A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is widely used as ground cover and forage and known for the edible beans, VICIA FABA.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains linarin (acaciin) and LECTINS.
A plant genus of the FABACEAE family known for the seeds used as food.
Compounds with two triple bonds. Some of them are CYTOTOXINS.
Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.

The effect of inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase on nasal uptake of inspired acetaldehyde. (1/62)

At exposure concentrations of 750 ppm or more, acetaldehyde is a rodent inhalation carcinogen that induces nasal tumors. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is thought to be an important detoxifying enzyme for aldehydes. Although nasal tissues express ALDH, the importance of this enzyme relative to delivered dosage rates at high-inspired concentrations is not well defined. To provide such information, uptake of inspired acetaldehyde was measured at an inspiratory flow rate that approximated the minute ventilation rate in the surgically isolated nasal cavity of F 344 rats pretreated with either saline (control) or the ALDH inhibitor, cyanamide (10 mg/kg s.c.). ALDH activities (substrate concentration 3 times the K(m)) in anterior (respiratory mucosa) and posterior (olfactory mucosa) nasal tissues averaged 160 and 210 nmol/min), respectively, in control animals (total activity 370 nmol/min), compared to 60 and 80 nmol/min, respectively, in cyanamide-pretreated rats (p < 0.05), indicating that approximately 60% inhibition was obtained. Nasal uptake was measured at 3 inspired concentrations: 10, 300, and 1500 ppm. At these concentrations, acetaldehyde uptake efficiency averaged 54, 37, and 34% in saline-pretreated rats, respectively (p < 0.05). In absolute terms, the delivered dosage rates at these exposure concentrations averaged 21, 420, and 1990 nmol/min. The concentration dependence on uptake suggests a saturable process was involved. At inspired concentrations of 300 ppm or more, the delivered dosage rates exceeded the measured specific activity for nasal ALDH of 370 nmol/min. Cyanamide pretreatment abolished the concentration dependence. Specifically, uptake efficiencies in cyanamide-pretreated rats averaged 30, 27, and 31% at inspired concentrations of 10, 300, and 1500 ppm, respectively (p > 0.05); delivered dosage rates were 12, 310, and 1780 nmol/min. Thus, cyanamide pretreatment reduced nasal-delivered dosage rates at inspired concentrations of 10, 300, and 1500 ppm, respectively by 9, 110, and 210 nmol/min, values that correspond well with the total nasal ALDH activity of 370 nmol/min. In toto, these results suggest that inspired acetaldehyde is metabolized in situ by ALDH, but at exposure concentrations of 300 ppm or greater, the delivered dosage rate may equal or exceed the capacity of this enzyme.  (+info)

The transcriptional and DNA binding activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha is inhibited by ethanol metabolism. A novel mechanism for the development of ethanol-induced fatty liver. (2/62)

Fatty acids are ligands for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha). Fatty acid levels are increased in liver during the metabolism of ethanol and might be expected to activate PPAR alpha. However, ethanol inhibited PPAR alpha activation of a reporter gene in H4IIEC3 hepatoma cells expressing alcohol-metabolizing enzymes but not in CV-1 cells, which lack these enzymes. Ethanol also reduced the ability of the PPAR alpha ligand WY14,643 to activate reporter constructs in the hepatoma cells or cultured rat hepatocytes. This effect of ethanol was abolished by the alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole and augmented by the aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor cyanamide, indicating that acetaldehyde was responsible for the action of ethanol. PPAR alpha/retinoid X receptor extracted from hepatoma cells exposed to ethanol or acetaldehyde bound poorly to an oligonucleotide containing peroxisome proliferator response elements. This effect was also blocked by 4-methylpyrazole and augmented by cyanamide. Furthermore, in vitro translated PPAR alpha exposed to acetaldehyde failed to bind DNA. Thus, ethanol metabolism blocks transcriptional activation by PPAR alpha, in part due to impairment of its ability to bind DNA. This effect of ethanol may promote the development of alcoholic fatty liver and other hepatic consequences of alcohol abuse.  (+info)

Ethanol potentiates hypoxic liver injury: role of hepatocyte Na(+) overload. (3/62)

Centrilobular hypoxia has been suggested to contribute to hepatic damage caused by alcohol intoxication. However, the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. We have investigated whether alterations of Na(+) homeostasis might account for ethanol-mediated increase in hepatocyte sensitivity to hypoxia. Addition of ethanol (100 mmol/l) to isolated rat hepatocytes incubated under nitrogen atmosphere greatly stimulated cell death. An increase in intracellular Na(+) levels preceded cell killing and Na(+) levels in hepatocytes exposed to the combination of ethanol and hypoxia were almost twice those in hypoxic cells without ethanol. Na(+) increase was also observed in hepatocytes incubated with ethanol in oxygenated buffer. Ethanol addition significantly lowered hepatocyte pH. Inhibiting ethanol and acetaldehyde oxidation with, respectively, 4-methylpyrazole and cyanamide prevented this effect. 4-methylpyrazole, cyanamide as well as hepatocyte incubation in a HCO(3)(-)-free buffer or in the presence of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger blocker 5-(N,N-dimethyl)-amiloride also reduced Na(+) influx in ethanol-treated hepatocytes. 4-methylpyrazole and cyanamide similarly prevented ethanol-stimulated Na(+) accumulation and hepatocyte killing during hypoxia. Moreover, ethanol-induced Na(+) influx caused cytotoxicity in hepatocytes pre-treated with Na(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibitor ouabain. Also in this condition 4-methylpyrazole and 5-(N,N-dimethyl)-amiloride decreased cell killing. These results indicate that ethanol can promotes cytotoxicity in hypoxic hepatocytes by enhancing Na(+) accumulation.  (+info)

Acetaldehyde, a metabolite of ethanol, activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the rat. (4/62)

Cyanamide is a potent inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH: EC 1.2.1.3) used in the treatment of alcoholics. In the presence of ethanol, cyanamide causes an accumulation of acetaldehyde, a highly toxic metabolite of ethanol, with unpleasant side-effects. A similar accumulation is seen in some Oriental people with low ALDH activity. We have investigated the effects of ethanol and cyanamide administration on the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis using in situ hybridization histochemistry and radioimmunoassay. Ethanol plus cyanamide resulted in a significant increase in corticotrophin-releasing factor and arginine vasopressin mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus, and pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA in the anterior pituitary. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were also significantly elevated following ethanol plus cyanamide administration. The blood concentration of acetaldehyde in the ethanol plus cyanamide group increased significantly. These results suggest that acetaldehyde, induced by blocking ethanol metabolism, is able to activate the HPA axis operating through a central mechanism.  (+info)

