Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
Injectable form of VITAMIN B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.
Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of or oxidation of compounds containing primary amines.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. All strains can utilize FRUCTOSE for energy. It is occasionally isolated from humans and some strains are pathogenic to WATERMELON.
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC 2.8.1.1.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
A cyanogenic glycoside found in the seeds of Rosaceae.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.
Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
2,2-Dihydroxy-1H-indene-1,3-(2H)-dione. Reagent toxic to skin and mucus membranes. It is used in chemical assay for peptide bonds, i.e., protein determinations and has radiosensitizing properties.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to PROTONS.
Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.
A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.

Cyanide poisoning: pathophysiology and treatment recommendations. (1/1572)

This paper aims to assess and compare currently available antidotes for cyanide poisoning. Such evaluation, however, is difficult. Thus, extrapolation from the results of animal studies has potential pitfalls, as significant inter-species differences in response may exist, and these experiments often involve administration of toxin and antidote almost simultaneously, rather than incorporating a more realistic time delay before initiation of treatment. Direct inference from human case reports is also problematic; either because of uncertainties over the exposure levels involved (and hence the likely outcome without treatment), or because of difficulties in identifying the specific contribution of a particular antidote within the overall treatment regimen. Certainly an effort to compare the relative efficacy of cyanide antidotes produces equivocal findings, with no single regimen clearly standing out. Indeed, factors such as the risks of antidote toxicity to various individuals and other practical issues, may be more important considerations. There is therefore no single treatment regimen which is best for all situations. Besides individual risk factors for antidote toxicity, the nature of the exposure and hence its likely severity, the evolving clinical features and the number of persons involved and their proximity to hospital facilities, all need to be considered. Clinically mild poisoning may be treated by rest, oxygen and amyl nitrite. Intravenous antidotes are indicated for moderate poisoning. Where the diagnosis is uncertain, sodium thiosulphate may be the first choice. With severe poisoning, an additional agent is required. Given the various risks with methaemoglobin formers or with unselective use of kelocyanor, hydroxocobalamin may be preferred from a purely risk-benefit perspective. However the former alternatives will likely remain important.  (+info)

Alternative oxidase inhibitors potentiate the activity of atovaquone against Plasmodium falciparum. (2/1572)

Recent evidence suggests that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum utilizes a branched respiratory pathway including both a cytochrome chain and an alternative oxidase. This branched respiratory pathway model has been used as a basis for examining the mechanism of action of two antimalarial agents, atovaquone and proguanil. In polarographic assays, atovaquone immediately reduced the parasite oxygen consumption rate in a concentration-dependent manner. This is consistent with its previously described role as an inhibitor of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Atovaquone maximally inhibited the rate of P. falciparum oxygen consumption by 73% +/- 10%. At all atovaquone concentrations tested, the addition of the alternative oxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid, resulted in a further decrease in the rate of parasite oxygen consumption. At the highest concentrations of atovaquone tested, the activities of salicylhydroxamic acid and atovaquone appear to overlap, suggesting that at these concentrations, atovaquone partially inhibits the alternative oxidase as well as the cytochrome chain. Drug interaction studies with atovaquone and salicylhydroxamic acid indicate atovaquone's activity against P. falciparum in vitro is potentiated by this alternative oxidase inhibitor, with a sum fractional inhibitory concentration of 0.6. Propyl gallate, another alternative oxidase inhibitor, also potentiated atovaquone's activity, with a sum fractional inhibitory concentration of 0.7. Proguanil, which potentiates atovaquone activity in vitro and in vivo, had a small effect on parasite oxygen consumption in polarographic assays when used alone or in the presence of atovaquone or salicylhydroxamic acid. This suggests that proguanil does not potentiate atovaquone by direct inhibition of either branch of the parasite respiratory chain.  (+info)

Preparation and properties of S-cyano derivatives of creatine kinase. (3/1572)

The two reactive thiol groups of rabbit muscle creatine kinase were stoichiometrically reacted with 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid). In the resulting inactive mixed disulfide derivative they were subsequently substituted with [14C]cyanide, the smallest uncharged thiol-blocking group. The modified enzyme contained 1.6 mol label/mol protein and showed by Ellman's titration and amino acid analysis a concomitant loss of about 0.8 - 0.9-SH group per subunit. This mono-S-cyano derivative of creatine kinase was found 73% as active as the native unmodified protein. It was still able to react in the native state with a variety of thiol reagents with the further blocking of another pair of thiol groups; their substitution once more with cyanide resulted in the bis-S-cyano derivative of creatine kinase, which lost 2 thiol groups per subunit and had about 50% of the original catalytic activity. It is concluded that the four cyanylated thiol groups are not required for the catalytic activity of creatine kinase and the cyanoprotein derivatives described are shown to be useful tools for some interesting investigations related to this enzyme.  (+info)

Nitric oxide inhibits L-type Ca2+ current in glomus cells of the rabbit carotid body via a cGMP-independent mechanism. (4/1572)

Previous studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) inhibits carotid body sensory activity. To begin to understand the cellular mechanisms associated with the actions of NO in the carotid body, we monitored the effects of NO donors on the macroscopic Ca2+ current in glomus cells isolated from rabbit carotid bodies. Experiments were performed on freshly dissociated glomus cells from adult rabbit carotid bodies using the whole cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. The NO donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 600 microM, n = 7) and spermine nitric oxide (SNO; 100 microM, n = 7) inhibited the Ca2+ current in glomus cells in a voltage-independent manner. These effects of NO donors were rapid in onset and peaked within 1 or 2 min. In contrast, the outward K+ current was unaffected by SNP (600 microM, n = 6), indicating that the inhibition by SNP was not a nonspecific membrane effect. 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5, 5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO; 500 microM), an NO scavenger, prevented inhibition of the Ca2+ current by SNP (n = 7), whereas neither superoxide dismutase (SOD; 2,000 U/ml, n = 4), a superoxide scavenger, nor sodium hydrosulfite (SHS; 1 mM, n = 7), a reducing agent, prevented inhibition of the Ca2+ current by SNP. However, SNP inhibition of the Ca2+ current was reversible in the presence of either SOD or SHS. These results suggest that NO itself inhibits Ca2+ current in a reversible manner and that subsequent formation of peroxynitrites results in irreversible inhibition. SNP inhibition of the Ca2+ current was not affected by 30 microM LY 83, 583 (n = 7) nor was it mimicked by 600 microM 8-bromoguanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP; n = 6), suggesting that the effects of NO on the Ca2+ current are mediated, in part, via a cGMP-independent mechanism. N-ethylmaleimide (NEM; 2.5 mM, n = 6) prevented the inhibition of the Ca2+ current by SNP, indicating that SNP is acting via a modification of sulfhydryl groups on Ca2+ channel proteins. Norepinephrine (NE; 10 microM) further inhibited the Ca2+ current in the presence of NEM (n = 7), implying that NEM did not nonspecifically eliminate Ca2+ current modulation. Nisoldipine, an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker (2 microM, n = 6), prevented the inhibition of Ca2+ current by SNP, whereas omega-conotoxin GVIA, an N-type Ca2+ channel blocker (1 microM, n = 9), did not prevent the inhibition of Ca2+ current by SNP. These results demonstrate that NO inhibits L-type Ca2+ channels in adult rabbit glomus cells, in part, due to a modification of calcium channel proteins. The inhibition might provide one plausible mechanism for efferent inhibition of carotid body activity by NO.  (+info)

Influence of different types of effectors on the kinetic parameters of suicide inactivation of catalase by hydrogen peroxide. (5/1572)

The effects of cyanide and azide ions (class A), sodium-n-dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and 2-mercaptoethanol (class B), 3-aminotriazole (class C) and NADPH (class D) on the initial activity (ai), inactivation rate constant (ki) and the partition ratio (r) of bovine liver catalase reaction with its suicide substrate, hydrogen peroxide, were studied in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 at 27 degrees C. The above kinetic parameters were determined by processing the progress curve data. In class A, which contains fast and reversible inhibitors of catalase, a proportional decrease in ai and ki was observed by inhibitors, so that the r remained constant. In class B, which contains slow and irreversible inactivators, a decrease in ai and constancy of ki and r were observed when catalase was incubated in the presence of such inactivators for a determined time. In class C, containing effector which can combine with intermediate compound I, ai was relatively unchanged but an increase in ki and a decrease in r were observed. In class D, containing effector which reduces compound I to ferricatalase, ai was not affected significantly but some decrease in ki was detected which was linked with an increase in r. These results demonstrate that different classes of effectors affect the determined kinetic parameters of catalase in various ways. Thus, determination of such parameters by simple kinetic experiments can be carried out for classification of the agents which have an effect on the kinetics of catalase.  (+info)

The superoxide dismutase activity of desulfoferrodoxin from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774. (6/1572)

Desulfoferrodoxin (Dfx), a small iron protein containing two mononuclear iron centres (designated centre I and II), was shown to complement superoxide dismutase (SOD) deficient mutants of Escherichia coli [Pianzzola, M.J., Soubes M. & Touati, D. (1996) J. Bacteriol. 178, 6736-6742]. Furthermore, neelaredoxin, a protein from Desulfovibrio gigas containing an iron site similar to centre II of Dfx, was recently shown to have a significant SOD activity [Silva, G., Oliveira, S., Gomes, C.M., Pacheco, I., Liu, M.Y., Xavier, A.V., Teixeira, M., Le Gall, J. & Rodrigues-Pousada, C. (1999) Eur. J. Biochem. 259, 235-243]. Thus, the SOD activity of Dfx isolated from the sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 was studied. The protein exhibits a SOD activity of 70 U x mg-1, which increases approximately 2.5-fold upon incubation with cyanide. Cyanide binds specifically to Dfx centre II, yielding a low-spin iron species with g-values at 2.27 (g perpendicular) and 1.96 (g parallel). Upon reaction of fully oxidized Dfx with the superoxide generating system xanthine/xanthine oxidase, Dfx centres I and II become partially reduced, suggesting that Dfx operates by a redox cycling mechanism, similar to those proposed for other SODs. Evidence for another SOD in D. desulfuricans is also presented - this enzyme is inhibited by cyanide, and N-terminal sequence data strongly indicates that it is an analogue to Cu,Zn-SODs isolated from other sources. This is the first indication that a Cu-containing protein may be present in a sulphate-reducing bacterium.  (+info)

Phenylacetyl-CoA:acceptor oxidoreductase, a membrane-bound molybdenum-iron-sulfur enzyme involved in anaerobic metabolism of phenylalanine in the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica. (7/1572)

