Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Sodium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone: A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.Hydroxocobalamin: Injectable form of VITAMIN B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Antidotes: Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.Ferricyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH2 Group Donors: Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of or oxidation of compounds containing primary amines.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.MethemoglobinPseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. All strains can utilize FRUCTOSE for energy. It is occasionally isolated from humans and some strains are pathogenic to WATERMELON.Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Thiosulfate Sulfurtransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC 2.8.1.1.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.CobamidesAntimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Amygdalin: A cyanogenic glycoside found in the seeds of Rosaceae.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Metmyoglobin: Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Antimetabolites: Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Sodium Azide: A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Acetonitriles: Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).Hydroxyquinolines: The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)2,4-Dinitrophenol: A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)Iodoacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Ninhydrin: 2,2-Dihydroxy-1H-indene-1,3-(2H)-dione. Reagent toxic to skin and mucus membranes. It is used in chemical assay for peptide bonds, i.e., protein determinations and has radiosensitizing properties.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Sulfurtransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.PeroxidasesElectron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Proton Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to PROTONS.Sodium Nitrite: Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.Rotenone: A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Nigericin: A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.

Cyanide poisoning: pathophysiology and treatment recommendations. (1/1572)

This paper aims to assess and compare currently available antidotes for cyanide poisoning. Such evaluation, however, is difficult. Thus, extrapolation from the results of animal studies has potential pitfalls, as significant inter-species differences in response may exist, and these experiments often involve administration of toxin and antidote almost simultaneously, rather than incorporating a more realistic time delay before initiation of treatment. Direct inference from human case reports is also problematic; either because of uncertainties over the exposure levels involved (and hence the likely outcome without treatment), or because of difficulties in identifying the specific contribution of a particular antidote within the overall treatment regimen. Certainly an effort to compare the relative efficacy of cyanide antidotes produces equivocal findings, with no single regimen clearly standing out. Indeed, factors such as the risks of antidote toxicity to various individuals and other practical issues, may be more important considerations. There is therefore no single treatment regimen which is best for all situations. Besides individual risk factors for antidote toxicity, the nature of the exposure and hence its likely severity, the evolving clinical features and the number of persons involved and their proximity to hospital facilities, all need to be considered. Clinically mild poisoning may be treated by rest, oxygen and amyl nitrite. Intravenous antidotes are indicated for moderate poisoning. Where the diagnosis is uncertain, sodium thiosulphate may be the first choice. With severe poisoning, an additional agent is required. Given the various risks with methaemoglobin formers or with unselective use of kelocyanor, hydroxocobalamin may be preferred from a purely risk-benefit perspective. However the former alternatives will likely remain important.  (+info)

Alternative oxidase inhibitors potentiate the activity of atovaquone against Plasmodium falciparum. (2/1572)

Recent evidence suggests that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum utilizes a branched respiratory pathway including both a cytochrome chain and an alternative oxidase. This branched respiratory pathway model has been used as a basis for examining the mechanism of action of two antimalarial agents, atovaquone and proguanil. In polarographic assays, atovaquone immediately reduced the parasite oxygen consumption rate in a concentration-dependent manner. This is consistent with its previously described role as an inhibitor of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Atovaquone maximally inhibited the rate of P. falciparum oxygen consumption by 73% +/- 10%. At all atovaquone concentrations tested, the addition of the alternative oxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid, resulted in a further decrease in the rate of parasite oxygen consumption. At the highest concentrations of atovaquone tested, the activities of salicylhydroxamic acid and atovaquone appear to overlap, suggesting that at these concentrations, atovaquone partially inhibits the alternative oxidase as well as the cytochrome chain. Drug interaction studies with atovaquone and salicylhydroxamic acid indicate atovaquone's activity against P. falciparum in vitro is potentiated by this alternative oxidase inhibitor, with a sum fractional inhibitory concentration of 0.6. Propyl gallate, another alternative oxidase inhibitor, also potentiated atovaquone's activity, with a sum fractional inhibitory concentration of 0.7. Proguanil, which potentiates atovaquone activity in vitro and in vivo, had a small effect on parasite oxygen consumption in polarographic assays when used alone or in the presence of atovaquone or salicylhydroxamic acid. This suggests that proguanil does not potentiate atovaquone by direct inhibition of either branch of the parasite respiratory chain.  (+info)

Preparation and properties of S-cyano derivatives of creatine kinase. (3/1572)

The two reactive thiol groups of rabbit muscle creatine kinase were stoichiometrically reacted with 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid). In the resulting inactive mixed disulfide derivative they were subsequently substituted with [14C]cyanide, the smallest uncharged thiol-blocking group. The modified enzyme contained 1.6 mol label/mol protein and showed by Ellman's titration and amino acid analysis a concomitant loss of about 0.8 - 0.9-SH group per subunit. This mono-S-cyano derivative of creatine kinase was found 73% as active as the native unmodified protein. It was still able to react in the native state with a variety of thiol reagents with the further blocking of another pair of thiol groups; their substitution once more with cyanide resulted in the bis-S-cyano derivative of creatine kinase, which lost 2 thiol groups per subunit and had about 50% of the original catalytic activity. It is concluded that the four cyanylated thiol groups are not required for the catalytic activity of creatine kinase and the cyanoprotein derivatives described are shown to be useful tools for some interesting investigations related to this enzyme.  (+info)

Nitric oxide inhibits L-type Ca2+ current in glomus cells of the rabbit carotid body via a cGMP-independent mechanism. (4/1572)

Previous studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) inhibits carotid body sensory activity. To begin to understand the cellular mechanisms associated with the actions of NO in the carotid body, we monitored the effects of NO donors on the macroscopic Ca2+ current in glomus cells isolated from rabbit carotid bodies. Experiments were performed on freshly dissociated glomus cells from adult rabbit carotid bodies using the whole cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. The NO donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 600 microM, n = 7) and spermine nitric oxide (SNO; 100 microM, n = 7) inhibited the Ca2+ current in glomus cells in a voltage-independent manner. These effects of NO donors were rapid in onset and peaked within 1 or 2 min. In contrast, the outward K+ current was unaffected by SNP (600 microM, n = 6), indicating that the inhibition by SNP was not a nonspecific membrane effect. 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5, 5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO; 500 microM), an NO scavenger, prevented inhibition of the Ca2+ current by SNP (n = 7), whereas neither superoxide dismutase (SOD; 2,000 U/ml, n = 4), a superoxide scavenger, nor sodium hydrosulfite (SHS; 1 mM, n = 7), a reducing agent, prevented inhibition of the Ca2+ current by SNP. However, SNP inhibition of the Ca2+ current was reversible in the presence of either SOD or SHS. These results suggest that NO itself inhibits Ca2+ current in a reversible manner and that subsequent formation of peroxynitrites results in irreversible inhibition. SNP inhibition of the Ca2+ current was not affected by 30 microM LY 83, 583 (n = 7) nor was it mimicked by 600 microM 8-bromoguanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP; n = 6), suggesting that the effects of NO on the Ca2+ current are mediated, in part, via a cGMP-independent mechanism. N-ethylmaleimide (NEM; 2.5 mM, n = 6) prevented the inhibition of the Ca2+ current by SNP, indicating that SNP is acting via a modification of sulfhydryl groups on Ca2+ channel proteins. Norepinephrine (NE; 10 microM) further inhibited the Ca2+ current in the presence of NEM (n = 7), implying that NEM did not nonspecifically eliminate Ca2+ current modulation. Nisoldipine, an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker (2 microM, n = 6), prevented the inhibition of Ca2+ current by SNP, whereas omega-conotoxin GVIA, an N-type Ca2+ channel blocker (1 microM, n = 9), did not prevent the inhibition of Ca2+ current by SNP. These results demonstrate that NO inhibits L-type Ca2+ channels in adult rabbit glomus cells, in part, due to a modification of calcium channel proteins. The inhibition might provide one plausible mechanism for efferent inhibition of carotid body activity by NO.  (+info)

Influence of different types of effectors on the kinetic parameters of suicide inactivation of catalase by hydrogen peroxide. (5/1572)

