotes.
Light energy harvesting structures attached to the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of CYANOBACTERIA and RED ALGAE. These multiprotein complexes contain pigments (PHYCOBILIPROTEINS) that transfer light energy to chlorophyll a.
The metal-free blue phycobilin pigment in a conjugated chromoprotein of blue-green algae. It functions as light-absorbing substance together with chlorophylls.
A genus of marine planktonic CYANOBACTERIA in the order PROCHLOROPHYTES. They lack PHYCOBILISOMES and contain divinyl CHLOROPHYLL, a and b.
The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A broad category of proteins that regulate the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM of an organism. Included here are proteins that transmit intracellular and intercellular signals in a chronological manner along with proteins that sense light and time-dependent changes in the environment such as the PHOTOPERIOD.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The metal-free red phycobilin pigment in a conjugated chromoprotein of red algae. It functions as a light-absorbing substance together with chlorophylls.
A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales, characterized by thin trichomes, cylindrical akinetes, and terminal heterocysts.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Open chain tetrapyrroles that function as light harvesting chromophores in PHYCOBILIPROTEINS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
A form-genus of filamentous CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales. Its members can be planktonic or benthic and the trichomes are composed of disc-shaped vegetative cells.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A genus of filamentous CYANOBACTERIA in the order Oscillatoriales. It is commonly found in freshwater environments, especially hot springs.
A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).
A form-genus of unicellular coccoid to rod-shaped CYANOBACTERIA, in the order Chroococcales. Three different clusters of strains from diverse habitats are included.
Light harvesting proteins found in phycobilisomes.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
A form-genus of planktonic CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
A genus of filamentous CYANOBACTERIA found in most lakes and ponds. It has been used as a nutritional supplement particularly due to its high protein content.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Four PYRROLES joined by one-carbon units linking position 2 of one to position 5 of the next. The conjugated bond system results in PIGMENTATION.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
A species of ANABAENA that can form SPORES called akinetes.
An algal bloom where the algae produce powerful toxins that can kill fish, birds, and mammals, and ultimately cause illness in humans. The harmful bloom can also cause oxygen depletion in the water due to the death and decomposition of non-toxic algae species.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A plant family of the order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
The absence of light.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
A copper-containing plant protein that is a fundamental link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A pre-emergent herbicide.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A form species of spore-producing CYANOBACTERIA, in the family Nostocaceae, order Nostocales. It is an important source of fixed NITROGEN in nutrient-depleted soils. When wet, it appears as a jelly-like mass.
The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.
Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.
A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.
Geological formations consisting of underground enclosures with access from the surface.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A division of GYMNOSPERMS which look like palm trees (ARECACEAE) but are more closely related to PINUS. They have large cones and large pinnate leaves and are sometimes called cycads, a term which may also refer more narrowly to cycadales or CYCAS.
A genus of PROCHLOROPHYTES containing unicellular, spherical bacteria without a mucilaginous sheath. They are found almost exclusively as extracellular symbionts of colonial ASCIDIANS on subtropical or tropical marine shores.
A plant genus of the family NYMPHAEACEAE. Members contain sesquiterpene thioalkaloids.
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
A republic consisting of a group of about 100 islands and islets in the western Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Koror. Under Spain it was administered as a part of the Caroline Islands but was sold to Germany in 1899. Seized by Japan in 1914, it was taken by the Allies in World War II in 1944. In 1947 it became part of the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, became internally self-governing in 1980, obtained independent control over its foreign policy (except defense) in 1986, and achieved total independence October 1, 1994. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p915; telephone communication with Randy Flynn, Board on Geographic Names, 17 January 1995)
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A genus of colorless, filamentous bacteria in the family THIOTRICHACEAE whose cells contain inclusions of sulfur granules. When found in decaying seaweed beds and polluted water, its presence signals environmental degradation.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Below normal weather temperatures that may lead to serious health problems. Extreme cold is a dangerous situation that can bring on health emergencies in susceptible people.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins found in any species of algae.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Cytochromes of the c type that are involved in the transfer of electrons from CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX and PHOTOSYSTEM I.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
1,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-4,5-dicarboxyethyl-2,8-divinylbilenone. Biosynthesized from hemoglobin as a precursor of bilirubin. Occurs in the bile of AMPHIBIANS and of birds, but not in normal human bile or serum.
Cytochromes f are found as components of the CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX. They play important role in the transfer of electrons from PHOTOSYSTEM I to PHOTOSYSTEM II.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.
Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
Poisoning from toxins present in bivalve mollusks that have been ingested. Four distinct types of shellfish poisoning are recognized based on the toxin involved.
Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.
A suborder of CRUSTACEA, order Diplostraca, comprising the water fleas. They are benthic filter feeders that consume PHYTOPLANKTON. The body is laterally compressed and enclosed in a bivalved carapace, from which the head extends.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)

A novel plasmid recombination mechanism of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7002. (1/3405)

We describe a novel mechanism of site-specific recombination in the unicellular marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7002. The specific recombination sites on the smallest plasmid pAQ1 were localized by studying the properties of pAQ1-derived shuttle-vectors. We found that a palindromic element, the core sequence of which is G(G/A)CGATCGCC, functions as a resolution site for site-specific plasmid recombination. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis analysis of the element show that the site-specific recombination in the cyanobacterium requires sequence specificity, symmetry in the core sequence and, in part, the spacing between the elements. Interestingly, this element is over-represented not only in pAQ1 and in the genome of the cyanobacterium, but also in the accumulated cyanobacterial sequences from Synechococcus sp. PCC6301, PCC7942, vulcanus and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 within GenBank and EMBL databases. Thus, these findings strongly suggest that the site-specific recombination mechanism based on the palindromic element should be common in these cyanobacteria.  (+info)

Unusual ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase of anoxic Archaea. (2/3405)

The predominant pool of organic matter on earth is derived from the biological reduction and assimilation of carbon dioxide gas, catalyzed primarily by the enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). By virtue of its capacity to use molecular oxygen as an alternative and competing gaseous substrate, the catalytic efficiency of RubisCO and the enzyme's ability to assimilate CO2 may be severely limited, with consequent environmental and agricultural effects. Recent genomic sequencing projects, however, have identified putative RubisCO genes from anoxic Archaea. In the present study, these potential RubisCO sequences, from Methanococcus jannaschii and Archaeoglobus fulgidus, were analyzed in order to ascertain whether such sequences might encode functional proteins. We also report the isolation and properties of recombinant RubisCO using sequences obtained from the obligately anaerobic hyperthermophilic methanogen M. jannaschii. This is the first description of an archaeal RubisCO sequence; this study also represents the initial characterization of a RubisCO molecule that has evolved in the absence of molecular oxygen. The enzyme was shown to be a homodimer whose deduced sequence, along with other recently obtained archaeal RubisCO sequences, differs substantially from those of known RubisCO molecules. The recombinant M. jannaschii enzyme has a somewhat low, but reasonable kcat, however, unlike previously isolated RubisCO molecules, this enzyme is very oxygen sensitive yet it is stable to hyperthermal temperatures and catalyzes the formation of the expected carboxylation product. Despite inhibition by oxygen, this unusual RubisCO still catalyzes a weak yet demonstrable oxygenase activity, with perhaps the lowest capacity for CO2/O2 discrimination ever encountered for any RubisCO.  (+info)

In situ identification of cyanobacteria with horseradish peroxidase-labeled, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. (3/3405)

Individual cyanobacterial cells are normally identified in environmental samples only on the basis of their pigmentation and morphology. However, these criteria are often insufficient for the differentiation of species. Here, a whole-cell hybridization technique is presented that uses horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotides for in situ identification of cyanobacteria. This indirect method, in which the probe-conferred enzyme has to be visualized in an additional step, was necessary since fluorescently monolabeled oligonucleotides were insufficient to overstain the autofluorescence of the target cells. Initially, a nonfluorescent detection assay was developed and successfully applied to cyanobacterial mats. Later, it was demonstrated that tyramide signal amplification (TSA) resulted in fluorescent signals far above the level of autofluorescence. Furthermore, TSA-based detection of HRP was more sensitive than that based on nonfluorescent substrates. Critical points of the assay, such as cell fixation and permeabilization, specificity, and sensitivity, were systematically investigated by using four oligonucleotides newly designed to target groups of cyanobacteria.  (+info)

Synechocystis sp. slr0787 protein is a novel bifunctional enzyme endowed with both nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase and 'Nudix' hydrolase activities. (4/3405)

Synechocystis sp. slr0787 open reading frame encodes a 339 residue polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 38.5 kDa. Its deduced amino acid sequence shows extensive homology with known separate sequences of proteins from the thermophilic archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii. The N-terminal domain is highly homologous to the archaeal NMN adenylyltransferase, which catalyzes NAD synthesis from NMN and ATP. The C-terminal domain shares homology with the archaeal ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase, a member of the 'Nudix' hydrolase family. The slr0787 gene has been cloned into a T7-based vector for expression in Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant protein has been purified to homogeneity and demonstrated to possess both NMN adenylyltransferase and ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase activities. Both activities have been characterized and compared to their archaeal counterparts.  (+info)

Balanced regulation of expression of the gene for cytochrome cM and that of genes for plastocyanin and cytochrome c6 in Synechocystis. (5/3405)

The cytM gene for cytochrome cM was previously found in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Northern blotting analysis revealed that the cytM gene was scarcely expressed under normal growth conditions but its expression was enhanced when cells were exposed to low temperature or high-intensity light. By contrast, the expression of the genes for cytochrome c6 and plastocyanin was suppressed at low temperature or under high-intensity light. These observations suggest that plastocyanin and/or cytochrome c6, which are dominant under non-stressed conditions, are replaced by cytochrome cM under the stress conditions.  (+info)

Physical interactions among circadian clock proteins KaiA, KaiB and KaiC in cyanobacteria. (6/3405)

The kai gene cluster, which is composed of three genes, kaiA, kaiB and kaiC, is essential for the generation of circadian rhythms in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. Here we demonstrate the direct association of KaiA, KaiB and KaiC in yeast cells using the two-hybrid system, in vitro and in cyanobacterial cells. KaiC enhanced KaiA-KaiB interaction in vitro and in yeast cells, suggesting that the three Kai proteins were able to form a heteromultimeric complex. We also found that a long period mutation kaiA1 dramatically enhanced KaiA-KaiB interaction in vitro. Thus, direct protein-protein association among the Kai proteins may be a critical process in the generation of circadian rhythms in cyanobacteria.  (+info)

Photosystem I, an improved model of the stromal subunits PsaC, PsaD, and PsaE. (7/3405)

An improved electron density map of photosystem I (PSI) calculated at 4-A resolution yields a more detailed structural model of the stromal subunits PsaC, PsaD, and PsaE than previously reported. The NMR structure of the subunit PsaE of PSI from Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 (Falzone, C. J., Kao, Y.-H., Zhao, J., Bryant, D. A., and Lecomte, J. T. J. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 6052-6062) has been used as a model to interpret the region of the electron density map corresponding to this subunit. The spatial orientation with respect to other subunits is described as well as the possible interactions between the stromal subunits. A first model of PsaD consisting of a four-stranded beta-sheet and an alpha-helix is suggested, indicating that this subunit partly shields PsaC from the stromal side. In addition to the improvements on the stromal subunits, the structural model of the membrane-integral region of PSI is also extended. The current electron density map allows the identification of the N and C termini of the subunits PsaA and PsaB. The 11-transmembrane alpha-helices of these subunits can now be assigned uniquely to the hydrophobic segments identified by hydrophobicity analyses.  (+info)

Localization of two phylloquinones, QK and QK', in an improved electron density map of photosystem I at 4-A resolution. (8/3405)

An improved electron density map of photosystem I from Synechococcus elongatus calculated at 4-A resolution for the first time reveals a second phylloquinone molecule and thereby completes the set of cofactors constituting the electron transfer system of this iron-sulfur type photosynthetic reaction center: six chlorophyll a, two phylloquinones, and three Fe4S4 clusters. The location of the newly identified phylloquinone pair, the individual plane orientations of these molecules, and the resulting distances to other cofactors of the electron transfer system are discussed and compared with those determined by magnetic resonance techniques.  (+info)

