Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Synechococcus: A form-genus of spherical to rod-shaped CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. They contain THYLAKOIDS and are found in a wide range of habitats.Synechocystis: A form-genus of unicellular CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. None of the strains fix NITROGEN, there are no gas vacuoles, and sheath layers are never produced.Microcystis: A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. Many species are planktonic and possess gas vacuoles.Anabaena: A genus of CYANOBACTERIA consisting of trichomes that are untapered with conspicuous constrictions at cross-walls. A firm individual sheath is absent, but a soft covering is often present. Many species are known worldwide as major components of freshwater PLANKTON and also of many saline lakes. The species ANABAENA FLOS-AQUAE is responsible for acute poisonings of various animals.Microcystins: Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.Nostoc: A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales. Trichomes composed of spherical or ovoid vegetative cells along with heterocysts and akinetes. The species form symbiotic associations with a wide range of eukaryotes.Phycobilisomes: Light energy harvesting structures attached to the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of CYANOBACTERIA and RED ALGAE. These multiprotein complexes contain pigments (PHYCOBILIPROTEINS) that transfer light energy to chlorophyll a.Phycocyanin: The metal-free blue phycobilin pigment in a conjugated chromoprotein of blue-green algae. It functions as light-absorbing substance together with chlorophylls.Prochlorococcus: A genus of marine planktonic CYANOBACTERIA in the order PROCHLOROPHYTES. They lack PHYCOBILISOMES and contain divinyl CHLOROPHYLL, a and b.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Marine Toxins: Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins: A broad category of proteins that regulate the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM of an organism. Included here are proteins that transmit intracellular and intercellular signals in a chronological manner along with proteins that sense light and time-dependent changes in the environment such as the PHOTOPERIOD.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Phycoerythrin: The metal-free red phycobilin pigment in a conjugated chromoprotein of red algae. It functions as a light-absorbing substance together with chlorophylls.Cylindrospermopsis: A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales, characterized by thin trichomes, cylindrical akinetes, and terminal heterocysts.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Phycobilins: Open chain tetrapyrroles that function as light harvesting chromophores in PHYCOBILIPROTEINS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Nodularia: A form-genus of filamentous CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales. Its members can be planktonic or benthic and the trichomes are composed of disc-shaped vegetative cells.Photosystem II Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Oscillatoria: A genus of filamentous CYANOBACTERIA in the order Oscillatoriales. It is commonly found in freshwater environments, especially hot springs.Photosystem I Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Cyanothece: A form-genus of unicellular coccoid to rod-shaped CYANOBACTERIA, in the order Chroococcales. Three different clusters of strains from diverse habitats are included.Phycobiliproteins: Light harvesting proteins found in phycobilisomes.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Aphanizomenon: A form-genus of planktonic CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Phototrophic Processes: Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Lichens: Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Thylakoids: Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.Spirulina: A genus of filamentous CYANOBACTERIA found in most lakes and ponds. It has been used as a nutritional supplement particularly due to its high protein content.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Chlorophyta: A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins: Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.Tetrapyrroles: Four PYRROLES joined by one-carbon units linking position 2 of one to position 5 of the next. The conjugated bond system results in PIGMENTATION.Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes: Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.Saxitoxin: A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Anabaena variabilis: A species of ANABAENA that can form SPORES called akinetes.UrobilinHarmful Algal Bloom: An algal bloom where the algae produce powerful toxins that can kill fish, birds, and mammals, and ultimately cause illness in humans. The harmful bloom can also cause oxygen depletion in the water due to the death and decomposition of non-toxic algae species.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Atlantic OceanPeptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Nitrogenase: An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Zamiaceae: A plant family of the order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA.Pacific OceanAmino Acids, DiaminoSequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Autotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.SculptureHeterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Darkness: The absence of light.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Plastocyanin: A copper-containing plant protein that is a fundamental link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Diuron: A pre-emergent herbicide.Myoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Baltic States: The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Bahamas: A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Nostoc commune: A form species of spore-producing CYANOBACTERIA, in the family Nostocaceae, order Nostocales. It is an important source of fixed NITROGEN in nutrient-depleted soils. When wet, it appears as a jelly-like mass.Diatoms: The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.Dinoflagellida: Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.Daphnia: A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.Caves: Geological formations consisting of underground enclosures with access from the surface.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Cycadophyta: A division of GYMNOSPERMS which look like palm trees (ARECACEAE) but are more closely related to PINUS. They have large cones and large pinnate leaves and are sometimes called cycads, a term which may also refer more narrowly to cycadales or CYCAS.Prochloron: A genus of PROCHLOROPHYTES containing unicellular, spherical bacteria without a mucilaginous sheath. They are found almost exclusively as extracellular symbionts of colonial ASCIDIANS on subtropical or tropical marine shores.Nuphar: A plant genus of the family NYMPHAEACEAE. Members contain sesquiterpene thioalkaloids.Biosynthetic Pathways: Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.Palau: A republic consisting of a group of about 100 islands and islets in the western Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Koror. Under Spain it was administered as a part of the Caroline Islands but was sold to Germany in 1899. Seized by Japan in 1914, it was taken by the Allies in World War II in 1944. In 1947 it became part of the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, became internally self-governing in 1980, obtained independent control over its foreign policy (except defense) in 1986, and achieved total independence October 1, 1994. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p915; telephone communication with Randy Flynn, Board on Geographic Names, 17 January 1995)Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Tropanes: N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.WyomingOxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Beggiatoa: A genus of colorless, filamentous bacteria in the family THIOTRICHACEAE whose cells contain inclusions of sulfur granules. When found in decaying seaweed beds and polluted water, its presence signals environmental degradation.Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.AcetyleneSolar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Intramolecular Lyases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Extreme Cold: Below normal weather temperatures that may lead to serious health problems. Extreme cold is a dangerous situation that can bring on health emergencies in susceptible people.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Chlorobi: A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Algal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of algae.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Cytochromes c6: Cytochromes of the c type that are involved in the transfer of electrons from CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX and PHOTOSYSTEM I.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Biliverdine: 1,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-4,5-dicarboxyethyl-2,8-divinylbilenone. Biosynthesized from hemoglobin as a precursor of bilirubin. Occurs in the bile of AMPHIBIANS and of birds, but not in normal human bile or serum.Cytochromes f: Cytochromes f are found as components of the CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX. They play important role in the transfer of electrons from PHOTOSYSTEM I to PHOTOSYSTEM II.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.BornanesHydrogenase: An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.Plastoquinone: Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Porifera: The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.Shellfish Poisoning: Poisoning from toxins present in bivalve mollusks that have been ingested. Four distinct types of shellfish poisoning are recognized based on the toxin involved.Hot Springs: Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.Cladocera: A suborder of CRUSTACEA, order Diplostraca, comprising the water fleas. They are benthic filter feeders that consume PHYTOPLANKTON. The body is laterally compressed and enclosed in a bivalved carapace, from which the head extends.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Bile Pigments: Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Spinacia oleracea: A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)

A novel plasmid recombination mechanism of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7002. (1/3405)

We describe a novel mechanism of site-specific recombination in the unicellular marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7002. The specific recombination sites on the smallest plasmid pAQ1 were localized by studying the properties of pAQ1-derived shuttle-vectors. We found that a palindromic element, the core sequence of which is G(G/A)CGATCGCC, functions as a resolution site for site-specific plasmid recombination. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis analysis of the element show that the site-specific recombination in the cyanobacterium requires sequence specificity, symmetry in the core sequence and, in part, the spacing between the elements. Interestingly, this element is over-represented not only in pAQ1 and in the genome of the cyanobacterium, but also in the accumulated cyanobacterial sequences from Synechococcus sp. PCC6301, PCC7942, vulcanus and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 within GenBank and EMBL databases. Thus, these findings strongly suggest that the site-specific recombination mechanism based on the palindromic element should be common in these cyanobacteria.  (+info)

Unusual ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase of anoxic Archaea. (2/3405)

The predominant pool of organic matter on earth is derived from the biological reduction and assimilation of carbon dioxide gas, catalyzed primarily by the enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). By virtue of its capacity to use molecular oxygen as an alternative and competing gaseous substrate, the catalytic efficiency of RubisCO and the enzyme's ability to assimilate CO2 may be severely limited, with consequent environmental and agricultural effects. Recent genomic sequencing projects, however, have identified putative RubisCO genes from anoxic Archaea. In the present study, these potential RubisCO sequences, from Methanococcus jannaschii and Archaeoglobus fulgidus, were analyzed in order to ascertain whether such sequences might encode functional proteins. We also report the isolation and properties of recombinant RubisCO using sequences obtained from the obligately anaerobic hyperthermophilic methanogen M. jannaschii. This is the first description of an archaeal RubisCO sequence; this study also represents the initial characterization of a RubisCO molecule that has evolved in the absence of molecular oxygen. The enzyme was shown to be a homodimer whose deduced sequence, along with other recently obtained archaeal RubisCO sequences, differs substantially from those of known RubisCO molecules. The recombinant M. jannaschii enzyme has a somewhat low, but reasonable kcat, however, unlike previously isolated RubisCO molecules, this enzyme is very oxygen sensitive yet it is stable to hyperthermal temperatures and catalyzes the formation of the expected carboxylation product. Despite inhibition by oxygen, this unusual RubisCO still catalyzes a weak yet demonstrable oxygenase activity, with perhaps the lowest capacity for CO2/O2 discrimination ever encountered for any RubisCO.  (+info)

In situ identification of cyanobacteria with horseradish peroxidase-labeled, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. (3/3405)

Individual cyanobacterial cells are normally identified in environmental samples only on the basis of their pigmentation and morphology. However, these criteria are often insufficient for the differentiation of species. Here, a whole-cell hybridization technique is presented that uses horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotides for in situ identification of cyanobacteria. This indirect method, in which the probe-conferred enzyme has to be visualized in an additional step, was necessary since fluorescently monolabeled oligonucleotides were insufficient to overstain the autofluorescence of the target cells. Initially, a nonfluorescent detection assay was developed and successfully applied to cyanobacterial mats. Later, it was demonstrated that tyramide signal amplification (TSA) resulted in fluorescent signals far above the level of autofluorescence. Furthermore, TSA-based detection of HRP was more sensitive than that based on nonfluorescent substrates. Critical points of the assay, such as cell fixation and permeabilization, specificity, and sensitivity, were systematically investigated by using four oligonucleotides newly designed to target groups of cyanobacteria.  (+info)

Synechocystis sp. slr0787 protein is a novel bifunctional enzyme endowed with both nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase and 'Nudix' hydrolase activities. (4/3405)

Synechocystis sp. slr0787 open reading frame encodes a 339 residue polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 38.5 kDa. Its deduced amino acid sequence shows extensive homology with known separate sequences of proteins from the thermophilic archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii. The N-terminal domain is highly homologous to the archaeal NMN adenylyltransferase, which catalyzes NAD synthesis from NMN and ATP. The C-terminal domain shares homology with the archaeal ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase, a member of the 'Nudix' hydrolase family. The slr0787 gene has been cloned into a T7-based vector for expression in Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant protein has been purified to homogeneity and demonstrated to possess both NMN adenylyltransferase and ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase activities. Both activities have been characterized and compared to their archaeal counterparts.  (+info)

Balanced regulation of expression of the gene for cytochrome cM and that of genes for plastocyanin and cytochrome c6 in Synechocystis. (5/3405)

The cytM gene for cytochrome cM was previously found in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Northern blotting analysis revealed that the cytM gene was scarcely expressed under normal growth conditions but its expression was enhanced when cells were exposed to low temperature or high-intensity light. By contrast, the expression of the genes for cytochrome c6 and plastocyanin was suppressed at low temperature or under high-intensity light. These observations suggest that plastocyanin and/or cytochrome c6, which are dominant under non-stressed conditions, are replaced by cytochrome cM under the stress conditions.  (+info)

Physical interactions among circadian clock proteins KaiA, KaiB and KaiC in cyanobacteria. (6/3405)

The kai gene cluster, which is composed of three genes, kaiA, kaiB and kaiC, is essential for the generation of circadian rhythms in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. Here we demonstrate the direct association of KaiA, KaiB and KaiC in yeast cells using the two-hybrid system, in vitro and in cyanobacterial cells. KaiC enhanced KaiA-KaiB interaction in vitro and in yeast cells, suggesting that the three Kai proteins were able to form a heteromultimeric complex. We also found that a long period mutation kaiA1 dramatically enhanced KaiA-KaiB interaction in vitro. Thus, direct protein-protein association among the Kai proteins may be a critical process in the generation of circadian rhythms in cyanobacteria.  (+info)