Phenylacetic acids are common intermediates in the microbial metabolism of various aromatic substrates including phenylalanine. In the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica phenylacetate is oxidized, under anoxic conditions, to the common intermediate benzoyl-CoA via the intermediates phenylacetyl-CoA and phenylglyoxylate (benzoylformate). The enzyme that catalyzes the four-electron oxidation of phenylacetyl-CoA has been purified from this bacterium and studied. The enzyme preparation catalyzes the reaction phenylacetyl-CoA + 2 quinone + 2 H2O --> phenylglyoxylate + 2 quinone H2 + CoASH. Phenylacetyl-CoA:acceptor oxidoreductase is a membrane-bound molybdenum-iron-sulfur protein. The purest preparations contained three subunits of 93, 27, and 26 kDa. Ubiquinone is most likely to act as the electron acceptor, and the oxygen atom introduced into the product is derived from water. The protein preparations contained 0.66 mol Mo, 30 mol Fe, and 25 mol acid-labile sulfur per mol of native enzyme, assuming a native molecular mass of 280 kDa. Phenylglyoxylyl-CoA, but not mandelyl-CoA, was observed as a free intermediate. All enzyme preparations also catalyzed the subsequent hydrolytic release of coenzyme A from phenylglyoxylyl-CoA but not from phenylacetyl-CoA. The enzyme is reversibly inactivated by a low concentration of cyanide, but is remarkably stable with respect to oxygen. This new member of the molybdoproteins represents the first example of an enzyme which catalyzes the alpha-oxidation of a CoA-activated carboxylic acid without utilizing molecular oxygen.  (+info)

Neonatal rabbit proximal tubule basolateral membrane Na+/H+ antiporter and Cl-/base exchange. (8/1572)

The present in vitro microperfusion study examined the maturation of Na+/H+ antiporter and Cl-/base exchanger on the basolateral membrane of rabbit superficial proximal straight tubules (PST). Intracellular pH (pHi) was measured with the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye 2', 7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein in neonatal and adult superficial PST. Na+/H+ antiporter activity was examined after basolateral Na+ addition in tubules initially perfused and bathed without Na+. Neonatal Na+/H+ antiporter activity was approximately 40% that of adult segment (9.7 +/- 1.5 vs. 23.7 +/- 3.2 pmol. mm-1. min-1; P < 0.001). The effect of bath Cl- removal on pHi was used to assess the rates of basolateral Cl-/base exchange. In both neonatal and adult PST, the Cl-/base exchange activity was significantly higher in the presence of 25 mM HCO-3 than in the absence of HCO-3 and was inhibited by cyanide and acetazolamide, consistent with Cl-/HCO-3 exchange. The proton flux rates in the presence of bicarbonate in neonatal and adult tubules were 14.1 +/- 3.6 and 19.5 +/- 3.5 pmol. mm-1min-1, respectively (P = NS), consistent with a mature rate of Cl-/HCO-3 exchanger activity in neonatal tubules. Basolateral Cl-/base exchange activity in the absence of CO2 and HCO-3, with luminal and bath cyanide and acetazolamide, was greater in adult than in neonatal PST and inhibited by bath DIDS consistent with a maturational increase in Cl-/OH- exchange. We have previously shown that the rates of the apical membrane Na+/H+ antiporter and Cl-/base exchanger were approximately fivefold lower in neonatal compared with adult rabbit superficial PST. These data demonstrate that neonatal PST basolateral membrane Na+/H+ antiporter and Cl-/base exchanger activities are relatively more mature than the Na+/H+ antiporter and Cl-/base exchangers on the apical membrane.  (+info)