We investigated the possibility of eliciting a measurable photoinduced electrical current from the cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum PR-6 ( SynechococcusPCC 7002). This proved virtually...
Gloeobacter violaceus sp. PCC 7421 is an unusual cyanobacterium with only one cellular membrane, which lacks the thylakoid membranes found in other oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. The cell membrane lipids in G. violaceus sp. PCC 7421 are monogalactosyl diacylglycerol, digalactosyl diacylglycerol, phosphatidyl glycerol and phosphatidic acid in the molar proportion of 51, 24, 18 and 4% respectively. This lipid composition resembles that of the cell membrane from other cyanobacteria, but completely lacks sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. This lack of sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol is exceptional for a photosynthetic membrane. The membrane lipids are esterified to 14:0, 16:0, 16:1, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2 and alpha 18:3 fatty acids.. ...
Cloning, solubilization, and purification of SQS.Eukaryotic SQSs are associated with microsomes and can be solubilized with detergents. However, when expressed in E. coli, SQS is found in inclusion bodies and cannot be reconstituted to give soluble active enzyme. Zhang et al. discovered that soluble recombinant yeast SQS could be obtained by deletion of a putative C-terminal membrane-spanning α-helix (57). This approach has been used to obtain soluble recombinant enzyme from other eukaryotes (1, 18, 45, 47, 52). However, bacterial SQSs do not have a C-terminal sequence predicted to give a membrane-spanning helix, and the basis for membrane affiliation by the bacterial enzymes is not apparent.. Three bacteria, T. elongatus BP-1, B. japonicum, and Z. mobilis, were selected as sources for the SQS gene. Previously, SQ synthesis was detected in E. coli transformants harboring the hopane gene cluster from B. japonicum and Z. mobilis (34). In addition, a SQ-hopane cyclase from B. japonicum and Z. ...
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1MY6: The 1.6 A resolution structure of Fe-superoxide dismutase from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus.
A strain of the filamentous non N-fixing cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. isolated from the Messolonghi (W. Greece) saltworks, was cultured in the laboratory at 6 different combinations of salinity (20-40-60 ppt) and illumination (low-2000 lux and high-8000 lux). At salinities of 60 and 40 ppt and in high illumination (XL-8000 lux) the growth rate (μmax) presented the highest values (0.491 and 0.401 respectively) compared to the corresponding at 20 ppt (0.203). In general and at all salinities, the higher illumination (XL) gave the highest growth rates and shorter dublication time (tg) in comparison to the lower illumination (L). On the contrary, phycocyanin, phycoerythrin and allophycocyanin production was extremely increased in the lower illumination (L) in all salinities, from ~14fold at 40 and 60 ppt to 269fold at 20 ppt of those corresponding to higher illumination (XL). Similar analogies were also recorded for the other two billiproteins. Chlorophyll-a content was also higher in lower illumination
Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 is known to be tolerant to most of the environmental factors in natural habitats of Cyanobacteria. Gene expression can be easily studied in this cyanobacterium, as its complete genome sequence is available. These properties make Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 an appropriate model organism for biotechnological applications. To study the gene expression in Cyanobacteria, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be used, but as this is a highly sensitive method, data standardization is indicated between samples. The most commonly used strategy is normalization against internal reference genes. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 has not yet been evaluated for the best reference genes. In this work, six candidate genes were analyzed for this purpose. Cyanobacterial cultures were exposed to several stress conditions, and three different algorithms were used for ranking the reference genes: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Moreover, gene expression stability value M and single-control ...
1I7Y: Structure of c-phycocyanin from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus vulcanus at 2.5 A: structural implications for thermal stability in phycobilisome assembly.
Cyanobacteria are an ancient group of photosynthetic prokaryotes, which are significant in biogeochemical cycles. The most primitive among living cyanobacteria, Gloeobacter violaceus, shows a unique ancestral cell organization with a complete absence of inner membranes (thylakoids) and an uncommon structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. Numerous phylogenetic papers proved its basal position among all of the organisms and organelles capable of plant-like photosynthesis (i.e., cyanobacteria, chloroplasts of algae and plants). Hence, G. violaceus has become one of the key species in evolutionary study of photosynthetic life. It also numbers among the most widely used organisms in experimental photosynthesis research. Except for a few related culture isolates, there has been little data on the actual biology of Gloeobacter, being relegated to an evolutionary curiosity with an enigmatic identity. Here we show that members of the genus Gloeobacter probably are common rock-dwelling cyanobacteria. On the
The study of the primary metabolism of cyanobacteria in response to light conditions is important for environmental biology because cyanobacteria are widely distributed among various ecological niches. Cyanobacteria uniquely possess circadian rhythms, with central oscillators consisting from three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. The two-component histidine kinase SasA/Hik8 and response regulator RpaA transduce the circadian signal from KaiABC to control gene expression. Here, we generated a strain overexpressing rpaA in a unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The rpaA-overexpressing strain showed pleiotropic phenotypes, including slower growth, aberrant degradation of an RNA polymerase sigma factor SigE after the light-to-dark transition, and higher accumulation of sugar catabolic enzyme transcripts under dark conditions. Metabolome analysis revealed delayed glycogen degradation, decreased sugar phosphates and organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and increased amino acids
a.Gram-positive bacteria have a single cell wall formed from peptidoglycan. Anabaena, genus of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae with beadlike or barrel-like cells and interspersed enlarged spores (heterocysts), found as plankton in shallow water and on moist soil. Gloeobacter violaceus is a rod-shape unicellular cyanobacterium that has been isolated from calcareous rocks in Switzerland [3]. A. bacteria and fungi ... D. bacteria and archaea. Thats right most cyanobacteria are gram negative. This makes them easy to identify. Cyanobacteria are the prokaryotic and gram-negative bacteria. into both cell halves, which in many bacteria is achieved by an active machinery that operates during DNA replication. Humans use of prokaryotes : This is a microscopic image of Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633) with a gram staining of magnification: 1,000. Cyanobacteria are among the easiest microfossils to recognize. During each cell cycle, chromosomes must be separated into future daughter cells, i.e. ... ...
Marine cyanobacteria have been considered a rich source of secondary metabolites with potential biotechnological applications, namely in the pharmacological field. Chemically diverse compounds were found to induce cytoxicity, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. The potential of marine cyanobacteria as anticancer agents has however been the most explored and, besides cytotoxicity in tumor cell lines, several compounds have emerged as templates for the development of new anticancer drugs. The mechanisms implicated in the cytotoxicity of marine cyanobacteria compounds in tumor cell lines are still largely overlooked but several studies point to an implication in apoptosis. This association has been related to several apoptotic indicators such as cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative damage, alterations in caspase cascade, alterations in specific proteins levels and alterations in the membrane sodium dynamics. In the present paper a compilation of the described marine
Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, blue-green bacteria or cyanophyta, is a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. They are a significant component of the marine nitrogen cycle and an important primary producer in many areas of the ocean, but are also found in habitats other than the marine environment; in particular, cyanobacteria are known to occur in both freshwater and hypersaline inland lakes. They are found in almost every conceivable environment, from oceans to fresh water to bare rock to soil. Cyanobacteria are the only group of organisms that are able to reduce nitrogen and carbon in aerobic conditions, a fact that may be responsible for their evolutionary and ecological success. Certain cyanobacteria also produce cyanotoxins. This new book presents a broad variety of international research on this important organism ...
Cyanobacteria are a taxon of bacteria which conduct photosynthesis. They are not algae, though they were once called blue-green algae. It is a phylum of bacteria, with about 1500 species. In endosymbiont theory, chloroplasts (plastids) are descended from cyanobacteria. Their DNA profile is evidence for this.[3][4][5]. Cyanobacteria have an extremely long fossil record, starting at least 3,500 million years ago. They were the main organisms in the stromatolites of the Archaean and Proterozoic eons.[6]. The ability of cyanobacteria to perform oxygenic photosynthesis is highly significant. The early atmosphere on Earth was largely reducing, that is, without oxygen. The cyanobacteria in stromatolites were the first known organisms to photosynthesise and produce free oxygen. After about a billion years, the effect of this photosynthesis began a huge change in the atmosphere. The process, called the Great Oxygenation Event, took a long time. Eventually, it killed off most of the organisms which could ...
Plectonema boryanum bacteriophage LPP-2 ATCC ® 18200-B2™ Designation: LPP-2, strain SPI TypeStrain=False Application: Characterization
Mass populations of toxic cyanobacteria in recreational waters can present a serious risk to human health. Intelligence on the abundance and distribution of cyanobacteria is therefore needed to aid risk assessment and management activities. In this paper, we use data from the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager-2 (CASI-2) to monitor seasonal change in the concentration of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and the cyanobacterial biomarker pigment C-phycocyanin (C-PC) in a series of shallow lakes in the UK. The World Health Organization guidance levels for cyanobacteria in recreational waters were subsequently used to build a decision tree classification model for cyanobacterial risk assessment which was driven using Chl a and C-PC products derived from the CASI-2 data. The results demonstrate that remote sensing can be used to acquire intelligence on the distribution and abundance of cyanobacteria in inland waterbodies. It is argued the use of remote sensing reconnaissance, in conjunction with in situ ...
Understanding the evolution of the free-living, cyanobacterial, diazotroph Trichodesmium is of great importance due to its critical role in oceanic biogeochemistry and primary production. Unlike the other ,150 available genomes of free-living cyanobacteria, only 63.8% of the Trichodesmium erythraeum (strain IMS101) genome is predicted to encode protein, which is 20-25% less than the average for other cyanobacteria and non-pathogenic, free-living bacteria. We use distinctive isolates and metagenomic data to show that low coding density observed in IMS101 is a common feature of the Trichodesmium genus both in culture and in situ. Transcriptome analysis indicates that 86% of the non-coding space is expressed, although the function of these transcripts is unclear. The density of noncoding, possible regulatory elements predicted in Trichodesmium, when normalized per intergenic kilobase, was comparable and two fold higher than that found in the gene dense genomes of the sympatric cyanobacterial genera ...
Scientists know a group of cyanobacteria Trichodesmium capable of fixing atmospheric Nitrogen N2 that is dissolved in water to produce proteins. These cyanobacteria can then live in poor nutrients conditions. A lot of these cyanobacteria can be found in Pacific ocean.. ...
In photosynthetic organisms, carbon fixation must be coordinated with the light harvesting reactions to prevent unnecessary energy expenditure in the absence of light. The enzyme phosphoribulokinase (PRK) produces the substrate for the carbon fixation step and switches off reversibly by disulfide bond formation. How this works in β-cyanobacteria is reported in a recent article in Acta Cryst. F by Wilson et al. (2019) and the Proteopedia molecular tour accompanying the article.. The paper describes the dimeric structure of PRK from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC6301. This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a second phosphate group onto ribulose 5-phosphate, thus creating the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) substrate for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). The need for RuBP is found in virtually all autotrophic organisms, and there are corresponding PRKs in all kingdoms. Phylogenetic analyses of PRKs show two broad classes of enzymes, prokaryotic homo-octameric systems ...
Cyanobacteria are the only prokaryotes with the ability to conduct oxygenic photosynthesis, therefore having major influence on the evolution of life on earth. Their diverse morphology was traditionally the basis for taxonomy and classification. For example, the genus Chroococcidiopsis has been classified within the order Pleurocapsales, based on a unique reproduction modus by baeocytes. Recent phylogenetic results suggested a closer relationship of this genus to the order Nostocales. However, these studies were based mostly on the highly conserved 16S rRNA and a small selection of Chroococcidiopsis strains. One aim of this present thesis was to investigate the evolutionary relationships of the genus Chroococcidiopsis, the Pleurocapsales and remaining cyanobacteria using 16S rRNA, rpoC1 and gyrB gene. Including the single gene, as the multigene analyses of 97 strains clearly showed a separation of the genus Chroococcidiopsis from the Pleurocapsales. Furthermore, a sister relationship between the ...
Cyanobacteria are of cyan color, which is a turquoise blue color, and they are also referred to as blue, green algae. The green algae are green in color. Cyanobacteria are referred to as prokaryotic organisms, while the green algae are referred to as eukaryotic organisms. Cyanobacteria have the ability to photosynthesize, which means they can produce their food by themselves with the help of sunlight. Cyanobacteria release a kind of toxin that is dangerous to some aquatic organisms, such as - ProProfs Discuss
Risks for Blue-green algae toxicity, Blue-green algae toxicity treatments, recommended products for Blue-green algae toxicity, ways to prevent Blue-green algae toxicity, causes of Blue-green algae toxicity
Cyanobacteria blooms frequently disturb the functioning of freshwater ecosystems and their uses, due to the toxins dangerous to health that cyanobacteria are able to synthesize. Therefore, many countries have implemented monitoring programs aimed at reducing the risk of human exposure to these toxins. The main limitation is related to the heterogeneity of the spatial distribution of cyanobacteria. In the vertical dimension, these organisms can stay in different layers in the water column and in the horizontal scale, the cells may accumulate in some a rea of the water body, under the action of winds or currents. In an attempt to improve monitoring, many research projects have been undertaken in order to develop new tools, like buoys equipped with various underwater sensors. This tool is highly relevant but it does not allow assessing the horizontal distribution of cyanobacteria and its cost remains expensive. Moreover, if satellite remote sensing can be considered very