Photosystem I, an improved model of the stromal subunits PsaC, PsaD, and PsaE. (7/3405)

An improved electron density map of photosystem I (PSI) calculated at 4-A resolution yields a more detailed structural model of the stromal subunits PsaC, PsaD, and PsaE than previously reported. The NMR structure of the subunit PsaE of PSI from Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 (Falzone, C. J., Kao, Y.-H., Zhao, J., Bryant, D. A., and Lecomte, J. T. J. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 6052-6062) has been used as a model to interpret the region of the electron density map corresponding to this subunit. The spatial orientation with respect to other subunits is described as well as the possible interactions between the stromal subunits. A first model of PsaD consisting of a four-stranded beta-sheet and an alpha-helix is suggested, indicating that this subunit partly shields PsaC from the stromal side. In addition to the improvements on the stromal subunits, the structural model of the membrane-integral region of PSI is also extended. The current electron density map allows the identification of the N and C termini of the subunits PsaA and PsaB. The 11-transmembrane alpha-helices of these subunits can now be assigned uniquely to the hydrophobic segments identified by hydrophobicity analyses.  (+info)

Localization of two phylloquinones, QK and QK', in an improved electron density map of photosystem I at 4-A resolution. (8/3405)

An improved electron density map of photosystem I from Synechococcus elongatus calculated at 4-A resolution for the first time reveals a second phylloquinone molecule and thereby completes the set of cofactors constituting the electron transfer system of this iron-sulfur type photosynthetic reaction center: six chlorophyll a, two phylloquinones, and three Fe4S4 clusters. The location of the newly identified phylloquinone pair, the individual plane orientations of these molecules, and the resulting distances to other cofactors of the electron transfer system are discussed and compared with those determined by magnetic resonance techniques.  (+info)

*Photosynthesis

Cyanobacteria remain critical to marine ecosystems as primary producers of oxygen in oceanic gyres, as agents of biological ... Cyanobacteria appeared later; the excess oxygen they produced contributed directly to the oxygenation of the Earth, which ... Cyanobacteria remained the principal primary producers of oxygen throughout the Proterozoic Eon (2500-543 Ma), in part because ... "Cyanobacteria: Fossil Record". Ucmp.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2010-08-26. Smith A (2010). Plant biology. New York, NY: Garland ...

*Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii

The appearance of cyanobacteria in water storage bodies is becoming of increasing importance and is a major factor in the ... Phylum - Cyanobacteria This phylum is characterized by their ability to obtain energy through photosynthesis. They are often ... Hawkins, Peter; M T Runnegar; A R Jackson; I R Falconer (1985). "Severe Hepatotoxicity Caused by the Tropical Cyanobacterium ( ... Order - Nostocales This order includes cyanobacteria of filamentous forms, either simple or branched, both of which occur as ...

*Eutrophication

Matthews, Mark; Bernard, Stewart (2015). "Eutrophication and cyanobacteria in South Africa's standing water bodies: A view from ... Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water: A guide to their public health consequences, monitoring and management. World Health Organization ...

*Cyanobacteria

What are Cyanobacteria and What are its Types? Webserver for Cyanobacteria Research CyanoBase Growth Model for the Blue-Green ... Cyanobacteria have been found to play an important role in terrestrial habitats. It has been widely reported cyanobacteria soil ... blue'). Cyanobacteria (which are prokaryotes) used to be called "blue-green algae". They have been renamed 'cyanobacteria' in ... Cyanobacteria use electrons from succinate dehydrogenase rather than from NADPH for respiration. Many cyanobacteria are able to ...

*Cyanobacterium (cyanobacteria)

Cyanobacterium is a genus of cyanobacteria. Komárek J, Kaštovský J, Mareš J, Johansen JR (2014). "Taxonomic classification of ...

*Homoeothrix (cyanobacteria)

Homoeothrix is a genus of cyanobacteria. http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=43615&-session=abv4: ...

*Loefgrenia (cyanobacteria)

Loefgrenia is a monospecific, freshwater, epiphytic genus of nonheterocystic cyanobacteria known from Brazil. The type and only ...

*Evolution of molecular chaperones

... cyanobacteria; and chloroplasts. Any two hsp60 amino acid sequences share at least 40% similarity, with 18-20% of differences ... most closely related to the α-purple subdivision of Gram negative bacteria and chloroplasts were most similar to cyanobacteria ...

*Nostoc verrucosum

Cyanobacteria). Nikon Microscopy. Scherer, S. et al. A new UV-A/B protecting pigment in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc ... Nostoc verrucosum is a species of cyanobacteria usually found in colonies and in globose racks. It has a greenish to blackish ... UV-B-induced synthesis of photoprotective pigments and extracellular polysaccharides in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc ...

*Ampullariidae

Cyanobacteria)". Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. 36 (1): 87-95. doi:10.1111/j.1749-7345.2005.tb00134.x. [permanent ...

*Bacterial antenna complex

See cyanobacteria. Antenna complex, alpha subunit InterPro: IPR002361 Antenna complex, beta subunit InterPro: IPR002362 Koepke ... Green and purple photosynthetic bacteria utilize different bacteriochlorophyll molecules while cyanobacteria contain ... "Nomenclature for membrane-bound light-harvesting complexes of cyanobacteria". Photosynthesis Research. 95 (2-3): 147-154. doi: ... are either non-covalently associated with integral proteins in the case of purple photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria, or ...

*Synechococcus

α-cyanobacteria were defined to contain a form IA, while β-cyanobacteria were defined to contain a form IB of this gene. In ... The biology of cyanobacteria. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. pp. 413-439. ISBN 0-520-04717-6. J. B. ... 2002) proposed the division of the cyanobacteria into a α- and a β-subcluster based on the type of rbcL (large subunit of ... "Marine cyanobacteria. no. NS 19. Bulletin de l'Institut Oceanographique Monaco, Vol NS 19". Musee oceanographique, Monaco: 457- ...

*Microcystis aeruginosa

Algal blooms of cyanobacteria thrive in the large phosphorus content of agricultural runoff. Besides consuming phosphorus, M. ... "Cyanobacteria: Microcystis". The Silica Secchi Disk. Connecticut College: The SilicaSecchi Disk. Archived from the original on ... Cyanobacteria produce neurotoxins and peptide hepatotoxins, such as microcystin and cyanopeptolin. As the etymological ... Microcystis aeruginosa is a species of freshwater cyanobacteria which can form harmful algal blooms of economic and ecological ...

*Gloeotrichia

Being a Cyanobacteria Gloeoitrichia is reported to produce some toxins. Microcystin LR was found in Gloeotrichia echinulata ... Freshwater Cyanobacteria. In North America Gloeoitrichia appears unexpectedly in many remote oligotrophic lakes during late ... Gloeoitrichia is a genus of Cyanobacteria, belongs to the order Nostocales and the family Nostocaceae. The total number of ...

*Timeline of natural history

First cyanobacteria. Formation of Dharwar Craton in southern India. c.2,400 Ma - Suavjarvi impact structure forms. This is the ... Photosynthesizing cyanobacteria evolve; they use water as a reducing agent, thereby producing oxygen as a waste product. The ... Fossils resembling cyanobacteria, found at Warrawoona, Western Australia.[citation needed] c.3,480 Ma - Fossils of microbial ... c.2,700 Ma - Biomarkers of cyanobacteria discovered, together with steranes (sterols of cholesterol), associated with films of ...

*Aphanizomenon

"Cyanobacteria/Cyanotoxins". US EPA. 2015. "Aphanizomenon blooms: alternate control and cultivation by Daphnia pulex" (PDF). ... Aphanizomenon is an important genus of cyanobacteria that inhabits freshwater lakes and can cause dense blooms. Studies on the ... "Carbon and nitrogen fluxes associated with the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon sp. in the Baltic Sea". The ISME Journal. 4: 1215- ...

*Lichens and nitrogen cycling

N2 fixing lichen is partnered with cyanobacteria which can fix N2 from the air while green alga, partner of non N2 fixing ... While it does not occur often, formation of akinetes (type of cell formed by cyanobacteria which are resistant to cold and ... Henskens, F. L.; Green, T. G. A.; Wilkins, A. (2012-08-01). "Cyanolichens can have both cyanobacteria and green algae in a ... Depending on its partner, lichens derive the carbon and nitrogen from algal and cyanobacteria photobionts (which fixes N2 from ...

*Isobutanol

Cyanobacteria, are a phylum of photosynthetic bacteria. Cyanobacteria are suited for isobutanol biosynthesis when genetically ... Because CO2 is absorbed from the atmosphere by Cyanobacteria, the possibility of bioremediation (in the form of Cyanobacteria ... Isobutanol producing species of cyanobacteria offer several advantages as biofuel synthesizers: Cyanobacteria grow faster than ... The primary drawbacks of Cyanobacteria are: Cyanobacteria are sensitive to environmental conditions when being grown. ...

*Evolution of photosynthesis

"Cyanobacteria: Fossil Record". Ucmp.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2010-08-26. Herrero A, Flores E (2008). The Cyanobacteria: ... Cyanobacteria remain critical to marine ecosystems as primary producers in oceanic gyres, as agents of biological nitrogen ... Cyanobacteria remained principal primary producers throughout the Proterozoic Eon (2500-543 Ma), in part because the redox ... Raven JA, Allen JF (2003). "Genomics and chloroplast evolution: what did cyanobacteria do for plants?". Genome Biol. 4 (3): 209 ...

*Lichen

The fungi benefit from the carbohydrates produced by the algae or cyanobacteria via photosynthesis. The algae or cyanobacteria ... which can be grown in culture in isolation from the algae or cyanobacteria. Some algae and cyanobacteria are found naturally ... The most commonly occurring cyanobacterium genus is Nostoc. Other common cyanobacterium photobionts are from Scytonema. Many ... If a cyanobacterium is present, as a primary partner or another symbiont in addition to a green alga as in certain tripartite ...

*Kalkitoxin

link) Sarma, T.A. (2012). Handbook of Cyanobacteria. CRC Press. p. 539. ISBN 9781578088003. de Bono; et al. (2003). "The future ... Wu, M. (1997). Novel bioactive secondary metabolites from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscule, Thesis (M.S.). Oregon ... Kalkitoxin, a lipopeptide derived from the cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula, induces NMDA receptor mediated neuronal necrosis, ... 2000). "Structure, Synthesis, and Biological Properties of Kalkitoxin, a Novel Neurotoxin from the Marine Cyanobacterium ...

*Library of Congress Classification:Class Q -- Science

Cyanobacteria 100-130...........Microbial ecology 171...............Microorganisms in the animal body 180-198.5......... ...

*Sammy Boussiba

Boussiba's laboratory in the Anabaena PCC 7120 cyanobacteria. This pioneering work yielded a transgenic cyanobacteria stably ... Moreover, cyanobacteria are able to float in the upper layer of the water, and are stable under varying environmental ... Due to their large species diversity and high abundancy in natural ponds and rice fields, cyanobacteria have high potential to ... At Cornell he studied the uptake and metabolism of ammonia in cyanobacteria. In 1984, upon completing his postdoctoral studies ...

*Synechocystis

Cyanobacteria have been used in several ways to produce renewable biofuel. The original method was to grow cyanobacteria for ... As cyanobacteria in general have slow doubling times, it is more efficient to perform as much DNA cloning as possible in a fast ... The ability of cyanobacteria to produce oxygen initiated the transition from a planet consisting of high levels of carbon ... All cyanobacteria are lacking the type II system, which has been widely adapted for genetic engineering purposes across many ...