The effects of cyanide and azide ions (class A), sodium-n-dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and 2-mercaptoethanol (class B), 3-aminotriazole (class C) and NADPH (class D) on the initial activity (ai), inactivation rate constant (ki) and the partition ratio (r) of bovine liver catalase reaction with its suicide substrate, hydrogen peroxide, were studied in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 at 27 degrees C. The above kinetic parameters were determined by processing the progress curve data. In class A, which contains fast and reversible inhibitors of catalase, a proportional decrease in ai and ki was observed by inhibitors, so that the r remained constant. In class B, which contains slow and irreversible inactivators, a decrease in ai and constancy of ki and r were observed when catalase was incubated in the presence of such inactivators for a determined time. In class C, containing effector which can combine with intermediate compound I, ai was relatively unchanged but an increase in ki and a decrease in r were observed. In class D, containing effector which reduces compound I to ferricatalase, ai was not affected significantly but some decrease in ki was detected which was linked with an increase in r. These results demonstrate that different classes of effectors affect the determined kinetic parameters of catalase in various ways. Thus, determination of such parameters by simple kinetic experiments can be carried out for classification of the agents which have an effect on the kinetics of catalase.  (+info)

The superoxide dismutase activity of desulfoferrodoxin from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774. (6/1572)

Desulfoferrodoxin (Dfx), a small iron protein containing two mononuclear iron centres (designated centre I and II), was shown to complement superoxide dismutase (SOD) deficient mutants of Escherichia coli [Pianzzola, M.J., Soubes M. & Touati, D. (1996) J. Bacteriol. 178, 6736-6742]. Furthermore, neelaredoxin, a protein from Desulfovibrio gigas containing an iron site similar to centre II of Dfx, was recently shown to have a significant SOD activity [Silva, G., Oliveira, S., Gomes, C.M., Pacheco, I., Liu, M.Y., Xavier, A.V., Teixeira, M., Le Gall, J. & Rodrigues-Pousada, C. (1999) Eur. J. Biochem. 259, 235-243]. Thus, the SOD activity of Dfx isolated from the sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 was studied. The protein exhibits a SOD activity of 70 U x mg-1, which increases approximately 2.5-fold upon incubation with cyanide. Cyanide binds specifically to Dfx centre II, yielding a low-spin iron species with g-values at 2.27 (g perpendicular) and 1.96 (g parallel). Upon reaction of fully oxidized Dfx with the superoxide generating system xanthine/xanthine oxidase, Dfx centres I and II become partially reduced, suggesting that Dfx operates by a redox cycling mechanism, similar to those proposed for other SODs. Evidence for another SOD in D. desulfuricans is also presented - this enzyme is inhibited by cyanide, and N-terminal sequence data strongly indicates that it is an analogue to Cu,Zn-SODs isolated from other sources. This is the first indication that a Cu-containing protein may be present in a sulphate-reducing bacterium.  (+info)

Phenylacetyl-CoA:acceptor oxidoreductase, a membrane-bound molybdenum-iron-sulfur enzyme involved in anaerobic metabolism of phenylalanine in the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica. (7/1572)

Phenylacetic acids are common intermediates in the microbial metabolism of various aromatic substrates including phenylalanine. In the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica phenylacetate is oxidized, under anoxic conditions, to the common intermediate benzoyl-CoA via the intermediates phenylacetyl-CoA and phenylglyoxylate (benzoylformate). The enzyme that catalyzes the four-electron oxidation of phenylacetyl-CoA has been purified from this bacterium and studied. The enzyme preparation catalyzes the reaction phenylacetyl-CoA + 2 quinone + 2 H2O --> phenylglyoxylate + 2 quinone H2 + CoASH. Phenylacetyl-CoA:acceptor oxidoreductase is a membrane-bound molybdenum-iron-sulfur protein. The purest preparations contained three subunits of 93, 27, and 26 kDa. Ubiquinone is most likely to act as the electron acceptor, and the oxygen atom introduced into the product is derived from water. The protein preparations contained 0.66 mol Mo, 30 mol Fe, and 25 mol acid-labile sulfur per mol of native enzyme, assuming a native molecular mass of 280 kDa. Phenylglyoxylyl-CoA, but not mandelyl-CoA, was observed as a free intermediate. All enzyme preparations also catalyzed the subsequent hydrolytic release of coenzyme A from phenylglyoxylyl-CoA but not from phenylacetyl-CoA. The enzyme is reversibly inactivated by a low concentration of cyanide, but is remarkably stable with respect to oxygen. This new member of the molybdoproteins represents the first example of an enzyme which catalyzes the alpha-oxidation of a CoA-activated carboxylic acid without utilizing molecular oxygen.  (+info)

Neonatal rabbit proximal tubule basolateral membrane Na+/H+ antiporter and Cl-/base exchange. (8/1572)

The present in vitro microperfusion study examined the maturation of Na+/H+ antiporter and Cl-/base exchanger on the basolateral membrane of rabbit superficial proximal straight tubules (PST). Intracellular pH (pHi) was measured with the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye 2', 7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein in neonatal and adult superficial PST. Na+/H+ antiporter activity was examined after basolateral Na+ addition in tubules initially perfused and bathed without Na+. Neonatal Na+/H+ antiporter activity was approximately 40% that of adult segment (9.7 +/- 1.5 vs. 23.7 +/- 3.2 pmol. mm-1. min-1; P < 0.001). The effect of bath Cl- removal on pHi was used to assess the rates of basolateral Cl-/base exchange. In both neonatal and adult PST, the Cl-/base exchange activity was significantly higher in the presence of 25 mM HCO-3 than in the absence of HCO-3 and was inhibited by cyanide and acetazolamide, consistent with Cl-/HCO-3 exchange. The proton flux rates in the presence of bicarbonate in neonatal and adult tubules were 14.1 +/- 3.6 and 19.5 +/- 3.5 pmol. mm-1min-1, respectively (P = NS), consistent with a mature rate of Cl-/HCO-3 exchanger activity in neonatal tubules. Basolateral Cl-/base exchange activity in the absence of CO2 and HCO-3, with luminal and bath cyanide and acetazolamide, was greater in adult than in neonatal PST and inhibited by bath DIDS consistent with a maturational increase in Cl-/OH- exchange. We have previously shown that the rates of the apical membrane Na+/H+ antiporter and Cl-/base exchanger were approximately fivefold lower in neonatal compared with adult rabbit superficial PST. These data demonstrate that neonatal PST basolateral membrane Na+/H+ antiporter and Cl-/base exchanger activities are relatively more mature than the Na+/H+ antiporter and Cl-/base exchangers on the apical membrane.  (+info)