Randy looked up the word and found: Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms that contain chlorophyll. Formerly considered blue-green algae, but actually closely related to bacteria, cyanobacteria are of special importance in the balance of nature. Cyanobacteria were the earliest oxygen-producing organisms on Earth (remnants of cyanobacteria have been found in fossils dating back 2.5 billion years) and were responsible for converting Earths non-oxygen atmosphere to oxygen. Cyanobacteria are found in water and soil and can tolerate great ranges in salinity and temperature. Some species of cyanobacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen to compounds of nitrogen used by plants. Other species of cyanobacteria (such as the one shown here) are grown commercially as a protein-rich human food supplement ...
Randy looked up the word and found: Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms that contain chlorophyll. Formerly considered blue-green algae, but actually closely related to bacteria, cyanobacteria are of special importance in the balance of nature. Cyanobacteria were the earliest oxygen-producing organisms on Earth (remnants of cyanobacteria have been found in fossils dating back 2.5 billion years) and were responsible for converting Earths non-oxygen atmosphere to oxygen. Cyanobacteria are found in water and soil and can tolerate great ranges in salinity and temperature. Some species of cyanobacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen to compounds of nitrogen used by plants. Other species of cyanobacteria (such as the one shown here) are grown commercially as a protein-rich human food supplement ...
General Information: Trichodesmium erythraeum strain IMS101 was isolated from the North Carolina coast in 1992 and grows in straight filaments. Filamentous marine cyanobacterium. This filamentous marine cyanobacterium is a nitrogen-fixing organism that contribues a significant amount of the global fixed nitrogen each year. These bacteria are unusual in that nitrogen fixation takes place in a differentiated cell called the diazocyte which is different from the nitrogen-fixing differentiated cell (heterocyst) found in other cyanobacteria. The diazocyte is developed in order to protect the oxygen-sensitive nitrogenases and includes a number of changes including production of more membranes and down-regulation of photosynthetic activity during times of peak nitrogen fixation (noontime). This organism gives the Red Sea its name when large blooms appear and is one of the organisms most often associated with large blooms in marine waters. ...
General Information: Trichodesmium erythraeum strain IMS101 was isolated from the North Carolina coast in 1992 and grows in straight filaments. Filamentous marine cyanobacterium. This filamentous marine cyanobacterium is a nitrogen-fixing organism that contribues a significant amount of the global fixed nitrogen each year. These bacteria are unusual in that nitrogen fixation takes place in a differentiated cell called the diazocyte which is different from the nitrogen-fixing differentiated cell (heterocyst) found in other cyanobacteria. The diazocyte is developed in order to protect the oxygen-sensitive nitrogenases and includes a number of changes including production of more membranes and down-regulation of photosynthetic activity during times of peak nitrogen fixation (noontime). This organism gives the Red Sea its name when large blooms appear and is one of the organisms most often associated with large blooms in marine waters. ...
ID Q31KY7_SYNE7 Unreviewed; 1017 AA. AC Q31KY7; DT 06-DEC-2005, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 06-DEC-2005, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 86. DE RecName: Full=Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00595, ECO:0000256,SAAS:SAAS00946768}; DE Short=PEPC {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00595}; DE Short=PEPCase {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00595}; DE EC= {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00595, ECO:0000256,SAAS:SAAS00946768}; GN Name=ppc {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00595}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Synpcc7942_2252 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABB58282.1}; OS Synechococcus elongatus (strain PCC 7942) (Anacystis nidulans R2). OC Bacteria; Cyanobacteria; Synechococcales; Synechococcaceae; OC Synechococcus. OX NCBI_TaxID=1140 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABB58282.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002717}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002717} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=PCC 7942 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002717}; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute; RA Copeland ...
Article The impact of cyanobacteria on growth and death of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. Climate change may cause increased microbial growth in water sources and more knowledge is required on how this may affect the hygienic water quality, i.e.,...
Algae Detail UTEX Number: SP37Class: CyanophyceaeStrain: Phormidium janthiphorumMedia: Soil Extract MediumOrigin: Great Salt Plains, Oklahoma, USADescription of
Hamilton, ON - July 12, 2017 - Public Health Services has confirmed the presence of toxin-producing blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) at the Bayfront Park Boat Launch, Bayfront Park Beach, and at Pier 4 Park Beach. Observations by Public Health Services staff indicate that blue-green algae are also present along most of the western shoreline. The algae is present from the inner
Part of the Sec protein translocase complex. Interacts with the SecYEG preprotein conducting channel. SecDF uses the proton motive force (PMF) to complete protein translocation after the ATP-dependent function of SecA.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Chapter 1 - Reactive Oxygen Species in Cyanobacteria (pp. 651 3677, Santiago, Chile, Department of Ecology, Environment & Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Lilla Frescati 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden, Indira Gandhi National Tribal University, India, Royal Netherlands Institute of Sea Research & University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. splits water molecule to release oxygen. food source; it is high in protein, and can be cultivated in ponds quite easily. Hence, they are of great importance in aquaculture. They are one of very few groups of organisms that can convert 1-40) Paul Hsieh and … They are one of very few groups of organisms that can convert inert atmospheric nitrogen into an organic form, such as nitrate or ammonia. Though all cyanobacteria are fundamentally oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, some species can switch their metabolic mode to, for example, anoxygenic photosynthesis, using sulfide. They exhibit several types of chromatic adaptation, regulated at transcriptional and
Cyanotoxin Cyanotoxins are toxins produced by bacteria called cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae). Cyanobacteria are found almost everywhere, but particularly in lakes and in the ocean where, under certain conditions, they reproduce exponentially to form blooms. Blooming cyanobacteria can produce cyanotoxins in such concentrations that they poison and even kill animals and humans. Cyanotoxins can also accumulate in other animals such as fish and shellfish, and cause poisonings such as shell
In this study, we investigated forty cyanobacterial isolates from biofilms, gastropods, brackish water and symbiotic lichen habitats. Their aqueous and organic extracts were used to screen for apoptosis-inducing activity against acute myeloid leukemia cells. A total of 28 extracts showed cytotoxicity against rat acute myeloid leukemia (IPC-81) cells. The design of the screen made it possible to eliminate known toxins, such as microcystins and nodularin, or known metabolites with anti-leukemic activity, such as adenosine and its analogs. A cytotoxicity test on human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) fibroblasts indicated that 21 of the 28 extracts containing anti-acute myeloid leukemia (AML) activity showed selectivity in favor of leukemia cells. Extracts L26-O and L30-O were able to partly overcome the chemotherapy resistance induced by the oncogenic protein Bcl-2, whereas extract L1-O overcame protection from the deletion of the tumor suppressor protein p53. In conclusion, cyanobacteria are a prolific
N₂ fixation adds bioavailable nitrogen to the global oceans and therewith drives modern-day marine primary productivity. The diazotrophs mainly responsible for the fixation of nitrogen are principally found in the cyanobacterial lineage with unicellular and filamentous non-heterocystous species dominating. There is evidence that diazotrophic cyanobacteria were of similar importance in ... read more the past nitrogen cycling, in particular during the formation of organic-rich deposits of the Phanerozoic (e.g. Pleistocene Mediterranean sapropels and Cretaceous black shales). However, the poor preservation potential and the lack of suitable geochemical tracers that are specific for N₂-fixing cyanobacteria have hampered their rigorous identification in the geological record. This thesis describes investigations aimed at a better understanding of the presence and past distribution of N₂-fixing cyanobacteria and their significance in the past nitrogen cycling. For this, a multiplicity of ...
Filamentous cyanobacteria, bathed in seawater and often growing in nutrient-rich environments, are surrounded by diverse communities of heterotrophic bacteria. The heterotrophic bacteria closely associated with cyanobacteria likely consume released nutrients, but may also produce vitamins and other factors useful to cyanobacterial growth, as well as assisting in cycling of CO2 and phosphate, or lowering O2 levels for oxygen-sensitive processes such as nitrogen fixation [1, 2]. Various studies have classified some of the taxa of heterotrophic bacteria that live in close proximity to cyanobacterial blooms, including common aquatic phyla such as Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Planctomycetes [3, 4]. Some potentially new species or genera were also located within these samples, which could suggest that some bacteria may have specific relationships with cyanobacteria [3]. However, many of these latter bacteria are also found living independently of cyanobacteria [4], and the makeup ...
Cyanobacteria have an interesting trick to harvest sunlight during light fluctuations. In darkness, the cells prepare for a subsequent increase in light intensity by adopting a larger light-harvesting antenna. Researchers ...
As the world struggles to reduce its dependence on fossil fuels and curb greenhouse gas emissions, industrial biotechnology is also going green. Escherichia coli has long been used as a model Gram-negative bacterium, not only for fundamental research, but also for industrial applications. Recently, however, cyanobacteria have emerged as candidate chassis for the production of commodity fuels and chemicals, utilizing CO2 and sunlight as the main nutrient requirements. In addition to their potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and lowering production costs, cyanobacteria have naturally efficient pathways for the production metabolites such as carotenoids, which are of importance in the nutraceutical industry. The unique metabolic and regulatory pathways present in cyanobacteria present new challenges for metabolic engineers and synthetic biologists. Moreover, their requirement for light and the dynamic regulatory mechanisms of the diurnal cycle further complicate the development and
A new Michigan State University study has identified a family of genes in cyanobacteria that help control carbon dioxide fixation.
POSTDOCTORAL POSITION One postdoctoral research associate position is immediately available in my laboratory to study the biogenesis and function of photosystem II, a membrane-bound pigment-protein complex in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803. Required expertise in one or more of the following areas: protein chemistry, molecular biology and spectroscopy. Strong preferences will be given to individuals with proven records of quality publications and to those with potentials to obtain independent funding. Please send CV and three letters of recommendation to : Prof. Himadri Pakrasi Department of Biology Campus Box 1137, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. Phone : 314-935 6853 Fax: 314-935-6803 ...
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Scytonema sp. , Gram negative, oxygenic, photosynthetic, filamentous cyanobacterium (prokaryote). Cells are dividing at the tips of the filaments. Magnification: x240 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/2561
center>,big>,big>,big>Cyanobacteria - Blue-Green Algae,/big>,/big>,/big>,/center> ,br> [[Image:Anabaena sperica.jpg,thumb,200px,center,Anabaena sperica, a filamentous cyanobacterium ([[Phycobacteria]], [[Nostocales]], [[Nostocaceae]])]] ,br> ,table border=1 cellpadding=3 cellspacing=1 width=100% > ,tr>,th bgcolor=#CCCCCC colspan=2>Cyanobacteria,/th>,/tr> ,tr> ,td align=center width=200 valign=top >Linnaean Hierarchy,/td> ,td align=center width=400 valign=top >Local Cladogram,/td> ,/tr> ,tr> ,td align=justify valign=top > [[Domain]]: [[Eubacteria]],br> [[Division]]: Cyanobacteria,br> [[Order]]s: * [[Chroococcales]] * [[Prochlorales]] * [[Pleurocapsales]] * [[Oscillatoriales]] * [[Nostocales]] * [[Stigonematales]] ,/td> ,td align=justify valign=top> [[LUCA]] ,--[[Eubacteria]] (note) , ,--[[Clostridea]] , `--[[Cyanobacteria]] , see [[#Phylogeny,phylogeny section]] (below) for subgroups `--[[Neomura]] ,--[[Archaea]] ...
Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, differ most prominently from other bacteria in that cyanobacteria possess chlorophyll A, while most bacteria do not contain chlorophyll. This gives them...
National Geographic. Merismopedia (from the Greek merismos (division) and the Greek pedion (plain) ) is a genus of cyanobacteria found on fresh and marine waters. It is ovoid or spherical in shape and are arranged in rows and flats, forming rectangular colonies held together by a mucilaginous matrix. Species in this genus divide in only two directions, creating a characteristic grid-like pattern. The cyanobacteria Merismopedia sp. are fairly common in several varieties of water habitats. Along with other cyanobacteria, they contribute to primary production through photosynthesis. They also can produce lipopolysaccharides which are known to create skin irritation and gastrointestinal distress (NOAA). Currently no genome sequencing projects of Merimopedia strains are ongoing. However, several similar blue-green algae cyanobacteria have been sequenced or are currently in progress. Although there is still a lot of data that needs to be collected from an individual genome sequencing of a Merismopedia ...
1. The strict photoautotrophic blue-green alga, Anacystis nidulans, has a high requirement for manganese; its absence from the culture medium causes significant changes in the morphology and the...
A Oceanografiaonline foi um dos sites pioneiros em divulgação da Oceanografia no Brasil. Em 2009 a Oceanografiaonline.com comemora seus 10 anos online ...
On June 12, 2017, JRWA hosted Hilary Snook of EPA to provide a workshop to area watershed and pond associations and town agents in order to launch public volunteer monitoring of our water bodies for cyanobacteria. Art Edgerton of Pembroke, and PACTV generously recorded the workshop and activities. More information is also available from EPA at https://cyanos.org/ where you can also download an app to participate in the nationwide effort to track and control dangerous blooms of cyanobacteria.. ...