*Taff's Well Thermal Spring

British Thermophillic cyanobacteria. Arch Hydrobiology Vol 132 Issue 4 Pages 407-414. "Thermal Springs Group" BBC News Rhondda ... A survey of thermophillic cyanobacteria identified abundant growths of Phormidium ambiguum GOM which formed conophyton like ...
We investigated the possibility of eliciting a measurable photoinduced electrical current from the cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum PR-6 ( SynechococcusPCC 7002). This proved virtually...
To reveal macromolecular crowding effects on a chemical reaction of a BLUF (sensors of blue light using FAD) protein (PixD from a thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 [TePixD, Tll0078]), the photoreaction was studied at various concentrations of the macromolecule Ficoll-70 by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy and the pulsed laser-induced transient grating (TG) method. The absorption spectrum did not change with varying concentration of Ficoll-70. The crowding did not affect the quantum yield of the spectral red shift reaction, recovery rate of the product, rate constant of the volume change reaction and the magnitude of the volume change. However, the magnitude of the TG signal representing the diffusion-sensitive conformation change significantly increased on addition of Ficoll-70. This dependence was attributed to the crowding effect on the TePixD decamer-pentamer equilibrium in the solution. This result indicates that the TePixD reaction is more efficient in cellular ...
Gloeobacter violaceus sp. PCC 7421 is an unusual cyanobacterium with only one cellular membrane, which lacks the thylakoid membranes found in other oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. The cell membrane lipids in G. violaceus sp. PCC 7421 are monogalactosyl diacylglycerol, digalactosyl diacylglycerol, phosphatidyl glycerol and phosphatidic acid in the molar proportion of 51, 24, 18 and 4% respectively. This lipid composition resembles that of the cell membrane from other cyanobacteria, but completely lacks sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. This lack of sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol is exceptional for a photosynthetic membrane. The membrane lipids are esterified to 14:0, 16:0, 16:1, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2 and alpha 18:3 fatty acids.. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
1MY6: The 1.6 A resolution structure of Fe-superoxide dismutase from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus.
Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 is known to be tolerant to most of the environmental factors in natural habitats of Cyanobacteria. Gene expression can be easily studied in this cyanobacterium, as its complete genome sequence is available. These properties make Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 an appropriate model organism for biotechnological applications. To study the gene expression in Cyanobacteria, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be used, but as this is a highly sensitive method, data standardization is indicated between samples. The most commonly used strategy is normalization against internal reference genes. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 has not yet been evaluated for the best reference genes. In this work, six candidate genes were analyzed for this purpose. Cyanobacterial cultures were exposed to several stress conditions, and three different algorithms were used for ranking the reference genes: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Moreover, gene expression stability value M and single-control ...
Approximately half of natural global biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation takes places in the oceans. Estimates suggest that cyanobacteria including the filamentous genus Trichodesmium and unicellular groups like Crocosphaera collectively contribute the majority of oceanic N₂ fixation. Rapidly changing environmental factors such as the rising atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO₂), shallower mixed layers (higher light intensities) and changes in nutrient fluxes to the euphotic zone (from both deep water and atmospheric inputs) will likely affect N₂-fixation rates in the future ocean. Several studies using laboratory cultures of Trichodesmium erythraeum and Crocosphaera watsonii have documented increased N₂-fixation rates when pCO₂ was doubled from present-day atmospheric concentrations (~380 ppm) to 100-year projected future levels (~750 ppm). Because marine N and C biogeochemistry are tightly linked, this potential impact on the N cycle will likely have important ...
1I7Y: Structure of c-phycocyanin from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus vulcanus at 2.5 A: structural implications for thermal stability in phycobilisome assembly.
Cyanobacteria are an ancient group of photosynthetic prokaryotes, which are significant in biogeochemical cycles. The most primitive among living cyanobacteria, Gloeobacter violaceus, shows a unique ancestral cell organization with a complete absence of inner membranes (thylakoids) and an uncommon structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. Numerous phylogenetic papers proved its basal position among all of the organisms and organelles capable of plant-like photosynthesis (i.e., cyanobacteria, chloroplasts of algae and plants). Hence, G. violaceus has become one of the key species in evolutionary study of photosynthetic life. It also numbers among the most widely used organisms in experimental photosynthesis research. Except for a few related culture isolates, there has been little data on the actual biology of Gloeobacter, being relegated to an evolutionary curiosity with an enigmatic identity. Here we show that members of the genus Gloeobacter probably are common rock-dwelling cyanobacteria. On the
The study of the primary metabolism of cyanobacteria in response to light conditions is important for environmental biology because cyanobacteria are widely distributed among various ecological niches. Cyanobacteria uniquely possess circadian rhythms, with central oscillators consisting from three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. The two-component histidine kinase SasA/Hik8 and response regulator RpaA transduce the circadian signal from KaiABC to control gene expression. Here, we generated a strain overexpressing rpaA in a unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The rpaA-overexpressing strain showed pleiotropic phenotypes, including slower growth, aberrant degradation of an RNA polymerase sigma factor SigE after the light-to-dark transition, and higher accumulation of sugar catabolic enzyme transcripts under dark conditions. Metabolome analysis revealed delayed glycogen degradation, decreased sugar phosphates and organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and increased amino acids
Using a recently introduced electrophoresis system [Kashino et al. (2001) Electrophoresis 22: 1004], components of low-molecular-mass polypeptides were analyzed in detail in photosystem II (PSII) complexes isolated from a thermophilic cyanobacterium, Thermosynechococcus vulcanus (formerly, Synechococcus vulcanus). PsbE, the large subunit polypeptide of cytochrome b559, showed an apparent molecular mass much lower than the expected one. The unusually large mobility could be attributed to the large intrinsic net electronic charge. All other Coomassie-stained polypeptides were identified by N-terminal sequencing. In addition to the well-known cyanobacterial PSII polypeptides, such as PsbE, F, H, I, L, M, U, V and X, the presence of PsbY, PsbZ and Psb27 was also confirmed in the isolated PSII complexes. Furthermore, the whole amino acid sequence was determined for the polypeptide which was known as PsbN. The whole amino acid sequence revealed that this polypeptide was identical to PsbTc which has ...
Marine cyanobacteria have been considered a rich source of secondary metabolites with potential biotechnological applications, namely in the pharmacological field. Chemically diverse compounds were found to induce cytoxicity, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. The potential of marine cyanobacteria as anticancer agents has however been the most explored and, besides cytotoxicity in tumor cell lines, several compounds have emerged as templates for the development of new anticancer drugs. The mechanisms implicated in the cytotoxicity of marine cyanobacteria compounds in tumor cell lines are still largely overlooked but several studies point to an implication in apoptosis. This association has been related to several apoptotic indicators such as cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative damage, alterations in caspase cascade, alterations in specific proteins levels and alterations in the membrane sodium dynamics. In the present paper a compilation of the described marine
Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, blue-green bacteria or cyanophyta, is a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. They are a significant component of the marine nitrogen cycle and an important primary producer in many areas of the ocean, but are also found in habitats other than the marine environment; in particular, cyanobacteria are known to occur in both freshwater and hypersaline inland lakes. They are found in almost every conceivable environment, from oceans to fresh water to bare rock to soil. Cyanobacteria are the only group of organisms that are able to reduce nitrogen and carbon in aerobic conditions, a fact that may be responsible for their evolutionary and ecological success. Certain cyanobacteria also produce cyanotoxins. This new book presents a broad variety of international research on this important organism ...
Cyanobacteria are a taxon of bacteria which conduct photosynthesis. They are not algae, though they were once called blue-green algae. It is a phylum of bacteria, with about 1500 species. In endosymbiont theory, chloroplasts (plastids) are descended from cyanobacteria. Their DNA profile is evidence for this.[3][4][5]. Cyanobacteria have an extremely long fossil record, starting at least 3,500 million years ago. They were the main organisms in the stromatolites of the Archaean and Proterozoic eons.[6]. The ability of cyanobacteria to perform oxygenic photosynthesis is highly significant. The early atmosphere on Earth was largely reducing, that is, without oxygen. The cyanobacteria in stromatolites were the first known organisms to photosynthesise and produce free oxygen. After about a billion years, the effect of this photosynthesis began a huge change in the atmosphere. The process, called the Great Oxygenation Event, took a long time. Eventually, it killed off most of the organisms which could ...
Plectonema boryanum bacteriophage LPP-2 ATCC ® 18200-B2™ Designation: LPP-2, strain SPI TypeStrain=False Application: Characterization
The SSU (16S) rRNA gene was used to investigate the phylogeny of the cyanobacterial genus Lyngbya as well as examined for its capacity to discriminate between different marine species of Lyngbya. We show that Lyngbya forms a polyphyletic genus composed of a marine lineage and a halophilic/brackish/freshwater lineage. In addition, we found morphological and genetic evidence that Lyngbya spp. often grow in association with other microorganisms, in particular smaller filamentous cyanobacteria such as Oscillatoria, and propose that these associated microorganisms have led to extensive phylogenetic confusion in identification of Lyngbya spp. At the species level, the phylogenetic diversity obtained from the comparison of 16S rRNA genes exceeded morphological diversity in Lyngbya. However, the expectation that this improved phylogeny would be useful to species and subspecies identification was eliminated by the fact that phylogenetic species did not correlate in any respect with the species obtained ...
Mass populations of toxic cyanobacteria in recreational waters can present a serious risk to human health. Intelligence on the abundance and distribution of cyanobacteria is therefore needed to aid risk assessment and management activities. In this paper, we use data from the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager-2 (CASI-2) to monitor seasonal change in the concentration of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and the cyanobacterial biomarker pigment C-phycocyanin (C-PC) in a series of shallow lakes in the UK. The World Health Organization guidance levels for cyanobacteria in recreational waters were subsequently used to build a decision tree classification model for cyanobacterial risk assessment which was driven using Chl a and C-PC products derived from the CASI-2 data. The results demonstrate that remote sensing can be used to acquire intelligence on the distribution and abundance of cyanobacteria in inland waterbodies. It is argued the use of remote sensing reconnaissance, in conjunction with in situ ...
Understanding the evolution of the free-living, cyanobacterial, diazotroph Trichodesmium is of great importance due to its critical role in oceanic biogeochemistry and primary production. Unlike the other ,150 available genomes of free-living cyanobacteria, only 63.8% of the Trichodesmium erythraeum (strain IMS101) genome is predicted to encode protein, which is 20-25% less than the average for other cyanobacteria and non-pathogenic, free-living bacteria. We use distinctive isolates and metagenomic data to show that low coding density observed in IMS101 is a common feature of the Trichodesmium genus both in culture and in situ. Transcriptome analysis indicates that 86% of the non-coding space is expressed, although the function of these transcripts is unclear. The density of noncoding, possible regulatory elements predicted in Trichodesmium, when normalized per intergenic kilobase, was comparable and two fold higher than that found in the gene dense genomes of the sympatric cyanobacterial genera ...
In photosynthetic organisms, carbon fixation must be coordinated with the light harvesting reactions to prevent unnecessary energy expenditure in the absence of light. The enzyme phosphoribulokinase (PRK) produces the substrate for the carbon fixation step and switches off reversibly by disulfide bond formation. How this works in β-cyanobacteria is reported in a recent article in Acta Cryst. F by Wilson et al. (2019) and the Proteopedia molecular tour accompanying the article.. The paper describes the dimeric structure of PRK from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC6301. This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a second phosphate group onto ribulose 5-phosphate, thus creating the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) substrate for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). The need for RuBP is found in virtually all autotrophic organisms, and there are corresponding PRKs in all kingdoms. Phylogenetic analyses of PRKs show two broad classes of enzymes, prokaryotic homo-octameric systems ...
Cyanobacteria are the only prokaryotes with the ability to conduct oxygenic photosynthesis, therefore having major influence on the evolution of life on earth. Their diverse morphology was traditionally the basis for taxonomy and classification. For example, the genus Chroococcidiopsis has been classified within the order Pleurocapsales, based on a unique reproduction modus by baeocytes. Recent phylogenetic results suggested a closer relationship of this genus to the order Nostocales. However, these studies were based mostly on the highly conserved 16S rRNA and a small selection of Chroococcidiopsis strains. One aim of this present thesis was to investigate the evolutionary relationships of the genus Chroococcidiopsis, the Pleurocapsales and remaining cyanobacteria using 16S rRNA, rpoC1 and gyrB gene. Including the single gene, as the multigene analyses of 97 strains clearly showed a separation of the genus Chroococcidiopsis from the Pleurocapsales. Furthermore, a sister relationship between the ...
ABSTRACT: Cyanobacteria are often the most conspicuous structural part of microbial mats. They are also the only oxygenic phototrophs capable of N2 fixation (diazotrophy). This represents an important advantage for persistence in the often N-depleted marine intertidal microbial mats. In this study the daily pattern of expression of the structural gene for dinitrogenase reductase, nifH and the 16S rRNA gene of 3 benthic filamentous diazotrophic Cyanobacteria (Lyngbya sp., Nodularia sp. and Anabaena sp.) was measured by using quantitative RT-PCR. Gene expression patterns were compared and related to the daily pattern of nitrogenase activity. Microscopic observations revealed that the non-heterocystous Lyngbya sp. was the major cyanobacterial morphotype in all the microbial mats studied. When normalized to copy number, nifH as well as 16S rRNA gene expression by Lyngbya sp. was higher than by the heterocystous Cyanobacteria in all but one mat type. Related to the total amount of extracted RNA, ...