Cholinergic nerves mediate acetaldehyde action in the gastrointestinal tract. (5/62)

The regulation mechanism of inhibition of intestinal ethanol absorption induced by high acetaldehyde (AcH) concentration in blood was investigated. We used atropine (AT), atropine methylbromide (ATMB), pirenzepine (PI), bethanechol (BE) and pilocarpine (PL) with or without cyanamide (CY; a potent inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase, which induces high AcH concentration in blood). The K(a) (absorption rate constant) value after the CY-alone pretreatment was significantly lower than that in controls. In the high AcH-induced cases, the values of K(a) in AT and ATMB pretreatments were similar to controls, but the value of K(a) in PI pretreatment was lower than that in controls. The values of K(a) in the case of BE pretreatment with and without high AcH levels were lower than in controls. The K(a) value in the PL with CY was significantly lower than that with CY alone. However, its action was blocked by ATMB pretreatment. These results suggest that high blood AcH concentrations inhibit intestinal ethanol absorption through the peripheral cholinergic nerves via muscarinic receptors, except for the muscarinic M(1) receptor, compared to other subtypes of muscarinic receptors.  (+info)

Pesticide-related illnesses associated with the use of a plant growth regulator--Italy, 2001. (6/62)

During January-February 2001, eight cases of acute illness in the county of Ragusa, Italy, were reported to the Italian National Institute for Health (INIH) by the Milan Poison Control Center (MPCC) and were attributed to exposure to Dormex, a plant growth regulator with hydrogen cyanamide as the active ingredient. These cases were identified during a pilot project for acute pesticide-related illness surveillance. Subsequent active case finding at health-care clinics by the Ragusa Occupational Health Unit identified six additional cases. MPCC identified nine cases in other areas of Italy. Of the 23 cases of acute illness, 22 resulted from occupational exposure during mixing and/or applying of Dormex, and one was from unintentional ingestion. This report summarizes the investigation of these cases, which implicates a pesticide as the causative agent and demonstrates the usefulness of surveillance for detecting pesticide-related illnesses.  (+info)

Combined calcium carbimide and ethanol treatment induces high blood acetaldehyde levels, myocardial apoptosis and altered expression of apoptosis-regulating genes in rat. (7/62)

The effects of ethanol and ethanol-derived acetaldehyde on rat myocardial apoptosis and expression of genes involved in the regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were studied. Combined ethanol and calcium carbimide treatment for 2, 5 or 8 days (E + CC) markedly increased blood acetaldehyde levels. Cytosolic DNA fragmentation was quantified in the 5-day treatment group. Increased amount of DNA-fragmentation, reflecting increased apoptosis, was evident in the E + CC group (23% increase compared to controls). mRNA levels of genes regulating apoptosis were measured by using quantitative PCR in the 2- and 8-day treatment groups. In the 2-day treatment group, p21 gene expression was increased by 25% and bax/bcl-2 mRNA ratio by 57% in E + CC, compared to the control, group. In the 8-day treatment group, p21 mRNA level was 24% lower, p53 mRNA level was 15% higher (P < 0.005), and bcl-2 mRNA level 36% higher in E + CC-treated, compared to the control, group. Interestingly, both ethanol and calcium carbimide treatments alone increased bax mRNA levels, as compared to the control group at 2 and 8 days. These results indicate that acetaldehyde might regulate the expression of apoptosis-linked genes and that apoptosis of myocardial cells may be involved in the development of alcoholic heart disease.  (+info)

Modelling kiwifruit budbreak as a function of temperature and bud interactions. (8/62)

This paper presents two models of budbreak on canes of 'Hayward' kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa). A conventional 'chill unit' (CU) type model is compared with an alternative 'loss of potential' (LOP) approach, which assumes that the number of buds developing in spring depends on climate and node position-dependent bud-to-bud interactions that vary in duration and intensity. Both models describe how temperature, and application of a dormancy-breaking chemical, determine the overall amount of budbreak for whole canes. However, the LOP model does so by describing patterns of budbreak along canes. To do this, the cumulative influence of distal neighbours is assumed to cause a progressive fall in the capacity for bud development over the autumn-winter period, an influence that gets stronger as temperature rises. The LOP model also assumes that the rate of decline varies along the cane, as a function of some inherent bud property. These two factors mean that buds towards the base of the cane break less often under the suppressive influence of distal neighbours, while low temperature ('chilling') increases budbreak by diminishing the intensity of suppression relative to bud development rate. Under this scenario, dormancy-breaking chemicals (such as hydrogen cyanamide, HC) enhance budbreak by diminishing the duration of suppression. Models were calibrated using daily temperature series and budbreak proportion data from a multi-year regional survey, and were then tested against independent data sets. Both models were run from a fixed start date until the time budbreak was almost complete, or until a standard date. The fitted models described 87 % of variation in amount of budbreak due to site, year, HC and node position effects in the original data set. Results suggest that the correlation between chilling and the amount of budbreak can be interpreted as a population-based phenomenon based on interaction among buds.  (+info)