During studies 44 years ago, researchers concluded that cyanobacteria were missing an essential enzyme of the metabolic pathway that is found in most other life forms, Bryant explained. They concluded that cyanobacteria lacked the ability to make one enzyme, called 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and that this missing enzyme rendered the bacteria unable to produce a compound -- called succinyl-coenzyme A -- for the next step in the TCA cycle. The absence of this reaction was assumed to render the organisms unable to oxidize metabolites for energy production, although they could still use the remaining TCA-cycle reactions to produce substrates for biosynthetic reactions. As it turns out, the researchers just werent looking hard enough, so there was more work to be done. ...
Cyanobacteria[edit]. Main article: Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria, major photosynthetic clade believed to have caused Earth's ... Cyanobacteria and chloroplasts (Aphanocapsa, Oscillatoria, Nostoc, Synechococcus, Gloeobacter, Prochloron). *Spirochetes and ... The proposed superphylum, Terrabacteria,[55] includes Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Chloroflexi, ... Cyanobacteria, and Proteobacteria, whose names do not stem from a genus name (Actinobacteria instead is from Actinomyces). ...
... revealing an already-diverse biota of Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria remained the principal primary producers of oxygen ... "Cyanobacteria: Fossil Record". Ucmp.berkeley.edu. Archived from the original on 2010-08-24. Retrieved 2010-08-26.. ... Cyanobacteria possess carboxysomes, which increase the concentration of CO. 2 around RuBisCO to increase the rate of ... Herrero A, Flores E (2008). The Cyanobacteria: Molecular Biology, Genomics and Evolution (1st ed.). Caister Academic Press. ...
... cyanobacteria; and chloroplasts. Any two hsp60 amino acid sequences share at least 40% similarity, with 18-20% of differences ... most closely related to the α-purple subdivision of Gram negative bacteria and chloroplasts were most similar to cyanobacteria ...
Cyanobacteria). Nikon Microscopy. Scherer, S. et al. A new UV-A/B protecting pigment in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc ... Nostoc verrucosum is a species of cyanobacteria usually found in colonies and in globose racks. It has a greenish to blackish ... UV-B-induced synthesis of photoprotective pigments and extracellular polysaccharides in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc ...
"cyanobacteria". ircamera.as.arizona.edu. Archived from the original on 2019-05-03. Retrieved 2019-04-27. Hagino, K.; Young, J. ... Some of these are informally known as "living fossils". Cyanobacteria - the oldest living fossils, emerging 3.5 billion years ... They exist as single bacteria but are most often pictured as stromatolites, artificial rocks produced by cyanobacteria waste. ...
"Cyanobacteria: Microcystis". The Silica Secchi Disk. Connecticut College: The SilicaSecchi Disk. Archived from the original on ... Cyanobacteria can produce neurotoxins and hepatotoxins, such as microcystin and cyanopeptolin. Microcystis has also been ... Microcystis is a genus of freshwater cyanobacteria that includes the harmful algal bloom-forming Microcystis aeruginosa. Many ... Tooming-Klunderud, Ave (2007). "On the Evolution of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Gene Clusters in Cyanobacteria". University ...
"Cyanobacteria Photos". waynesword.palomar.edu. Retrieved 22 October 2018. "food for thought". sg.bcmagazine.net. 1 February ... is a terrestrial cyanobacterium (a type of photosynthetic bacteria) that is used as a vegetable in Chinese cuisine. When dried ... Cyanobacteria)" (PDF). Notulae Algarum (2): 1-2. ISSN 2009-8987. Retrieved 15 January 2019. "The standard.com.hk". Archived ...
7002 (Cyanobacteria)". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 187 (1-4): 89-102. doi:10.1007/BF00994092. hdl:2027.42/41636. S2CID ...
α-cyanobacteria were defined to contain a form IA, while β-cyanobacteria were defined to contain a form IB of this gene. In ... 2002) proposed the division of the cyanobacteria into a α- and a β-subcluster based on the type of rbcL (large subunit of ... ISBN 978-0-520-04717-4. J. B. Waterbury; J. M. Willey; D. G. Franks; F. W. Valois & S. W. Watson (1985). "A cyanobacterium ... While some cyanobacteria are capable of photoheterotrophic or even chemoheterotrophic growth, all marine Synechococcus strains ...
Algal blooms of cyanobacteria thrive in the large phosphorus content of agricultural runoff. Besides consuming phosphorus, M. ... "Cyanobacteria: Microcystis". The Silica Secchi Disk. Connecticut College: The SilicaSecchi Disk. Archived from the original on ... Microcystis aeruginosa is a species of freshwater cyanobacteria that can form harmful algal blooms of economic and ecological ... Cyanobacteria produce neurotoxins and peptide hepatotoxins, such as microcystin and cyanopeptolin. Microcystis aeruginosa ...
Like many other cyanobacteria, Gloeotrichia have the nitrogenase enzyme, which allows them to convert N from its biologically ... Freshwater Cyanobacteria. In North America Gloeotrichia appears unexpectedly in many remote oligotrophic lakes during late ... Gloeotrichia is a large (~2 mm) colonial genus of Cyanobacteria, belonging to the order Nostocales. The name Gloeotrichia is ... Karlsson Elfgren, Irene (2003). "Studies on the Life Cycles of Akinete Forming Cyanobacteria" (PDF). Comprehensive Summaries of ...
First cyanobacteria. Formation of Dharwar Craton in southern India. c. 2,400 Ma - Suavjarvi impact structure forms. This is the ... Photosynthesizing cyanobacteria evolve; they use water as a reducing agent, thereby producing oxygen as a waste product. The ... Fossils resembling cyanobacteria, found at Warrawoona, Western Australia.[citation needed] c. 3,480 Ma - Fossils of microbial ... c. 2,700 Ma - Biomarkers of cyanobacteria discovered, together with steranes (sterols of cholesterol), associated with films of ...
Since Aphanizomenon is a genus in the cyanobacteria phylum. Bacteria in the Cyanobacteria phylum are known for using ... "Life History and Ecology of Cyanobacteria". ucmp.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2021-04-27. Konopka, A.; T. D. Brock; A. E. Walsby ( ... "Cyanobacteria/Cyanotoxins". US EPA. 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-10-17. Retrieved 2015-10-25. "Aphanizomenon ( ... Aphanizomenon is an important genus of cyanobacteria that inhabits freshwater lakes and can cause dense blooms. They are ...
Examples: Cyanocitta ("blue jay"); Cyanobacteria ("blue bacteria"); Cyanocorax ("blue raven") cyclo-: Pronunciation: /saɪkloʊ ...
While it does not occur often, formation of akinetes (type of cell formed by cyanobacteria which are resistant to cold and ... Henskens, F. L.; Green, T. G. A.; Wilkins, A. (2012-08-01). "Cyanolichens can have both cyanobacteria and green algae in a ... This process relies on the presence of cyanobacteria as a partner species within the lichen. The ability to fix nitrogen ... Depending on its partner, lichens derive the carbon and nitrogen from algal and cyanobacteria photobionts (which fixes nitrogen ...
Cyanobacteria remain critical to marine ecosystems as primary producers in oceanic gyres, as agents of biological nitrogen ... Cyanobacteria remained principal primary producers throughout the Proterozoic Eon (2500-543 Ma), in part because the redox ... "Cyanobacteria: Fossil Record". Ucmp.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2010-08-26. Hamilton, Trinity; Bryant, Donald; Macalady, Jennifer ( ... Raven J. A.; Allen J. F. (2003). "Genomics and chloroplast evolution: what did cyanobacteria do for plants?". Genome Biol. 4 (3 ...
The fungi benefit from the carbohydrates produced by the algae or cyanobacteria via photosynthesis. The algae or cyanobacteria ... The most commonly occurring cyanobacterium genus is Nostoc. Other common cyanobacterium photobionts are from Scytonema. Many ... which can be grown in culture in isolation from the algae or cyanobacteria. Some algae and cyanobacteria are found naturally ... If a cyanobacterium is present, as a primary partner or another symbiont in addition to a green alga as in certain tripartite ...
... but which otherwise closely resemble cyanobacteria. These may be descended from the earliest ancestors of cyanobacteria, which ... These cyanobacteria would have been protected from their own poisonous oxygen waste through its rapid removal via the high ... "Cyanobacteria: Fossil Record". Ucmp.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 26 August 2010. Dutkiewicz, A.; Volk, H.; George, S.C.; Ridley, J ... The cyanobacteria producing the oxygen caused the event, which enabled the subsequent development of multicellular life forms. ...
Cyanobacteria 100-130...........Microbial ecology 171...............Microorganisms in the animal body 180-198.5......... ...
Boussiba's laboratory in the Anabaena PCC 7120 cyanobacteria. This pioneering work yielded a transgenic cyanobacteria stably ... Moreover, cyanobacteria are able to float in the upper layer of the water, and are stable under varying environmental ... Due to their large species diversity and high abundancy in natural ponds and rice fields, cyanobacteria have high potential to ... At Cornell he studied the uptake and metabolism of ammonia in cyanobacteria. In 1984, upon completing his postdoctoral studies ...
British Thermophillic cyanobacteria. Arch Hydrobiology Vol 132 Issue 4 Pages 407-414. "Thermal Springs Group" BBC News Rhondda ... A survey of thermophillic cyanobacteria identified abundant growths of Phormidium ambiguum GOM which formed conophyton like ...
Cyanobacteria have been used in several ways to produce renewable biofuel. The original method was to grow cyanobacteria for ... Whitton BA, Potts M (2012). "Introduction to the Cyanobacteria". Ecology of Cyanobacteria II. pp. 1-13. doi:10.1007/978-94-007- ... As cyanobacteria in general have slow doubling times (4.5 to 5 h in Synechocystis sp. PCC6301 ), it is more efficient to ... The ability of cyanobacteria to produce oxygen initiated the transition from a planet consisting of high levels of carbon ...
Some types of cyanobacteria are endosymbiont and cyanobacteria have been found to possess genes that enable them to undergo ... Bloom of the filamentous cyanobacteria Trichodesmium Cyanobacteria blooms can contain lethal cyanotoxins Synechococcus, a ... Marine bacteria Cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria were the first organisms to evolve an ability to turn sunlight into chemical energy ... Originally, biologists classified cyanobacteria as an algae, and referred to it as "blue-green algae". The more recent view is ...
Cyanobacteria are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through the process of photosynthesis. Although cyanobacteria ... Spikes in cyanobacteria populations are usually brought on by nutrient increases due to run-off from fertilizers, dust, and ... Cyanobacteria perform oxygenic photosynthesis which is thought to be the origin of atmospheric oxygen approximately 2.5Ga ago. ... This group of viruses is said to be the "new blue-green algae" and infects unicellular forms of cyanobacteria. The myovirus AS- ...
Cyanobacteria, blue-green algae. Thermophylae Cyanobacteria Lawrence E., ed. (1999). Henderson's Dictionary of biological terms ...
Schopf, J. William (2012). Ecology of cyanobacteria II. "The fossil record of cyanobacteria.". Netherlands: Springer. pp. 15-36 ... Preserved fossils include cyanobacteria microfossils. This locality also has been claimed to contain eukaryotic green algae ...
Evolution of photosynthesis from cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria are a phylum (division) of bacteria, ranging from unicellular to ... Originally, biologists thought cyanobacteria was algae, and referred to it as "blue-green algae". The more recent view is that ... The tiny marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, discovered in 1986, forms today part of the base of the ocean food chain and ... In a reversal of the pattern on land, in the oceans, almost all photosynthesis is performed by algae and cyanobacteria, with a ...
... a green light-activated photoreceptor in cyanobacteria that does not pump ions and interacts with a small (14 kDa) soluble ... Sensory rhodopsins from cyanobacteria. Light-activated rhodopsin/guanylyl cyclase A phylogenetic analysis of microbial ...
Its biosynthesis in cyanobacteria is mostly triggered by exposure to UV-A and UV-B wavelengths. Recently, Couradeau and ... Ecology of Cyanobacteria II - Their Diversity in Space and , Brian A. Whitton , Springer. Springer. 2012. ISBN 9789400738546. ... Scytonemin-synthesizing cyanobacteria often inhabit highly insolated terrestrial, freshwater and coastal environments such as ... Scytonemin is a secondary metabolite and an extracellular matrix (sheath) pigment synthesized by many strains of cyanobacteria ...
... cyanobacteria contain chlorophyll a and conduct oxygenic photosynthesis. ... Cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae [1]) are microorganisms that structurally resemble bacteria (they lack a nucleus ... Cyanobacteria Plant Sciences COPYRIGHT 2001 The Gale Group Inc.. Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a morphologically diverse ... Cyanobacteria Biology COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are microorganisms ...
Taxonomy of Cyanobacteria after Stanier & Cohen-Bazire (1977). *Taxonomy of Cyanobacteria after Rippka et al. (1979). * ... Introduction to the Cyanobacteria. UCMP Berkeley. *Marine Cyanobacteria. Maintained by Sven Janson. *The Blue-Green Groove ... Cyanobacteria Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Cyanobacteria. Oxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria. In: Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Volume 1: The Archaea and the ...
Anabaena: Genus of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae with beadlike or barrel-like cells and interspersed enlarged spores (heterocysts), found as plankton in shallow water and on moist soil....
The cyanobacteria have an extensive fossil record. The oldest known fossils, in fact, are cyanobacteria from Archaean rocks of ... Small fossilized cyanobacteria have been extracted from Precambrian rock, and studied through the use of SEM and TEM (scanning ... Ancient Fossil Bacteria : Pictured above are two kinds cyanobacteria from the Bitter Springs chert of central Australia, a site ... Cyanobacteria are among the easiest microfossils to recognize. Morphologies in the group have remained much the same for ...
p>Cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae, are commonly found as individual cells, clumps, filaments or large mats in Floridas ... provides more information on cyanobacteria and their toxins related to human health. More information on cyanobacteria blooms, ... Cyanobacteria are some of the Earths oldest organisms, with fossils dating back 3.5 billion years. Yet, they can still be ... Cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae, are commonly found as individual cells, clumps, filaments or large mats in Floridas lakes ...
Algae and cyanobacteria are simple, plant-like organisms that live in the water. Algae and cyanobacteria can rapidly grow out ... Harmful algae and cyanobacteria (sometimes called blue-green algae) can produce toxins (poisons) that can make people and ... When in doubt, keep animals out! Cyanobacteria can be deadly for animals. See our Animal Safety Alert fact sheet for tips to ... If you are notified of harmful algae or cyanobacteria in a nearby body of water or in your public drinking water supply, follow ...
Cyanobacteria produce a range of toxins known as cyanotoxins that can pose a danger to humans and animals. The cyanobacteria ... Cyanobacteria have been found to play an important role in terrestrial habitats. It has been widely reported that cyanobacteria ... Cyanobacteria possess numerous E. coli-like DNA repair genes. Several DNA repair genes are highly conserved in cyanobacteria, ... What are Cyanobacteria and What are its Types? Webserver for Cyanobacteria Research Diving an Antarctic Time Capsule Filled ...