Risks for Blue-green algae toxicity, Blue-green algae toxicity treatments, recommended products for Blue-green algae toxicity, ways to prevent Blue-green algae toxicity, causes of Blue-green algae toxicity
Cyanobacteria are N2-fixing oxygenic phototrophs with potential as sources of nitrogenous biofertilizer independent of fossil fuels. Recently, attention has been paid to their role in this respect, and to strain selection to facilitate enhanced agricultural productivity. The capacities to fix N2 in the presence of combined nitrogen, to resist herbicides and to tolerate salinity changes and desiccation are of particular importance. Mutant strains of N2-fixing cyanobacteria with potential applications have been produced, including strains which photoproduce ammonia and amino acids, strains with altered transport systems and strains which are herbicide-resistant. By using bioreactors and immobilization systems in conjunction with these strains, techniques have been developed for extracellular product-liberation. Gene transfer systems are now available in both unicellular and filamentous cyanobacteria and these offer the possibility of strain selection and modification. The way in which these ...
Randy looked up the word and found: Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms that contain chlorophyll. Formerly considered blue-green algae, but actually closely related to bacteria, cyanobacteria are of special importance in the balance of nature. Cyanobacteria were the earliest oxygen-producing organisms on Earth (remnants of cyanobacteria have been found in fossils dating back 2.5 billion years) and were responsible for converting Earths non-oxygen atmosphere to oxygen. Cyanobacteria are found in water and soil and can tolerate great ranges in salinity and temperature. Some species of cyanobacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen to compounds of nitrogen used by plants. Other species of cyanobacteria (such as the one shown here) are grown commercially as a protein-rich human food supplement ...
Randy looked up the word and found: Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms that contain chlorophyll. Formerly considered blue-green algae, but actually closely related to bacteria, cyanobacteria are of special importance in the balance of nature. Cyanobacteria were the earliest oxygen-producing organisms on Earth (remnants of cyanobacteria have been found in fossils dating back 2.5 billion years) and were responsible for converting Earths non-oxygen atmosphere to oxygen. Cyanobacteria are found in water and soil and can tolerate great ranges in salinity and temperature. Some species of cyanobacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen to compounds of nitrogen used by plants. Other species of cyanobacteria (such as the one shown here) are grown commercially as a protein-rich human food supplement ...
ID Q31KY7_SYNE7 Unreviewed; 1017 AA. AC Q31KY7; DT 06-DEC-2005, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 06-DEC-2005, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 86. DE RecName: Full=Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00595, ECO:0000256,SAAS:SAAS00946768}; DE Short=PEPC {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00595}; DE Short=PEPCase {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00595}; DE EC=4.1.1.31 {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00595, ECO:0000256,SAAS:SAAS00946768}; GN Name=ppc {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00595}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Synpcc7942_2252 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABB58282.1}; OS Synechococcus elongatus (strain PCC 7942) (Anacystis nidulans R2). OC Bacteria; Cyanobacteria; Synechococcales; Synechococcaceae; OC Synechococcus. OX NCBI_TaxID=1140 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABB58282.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002717}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002717} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=PCC 7942 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002717}; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute; RA Copeland ...
Article The impact of cyanobacteria on growth and death of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. Climate change may cause increased microbial growth in water sources and more knowledge is required on how this may affect the hygienic water quality, i.e.,...
Algae Detail UTEX Number: SP37Class: CyanophyceaeStrain: Phormidium janthiphorumMedia: Soil Extract MediumOrigin: Great Salt Plains, Oklahoma, USADescription of
Cyanobacteria are among the easiest microfossils to recognize. They are larger than other bacteria, and morphologies in the group have remained much the same for billions of years. Like other bacteria, cyanobacteria have no nucleus or internal membrane systems. In many species, however, the external membrane has been folded to increase total surface area. The "packets" created in the cell membrane by these foldings are the surfaces across which the chemical reactions of photosynthesis take place. All cyanobacteria are unicellular, though many grow in colonies or filaments, often surrounded by a gelatinous or mucilaginous sheath ...
Hamilton, ON - July 12, 2017 - Public Health Services has confirmed the presence of toxin-producing blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) at the Bayfront Park Boat Launch, Bayfront Park Beach, and at Pier 4 Park Beach. Observations by Public Health Services staff indicate that blue-green algae are also present along most of the western shoreline. The algae is present from the inner Pier 8 area, through the marinas, and to the closed waterfront trail.
Part of the Sec protein translocase complex. Interacts with the SecYEG preprotein conducting channel. SecDF uses the proton motive force (PMF) to complete protein translocation after the ATP-dependent function of SecA.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Cyanotoxin Cyanotoxins are toxins produced by bacteria called cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae). Cyanobacteria are found almost everywhere, but particularly in lakes and in the ocean where, under certain conditions, they reproduce exponentially to form blooms. Blooming cyanobacteria can produce cyanotoxins in such concentrations that they poison and even kill animals and humans. Cyanotoxins can also accumulate in other animals such as fish and shellfish, and cause poisonings such as shell
In this study, we investigated forty cyanobacterial isolates from biofilms, gastropods, brackish water and symbiotic lichen habitats. Their aqueous and organic extracts were used to screen for apoptosis-inducing activity against acute myeloid leukemia cells. A total of 28 extracts showed cytotoxicity against rat acute myeloid leukemia (IPC-81) cells. The design of the screen made it possible to eliminate known toxins, such as microcystins and nodularin, or known metabolites with anti-leukemic activity, such as adenosine and its analogs. A cytotoxicity test on human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) fibroblasts indicated that 21 of the 28 extracts containing anti-acute myeloid leukemia (AML) activity showed selectivity in favor of leukemia cells. Extracts L26-O and L30-O were able to partly overcome the chemotherapy resistance induced by the oncogenic protein Bcl-2, whereas extract L1-O overcame protection from the deletion of the tumor suppressor protein p53. In conclusion, cyanobacteria are a prolific
Filamentous cyanobacteria, bathed in seawater and often growing in nutrient-rich environments, are surrounded by diverse communities of heterotrophic bacteria. The heterotrophic bacteria closely associated with cyanobacteria likely consume released nutrients, but may also produce vitamins and other factors useful to cyanobacterial growth, as well as assisting in cycling of CO2 and phosphate, or lowering O2 levels for oxygen-sensitive processes such as nitrogen fixation [1, 2]. Various studies have classified some of the taxa of heterotrophic bacteria that live in close proximity to cyanobacterial blooms, including common aquatic phyla such as Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Planctomycetes [3, 4]. Some potentially new species or genera were also located within these samples, which could suggest that some bacteria may have specific relationships with cyanobacteria [3]. However, many of these latter bacteria are also found living independently of cyanobacteria [4], and the makeup ...
Résumé : Cyanobacteria are fascinating photosynthetic prokaryotes that are regarded as the ancestors of the plant chloroplast; the purveyors of oxygen and biomass for the food chain; and promising cell factories for an environmentally friendly production of chemicals. In colonizing most waters and soils of our planet, cyanobacteria are inevitably challenged by environmental stresses that generate DNA damages. Furthermore, many strains engineered for biotechnological purposes can use DNA recombination to stop synthesizing the biotechnological product. Hence, it is important to study DNA recombination and repair in cyanobacteria for both basic and applied research. This review reports what is known in a few widely studied model cyanobacteria and what can be inferred by mining the sequenced genomes of morphologically and physiologically diverse strains. We show that cyanobacteria possess many E. coli-like DNA recombination and repair genes, and possibly other genes not yet identified. E. ...
As the world struggles to reduce its dependence on fossil fuels and curb greenhouse gas emissions, industrial biotechnology is also going green. Escherichia coli has long been used as a model Gram-negative bacterium, not only for fundamental research, but also for industrial applications. Recently, however, cyanobacteria have emerged as candidate chassis for the production of commodity fuels and chemicals, utilizing CO2 and sunlight as the main nutrient requirements. In addition to their potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and lowering production costs, cyanobacteria have naturally efficient pathways for the production metabolites such as carotenoids, which are of importance in the nutraceutical industry. The unique metabolic and regulatory pathways present in cyanobacteria present new challenges for metabolic engineers and synthetic biologists. Moreover, their requirement for light and the dynamic regulatory mechanisms of the diurnal cycle further complicate the development and
A new Michigan State University study has identified a family of genes in cyanobacteria that help control carbon dioxide fixation.
POSTDOCTORAL POSITION One postdoctoral research associate position is immediately available in my laboratory to study the biogenesis and function of photosystem II, a membrane-bound pigment-protein complex in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803. Required expertise in one or more of the following areas: protein chemistry, molecular biology and spectroscopy. Strong preferences will be given to individuals with proven records of quality publications and to those with potentials to obtain independent funding. Please send CV and three letters of recommendation to : Prof. Himadri Pakrasi Department of Biology Campus Box 1137, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. Phone : 314-935 6853 Fax: 314-935-6803 ...
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Scytonema sp. , Gram negative, oxygenic, photosynthetic, filamentous cyanobacterium (prokaryote). Cells are dividing at the tips of the filaments. Magnification: x240 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/2561
center>,big>,big>,big>Cyanobacteria - "Blue-Green Algae",/big>,/big>,/big>,/center> ,br> [[Image:Anabaena sperica.jpg,thumb,200px,center,Anabaena sperica, a filamentous cyanobacterium ([[Phycobacteria]], [[Nostocales]], [[Nostocaceae]])]] ,br> ,table border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="1" width="100%" > ,tr>,th bgcolor="#CCCCCC" colspan="2">Cyanobacteria,/th>,/tr> ,tr> ,td align="center" width="200" valign="top" >Linnaean Hierarchy,/td> ,td align="center" width="400" valign="top" >Local Cladogram,/td> ,/tr> ,tr> ,td align="justify" valign="top" > [[Domain]]: [[Eubacteria]],br> [[Division]]: Cyanobacteria,br> [[Order]]s: * [[Chroococcales]] * [[Prochlorales]] * [[Pleurocapsales]] * [[Oscillatoriales]] * [[Nostocales]] * [[Stigonematales]] ,/td> ,td align="justify" valign="top"> [[LUCA]] ,--[[Eubacteria]] (note) , ,--[[Clostridea]] , `--[[Cyanobacteria]] , see [[#Phylogeny,phylogeny section]] (below) for subgroups `--[[Neomura]] ,--[[Archaea]] ...
Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, differ most prominently from other bacteria in that cyanobacteria possess chlorophyll A, while most bacteria do not contain chlorophyll. This gives them...
From: "David W. Webb" ,dwebb at ti_com, , , I started adding Flourish to my tank several months ago instead of just , Duplaplant 24 drops because some of my plants were showing a K deficiency. , I think I will probably be adding micronized iron to the tank substrate , soon however, because I think the Flourish isnt high enough in Fe. With , no changes in the tank other than the switch in fertilizers, Im now , experiencing significant cyanobacteria growth. Previously, you could Hey, I started supplementing the Dupla with Flourish a few months ago, myself, and Ive had lots of blue-green algae recently. I was wondering myself whether it was the Flourish or something new in our city water. I did leave the Flourish out of the refrigerator for a couple of days by mistake -- it has a little smell -- maybe I ought to toss it. , search for cyanobacteria and find it, but it wasnt evident in large , amounts. I never saw any before, but I just cleaned out several large globs of the stuff and its still ...
National Geographic. Merismopedia (from the Greek merismos (division) and the Greek pedion (plain) ) is a genus of cyanobacteria found on fresh and marine waters. It is ovoid or spherical in shape and are arranged in rows and flats, forming rectangular colonies held together by a mucilaginous matrix. Species in this genus divide in only two directions, creating a characteristic grid-like pattern. The cyanobacteria Merismopedia sp. are fairly common in several varieties of water habitats. Along with other cyanobacteria, they contribute to primary production through photosynthesis. They also can produce lipopolysaccharides which are known to create skin irritation and gastrointestinal distress (NOAA). Currently no genome sequencing projects of Merimopedia strains are ongoing. However, several similar blue-green algae cyanobacteria have been sequenced or are currently in progress. Although there is still a lot of data that needs to be collected from an individual genome sequencing of a Merismopedia ...
1. The strict photoautotrophic blue-green alga, Anacystis nidulans, has a high requirement for manganese; its absence from the culture medium causes significant changes in the morphology and the...
A Oceanografiaonline foi um dos sites pioneiros em divulgação da Oceanografia no Brasil. Em 2009 a Oceanografiaonline.com comemora seus 10 anos online ...
More Information: Cyanobacteria used to be called "blue-green algae." They arent really what we usually think of as algae, however. They are actually bacteria and exist in virtually every body of surface water in the world. About three billion years ago, they evolved the kind of photosynthesis that releases oxygen. The cyanobacterial cells capture sunlight as a source of energy to split carbon dioxide (CO2) into carbon and O2. The carbon is used to build organic compounds, leaving the O2 free to join the atmosphere as free oxygen. In todays world, most oxygen is produced by true algae and other plants, but cyanobacteria probably created the oxygen-rich atmosphere that allows oxygen-loving creatures like us to exist. So although cyanobacteria have gotten a bad name these days - for good reason - we should probably also remember that we owe them for every breath we take.. Please click here to support this site with a small contribution by credit card or PayPal to help me answer more questions. ...
On June 12, 2017, JRWA hosted Hilary Snook of EPA to provide a workshop to area watershed and pond associations and town agents in order to launch public volunteer monitoring of our water bodies for cyanobacteria. Art Edgerton of Pembroke, and PACTV generously recorded the workshop and activities. More information is also available from EPA at https://cyanos.org/ where you can also download an app to participate in the nationwide effort to track and control dangerous blooms of cyanobacteria.. ...
During studies 44 years ago, researchers concluded that cyanobacteria were missing an essential enzyme of the metabolic pathway that is found in most other life forms," Bryant explained. "They concluded that cyanobacteria lacked the ability to make one enzyme, called 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and that this missing enzyme rendered the bacteria unable to produce a compound -- called succinyl-coenzyme A -- for the next step in the TCA cycle. The absence of this reaction was assumed to render the organisms unable to oxidize metabolites for energy production, although they could still use the remaining TCA-cycle reactions to produce substrates for biosynthetic reactions. As it turns out, the researchers just werent looking hard enough, so there was more work to be done." ...