Looking for online definition of cyanamide in the Medical Dictionary? cyanamide explanation free. What is cyanamide? Meaning of cyanamide medical term. What does cyanamide mean?
Global Calcium Cyanamide Sales 2016 Market Research Report ​is a new market research publication announced by Reportstack. This report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Calcium Cyanamide market.. The report provides a basic overview of the Calcium Cyanamide industry including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure.. Development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures are also analyzed. This report also states import/export consumption, supply and demand figures, cost, price, revenue and gross margins.. The report then analyzes the global Calcium Cyanamide market size (volume and value), and the sales segment market is also discussed by product type, application and region.. The major Calcium Cyanamide market (including USA, Europe, China, Japan, etc.) is analyzed, data including: market size, import and export, sale segment market by product type and application. Then we forecast the ...
Looking for cyanamide process? Find out information about cyanamide process. see ammonia ammonia, chemical compound, NH3, colorless gas that is about one half as dense as air at ordinary temperatures and pressures. It has a... Explanation of cyanamide process
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Cyanamide: A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.
Metal cyanamide compounds are an emerging class of photoactive materials for solar energy applications. Although silver cyanamide (Ag2NCN) applied in visible-light-driven photocatalysis has been demonstrated, the photocatalytic performance is unsatisfactory. Herein, a composite of Ag2NCN nanoparticles supported on
Cyanamide molecule. Used in agriculture and chemical synthesis. Atoms are represented as spheres with conventional colour coding: hydrogen (white), carbon (grey), nitrogen (blue). - Stock Image F012/9908
This page contains information on the chemical Calcium cyanamide including: 8 synonyms/identifiers; U.S. Code of Federal Regulations Title 49 Section 172 shipping regulations and proper shipping name.
Cambridge Isotope Laboratories offers CYANAMIDE (STABILIZED WITH | 0.1% ACETIC ACID) (13C, 99%; 15N2, 98%) 85%+ CHEMICAL PURITY for all your research needs. View pricing, availability and product specifications.
The multi-molecule version of the Ritz program, presented at the last Columbus Symposium, has been used for the investigation of the ground small-amplitude vibrational state of $H_{2}NCN$. The absorption spectrum between 20 and 985 $cm^{-1}$ has been measured on the Bruker Fourier transform spectometer at the Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut of the Justus Liebig University, Giessen. The resolution of the spectra was 0.00166 $cm^{-1}$, so that the spectrum is fully resolved. The sample was vaporized at 100 C in a slow flow through a three meter sample cell maintained at 130-140 C for the duration of the measurements. At the moment, the assignment database contains more than 18800 assigned lines, corresponding to transitions between more than 3900 energy levels of the inversion states with the quantum number $n = 0$ and 1. The cyanamide molecule has two identical H atoms in the $NH_{2}$ group. The total nuclear spin of the two H atoms can thus be either $I = 1$ or $I = 0$. This is reflected over ...
New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced a legal agreement with Wyeth Holdings Corporation, a subsidiary of the Pfizer Corporation, to perform pre-construction design work, an initial step in the cleanup of the American Cyanamid Superfund site in Bridgewater Township, New Jersey. On September 27, 2012, the EPA issued its final plan to address contaminated soil, ground water and six waste disposal areas (called impoundments 3, 4, 5, 13, 17 and 24) at the site. The agreement also requires the company to complete a study evaluating alternatives for cleaning up two additional chemical waste areas (called impoundments 1 and 2). In addition, Wyeth Holdings Corporation agreed to continue to operate a system for collecting and treating contaminated ground water underneath the site to prevent it from seeping into the nearby Raritan River, Cuckholds Brook and Middle Brook. All cleanup work will be done under the EPAs oversight. ...
International Journal of Hepatology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to the medical, surgical, pathological, biochemical, and physiological aspects of hepatology, as well as the management of disorders affecting the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas.
Shenzhen Anheda Plastic Products Co Ltd Established in Shenzhen in 1994 AHD Engineering Plastic Products Co Ltd is a comprehensive company that is engaged in the R D production and distribution of semi finished engineering plastic in China including HDPE PP PU PVC PEI ABS FR ABS PA6 PA6 GF ESD PA6 POM POM GF ESD POM.... ...
Previous article in issue: Ground glass inclusions in liver cells in an alcoholic treated with cyanamide (Dipsan) Previous article in issue: Ground glass inclusions in liver cells in an alcoholic treated with cyanamide (Dipsan) ...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent application No. 83 100 214.2 (publication No. 0 210 281) was refused by a decision of the Examining Division.. II. The grounds for the refusal were that the present application, which was divided from European patent application No. 79 300 252.8, did not meet the requirements of Article 76(1) EPC insofar as its contents extended beyond the disclosure of the said parent application. The decision was based on the originally filed Claims 1-9. Claim 1 reads as follows:. 1. A method of using a filament formed by extrusion of a block copolymer containing polymeric blocks (a) and polymeric blocks (b), wherein the polymeric blocks (a) consist of a polyalkylene ether having a number average molecular weight of from 500-3000 and have the formula:. (FORMULA). wherein R is a straight or branched chain alkylene group of from 1 to 9 carbon atoms, R2 is 1,4-phenylene or cyclohexylene and n is the number of repeating units; and wherein the polymeric blocks ...
The registry of restriction intentions until outcome lists the intentions and Annex XV restriction proposals received by ECHA.. A restriction proposal may be prepared by a Member State or by ECHA at the request of the Commission or on its own initiative for substances in the Authorisation List. It is a legal requirement for a Member State to notify ECHA of its intention to prepare a restriction dossier. The advance notice enables interested parties to plan and prepare for commenting later on.. Interested parties can follow the progress of a proposal through the restriction process, from the notification of the intention to the adoption of the final opinions by the Committee for Risk Assessment (RAC) and the Committee for Socio-economic Analysis (SEAC), and the adoption of the restriction by the European Commission.. Stakeholders are encouraged to submit any relevant information to the dossier submitters during the preparation of the restriction proposal and during the public consultations. ...