... constitute the most widely distributed group of photosynthetic prokaryotes found in almos... ... Iron homeostasis in cyanobacteria: TonB and Fur dependent iron acquisition and its regulation 13. Metals in Cyanobacteria: ... 1. Cyanobacteria in diverse habitats 2. Evolution of cyanobacteria with emphasis on genome evolution associated with symbiosis ... Ecophysiology of cyanobacteria in the polar regions 15. Pesticides and rice agriculture 16. Cyanobacteria: Applications in ...
Resonating circadian clocks enhance fitness in cyanobacteria. Yan Ouyang, Carol R. Andersson, Takao Kondo, Susan S. Golden, ... Resonating circadian clocks enhance fitness in cyanobacteria. Yan Ouyang, Carol R. Andersson, Takao Kondo, Susan S. Golden, ... This cyanobacterium is not known to conjugate under laboratory conditions, and we have derived strains of it that exhibit ... Resonating circadian clocks enhance fitness in cyanobacteria. Yan Ouyang, Carol R. Andersson, Takao Kondo, Susan S. Golden, and ...
Cyanobacteria produce a large number of compounds with varying bioactivities. Prominent among these are toxins: hepatotoxins ... Cyanobacteria secondary metabolites-the cyanotoxins. J Appl Bact 72: 445-459.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Cyanopeptolins, new depsipeptides from the cyanobacteriumMicrocystis sp PCC 7806. J Antibiot 46: 1550-1556.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... The toxins of cyanobacteria. Scientific American 270: 78-86.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Role of the nifB1 and nifB2 Promoters in Cell-Type-Specific Expression of Two Mo Nitrogenases in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena ... Cyanobacteria are gaining interest for their potential as autotrophic cell factories. Development of efficient surface display ... Outer Membrane Permeability of Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803: Studies of Passive Diffusion of Small Organic ... Specific Glucoside Transporters Influence Septal Structure and Function in the Filamentous, Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterium ...
Borzia is a genus of cyanobacteria. Komárek J, Kaštovský J, Mareš J, Johansen JR (2014). "Taxonomic classification of ...
Group: Cyanobacteria/Melainabacteria group Phylum: Cyanobacteria Classes: ?Cyanophyceae - Gloeobacteria - ?Chroobacteria - ? ... Group I. Cyanobacteria *Subsection I. Order Chroococcales [I] *Genus Chamaesiphon [I]. *Genus Gloeobacter [Synechococcus-Group ... Cyanobacteria in the World Register of Marine Species. Alternative classifications[modifica]. Geitler (1925)[modifica]. Geitler ... For more multimedia, look at Cyanobacteria on Wikimedia Commons. (en) - (Please translate this into català.) ...
Mn-oxidizing photosynthesis before cyanobacteria. Jena E. Johnson, Samuel M. Webb, Katherine Thomas, Shuhei Ono, Joseph L. ... Mn-oxidizing photosynthesis before cyanobacteria. Jena E. Johnson, Samuel M. Webb, Katherine Thomas, Shuhei Ono, Joseph L. ... suggested the early rise of cyanobacteria, but the syngeneity of these compounds (22) and their connection to cyanobacteria (23 ... Manganese-oxidizing photosynthesis before the rise of cyanobacteria. Jena E. Johnson, Samuel M. Webb, Katherine Thomas, Shuhei ...
Circadian programs in cyanobacteria: adaptiveness and mechanism.. Johnson CH1, Golden SS. ... At least one group of prokaryotes is known to have circadian regulation of cellular activities--the cyanobacteria. Their " ... Growth competition experiments demonstrate that the fitness of cyanobacteria is enhanced when the circadian period matches the ...
Circadian Rhythms in Rapidly Dividing Cyanobacteria. By Takao Kondo, Tetsuya Mori, Nadya V. Lebedeva, Setsuyuki Aoki, Masahiro ... Circadian Rhythms in Rapidly Dividing Cyanobacteria. By Takao Kondo, Tetsuya Mori, Nadya V. Lebedeva, Setsuyuki Aoki, Masahiro ... the profile of bioluminescence from a reporter strain of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus (species PCC 7942) matched a model ...
Harmful cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) can make you sick and kill animals. Learn about symptoms and what to do if you or your ... Toxins from cyanobacteria can make animals very sick or even kill them. Animals can die within hours to days of swallowing ... If you think you may have symptoms caused by harmful cyanobacteria in fresh water, you can:. *Talk to your healthcare provider ... Cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) can produce toxins (poisons) that can make people and animals sick. Learn more ...
Wash up with a bar of Fluorescent Cyanobacteria Petri Dish Soap to feel fresh and radiant. Cleverly shaped ... HomeDesignFluorescent Cyanobacteria Petri Dish Soap. Fluorescent Cyanobacteria Petri Dish Soap. August 18, 2012 Patra Beaulieu ... Wash up with a bar of Fluorescent Cyanobacteria Petri Dish Soap to feel fresh and radiant. ... Get the not-so-toxic Fluorescent Cyanobacteria Petri Dish Soap at Etsy.com for $7.25 each. ...
... cyanobacteria. There are about 2000 species of cyanobacteria and many of these species have been poorly researched. Dr Paul ... Cyanobacteria are among the oldest forms of life and are of great ecological importance. In order to unlock the genetic ... Within the scope of this project, we therefore want to investigate the genetic potential of very unusual cyanobacteria for the ... The team headed by Dr Paul DAgostino will sequence 40 symbiotic and rare terrestrial cyanobacteria for the production of new ...
... 04.04.2007. Tropical blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) have invaded lakes in ... The search for the source of the toxic substance yielded a surprise: indigenous species of cyanobacteria are producing CYN. " ... Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries in Berlin identified different species of tropical cyanobacteria ...
Talk:Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria has been listed as a level-4 vital article in Science, Biology. If you can improve it, please ... DNA samples of Cyanobacteria?Edit. Would Wikipedia ever collect DNA samples of simple organisms like the Cyanobacteria? - ... describe the cyanobacteria present-day environmentEdit. describe the cyanobacteria present-day environment? -Preceding unsigned ... No chlorophyll b in CyanobacteriaEdit. I believe there is no chlorophyll b in Cyanobacteria. They do have chlorophyll a,d; ...
Cyanobacteria are a group of bacteria found throughout the world. They grow in any type of water (fresh, brackish, or marine) ... Everyday Health » Cyanobacteria » What Is Cyanobacteria?. What Is Cyanobacteria?. *By Joseph Bennington-Castro*Medically ... Cyanobacteria Blooms. Blooms of cyanobacteria - when the population of cyanobacteria explodes - typically occur in still or ... Cyanobacteria can be helpful by providing nutrients to plants such as rice and beans.. However, cyanobacteria blooms can also ...
Nostoc (Cyanobacteria). Nostoc (Cyanobacteria). Nostocs are able to perform photosynthesis without chloroplasts. Instead these ... found in modern plants are thought by some scientists to be derived from a precursor cyanobacterium through an evolutionary ...
Cyanobacteria are the oldest known fossils, dating back over three and a half billion years. ... Tolypothrix is a genus of cyanobacteria that occurs in small tufts either floating in torpid water or attached to plants and ... Cyanobacteria (Tolypothrix). Cyanobacteria (Tolypothrix). Tolypothrix is a genus of cyanobacteria that occurs in small tufts ... Cyanobacteria are important to life on Earth in many ways. The oxygen in the atmosphere that humans depend upon was largely ...
This document outlines a protocol for evaluating potential health concerns related to the presence of cyanobacteria (blue-green ... The cyanobacteria Anabaena, which produces anatoxin, would be included in any cell counts of cyanobacteria. Therefore, there is ... Total cell count of cyanobacteria (units of total cells/mL water). *Concentration of cyanobacteria toxin (e.g., microcystin) ( ... 2004). The second study involved placing dermal patches containing cyanobacteria and cyanobacteria toxins on volunteers. This ...
Chapter 2 Modern classification of cyanobacteria 21. Ji¢§r´©¥ Kom´arek. PART II: ECOLOGICAL SERVICES RENDERED BY CYANOBACTERIA ... Chapter 20 Cryopreservation of cyanobacteria 319. John G. Day. Chapter 21 Patents on cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial products ... summarizing a range of useful products synthesized by cyanobacteria, ecological services provided by cyanobacteria including ... Cyanobacteria: An Economic Perspective. Naveen K. Sharma, Ashawani K. Rai, Lucas J. Stal ...
Modeling local interactions during the motion of cyanobacteria.. Galante A1, Wisen S, Bhaya D, Levy D. ... Synechocystis sp., a common unicellular freshwater cyanobacterium, has been used as a model organism to study phototaxis, an ...
Get the latest cyanobacteria testing news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and ... Cyanobacteria - often referred to as blue-green algae - are found in water bodies around the world and can produce toxins with ... Some blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) - which grow in warm, nutrient-rich waters - produce toxins that can severely damage the ... a biotechnology company focused on producing renewable fuels and specialty chemicals derived from cyanobacteria (blue-green ...
In these patterns, approximately one out of 10 cells in cyanobacteria filaments fixes nitrogen, while the remaining nine carry ... have analyzed the process of nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria, creating a mathematical model which allows to understand the ... Almost all the oxygen in the atmosphere today was produced by cyanobacteria 3,000 million years ago; cyanobacteria continue to ... "Without cyanobacteria, neither human beings nor any other complex living organisms could survive on Earth, because we would not ...
Pools in the bedrock along the rivers edge are known to develop cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) blooms that can be harmful to ...
  • Species usage, concept, and evolution in the cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). (tolweb.org)
  • Cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae, are commonly found as individual cells, clumps, filaments or large mats in Florida's lakes, rivers and estuaries. (myfwc.com)
  • blue'), giving them their other name, "blue-green algae", though modern botanists restrict the term algae to eukaryotes and do not apply it to cyanobacteria, which are prokaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Harmful algae and cyanobacteria (sometimes called blue-green algae) can produce toxins (poisons) that can make people and animals sick and affect the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • 1988. Naming of cyclic heptapeptide toxins of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). (springer.com)
  • In fresh water, such as lakes and ponds, harmful blooms are most commonly caused by cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae), which are a kind of single-celled organism called phytoplankton . (cdc.gov)
  • This particular soap is modeled after a group of cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, which were dyed with fluorescent markers to show fat content. (geekalerts.com)
  • Tropical blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) have invaded lakes in Northern Germany. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cyanobacteria, or "blue-green algae," form mats on the surface of water and can produce toxins that are harmful to humans and dogs. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Frequently referred to as blue-green algae, cyanobacteria are photosynthetic and can manufacture their own food. (microscopyu.com)
  • This document outlines a protocol for evaluating potential health concerns related to the presence of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) in Massachusetts recreational freshwater bodies. (mass.gov)
  • Some blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) - which grow in warm, nutrient-rich waters - produce toxins that can severely damage the liver or nervous system. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Matrix Genetics ("Matrix"), a biotechnology company focused on producing renewable fuels and specialty chemicals derived from cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) announced today that Spokane, Wash. based Avista Development, Inc. has invested in the company. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Cyanobacteria - often referred to as blue-green algae - are found in water bodies around the world and can produce toxins with potential health risks. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Pools in the bedrock along the rivers edge are known to develop cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) blooms that can be harmful to pets and people if accidental ingestion occurs. (oregon.gov)
  • Once commonly known as blue-green algae, the large group of primarily photosynthetic prokaryotes that exhibit morphology similar to the eukaryotic algae have been reclassified and termed cyanobacteria. (fsu.edu)
  • Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, differ most prominently from other bacteria in that cyanobacteria possess chlorophyll A, while most bacteria do not contain chlorophyll. (reference.com)
  • This lake had a history of summer cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) blooms causing poor water clarity and noxious odors. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Topics: cyanobacteria, blue-green algae, aquatic weeds, raw water, cost savingsReservoir Overview: Raw water reservoir for a small water treatment faciltiy. (environmental-expert.com)
  • They have found that cyanobacteria, formerly known as blue-green algae, may be linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig's disease. (wmur.com)
  • Also known as blue-green algae , cyanobacteria are a special class of bacteria that are able to perform photosynthesis. (phys.org)
  • Cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae) are microscopic bacteria found in freshwater lakes, streams, ponds and brackish water ecosystems. (petpoisonhelpline.com)
  • In fact, Joule is using genetically altered cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae, which is not unlike the organisms used by many algae-to-biofuel ventures out there. (cleanbreak.ca)
  • Cyanobacteria, commonly referred to as blue-green algae, are photosynthetic bacteria that occur naturally in waters used for primary contact recreation, such as swimming and waterskiing. (epa.gov)
  • Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, are among the most common organisms on Earth. (enn.com)
  • There are several species of cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae, that can form surface blooms in the Baltic Sea,' explains Malin Mohlin from the University of Gothenburg's Department of Marine Ecology. (academics.com)
  • Sánchez raised Daphnia dentifera, a common herbivore in North American lakes, in the laboratory and fed individuals one of eight species of green algae or cyanobacteria (formerly known as blue-green algae). (sciencecodex.com)
  • The phenomenon of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) blooms in the Baltic and the surrounding freshwater bodies has been known for several decades. (psu.edu)
  • We are monitoring cyanobacteria, sometimes called blue-green algae, because blooms sometimes produce toxins that are harmful to people and pets. (lakechamplaincommittee.org)
  • However, unlike other bacteria, cyanobacteria contain chlorophyll a and conduct oxygenic photosynthesis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cyanobacteria are otherwise rarely preserved in rocks other than chert, though some possible blue-green bacteria have been recovered from shale. (berkeley.edu)
  • Cyanobacteria /saɪˌænoʊbækˈtɪəriə/, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of Gram-negative bacteria that obtain energy via photosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic bacteria, some of which are nitrogen-fixing, that live in a wide variety of moist soils and water either freely or in a symbiotic relationship with plants or lichen-forming fungi (as in the lichen genus Peltigera). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanobacteria are a group of bacteria found throughout the world. (everydayhealth.com)