The transition of the bacterial culture into the stationary growth phase is accompanied by an appearance of cyanide-resistant respiration. Chloramphenicol inhibits the development of cyanide-resistant respiration. The cyanide-resistant oxidase is localized in the bacterial membrane. Its appearance is not due to the quantitative and qualitative changes of flavins, non-heme iron, ubiquinone and cytochromes of the b and c types, but is accompanied by an increase in the copper content of the membrane preparations. Neither cyanide-sensitive, nor cyanide-resistant chains of the bacterial electron transfer contain cytochromes of the a type. The cyanide-resistant oxidase accepts electrons at the ubiquinone--cytochrome b level of the main respiratory chain. The cyanide-resistant respiration is not accompanied by a formation of hydrogen peroxide. Cytochrome o performs the function of cyanide-sensitive oxidase. The nature of cyanide-resistant oxidase still remains obscure. ...
Even given all of these direct and indirect effects of cyanide exposure to plants, it is highly unlikely for humans to be exposed to large enough amounts of cyanide to be put at risk; still, its important to know the signs of cyanide exposure just to err on the side of caution. The earliest effects of cyanide exposure are rapid, deep breathing and shortness of breath followed by convulsions (seizures) and loss of consciousness. Prolonged exposure to small amounts of cyanide over long periods of time has been linked to breathing difficulties, chest pain, vomiting, blood changes, headaches and enlargement of the thyroid gland. Exposure to large amounts of cyanide in a short time can cause brain and heart damage and in some cases can lead to coma and death.. ...
98650 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet. Avhandling: Cassava processing, consumption and dietary cyanide exposure.
The alternative oxidase of Moniliella tomentosa mitochondria is stimulated by 5-AMP. This effect may be masked, depending on the isolation procedure of the mitochondria. The preparation of submitochondrial particles results in the expression of the 5-AMP effect. Two more methods are now described to reveal the 5-AMP effect whenever it would be masked: (1) switching on the myokinase activity of the mitochondria to deplete them of endogenous 5-AMP; (2) using detergents (sodium dodecyl sulphate, sodium deoxycholate) in a controlled detergent:protein ratio, or chloroform. The alternative oxidase of detergent-solubilized mitochondria was somewhat less selective towards nucleotides than were intact mitochondria. The effect of nucleotides on quinol oxidation by mitochondrial preparations and on quinol autoxidation was also studied. Mitochondrial oxidation of succinate by the alternative oxidase and autoxidation of quinols behaved similarly in the presence of certain nucleotides. Both reactions were ...
Sorry about the loss of your pet. Although my experience is with the inhalation of cyanide, I would think that if your dog ingested cyanide and it died suddenly, it was an acute poisoning of cyanide (which can be found in pest control media like rat poison). If it was acute and dog was probably exibiting convulsions, frothing at the mouth, and respiratory problems. If this was the case, a simple blood test can confirm the presence of cyanide. If it was chronic cyanide poisoning (a little cyanide ingested over a long period of time), hair and nail samples can be taken to prove cyanide poisoning. Most likely, it was an acute ingestion - but I would also check with your vet and examine the lab tests that were run (if any). One sign of ethylene glycol poisoning (anti-freeze) is kidney failure and that may be another way your pet was poisoned. Good Luck, Kelly Dennison Industrial Hygienist ...
The U.S. Bureau of Mines is investigating biodegradation of cyanide as a means of decommissioning heap leach operations. Biological oxidation decreased weak acid dissociable (wad) cyanide in process solutions from 50 to 170 ppm down to 0.1 Ppm. The tests were conducted both in trickling column reactors, using quartz as the growth surface, and in upflow columns, using activated carbon as the grow
A rapid and precise method is presented for the direct determination of cyanide in otherwise unpolluted seawater using a cyanide ion-selective electrode. Although chloride interferes significantly at low cyanide levels its effect can be almost completely elmimiated by approproate selectivity corrections allowing determination of cyanide to less than 20 μg/1. The cyanide electrode can also be used for continuous monitoring at levels of interest in toxicological research.. ...
This document is a general summary of cyanides effects on human health and the environment, and is not intended to be a complete reference on all the environmental and health effects of cyanide. Human Health Effects Cyanide is produced in the human body and exhaled in extremely low concentrations with each breath. It is also produced by over 1,000 plant species including sorghum, bamboo and cassava. Relatively low concentrations of cyanide can be highly toxic to people and wildlife.
This document is a general summary of cyanides effects on human health and the environment, and is not intended to be a complete reference on all the environmental and health effects of cyanide. Human Health Effects Cyanide is produced in the human body and exhaled in extremely low concentrations with each breath. It is also produced by over 1,000 plant species including sorghum, bamboo and cassava. Relatively low concentrations of cyanide can be highly toxic to people and wildlife.
The effects of cyanide on Ca2+ exchange in isolated ventricular myocytes and on the intracellular concentrations of Ca2+, Na+ and H+ have been investigated to assess the contribution that mitochondria might play in cellular Ca2+ metabolism. Ionic levels were measured with ion-selective electrodes. KCN (2.5 mM) inhibited a component of Ca2+ exchange in myocytes that could be attributed to mitochondrial exchange, but was without effect on non-mitochondrial Ca2+ exchange. NaCN (2.5 mM) caused a transient reduction of [H+]i, [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i when applied to the superfusate bathing ventricular trabeculae or papillary muscles. The transient changes of [Na+]i were accentuated when the preparation was exposed to a solution which would be expected to increase the cellular calcium content. The reduction of [Na+]i which accompanies a reduction of the extracellular sodium concentration, [Na]o, was attenuated in the presence of NaCN, but the intracellular acidosis resulting from a reduction of [Na]o was ...
Cyanide toxicity is generally considered to be a rare form of poisoning. However, cyanide exposure occurs relatively frequently in patients with smoke inhalation from residential or industrial fires.
from the dissociation of the complex is used to leach gold from the ore The stepwise dissociation of cyanide from coppercyanide complexes can also be used to leach gold from a variety of oxide and sulphide ores The copper cyanides fourth ligand readily dissociates at low cyanide concentrations for use in gold leaching
2021-5-14 · Gold and Silver Plating Basics Products Finishing. Feb 22, 2011 This imposes a requirement to maintain at least some free cyanide in the system, and sets a minimum operating pH for cyanide silver plating solutions of at least 8.0 to 8.5.
how cold is explained by cyanide process_Gold Cyanidation Process Mineral Processing & MetallurgyThe Cyanidation Process or CYANIDE LEACHING is most notably used in the recovery of gold. Safety and environmental concerns are of pri
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Data on 6,500 pesticides, insecticides and herbicides including toxicity, water pollution, ecological toxicity, uses and regulatory status.
Double metal cyanide (DMC) catalysts and methods for making them are disclosed. The catalysts comprise a DMC compound, an organic complexing agent, and optionally, a functionalized polymer. The key component is the complexing agent, which comprises a C3 -C5 aliphatic alcohol a cyclic, bidentate compound selected from lactams and lactones. Polyether polyols made from the catalysts contain reduced levels of high-molecular-weight (Mn greater than 400,000) components and consistently perform better in urethane applications such as flexible and molded foams.
LIME USGS Mineral Resources ProgramMagnesia Specialties Inc.,U.S.Lime Minerals Co.,Austin.White Lime Co.cyanide solution at a level between 10 and 11 to maximize the recovery of.Li
Accra, Dec. 1, GNA - The Wassa Association of Communities Affected by Mining (WACAM) on Wednesday said several people in the Bogoso community have developed various health related problems due to cyanide spillage into water bodies in the area by the Bogoso Gold Limited, which occurred on October 23, this year.
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1N2N: Crystal structures of cyanide complexes of P450cam and the oxygenase domain of inducible nitric oxide synthase-structural models of the short-lived oxygen complexes
In the terrestrial environment the Permian Event seems to have been a little uncertain as to what allowed organisms to survive the Great Dying. Truthfully, not enough research has gone into trying to find some sort of common theme that might unite what survived and what did not here. From the point of view of what is currently known, there is no common theme. It appears currently that the killing didnt favor one type of organism over another. This would be what Raup called a Field of Bullets scenario. It truly remains to be seen though. On the other hand, it appears that at least for KT Event this was rather different. There was a definite pattern involved. At first it was thought that it was a weight limit: no more than 50 kg survived the KT Extinction. That hasnt quite turned out to be true: the cut off wasnt mass or weight, but metabolic requirements. Rather it was a metabolic requirement. If your required more calories than a certain amount - the exact amount uncertain right now - then ...
In the terrestrial environment the Permian Event seems to have been a little uncertain as to what allowed organisms to survive the Great Dying. Truthfully, not enough research has gone into trying to find some sort of common theme that might unite what survived and what did not here. From the point of view of what is currently known, there is no common theme. It appears currently that the killing didnt favor one type of organism over another. This would be what Raup called a Field of Bullets scenario. It truly remains to be seen though. On the other hand, it appears that at least for KT Event this was rather different. There was a definite pattern involved. At first it was thought that it was a weight limit: no more than 50 kg survived the KT Extinction. That hasnt quite turned out to be true: the cut off wasnt mass or weight, but metabolic requirements. Rather it was a metabolic requirement. If your required more calories than a certain amount - the exact amount uncertain right now - then ...
Blood Bowl developer Cyanide has announced a free update will add Dark Elves to its PC adaptation of Games Workshops American football-inspired game in November. The Dark Elves--who combine Elven agility with a cruel brutality-- have their own Star Player, cheerleaders, new model designs and unique animations, Cyanide explains. A retail Dark Elves edition including the update was also announced, though this will still hit only select European countries. A downloadable release is available worldwide ...
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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Woman arrested over cyanide attack that left ex-boyfriend dead and his fiancée fighting for life | Mail Online Cyanide. Thatd be hard to pick up in a patient brought in in full arrest (not involved in a fire). Though I suspect if its advanced to ...
Admitting diagnosis: gang green.Patient with history of near drowning: patient had a sinking spell .Previously hospitalized at Mt. Cyanide (Mt. Sinai).
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《浙江农林大学学报》(原《浙江林学院学报》)是浙江农林大学主办的学术期刊,创刊于1984年。双月刊,国内外发行。ISSN2095-0756,CN33-1370/S。办刊宗旨是坚持四项基本原则和科学发展观,贯彻执行党的方针政策,报道科研成果,开展学术交流,活跃学术空气,促进科技成果向生产力转化,为社会主义现代化建设培养和发现人才服务。