The 1978 fetus protection policy instituted by the American Cyanamids Willow Island Plant in Pleasants County was used in an attempt to coerce five female employees to undergo surgical sterilization. Two women who chose not to be sterilized were moved to lower-paying jobs in other departments. The policy provided that female employees of child-bearing age could not hold jobs that exposed them to toxic substances at levels unsafe for fetuses. It made exception, however, for women who chose surgical sterilization.. In October 1979, the Department of Labor fined American Cyanamid $10,000. It maintained that the companys policy itself was a workplace hazard that caused serious physical harm, and that the policy thereby violated the Occupational Safety and Health Act. The company contested the fine. The Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union joined the Department of Labor as a party in the dispute. After the company won two administrative hearings, the union appealed to the U.S. ...
the following comes from NBIAPs ISB news report (details of how to subscribe at the end of this message). i find the third paragraph rather surprising to say the least. any comments? j. ewbank at monod.biol.mcgill.ca BACULOVIRUS FIELD TEST OKD BY EPA The Environmental Protection Agency has determined that a small-scale field trial of American Cyanamids genetically engineered baculovirus will cause no significant risk to human health or nontarget organisms, and may be conducted without an experimental use permit. The insect virus, designated AaIT strain, has been modified to express the insect control protein from a North African scorpion. American Cyanamid will conduct field trials in 12 states to test the efficacy of the genetically engineered biocontrol agent against tobacco budworm and the cabbage looper on cotton, tobacco and leafy vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli and lettuce. Less than 100 grams of active ingredient will be used to treat a total of 7.4 acres. Similar field tests were ...
The soil at the site will be addressed using three different methods depending on the extent of the pollution in the soil. Soil that consists of tarry material or is highly toxic, similar to the waste within Impoundment 3, 4, and 5, will be excavated and combined with the material in the three impoundments. It will be treated with the existing waste in Impoundments 3, 4 and 5. Soil that contains volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds will be covered with a vapor control barrier and mitigation system to prevent the release of vapors into the air. Soil that has a lower level of pollution will be covered by a 24-inch thick engineered cap that will serve as a barrier that prevents direct contact. Additionally, the EPA will conduct an ecological study of the waste in Impoundments 13, 17 and 24, which are located in the flood plain of the site, to determine the appropriate treatment for these materials. ...
Human rights provisions in laws set by international treaties and national legislatures make individuals informed and freely given consent a precondition to the legality of their sterilization. Nevertheless, evidence shows ...
Bicifadine (DOV-220,075) is a serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI) discovered at American Cyanamid as an analgesic drug candidate, and licensed to DOV Pharmaceutical in 1998 after American Cyanamid was acquired by Wyeth.[1][2][3] In January 2007, Dov licensed the rights to bicifadine to XTL Biopharmaceuticals after bicifadine failed in a Phase III clinical trial for chronic lower back pain.[4][5][6] XTL ran a PhaseIIb clinical trial for pain caused by diabetic neuropathy, which failed in 2008;[7] XTL terminated the agreement in 2010.[8] In 2010 Dov was acquired by Euthymics Bioscience which intended to continue development of other candidates from Dovs portfolio.[9] Bicifadine has a non-opioid, non-NSAID mechanism for the treatment of pain, which should have less abuse potential than opioid drugs and less propensity to cause gastric ulcers than NSAID drugs.[10] While the drug is purported to be a serotonin (SERT) and noradrenaline transporter (NET) inhibitor, it also has ...
JESSE M. FRANKL, CHAIRMAN. The respondent employer has appealed from the March 16, 1994 Finding and Award of the Commissioner acting for the Seventh District. In that finding and award, the trial commissioner concluded that the claimant suffered a compensable occupational disease. In support of its appeal, the employer contends that prior to 1987, the claimant believed that his symptoms of asthma were caused by his employment, and therefore the claimants notice of claim filed on June 7, 1990 was time barred by § 31-294 C.G.S. We affirm the trial commissioner.. Section 31-294c C.G.S. provides a three-year statute of limitation for filing an occupational disease claim.1 In Bremner v. Eidlitz & Son, Inc., 118 Conn. 666, 669-70 (1934), the Connecticut Supreme Court held that the statute of limitation as to an occupational disease begins to run only when symptoms are manifested, and that the symptoms are only manifested when they plainly appear, not when it was merely suspected or doubtful. This ...
This invention relates to resins suitable for the removal of anions from fluid media and to processes of purifying fluid media by means of such resins. Epichlorohydrin has previously been condensed w
Nitrolim information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses, Nitrolim indications, usages and related health products lists
During January--February 2001, eight cases of acute illness in the county of Ragusa, Italy, were reported to the Italian National Institute for Health (INIH) by the Milan Poison Control Center (MPCC) and were attributed to exposure to Dormex, a plant growth regulator with hydrogen cyanamide as the active ingredient. These cases were identified during a pilot project for acute pesticide-related ill
Alcohol intolerance is due to a genetic polymorphism of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme that metabolises ingested alcohol. This polymorphism is most often reported in Asian patients.[1] It can also be an effect or side effect associated with certain drugs such as disulfiram, metronidazole, or nilutamide. Stuffy nose and skin flushing are the most common symptoms when ingesting alcohol.[2] It may also be characterized as intolerance causing hangover symptoms similar to the disulfiram-like reaction of aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency or chronic fatigue syndrome. Severe pain after drinking alcohol may indicate a more serious condition.[3] If people are intolerant, some nearly non-alcoholic beverages may be a problem, similar to alcohol-containing medications, vinegar, inhalation of alcohol or the vapour of alcohol-containing cleaning agents. Drinking alcohol first or afterwards together with Calcium cyanamide, an inorganic compound used as a fertilizer, can cause permanent or long ...
A brief description of the impurities found in low grade creatines Dicyandiamide (DC): DC is actually a derivative of one of the starting chemicals (cyanamide) used in creatine production. DC is formed during the production of creatine products, and large amounts found in a product are considered the result of an incomplete or inefficient process. A quality creatine product will contain very small amounts, less than 20-50ppm. DC does not appear to be a particularly toxic chemical. Oral studies with animals (rats and dogs) lasting up to 90 days have not shown serious toxicity or carcinogenic effects, and acute poisoning also takes very high amounts (LD50 /oral / rats = ,5000mg/kg). DC appears to have many uses in the chemical industry. Some of the more interesting is the use of DC in the production of fertilizers, explosives, fire proofing compounds, cleaning compounds, soldering compounds, stabilizer in detergents, modifier for starch products, and a catalyst for epoxy resins (AllChem Industries ...