Even given all of these direct and indirect effects of cyanide exposure to plants, it is highly unlikely for humans to be exposed to large enough amounts of cyanide to be put at risk; still, its important to know the signs of cyanide exposure just to err on the side of caution. The earliest effects of cyanide exposure are rapid, deep breathing and shortness of breath followed by convulsions (seizures) and loss of consciousness. Prolonged exposure to small amounts of cyanide over long periods of time has been linked to breathing difficulties, chest pain, vomiting, blood changes, headaches and enlargement of the thyroid gland. Exposure to large amounts of cyanide in a short time can cause brain and heart damage and in some cases can lead to coma and death.. ...
The alternative oxidase of Moniliella tomentosa mitochondria is stimulated by 5-AMP. This effect may be masked, depending on the isolation procedure of the mitochondria. The preparation of submitochondrial particles results in the expression of the 5-AMP effect. Two more methods are now described to reveal the 5-AMP effect whenever it would be masked: (1) switching on the myokinase activity of the mitochondria to deplete them of endogenous 5-AMP; (2) using detergents (sodium dodecyl sulphate, sodium deoxycholate) in a controlled detergent:protein ratio, or chloroform. The alternative oxidase of detergent-solubilized mitochondria was somewhat less selective towards nucleotides than were intact mitochondria. The effect of nucleotides on quinol oxidation by mitochondrial preparations and on quinol autoxidation was also studied. Mitochondrial oxidation of succinate by the alternative oxidase and autoxidation of quinols behaved similarly in the presence of certain nucleotides. Both reactions were ...
Sorry about the loss of your pet. Although my experience is with the inhalation of cyanide, I would think that if your dog ingested cyanide and it died suddenly, it was an acute poisoning of cyanide (which can be found in pest control media like rat poison). If it was acute and dog was probably exibiting convulsions, frothing at the mouth, and respiratory problems. If this was the case, a simple blood test can confirm the presence of cyanide. If it was chronic cyanide poisoning (a little cyanide ingested over a long period of time), hair and nail samples can be taken to prove cyanide poisoning. Most likely, it was an acute ingestion - but I would also check with your vet and examine the lab tests that were run (if any). One sign of ethylene glycol poisoning (anti-freeze) is kidney failure and that may be another way your pet was poisoned. Good Luck, Kelly Dennison Industrial Hygienist ...
A rapid and precise method is presented for the direct determination of cyanide in otherwise unpolluted seawater using a cyanide ion-selective electrode. Although chloride interferes significantly at low cyanide levels its effect can be almost completely elmimiated by approproate selectivity corrections allowing determination of cyanide to less than 20 μg/1. The cyanide electrode can also be used for continuous monitoring at levels of interest in toxicological research.. ...
This document is a general summary of cyanides effects on human health and the environment, and is not intended to be a complete reference on all the environmental and health effects of cyanide. Human Health Effects Cyanide is produced in the human body and exhaled in extremely low concentrations with each breath. It is also produced by over 1,000 plant species including sorghum, bamboo and cassava. Relatively low concentrations of cyanide can be highly toxic to people and wildlife.
This document is a general summary of cyanides effects on human health and the environment, and is not intended to be a complete reference on all the environmental and health effects of cyanide. Human Health Effects Cyanide is produced in the human body and exhaled in extremely low concentrations with each breath. It is also produced by over 1,000 plant species including sorghum, bamboo and cassava. Relatively low concentrations of cyanide can be highly toxic to people and wildlife.
The effects of cyanide on Ca2+ exchange in isolated ventricular myocytes and on the intracellular concentrations of Ca2+, Na+ and H+ have been investigated to assess the contribution that mitochondria might play in cellular Ca2+ metabolism. Ionic levels were measured with ion-selective electrodes. KCN (2.5 mM) inhibited a component of Ca2+ exchange in myocytes that could be attributed to mitochondrial exchange, but was without effect on non-mitochondrial Ca2+ exchange. NaCN (2.5 mM) caused a transient reduction of [H+]i, [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i when applied to the superfusate bathing ventricular trabeculae or papillary muscles. The transient changes of [Na+]i were accentuated when the preparation was exposed to a solution which would be expected to increase the cellular calcium content. The reduction of [Na+]i which accompanies a reduction of the extracellular sodium concentration, [Na]o, was attenuated in the presence of NaCN, but the intracellular acidosis resulting from a reduction of [Na]o was ...
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Data on 6,500 pesticides, insecticides and herbicides including toxicity, water pollution, ecological toxicity, uses and regulatory status.
Double metal cyanide (DMC) catalysts and methods for making them are disclosed. The catalysts comprise a DMC compound, an organic complexing agent, and optionally, a functionalized polymer. The key component is the complexing agent, which comprises a C3 -C5 aliphatic alcohol a cyclic, bidentate compound selected from lactams and lactones. Polyether polyols made from the catalysts contain reduced levels of high-molecular-weight (Mn greater than 400,000) components and consistently perform better in urethane applications such as flexible and molded foams.
LIME USGS Mineral Resources ProgramMagnesia Specialties Inc.,U.S.Lime Minerals Co.,Austin.White Lime Co.cyanide solution at a level between 10 and 11 to maximize the recovery of.Li
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1N2N: Crystal structures of cyanide complexes of P450cam and the oxygenase domain of inducible nitric oxide synthase-structural models of the short-lived oxygen complexes
In the terrestrial environment the Permian Event seems to have been a little uncertain as to what allowed organisms to survive the Great Dying. Truthfully, not enough research has gone into trying to find some sort of common theme that might unite what survived and what did not here. From the point of view of what is currently known, there is no common theme. It appears currently that the killing didnt favor one type of organism over another. This would be what Raup called a Field of Bullets scenario. It truly remains to be seen though. On the other hand, it appears that at least for KT Event this was rather different. There was a definite pattern involved. At first it was thought that it was a weight limit: no more than 50 kg survived the KT Extinction. That hasnt quite turned out to be true: the cut off wasnt mass or weight, but metabolic requirements. Rather it was a metabolic requirement. If your required more calories than a certain amount - the exact amount uncertain right now - then ...
In the terrestrial environment the Permian Event seems to have been a little uncertain as to what allowed organisms to survive the Great Dying. Truthfully, not enough research has gone into trying to find some sort of common theme that might unite what survived and what did not here. From the point of view of what is currently known, there is no common theme. It appears currently that the killing didnt favor one type of organism over another. This would be what Raup called a Field of Bullets scenario. It truly remains to be seen though. On the other hand, it appears that at least for KT Event this was rather different. There was a definite pattern involved. At first it was thought that it was a weight limit: no more than 50 kg survived the KT Extinction. That hasnt quite turned out to be true: the cut off wasnt mass or weight, but metabolic requirements. Rather it was a metabolic requirement. If your required more calories than a certain amount - the exact amount uncertain right now - then ...
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Woman arrested over cyanide attack that left ex-boyfriend dead and his fiancée fighting for life | Mail Online Cyanide. Thatd be hard to pick up in a patient brought in in full arrest (not involved in a fire). Though I suspect if its advanced to ...
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DPN opposes the death penalty in all cases, unconditionally, regardless of the method chosen to kill the condemned prisoner. The death penalty is inherently cruel and degrading, an archaic punishment that is incompatible with human dignity. To end the death penalty is to abandon a destructive diversionary and divisive public policy that is not consistent with widely held values. The death penalty not only runs the risk of irrevocable error, it is also costly to the public purse as well as in social and psychological terms.The death penalty has not been proved to have a special deterrent effect. It tends to be applied in a discriminatory way on grounds of race and class. It denies the possibility of reconciliation and rehabilitation. It prolongs the suffering of the murder victims family and extends that suffering to the loved ones of the condemned prisoner. It diverts resources that could be better used to work against violent crime and assist those affected by it ...
Electroplating industry. Get Sodium Cyanide market Sample Research Report with complete TOC at https://market.biz/report/global-sodium-cyanide-market-gir/25773/#requestforsample. This research report is divided into subsequent fragments:. Fragment 1, focuses on objective of Sodium Cyanide market covering the definition, product classification, type, product images, growth statistics and presence of Sodium Cyanide market on global scale;. Fragment 2, studies the Sodium Cyanide market player, their sales volume, supply and demand analysis, profile information and their market dividend in 2016 and 2017;. Fragment 3, comprehensive market scenario of the top dominant market players of Sodium Cyanide market based on their annual revenue;. Fragment 4, Sodium Cyanide market segmentation based on regions and sales volume in each region and market profits from 2012 to 2017;. Fragment 5,6,7,8 and 9 chief countries with their Sodium Cyanide market profits 2017;. Fragment 10 and 11 studies the different ...