《临床与病理杂志》 (原刊名《国际病理科学与临床杂志》《国外医学•生理、病理科学与临床分册》,2014年1月起启用现刊名)是由教育部主管、中南大学主办、国内外公开发行的国家级医学学术期刊(双月刊,刊号:CN 43-1521/R,ISSN 2095-6959)。大16开,双月28日出版。本刊在保持特色,介绍国外医学研究领域的新动态、新技术、新经验的基础上,将以
《临床与病理杂志》 (原刊名《国际病理科学与临床杂志》《国外医学•生理、病理科学与临床分册》,2014年1月起启用现刊名)是由教育部主管、中南大学主办、国内外公开发行的国家级医学学术期刊(双月刊,刊号:CN 43-1521/R,ISSN 2095-6959)。大16开,双月28日出版。本刊在保持特色,介绍国外医学研究领域的新动态、新技术、新经验的基础上,将以
Electroplating industry. Get Sodium Cyanide market Sample Research Report with complete TOC at https://market.biz/report/global-sodium-cyanide-market-gir/25773/#requestforsample. This research report is divided into subsequent fragments:. Fragment 1, focuses on objective of Sodium Cyanide market covering the definition, product classification, type, product images, growth statistics and presence of Sodium Cyanide market on global scale;. Fragment 2, studies the Sodium Cyanide market player, their sales volume, supply and demand analysis, profile information and their market dividend in 2016 and 2017;. Fragment 3, comprehensive market scenario of the top dominant market players of Sodium Cyanide market based on their annual revenue;. Fragment 4, Sodium Cyanide market segmentation based on regions and sales volume in each region and market profits from 2012 to 2017;. Fragment 5,6,7,8 and 9 chief countries with their Sodium Cyanide market profits 2017;. Fragment 10 and 11 studies the different ...
An emergency involving the diagnosis and management of patients exposed to cyanide is a potential scenario for any healthcare facility. Cyanide exposure is associated with smoke inhalation, laboratory mishaps, industrial incidents, suicide attempts, and criminal activity. Cyanide is a chemical group that consists of one atom of carbon bound to one atom of nitrogen by three molecular bonds (C≡N). Inorganic cyanides (also know as cyanide salts) contain cyanide in the anion form (CN−) and are used in numerous industries, such as metallurgy, photographic developing, plastic manufacturing, fumigation, and mining. Common cyanide salts include sodium cyanide (NaCN) and potassium cyanide (KCN). Sodium salts react readily with water to form hydrogen cyanide. Organic compounds that have a cyano group bonded to an alkyl residue are called nitriles. For example, methyl cyanide is also known as acetonitrile (CH3CN). Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a colorless gas at standard temperature and pressure with a ...
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Cyanide is any chemical compound containing a cyano group (C≡N), which consists of a carbon atom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom. Specifically, cyanide is the anion CN-. The various cyanides are salts or esters of HCN (hydrogen cyanide or hydrocyanic acid), whereby the hydrogen is replaced with a metal or radical, yielding such as potassium cyanide (KCN), calcium cyanide (CA(CN)2), or ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN). Organic compounds that feature cyanide as a functional group (responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules) are called nitriles in IUPAC nomenclature. For example, CH3CN is referred to by the names acetonitrile or ethanenitrile per IUPAC, but occasionally it is labeled using the common name methyl cyanide. Of the many kinds of cyanide compounds, some are gases, while others are solids or liquids. Those that can release the cyanide ion CN- are highly toxic. For plants, cyanide offers an effective chemical defense against herbivores. Remarkably, it occurs ...
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Researchers have found a new biomarker for cyanide poisoning, which may extend its detection window in death investigations by weeks if not months.. Unless cyanide is discovered at the time of death on the mouth or nose, elevated cyanide concentrations can only be found for up to two days under current toxicological testing. A team of researchers have found a substance that appears in the liver following cyanide poisoning that could serve as a stable biomarker for a longer period of time. The research, by Dr. Ilona Petrikovics, David Thompson, Sarah Martin, Prashanth Jayanna, and Jorn Yu of Sam Houston State University; Gary Rockwood of the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense; and Brian Logue of South Dakota State University, was recently published in two journals, Biomarkers and Analytical Methods.. Cyanide exposures commonly originate from smoke inhalation or direct exposure to either cyanide salt or hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and occur in military, firefighting, industrial ...
ABOUT POTASSIUM CYANIDE (1G). Potassium Cyanide (1g) is considered to be a highly toxic powder. It is used for many purposes that are not discussed here.. HOW TO USE POTASSIUM CYANIDE (1G)?. Potassium Cyanide (1g) should be used after talking to your concerned doctor, physician, or healthcare provider. Read the medication guide for more information about it.. Hit your requirements for Potassium Cyanide (1g) at our online pharmacy today. We are dealing with this product at reasonable prices. You can bring your order to us and we will deliver the same at your mentioned location within a short period of time. Place your order today!. ...
Cyanide is a metabolic poison that inhibits utilization of oxygen to form ATP. The consequences of acute cyanide exposure are severe: toxic doses result in loss of consciousness, cardio and respiratory failure, hypoxic brain injury, and dose-dependent death from within minutes to hours. In a mass casualty scenario such as an industrial accident or terrorist attack, currently available cyanide antidotes would leave many victims untreated in the short time available for successful medical countermeasure administration. Therefore, there is a need for rapidly acting antidotes that can be quickly administered to large numbers of people who may be unconscious. Sulfanegen, a novel preclinical cyanide antidote, is being developed to meet this need. Sulfanegen is administered by intramuscular injection (IM), which has the advantages of requiring minimal training for first responders, as well as the potential for rapid antidotal administration to many affected people. Due to ethical issues involved with ...
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http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/gold-potassium-cyanide-market. Asia Pacific is expected to display highest gold potassium cyanide demand over coming seven years, owing to increase in electrical and electronics industry in developing countries of the region such as India and China. Japan is also anticipated to witness remarkable gold potassium cyanide market growth over next seven years, due to increasing technological development and product innovations in the country. Rise in per capita disposable income is also anticipated to have a positive impact on product demand in the region over next seven years. Developed regions such as Europe and North America are also projected to exhibit a high product demand, owing to increasing applications in end-use industries which is expected propel the gold potassium cyanide market over next seven years.. Major players operating in gold potassium cyanide market are Prominex Precious Mineral Resources, Sreenivasa Industries, GFS Chemicals, ...
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As Wikipedia explains, Hydrogen cyanide is extremely deadly: A hydrogen cyanide concentration of 300 mg/m3 in air will kill a human within about 10 minutes. It is estimated that hydrogen cyanide at a concentration of 3500 ppm (about 3200 mg/m3) will kill a human in about 1 minute. The toxicity is caused by the cyanide ion, which halts cellular respiration by inhibiting an enzyme in mitochondria called cytochrome c oxidase. Interestingly, a key chemical use of Hydrogen cyanide was developed by none other than IG Farben, the Nazi war era criminal pharmaceutical giant that was later broken up to become todays pharmaceutical giants, including Bayer. Hydrogen cyanide is widely recognized as a chemical weapon and is even used on the tips of whaling harpoons to murder whales.. Physics fact #4: Hydrogen cyanide kills birds and humans very quickly. Is this the result of a weapons test or attack? That it is used as a chemical weapon might make some people wonder whether all this is fallout from some ...
Calcium cyanide also known as black cyanide, is an inorganic compound with the formula Ca(CN)2. It is a white solid, although it is rarely observed in pure form. Commercial samples can be black-gray. It is the calcium salt of cyanide. It hydrolyses readily (even on moist air) to release hydrogen cyanide. Like other similar cyanides it is very toxic. Calcium cyanide can be prepared by treating powdered calcium oxide with boiling anhydrous hydrocyanic acid in the presence of an accelerator such as ammonia or water in order to minimize the loss of the hydrocyanic acid by polymerization. It may also be prepared by reacting liquid hydrocyanic acid with calcium carbide. Alternatively calcium cyanide may be prepared by reacting hydrocyanic acid gas with quicklime (CaO) at high temperatures around 400 °C. At higher temperatures around 600 °C calcium cyanimide is formed instead. The material prepared often is contaminated with polymeric derivatives of hydrogen cyanide, hence the black color. Calcium ...
Many cyanides are highly toxic. The cyanide anion is an inhibitor of the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (also known as aa3) in the fourth complex of the electron transport chain (found in the membrane of the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells). It attaches to the iron within this protein. The binding of cyanide to this enzyme prevents transport of electrons from cytochrome c to oxygen. As a result, the electron transport chain is disrupted, meaning that the cell can no longer aerobically produce ATP for energy.[18] Tissues that depend highly on aerobic respiration, such as the central nervous system and the heart, are particularly affected. This is an example of histotoxic hypoxia.[19]. The most hazardous compound is hydrogen cyanide, which is a gas and kills by inhalation. For this reason, an air respirator supplied by an external oxygen source must be worn when working with hydrogen cyanide.[12] Hydrogen cyanide is produced by adding acid to a solution containing a cyanide salt. Alkaline solutions ...
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) contains many toxic compounds which include substances classified as aldehydes (e.g. formaldehyde) and inorganic substances such as cyanide ions. The information on the determination of these compounds in water is available, but the monitoring data on the level of these substances in human body fluids are still lacking. In this work the procedure for determining cyanide ions and formaldehyde in samples of human nasal discharge by simple spectrophotometric technique is presented ...
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Cyanide species.The term cyanide.Over 99 of the cyanide remains in solution as cn-, while at ph 7, over 99 of the cyanide will exist as hcn.Although hcn is highly soluble in water, its solubility decreases with increased temperature and under highly saline conditions.The salts of sodium, potassium and calcium cyanide are quite.
mining operations cyanide_What is the role of cyanide in mining | MiningFacts miningfacts Environment WhatistheroleofcyanideinminingWhat is the role of cyanide in mining? the cyanide concentration of effluent leaving a
Initial management of cyanide poisoning is largely supportive and includes supplemental oxygen as well as airway and ventilator support. Activated charcoal may be considered in conscious patients who present soon after ingestion. Although adsorption of cyanide to charcoal is poor, binding may be sufficient to avert severe toxicity in some case. Intravenous crystalloid should be administered initially to resuscitate hypotensive patients. Patients who are unresponsive of fluid administration should be given vasopressors. Sodium bicarbonate may be considered in severely acidemic patients that are refractory to other supportive measures.. For several decades that mainstay of antidotal treatment for suspected acute cyanide poisoning has been the administration of nitrite to induce methemoglobinemia and thiosulfate. Both nitrite and thiosulfate when given alone have been demonstrated to mitigate cyanide toxicity but greater benefit has been demonstrated when they are used together. While the ...