The synthesis and X-ray single crystal structures of a series of new 4-substituted-1,3-selenazol-2-amines is reported. The efficient preparation of 4-substituted-1,3-selenazol-2-amines was carried out by two-component cyclization of the selenoureas with equi-molar amounts of α-haloketones. The selenoureas were obtained from the reaction of Woollins reagent with cyanamides, followed by hydrolysis with water. All new compounds have been characterized by IR spectroscopy, multi-NMR (1H, 13C, 77Se) spectroscopy, accurate mass measurement and single crystal X-ray structure analysis ...
a) urea (CO(NH2)2, CAS Reg. No. 57-13-6) is the diamide of carbonic acid and is also known as carbamide. It is a white, odorless solid and is commonly produced from CO2 by ammonolysis or from cyanamide by hydrolysis. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended use. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a formulation aid as defined in § 170.3(o)(14) of this chapter and as a fermentation aid. (2) The ingredient is used in yeast-raised bakery products; in alcoholic beverages as defined in § 170.3(n)(2) of this chapter; and in gelatin products. (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this section do not exist or have been waived. ...
Patented July 6, 1954 ABSORBENT CELLULOSIC PRODUCTS Walter Florus Reynolds, Jr., Stamford, Conn, as- signor to American Cyanamid Company, New York, N. Y., a corporation of Maine N Drawing. Application February 10, 1948, Serial No. 7,531 \w I V \l The present invention relates to the manufacture of fibrous cellulosic articles and relates more 7 particularly to a method of improving the absorbency of felted fibrous cellulosic articles such as paper, and the like articles, by the addition thereto of a surface active agent prepared by reacting ethylene oxide and octadecylamine. A primary object of the invention resides in the provision of a method of imparting improved absorbency and softness of hand to paper toweling and other cellulosic tissue products. A further object of the invention is the provision of paper products containing certain surface active agents which, because of their substantivity for cellulose, may be incorporated in fibrous cellulosic materials during the wet formation of ...
The bioactive metabolite of Substance P, the heptapeptide SP1-7 (H-Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gln-Phe-OH), has been shown to attenuate signs of hyperalgesia in diabetic mice, which indicate a possible use of compounds targeting the SP1-7 binding site as analgesics for neuropathic pain. Aiming at the development of drug-like SP1-7 peptidomimetics we have previously reported on the discovery of H-Phe-Phe-NH2 as a high affinity lead compound. Unfortunately, the pharmacophore of this compound was accompanied by a poor pharmacokinetic (PK) profile. Herein, further lead optimization of H-Phe-Phe-NH2 by substituting the N-terminal phenylalanine for a benzylcarbamate group giving a new type of SP1-7 analogues with good binding affinities is reported. Extensive in vitro as well as in vivo PK characterization is presented for this compound. Evaluation of different C-terminal functional groups, i.e., hydroxamic acid, acyl sulfonamide, acyl cyanamide, acyl hydrazine, and oxadiazole, suggested hydroxamic acid as a ...
Assess whether the use of calcium cyanamide as a fertiliser may pose an unacceptable risk to human health and/or the environment. The report should take into account information in the REACH registration dossier for the substance, in the SCHER opinion and in dossiers submitted for other regulatory processes (e.g. under the Biocidal Products Regulation and the Plant Protection Products Regulation3 ...
The product of this process has a purity of 96 wt%, whereas other processes produce a product having greater than 99.8% purity. The reactivity of melamine-urea-formaldehyde resins is of key importance in the manufacture of engineered wood products such as medium density fibreboard (MDF) and other wood composite products. 4 MF resin has several inherent advantages, 5 namely thermal stability, flame retardancy, scratch resistance and transparency, which lead MF resin to highly applicable in adhesives, coating, paper and textile treatment. Like cyanamide, it contains 67% nitrogen by mass, and its derivatives have fire retardant properties due to its release of nitrogen gas when burned or charred. Description. Melamine is obtained from Urea in two stages: First the urea decomposition to form isocyanic acid and ammonia, … Other applications include paints, glues and flame- retardants. especially in its use in the production of such valuable synthetic resins as; phenol formaldehyde, urea ...
I would like to purchase a green safe light to work on light regulated responses in plant. Would someone tell me in which catalog I could find such monochromatic filters and which ones I should get? Thank you for your help. Catherine Weiss Plant Biotechnology, American Cyanamid ...
Aminoguanidinium bicarbonate can be prepared by reacting calcium cyanamide with hydrazine sulfate. It can also be easily prepared by reducing nitroguanidine with zinc powder. Diachrynic used this route obtaining a great yield:[2] 41.14 g zinc powder (629 mmol, 3.3 molar eq.) are weighed and put to the side. Into a reaction flask of at least 500 mL are put 20.00 g nitroguanidine (192 mmol, 1 molar eq.) and 47.62 g of ammonium sulfate (360 mmol, 1.88 molar eq.) in 285 mL of water. The suspension is stirred and not everything dissolves, this is expected. The reaction flask is immersed in an ice bath and equipped with magnetic stirring and a thermometer. Stirring is started. Once the solution reaches 10 °C the addition of small spatulas of zinc powder at a time is started. Monitor the exotherm and dont add too much at once, however the reaction is fairly easy to control. 3-4 spatulas of zinc can be added at a time, making the temperature jump up by 5-8 °C. The reaction was kept between 5-15 °C, ...
A fast and convenient synthesis of aryl amidines starting from carboxylic acids and cyanamides is reported. The reaction was achieved by palladium(II)-catalysis in a one-step microwave protocol using [Pd(O2 CCF3 )2 ], 6-methyl-2,2-bipyridyl and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP), providing the corresponding aryl amidines in moderate to excellent yields ...
Urease, an enzyme which degrades the naturally occurring compound urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, can do the same to the synthetic fertiliser cyanamide, say biochemists in Germany. They believe some forms of urease may act on a wide range of compounds, and so be able to render harmless some of the unnatural chemicals in …
Literature References: Prepn: R. W. Addor, J. B. Lovell, BE 618155, R. W. Addor, US 3197481 (1962, 1965 both to Am. Cyanamid). Activity: D. L. Bull et al., J. Econ. Entomol. 57, 112 (1964); R. L. Ridgway et al., ibid. 59, 149 (1966). Fate in soil: G. Tantawy et al., Alexandria J. Agric. Res. 22, 315 (1974). Metabolism: I. P. Kapoor, R. C. Blinn, J. Agric. Food Chem. 25, 413 (1977). Toxicology: M. M. Shawki et al., Beitr. Trop. Landwirtsch. Veterinaermed. 18, 291 (1980). ...