  • However, though cyanobacteria resemble algae in many ways, they are prokaryotic and are classified with other bacteria in the kingdom Monera . (microscopyu.com)
  • Blooms can form when cyanobacteria, which are bacteria that grow in water, multiply quickly and form "scums" or "mats" on the surface of the water. (mass.gov)
  • Cyanobacteria are a taxon of bacteria which conduct photosynthesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • What is the difference between bacteria and cyanobacteria? (reference.com)
  • Other differences exist between bacteria and cyanobacteria. (reference.com)
  • While bacteria may or may not possess small tails, or flagella, to propel them forward, cyanobacteria do not. (reference.com)
  • Cyanobacteria are also typically larger than other bacteria. (reference.com)
  • While most bacteria are heterotrophic, meaning that they consume other organic matter for food, cyanobacteria are autotrophs, able to produce their own food out of organic compounds via photosynthesis. (reference.com)
  • Cyanobacteria also differ from bacteria in terms of how helpful or harmful they may be. (reference.com)
  • Like bacteria, however, cyanobacteria may be useful in preventing or treating diseases. (reference.com)
  • Four examples of organisms classified under the Kingdom Monera are bacteria, mycoplasms, cyanobacteria, and archae bacteria. (reference.com)
  • Many plants, protists, bacteria and cyanobacteria can carry out photosynthesis. (reference.com)
  • The two domains of prokaryotes, which are archae and bacteria, contain the common organisms of cyanobacteria, halophiles and hyperthermophiles. (reference.com)
  • The state has posted cyanobacteria warnings for a beach and a pond in New Hampshire and fecal bacteria warnings for beaches on lakes Winnipesaukee, Winnisquam and Robinson Pond in Hudson. (wmur.com)
  • The cyanobacteria ("dark blue rod", referring to the rod-like appearance of some prokaryotes) are a taxon of bacteria that are characterised by, among other things, the fact that they are able to photosynthesise like a plant , using the same mechanisms as plants. (rationalwiki.org)
  • It's actually a strain of bacteria known as cyanobacteria (its name derived from its vivid color, which would be beautiful if it didn't signal so much trouble for an aquarium). (fishlore.com)
  • All forms of cyanobacteria seem to be somewhere between plant and bacteria. (fishlore.com)
  • There are different kinds of bacteria that can fix nitrogen, but it's especially impressive that some cyanobacteria can do it. (wustl.edu)
  • HP: The key was that cyanobacteria turns out to be the only bacteria with circadian rhythms, just like you and me. (wustl.edu)
  • Cyanobacteria, a type of bacteria that performs photosynthesis, utilize a photosensor that regulates green and red light-harvesting antenna proteins for photosynthesis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cyanobacteria in surface water are a previously unknown source of methane and we were able to show for the first time that these bacteria produce the greenhouse gas methane during photosynthesis," states Dr. Mina Bižić. (enn.com)
  • In an article published ahead online May 28, 2013 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , a team led by DOE Joint Genome Institute researchers focused on the crystal structure of the FRP protein in a species of Synechocystis bacteria to learn more about how cyanobacteria protect themselves from excess light. (phys.org)
  • Laboratory of Eviatar Nevo in Israel has taken a look at another cyanobacterium, this time a filamentous, chain-forming species, Nostoc linckia , and the work that ensued suggests that a number of other bacteria may possess a circadian clock as well [1,2,3]. (scientificamerican.com)
  • kaiA occurs only in cyanobacteria, while kaiB, kaiC and the kaiBC complex occur in other types of bacteria and Archaea. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Curiously, all the horizontal tranfers occured from cyanobacteria, as donors, to other types of bacteria and Archaea as recipients. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Cyanobacteria are an ancient lineage of photosynthetic bacteria from which hundreds of natural products have been described, including many notorious toxins but also potent natural products of interest to the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. (osti.gov)
  • The cyanobacteria produce a large amount of toxin during summers as the temperature of the lake or pond rises and this favors maximum development of these bacteria. (differencebetween.net)
  • Cyanobacteria are blue green bacteria and cannot perform photosynthesis the way green algae can. (differencebetween.net)
  • Toxins produced by cyanobacteria can be harmful to humans, affecting the liver (hepatotoxins), the nervous system (neurotoxins) and skin (dermatotoxins). (myfwc.com)
  • In 2001, scientists discussed needs and methods for effective detection and treatment methods of toxins produced by cyanobacteria in drinking water reservoirs at the Cyanotoxin Detection and Quantification and Instrumentation Workshop. (myfwc.com)
  • provides more information on cyanobacteria and their toxins related to human health. (myfwc.com)
  • More information on cyanobacteria blooms, their toxins and public health effects can also be found on the health department website . (myfwc.com)
  • Cyanobacteria produce a range of toxins known as cyanotoxins that can pose a danger to humans and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • People and animals (including pets, livestock, and wildlife) can get sick when they have contact with water or food that contains certain types of algae, cyanobacteria, or their toxins. (cdc.gov)
  • Illnesses and symptoms can vary depending on how a person or animal was exposed (came into contact with algae, cyanobacteria, or their toxins), how long they were exposed, which type of toxin was present, and how much toxin was present. (cdc.gov)
  • If you think you may have symptoms caused by harmful algae, cyanobacteria, or their toxins, contact your healthcare provider or Poison Control Center external icon . (cdc.gov)
  • 1994. The toxins of cyanobacteria. (springer.com)
  • Cyanobacteria and their toxins can make people sick. (cdc.gov)
  • Some cyanobacteria produce toxins (poisons) called cyanotoxins. (cdc.gov)
  • Learn how to protect yourself and your loved ones from cyanobacteria and their toxins. (cdc.gov)
  • Let them know that you might have recently come in contact with cyanobacteria or its toxins. (cdc.gov)
  • Toxins from cyanobacteria can make animals very sick or even kill them. (cdc.gov)
  • Some cyanobacteria also produce potent toxins, called cyanotoxins, during CyanoHABs. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Exposure to cyanotoxins, caused by drinking or swimming in contaminated water, or breathing air containing cyanobacteria or their toxins, can affect the skin, nervous system, and liver. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Cyanobacteria blooms killed approximately 100 dogs between 2002 and 2012, according to a 2013 CDC-led study in the journal Toxins. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Toxins are released from intact cyanobacteria cells when they die in the waterbody or when they are ingested by animals or humans. (mass.gov)
  • The scientific literature on health effects resulting from exposures to cyanobacteria-related toxins associated with blooms is developing, with the most widely cited guidance published by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2003 (WHO 2003). (mass.gov)
  • Some cyanobacteria species produce carcinogenic toxins. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Cyanobacteria love warm water, therefore an increase in temperature during this century may stimulate their growth, especially that of the cytotoxic varieties, which could even produce more toxins and become more harmful," says Rehab El-Shehawy, a researcher from IMDEA Agua and co-author of the study published in the journal, Water Research. (eponline.com)
  • ANN ARBOR--The cyanobacteria blooms that plague western Lake Erie each summer are both an unsightly nuisance and a potential public health hazard, producing liver toxins that can be harmful to humans and their pets. (sciencecodex.com)
  • But the toxins produced in cyanobacteria blooms may also have protective effects on sand-grain-sized lake animals that ingest them, much as the toxins in milkweed plants protect monarch butterflies from parasites, according to a new study from University of Michigan ecologists. (sciencecodex.com)
  • The laboratory-based study shows that tiny, shrimp-like freshwater crustaceans called Daphnia can gain protection from fungal parasites by consuming toxins produced by bloom-forming cyanobacteria. (sciencecodex.com)
  • This paper shows that Daphnia living in Michigan lakes can gain protection from fungal parasites through the toxins that are present in bloom-forming cyanobacteria," said Hunter, who has studied monarchs at U-M's Biological Station for more than a decade. (sciencecodex.com)
  • Can cyanobacteria and toxins spread through air? (kwrwater.nl)
  • Although the authors emphasize the atmospheric effects of HABs, the article also points at possible exposure to cyanobacteria and their toxins through inhalation. (kwrwater.nl)
  • Some types produce toxins which release into the water when cyanobacteria die and break down. (lakechamplaincommittee.org)
  • However, not all cyanobacteria produce toxins, and even those species that can produce toxins do not do so in all instances. (lakechamplaincommittee.org)
  • Cyanobacteria toxins are also suspected carcinogens. (lakechamplaincommittee.org)
  • Cyanobacteria are some of the Earth's oldest organisms, with fossils dating back 3.5 billion years. (myfwc.com)
  • By producing and releasing oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis, cyanobacteria are thought to have converted the early oxygen-poor, reducing atmosphere into an oxidizing one, causing the Great Oxygenation Event and the "rusting of the Earth", which dramatically changed the composition of the Earth's life forms and led to the near-extinction of anaerobic organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cyanobacteria Synechocystis and Cyanothece are important model organisms with potential applications in biotechnology for bioethanol production, food colorings, as a source of human and animal food, dietary supplements and raw materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Algae and cyanobacteria are simple, plant-like organisms that live in the water. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, cyanobacteria accelerated this massive change by becoming the first organisms to utilize water as a source of electrons and hydrogen for photosynthesis, a process that results in the release of free oxygen. (fsu.edu)
  • Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both carbon dioxide (in the presence of light) and nitrogen. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • The cyanobacteria in stromatolites were the first known organisms to photosynthesise and produce free oxygen . (wikipedia.org)
  • This Research Topic will focus on cyanobacteria as organisms of emerging industrial relevance, including research focused on the development of genetic tools for cyanobacteria, the investigation of new cyanobacterial strains, the construction of novel cyanobacterial strains via genetic engineering, the application of 'omics' tools to advance the understanding of engineered cyanobacteria, and the development of computational models for cyanobacterial strain development. (frontiersin.org)
  • This publication is unique among a number of books on cyanobacteria because it focuses on the bioenergetics of these widespread organisms which are the evolutionary prerequisite for the development of all higher forms of life on our "blue" planet. (springer.com)
  • Thermophilic cyanobacteria offer the most suitable material for high resolution structure analyses of Photosystem I and II and other electron transport complexes by X-ray crystallography (for example, at present the structure of Photosystem II at atomic resolution is only known for these organisms). (springer.com)
  • Cyanobacteria have existed for 3.5 billion years, yet they are still the most important photosynthetic organisms on the planet for cycling carbon and nitrogen. (springer.com)
  • I've decided to do mine on cyanobacteria as I am fascinated by these micro-organisms, I can send away for a culture of them (Anabaena Sp. (biology-online.org)
  • Photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, particularly exhibit light-dependent regulation of morphogenes and generation of reactive oxygen species and other signals that can impact cellular dimensions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic organisms, which have limited mobility in their environment, are exquisitely sensitive to changes in environmental conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • In laboratory experiments, the team compared the amount of methane produced by Cyanobacteria with the amounts produced by methanogenic archaea and organisms with cell nuclei (eukaryotes). (enn.com)
  • It is difficult to estimate the global amount of methane produced by Cyanobacteria because there is a severe lack of detailed data on the biomass of these organisms in water and soil," says co-author Frank Keppler, Professor at the Institute of Earth Sciences at Heidelberg University. (enn.com)
  • Cyanobacteria are some of the oldest organisms on Earth, at least 3.5 billion years old, appearing in the fossil record relatively soon after the split between Eubacteria and Archaea (3.8 billion years ago). (scientificamerican.com)
  • Cyanobacteria are reported to be the first organisms on Earth to fix CO 2 via oxygen producing photosynthesis and today account for ~10% of worldwide CO 2 fixation. (esrf.eu)
  • Lichens are composite organisms, composed to a fungus and an algae, and the phototrophic component are very often cyanobacteria. (ncsu.edu)
  • Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic organisms where as green algae are eukaryotic organisms. (differencebetween.net)
  • Cyanobacteria as compared to green algae are potentially dangerous to the ecological environment of the aquatic organisms. (differencebetween.net)
  • Algae are small unicellular organisms whereas cyanobacteria are multi-cellular organisms and larger in size. (differencebetween.net)
  • The most common types of cyanobacteria that bloom are Microcystis and Anabaena . (mass.gov)
  • This study was conducted to investigate ultrastructural alterations and biochemical responses in the hepatopancreas of the freshwater snail Bellamya aeruginosa after exposure to two treatments: toxic cyanobacterium ( Microcystis aeruginosa ) and toxic cyanobacterial cells mixed with a non-toxic green alga ( Scendesmus quadricauda ) for a period of 15 days of intoxication, followed by a 15-day detoxification period. (hindawi.com)
  • Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to discriminate genotypes in five species of Microcystis cyanobacteria. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Cyanobacteria used in the study included one species of Microcystis , a group of common colony-forming cyanobacteria largely to blame for Lake Erie's annual summer blooms. (sciencecodex.com)
  • In her experiment, Sánchez added pure microcystin to some of the Microcystis cultures to approximate levels of the toxin commonly observed during cyanobacteria blooms. (sciencecodex.com)
  • Two of the cyanobacteria diets--including the diet treatment in which pure microcystin was added to beakers containing Microcystis cultures--completely prevented fungal infections. (sciencecodex.com)
  • Out of 97 taxa, a single Microcystis, and two different Aphanizomenon taxa were the dominant cyanobacteria detected during bloom events. (psu.edu)
  • There are about 2000 species of cyanobacteria and many of these species have been poorly researched. (innovations-report.com)