An emergency involving the diagnosis and management of patients exposed to cyanide is a potential scenario for any healthcare facility. Cyanide exposure is associated with smoke inhalation, laboratory mishaps, industrial incidents, suicide attempts, and criminal activity. Cyanide is a chemical group that consists of one atom of carbon bound to one atom of nitrogen by three molecular bonds (C≡N). Inorganic cyanides (also know as cyanide salts) contain cyanide in the anion form (CN−) and are used in numerous industries, such as metallurgy, photographic developing, plastic manufacturing, fumigation, and mining. Common cyanide salts include sodium cyanide (NaCN) and potassium cyanide (KCN). Sodium salts react readily with water to form hydrogen cyanide. Organic compounds that have a cyano group bonded to an alkyl residue are called nitriles. For example, methyl cyanide is also known as acetonitrile (CH3CN). Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a colorless gas at standard temperature and pressure with a ...
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Researchers have found a new biomarker for cyanide poisoning, which may extend its detection window in death investigations by weeks if not months.. Unless cyanide is discovered at the time of death on the mouth or nose, elevated cyanide concentrations can only be found for up to two days under current toxicological testing. A team of researchers have found a substance that appears in the liver following cyanide poisoning that could serve as a stable biomarker for a longer period of time. The research, by Dr. Ilona Petrikovics, David Thompson, Sarah Martin, Prashanth Jayanna, and Jorn Yu of Sam Houston State University; Gary Rockwood of the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense; and Brian Logue of South Dakota State University, was recently published in two journals, Biomarkers and Analytical Methods.. Cyanide exposures commonly originate from smoke inhalation or direct exposure to either cyanide salt or hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and occur in military, firefighting, industrial ...
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http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/gold-potassium-cyanide-market. Asia Pacific is expected to display highest gold potassium cyanide demand over coming seven years, owing to increase in electrical and electronics industry in developing countries of the region such as India and China. Japan is also anticipated to witness remarkable gold potassium cyanide market growth over next seven years, due to increasing technological development and product innovations in the country. Rise in per capita disposable income is also anticipated to have a positive impact on product demand in the region over next seven years. Developed regions such as Europe and North America are also projected to exhibit a high product demand, owing to increasing applications in end-use industries which is expected propel the gold potassium cyanide market over next seven years.. Major players operating in gold potassium cyanide market are Prominex Precious Mineral Resources, Sreenivasa Industries, GFS Chemicals, ...
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As Wikipedia explains, Hydrogen cyanide is extremely deadly: "A hydrogen cyanide concentration of 300 mg/m3 in air will kill a human within about 10 minutes. It is estimated that hydrogen cyanide at a concentration of 3500 ppm (about 3200 mg/m3) will kill a human in about 1 minute. The toxicity is caused by the cyanide ion, which halts cellular respiration by inhibiting an enzyme in mitochondria called cytochrome c oxidase. Interestingly, a key chemical use of Hydrogen cyanide was developed by none other than IG Farben, the Nazi war era criminal pharmaceutical giant that was later broken up to become todays pharmaceutical giants, including Bayer. Hydrogen cyanide is widely recognized as a chemical weapon and is even used on the tips of whaling harpoons to murder whales.". Physics fact #4: Hydrogen cyanide kills birds and humans very quickly. Is this the result of a weapons test or attack? That it is used as a chemical weapon might make some people wonder whether all this is fallout from some ...
Calcium cyanide also known as black cyanide, is an inorganic compound with the formula Ca(CN)2. It is a white solid, although it is rarely observed in pure form. Commercial samples can be black-gray. It is the calcium salt of cyanide. It hydrolyses readily (even on moist air) to release hydrogen cyanide. Like other similar cyanides it is very toxic. Calcium cyanide can be prepared by treating powdered calcium oxide with boiling anhydrous hydrocyanic acid in the presence of an accelerator such as ammonia or water in order to minimize the loss of the hydrocyanic acid by polymerization. It may also be prepared by reacting liquid hydrocyanic acid with calcium carbide. Alternatively calcium cyanide may be prepared by reacting hydrocyanic acid gas with quicklime (CaO) at high temperatures around 400 °C. At higher temperatures around 600 °C calcium cyanimide is formed instead. The material prepared often is contaminated with polymeric derivatives of hydrogen cyanide, hence the black color. Calcium ...
Many cyanides are highly toxic. The cyanide anion is an inhibitor of the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (also known as aa3) in the fourth complex of the electron transport chain (found in the membrane of the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells). It attaches to the iron within this protein. The binding of cyanide to this enzyme prevents transport of electrons from cytochrome c to oxygen. As a result, the electron transport chain is disrupted, meaning that the cell can no longer aerobically produce ATP for energy.[18] Tissues that depend highly on aerobic respiration, such as the central nervous system and the heart, are particularly affected. This is an example of histotoxic hypoxia.[19]. The most hazardous compound is hydrogen cyanide, which is a gas and kills by inhalation. For this reason, an air respirator supplied by an external oxygen source must be worn when working with hydrogen cyanide.[12] Hydrogen cyanide is produced by adding acid to a solution containing a cyanide salt. Alkaline solutions ...
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) contains many toxic compounds which include substances classified as aldehydes (e.g. formaldehyde) and inorganic substances such as cyanide ions. The information on the determination of these compounds in water is available, but the monitoring data on the level of these substances in human body fluids are still lacking. In this work the procedure for determining cyanide ions and formaldehyde in samples of human nasal discharge by simple spectrophotometric technique is presented ...
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... _What is the role of cyanide in mining | MiningFacts miningfacts Environment WhatistheroleofcyanideinminingWhat is the role of cyanide in mining? the cyanide concentration of effluent leaving a
Initial management of cyanide poisoning is largely supportive and includes supplemental oxygen as well as airway and ventilator support. Activated charcoal may be considered in conscious patients who present soon after ingestion. Although adsorption of cyanide to charcoal is poor, binding may be sufficient to avert severe toxicity in some case. Intravenous crystalloid should be administered initially to resuscitate hypotensive patients. Patients who are unresponsive of fluid administration should be given vasopressors. Sodium bicarbonate may be considered in severely acidemic patients that are refractory to other supportive measures.. For several decades that mainstay of antidotal treatment for suspected acute cyanide poisoning has been the administration of nitrite to induce methemoglobinemia and thiosulfate. Both nitrite and thiosulfate when given alone have been demonstrated to mitigate cyanide toxicity but greater benefit has been demonstrated when they are used together. While the ...
Sodium cyanide exposure may produce death within minutes. IMMEDIATELY BEGIN ADMINISTERING 100% OXYGEN. OBTAIN THE CYANIDE ANTIDOTE KIT AND PREPARE IT FOR USE. Non-lethal, subacute, or chronic exposure may produce headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, palpitations, confusion, deep inspiratory gasps followed by hyperpnea, hyperventilation, anxiety, and vertigo. Severe signs of hypoxia in the absence of cyanosis suggest cyanide poisoning. Patients have reportedly survived potentially lethal ingestions with only supportive care. The absence of a rapidly deteriorating course does not exclude cyanide poisoning ...
Looking for online definition of Organic cyanide in the Medical Dictionary? Organic cyanide explanation free. What is Organic cyanide? Meaning of Organic cyanide medical term. What does Organic cyanide mean?
Confirmation that neither cyanide intoxication nor mutations commonly associated with Lebers Heriditary Optic Neuropapthy are implicated in Tanzanian Epidemic Optic Neuropathy ...
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Cyanide most commonly occurs as hydrogen cyanide and its salts-sodium and potassium cyanide. Cyanides are both man-made and naturally occurring substances. They are found in several plant species as cyanogenic glycosides and are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and algae. In very small amounts, cyanide is a necessary requirement in the human diet. Cyanides are released to the environment from industrial sources and car emissions (ATSDR, 1989).. Cyanides are readily absorbed by the inhalation, oral, and dermal routes of exposure. The central nervous system (CNS) is the primary target organ for cyanide toxicity. Neurotoxicity has been observed in humans and animals following ingestion and inhalation of cyanides. Cardiac and respiratory effects, possibly CNS-mediated, have also been reported. Short-term exposure to high concentrations produces almost immediate collapse, respiratory arrest, and death (Hartung, 1982; EPA, 1985). Symptoms resulting from occupational exposure to lower ...