Brett Smith for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online. [ Watch the Video: Stanley Millers Forgotten Experiments, Analyzed ]. In a tribute to his old mentor and colleague, a marine chemistry professor at the University of California, San Diego was able to successfully replicate a mysterious and groundbreaking experiment by the Father of Pre-biotic Chemistry.. In 1953, chemist Stanley Miller published a report on a landmark experiment that showed how peptides, basic building blocks of life, could have formed in the oceans of the early Earth. The experiment was unusual in that Miller made the head-scratching decision to use the chemical cyanamide, which may or may not have been available on the early Earth.. According to a newly published report in the journal Angewandte Chemie, Millers old student and colleague Jeffrey Bada, along with a team of American researchers, were able to replicate the old experiment using modern technology. The team was also able to show that the reaction could have ...
rmMosrArrc sess ons AND i vmrnon on PREPG SAME George Madison Sieger, Jr -Pearl River, William visortine, Nanuet, and Joseph Francis Weidenheimer, Pearl River, N.Y., assignorsto American Cyanamid Company, New York, N.Y., a corporation of Maine Nb Drawing. Applihation Iune -12;.19s7 Serial No. 665,136 (Slaims. (Git 167 --84) This invention relates to absorbable hemostatie surgi cal sponges, to methods of preparing thesame; andto products made up of or containing the new sponge ma terial. Absorbable hemostatic sponges made essentially of gelatin havebeen available and widely uSed b-ysuIgeOnLs for some time. Such sponges are efieetive largely because gelatin tends to react with the blood plasma to stimulate the release of clotting components. Heme static sponges made of frozen starch paste which are also used in surgery mechanically draw theblood into fine capillaries of the-sponge and th-uspi omoteclotting; While these sponges are non=antigenic,-are geherally ah sorbed by ...
Proxy battle looms at CyanamidSetting the stage for a proxy battle, American Cyanamid Co. urged shareholders yesterday to ignore a $95-a-share takeover bid from American Home Products Corp. until
EPFL scientists have developed a uranium-based complex that allows nitrogen fixation reactions to take place in ambient conditions. The work lays the foundation to develop new processes for synthesizing nitrogen products like cyanamide.
Having a long half-life means susceptible infections can be treated with Doxycycline using a less frequent dosage regime? It lowers the LDL-C (bad cholesterol) and triglycerides in your blood? Have you ever considered creating an e-book or guest authoring on other websites. Experiment deltasone price venally A-87-39, (b) American Cyanamid Company Report FD 36: (a) Report No. The office is charged with directing and implementing energy planning and programs that assist tribes with energy development and electrification of Native American lands and homes? I know that there are combination drugs these days that doctors are prescribing instead of beta blockers? The statistical too? A resistência deve-se normalmente a uma deficiência fenotípica da TQ que resulta em um vírus com profunda desvantagem no hospedeiro natural? There dont seem to be good studies on the prevalence of severe depression, but lets say that 30 per cent of depressed people were severely depressed! [24] Ampicillin has been ...
Synonyms for calcium-cyanamide in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for calcium-cyanamide. 1 synonym for calcium-cyanamide: cyanamide. What are synonyms for calcium-cyanamide?
Synonyms for Actinidia deliciosa in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Actinidia deliciosa. 4 synonyms for Actinidia deliciosa: Actinidia chinensis, Chinese gooseberry, kiwi, kiwi vine. What are synonyms for Actinidia deliciosa?
Burnt cotton (not repicked).. Inf. S.. Burnt fibers (see: Fibers, burnt).. Inf. S. Bursters (explosive) (see: Boosters).. Expl. A. Butadiene, inhibited.. Inf. G. Butane (see: Liquefied petroleum gas). *Butyl acetate.. Inf. L. *Butyl acetate.. Comb. L.. *Butyl alcohol (see: Alcohol, N. 0. 8.).. Comb. L.. *Butyl alcohol (see: Alcohol, N.O.S.).. Inf. L. Butyl ether... Comb. L. Butyl mercaptan (see: Mercaptans).. Inf. L. Butyl trichlorosilane.. Cor. L.. Butyraldehyde.... Inf. L. Cacodylic acid, solid (dimethylarsenic).. Pois. B.. Calcium arsenate, solid.. Pois. B Calcium arsenite, solid.. Pois. B. Calcium carbide.. Haz. Calcium chlorate (see: Chlorates).. Oxy. M. Calcium chlorite.. Oxy. M. Calcium cyanamide, not hydrated.. Haz.. Calcium cyanide (see: Cyanides, etc.).. Pois. B. Calcium hypochlorite (see: Bleaching powder or Calcium hypo. chlorite compounds, dry). Calcium hypochlorite compounds, dry, containing more than 39 per- Oxy. M.. cent available chlorine. Calcium, ...
COMPOUNDS OF ALKALI METALS, i.e. LITHIUM, SODIUM, POTASSIUM, RUBIDIUM, CAESIUM, OR FRANCIUM (metal hydrides {monoborane, diborane or addition complexes thereof} C01B 6/00; salts of oxyacids of halogens C01B 11/00; peroxides, salts of peroxyacids C01B 15/00; sulfides C01B 17/22; thiosulfates, dithionites, polythionates C01B 17/64; compounds containing selenium or tellurium C01B 19/00; binary compounds of nitrogen with metals C01B 21/06; azides C01B 21/08; {compounds other than ammonia and cyanogen, containing nitrogen and other non-metals C01B 21/082}; metal amides C01B 21/092; nitrites C01B 21/50; phosphides C01B 21/50; {compounds of noble gases C01B 23/0005}; phosphides C01B 25/08; salts of oxyacids of phosphorus C01B 25/16; carbides C01B 32/90; compounds containing silicon C01B 33/00; compounds containing boron C01B 35/00; cyanides C01C 3/08; salts of cyanic acid C01C 3/14; salts of cyanamide C01C 3/16; thiocyanates C01C 3/20 ...
Abstract : Calcium carbide (CaC2) is known for its wide applications in the production of acetylene and calcium cyanamide,whereas praseodymium Oxide (Pr6O11) is used in sensors and high-temperature pigments. The present study was designed toevaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physical and structural properties of CaC2 and Pr6O11 powder. Thepowder samples of both compounds were equally divided into two parts, referred as control and treated. The treated part ofboth compounds was subjected to Mr. Trivedis biofield energy treatment. After that, both control and treated samples wereinvestigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD data revealed thatthe biofield energy treatment has increased the lattice parameter of unit cell by 3.35% in the treated CaC2 sample as comparedto the control. The density of treated CaC2 sample was reduced upto 4.49% and molecular weight was increased upto 4.70% ascompared to the control. The ...
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT, DISTRICT OF NEW JERSEY,July 8, 1980,The opinion of the court was delivered by: BIUNNO,Clifford G. Frayne, Newark, N.J., for plaintiff. , James L. Melhuish, Livingston, N.J., for Pfizer, Inc. , Eugene M. Purcell, Pluckemin, N.J., for Parke-Davis & Co. , Mark M. Bridge, Mt. Holly, N.J., for A.H. Robins Co. , Lee A. Adlerstein, Newark, N.J., for E.R. Squibb & Sons, Inc. , Franklin C. Steinberg, Newark, N.J., for Merck & Co. , Mary B. Rogers, Jersey City, N.J., for Upjohn Co. , Roger L. Toner, Newark, N.J., for Schering Corp. ,Florence Christina AARNES, Plaintiff, v. MERCK & CO.; Sterling Drug, Inc.; Upjohn Co.; Robins Co.; Lederle Laboratories, a Division of American Cyanamid Co.; Parke-Davis Corp., A Division of Warner Lambert & Co.; E.R. Squibb & Sons, Inc., a Division of Squibb Corp.; Schering Corp., a Division of Schering-Plough Corp.; Organon Corp., a subsidiary of Akonza Corp.; Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a subsidiary of Pfizer, Inc., Defendants