  • The search for the source of the toxic substance yielded a surprise: indigenous species of cyanobacteria are producing CYN. (innovations-report.com)
  • Spirulina is a gram negative, non-toxic species of cyanobacteria with a wide array of uses in the natural and commercial world. (sciencephoto.com)
  • So, they followed this up with a study of kai genes in a number of species of cyanobacteria [2] and later in a number of species of Eubacteria and Archea [3]. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Five species of green algae and three species of cyanobacteria were used, and they differed in their nutritional value and toxin production. (sciencecodex.com)
  • The total species of cyanobacteria includes 150 genera and about 2500 species throughout the world. (differencebetween.net)
  • Cyanobacteria: From Basic Science to Applications is the first reference volume that comprehensively discusses all aspects of cyanobacteria, including the diverse mechanisms of cyanobacteria for the advancement of cyanobacterial abilities, towards higher biofuel productivity, enhanced tolerance to environmental stress and bioactive compounds and potential for biofertilizers. (vanstockum.nl)
  • In this review we summarize and discuss the metabolic, physiological and structural features of cyanobacteria that may be involved in the reactions leading to mineral formation and precipitation, present a conceptual model of cyanobacterial calcification, and, finally, suggest practical applications for cyanobacterial carbonate mineralization. (mdpi.com)
  • Further analysis of the cyanobacterial genomes revealed that this photosensor emerged about 2.1 billion years ago or more and evolved through genetic exchange (horizontal gene transfer) between cyanobacteria. (eurekalert.org)
  • Under certain conditions, cyanobacteria may grow rapidly to form dense accumulations known as cyanobacterial blooms. (epa.gov)
  • Certain environmental conditions, such as elevated levels of nutrients from human activities (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus), warmer temperatures, still water, and plentiful sunlight can promote the growth of cyanobacteria to higher densities, forming cyanobacterial blooms. (epa.gov)
  • we completed the metabolic profile characterization of the two cyanobacteria, we studied vertical and horizontal transmissions of the cyanobacterial secondary metabolites along the trophic web, and studied the role of these compounds in predator-prey relationships. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • We demonstrate also that the herbivores use cyanobacterial compounds as chemical cues for cyanobacteria tracking and feeding choice. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • In this review, we summarize the present knowledge about cyanobacterial terpenoid biosynthesis, both regarding the native metabolism and regarding metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for heterologous production of non-native terpenoids. (diva-portal.org)
  • Fossil evidence of cyanobacteria, represented in the geological record by microbially laminated stromatolites, cyanobacterial and cyanobacterium-like microscopic fossils, and carbon isotopic data consistent with the presence of Rubisco-mediated CO 2 -fixation, extends back to ∼3,500 million years ago. (springer.com)
  • The evolution of cyanobacterial genome sizes involves a mix of gains and losses in the clade encompassing complex cyanobacteria, while a single event of reduction is evident in a clade dominated by unicellular cyanobacteria. (uio.no)
  • 1999. Detection of seven major evolutionary lineages in cyanobacteria based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis with new sequences of five marine Synechococcus strains. (tolweb.org)
  • We addressed the adaptive significance of circadian programs in competition experiments by using the asexual cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. (pnas.org)
  • During exponential growth in which the generation time was 10 hours, the profile of bioluminescence from a reporter strain of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus (species PCC 7942) matched a model based on the assumption that cells proliferate exponentially and the bioluminescence of each cell oscillates in a cosine fashion. (sciencemag.org)
  • Genes encoding a novel 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase were identified in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The previous two posts cover the clocks in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus , the first bacterium in which circadian rhythms were discovered and, thus, the species most studied to date. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Synechococcus is a unicellular cyanobacterium. (scientificamerican.com)
  • There are two isoforms of CcmM in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. (esrf.eu)
  • All heterocystous and some coccoid/filamentous cyanobacteria fix nitrogen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Dormant cells (akinetes) of filamentous cyanobacteria demonstrate a great variability in morphology, physiology and ecological function 5. (vanstockum.nl)
  • Here we show that the HetN inhibitor, responsible for pattern maintenance of specialized nitrogen-fixing heterocyst cells in the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena , may be produced from. (asm.org)
  • Specific Glucoside Transporters Influence Septal Structure and Function in the Filamentous, Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. (asm.org)
  • Formation and maintenance of nitrogen-fixing cell patterns in filamentous cyanobacteria. (eurekalert.org)
  • Some filamentous colonies of cyanobacteria differentiate into three cell types: vegetative cells, spores, and heterocysts. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Researchers from ETH Zurich and the University of Tübingen have taken a high-resolution look at the structure and function of cell-to-cell connections in filamentous, multicellular cyanobacteria. (phys.org)
  • To date, very little was known about the detailed structure and precise functioning of the cell junctions in multicellular, filamentous cyanobacteria. (phys.org)
  • Regarding morphological types, many species of filamentous cyanobacteria were identified, followed by colonial taxa. (scirp.org)
  • It is known that filamentous cyanobacteria, those that build chains of cell, utilize a different strategy, that of spatial separation, some cells being involved in nitrogen fixation and others in photosynthesis. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Thus, it was thought that filamentous cyanobacteria have no need for a circadian clock. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In the lagoon of Moorea in French Polynesia, we have identified a relatively simple tropical marine ecosystem consisting of two primary producers (two filamentous cyanobacteria, Lyngbya majuscula and Anabaena cf. torulosa), three herbivorous molluscs (Stylocheilus striatus, S. longicauda and Bulla orientalis), a carnivorous nudibranch (Gymnodoris ceylonica) and a carnivorous crab (Thalamita coerulipes). (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The main objective in this thesis was to examine the transcriptional regulation of both the uptake and the bidirectional hydrogenase in filamentous cyanobacteria. (diva-portal.org)
  • This thesis advances the knowledge about the transcriptional regulation of the hydrogenases in filamentous cyanobacteria and can be used as a platform for further experiments aiming at a modified hydrogen metabolism. (diva-portal.org)
  • The structures of the pore apparatus of two different filamentous cyanobacteria have been characterized. (nih.gov)
  • A collaborative project has been undertaken to explore filamentous fungi, cyanobacteria, and tropical plants for anti-cancer drug leads. (nih.gov)
  • Cyanobacteria such as Anabaena (a symbiont of the aquatic fern Azolla) can provide rice plantations with biofertilizer. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1995. Novel cyclic peptides together with microcystins produced by toxic cyanobacteria, Anabaena sp. (springer.com)
  • This work, which has recently been published, along with Javier Muñoz-García, in the journal PNAS ( Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ), focuses on the process of nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria of the genus Anabaena, in which cells live sticking to each other forming a filament. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dans le lagon de Moorea, en Polynésie Française, nous avons identifié un écosystème constitué de deux producteurs primaires (les cyanobactéries filamenteuses Lyngbya majuscula et Anabaena cf. torulosa), trois mollusques herbivores (Stylocheilus striatus, S. longicauda, et Bulla orientalis), un nudibranche carnivore (Gymnodoris ceylonica) et un crabe carnivore (Thalamita coerulipes). (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Unlike heterotrophic prokaryotes, cyanobacteria have internal membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanobacteria constitute the most widely distributed group of photosynthetic prokaryotes found in almost all realms of the earth and play an important role in Earth s nitrogen and carbon cycle. (vanstockum.nl)
  • At least one group of prokaryotes is known to have circadian regulation of cellular activities--the cyanobacteria. (nih.gov)
  • As do all prokaryotes, cyanobacteria lack a membrane-bound nucleus, as well as chloroplasts, mitochondria, a Golgi apparatus, and an endoplasmic reticulum. (fsu.edu)
  • Cyanobacteria are prokaryotes that perform oxygenic photosynthesis and are found in all kinds of environments throughout the world. (eurekalert.org)
  • For most of the evolutionary history of cyanobacteria, the environment was very harsh, and UV radiation was one of the major factors influencing the evolution of prokaryotes. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Cyanobacteria belong to an ancient group of photosynthetic prokaryotes with pronounced variations in their cellular differentiation strategies, physiological capacities and choice of habitat. (uio.no)
  • Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes which have diverged appreciably from their nonphotosynthetic counterparts. (ebscohost.com)
  • We present the algorithm in the form of software “Systematic, Homology-based Automated Re-annotation for Prokaryotes (SHARP).†We predicted 3,781 new GPR associations for the 10 prokaryotes considered of which eight are cyanobacteria species. (ebscohost.com)
  • Cyanobacteria are approximately 2.5 billion years old and thus are the oldest oxygenic phototrophs on Earth . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The ability of cyanobacteria to perform oxygenic photosynthesis is highly significant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The light-driven reactions take place in the thylakoid membranes and three major membrane-intrinsic protein complexes carry out photosynthetic electron transfer, photosystem II, the cytochrome bf complex and photosystem I. To elucidate photosynthetic electron transport in oxygenic photosynthesis site-directed mutagenesis and biophysical techniques were employed in cyanobacteria which have the advantage over plants that they are easily genetically manipulated. (illinois.edu)
  • Two hypotheses account for the evolution of the inner antenna light-harvesting proteins of oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria, algae, and plants: one in which the CP43 protein of photosytem II gave rise to the extrinsic CP43-like antennas of cyanobacteria (i.e. (ebscohost.com)
  • Outer Membrane Permeability of Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. (asm.org)
  • The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • SEM of Synechocystis cyanobacteria, which helped researchers study the crystal structure of the FRP protein. (phys.org)
  • In a recent study we have shown that CopRS two-component system is essential for copper resistance in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC 6803. (csic.es)
  • 1988. Evolutionary relationship among cyanobacteria and green chloroplasts. (tolweb.org)
  • The chloroplast organelles (actually pigmented protoplasmic bodies) found in modern plants are thought by some scientists to be derived from a precursor cyanobacterium through an evolutionary chain of events. (microscopyu.com)
  • Evolutionary relationships among cyanobacteria and green chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is well written, mainly from a European perspective, and provides an interesting history of ideas and theories about many aspects of energy flow in cyanobacteria, as well as good reviews of evolutionary history as deduced by study of 'primitive' or primordial extant species. (springer.com)
  • Because of the incompleteness of the fossil record, however, such data do not resolve the time of origin of O 2 -producing cyanobacteria from their anoxygenic, bacterial, evolutionary precursors. (springer.com)
  • These endosymbiotic cyanobacteria in eukaryotes then evolved and differentiated into specialized organelles such as chloroplasts, etioplasts and leucoplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • This organization closely resembles that of chloroplasts, which are believed to be derived from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • I don't see how the second sentence follows from the first -- how does the pigment of cyanobacteria relate to chloroplasts? (wikipedia.org)
  • In endosymbiont theory, chloroplasts (plastids) are descended from cyanobacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aseeva, Elena (2005): Vipp1 structure and function in cyanobacteria and chloroplasts. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Borzia is a genus of cyanobacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tolypothrix is a genus of cyanobacteria that occurs in small tufts either floating in torpid water or attached to plants and rocks. (microscopyu.com)
  • Chroococcus is a large genus of cyanobacteria whose species are difficult to differentiate. (fsu.edu)
  • 1997). Participants were interviewed at five freshwater bodies that had a history of cyanobacteria blooms. (mass.gov)
  • The different rates of genome-size evolution and multi-copy gene abundance suggest two routes of genome development in the history of cyanobacteria. (uio.no)
  • Cyanobacteria are arguably the most successful group of microorganisms on Earth. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Cyanobacteria are a genetically diverse group of photosynthetic microorganisms that occupy a broad range of habitats on land and water all over the world. (usgs.gov)
  • Cyanobacteria are a heterogeneous group of phototrophic microorganisms. (diva-portal.org)
  • They are a source of food for the aquatic microorganisms whereas the cyanobacteria prove can be helpful or harmful based on the sub-species. (differencebetween.net)
  • If you are notified of harmful algae or cyanobacteria in a nearby body of water or in your public drinking water supply, follow local or state guidance to reduce your chances of getting sick. (cdc.gov)
  • Mammals (including pets, livestock, and wildlife) can be poisoned by swimming in or drinking water containing cyanotoxins or eating cyanobacteria, fish, or other animals containing cyanotoxins. (cdc.gov)
  • Most reports of acute animal and human cyanobacteria-related poisoning arise from consumption of contaminated drinking water. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Circadian (daily) rhythms are ubiquitous in eukaryotes and are also found in eubacteria among cyanobacteria ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Nutrient pollution from agricultural and urban runoff causes the majority of freshwater cyanobacteria blooms. (myfwc.com)
  • USGS: Field and Laboratory Guide to Freshwater Cyanobacteria Harmful Algal Blooms for Native American and Alaska Native Communities (PDF) (54 pp, 8 MB) -- Although the title is geared to tribal communities, information in it is useful to any recreational water manager looking to identify cyanobacteria. (epa.gov)
  • Eukaryotic plants and algae as well as prokaryotic cyanobacteria and prochlorophytes have a similar photosynthetic apparatus. (illinois.edu)