Ive started to develop a small outbreak of cyanobacteria in my 90 gallon tank. Right now there are maybe 8-10 quarter sized green patches on the gravel. Nothing serious yet, it doesnt have much of a foothold. As Im sure someone is going to tell me, the cyanobacteria will only come back if I dont treat the cause of it. I believe Ive found the cause and Ive fixed it. I hadnt rinsed my filter media in about 2 months, which it just started developing about a month ago. It was extremely
Principal Investigator:NAKAMOTO Hitoshi, Project Period (FY):1994 - 1995, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:植物生理
Reference:http://huey.colorado.edu/cyanobacteria/about/cyanobacteria.php. Internet research seems to indicate that cyanobacteria are even larger, typically on the scale of 150 micrometers in size. While we have not tested the specific microbes associated with Algae Blooms, we have tested other pathogenic bacteria and two viruses, which are a small fraction of the size of these microbes.. To understand the difference between the size of pathogenic bacteria and viruses, we suggest the following web link as it will give you a great visual of the The University of Utah Cell Size and Scale Chart: http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cells/scale/. Slide the scale at the bottom to see the size of virus vs bacteria vs other potential contaminates and magnify to greater levels. Black Berkey™ purification elements have been tested to remove both pathogenic bacteria and viruses to greater than the EPA purification standards. This suggests that larger bacteria, such as cyanobacteria, should also be ...
Cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae, is toxic to dogs and cats. Aggressive, immediate treatment is necessary to treat this potentially fatal poison.
Does anybody have experience with using UltraLife blue-green algae remover (http://www.ultralifedirect.com/HTML/blue-green_remover.htm)? If it really is a more gentle approach, I would prefer using it, before I reach for antibiotics (erythromycin). Id like to hear about how effective it is, and if O2 levels and pH get affected drastically. Thanks!
Author Summary Cyanobacteria have been promoted as platforms for biofuel production due to their useful physiological properties such as photosynthesis, relatively rapid growth rates, ability to accumulate high amounts of intracellular compounds and tolerance to extreme environments. However, development of a computational model is an important step to synthesize biochemical, physiological and regulatory understanding of photoautotrophic metabolism (either qualitatively or quantitatively) at a systems level, to make metabolic engineering of these organisms tractable. When integrated with other genome-scale data (e.g., expression data), numerical simulations can provide experimentally testable predictions of carbon fluxes and reductant partitioning to different biosynthetic pathways and macromolecular synthesis. This work is the first to computationally explore the interactions between components of photosynthetic and respiratory systems in detail. In silico predictions obtained from model analysis
Blooms look like green paint floating on water, foam or scum, or mats on the surface of freshwater lakes and ponds. The blooms can be blue, bright green, brown or red. Some blooms may not affect the appearance of the water but as algae in the bloom dies, the water may smell bad. Blue-green algae is not the type that grows in mats of plant material along shorelines. When you pick it up, the algae disperses in the water and does not hang together in a stringy mass.. ...
View Notes - Diversity Quiz 1 Answers from BIOEE 2780 at Cornell. 1. Cyanobacteria had a notable influence on their environment because: a) they were able to use H2S from thermal vents to produce
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Download Free Full-Text of an article COMPARISON OF THE ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF CYANOBACTERIA COLLECTED FROM IRANIAN SOUTH OIL
Blue-Green Algae information based on scientific evidence includes description, drug interactions, safety concerns, and effectiveness.
Misc.: When a slippery, black membrane is scraped from the rocks, cell threads from many specie are present. It can be composed of different species of the calothrix family, but can also contain certain red and green algae. But it is usually some form of calothrix specie that dominate the black belts above the waterline ...
The plant tank has always had an algae problem. Initially it was overrun by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), and then it had an infestation of a brownish-looking alga. Adding some corys helped, since they disturbed the bottom and broke up the near-continuous mat. When I finally added filtration things improved a lot. Recently, however, algal populations started to climb again, and I had a small bloom of cyanobacteria. While I was gone over the weekend, I decided to switch off the light and just give the tank a little natural light that comes through the window. The effect was remarkable - after just 2.5 days of low light, the algal had thinned significantly. The plants look fine, the algae does not ...
yanucamide A: a depsipeptide from an assemblage of the marine cyanobacteria Lyngbya majuscula and Schizothrix species; structure in first source
Earthy or musty odors, along with visual evidence of blue-green algae, also known as cyanobacteria, may serve as a warning that harmful cyanotoxins are present in lakes or reservoirs. In a newly published USGS study of cyanobacterial ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Terrabacteria group; Cyanobacteria/Melainabacteria group; Cyanobacteria; Nostocales; Fortieaceae; Aulosira; Aulosira ...
Why would tap water make it worse? Isnt that what they provide these checmicals for to produce ocean water from tap water? The instructions on the salt bag say to treat the water for chlorine and
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Terrabacteria group; Cyanobacteria/Melainabacteria group; Cyanobacteria; Gloeoemargaritales; Gloeomargaritaceae; Gloeomargarita; Gloeomargarita ...
Monera merupakan golongan organisme yang bersifat prokariotik (inti selnya tidak memiliki selaput inti). Regnum ini dibagi menjadi dua golongan yaitu : 1.1. 1.2. Golongan bakteri (Schizophyta/Schizomycetes) Golongan ganggang biru (Cyanophyta) Setiap sel, baik prokariotik maupun eukariotik, masing-masing memiliki membran yang membungkusnya, sebagai pemisah antara bagian interior dengan lingkungan sel tersebut, secara tegas mengatur keluar-masuknya zat dan mempertahankan potensial listrik dari sel tersebut. Ganggang hijau-biru atau Cyanobacteria masuk ke dalam kelompok bakteri. Cyanobacteria memiliki struktur sel prokariotik seperti halnya bakteri, dan bisa melakukan fotosintesis langsung karena memiliki klorofil. Sebelumnya, ganggang ini dikenal dengan sebutan Cyanophyta dan bersama bakteri masuk ke dalam kingdom Monera. Akan tetapi dalam perkembangan selanjutnya, diketahui bahwa ganggang ini memiliki karakteristik bakteri sehingga dimasukkan ke dalam kelompok bakteri (Eubacteria). Di dalam ...
Remove the white tape from the gel. Notice the horizontal line under the white tape? Later you will run the gel until the blue stain frontier reaches this line. Flush the wells with water. Mark the bottom of each well with a sharpie. This is a useful guide for your pipette when you insert your samples. ...
The impacts of global warming are often described in the context of human activities or how it will affect charismatic megafauna and visible landscape features. ...
For ligation, we use the Roche 5min quick ligase kit. Vials 2 and 1 are proprietary, but Vial 3 is generic T4 DNA ligase. It is still unknown if a 1:3 volume ratio or a 1:3 molar ratio is ideal for ligations. I personally use the latter and would recommend that over the former. 1:1 may be good for small inserts, big vectors; we havent tested it though so were not sure. For J3011+J36010: ...
Cyanobacteria are common photosynthetic bacteria, unique in using water as their hydrogen source and so producing oxygen as a by-product. They may be bluish-green or other colours, with the pigments appearing uniformly spread in each cell but actually associated with internal membranes. Chroobacteria include single cells, aggregates, and simple filaments of disk- or barrel-shaped cells. A few have special dispersal phases but otherwise the cells are all similar. They are ancestral to the more specialized Hormogoneae. ...
Gliding Cyanobacterial filaments A thin slime sheath, external to the oscillin layer, encloses the cell or filament. Cyanobacteria may be immotile, or they move
http://www.schweizerbart.de/papers/nova_hedwigia/detail/92/76040 Johansen, J.R., L. Kováčik, D.A. Casamatta, K. Fučíková & J. Kaštovský. 2011. Utility of 16S-23S ITS sequence and secondary structure for recognition of intrageneric and intergeneric limits within cyanobacterial taxa: Leptolyngbya corticola sp. nov. (Pseudanabaenaceae, Cyanobacteria). Nova Hedwigia 92(3-4): 283-302 ...
http://www.schweizerbart.de/papers/nova_hedwigia/detail/92/76040 Johansen, J.R., L. Kováčik, D.A. Casamatta, K. Fučíková & J. Kaštovský. 2011. Utility of 16S-23S ITS sequence and secondary structure for recognition of intrageneric and intergeneric limits within cyanobacterial taxa: Leptolyngbya corticola sp. nov. (Pseudanabaenaceae, Cyanobacteria). Nova Hedwigia 92(3-4): 283-302 ...
... color to certain blue-green algae. It also facilitates a reaction necessary to the survival of this species; we can follow the kinetics of this reaction by measuring the conversion of Substance X to Substance Y at various times during purification ...
tolybyssidin B: isolated from the culture medium of mass cultured cyanobacterium Tolypothrix byssoidea; structure in first source
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Marine cyanobacterium (Spirulina platensis) is a Gram-negative, oxygenic, photosynthetic, filamentous cyanobacterium (prokaryote). Spirulina platensis (also known as Spirulina pacifica or Arthrospira platensis) is a marine cyanobacterium in the family Phormidiaceae. A. platensis is known throughout the world for its potential nutritional value. It is one of the rare edible bacteria due to its low purine concentration, which allows it to pose very minimal risk of uric acid build up in the body. The supplement called Spirulina is made in Hawaii, USA. Magnification: x160 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/2762
Ingestion of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus by the mixotrophic red tide ciliate Mesodinium rubrum - grazing impact;ingestion;Mesodinium;mixotrophy;Synechococcus;
Other names: Aphanocapsa sp. (strain N-1), Aphanocapsa sp. N-1, S. sp. PCC 6803, Synechocystis, Synechocystis PCC6803, Synechocystis sp. (ATCC 27184), Synechocystis sp. (PCC 6803), Synechocystis sp. (strain PCC 6803), Synechocystis sp. ATCC 27184, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 A, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 B, Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 ...
Other names: Aphanocapsa sp. (strain N-1), Aphanocapsa sp. N-1, S. sp. PCC 6803, Synechocystis, Synechocystis PCC6803, Synechocystis sp. (ATCC 27184), Synechocystis sp. (PCC 6803), Synechocystis sp. (strain PCC 6803), Synechocystis sp. ATCC 27184, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 A, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 B, Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 ...
Pseudanabaena species are poorly known filamentous bloom-forming cyanobacteria closely related to Limnothrix. We isolated 28 Pseudanabaena strains from the Baltic Sea (BS) and the Albufera de Valencia (AV; Spain). By combining phenotypic and genotypic approaches, the phylogeny, diversity and evolutionary diversification of these isolates were explored. Analysis of the in vivo absorption spectra of the Pseudanabaena strains revealed two coexisting pigmentation phenotypes: (i) phycocyanin-rich (PC-rich) strains and (ii) strains containing both PC and phycoerythrin (PE). Strains of the latter phenotype were all capable of complementary chromatic adaptation (CCA). About 65 kb of the Pseudanabaena genomes were sequenced through a multilocus sequencing approach including the sequencing of the16 and 23S rRNA genes, the ribosomal intergenic spacer (IGS), internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1), the cpcBA operon encoding PC and the IGS between cpcA and cpcB. In addition, the presence of nifH, one of the ...
0019]Once the cyanobacterial isolate is grown to a desired density, according to some embodiments, it may either be removed (and a new culture may be started with a new inoculum), or it may be diluted according to a prescribed schedule or rate. In the first case, culturing may be performed in a batch mode and may require frequent re-inoculation. In the latter case, culturing may be performed in a continuous or a semi-continuous fashion, depending on the way the dilution is performed. For example, assuming that the desired dilution rate is fifty percent (50%) per day of the culture volume, culture dilution may take place in one or more of several techniques. Culture dilution may take place continuously over the day (or over part of the day) at a constant or at a variable rate. Culture dilution may alternatively take place semi-continuously once a day (i.e., fifty percent (50%) of the culture is removed and replaced with a new growth medium in a short period of time every day); semi-continuously ...
Growth of the prevalent marine organism Trichodesmium can be limited by iron in natural and laboratory settings. This study investigated the iron uptake mechanisms that the model organism T. erythraeum IMS101 uses to acquire iron from inorganic iron and iron associated with the weak ligand complex, ferric citrate. IMS101 was observed to employ two different iron uptake mechanisms: superoxide-mediated reduction of inorganic iron in the surrounding milieu and a superoxide-independent uptake system for ferric citrate complexes. While the detailed pathway of ferric citrate utilization remains to be elucidated, transport of iron from this complex appears to involve reduction and/or exchange of the iron out of the complex prior to uptake, either at the outer membrane of the cell or within the periplasmic space. Various iron uptake strategies may allow Trichodesmium to effectively scavenge iron in oligotrophic ocean environments.. ...
Cyanobacteria are present in most aquatic systems, and pelagic bloom-forming species often flourish in lakes. Since blooms of cyanobacteria are undesirable for several reasons, e.g. they can result in foul odours and tastes as well as toxicity, these organisms have been subject to an extensive amount of research around the globe. A number of hypotheses have been put forward to explain the strong competitive ability of cyanobacteria in phytoplankton communities. In this thesis results are presented from field and laboratory experiments on the influence of inorganic nitrogen and iron nutrition on cyanobacterial population dynamics. The results are discussed in the light of previously published theories.. It was hypothesised that cyanobacteria are favoured over eukaryotic phytoplankton when inorganic nitrogen is present in the form of ammonium rather than nitrate, and vice versa. This hypothesis was supported by three field-enclosure experiments performed in the moderately eutrophic Lake Erken in ...
Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes characterized by an unusually high metabolic versatility, therefore representing a promising source for biofuels and high value bioproducts with a wide range of commercial applications. However, the enormous potential of cyanobacteria for carbon sequestration technologies and end-product development remains far more unexplored than that of green microalgae. Here we present the first results of the research project "Bioremediation of methane from mine ventilation air" jointly funded by the Advanced Manufacturing Cooperative Research Centres (AMCRC) and MBD Energy Ltd, Australia, which aims to remediate CH4 and CO2 emissions from a coal mine using a dual bioreactor system of methanotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria. Strain selection was based on a culture collection of native cyanobacteria from tropical freshwaters and soils in Queensland, NE Australia, comprising at least 5 different genera whose phylogeny and biochemical profiles (lipid and ...