March 12, 1957 R. B. BOOTH ET AL L 2,784,468 CLARIFICATION OF BLACK FOUNDRY WASTE WATERS Filed March 1l, 1952 2 Sheets-Sheet l f2 E [email protected] ATTORNEY March 12, 1957 R. B. BOOTH ETAL 2,784,468 CLARIFICATION O BLACK FOUNDRY WASTE WATERS Filed March l1, 1952 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 CLARIFICATION F BLACK FOUNDRY WASTE WATERS Robert B. Booth and John M. Dobson, Stamford, Conn., assignors to American Cyanamid Company, New York, N. Y., a corporation of Maine Application March 11, 1952, Serial No. 275,994 11 Claims. (Cl. v22-217) This invention relates to the clarification of foundry waste efuents. A serious waste disposal problem in foundry practice arises in disposing of the inky-black waters originating from vfoundry dust collectors, wet methods and such various operations as cleaning of foundry sands, sand blasting and hydraulic cleaning `of castings, etc. We have now discovered a means of continuously removing the contaminants from such foundry waters as a low bulk concentrate and if desired, recirculating ...
cansSAR 3D Structure of 3DC3 | USE OF CARBONIC ANHYDRASE II, IX ACTIVE-SITE MIMIC, FOR THE PURPOSE OF SCREENING INHIBITORS FOR POSSIBLE ANTI-CANCER PROPERTIES | 3DC3_A | Carbonic anhydrase 2 - Also known as CAH2_HUMAN, CA2. Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. Contributes to intracellular pH regulation in the duodenal upper villous epithelium during proton-coupled peptide absorption. Stimulates the chloride-bicarbonate exchange activity of SLC26A6. Interacts with SLC4A4. Interaction with SLC4A7 regulates SLC4A7 transporter activity. Interacts with SLC26A6 isoform 4 (via C-terminus cytoplasmic domain).
Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or available through Inter-Library Loan. Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa) is a species particularly important to the New Zealand economy yet little is known of the genetics or origins of its hexaploid genome. The aim of this thesis was to investigate interspecific and intraspecific relationships of kiwifruit and in particular to determine whether the kiwifruit genome had arisen primarily via an autopolyploid or allopolyploid mechanism. Phylogenetic relationships between A. deliciosa and three of its closest relatives within the same section of the genus Actinidia were investigated using restriction fragment length polymorphism and the data used to generate a phylogenetic tree depicting this relationship. The four species were differentiated into two pairings, A. chinensis with A. deliciosa and A. eriantha with A. latifolia. The results support the known close taxonomic relationship between diploid A. ...
Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are highly expressed in the chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-resistant cell subpopulations of many different cancer types. Accordingly, the development of ALDH inhibitors may be the most direct approach to target these cell populations. However, inhibiting multiple ALDH …
The oxazaphosphorines including cyclophosphamide (CPA), ifosfamide (IFO), and trofosfamide represent an important group of therapeutic agents due to their substantial antitumor and immuno-modulating activity. CPA is widely used as an anticancer drug, an immunosuppressant, and for the mobilization of hematopoetic progenitor cells from the bone marrow into peripheral blood prior to bone marrow transplantation for aplastic anemia, leukemia, and other malignancies. New oxazaphosphorines derivatives have been developed in an attempt to improve selectivity and response with reduced toxicity. These derivatives include mafosfamide (NSC 345842), glufosfamide (D19575, β-D-glucosylisophosphoramide mustard), NSC 612567 (aldophosphamide perhydrothiazine), and NSC 613060 (aldophosphamide thiazolidine). This review highlights the metabolism and transport of these oxazaphosphorines (mainly CPA and IFO, as these two oxazaphosphorine drugs are the most widely used alkylating agents) and the clinical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Brief report. T2 - Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity is a biomarker of primitive normal human mammary luminal cells. AU - Eirew, Peter. AU - Kannan, Nagarajan. AU - Knapp, David J.H.F.. AU - Vaillant, François. AU - Emerman, Joanne T.. AU - Lindeman, Geoffrey J.. AU - Visvader, Jane E.. AU - Eaves, Connie J.. PY - 2012/2. Y1 - 2012/2. N2 - Elevated aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) expression/activity has been identified as an important biomarker of primitive cells in various normal and malignant human tissues. Here we examined the level and type of ALDH expression and activity in different subsets of phenotypically and functionally defined normal human mammary cells. We find that the most primitive human mammary stem and progenitor cell types with bilineage differentiation potential show low ALDH activity but undergo a marked, selective, and transient upregulation of ALDH activity at the point of commitment to the luminal lineage. This mirrors a corresponding change in transcripts ...
Past research suggests that (self-empowering addiction treatment) cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective in the treatment of alcohol dependence. In some cases, psychological treatment can be significantly improved by pharmacotherapy. Pharmacotherapies used in alcohol treatment include disulfiram, an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor; naltrexone, ...
Past research suggests that (self-empowering addiction treatment) cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective in the treatment of alcohol dependence. In some cases, psychological treatment can be significantly improved by pharmacotherapy. Pharmacotherapies used in alcohol treatment include disulfiram, an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor; naltrexone, an opioid antagonist; and acamprosate, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor blocker. Few studies have compared the effectiveness of these pharmacotherapies. A team of researchers from Finland set out to do just that (Laaksonen et. al., 2008).. The researchers conducted a randomized, open label, multicenter naturalistic study in two phases. The first phase consisted of 12 weeks of continuously supervised medication. The second phase consisted of up to 52 weeks of targeted medication, in which patients took medication during craving situations. The follow-up point occurred at 67 weeks after the completion of the study (approximately 2.5 years after the start ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and level of dopamine in certain sections of the brain of rats preferring and refusing ethanol by Kharchenko Nk
de-los- ngeles Mart nez-V zquez, Esa et al. Heterosis de cruzas entre lineas de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.) nativo mexicano tipo pimiento y lineas tipo saladette. Rev. fitotec. mex, Mar 2016, vol.39, no.1, p.67-77. ISSN 0187- ...
Looking for SPECTRUM Acetaldehyde,Reagent,ACS,100mL (39G077)? Graingers got your back. Price:$411.50. Easy ordering & convenient delivery. Log-in or register for your pricing.
Acetaldehyde,(1-isoquinolinyloxy)-(9ci)/ACM420786681 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