Sodium cyanide exposure may produce death within minutes. IMMEDIATELY BEGIN ADMINISTERING 100% OXYGEN. OBTAIN THE CYANIDE ANTIDOTE KIT AND PREPARE IT FOR USE. Non-lethal, subacute, or chronic exposure may produce headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, palpitations, confusion, deep inspiratory gasps followed by hyperpnea, hyperventilation, anxiety, and vertigo. Severe signs of hypoxia in the absence of cyanosis suggest cyanide poisoning. Patients have reportedly survived potentially lethal ingestions with only supportive care. The absence of a rapidly deteriorating course does not exclude cyanide poisoning ...
Looking for online definition of Organic cyanide in the Medical Dictionary? Organic cyanide explanation free. What is Organic cyanide? Meaning of Organic cyanide medical term. What does Organic cyanide mean?
Confirmation that neither cyanide intoxication nor mutations commonly associated with Lebers Heriditary Optic Neuropapthy are implicated in Tanzanian Epidemic Optic Neuropathy ...
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Cyanide most commonly occurs as hydrogen cyanide and its salts-sodium and potassium cyanide. Cyanides are both man-made and naturally occurring substances. They are found in several plant species as cyanogenic glycosides and are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and algae. In very small amounts, cyanide is a necessary requirement in the human diet. Cyanides are released to the environment from industrial sources and car emissions (ATSDR, 1989).. Cyanides are readily absorbed by the inhalation, oral, and dermal routes of exposure. The central nervous system (CNS) is the primary target organ for cyanide toxicity. Neurotoxicity has been observed in humans and animals following ingestion and inhalation of cyanides. Cardiac and respiratory effects, possibly CNS-mediated, have also been reported. Short-term exposure to high concentrations produces almost immediate collapse, respiratory arrest, and death (Hartung, 1982; EPA, 1985). Symptoms resulting from occupational exposure to lower ...
In this study the removal of free cyanide from aqueous solutions by air oxidation and adsorption was investigated. Effects of air and pure oxygen, and catalyst on the rate and extent of the removal of cyanide were studied. It was found that the oxidative removal of cyanide by air/oxygen was very limited although it tended to improve in the presence of pure oxygen and catalyst such as activated carbon and copper sulphate. In the presence of continuous aeration, the non-oxidative removal of cyanide was correlated with a decrease in pH effected apparently by the transfer of carbon dioxide from air phase into the medium. The removal of cyanide by adsorption on activated carbon (AC), nut shell (NS) and rice husk (RH) was also examined. Adsorption capacity of activated carbon was shown to be significantly enhanced via impregnation of activated carbons with metals such as copper (AC-Cu) and silver (AC-Ag). In the column tests, the breakthrough capacity of adsorbents was found to be in an increasing ...
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Global Sodium Cyanide Market by Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, Forecast to 2022 published in Aug 2017 spread across 121 pages, providing competitive landscape analysis, market share info and more is now available for US $3480 at Market Research Reports.
ST. PAUL, Minn. -- Cyanide poisoning may seem like the stuff of Cold War spy novels. But its a danger firefighters face daily and a dreaded fear in the fight against terrorism.Whatever the scenario, University of Minnesota scientists say they have discovered a faster antidote to cyanide poisoning that could save lives.
Recommended criteria for a standard intended to protect the health of workers against exposure to hydrogen-cyanide (74908) and cyanide salts, especially sodium-cyanide (13998033), potassium-cyanide (151508) and calcium-cyanide (592018), for up to a 10-hour work shift, 40-hour work week, over a working lifetime. Occupational exposure to these compounds is defined as exposure to airborne concentrations greater than the corresponding action levels, or one- half the corresponding recommended ceiling environmental exposure limit. The main topics covered include: recommendations for levels of cyanide in the workplace air, including sampling and analysis; medical surveillance; personal protective equipment and clothing; informing employees of cyanide hazards; work practices and control procedures; sanitation, monitoring and recordkeeping; biologic effects of exposure, including epidemiology, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and teratogenicity; environmental data and engineering controls. - NIOSHTIC-2 ...
With the start of fall comes the risk of cyanide poisoing in ruminants. Cyanide, prussic acid, hydrogen cyanide or hydrocyanic acid poisoning are all terms describing the same condition. A number of common plants, including sudangrass, johnsongrass, sorghums and sorghum-sudangrass hybrids contain cyanogenic glycosides in the outer cells of the plant. Further inside the leaf tissue are the enzymes needed to convert these compounds to the cyanide poison.
With the start of fall comes the risk of cyanide poisoing in ruminants. Cyanide, prussic acid, hydrogen cyanide or hydrocyanic acid poisoning are all terms describing the same condition. A number of common plants, including sudangrass, johnsongrass, sorghums and sorghum-sudangrass hybrids contain cyanogenic glycosides in the outer cells of the plant. Further inside the leaf tissue are the enzymes needed to convert these compounds to the cyanide poison.
This market research report examines the foreign trade of Romania and its perspectives on the global market for cyanides, cyanide oxides and complex
1. The tumour cells were starved in a solution lacking Na+ and then transferred to a Ringer solution containing 2mm-sodium cyanide, 150m-equiv. of Na+/l. and 10m-equiv. of K+/l. Such cells were depleted of ATP and contained an endogenous pool of various amino acids equivalent to a 26mm solution. 2. At 4min. after the transfer the cellular Na+ content had increased by about 100% and roughly an equivalent amount of K+ had left the cells. 3. Under these conditions [14C]glycine was absorbed from an 11mm solution and reached the same cellular concentration by about 4min. The pool size increased by approximately the same amount (ΔGly), so glycine did not simply exchange with the endogenous components. 4. After 4min. with glycine, the cells contained about 20% more Na+ (ΔNa+) than the control and about 10% less K+ (ΔK+). The mean values of ΔNa+/ΔGly and ΔK+/ΔGly from five experiments were respectively 0·90±0·11 and 0·62±0·11equiv./mole. 5. A further indication that these two ratios were ...
The following is a summary from the ECETOC JACC Report, No. 53, 2007, in the absence of a specific Koc value and in lieu of writing individual endpoint study records on the publications covered in this review: The fate of cyanides in soil is dependent on a number of chemical and biological processes such as redox conditions, pH, complexation or microbial degradation, based on comprehensive reviews of those processes including that published by Kjeldsen (1999). HCN is not strongly partitioned into the sediments or suspended adsorbents, primarily due to its high solubility in water (Callahan et al,1979). Cyanides are relatively mobile in the soil environment (Alesii and Fuller, 1976). These authors reported that cyanide mobility is least where soils exhibit low pH, high concentrations of free iron oxides, and positively charged particles (e.g. kaolin, chlorite, gibbsite). Mobility is greatest at high pH, high concentrations of free CaCO3 (high negative charge) and low clay content. Cruz et al ...
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[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Silver potassium cyanide Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production...
2019-10-15gold cyanidation also known as the cyanide process or the macarthur-forrest process is a hydrometallurgical technique for extracting gold from low-grade ore by converting the gold to a water-soluble coordination complex is the most commonly used leaching process for gold extractionproduction of reagents for mineral processing to recover gold, copper, zinc and silver represents.
Cyanide-containing wastes are commonly found in soils at former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites, also known as town gas sites. The complex forms of cyanide are responsible for the blue-stained soils and rocks found at these sites. Most concentrations of cyanide at MGP sites are below 2000 ppm, al...
A comparative study was conducted in rat primary cortical (CX) and mesencephalic (MC) neurons to investigate intracellular cascades activated during cyanide-induced injury and to determine the point at which the cascades diverge to produce either apoptosis or necrosis. Cyanide treatment (400 μM) for 24 h produced primarily apoptosis in CX cells, whereas the same concentration of cyanide induced predominantly necrosis in MC cells as indicated by increased propidium iodide staining and cellular lactate dehydrogenase efflux. Cyanide increased generation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both CX and MC cells, but the rate of formation and nature of the oxidative species varied with cell type. Catalase decreased cyanide-induced ROS generation in CX but not in MC cells. Nitric oxide generation was more prominent after cyanide treatment of MC compared with CX cells.N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors were more involved in CX apoptosis than in MC necrosis. Mitochondrial membrane potential ...
cake and [Madeira] wine … said to be laced with enough cynide to kill a monastery of monks, but it left Rasputin unaffected. He was then shot, at least twice, but was still alive and fighting back against his would-be assassins. At this point he was beaten into submission, tied up in a carpet and dropped into the frozen Neva river. His body was recovered two days later, and a post-mortem revealed that he had died from drowning.. There are a number of theories that might explain what happened that day:. 1. His assassins were terrible poisoners and did not put enough cyanide in the food to kill him, or mistook an innocuous substance for cyanide salts.. 2. Rasputin suffered from alcoholic gastritis.. 3. Suspecting someone might try and poison him, Rasputin dosed himself regularly with small amounts of poison to build up an immunity to a larger, normally letha. dose.. 4. The sugary cakes and wine acted as an antidote to the cyanide.. 5. The story is made up and rasputin was killed by a single ...
1Calcium cyanide WikipediaCalcium cyanide can be prepared by treating powdered calcium oxide with operation to obtain precious metals such as gold and silver from their ores 2ICSC 0407 CALCI&calcium cyanide gold recovery
Cyanide and Methemoglobinemia. Presented by: Dr. Aric Storck Preceptor: Dr. Ingrid Vicas Core Rounds February 20, 2003. Cyanide. Cyanide. Anion (CN - ) solid and gaseous forms Important component of many industrial reactions mining - recover silver and gold from ores Slideshow 1195501 by sandra_john
Investigators from the University of Minnesota are reporting in the latest issue of Journal of Medicinal Chemistry that their compound called sulfanagen wa
Cyanide ion is normally found in serum; it is derived from dietary substrates and from tobacco smoke. Cyanide binds avidly (but reversibly) to ferric ion (Fe+++), most body stores of which are found in erythrocyte methemoglobin (metHgb) and in mitochondrial cytochromes. When CN- is infused or generated within the bloodstream, essentially all of it is bound to methemoglobin until intraerythrocytic methemoglobin has been saturated.. When the Fe+++ of cytochromes is bound to cyanide, the cytochromes are unable to participate in oxidative metabolism. In this situation, cells may be able to provide for their energy needs by utilizing anaerobic pathways, but they thereby generate an increasing body burden of lactic acid. Other cells may be unable to utilize these alternative pathways, and they may die hypoxic deaths.. CN- levels in packed erythrocytes are typically less than 1 μmol/L (less than 25 mcg/L); levels are roughly doubled in heavy smokers.. At healthy steady-state, most people have less ...