Previous microarray analyses have shown a key role for the two-component system PhoBR (SYNW0947, SYNW0948) in the regulation of P transport and metabolism in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH8102. However, there is some evidence that another regulator, SYNW1019 (PtrA), probably under the control of PhoBR, is involved in the response to P depletion. PtrA is a member of the cAMP receptor protein transcriptional regulator family that shows homology to NtcA, the global nitrogen regulator in cyanobacteria. To define the role of this regulator, we constructed a mutant by insertional inactivation and compared the physiology of wild-type Synechcococcus sp. WH8102 with the ptrA mutant under P-replete and P-stress conditions. In response to P stress the ptrA mutant failed to upregulate phosphatase activity. Microarrays and quantitative RT-PCR indicate that a subset of the Pho regulon is controlled by PtrA, including two phosphatases, a predicted phytase and a gene of unknown function psip1 ...
Amoebae are unicellular eukaryotes that consume microbial prey through phagocytosis, playing a role in shaping microbial food webs. Many amoebal species can be cultivated axenically in rich media or monoxenically with a single bacterial prey species. Here, we characterize heterolobosean amoeba LPG3, a recent natural isolate, which is unable to grow on unicellular cyanobacteria, its primary food source, in the absence of a heterotrophic bacterium, a Pseudomonas species coisolate. To investigate the molecular basis of this requirement for heterotrophic bacteria, we performed a screen using the defined nonredundant transposon library of Vibrio cholerae, which implicated genes in corrinoid uptake and biosynthesis. Furthermore, cobalamin synthase deletion mutations in V. cholerae and the Pseudomonas species coisolate do not support the growth of amoeba LPG3 on cyanobacteria. While cyanobacteria are robust producers of a corrinoid variant called pseudocobalamin, this variant does not support the ...
The tRNALeu (UAA) intron has been recorded in the plastid genome of many algae and land plants and was the first intron to be discovered in cyanobacteria. In all known cases it interrupts the tRNALeu anticodon loop at a conserved position (U-intron-AA). Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of photosynthetic prokaryotes, some involved in symbiotic associations with a wide range of organisms. The most studied associations are those with plants, where strains of Nostoc are the common cyanobacterial partner. In this thesis two aspects of the biology of the cyanobacterial tRNALeu (UAA) intron are focused: first, the use of the intron as a genetic marker for studying the diversity and specificity of two cyanobacterial symbiosis (bryophytes and cycads) and second, the evolutionary patterns of the intron by using the unique data set generated from the diversity analysis.. From the studies, many different Nostoc strains are involved in the two symbiotic associations, although no variation was observed ...
Zinc is essential for many cellular processes, including DNA synthesis, transcription, and translation, but excess can be toxic. A zinc-induced gene, smtA, is required for normal zinc-tolerance in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7942. Here we report that the protein SmtA contains a cleft lined with Cys-sulfur and His-imidazole ligands that binds four zinc ions in a Zn4Cys9His2 cluster. The thiolate sulfurs of five Cys ligands provide bridges between the two ZnCys4 and two ZnCys3His sites, giving two fused six-membered rings with distorted boat conformations. The inorganic core strongly resembles the Zn4Cys11 cluster of mammalian metallothionein, despite different amino acid sequences, a different linear order of the ligands, and presence of histidine ligands. Also, SmtA contains elements of secondary structure not found in metallothioneins. One of the two Cys4-coordinated zinc ions in SmtA readily exchanges with exogenous metal (111Cd), whereas the other is inert. The thiolate sulfur ...
To determine the effect of Liquidoff on bacteria, three bacterial strains were tested: Escherichia coli DH5α, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. E. coli DH5α is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium that is often found in normal gut flora and is commonly used the laboratory due to its fast growth rate. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and S. elongatus PCC 7942 are Gram-negative, aquatic, autophototrophic cyanobacteria. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 is a marine cyanobacterium isolated from fish pens on Magueyes Island, Puerto Rico in 1962, while S. elongatus PCC 7942 is a freshwater cyanobacterium. It should be noted that no Gram-positive bacterium was tested in this study. ...
Spirulina is ranked by AARP as the #1 superfood for extending your lifespan, and the UN has identified it as a primary ingredient in the fight against malnutrition worldwide. But what exactly is spirulina? You may be surprised!. Spirulina: One of Natures Near-Perfect Foods. Spirulina is similar to sea vegetables such as dulse, kelp, nori, kombu, arame, wakame, etc. Along with its cousin chlorella (another of my favorites) spirulina is a member of the "blue-green" family-but this family is actually not algae.. Although you will often hear the term "blue-green algae," spirulina and its kin are actually cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are classified as bacteria because their genetic material is not organized in a membrane-bound nucleus. Unlike other bacteria, they have chlorophyll and use the sun as an energy source, in the way plants and algae do.. Spirulina is primarily produced by two species: Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima.. One of the special traits of spirulina is its rich protein ...
Cyanobacteria, a type of bacteria that performs photosynthesis, utilize a photosensor to maximize their light-harvesting capacity under different light environments. A joint research team led by Toyohashi University of Technology found a new photosensor that regulates yellow-green light-harvesting antenna in cyanobacteria. Further analysis of the cyanobacterial genomes revealed that this photosensor emerged about 2.1 billion years ago or more and evolved through genetic exchange between cyanobacteria.
Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, occurs in both salt and freshwater, but the blooms are of most concern in freshwater ponds and rivers. These blooms look like mats or thick paint on the surfaces of water. Blooms frequently appear blue or green but sometimes appear brown or red. These blooms can be harmful to people and animals. Contact with cyanobacteria can cause skin and eye irritation. Swallowing a small amount of water contaminated with cyanobactera can cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Drinking large amounts may cause liver or neurological damage. Small children and pets are more susceptible to the effects of cyanobacteria than adults. Dogs, in particular, can get very ill and even die from ingesting cyanobacteria, either by directly ingesting it or licking it off their fur ...
Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD:M00095] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD:M00096], for the terpenoid building blocks: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The action of prenyltransferases then generates higher-order building blocks: geranyl diphosphate (GPP), farsenyl diphosphate (FPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which are the precursors of monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), and diterpenoids (C20), respectively. Condensation of these building blocks gives rise to the precursors of sterols (C30) and carotenoids (C40). The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants the MEP/DOXP and mevalonate pathways co-exist in separate cellular compartments. The MEP/DOXP pathway, operating in the plastids, is responsible for the formation of essential oil ...
NaturalNews) Todays scientists are only beginning to grasp the incredible nutritional value of blue-green algae and spirulina, but these superfoods have a reputation that reaches far back into history. A form of blue-green algae was consumed regularly hundreds of years ago by Aztecs, while spirulina was a favorite among native peoples in the Sahara desert region of Africa. Today blue-green algae and spirulina are some of the top superfoods, providing extraordinary nutrition in a time when most food sources are of poor nutritional quality ...
Spirulina is ranked by AARP as the #1 superfood for extending your lifespan, and the UN has identified it as a primary ingredient in the fight against malnutrition worldwide. But what exactly is spirulina? You may be surprised!. Spirulina: One of Natures Near-Perfect Foods. Spirulina is similar to sea vegetables such as dulse, kelp, nori, kombu, arame, wakame, etc. Along with its cousin chlorella (another of my favorites) spirulina is a member of the "blue-green" family-but this family is actually not algae.. Although you will often hear the term "blue-green algae," spirulina and its kin are actually cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are classified as bacteria because their genetic material is not organized in a membrane-bound nucleus. Unlike other bacteria, they have chlorophyll and use the sun as an energy source, in the way plants and algae do.. Spirulina is primarily produced by two species: Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima.. One of the special traits of spirulina is its rich protein ...
Oxygenic photosynthesis is widely accepted as the most important bioenergetic process happening in Earths surface environment(1). It is thought to have evolved within the cyanobacterial lineage, but it has been difficult to determine when it began. Evidence based on the occurrence and appearance of stromatolites(2) and microfossils indicates that phototrophy occurred as long ago as 3,465 Myr although no definite physiological inferences can be he made from these objects. Carbon isotopes and other geological phenomena(4,5) provide clues but are also equivocal, Biomarkers are potentially useful because the three domains of extant life-Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya-have signature membrane lipids with recalcitrant carbon skeletons. These lipids turn into hydrocarbons in sediments and can be found wherever the record is sufficiently well preserved. Here we show that 2-methylbacteriohopanepolyols occur in a high proportion of cultured cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial mats, Their 2-methylhopane ...
Fischer, R.; Gottstein, J.; Siebzehnrübl, S. und Scheer, Hugo (1990): Influence of chromophores on quarternary structure of phycobiliproteins from the cyanobacterium, Mastigocladus laminosus. In: Jortner, J. und Pullman, B. (Hrsg.): Perspectives in photosynthesis. New York: Academic Press. S. 121-131 [PDF, 1MB] ...
Synechococcus elongatus ATCC ® 33912D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC 7942 TypeStrain=False Application:
Introduction. Cyanobacteria occur in surface waters, especially in waters where physical conditions and nutrient loads are favourable for their proliferation (Whitton and Potts, 2000). Several of the cyanobacteria genera produce cyanotoxin and subsequently may pose a human health risk, especially after direct contact with, or ingestion of water contaminated with these genera (Chorus and Bartram, 1999; Codd et al., 1997). Seven toxic cyanobacteria genera (targeted in this study) are most likely to be encountered in surface water sources. These are Microcystis spp., Oscillatoria spp., Anabaena spp., Cylindrospermopsis spp., Aphanizomenon spp., Nodularia spp. and Nostoc spp. (Chorus and Bartram, 1999), of which Microcystis spp. are reported to be the most abundant. These cyanobacteria are potential producers of cyanotoxins of which the most common type is the microcystins (Du Preez et al. 2007; Du Preez and Van Baalen 2006; Chorus and Bartram, 1999; Carmichael, 1992). People in underdeveloped areas ...
The molecular biology of desiccation tolerance was investigated in the cyanobacteria with emphasis on Nostoc commune. Analysis of DNA from 41 samples of desiccated Nostoc spp. of varied age and global distribution led to the amplification of 43 independent tRNALEU(UAA) group 1 intron sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the entire data set made it possible to define the form species Nostoc commune. The synthase (spsA) and phosphatase (sppA) genes required for the synthesis of sucrose were isolated from cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 and overexpressed in E. coli in two different vector constructions. Transformants had a marked increased capacity for desiccation tolerance. Sucrose synthesis was confirmed through thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis of cell extracts from transformants. Long-term stability of DNA in desiccated Nostoc samples was demonstrated by the ability to amplify selected gene loci from samples stored dry for decades. Successful amplification in some samples ...
The marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula is a prolific producer of bioactive secondary metabolites. Although biosynthetic gene clusters encoding several of these compounds have been identified, little is known about how these clusters of genes are transcribed or regulated, and techniques targeting genetic manipulation in Lyngbya strains have not yet been developed. We conducted transcriptional analyses of the jamaicamide gene cluster from a Jamaican strain of Lyngbya majuscula, and isolated proteins that could be involved in jamaicamide regulation. An unusually long untranslated leader region of approximately 840 bp is located between the jamaicamide transcription start site (TSS) and gene cluster start codon. All of the intergenic regions between the pathway ORFs were transcribed into RNA in RT-PCR experiments; however, a promoter prediction program indicated the possible presence of promoters in multiple intergenic regions. Because the functionality of these promoters could not be verified in vivo,
Order Recombinant Prochlorococcus marinus subsp pastoris Indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase trpC 01015965649 at Gentaur Prochlorococcus marinus subsp. pastoris Indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (trpC)
Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C), red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D), and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H) commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S) products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK) and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP) were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I) and n-hexane (solvent II). Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II) to 18.02% (I) by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs). Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I) were saturated palmitic ...
Temperature. Source water temperatures at the thermal springs in the study area range from 40°C to 67.5°C. Tables 1 and 2 indicate that there was considerable diversity of algae communities in thermal waters with temperatures above 60°. In general, the occurrence of the cyanobacteria were not determined by the thermal characteristics of the springs, since a number of genera, such as Oscillatoria, Anabaena, Phormidium, Nostoc and Lyngbya were found in springs with temperatures ranging from 40°C to 60+°C. Phormidium sp. dominated the 60+°C temperature zone, while Oscillatoria sp. was distributed across the entire temperature range (40 to 67.5°C). Similar acclimatisation to high temperatures is found amongst some of the green algae. Oocystis sp., Coelastrum sp., Chlorella sp. and Spirogyra sp. were identified in waters with temperatures exceeding 60°C. With the exception of 2 genera, Pinnularia and Cocconeis, the diatoms seem to prefer lower temperatures. However, temperature per se does ...
Shop Photosystem II CP43 reaction center protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Photosystem II CP43 reaction center protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Photosystem II of higher plants is a multisubunit transmembrane complex composed of a core moiety and an extensive peripheral antenna system. The number of antenna polypeptides per core complex is modulated following environmental conditions in order to optimize photosynthetic performance. In this study, we used a barley (Hordeum vulgare) mutant, viridis zb63, which lacks photosystem I, to mimic extreme and chronic overexcitation of photosystem II. The mutation was shown to reduce the photosystem II antenna to a minimal size of about 100 chlorophylls per photosystem II reaction centre, which was not further reducible. The minimal photosystem II unit was analysed by biochemical methods and by electron microscopy, and found to consist of a dimeric photosystem II reaction centre core surrounded by monomeric Lhcb4 (chlorophyll protein 29), Lhcb5 (chlorophyll protein 26) and trimeric light-harvesting complex II antenna proteins. This minimal photosystem II unit forms arrays in vivo, possibly to ...