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ST. PAUL, Minn. -- Cyanide poisoning may seem like the stuff of Cold War spy novels. But its a danger firefighters face daily and a dreaded fear in the fight against terrorism.Whatever the scenario, University of Minnesota scientists say they have discovered a faster antidote to cyanide poisoning that could save lives.
Recommended criteria for a standard intended to protect the health of workers against exposure to hydrogen-cyanide (74908) and cyanide salts, especially sodium-cyanide (13998033), potassium-cyanide (151508) and calcium-cyanide (592018), for up to a 10-hour work shift, 40-hour work week, over a working lifetime. Occupational exposure to these compounds is defined as exposure to airborne concentrations greater than the corresponding action levels, or one- half the corresponding recommended ceiling environmental exposure limit. The main topics covered include: recommendations for levels of cyanide in the workplace air, including sampling and analysis; medical surveillance; personal protective equipment and clothing; informing employees of cyanide hazards; work practices and control procedures; sanitation, monitoring and recordkeeping; biologic effects of exposure, including epidemiology, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and teratogenicity; environmental data and engineering controls." - NIOSHTIC-2 ...
With the start of fall comes the risk of cyanide poisoing in ruminants. Cyanide, prussic acid, hydrogen cyanide or hydrocyanic acid poisoning are all terms describing the same condition. A number of common plants, including sudangrass, johnsongrass, sorghums and sorghum-sudangrass hybrids contain cyanogenic glycosides in the outer cells of the plant. Further inside the leaf tissue are the enzymes needed to convert these compounds to the cyanide poison.
With the start of fall comes the risk of cyanide poisoing in ruminants. Cyanide, prussic acid, hydrogen cyanide or hydrocyanic acid poisoning are all terms describing the same condition. A number of common plants, including sudangrass, johnsongrass, sorghums and sorghum-sudangrass hybrids contain cyanogenic glycosides in the outer cells of the plant. Further inside the leaf tissue are the enzymes needed to convert these compounds to the cyanide poison.
1. The tumour cells were starved in a solution lacking Na+ and then transferred to a Ringer solution containing 2mm-sodium cyanide, 150m-equiv. of Na+/l. and 10m-equiv. of K+/l. Such cells were depleted of ATP and contained an endogenous pool of various amino acids equivalent to a 26mm solution. 2. At 4min. after the transfer the cellular Na+ content had increased by about 100% and roughly an equivalent amount of K+ had left the cells. 3. Under these conditions [14C]glycine was absorbed from an 11mm solution and reached the same cellular concentration by about 4min. The pool size increased by approximately the same amount (ΔGly), so glycine did not simply exchange with the endogenous components. 4. After 4min. with glycine, the cells contained about 20% more Na+ (ΔNa+) than the control and about 10% less K+ (ΔK+). The mean values of ΔNa+/ΔGly and ΔK+/ΔGly from five experiments were respectively 0·90±0·11 and 0·62±0·11equiv./mole. 5. A further indication that these two ratios were ...
Cuprous potassium cyanide | C2CuKN2 | CID 61666 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
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Cyanide-containing wastes are commonly found in soils at former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites, also known as town gas sites. The complex forms of cyanide are responsible for the blue-stained soils and rocks found at these sites. Most concentrations of cyanide at MGP sites are below 2000 ppm, al...
Cyanide and Methemoglobinemia. Presented by: Dr. Aric Storck Preceptor: Dr. Ingrid Vicas Core Rounds February 20, 2003. Cyanide. Cyanide. Anion (CN - ) solid and gaseous forms Important component of many industrial reactions mining - recover silver and gold from ores Slideshow 1195501 by sandra_john
Investigators from the University of Minnesota are reporting in the latest issue of Journal of Medicinal Chemistry that their compound called sulfanagen wa
The invention relates to double-metal cyanide catalysts for preparing polyols by the polyaddition of alkylene oxides on to starter compounds containing active hydrogen atoms, wherein the DMC catalysts are composed of: a) at least one double-metal cyanide compound; b) at least one organic complexing ligand; and, optionally, c) at least one functionalized polymer, wherein the organic complexing ligand is a mixture of a C 3 -C 7 aliphatic alcohol and from about 2 to about 98 mole %, based on the total amount of organic complexing ligand, of a cyclic, aliphatic, cycloaliphatic or aromatic ketone. The DMC catalysts of the present invention have increased activity compared to known catalysts. Additionally, the DMC catalysts of the present invention can be used to prepare polyols with reduced high molecular weight components.
Gold plating is a method of depositing a thin layer of gold onto the surface of another metal, ... Alkaline gold cyanide, for gold and gold alloy plating; Neutral gold cyanide, for high-purity plating; Acid gold plating for bright hard gold and gold.... Read More ...
The almonds you know and love are sweet almonds, and contain a trace amount of cyanide. Bitter almonds have more cyanide per nut, making them far more dangerous for humans.
... _Possibility of sodium cyanide elimination from a flotation processKey-Words: - Flotation, pyrite depressant, dextrin, sodium cyanide. * , Hossna Darabi b . pyrite depression, when mixed collect
The kinetic and mechanistic features of a new series ofplatinum-thallium cyano compounds containing a direct andunsupported by ligands metal-metal bond have been studied insolution, using standard mix and measurespectrophotometric technique and stopped flow method.These reactions are interpreted as oxidative addition of the cspecies to the square planar Pt(CN)42-complex. Each of these processes was found to befirst-order in Pt(CN)42-, the corresponding TIIIIcomplex and a cyanide ion donating species whichacts as a catalyst. Both di- and trinuclear complexes werestudied, and the kinetically significant thallium complexes intheir formation and the catalytically active cyanide sourcesare as follows: [(CN)5PtTl(CN)3]3-: Tl(CN)4 (alkaline region), Tl(CN)3(slightly acidic region) and CN ; [(CN)5Pt Tl(CN)] : Tl(CN)2+and Tl(CN)2+; [(CN)5Pt Tl Pt(CN)5]3-: [(CN)5Pt Tl(CN)] and HCN. Appropriatemechanisms were postulated for the overall reactions in allcases, which include i) metal metal bond formation ...
A 32-year-old man who died from a massive dose of cyanide here last week purchased nearly a pound of the deadly poison shortly before his death, police said Friday.Sgt. Dave Roberts of the Nashville
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1DNU: Human myeloperoxidase: structure of a cyanide complex and its interaction with bromide and thiocyanate substrates at 1.9 A resolution.
CAS Number 151-50-8 Chemical Properties: MDL: MFCD00011397 EINECS: 205-792-3 Formula: CKN Boiling point: 1625° Formula weight: 65.12 Density: 1.52 Melting point: 634° Sensitivity: Hygroscopic
Calculate the pH of a 0.18 M solution of cyanide ion, CN- given the Ka (HCN) = 6.2 x 10^-10. I know how to calculate Ka and Kb values no problem, but I dont know which value to use in my calculations. Is it based on the conjugate ...
For the extraction of gold gold cip flotation equipment Use in Mining International Cyanide Management Code ICMI For This document provides a general overview of the use of cyanide in the gold and the only economically viable method of extracting the gold and silver from the ore and construct the necessary equipment to safely dissolve the solid cyanide in a leached with the CIL .
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Many substances are known to inhibit cellular respiration. Relatively non-specific inhibitors are generally effective in proportion to the degree of penetration into the cell. However, the mechanism of action of cyanide is specific; cyanide irreversibly binds the iron group of cytochrome oxidase preventing transfer of electrons to oxygen. Hence, microbial sewage treatment processes may be severely disrupted by influx of cyanide bearing wastes. Cyanide toxicity was studied using a biological oxygen demand (BOD) system which was not oxygen limited. Lag times prior to exponential oxygen uptake were directly related to cyanide concentration. Each increase of 2.5 x 10-5 moles/1 KCN extended the lag period 10 to 15 hours. No oxygen up-take was exhibited in 300 hours at 5.0 x 10-4 moles/1 KCN with seed concentrations of 0.5 mg/1 (wet weight). However, at 2.0 mg/1 seed, cultures containing 5.0 x 10-4 KCN reached plateau oxygen demand in 145 hours, indicating the importance of KCN-seed ratio on degree of ...
A hydrogen cyanide concentration of 300 mg/m3 in air will kill a human within 10-60 minutes.[43] A hydrogen cyanide concentration of 3500 ppm (about 3200 mg/m3) will kill a human in about 1 minute.[43] The toxicity is caused by the cyanide ion, which halts cellular respiration by acting as a non-competitive inhibitor for an enzyme in mitochondria called cytochrome c oxidase. Specifically CN− binds to Fe in the heme subunit in cytochromes, interrupting electron transfer. Hydrogen cyanide has been absorbed into a carrier for use as a pesticide. Under IG Farbens brand name Zyklon B (German ,Cyclone B, with the B standing for Blausäure - "Prussic Acid"),[44] it was used in the German concentration camp mass killing during World War II. The same product is currently made in the Czech Republic under the trademark "Uragan D2". Hydrogen cyanide was also the agent employed in judicial execution in some U.S. states, where it was produced during the execution by the action of sulfuric acid on an ...