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  • Cyanide salts are used in metallurgy for electroplating, metal cleaning, and removing gold from its ore. (cdc.gov)
  • This dangerous process represents a significant risk associated with cyanide salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • NIOSH Criteria Documents: Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts -DHHS (NIOSH) No. 77-108 Presents a standard to prevent the adverse effects of exposure to Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts over a working lifetime. (cdc.gov)
  • The severity of the harmful effects following cyanide exposure depends in part on the form of cyanide, such as hydrogen cyanide gas or cyanide salts. (cdc.gov)
  • ToxFAQsTM Internet address is http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaq.html depends in part on the form of cyanide, such as hydrogen cyanide smoke from burning plastics contains cyanide (and carbon gas or cyanide salts. (cdc.gov)
  • Both gaseous and liquid hydrogen cyanide, as well as cyanide salts in solution, can also be taken up through the skin. (opcw.org)
  • Alkali burns of the gastrointestinal tract often can be observed during autopsy in cases where cyanide salts have been ingested. (redorbit.com)
  • Since cyanide salts are solid crystalline, their presence in a crime scene or in the areas near victim's nose or mouth can be easily discovered, collected and preserved for further forensic testing. (redorbit.com)
  • The various cyanides are salts or esters of HCN (hydrogen cyanide or hydrocyanic acid), whereby the hydrogen is replaced with a metal or radical, yielding such as potassium cyanide (KCN), calcium cyanide (CA(CN) 2 ), or ethyl cyanide (CH 3 CH 2 CN). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • As salts or esters of hydrogen cyanide (HCN, or hydrocyanic acid), cyanides are formed by replacing the hydrogen of hydrogen cyanide with a metal, such as sodium or potassium , or by replacing the hydrogen with a radical (such as ammonium). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • For the salts such as sodium cyanide and potassium cyanide , these compounds are highly toxic. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is obtained by acidification of cyanide salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because they do not release cyanide ions, nitriles are generally far less toxic than cyanide salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In inorganic chemistry, salts containing the C≡N − ion are referred to as cyanides . (wikipedia.org)
  • The salts of the cyanide anion are known as cyanides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanides salts are extremely toxic. (foxnews.com)
  • Activated charcoal can be used in patients presenting after ingestion of cyanide salts or organic cyanides. (medscape.com)
  • Exposure to high levels of cyanide harms the brain and heart, and may cause coma and death. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to high levels of cyanide for a monoxide). (cdc.gov)
  • As well as bitter apricot kernels, low levels of cyanide are also present in almonds, sweet apricot kernels and in the stones of other fruits such as cherries. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Batch cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were able to produce only low levels of cyanide during logarithmic growth with adequate aeration. (springer.com)
  • Elevated levels of cyanide in the water near Sandvik en in eastern Sweden caused toolmaker Sandvik to warn its employees not to drink the water on Monday. (thelocal.se)
  • The researchers found that the prey produced levels of cyanide high enough to inhibit, but not kill, the B. bacteriovorus HD100 . (eurekalert.org)
  • The term cyanide refers to the anion CN - , or to its acidic form, hydrocyanic acid (HCN). (fas.org)
  • Useful search terms for hydrogen cyanide include "formonitrile," "hydrocyanic acid," and "prussic acid. (cdc.gov)
  • [2] Hydrocyanic acid, also known as hydrogen cyanide, or HCN, is a highly volatile liquid that is produced on a large scale industrially. (wikipedia.org)
  • A solution of hydrogen cyanide in water , represented as HCN, is called hydrocyanic acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • A solution of hydrogen cyanide in water is called hydrocyanic acid. (bionity.com)
  • Hydrogen cyanide (hydrocyanic acid, HCN) is a highly poisonous compound found widely in nature. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Cyanide has a high affinity for metals, which leads to the high toxicity of this salt. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen cyanide has high toxicity and in sufficient concentrations it rapidly leads to death. (opcw.org)
  • However, human beings have the unique skill of pre-ingestion food processing that can overcome this toxicity, as well as a physiological ability to satisfactorily detoxify cyanide with a sufficient protein diet generally, allowing them to consume such foods (Jones 1998). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • For example, bitter almonds (as opposed to sweet almonds) can yield dangerous amounts of prussic acid (hydrogen cyanide) when eaten raw, but the toxicity can be removed by heating. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The Food Standard Agency (FSA)'s scientific committee, the committee on toxicity of chemicals in food, consumer products and the environment (COT), expressed concern last week that, when ingested, bitter apricot kernels can produce cyanide. (foodnavigator.com)
  • We wish to thank Bebarta for drawing our attention to the position of sodium thiosulfate in the treatment of cyanide toxicity and giving us the opportunity to clarify our statements. (lww.com)
  • Although sodium thiosulfate is considered an ineffective antidote for acute cyanide toxicity because of poor intracellular penetration, slow onset of effect, a short half-life, and limited distribution volume, it is often used in conjunction with other rapid-acting antidotes. (lww.com)
  • Although there may be a theoretically synergistic action of sodium thiosulfate and hydroxocobalamin in cyanide toxicity, there is no evidence to support this at the moment, either in human data, or in animal data. (lww.com)
  • This monotherapy of hydroxocobalamin should be effective for severe cyanide toxicity, provided it is administered in sufficiently high doses. (lww.com)
  • Reproductive toxicity studies of acetone cyanohydrin, sodium cyanide and potassium cyanide are all informative toward understanding the reproductive effects of hydrogen cyanide. (europa.eu)
  • Cyanide is a toxic chemical that causes central nervous system and thyroid toxicity. (ewg.org)
  • The legal limit for cyanide, established in 1992, was based on a 1955 toxicity study conducted in laboratory animals. (ewg.org)
  • Antidotal therapy is indicated for any patient in whom the diagnosis of cyanide toxicity is considered on clinical grounds, even before laboratory confirmation. (medscape.com)
  • Hydroxocobalamin (HCO, vitamin B-12) is the first-line therapy for cyanide toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • However, in cases of smoke inhalation in which cyanide toxicity is suspected, administration of sodium thiosulfate is safe. (medscape.com)
  • Antidotes either directly counteract cyanide's toxicity on the electron transport chain or help the body eliminate the cyanide molecule. (medscape.com)
  • Hydroxocobalamin may be used in combination with sodium thiosulfate for treatment of acute cyanide toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Low-dose hydroxocobalamin in combination with sodium thiosulfate has been used successfully to prevent cyanide toxicity in patients receiving prolonged sodium nitroprusside infusions. (medscape.com)
  • Half the original dose may be repeated in 1 hour if the patient continues to exhibit signs of cyanide toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Smoking cigarettes is probably one of the major sources of cyanide exposure for people who do not work in cyanide-related industries. (cdc.gov)
  • The extent of poisoning caused by cyanide depends on the amount of cyanide a person is exposed to, the route of exposure, and the length of time that a person is exposed. (cdc.gov)
  • Since breathing it is likely to be the primary route of exposure to cyanide, leave the area where the cyanide gas was released and get to fresh air. (cdc.gov)
  • Quickly moving to an area where fresh air is available is highly effective in reducing exposure to cyanide gas. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to hydrogen cyanide. (cdc.gov)
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to hydrogen cyanide. (cdc.gov)
  • Smoking cigarettes and breathing smoke-filled air during fires are major sources of cyanide exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • cyanide uptake into the body through the skin is slower than these other means of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • The immediate effects on plant life of cyanide exposure vary tremendously depending on the species of plant. (ehow.com)
  • still, it's important to know the signs of cyanide exposure just to err on the side of caution. (ehow.com)
  • The earliest effects of cyanide exposure are rapid, deep breathing and shortness of breath followed by convulsions (seizures) and loss of consciousness. (ehow.com)
  • Prolonged exposure to small amounts of cyanide over long periods of time has been linked to breathing difficulties, chest pain, vomiting, blood changes, headaches and enlargement of the thyroid gland. (ehow.com)
  • Exposure to large amounts of cyanide in a short time can cause brain and heart damage and in some cases can lead to coma and death. (ehow.com)
  • Symptoms of cyanide poisoning vary and depend on, for example, route of poisoning, total dose and the exposure time. (opcw.org)
  • Cyanide exposures commonly originate from smoke inhalation or direct exposure to either cyanide salt or hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and occur in military, firefighting, industrial and forensic settings. (redorbit.com)
  • Due to the relatively short half-life of cyanide (from minutes to hours depending on the matrix), toxicological detection of cyanide to confirm cyanide poisoning may only be feasible within the first few hours following exposure. (redorbit.com)
  • The detection of stable biomarkers of cyanide is needed to extend the time in which cyanide exposure can be reliably assayed in a post mortem examination. (redorbit.com)
  • Exposure to mercury cyanide produces symptoms of mercury poisoning and cyanide poisoning. (reference.com)
  • The delay between exposure and the onset of symptoms depends on the type of cyanide involved, the route of entry, and the dose. (medscape.com)
  • Rapidity of symptom onset, depending on the type of cyanide exposure, occurs in the following order (most rapid to least rapid): gas, soluble salt, insoluble salt, and cyanogens. (medscape.com)
  • Physical findings of cyanide exposure are generally nonspecific, yet the onset of illness may be dramatic. (medscape.com)
  • Harmful exposure to potassium cyanide may occur after consuming contaminated food or beverages, inhaling droplets in the air or accidentally absorbing the chemical through the skin or eyes. (reference.com)
  • Exposure to cyanide gas or to food products that contain cyanide may cause a sudden rapid heartbeat, nausea, headache, dizziness and difficulty breathing. (livestrong.com)
  • Exposure to larger amounts of cyanide may cause more severe symptoms, including loss of consciousness and respiratory distress or failure. (livestrong.com)
  • Regardless of whether the exposure is to gaseous HCN or ACH, or via a soluble cyanide salt, it is HCN which is absorbed into the blood after oral, dermal or inhalation exposure. (europa.eu)
  • The form of cyanide to which exposure takes place, i.e. a simple salt or the free acid, does not influence the distribution, metabolism or excretion from the body. (europa.eu)
  • A cyanogen usually refers to a nitrile that liberates the cyanide anion during metabolism and produces the biological effects of the cyanide anion. (fas.org)
  • The cyanide anion is a ligand for many transition metals . (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we report a scalable catalytic asymmetric Strecker reaction that uses an accessible chiral variant of oligoethylene glycol as the catalyst and KCN to generate a chiral cyanide anion. (nature.com)
  • Therefore, we presumed that our chiral anion generator can be applied to catalytic enantioselective Strecker synthesis by generating a chiral cyanide anion to provide a more general and practical method to access enantiomerically pure non-natural amino acids. (nature.com)
  • For example, CH 3 CN is referred to by the names acetonitrile or ethanenitrile per IUPAC, but occasionally it is labeled using the common name methyl cyanide. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • [3] [4] An example of a nitrile is CH 3 CN, acetonitrile , also known as methyl cyanide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, CH 3 CN can be methyl cyanide but more commonly is referred to as acetonitrile. (bionity.com)
  • Cyanide can be a colorless gas, such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or cyanogen chloride (CNCl), or a crystal form such as sodium cyanide (NaCN) or potassium cyanide (KCN). (cdc.gov)
  • KCN and sodium cyanide (NaCN) are widely used in organic synthesis for the preparation of nitriles and carboxylic acids , particularly in the von Richter reaction . (wikipedia.org)
  • Pits and seeds of common fruits, such as apricots, apples, and peaches, may have substantial amounts of chemicals which are metabolized to cyanide. (cdc.gov)
  • The French used about 4000 tons of cyanide in WWI without notable military success, possibly because the small one- to two-pound munitions used could not deliver the large amounts needed to cause biological effects. (fas.org)
  • The moist solid emits small amounts of hydrogen cyanide due to hydrolysis , which smells like bitter almonds . (wikipedia.org)
  • the moist solid emits small amounts of hydrogen cyanide, which smells like bitter almonds (not everyone can smell it-the ability thereof is due to a genetic trait [7] ). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the edible parts of plants that are eaten in the United States, including tapioca which is made from cassava roots, contain relatively low amounts of cyanide. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the portions of these plants that are eaten in the United States contain relatively low amounts of cyanide. (cdc.gov)
  • You are not likely to be exposed to large enough amounts of cyanide in the environment to cause adverse health effects. (cdc.gov)
  • contain relatively low amounts of cyanide. (cdc.gov)
  • States contain relatively low amounts of cyanide. (cdc.gov)
  • Plants that have metabolized large amounts of cyanide can be hazardous to animals who eat those plants. (ehow.com)
  • Cyanide poisoning of livestock by way of cyanide buildup in grasses and other plants cultivated for cattle grazing have been so problematic that botanists have developed strains of cattle-grazing plants resistant to the buildup of large amounts of cyanide. (ehow.com)