CyanobacteriaCyanobacteria

Taxonomy of Cyanobacteria after Stanier & Cohen-Bazire (1977). *Taxonomy of Cyanobacteria after Rippka et al. (1979). * ... Introduction to the Cyanobacteria. UCMP Berkeley. *Marine Cyanobacteria. Maintained by Sven Janson. *The Blue-Green Groove ... Cyanobacteria Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Cyanobacteria. Oxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria. In: Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Volume 1: The Archaea and the ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/tree?group=Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria | Encyclopedia.comCyanobacteria | Encyclopedia.com

... cyanobacteria contain chlorophyll a and conduct oxygenic photosynthesis. ... Cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae [1]) are microorganisms that structurally resemble bacteria (they lack a nucleus ... Cyanobacteria Plant Sciences COPYRIGHT 2001 The Gale Group Inc.. Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a morphologically diverse ... Cyanobacteria Biology COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are microorganisms ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/plants-and-animals/microbes-algae-and-fungi/moneran-and-protistan/cyanobacteria

Anabaena | cyanobacteria | Britannica.comAnabaena | cyanobacteria | Britannica.com

Anabaena: Genus of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae with beadlike or barrel-like cells and interspersed enlarged spores (heterocysts), found as plankton in shallow water and on moist soil....
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/Anabaena

Cyanobacteria in Florida WatersCyanobacteria in Florida Waters

p>Cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae, are commonly found as individual cells, clumps, filaments or large mats in Floridas ... provides more information on cyanobacteria and their toxins related to human health. More information on cyanobacteria blooms, ... Cyanobacteria are some of the Earths oldest organisms, with fossils dating back 3.5 billion years. Yet, they can still be ... Cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae, are commonly found as individual cells, clumps, filaments or large mats in Floridas lakes ...
more infohttp://www.myfwc.com/research/redtide/general/cyanobacteria/

Fossil Record of the CyanobacteriaFossil Record of the Cyanobacteria

The cyanobacteria have an extensive fossil record. The oldest known fossils, in fact, are cyanobacteria from Archaean rocks of ... Small fossilized cyanobacteria have been extracted from Precambrian rock, and studied through the use of SEM and TEM (scanning ... Ancient Fossil Bacteria : Pictured above are two kinds cyanobacteria from the Bitter Springs chert of central Australia, a site ... Cyanobacteria are among the easiest microfossils to recognize. Morphologies in the group have remained much the same for ...
more infohttp://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria/cyanofr.html

cyanobacteria | Journal of Bacteriologycyanobacteria | Journal of Bacteriology

Role of the nifB1 and nifB2 Promoters in Cell-Type-Specific Expression of Two Mo Nitrogenases in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena ... Cyanobacteria are gaining interest for their potential as autotrophic cell factories. Development of efficient surface display ... Outer Membrane Permeability of Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803: Studies of Passive Diffusion of Small Organic ... Specific Glucoside Transporters Influence Septal Structure and Function in the Filamentous, Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterium ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/keyword/cyanobacteria

Talk:Cyanobacteria - WikipediaTalk:Cyanobacteria - Wikipedia

Talk:Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria has been listed as a level-4 vital article in Science, Biology. If you can improve it, please ... DNA samples of Cyanobacteria?Edit. Would Wikipedia ever collect DNA samples of simple organisms like the Cyanobacteria? - ... describe the cyanobacteria present-day environmentEdit. describe the cyanobacteria present-day environment? -Preceding unsigned ... No chlorophyll b in CyanobacteriaEdit. I believe there is no chlorophyll b in Cyanobacteria. They do have chlorophyll a,d; ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria (Tolypothrix) | MicroscopyUCyanobacteria (Tolypothrix) | MicroscopyU

Cyanobacteria are the oldest known fossils, dating back over three and a half billion years. ... Tolypothrix is a genus of cyanobacteria that occurs in small tufts either floating in torpid water or attached to plants and ... Cyanobacteria (Tolypothrix). Cyanobacteria (Tolypothrix). Tolypothrix is a genus of cyanobacteria that occurs in small tufts ... Cyanobacteria are important to life on Earth in many ways. The oxygen in the atmosphere that humans depend upon was largely ...
more infohttps://www.microscopyu.com/gallery-images/cyanobacteria-tolypothrix

Nostoc (Cyanobacteria) | MicroscopyUNostoc (Cyanobacteria) | MicroscopyU

Nostoc (Cyanobacteria). Nostoc (Cyanobacteria). Nostocs are able to perform photosynthesis without chloroplasts. Instead these ... found in modern plants are thought by some scientists to be derived from a precursor cyanobacterium through an evolutionary ...
more infohttps://www.microscopyu.com/gallery-images/nostoc-cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria | Everyday HealthCyanobacteria | Everyday Health

Cyanobacteria are a group of bacteria found throughout the world. They grow in any type of water (fresh, brackish, or marine) ... Everyday Health » Cyanobacteria » What Is Cyanobacteria?. What Is Cyanobacteria?. *By Joseph Bennington-Castro*Medically ... Cyanobacteria Blooms. Blooms of cyanobacteria - when the population of cyanobacteria explodes - typically occur in still or ... Cyanobacteria can be helpful by providing nutrients to plants such as rice and beans.. However, cyanobacteria blooms can also ...
more infohttps://www.everydayhealth.com/cyanobacteria/guide/

Cyanobacteria BacteriaCyanobacteria Bacteria

... unique characteristics of cyanobacteria; role of phycocianins pigments. ... Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are arguably the most successful group of microorganisms on Earth. Formerly called blue-green ... Some cyanobacteria species produce carcinogenic toxins. Most reports of acute animal and human cyanobacteria-related poisoning ... Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both carbon dioxide (in the presence of light) and nitrogen. Their ...
more infohttp://www.gopetsamerica.com/bio/bacteria/cyanobacteria.aspx

Cyanobacteria Assessment Network (CyAN) | Water Research | US EPACyanobacteria Assessment Network (CyAN) | Water Research | US EPA

The Cyanobacteria Index algorithm estimates cyanobacteria concentrations and the algorithm has been successfully transferred to ... Cyanobacteria Assessment Network (CyAN). An EPA, NASA, NOAA, and USGS Project. CyAN is a multi-agency project among EPA, the ... Remote sensing of cyanobacteria blooms offers a unique opportunity to estimate human exposure to cyanotoxins over specific ... Evaluation of cyanobacteria cell count detection derived from MERIS imagery across the eastern USA (2015) ...
more infohttps://www.epa.gov/water-research/cyanobacteria-assessment-network-cyan

Bioactive compounds produced by cyanobacteria | SpringerLinkBioactive compounds produced by cyanobacteria | SpringerLink

Cyanobacteria produce a large number of compounds with varying bioactivities. Prominent among these are toxins: hepatotoxins ... Cyanobacteria secondary metabolites-the cyanotoxins. J Appl Bact 72: 445-459.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Cyanopeptolins, new depsipeptides from the cyanobacteriumMicrocystis sp PCC 7806. J Antibiot 46: 1550-1556.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... The toxins of cyanobacteria. Scientific American 270: 78-86.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01574768

Tropical Cyanobacteria in Northern GermanyTropical Cyanobacteria in Northern Germany

... 04.04.2007. Tropical blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) have invaded lakes in ... The search for the source of the toxic substance yielded a surprise: indigenous species of cyanobacteria are producing CYN. " ... Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries in Berlin identified different species of tropical cyanobacteria ...
more infohttp://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/environment-sciences/report-82118.html

cyanobacteria |  | Blogs | CDCcyanobacteria | | Blogs | CDC

... cyanobacteria - Sharing our stories on preparing for and responding to public health events ...
more infohttps://blogs.cdc.gov/publichealthmatters/tag/cyanobacteria/

cyanobacteriacyanobacteria

More ] October 18th, 2008 , No Comments , Posted in blue- green alage, chapel hill, cyanobacteria, green scum, Marine sciences ... More ] February 3rd, 2015 , No Comments , Posted in Algae-CO2-Capture, Biofuel, CO2-Sequestration, cyanobacteria, Research, ... Cyanobacteria Sequencing Project for Biofuel, Ethanol You are at: Oilgae Blog, see also: Oilgae Home - Oil & Biodiesel from ... Its probably cyanobacteria blue-green algae and, according to a paper in the April 4 issue of the journal Science, it […] ...
more infohttp://www.oilgae.com/blog/category/cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria Testing  News  on Environmental XPRTCyanobacteria Testing News on Environmental XPRT