  • The Molecular Biology of Cyanobacteria. (tolweb.org)
  • Cyanobacteria has been listed as a level-4 vital article in Science, Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The book, together with its appendices, distils a remarkable overview of our current knowledge and understanding, not just of the ecology of the Cyanobacteria but also of key molecular, biochemical and physiological aspects of their biology that underpin their vital participation in ecosystem functioning. (springer.com)
  • Himadri Pakrasi , professor of biology and director of WashU's International Center for Energy, Environment, and Sustainability , has been studying cyanobacteria for more than 25 years. (wustl.edu)
  • 1992. Cyanobacteria secondary metabolites-the cyanotoxins. (springer.com)
  • He noted that researchers are also working with the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services to set up a lab to study cyanotoxins.DES samples more than 100 lakes and issues warnings for cyanobacteria in the summer months.To view those warnings and find archived reports for various lakes and ponds, visit http://des.nh.gov/organization/divisions/water/wmb/beaches/advisories.htm. (wmur.com)
  • What are Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins? (epa.gov)
  • Such blooms may result in a higher risk to human or animal health due to the production of cyanotoxins and other cyanobacteria-associated irritants. (epa.gov)
  • Although the presence of cyanobacteria does not necessarily mean that cyanotoxins are being produced, it is important to note that cyanotoxins may be present both before and after cyanobacteria are observed. (epa.gov)
  • Like red tides, cyanobacteria can grow and accumulate, or bloom, when environmental conditions such as light availability and temperature are favorable. (myfwc.com)
  • Algae and cyanobacteria can rapidly grow out of control, or "bloom," when water is warm, slow-moving, and full of nutrients. (cdc.gov)
  • Normally microscopic, cyanobacteria can become clearly visible in warm, nutrient-rich environments, which allow them to grow quickly and "bloom" in lakes and other bodies of water. (everydayhealth.com)
  • In some cases, cyanobacteria blooms don't affect the water's appearance, making it difficult to know if a bloom is occurring. (everydayhealth.com)
  • At the end of a bloom, when the cyanobacteria are dying off, the water may smell bad. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Photo: Cyanobacteria bloom in a lake in Germany. (enn.com)
  • Cyanobacteria blooms occur worldwide, and climate change may increase the frequency, duration, and extent of these bloom events. (usgs.gov)
  • Different species of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria bloom at different times. (academics.com)
  • Cyanobacteria ) Bloom in Sub-Tropical Australia. (psu.edu)
  • Despite the morphological diversity of cyanobacteria, they are physiologically much alike. (ncsu.edu)
  • Little is known about the taxonomic diversity of cyanobacteria in deserts, despite their important ecological roles in these ecosystems. (fed.us)
  • Blooms of cyanobacteria - when the population of cyanobacteria explodes - typically occur in still or slow-moving water, such as lakes, ponds, and weak streams, when the water is warm, gets plenty of sunlight, and is rich in nutrients like phosphorous and nitrogen. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Previous reports suggested a connection between similar symptoms and contact with different cyanobacteria (living in fresh water lakes). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, recent research has indicated that cells may be transported as aerosols from lakes with high concentrations of cyanobacteria and microcystins. (wmur.com)
  • Cyanobacteria are also associated with unfavorable taste-and-odor compounds in lakes and reservoirs. (epa.gov)
  • The overarching goal of this collaborative project is to detect and quantify cyanobacteria blooms using satellite data records in order to support the environmental management and public use of U.S. lakes and reservoirs. (usgs.gov)
  • Cyanobacteria are found in acid springs and soda lakes, hot springs and permanently frozen rocks, the open ocean and crusty desert soils. (ncsu.edu)
  • Cyanobacteria are found almost everywhere, including aquatic habitats like lakes, ponds, to terrestrial areas like sand, bare rocks and damp soils. (differencebetween.net)
  • This was investigated through sampling locations differing in cyanobacteria abundance at the American Great Lakes. (kwrwater.nl)
  • Cyanobacteria naturally occurs in lakes and have existed on earth for millions of years. (lakechamplaincommittee.org)
  • Campo, E., Lezcano, M.A., Agha, R. and Cirés, S. (2013) First TaqMan Assay to Identify and Quantify the Cylindrospermopsin-Producing Cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon ovalisporum in Water. (scirp.org)
  • Cyanobacteria blooms can destroy submerged vegetation like seagrass by blocking sunlight. (myfwc.com)
  • Some cyanobacteria can fix atmospheric nitrogen in anaerobic conditions by means of specialized cells called heterocysts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanobacteria help convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be consumed by plants and are, therefore, useful as a natural fertilizer that is beneficial to crop cultivation around the world. (microscopyu.com)
  • Many cyanobacteria have the capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen. (diva-portal.org)
  • Most cyanobacteria can fix atmospheric nitrogen, but this creates is a dilemma for them. (ncsu.edu)
  • The oxygen atmosphere that we depend on was generated by numerous cyanobacteria photosynthesizing during the Archaean and Proterozoic Era. (berkeley.edu)
  • The oxygen in the atmosphere that humans depend upon was largely generated by an abundance of cyanobacteria billions of years ago. (microscopyu.com)
  • The ability of cyanobacteria to give off oxygen during photosynthesis is directly responsible for the presence of oxygen in early Earth's atmosphere, creating conditions that allowed life to develop. (reference.com)
  • Cyanobacteria have been more than 2 billion years, back to when the Earth had far less oxygen than it does today. (wustl.edu)
  • HP: So cyanobacteria are the ones who first showed this planet how to take water and make oxygen out of it, and that oxygen is what changed entire atmosphere. (wustl.edu)
  • Remember how cyanobacteria create oxygen? (wustl.edu)
  • represents an ecologically diverse group of cyanobacteria found in numerous environments, including hot-spring microbial mats, where they are spatially distributed along thermal, light and oxygen gradients. (ebscohost.com)
  • Since 2009, the PCC belongs to the Laboratory Collection of Cyanobacteria in the Department of Microbiology. (pasteur.fr)
  • Cyanobacteria resemble the eukaryotic algae in many ways, including morphological characteristics. (britannica.com)
  • One of the distinguishing features of cyanobacteria is the presence of particular photosynthetic pigments: the phycocianins (blue) and the phycoerythrins (red), which do not occur in eukaryotic algae or higher plants. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Phototrophic eukaryotes such as green plants perform photosynthesis in plastids that are thought to have their ancestry in cyanobacteria, acquired long ago via a process called endosymbiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though the cyanobacteria are not eukaryotes and therefore do not qualify for the title of "algae", to this day the name still continues to be used to refer to the group. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Cyanobacteria produce less methane than archaea, but more methane than eukaryotes. (enn.com)
  • The presence of the Vipp1 complex was detected in cyanobacteria, green algae and higher plants, thereby identifying oligomerization as an essential feature for the function of Vipp1. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Green algae tend to be more nutritious for Daphnia than toxin-producing cyanobacteria. (sciencecodex.com)
  • Both green algae and cyanobacteria have evolved from algae. (differencebetween.net)
  • Based on their structure, they are differentiated into prokaryocyte (cyanobacteria) and eukaryocyte (green algae). (differencebetween.net)
  • Scientists at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) have analyzed the process of nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria, creating a mathematical model which allows to understand the patterns they form. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nitrogen fixation makes cyanobacteria useful as an agricultural fertilizer, but nitrogen-based runoff from fertilizer or other waste can pollute waters and destroy river and marine life. (reference.com)
  • HP: Some cyanobacteria can also do another amazing biochemical reaction, and that's nitrogen fixation. (wustl.edu)
  • Cyanobacteria have the greatest contribution to nitrogen fixation. (thethinkingatheist.com)
  • Influence of circadian clock on optimal regime of central C-N metabolism of cyanobacteria 10. (vanstockum.nl)
  • This enables cyanobacteria to exploit ecosystems devoid of nitrogen compounds, including those located in polar, open ocean, and desert regions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cyanobacteria produce a large number of compounds with varying bioactivities. (springer.com)
  • A number of compounds in cyanobacteria are inhibitors of proteases - micropeptins, cyanopeptolins, oscillapeptin, microviridin, aeruginosins- and other enzymes, while still other compounds have no recognized biological activities. (springer.com)
  • The compounds produced by the studied cyanobacteria have already been reported as possessing pharmaceutical properties such as antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities, besides industrial importance as source of intermediates for biofuel production. (springer.com)
  • However, these compounds do not prevent the sea hare S. striatus, feeding on cyanobacteria. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Surface water with harmful algal blooms (HABs, notably cyanobacteria) and their organic compounds may also affect the surrounding air. (kwrwater.nl)
  • Compounds produced by the cyanobacteria can trigger skin irritations and gastro-intestinal illness. (lakechamplaincommittee.org)
  • Cyanobacteria are morphologically and physiologically diverse and broadly distributed in terrestrial and aquatic environments. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cyanobacteria can be found in almost every terrestrial and aquatic habitat - oceans, fresh water, damp soil, temporarily moistened rocks in deserts, bare rock and soil, and even Antarctic rocks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aquatic cyanobacteria are known for their extensive and highly visible blooms that can form in both freshwater and marine environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanobacteria, aquatic weed growth, and odors have trended less since deployment while water clarity and water quality have trended much better. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Abstract: A controversial precept of aquatic ecology asserts that low ratios of nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) lead to noxious and sometimes toxic blooms of Cyanobacteria. (psu.edu)
  • Both Greenwood Pond Beach in Kingston and Downing Pond in New Durham have had warnings issued to keep pets and people away from blooms of cyanobacteria. (wmur.com)
  • Another area of study is whether this can be transferred to crops growing near blooms of cyanobacteria. (wmur.com)
  • We detected microcystins in lettuce that was irrigated with water from a lake that frequently experiences blooms of cyanobacteria. (wmur.com)
  • Surface blooms of cyanobacteria, which are a type of phytoplankton, have increased in both frequency and magnitude in the Baltic Sea in recent decades, and researchers are divided on the cause. (academics.com)
  • Animals can get very sick or even die quickly after exposure to harmful algae and cyanobacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • You can take steps to protect yourself and your pets from getting sick from harmful algae and cyanobacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Givetian, Frasnian and Famennian limestones from southern China contain microfossils generally regarded as calcified algae and cyanobacteria. (cambridge.org)
  • We tested the adaptive significance of circadian programming by measuring the relative fitness under competition between various strains of cyanobacteria expressing different circadian periods. (pnas.org)
  • The laboratory maintains these axenic strains of Cyanobacteria, takes care of the dispatches and the information of PCC strains presented in the catalogue of the CRBIP. (pasteur.fr)
  • For this reason the study was conducted with the objective of to know the growth performances of different strains of cyanobacteria in different water sources (distilled and tap water). (omicsonline.org)
  • This section reviews the current literature in order to make recommendations related to the presence of cyanobacteria in a recreational water body. (mass.gov)
  • The cyanobacteria have also been tremendously important in shaping the course of evolution and ecological change throughout earth's history. (berkeley.edu)
  • Cyanobacteria obtain energy through photosynthesis and helped oxygenate Earth's early atmosphere. (projectnoah.org)
  • The cyanobacteria have an extensive fossil record. (berkeley.edu)
  • Cyanobacteria have an extremely long fossil record, starting at least 3,500 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2003. Molecular signatures in protein sequences that are characteristic of cyanobacteria and plastid homologues. (tolweb.org)
  • Metals in Cyanobacteria: Physiological and Molecular regulation 14. (vanstockum.nl)
  • Current knowledge about the molecular bases of the light-dependent regulation of cellular dimensions and cell shape in cyanobacteria will be highlighted. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cellular and molecular organization of the CO-concentrating mechanism (CCM) of cyanobacteria is reviewed. (ebscohost.com)
  • The Ecology of Cyanobacteria. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Scientists lead by Dr. Claudia Wiedner from the Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries in Berlin identified different species of tropical cyanobacteria as well as a specific toxin (Cylindrospermopsin or CYN). (innovations-report.com)
  • This book complements the highly successful Ecology of Cyanobacteria and integrates the discoveries of the past twelve years with the older literature. (springer.com)
  • A research team led by the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB) and Heidelberg University has now shown for the first time that Cyanobacteria produce relevant amounts of methane in oceans, inland waters and on land. (enn.com)
  • Continued eutrophication of the Baltic Sea, combined with an ever thinner ozone layer, is favouring the toxic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena, reveals research from the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. (academics.com)
  • Soil samples taken at varying distances from the shore of a cyanobacteria-dominated lake tested positive for microsystins as well as for living cyanobacteria," Haney said.Reported incidences of harmful cyanobacteria blooms in freshwater have increased worldwide. (wmur.com)
  • Thankfully, it seems that most of the harmful cyanobacteria take the form of brilliant sheets, making it easy to identify. (fishlore.com)
  • The team headed by Dr Paul D'Agostino will sequence 40 symbiotic and rare terrestrial cyanobacteria for the production of new active agents and to explore the potential for applications in biotechnology. (innovations-report.com)
  • Nutrient modulated alkaline phosphatase and associated processes in diazotrophic cyanobacteria. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2012. ' Sustained H 2 Production Driven by Photosynthetic Water Splitting in a Unicellular Cyanobacterium . (pnl.gov)