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Treatment of cyanide toxicity should be initiated as soon as it is suspected; do not delay treatment while awaiting formal diagnosis by blood cyanide levels. Primarily, treatment is aimed at uncoupling cyanide from cytochrome oxidase, and allowing cells to return to aerobic metabolism via oxidative phosphorylation.. Patients who present with possible exposure (including iatrogenic exposure from the cyanogen sodium nitroprusside) who are found to have progressive or severe metabolic acidosis and elevated lactate should be treated presumptively. Monitoring must be initiated, as well as good IV access and fluid administration begun to aid in resuscitation. 100% O2 via facemask, or ETT if intubation is indicated, though theoretically useless has potentially been helpful in some cases.. Antidotes:. Hydroxocobalamin: combines with cyanide, forming cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12), which is renally excreted; few side effects, well-tolerated by critically ill. Amyl nitrite: inhaled formulation, rapidly ...
Our laboratory manufactures and distributes the best quality potassium which is a colorless crystalline compound. Our potassium cyanide is known by jewelry dealers for it s extreme and exceptional high quality chemical gilding and buffing properties. Our gold mining. organic synthesis. and electroplating customers has never looked anywhere ever since they tested our potassium cyanide. Potassium cyanide is offered in powder or cylindrical tablet each tablets weighing 100 grams. It is an inorganic compound with the formula KCN. This colorless crystalline compound. similar in appearance to sugar. is highly soluble in water. Most KCN is used in gold mining. organic synthesis. committing suicide and electroplating. !contact ([email protected] ...
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The Aerobic Metabolism of Potassium Cyanide John B. Nesbitt, Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering The Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania H. Robert Kohl Gilbert Associates Cleveland, Ohio Elmer L. Wagner, Jr., Graduate Assistant The Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania INTRODUCTION Inorganic cyanide wastes produced in the metal plating and metal hardening industries are said to be one of the most toxic wastes produced in industry. Small quantities of cyanide may be toxic to fish, while even smaller concentrations may interrupt the natural purification processes of a stream by killing the responsible microorganisms. Similar toxic effects have been observed on most biological sewage treatment processes. Most present day cyanide disposal methods are chemical processes which are expensive because of the required purchase of either chemicals, electric current or heat, and the necessary disposal of either sludge or toxic hydrogen cyanide gas. ...
The formation of hydrogen cyanide during the catalytic reduction of nitric oxide (NO) with carbon monoxide and hydrogen was studied with a bench-scale flow reactor. The previously reported inhibition by sulfur dioxide of the formation of hydrogen cyanide was found to be counteracted by transient admission of oxygen to the catalyst. These results are discussed in the context of the control of automotive emissions of NO and the prevention of hydrogen cyanide production during such control. ...
Cyanide can be metabolised by a wide variety of organisms including bacteria, fungi, arthropods and plants using a number of different pathways. Non-toxic concentrations of cyanide can be readily biodegraded, both aerobically and anaerobically. Aerobic degradation yields CO2 and ammonia (that may be further converted to nitrate or nitrite); anaerobic biodegradation yields ammonia and methane. Degradation of cyanides in sewage treatment plants depends on the availability of adapted (micro-)organisms. Sudden high levels of cyanide in these sewage plants may lead to a loss of viability, while fully adapted sludge may tolerate and degrade concentrations up to 100 to 150 mg CN-/l with a high degree of efficiency. Vegetation is also able to remove cyanide from water or soil. Initial data indicate that cyanide-tolerant plants may be used for the remediation of cyanide-contaminated soil ...
An understanding of the fate of cyanide (CN-) in mine process waters is important for addressing environmental concerns and for taking steps to minimize reagent costs. The utility of stable isotope methods in identifying cyanide loss pathways has been investigated in case studies at three Nevada gold mines. Freshly prepared barren solutions at the mines have cyanide d15N and d13C values averaging -4 ? and -36 ?, respectively, reflecting the nitrogen and carbon sources used by commercial manufacturers, air and natural gas methane. Pregnant solutions returning from ore heaps display small isotopic shifts to lower d15N and d13C values. The shifts are similar to those observed in laboratory experiments where cyanide was progressively precipitated as a cyanometallic compound, and are opposite in sign and much smaller in magnitude than the shifts observed in experiments where HCN was offgassed. Offgassing is inferred to be a minor cyanide loss mechanism in the heap leach operations at the three mines, and
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At temperatures below 78�F, hydrogen cyanide is a colorless or pale-blue liquid (hydrocyanic acid); at higher temperatures, it is a colorless gas. Hydrogen cyanide is very volatile, producing potentially lethal concentrations at room temperature. The vapor is flammable and potentially explosive. Hydrogen cyanide has a faint, bitter almond odor and a bitter, burning taste. It is soluble in water and is often used as a 96% aqueous solution. Synonyms include formonitrile. Aqueous solutions are referred to as hydrocyanic acid and prussic acid.
... IUPAC name Hydrogen cyanide Other names Hydrocyanic acidprussic acid,formonitrileformic anammonidecarbon hydride
SIXTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS. Sess. II. ou. ass. 1922. 927 PA};. 1560. Cotton and COEUOD W8St6· cotegu mm PAR. 1561. Cryolite, or kryolith. crytuzb. Psa. 1562. Metallic mineral substances in a crude state, and metals ,S,Y.R}g? mw ""p unwrplughit, whether capable of being wrought or not, not specially provide or. PAR. 1563. Curry, and c owder. °"""· PAS. 1564. cutt efish toil? P °·**"¤°¤*·· Pan. 1565. Cyanide: Potassium cyanide, sodium cyanide, all °""°°· cyanide salts and cyanide mixtures, combinations, and compounds containing cyanide, not specially provided for. _ d_P.uz.d1566. Glaziers and engravers diamonds, unset; miners mf;{,§°"· °°·· "" iamon s. PAR. 1567. Drugs such asbarks, beans, berries, buds, bulbs, bulbous 1mC»i1°du$d§bl°s311if$Z roots, excrescences, fruits, flowers, dried fibers, dried insects, grains, herbs, leaves, lichens, mosses, logs, roots, stems, vegetables, seeds (aromatic, not garden seeds), seeds of morbid growth, weeds, and all other ...
Potassium cyanide is most often found in pellets or capsules used for gold and silver ore extraction, fumigation and electroplating in industrial settings. For example, companies processing ore may...
Cyanide is toxic to most living organisms. The toxicity of cyanide derives from its ability to inhibit the enzyme cytochrome C oxidase of the electronic transport chain. Despite its high toxicity, several industrial processes rely on the use of cyanide, and considerable amounts of industrial waste must be adequately treated before discharge. Biological treatments for the decontamination of cyanide waste include the use of microorganisms and enzymes. Regarding the use of enzymes, cyanide dihydratase (CynD), which catalyzes the conversion of cyanide into ammonia and formate, is an attractive candidate. Nevertheless, the main impediment to the effective use of this enzyme for the biodegradation of cyanide is the marked intolerance to the alkaline pH at which cyanide waste is kept. In this work, we explore the operational capabilities of whole E. coli cells overexpressing Bacillus pumilus CynD immobilized in three organic polymer matrices: chitosan, polyacrylamide, and agar. Remarkably, the ...
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Gold cyanidation (also known as the cyanide process or the MacArthur-Forrest process) is a hydrometallurgical technique for extracting gold from low-grade ore by converting the gold to a water-soluble coordination complex. It is the most commonly used leaching process for gold extraction. Production of reagents for mineral processing to recover gold, copper, zinc and silver represents approximately 13% of cyanide consumption globally, with the remaining 87% of cyanide used in other industrial processes such as plastics, adhesives, and pesticides. Due to the highly poisonous nature of cyanide, the process may be considered controversial and its usage is banned in a small number of countries and territories. In 1783, Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovered that gold dissolved in aqueous solutions of cyanide. Through the work of Bagration (1844), Elsner (1846), and Faraday (1847), it was determined that each atom of gold required two cyanide ions, i.e. the stoichiometry of the soluble compound. The ...
The structure determination of the title compound was undertaken as part of a series of synthetic and structural studies of mixed-valence copper cyanide complexes containing amine bases. The coordinated amines stabilize the divalent copper atoms against reduction by the cyanide groups. In this study, the synthesis involved the linear tetradentate base triethylenetetramine (trien), under conditions expected to produce a polymeric structure, as in Williams et al. (1972); Colacio et al. (2002); Kim et al. (2005). Instead the crystal structure is made up of discrete molecules with terminal cyanide groups that are not involved in covalent polymeric linkages, and is similar to structures reported by: Yuge et al. (1998); Pickardt et al. (1999); Pretsch et al. (2005).. The molecules contain a divalent and a monovalent copper atom bridged by a cyanide group. The divalent copper atom, Cu2, shows square-pyramidal coordination, with the four N atoms of the tetradentate ligand occupying the basal positions, ...
Read "Specific Inhibition of the Cyanide-insensitive Respiratory Pathway in Plant Mitochondria by Hydroxamic Acids" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Two magnetic coordination polymers with mixed cyanide-azide bridging based on octacyanoniobate(iv) and octacyanomolybdate(iv) are reported: {(NH4)[(H2O)MnII-(μ-N3)-MnII(H2O)][MIV(CN)8]·3H2O}n Mn2MN3 (M = Nb or Mo). Cyanide ligands form the 3-D framework of Mn2MN3, while azide ligands connect two MnII centres