Get the latest cyanobacteria testing news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and ... Cyanobacteria - often referred to as blue-green algae - are found in water bodies around the world and can produce toxins with ... Some blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) - which grow in warm, nutrient-rich waters - produce toxins that can severely damage the ... a biotechnology company focused on producing renewable fuels and specialty chemicals derived from cyanobacteria (blue-green ...
more infohttps://www.environmental-expert.com/news/keyword-cyanobacteria-testing-28575

Eutrophication makes toxic cyanobacteria more toxicEutrophication makes toxic cyanobacteria more toxic

Baltic Sea »Ecology »Marine Ecology »Marine science »Nodularia spumigena »Surface blooms »UV light »Wastewater »cyanobacteria » ... cyanobacteria , cyanobacterial blooms , eutrophication , sea snails , toxic cyanobacterium ... Surface blooms of cyanobacteria, which are a type of phytoplankton, have increased in both frequency and magnitude in the ... Eutrophication makes toxic cyanobacteria more toxic. 06.12.2010. Continued eutrophication of the Baltic Sea, combined with an ...
more infohttps://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/life-sciences/eutrophication-makes-toxic-cyanobacteria-toxic-166972.html

Resonating circadian clocks enhance fitness in cyanobacteria | PNASResonating circadian clocks enhance fitness in cyanobacteria | PNAS

Resonating circadian clocks enhance fitness in cyanobacteria. Yan Ouyang, Carol R. Andersson, Takao Kondo, Susan S. Golden, ... Resonating circadian clocks enhance fitness in cyanobacteria. Yan Ouyang, Carol R. Andersson, Takao Kondo, Susan S. Golden, ... This cyanobacterium is not known to conjugate under laboratory conditions, and we have derived strains of it that exhibit ... Resonating circadian clocks enhance fitness in cyanobacteria. Yan Ouyang, Carol R. Andersson, Takao Kondo, Susan S. Golden, and ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/95/15/8660

Circadian Rhythms in Rapidly Dividing Cyanobacteria | ScienceCircadian Rhythms in Rapidly Dividing Cyanobacteria | Science

Circadian Rhythms in Rapidly Dividing Cyanobacteria. By Takao Kondo, Tetsuya Mori, Nadya V. Lebedeva, Setsuyuki Aoki, Masahiro ... Circadian Rhythms in Rapidly Dividing Cyanobacteria. By Takao Kondo, Tetsuya Mori, Nadya V. Lebedeva, Setsuyuki Aoki, Masahiro ... the profile of bioluminescence from a reporter strain of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus (species PCC 7942) matched a model ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/275/5297/224

User:HeidelbergKid/Cyanobacteria - RationalWikiUser:HeidelbergKid/Cyanobacteria - RationalWiki

The cyanobacteria ("dark blue rod", referring to the rod-like appearance of some prokaryotes) are a taxon of bacteria that are ... Because of this, the cyanobacteria were originally classified as "Division Cyanophyta" within Kingdom Plantae[1], and commonly ... referred to as "blue-green algae". Even though the cyanobacteria are not eukaryotes and therefore do not qualify for the title ... Retrieved from "https://rationalwiki.org/w/index.php?title=User:HeidelbergKid/Cyanobacteria&oldid=1108958" ...
more infohttps://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaCyanobacteria - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cyanobacteria are a taxon of bacteria which conduct photosynthesis. They are not algae, though they were once called blue-green ... Cyanobacteria have a way of detecting light. A scientist said "It has a way of detecting where the light is; we know that ... In endosymbiont theory, chloroplasts (plastids) are descended from cyanobacteria. Their DNA profile is evidence for this.[3][4] ... Cyanobacteria have an extremely long fossil record, starting at least 3,500 million years ago. They were the main organisms in ...
more infohttps://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria - Biology-OnlineCyanobacteria - Biology-Online

Effect of acid pH on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria typically grows in alkaline waters. We are looking at the effect of acid ... Ive decided to do mine on cyanobacteria as I am fascinated by these micro-organisms, I can send away for a culture of them ( ... Cyanobacteria. About microscopic forms of life, including Bacteria, Archea, protozoans, algae and fungi. Topics relating to ... u can make the slides and can show diagrams of the filaments of cyanobacteria also u can provide information how u collect them ...
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/biology-forum/viewtopic.php?t=1380

Circadian programs in cyanobacteria: adaptiveness and mechanism.  - PubMed - NCBICircadian programs in cyanobacteria: adaptiveness and mechanism. - PubMed - NCBI

Circadian programs in cyanobacteria: adaptiveness and mechanism.. Johnson CH1, Golden SS. ... At least one group of prokaryotes is known to have circadian regulation of cellular activities--the cyanobacteria. Their " ... Growth competition experiments demonstrate that the fitness of cyanobacteria is enhanced when the circadian period matches the ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10547696?dopt=Abstract

Manganese-oxidizing photosynthesis before the rise of cyanobacteria | PNASManganese-oxidizing photosynthesis before the rise of cyanobacteria | PNAS

Mn-oxidizing photosynthesis before cyanobacteria. Jena E. Johnson, Samuel M. Webb, Katherine Thomas, Shuhei Ono, Joseph L. ... Mn-oxidizing photosynthesis before cyanobacteria. Jena E. Johnson, Samuel M. Webb, Katherine Thomas, Shuhei Ono, Joseph L. ... suggested the early rise of cyanobacteria, but the syngeneity of these compounds (22) and their connection to cyanobacteria (23 ... Manganese-oxidizing photosynthesis before the rise of cyanobacteria. Jena E. Johnson, Samuel M. Webb, Katherine Thomas, Shuhei ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/110/28/11238?ijkey=5b3da01683bf20b22cb77ad06860f5a46b8f1a89&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
  • Toxins produced by cyanobacteria can be harmful to humans, affecting the liver (hepatotoxins), the nervous system (neurotoxins) and skin (dermatotoxins). (myfwc.com)
  • In 2001, scientists discussed needs and methods for effective detection and treatment methods of toxins produced by cyanobacteria in drinking water reservoirs at the Cyanotoxin Detection and Quantification and Instrumentation Workshop. (myfwc.com)
  • provides more information on cyanobacteria and their toxins related to human health. (myfwc.com)
  • Some cyanobacteria also produce potent toxins, called cyanotoxins, during CyanoHABs. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Exposure to cyanotoxins, caused by drinking or swimming in contaminated water, or breathing air containing cyanobacteria or their toxins, can affect the skin, nervous system, and liver. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Some cyanobacteria species produce carcinogenic toxins. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • 1994. The toxins of cyanobacteria. (springer.com)
  • 1997. Nitrogen fixing non-heterocystous cyanobacteria. (tolweb.org)
  • All heterocystous and some coccoid/filamentous cyanobacteria fix nitrogen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This enables cyanobacteria to exploit ecosystems devoid of nitrogen compounds, including those located in polar, open ocean, and desert regions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cyanobacteria help convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be consumed by plants and are, therefore, useful as a natural fertilizer that is beneficial to crop cultivation around the world. (microscopyu.com)
  • Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both carbon dioxide (in the presence of light) and nitrogen. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • At that time there is generally more phosphorus than nitrogen in the water, and the cyanobacteria have not yet to float to the surface but are found deeper in the water where they have not yet been exposed to UV light. (innovations-report.com)
  • HP: Some cyanobacteria can also do another amazing biochemical reaction, and that's nitrogen fixation. (wustl.edu)
  • Cyanobacteria can fix atmospheric nitrogen in anaerobic conditions by means of specialized cells called heterocysts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Free-living cyanobacteria are present in the water of rice paddies, and cyanobacteria can be found growing as epiphytes on the surfaces of the green alga, Chara, where they may fix nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanobacteria are approximately 2.5 billion years old and thus are the oldest oxygenic phototrophs on Earth . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Even though the cyanobacteria are not eukaryotes and therefore do not qualify for the title of "algae", to this day the name still continues to be used to refer to the group. (rationalwiki.org)
  • They have been renamed 'cyanobacteria' in order to avoid the term "algae", which in modern usage is restricted to eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanobacteria are some of the Earth's oldest organisms, with fossils dating back 3.5 billion years. (myfwc.com)
  • The cyanobacteria in stromatolites were the first known organisms to photosynthesise and produce free oxygen . (wikipedia.org)
  • This Research Topic will focus on cyanobacteria as organisms of emerging industrial relevance, including research focused on the development of genetic tools for cyanobacteria, the investigation of new cyanobacterial strains, the construction of novel cyanobacterial strains via genetic engineering, the application of 'omics' tools to advance the understanding of engineered cyanobacteria, and the development of computational models for cyanobacterial strain development. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cyanobacteria have also been tremendously important in shaping the course of evolution and ecological change throughout earth's history. (berkeley.edu)
  • Cyanobacteria are morphologically and physiologically diverse and broadly distributed in terrestrial and aquatic environments. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cyanobacteria can be found in almost every terrestrial and aquatic habitat-oceans, fresh water, damp soil, temporarily moistened rocks in deserts, bare rock and soil, and even Antarctic rocks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many cyanobacteria form motile filaments of cells, called hormogonia, that travel away from the main biomass to bud and form new colonies elsewhere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some filamentous colonies of cyanobacteria differentiate into three cell types: vegetative cells, spores, and heterocysts. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • I think I might do something on cell differentiation into heterocysts in the cyanobacteria, and look at cell fate. (biology-online.org)
  • 1992. Cyanobacteria secondary metabolites-the cyanotoxins. (springer.com)
  • Like red tides, cyanobacteria can grow and accumulate, or bloom, when environmental conditions such as light availability and temperature are favorable. (myfwc.com)
  • Normally microscopic, cyanobacteria can become clearly visible in warm, nutrient-rich environments, which allow them to grow quickly and "bloom" in lakes and other bodies of water. (everydayhealth.com)
  • At the end of a bloom, when the cyanobacteria are dying off, the water may smell bad. (everydayhealth.com)
  • We tested the adaptive significance of circadian programming by measuring the relative fitness under competition between various strains of cyanobacteria expressing different circadian periods. (pnas.org)
  • Circadian programs in cyanobacteria: adaptiveness and mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • At least one group of prokaryotes is known to have circadian regulation of cellular activities--the cyanobacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Growth competition experiments demonstrate that the fitness of cyanobacteria is enhanced when the circadian period matches the period of the environmental cycle. (nih.gov)
  • Most reports of acute animal and human cyanobacteria-related poisoning arise from consumption of contaminated drinking water. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • The oxygen atmosphere that we depend on was generated by numerous cyanobacteria photosynthesizing during the Archaean and Proterozoic Era. (berkeley.edu)
  • Cyanobacteria have been more than 2 billion years, back to when the Earth had far less oxygen than it does today. (wustl.edu)
  • HP: So cyanobacteria are the ones who first showed this planet how to take water and make oxygen out of it, and that oxygen is what changed entire atmosphere. (wustl.edu)
  • Remember how cyanobacteria create oxygen? (wustl.edu)
  • In particular the pigments of most cyanobacteria are very similar to those of red algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a consequence, the cyanobacteria can grow at low light intensity and in clear waters at considerable depths. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Cyanobacteria typically grows in alkaline waters. (biology-online.org)
  • Cyanobacteria growth is favoured in ponds and lakes where waters are calm and have less turbulent mixing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanobacteria produce a large number of compounds with varying bioactivities. (springer.com)
  • A number of compounds in cyanobacteria are inhibitors of proteases - micropeptins, cyanopeptolins, oscillapeptin, microviridin, aeruginosins- and other enzymes, while still other compounds have no recognized biological activities. (springer.com)
  • Life-threatening liver damage may also develop in people exposed to cyanobacteria through contaminated dialysis water. (everydayhealth.com)
  • 1991. Tumor promotion and liver injury caused by oral consumption of cyanobacteria. (springer.com)
  • Cyanobacteria are arguably the most successful group of microorganisms on Earth. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • It is generally accepted that cyanobacteria have an incomplete tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle because they lack 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and thus cannot convert 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The cyanobacteria have an extensive fossil record. (berkeley.edu)
  • Cyanobacteria have an extremely long fossil record, starting at least 3,500 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • He shares some of what scientists know about cyanobacteria and what mysteries remain. (wustl.edu)