  • When a human drinks water or touches soil that has large amounts of cyanide, health problems can quickly ensue. (ehow.com)
  • Similarly, humans can be put at risk when eating foods harvested from plants containing large amounts of cyanide. (ehow.com)
  • I recently found out that a maximum of 2 eucalyptus leaves should be used in tea, as the leaves contain high amounts of cyanide which can eventually lead to a Parkinsons-like syndrome. (reddit.com)
  • Cyanides are found in substantial amounts in certain seeds and fruit stones, e.g., those of bitter almonds , apricots , apples , and peaches . (wikipedia.org)
  • Whilst the Baia Mare accident is very much still in living memory, it seems unbelievable to many that vast amounts of cyanide - several tons per mine every year - may still be used in gold mining in modern-day Europe. (theecologist.org)
  • When broken down, it discharges small amounts of hydrogen cyanide gas, which can be hazardous when inhaled in enclosed or poorly ventilated areas. (reference.com)
  • Hydrogen cyanide gas prevents the body from circulating healthy amounts of oxygen, causing essential organs to fail. (reference.com)
  • The public's enduring love affair with gold can be satisfied only by extracting tiny amounts from ores with a chemical like cyanide that binds to gold and separates it in a modern-day version of alchemy. (acs.org)
  • The seed of an apple is not poisonous but it might give a stomach ache.Contrary to this, apple seeds do contain small amounts of cyanide, however, this is not enough to be poisonous by a long way. (answers.com)
  • A n additional control group of animals which received equivalent amounts of water as the high dose KCN group demonstrated comparable decreases in body and organ weights (including testes), indicating that cyanide was not the causative agent in the organ weight changes. (europa.eu)
  • The researchers verified that C. piscinae produced large amounts of cyanide when cultured in nutrient-rich broth, and that those cultured in HEPES, a nutrient-poor buffer, didn't. (eurekalert.org)
  • Sodium cyanide reacts rapidly with strong acids to release hydrogen cyanide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some nitriles, which occur naturally as cyanohydrins , release hydrogen cyanide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike nitriles, cyanohydridins do release hydrogen cyanide . (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain plastics , especially those derived from acrylonitrile , release hydrogen cyanide when heated or burnt. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such molecules slowly release hydrogen cyanide. (bionity.com)
  • Organic compounds that feature cyanide as a functional group (responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules) are called nitriles in IUPAC nomenclature. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Despite an opinion by the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation that tests cannot determine the type of cyanide found in a body, Roberts said the FBI has assured him such results are possible. (chicagotribune.com)
  • However, the FDA reports that most manufacturing processes wash this type of cyanide away. (livestrong.com)
  • Due to its wide range of uses, it is important to understand cyanide's effects on plant life should any amount of cyanide be accidentally introduced to an ecosystem. (ehow.com)
  • Your dose will depend on your body weight and the amount of cyanide in the leaves. (reddit.com)
  • In cases where no suspicious substances are observed in the scene of the death, the presence of cyanide in the victim's body can be confirmed chemically using a colorimetric test, followed by a laboratory analysis using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). (redorbit.com)
  • Therefore, the presence of cyanide becomes less feasible when the detection window is passed or the victims' body has been damaged by fire or advanced decomposition. (redorbit.com)
  • Tests performed on samples taken from water near the Sandvik Materials Technology plant on January 27th revealed a presence of cyanide 20 times above recommended levels. (thelocal.se)
  • If this was the case, a simple blood test can confirm the presence of cyanide. (madsci.org)
  • Meanwhile, an official of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) said its preliminary tests were focusing on the possible presence of cyanide in the drink, noting that the victims died within minutes after ingestion. (inquirer.net)
  • In aqueous solution, KCN is dissociated into hydrated potassium (K + ) ions and cyanide (CN − ) ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The common form of solid KCN, stable at ambient pressure and temperature, has the same cubic crystal structure as sodium chloride , with each potassium ion surrounded by six cyanide ions, and vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the cyanide ions being diatomic, and thus less symmetric than chloride, they rotate so rapidly, their time-averaged shape is spherical. (wikipedia.org)
  • At low temperature and high pressure, this free rotation is hindered, resulting in a less symmetric crystal structure with the cyanide ions arranged in sheets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The divalent iron in blood haemoglobin can be oxidized to trivalent, which leads to the formation of methaemoglobin which binds cyanide ions. (opcw.org)
  • Cyanide can also be bound by metallic ions supplied to the blood in suitable form. (opcw.org)
  • Nitriles usually do not release cyanide ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • [14] Cyanide ions interfere with iron-containing respiratory enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following her arrest in October of 2019, Jolly has confessed to using cyanide to kill the six aforementioned people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium cyanide is highly toxic . (wikipedia.org)
  • Being highly toxic, sodium cyanide is used to kill or stun rapidly such as in widely illegal cyanide fishing and in collecting jars used by entomologists . (wikipedia.org)
  • An autopsy found highly toxic cyanide levels in the blood of the not-so-dearly departed. (dictionary.com)
  • Those that can release the cyanide ion CN - are highly toxic. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Cyanide is highly toxic but it's also dead cheap. (theecologist.org)
  • Potassium cyanide is a highly toxic and fast-acting substance, and it also functions effectively as an insecticide. (reference.com)
  • Police confirmed that highly toxic sodium cyanide was present near the site, raising fears that spread of the chemical could cause more casualties. (npr.org)
  • The People's Daily newspaper tweeted that anti-chemical warfare troops were "to handle highly toxic sodium cyanide discovered at #TianjinBlast site. (npr.org)
  • Cyanide prevents the cells of the body from using oxygen. (cdc.gov)
  • Cyanide is more harmful to the heart and brain than to other organs because the heart and brain use a lot of oxygen. (cdc.gov)
  • The cyanide ion can rapidly combine with iron in cytochrome a 3 (a component of the cytochrome aa 3 or cytochrome oxidase complex in mitochrondria) to inhibit this enzyme, thus preventing intracellular oxygen utilization. (fas.org)
  • Hydrogen cyanide interferes with the body's use of oxygen and may cause harm to the brain, heart, blood vessels, and lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • Cyanide shuts down body's ability to carry or absorb oxygen. (prezi.com)
  • Cyanide shreds energy mechanisms, breaks down cellular respiration, and causes rapid cell death due to oxygen deprivation. (prezi.com)
  • He said if discharged into a human body, cyanide was rapidly distributed through the body, and cut off the ability of living cells to use oxygen. (news24.com)
  • Hydrogen cyanide is produced by the combustion or pyrolysis of certain materials under oxygen-deficient conditions . (wikipedia.org)
  • Classically, the skin of a cyanide-poisoned patient is described as cherry red in color due to elevated venous oxygen content resulting from failure of tissues to extract oxygen. (medscape.com)
  • Sodium cyanide is harmful because it interferes with the body's ability to use oxygen. (reference.com)
  • The tight binding of cyanide prevents oxygen from participating in electron transport. (madsci.org)
  • Oxygen is the initial agent used in suspected or confirmed cyanide poisoning. (medscape.com)
  • In cases of cyanide poisoning, the venous blood is bright red because the oxygen has not been used. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Raw flax may increase your blood cyanide level. (livestrong.com)
  • While most flaxseed supplements are safe, taking flax the wrong way can increase your blood cyanide levels. (livestrong.com)
  • Measurement of carboxyhemoglobin and blood cyanide concentrations will help to differentiate between CO and HCN poisoning. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Industrial concerns in the U.S. manufacture over 300,000 tons of hydrogen cyanide annually. (fas.org)
  • State records released last year show the Suncor refinery releases 8.5 tons of hydrogen cyanide annually. (denverpost.com)
  • The enzyme rhodanese is present in the body, mainly in the liver, and together with sulphur transforms cyanide into thiocyanate, which is passed out in the urine. (opcw.org)
  • The biosynthesis of cyanide in the [NiFe]-hydrogenases proceeds from carbamoylphosphate, which converts to cysteinyl thiocyanate, the CN - donor. (bionity.com)
  • The use of barbituric acid for the photometric determination of cyanide and thiocyanate. (springer.com)
  • Sodium thiosulfate acts as a sulfur donor to detoxify cyanide to thiocyanate by the enzyme rhodanese, whereas hydroxocobalamin binds cyanide and forms the nontoxic cyanocobalamin, which is renally excreted. (lww.com)
  • Sodium thiosulfate enhances the conversion of cyanide to thiocyanate , which is renally excreted. (medscape.com)
  • It donates sulfur, which is used as a substrate by rhodanese and other sulfur transferases for detoxification of cyanide to thiocyanate. (medscape.com)
  • The cyanide ion is ubiquitous in nearly all living organisms which tolerate and even require the ion in low concentrations. (fas.org)
  • The preferred way to deliver cyanide is by large munitions (bombs, large shells), because smaller weapons will not provide the concentrations needed for effects. (fas.org)
  • At the high concentrations, cyanide becomes toxic to soil microorganisms. (cdc.gov)
  • At the high source of food in tropical countries), cyanides occur naturally concentrations, cyanide becomes toxic to soil microorganisms. (cdc.gov)
  • In some species, high concentrations of cyanide can inhibit respiration and affect a plant's ability to absorb nutrients from soil, in some cases causing plant death. (ehow.com)
  • At low concentrations, soil micro-organisms convert cyanide into hydrogen cyanide and other compounds that evaporate out of soil. (ehow.com)
  • At high concentrations, however, cyanide is toxic to the very micro-organisms responsible for its conversion into evaporative forms, meaning that cyanide not only remains in soil where it can damage plants but also can easily find its way to groundwater. (ehow.com)
  • Its high volatility probably makes hydrogen cyanide difficult to use in warfare since there are problems in achieving sufficiently high concentrations outdoors. (opcw.org)
  • Unless cyanide is discovered at the time of death on the mouth or nose, elevated cyanide concentrations can only be found for up to two days under current toxicological testing. (redorbit.com)
  • Regular use of cyanide in the mining industry is used in weak concentrations, harmful. (prezi.com)
  • The presence of saturating concentrations of CO had no effect on the rate or extent of cyanide inactivation of hydrogenases. (osti.gov)
  • Hydrogen cyanide ( HCN ), sometimes called prussic acid , is a chemical compound [11] with the chemical formula HCN. (wikipedia.org)
  • [15] The new component was what is now known as hydrogen cyanide. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cases of poisoning with hydrogen cyanide it is of the utmost importance that countermeasures are immediately introduced. (opcw.org)
  • Akyildiz BN, Kurtoglu S, Kondolot M, Tunc A. Cyanide poisoning caused by ingestion of apricot seeds. (medscape.com)
  • Cyanide is also known by the military designations AC (for hydrogen cyanide) and CK (for cyanogen chloride). (cdc.gov)
  • Several commercially significant chemical compounds are derived from cyanide, including cyanuric chloride , cyanogen chloride , and many nitriles . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanide reacts with chlorine to form Cyanogen Chloride which yields red. (prezi.com)
  • Cyanide has a high affinity for certain sulfur compounds (sulfanes, which contain two covalently bonded but unequally charged sulfur atoms) and for certain metallic complexes, particularly those containing cobalt and the trivalent form of iron (Fe 3+ ). (fas.org)
  • Cyanide is usually found joined with other chemicals to form compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • Examples of simple cyanide compounds are hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide and potassium cyanide. (cdc.gov)
  • In certain plant foods, including almonds, millet sprouts, lima beans, soy, spinach, bamboo shoots, and cassava roots (which are a major source of food in tropical countries), cyanides occur naturally as part of sugars or other naturally-occurring compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • Some cyanide compounds in soil can form hydrogen cyanide and evaporate, whereas some cyanide compounds will be transformed into other chemical forms by microorganisms in soil. (cdc.gov)
  • Eating foods naturally containing cyanide compounds, such as tapioca (made from cassava roots), lima beans, and almonds. (cdc.gov)
  • Examples of simple cyanide compounds are ` Cyanide in water does not build up in the bodies of fish. (cdc.gov)
  • In certain compounds in soil can form hydrogen cyanide and evaporate, plant foods, including almonds, millet sprouts, lima beans, soy, whereas some cyanide compounds will be transformed into other spinach, bamboo shoots, and cassava roots (which are a major chemical forms by microorganisms in soil. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers who inhaled low levels of hydrogen cyanide certain plastics (e.g., polyacrylamines, polyacrylics, over a period of years had breathing difficulties, chest pain, polyurethane, etc.). vomiting, blood changes, headaches, and enlargement of the Compounds that release cyanide are naturally present in plants. (cdc.gov)
  • Of the many kinds of cyanide compounds, some are gases , while others are solids or liquids. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The -CN group is sometimes referred to as a cyanide group or cyano group and compounds with them are sometimes referred to as cyanides. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Among the most important cyanide coordination compounds are the octahedrally coordinated compounds potassium ferrocyanide and the pigment Prussian blue , which are both essentially nontoxic due to the tight binding of the cyanides to a central iron atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iridium Potassium Cyanide is one of numerous organo-metallic compounds sold by American Elements under the trade name AE Organo-Metallics™ for uses requiring non-aqueous solubility such as recent solar energy and water treatment applications. (americanelements.com)