As Americas vaping crisis continues, 10 unregulated vaping cartridges have tested positive for pesticides-including a fungicide that can turn into hydrogen cyanide if burned.
The effects of cyanide on membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii were characterized. Inactivation of hydrogenase by cyanide was dependent on the activity (oxidation) state of the enzyme. Active (reduced) hydrogenase showed no inactivation when treated with cyanide over several hours. Treatment of reversibly inactive (oxidized) states of both membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase, however, resulted in a time-dependent, irreversible loss of hydrogenase activity. The rate of cyanide inactivation was dependent on the cyanide concentration and was an apparent first-order process for purified enzyme (bimolecular rate constant, 23.1 M{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1} for CN{sup {minus}}). The rate of inactivation decreased with decreasing pH. ({sup 14}C)cyanide remained associated with cyanide-inactivated hydrogenase after gel filtration chromatography, with a stoichiometry of 1.7 mol of cyanide bound per mol of inactive enzyme. The presence of saturating ...
Of 200 water isolates screened, five strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were cyanogenic. Maximum cyanogenesis by two strains of P. fluorescens in a defined growth medium occurred at 25 to 30 degrees C over a pH range of 6.6 to 8.9. Cyanide production per cell was optimum at 300 mM phosphate. A linear relationship was observed between cyanogenesis and the log of iron concentration over a range of 3 to 300 microM. The maximum rate of cyanide production occurred during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. Radioactive tracer experiments with [1-14C]glycine and [2-14C]glycine demonstrated that the cyanide carbon originates from the number 2 carbon of glycine for both P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa. Cyanide production was not observed in raw industrial wastewater or in sterile wastewater inoculated with pure cultures of cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains. Cyanide was produced when wastewater was amended by the addition of components of the ...
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Members of the genus Macadamia contain cyanogenic compounds, which release hydrogen cyanide (HCN) on hydrolysis. Concentrations of releasable cyanide were measured in tissues of mature nuts and seedlings of Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche, M. tetraphylla L.A.S. Johnson and M. ternifolia F. Muell. Root, cotyledon and leaf samples were assayed at several developmental stages from germination to maturation of the first leaves. All samples contained detectable levels of cyanide. Concentrations were low (0.15 µmol g fresh weight) in cotyledons of mature M. integrifolia and M. tetraphylla seeds, corresponding to the edibility of the seeds of these commercial species, and much higher (9.6 µmol g) in the inedible M. ternifolia seeds. Levels in cotyledons of all three species rose dramatically during germination. Root cyanide concentrations of 6-23 µmol g were measured. The immature first leaf of the commercial species contained the highest concentrations (38-77 µmol g). Levels decreased with ...
0022] These organic reagents are preferably used in aqueous solution, in which case a base, preferably sodium hydroxide, can additionally be added. The addition of hydrogen cyanide onto glyoxylic acid and glyoxylate is very rapid and is quantitative, especially for glyoxylate. Both glyoxylic acid and the addition product are readily water-soluble, and so no precipitate forms in the reaction vessel, which ensures a reliable process. Since glyoxylic acid has a relatively high melting point (semihydrate: 70-75° C.; anhydrous substance: 98° C.) and is water-soluble, the process according to the invention can be carried out within a relatively wide temperature range, without any risk of contamination of the product gas by the organic reagent. Cooling or heating, in contrast to the known processes with volatile organic solvents, is not required. Moreover, it is not necessary during the reaction to control the pH of the reagent which reacts with hydrogen cyanide, and so the process according to the ...
In this paper the results of the influence of various metabolic inhibitors on dif- ferent periods of the vernalization process in winter wheat are provided. It was found that the initial period of vernalization is very sensitive to respiratory inhibitors such as azide and 2, 4-nitrophenol. In the middle period, the inhibitor of nucleo-acid metabolism such as 2-thiouracil significantly prolongated the process of vernalization. At the third period the protein metabolic inhibitor such as chloromycetin strongly inhibited the vernalization process. Our experiments demonstrated that a remarkable replacement of metabolic patterns is existed in the course of vernalization of winter wheat. The relative metabolic processes during the time of vernalization not only car- ried on different in rate and in action model of inhibitors but also alternatively. There- fore, we assumed that vernalization process of winter wheat may be divided into several periods (sub-processes) with different metabolic patterns. On the
Several unstable mutant hemoglobins have alterations which affect areas of the molecule involved in the attachment of heme to globin. Loss of heme from globin has been demonstrated during the denaturation of some of these unstable mutants. The importance of heme ligands for the stability of hemoglobin was illustrated in the present experiments on the denaturation of several hemoglobins and hemoglobin derivatives by heat, oxidative dyes, and alkali. Heating of normal hemolysates diluted to 4 g of hemoglobin per 100 ml at 50°C for 20 hr in 0.05 M sodium phosphate, pH 7.4, caused precipitation of 23-54% of the hemoglobin. Dialysis against water or dilution of the sample decreased denaturation to 12-20%. Precipitation was decreased to less than 3.5% by the presence of 0.015 M potassium cyanide. Increasing the ionic strength of the medium increased precipitation. Cyanide prevented the formation of inclusion bodies when red cells containing unstable hemoglobin Philly, β35 tyr → phe, were incubated ...
This may occur in cyanide poisoning.[29] Physiological compensation[edit]. Acute[edit]. If oxygen delivery to cells is ... Cyanide poisoning[edit]. Histotoxic hypoxia results when the quantity of oxygen reaching the cells is normal, but the cells are ...
Bitter almonds may yield 4-9 mg of hydrogen cyanide per almond[41] and contain 42 times higher amounts of cyanide than the ... the cyanide must be removed before consumption.[42] The acute oral lethal dose of cyanide for adult humans is reported to be ... Amygdalin and cyanide[edit]. The bitter almond is slightly broader and shorter than the sweet almond and contains about 50% of ... Due to the cyanide found in bitter almonds, modern syrups generally are produced only from sweet almonds. Such syrup products ...
Cyanide[edit]. Cyanide is a poison that stuns and immobilizes fish. Fishers put cyanide in the ocean, to ease the process of ... Some wholesalers advertise that they avoid cyanide-caught animals. In the Philippines, overfishing and cyanide caused a drastic ... Bruckner, A.W.; Roberts, G. (editors). Proceedings of the International Cyanide Detection Testing Workshop. NOAA Technical ... Fish are caught by net, trap, or cyanide.[34] Collecting expeditions can be lengthy and costly, and are not always successful. ...
Antidote to cyanide poisoning[edit]. Amyl nitrite is used medically as an antidote to cyanide poisoning,[11] The light alkyl ... the methemoglobin combines with the cyanide to form nontoxic cyanmethemoglobin.[citation needed] First responders typically ... carry a cyanide poison kit containing amyl nitrite. References[edit]. *^ Nutt, D; King, LA; Saulsbury, W; Blakemore, C (24 ... nitrites cause the formation of methemoglobin wherein, as an effective antidote to cyanide poisoning, ...
It is the simplest oxocarbon and is isoelectronic with the cyanide anion, the nitrosonium cation and molecular nitrogen. In ...
Cyanides [:C≡N:]-. *Cyanates [:O-C≡N:]-. *Thiocyanates [:S-C≡N:]-. *Fulminates [:C≡N-O:]- ...
Cyanide (CN−), has a similar structure, but behaves much like a halide ion (pseudohalogen). For example, it can form the ... cyanide (CN−), and carbon monoxide; and such essentials to life as glucose and protein. ...
Cyanides [:C≡N:]-. *Cyanates [:O-C≡N:]-. *Thiocyanates [:S-C≡N:]-. *Fulminates [:C≡N-O:]- ...
Cyanide fishing. References[edit]. *^ Ethnozoology of the Tsou People: Fishing with poison. ...
cyanide. SCN−. thiocyanate. MnO−. 4 permanganate. Naming hydrates[edit]. Hydrates are ionic compounds that have absorbed water ...
hydrogen cyanide: 2.98 D. *cyanamide: 4.27 D. *potassium bromide: 10.41 D. The linear molecule CO2 has a zero dipole as the two ...
Hydrogen cyanide Gas HCN 130.5 Hydrogen bromide Liquid HBr −36.3 Hydrogen chloride Gas HCl −92.30 ...
Cyanide antidotes[change , change source]. There are a few different antidotes to cyanide. Some of them need to be given ... This medicine sticks to cyanide, and never un-sticks. It helps make cyanide into another chemical that is not poisonous. This ... When it is stuck to methemoglobulin, cyanide is not as dangerous. However, methemoglobulin will only stick to cyanide for a ... Some ambulances carry cyanide antidote kits for firefighters who have breathed in too much smoke. (Smoke from a fire has ...
Anger" · "Frantic" · "The Unnamed Feeling" · "Some Kind of Monster" · "The Day That Never Comes" · "My Apocalypse" · "Cyanide" ...
Ammonium cyanide - NH4CN. *Ammonium dichromate - (NH4)2Cr2O7 ...
... the purine base known as adenine is merely a pentamer of hydrogen cyanide. Experiments with basic ribozymes, like Bacteriophage ... project completed in March 2015 by the Sutherland group found that a network of reactions beginning with hydrogen cyanide and ...
AC - hydrogen cyanide. *CK - cyanogen chloride. *SA - Arsine. Choking agents[edit]. Main article: Pulmonary agent ...