  • Cyanide is any chemical compound containing a cyano group (C≡N), which consists of a carbon atom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Cyanide is a chemical compound used to separate the ore from precious metals such as gold and silver. (theecologist.org)
  • Hydrogen cyanide is a chemical compound with chemical formula HCN. (bionity.com)
  • At the time of the introduction of cyanide in World War I, the other chemical agents in use caused mainly local effects: riot control agents injured the skin and mucous membranes from direct contact, and phosgene damaged the lungs after inhalation. (fas.org)
  • Cyanide is most commonly encountered through inhalation by the burning of certain plastics and is also found in some paints as well as certain fruit seeds. (madsci.org)
  • Although my experience is with the inhalation of cyanide, I would think that if your dog ingested cyanide and it died suddenly, it was an acute poisoning of cyanide (which can be found in pest control media like rat poison). (madsci.org)
  • Cyanide is released from natural substances in some foods and in certain plants such as cassava, lima beans and almonds. (cdc.gov)
  • The fruits and seeds (especially pits) of many plants, such as cherries, peaches, almonds, and lima beans, contain cyanogens capable of releasing free cyanide following enzymatic degradation. (fas.org)
  • What happens to cyanide when it enters the as tapioca (made from cassava roots), lima beans, and almonds. (cdc.gov)
  • Can the cyanide in Almonds give you a stomach ache? (answers.com)
  • Hydrogen cyanide is a colorless gas with a smell that reminds many of almonds. (denverpost.com)
  • Prussian blue can produce hydrogen cyanide when exposed to acids. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The reduction of aeration caused a rapid increase in the ability of such cultures to produce hydrogen cyanide. (springer.com)
  • When present in air, it is usually in the form of gaseous hydrogen cyanide. (cdc.gov)
  • Cyanides, Cyanide Oxides and Complex Cyanides market is analyzed by different parameters including domestic production and consumption. (prnewswire.com)
  • Overview of cyanides, cyanide oxides and complex cyanides market, 2.2. (prnewswire.com)
  • Here we report the detection of the complex cyanides CH 3 CN and HC 3 N (and HCN) in the protoplanetary disk around the young star MWC 480. (nature.com)
  • We find that the abundance ratios of these nitrogen-bearing organics in the gas phase are similar to those in comets, which suggests an even higher relative abundance of complex cyanides in the disk ice. (nature.com)
  • Figure 1: ALMA detections of simple and complex cyanides in the MWC 480 protoplanetary disk. (nature.com)
  • An autopsy the following day revealed she died from acute cyanide poisoning, but it was not until Monday night that toxicologists traced the poison to a bottle of Extra-Strength Excedrin capsules in her home, the medical examiner's office said. (upi.com)
  • Toxicological tests indicated Faries died of acute cyanide poisoning on May 20 or May 21. (upi.com)
  • In the investigation of deaths, a bitter almond odor emanating from the victim and the presence of pink lividity during postmortem examination are two common indicators of acute cyanide poisoning. (redorbit.com)
  • One of my favourite webcomics, Cyanide and Happiness , just got its own iPhone app, and you all need to get it right now. (intomobile.com)
  • As an added bonus, you can even watch the Cyanide and Happiness video shorts , which would otherwise be inaccessible in their dark, dank Flash-based prison. (intomobile.com)
  • The #1 web comic, Cyanide & Happiness, is back with a brand new collection of comics sure to leave you gasping in horror or guffawing with laughter. (waterstones.com)
  • If you're reading this, we're pretty sure you love Cyanide & Happiness. (explosm.net)
  • Greetings, loyal Cyanide & Happiness freaks!We have been hard at work for YEARS now to bring you. (explosm.net)
  • It has a well-earned reputation as a powerful poison, but cyanide is used in many industrial processes as well -- including electroplating, metallurgy, organic chemicals production, photographic developing, manufacture of plastics, fumigation of ships and some mining processes. (ehow.com)
  • As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison, care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. (dictionary.com)
  • NASHVILLE - A 32-year-old man who died from a massive dose of cyanide here last week purchased nearly a pound of the deadly poison shortly before his death, police said Friday. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Washington (AFP) - US President Donald Trump's administration has re-authorized the use of controversial poison traps known as "cyanide bombs" to kill wild foxes, coyotes and feral dogs despite overwhelming opposition from conservation groups. (yahoo.com)
  • Cyanide is a poison. (livestrong.com)
  • The cyanide didn't poison the C. piscinae . (eurekalert.org)
  • The effects of cyanide on membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii were characterized. (osti.gov)
  • Sodium cyanide is a poisonous compound with the formula Na C N . It is a white, water-soluble solid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mercury cyanide, or Hg(CN)2, is an odorless white powder at room temperature that is extremely poisonous if inhaled, touched or ingested. (reference.com)
  • Cyanide, in minute quantities and in proper food forms, instead of being poisonous, actually is essential to health. (realityzone.com)
  • Both varieties contain a chemical pre-curser to cyanide which can become poisonous under damp conditions. (answers.com)
  • Hydrogen cyanide is a colorless, very poisonous , and highly volatile liquid that boils slightly above room temperature at 26 °C (78.8 °F). HCN has a faint, bitter, almond -like odor that some people are unable to detect due to a genetic trait . (bionity.com)
  • Mercury cyanide is used in the manufacture of antiseptics, biocides, photographs and cyanogen gas, which is a toxic, colorless gas produced by oxidizing mercury cyanide. (reference.com)
  • Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a colorless gas or highly volatile liquid that boils at 26°C (78.8°F), and is a weak acid. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • If accidentally swallowed, chemicals found in acetonitrile-based products that are used to remove artificial nails can produce cyanide when metabolized by the body. (cdc.gov)
  • Cyanide has been found in at least 471 of the 1,662 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (cdc.gov)
  • Certain bacteria, fungi, and algae can produce cyanide, and cyanide is found in a number of foods and plants. (cdc.gov)
  • Some cyanide cyanide is found in a number of foods and plants. (cdc.gov)
  • Cyanide is a natural chemical found in many parts of our natural environment. (ehow.com)
  • The Food and Drug Administration reported Monday night that 'several capsules' in a 60-capsule bottle of Extra-Strength Excedrin found in the Snow's home were laced with cyanide. (upi.com)
  • Researchers have found a new biomarker for cyanide poisoning, which may extend its detection window in death investigations by weeks if not months. (redorbit.com)
  • A team of researchers have found a substance that appears in the liver following cyanide poisoning that could serve as a stable biomarker for a longer period of time. (redorbit.com)
  • A recent study found that a biomarker, ACTA (2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid), was found significantly increased in liver samples following a sub-lethal dose of cyanide. (redorbit.com)
  • The capsule has been found to contain 91 percent sodium cyanide, the FDA announced Friday in Washington. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Cyanides are produced by certain bacteria , fungi , and algae and are found in a number of foods and plants. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Cyanides are produced by certain bacteria , fungi , and algae and are found in a number of plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium cyanide is most often found in pellets or capsules used for gold and silver ore extraction, fumigation and electroplating in industrial settings. (reference.com)
  • Not the same thing as what spies kept in secret capsules in their fake molars or the pure, deadly form that had been showing up in Tylenol pills around Chicago a few weeks earlier, just before Halloween, but it was part cyanide nonetheless and therefore the most intriguing thing I'd found in the mailbox in some time. (mcsweeneys.net)
  • Testing has found the cyanide-producing grass in nearby fields as well. (slashdot.org)
  • Washington, DC - December 19, 2017 - Microbiologists in South Korea report this week in mBio that the bacterium Chromobacterium piscinae produces cyanide when under attack from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 , a microbial predator found in rivers and soils that ingests its prey from the inside out. (eurekalert.org)
  • Showing these signs and symptoms does not necessarily mean that a person has been exposed to cyanide. (cdc.gov)
  • If hydrogen cyanide has been inhaled, the initial symptoms are restlessness and increased respiratory rate. (opcw.org)
  • The treatment against cyanide poisoning given to civilians is based on encouraging and speeding-up the body's own ability to excrete cyanide and to bind cyanide in the blood. (opcw.org)
  • Therefore, it is still highly desirable to develop a more practical and general catalytic system, which includes a convenient cyanide source (for example, KCN), a broader scope of substrates, easily available and recyclable catalysts, and mild reaction conditions and racemization-free hydrolysis conditions. (nature.com)
  • In this process (sulphidization-acidification-thickening-HCN recycling), the cyanide associated with copper cyanide complexes, is released as HCN gas under weakly acidic conditions, allowing it to be recycled back to the cyanidation process as free cyanide. (scirp.org)
  • this almost ten years after the tailing dam at a gold processing plant in the North Romanian town of Baia Mare broke and 100.000 cubic meters of toxic cyanide and heavy metal-laced waste water escaped into the River Tisza and into Hungary. (theecologist.org)
  • Also called copper cyanide. (dictionary.com)
  • Results show that pH value has a significant effect on copper cyanide removal efficiency, and it was determined the optimal pH range to be 2.5 - 3. (scirp.org)
  • At this pH value, the copper cyanide removal efficiency achieved was up to 97 and 99%, when copper concentration in the influent was 636 and 900 ppm. (scirp.org)
  • If it was chronic cyanide poisoning (a little cyanide ingested over a long period of time), hair and nail samples can be taken to prove cyanide poisoning. (madsci.org)
  • You could be exposed to cyanide by breathing air, drinking water, eating food, or touching soil that contains cyanide. (cdc.gov)
  • A nitrile is an organic compound that contains cyanide. (fas.org)
  • Prior to 1900, before the invention of the Castner process , potassium cyanide was the most important source of alkali metal cyanides . (wikipedia.org)
  • The cyanide ion has high affinity to trivalent iron (Fe3+). (opcw.org)
  • Hydroxocobalamin contains cobalt ion, which is able to bind to cyanide with greater affinity than cytochrome oxidase to form nontoxic cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12), which is excreted in urine. (medscape.com)
  • Cyanide binding to fully reduced Pseudomonas aeruginosa cd(1) nitrite reductase (Pa cd(1) NiR) has been investigated for the wild-type enzyme and a site-directed mutant in which the active-site His369 was replaced by Ala. This mutation reduces the affinity toward cyanide (by approximately 13-fold) and especially decreases the rate of binding of cyanide to the reduced d(1) heme (by approximately 100-fold). (rcsb.org)
  • She added that the company isn't sure if the test was a one-time occurrence or if cyanide levels in the water remain high. (thelocal.se)
  • Cyanide sometimes is described as having a "bitter almond" smell, but it does not always give off an odor, and not everyone can detect this odor. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a colorless or pale-blue liquid or gas with a bitter, almond-like odor. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium cyanide and potassium cyanide are both white solids with a bitter, almond-like odor in damp air. (cdc.gov)
  • Cyanide is a rapidly acting lethal agent that is limited in its military usefulness by its high LCt 50 and high volatility. (fas.org)
  • Other factors included the high volatility of cyanide (which quickly evaporated and dispersed) and its 'all or nothing' biological activity, i.e., it caused few effects below the lethal Ct (this is in contrast to mustard, which causes eye damage at 1% of the lethal amount). (fas.org)
  • On the other hand, the concentration of hydrogen cyanide may rapidly reach lethal levels if it is released in confined spaces. (opcw.org)
  • On Thursday, Davidson County Medical Examiner Dr. Charles Harlan said an autopsy revealed 20 times the lethal dose of cyanide in Green`s body. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Talk about cyanide, and images of a lethal pill used by spies to avoid capture come to mind. (acs.org)
  • Newser) - Indonesian authorities arrested a woman Saturday for allegedly lacing her friend's coffee with a lethal does of cyanide, Australia's News Network reports. (newser.com)
  • This effect appeared to be a combination of inactivation of the hydrogen cyanide synthase and repression of synthesis of this enzyme. (springer.com)
  • Inactivation of hydrogenase by cyanide was dependent on the activity (oxidation) state of the enzyme. (osti.gov)
  • sup 14}C)cyanide remained associated with cyanide-inactivated hydrogenase after gel filtration chromatography, with a stoichiometry of 1.7 mol of cyanide bound per mol of inactive enzyme. (osti.gov)
  • These results suggest that in Pa cd(1) NiR the invariant distal residue His369 plays a dominant role in controlling the binding of anionic ligands and allow the discussion of the mechanism of cyanide binding to the wild-type enzyme. (rcsb.org)
  • When mercury cyanide reacts with nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, water and cyanogen are produced. (reference.com)
  • Reacts with inorganic cyanide to produce bright green or blue under UV light. (prezi.com)
  • When mixed with water, mercury cyanide gradually produces the flammable gas hydrogen cyanide. (reference.com)
  • The Madagascar bamboo Cathariostachys madagascariensis produces cyanide as a deterrent to grazing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In organic synthesis , cyanide, which is classified as a strong nucleophile , is used to prepare nitriles , which occur widely in many chemicals, including pharmaceuticals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In organic synthesis, cyanide is used as a C-1 synthon. (bionity.com)

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