Potassium cyanide. *Protonated molecular hydrogen. *Sodium cyanide. *Sodium hydroxide. *Silicon carbonitride. *c-Silicon ...
Potassium cyanide. *Protonated molecular hydrogen. *Sodium cyanide. *Sodium hydroxide. *Silicon carbonitride. *c-Silicon ...
Potassium cyanide. *Protonated molecular hydrogen. *Sodium cyanide. *Sodium hydroxide. *Silicon carbonitride. *c-Silicon ...
Potassium cyanide. *Protonated molecular hydrogen. *Sodium cyanide. *Sodium hydroxide. *Silicon carbonitride. *c-Silicon ...
Potassium cyanide. *Protonated molecular hydrogen. *Sodium cyanide. *Sodium hydroxide. *Silicon carbonitride. *c-Silicon ...
Potassium cyanide. *Protonated molecular hydrogen. *Sodium cyanide. *Sodium hydroxide. *Silicon carbonitride. *c-Silicon ...
It decomposes by reacting with oxygen and hydroxyl radical to form formyl cyanide and formaldehyde.[6] Acrylonitrile is harmful ... In 2002, world production capacity was estimated at 5 million tonnes per year.[4][11] Acetonitrile and hydrogen cyanide are ... The burning material releases fumes of hydrogen cyanide and oxides of nitrogen. It is classified as a Class 2B carcinogen ( ... The other method is when acrylonitrile is metabolized with 2-cyanoethylene oxide to produce cyanide end products that ...
Potassium cyanide. *Protonated molecular hydrogen. *Sodium cyanide. *Sodium hydroxide. *Silicon carbonitride. *c-Silicon ...
Potassium cyanide. *Protonated molecular hydrogen. *Sodium cyanide. *Sodium hydroxide. *Silicon carbonitride. *c-Silicon ...
In inorganic cyanides, the cyanide group is present as the anion CN−. For the salts such as sodium cyanide and potassium ... or preliminary UV irradiation allow cyanide speciation of free cyanide, available cyanide, and total cyanide respectively. The ... Main article: Cyanide poisoning. Many cyanides are highly toxic. The cyanide anion is an inhibitor of the enzyme cytochrome c ... IUPAC Gold Book cyanides. *^ "Environmental and Health Effects of Cyanide". International Cyanide Management Institute. 2006. ...
... IUPAC name Hydrogen cyanide Other names Hydrocyanic acidprussic acid,formonitrileformic ... Hydrogen cyanide is weakly acidic and partly ionizes in solution to give the cyanide anion, CN-. The salts of hydrogen cyanide ... Hydrogen cyanide as a chemical weapon. See also: cyanide poisoning An HCN concentration of 300 parts per million[vague] in air ... Hydrogen cyanide is a chemical compound with chemical formula HCN. A solution of hydrogen cyanide in water is called ...
10 unregulated vaping cartridges have tested positive for pesticides-including a fungicide that can turn into hydrogen cyanide ... "I dont think anyone would buy a cart that was labeled hydrogen cyanide on it." This is not the first time this news has been ... More about Hydrogen cyanide, vaping devices, bootleg devices, Thc, Pesticides Hydrogen cyanide. vaping devices. bootleg devices ... So why is myclobutanil so dangerous? When myclobutanil is heated, it releases toxic fumes, one of which is hydrogen cyanide. ...
Best sodium cyanide purchase and sodium cyanide purchase manufacturers - 15 sodium cyanide purchase Manufacturers & Suppliers ... sodium cyanide purchase. 15 Results. All Verified sodium cyanide purchase suppliers & sodium cyanide purchase manufacturers ... The usage is same with the sodium cyanide. Leaching effect and stability of our product is better than other similar products. ... Copper-molybdenum and molybdenum separation of selected commonly used are sodium sulfide and sodium cyanide method method. ...
NBC News commissioned laboratory tests of knock-off marijuana vapes that found a pesticide linked to hydrogen cyanide in 10 out ... NBC News commissioned laboratory tests of knock-off marijuana vapes that found a pesticide linked to hydrogen cyanide in 10 out ... "You certainly dont want to be smoking cyanide," said Antonio Frazier, the vice president of operations at CannaSafe. "I dont ... The products all contained myclobutanil, a fungicide that can transform into hydrogen cyanide when burned. ...
Combined Exposures to Hydrogen Cyanide and Carbon Monoxide in Army Operations, 9780309113670, available at Book Depository with ... Combined Exposures to Hydrogen Cyanide and Carbon Monoxide in Army Operations : Initial Report. *Electronic book text ...
Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.. R A Askeland, S M Morrison ... Cyanide production per cell was optimum at 300 mM phosphate. A linear relationship was observed between cyanogenesis and the ... Cyanide production was not observed in raw industrial wastewater or in sterile wastewater inoculated with pure cultures of ...
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These results are discussed in the context of the control of automotive emissions of NO and the prevention of hydrogen cyanide ... The formation of hydrogen cyanide during the catalytic reduction of nitric oxide (NO) with carbon monoxide and hydrogen was ... The previously reported inhibition by sulfur dioxide of the formation of hydrogen cyanide was found to be counteracted by ... Hydrogen Cyanide Production During Reduction of Nitric Oxide over Platinum Catalysts: Transient Effects ...
We are leading Manufacturer of Sodium Cyanide, Soda Ash, Hydrogen Peroxide, phosphate product, Zinc Chloride from Guangzhou ...
Cyanide, prussic acid, hydrogen cyanide or hydrocyanic acid poisoning are all terms describing the same condition. A number of ... Further inside the leaf tissue are the enzymes needed to convert these compounds to the cyanide poison. ... With the start of fall comes the risk of cyanide poisoing in ruminants. ... With the start of fall comes the risk of cyanide poisoing in ruminants. Cyanide, prussic acid, hydrogen cyanide or hydrocyanic ...
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Find out information about gold potassium cyanide. potassium gold cyanide Explanation of gold potassium cyanide ... gold potassium cyanide. gold potassium cyanide. [¦gōld pə′tas·ē·əm ′sī·ə‚nīd] (inorganic chemistry) potassium gold cyanide ... Gold potassium cyanide , Article about gold potassium cyanide by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary. ... a href=https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/gold+potassium+cyanide,gold potassium cyanide,/a,. *Facebook ...
Hydrogen cyanide is an important feedstock in many chemical industries, synthesized from natural gas and ammonia. To recovery ... Hydrogen cyanide is an important feedstock in many chemical industries, synthesized from natural gas and ammonia. To recovery ... This investigation examines the potential for membrane gas separation to replace solvent absorption in hydrogen cyanide ... unreacted ammonia and purify the hydrogen cyanide from water and hydrogen, additional chemical separation processes are ...
... and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) total columns derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) for the years ... Abstract : We present global distributions of C2H2 and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) total columns derived from the Infrared ... Acetylene (C2H2) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from IASI satellite observations: global distributions, validation, and comparison ... and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from IASI satellite observations: global distributions, validation, and comparison with model. ...
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... from 6 to 10 to ensure acceptable washing of hydrogen cyanide and stability of the metal cyanide complexes and/or metal cyanide ... This is undesirable, since the metal cyanide complexes and/or metal cyanide precipitates are not stable at low pH values, and, ... 0013]The concentration of the metal cations capable of forming metal cyanide complexes and/or metal cyanide precipitates in the ... Typically, the concentration of the metal cations capable of forming metal cyanide complexes and/or metal cyanide precipitates ...
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Hydrogen cyanide or cyan hydrogen. Hydrogen cyanide or cyan hydrogen. In detective novels, such as those by Agatha Christie, it ... When potassium cyanide is exposed to acid, it results in hydrogen cyanide which is a gas. This prevents cells using oxygen and ... You will get the typical taste of bitter almond, of hydrogen cyanide, but quite harmlessly. The amount is far too small to hurt ... They taped all the windows and doors (except one!) and put buckets of potassium cyanide in the room. Then they poured acid into ...
... for instance sodium cyanide. The base protonates the hydrogen cyanide to be removed, and the cyanide ion formed reacts with the ... 0013] The removal of hydrogen cyanide from ethanedinitrile is based on an addition reaction of the cyanide ion, which ... 1. A process for removing hydrogen cyanide from ethanedinitrile by contacting hydrogen cyanide-containing ethanedinitrile with ... Suitable bases are, for example, amines, for instance triethylamine; or alkali metal cyanides, for instance sodium cyanide. ...
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  • Hydrogen cyanide is a colorless, very poisonous , and highly volatile liquid that boils slightly above room temperature at 26 °C (78.8 °F). HCN has a faint, bitter, almond -like odor that some people are unable to detect due to a genetic trait . (bionity.com)
  • Radioactive tracer experiments with [1-14C]glycine and [2-14C]glycine demonstrated that the cyanide carbon originates from the number 2 carbon of glycine for both P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa. (asm.org)
  • This reaction is sometimes the basis of accidental poisonings because the acid converts a nonvolatile cyanide salt into the gaseous HCN. (bionity.com)
  • Cyanide is used in tempering steel, dyeing, explosives, engraving, the production of acrylic resin plastic , and other organic chemical products (eg: historically: formic acid). (bionity.com)
  • this substance is decomposed by emulsin or hydrochloric acid into d-glucose, cyanide, and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde . (wikidoc.org)
  • Hydrogen cyanide is contained in the exhaust of vehicles, in tobacco and wood smoke, and in smoke from burning nitrogen-containing plastics. (bionity.com)
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