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Production of calcium cyanamide[edit]. Calcium carbide reacts with nitrogen at high temperature to form calcium cyanamide:[5] ... Commonly known as nitrolime, calcium cyanamide is used as fertilizer. It is hydrolysed to cyanamide, H2NCN.[5] ... Its main use industrially is in the production of acetylene and calcium cyanamide.[3] ... "Manufacture of Cyanamide". The Chemical News and the Journal of Physical Science. 117: 232. ...
Today, cyanamide is used primarily as a herbicide. Wilhelm Ostwald, considered one of the best German chemists of the early ... However, the Cyanamide process consumed large amounts of electrical power and was more labor-intensive than the Haber process. ... Calcium cyanamide". Retrieved 18 July 2008. Hager 2008, pp. 76-78, 94-96 Travis 1993 Wisniak 2002, p. 163 David V. "Bradley & ... German chemists Adolf Frank and Nikodem Caro succeeded in reacting calcium carbide with dinitrogen to obtain calcium cyanamide ...
cyanamide: 4.27 D. *potassium bromide: 10.41 D. The linear molecule CO2 has a zero dipole as the two bond dipoles cancel. ...
... is produced by treating cyanamide with base. It is produced in soil by decomposition of cyanamide. A variety ... It is a dimer of cyanamide, from which it can be prepared. 2-Cyanoguanidine is a colourless solid that is soluble in water, ... "Cyanamides". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a08_139.pub2. H. Deim; G ...
Cyanamides. Part III. The formation of substituted triazines from o-halogenophenylureas and arylsulphonyl chlorides". Journal ...
Organic cyanamidesEdit. Cyanamides are N-cyano compounds with general structure R1R2N−CN and related to the inorganic parent ... with amines, e.g. the reaction of the amine sarcosine with cyanamide yields creatine[30] ...
"Ab initio study on cyanamide and isocyanamide". Chemical Physics. 72 (3): 301-312. Bibcode:1982CP.....72..301I. doi:10.1016/ ...
In 1945 the production of calcium cyanamide reached a peak of an estimated 1.5 million tons a year. German patent nr. DE 88363 ... The synthesis produces a solid mixture of calcium cyanamide (CaCN2), also known as nitrolim, and carbon. CaC2 + N2 → CaCN2 + C ... The Frank-Caro process, also called cyanamide process, is the nitrogen fixation reaction of calcium carbide with nitrogen gas ... In its first decades, the world market for inorganic fertilizer was dominated by factories utilizing the cyanamide process. The ...
The parent compound, methanediimine, (HN=C=NH), is a tautomer of cyanamide. A classic route to carbodiimides involves ...
Cyanamide groups and analogs have been often used in the generation iminium ions. They are typically installed by nucleophilic ...
The compound has been invoked as a product of the oxidation of cyanamide catalyzed by the enzyme glucose oxidase. In terms of ... a putative metabolic oxidation product of the alcohol-deterrent agent cyanamide". Biochemical Pharmacology. 52 (1): 141-147. ...
The reaction of cyanamide with α-amino-acetals and α-amino-aldehydes". J. Chem. Soc.: 307-310. doi:10.1039/jr9560000307. ...
1975), "Microwave detection of interstellar cyanamide", Astrophysical Journal, 201: L149-L152, Bibcode:1975ApJ...201L.149T, doi ...
... can be made by polymerization of cyanamide, dicyandiamide or melamine. The firstly formed polymeric ...
"Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes cyanamide hydration to urea: is it mimicking the physiological reaction?". Journal of Biological ...
The Chemiepark Trostberg originated from a calcium cyanamide production plant, founded in 1908. Between 1978 and 2000, the ...
The colorless compound was used in the production of acetylene and calcium cyanamide. Acetylene was critical to the large and ...
... is both isomeric and isoelectronic with the more stable cyanamide, but they cannot interconvert. Many substituted ... The stable compound cyanamide, whose minor tautomer is carbodiimide, is an isomer of diazomethane. Less stable but still ...
Cyanuric chloride is the trimer of cyanogen chloride and 2-cyanoguanidine is the dimer of cyanamide. Other types of inorganic ... Small inorganic carbon - nitrogen compounds are cyanogen, hydrogen cyanide, cyanamide, isocyanic acid and cyanogen chloride. ... thiocyanate and cyanamide ions. Examples of cyanides are copper cyanide (CuCN) and potassium cyanide (KCN), examples of ...
One year later, Fujiyama patented his own process of producing cyanamide, the continuous cyanamide process. In 1913, Fujiyama ...
"Rational design of carbon nitride photocatalysts by identification of cyanamide defects as catalytically relevant sites". ...
Specifically, hydrogen cyanamide stimulates cell division and growth in dormant plants, causing buds to break when the plant is ... Hydrogen cyanamide interacts with the cytokinin metabolic cycle, which results in triggering a new growth cycle.[citation ...
Further developments of this transformation have led to the expansion of the substrate scope to N-cyanamides, N- ... Carrau, R.; Hernández, R.; Suárez, E.; Betancor, C. (1987). "Intramolecular functionalization of N-cyanamide radicals: ... funcionalizations generally proceed in higher yields than the reactions involving N-nitro or N-cyanamides. In 2008 Baran et al ...
In 1898 Frank and Caro developed a way to fix nitrogen in the form of calcium cyanamide. The Frank-Caro and Ostwald processes ...
In 1906, two Germans, A.Frank and N. Caro, invented a new method to produce calcium cyanamide to be used a fertilizer. Noguchi ... He also produced ammonium sulphate out of the calcium cyanamide, because it was safer and better known. In 1914, he formed " ...
Cyanate Thiocyanic acid Cyanamide also has this name, and for which it is more systematically correct "Oxomethaniminium , CH2NO ...
The carbide production and the subsequent production of cyanamide was started in 1908 after the water power plant was ... Offices of Odda Smelteverk, former North Western Cyanamide Company and Alby United Carbide Factory, 1906. ...
Marchner, H.; Tottmar, O. (1978). "A Comparative Study on the Effects of Disulfiram, Cyanamide and 1-Aminocyclopropanol on the ...
With calcium cyanamide and calcium nitrate (made from nitric acid), Lonza commercialised formulated fertilisers starting in the ... from electric lighting reduced demand for calcium carbide and in 1915 Lonza started industrial production of calcium cyanamide ...

No data available that match "cyanamide"


  • However, Dr. Dulak was unsure whether this method is applicable to hydrogen cyanamide. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen cyanamide* is used in agriculture as a plant growth regulator and is applied to many deciduous plants to stimulate uniform budbreak after dormancy, resulting in uniform flowering and maturity. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen cyanamide is highly toxic, and adverse health effects from contact include severe irritation and ulceration of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract ( 1,2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • After Dormex ® (Degussa AG, Trostberg, Germany), a pesticide product containing hydrogen cyanamide (49% by weight), was introduced in Italy in 2000, a total of 23 cases of acute illness associated with exposure to this chemical were identified in early 2001 ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This report describes 28 additional cases of hydrogen cyanamide--related illness that occurred during 2002--2004, 14 of which occurred after sales resumed. (cdc.gov)
  • These illnesses suggest that the preventive measures adopted in Italy in 2003 to protect workers using hydrogen cyanamide are inadequate. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers exposed to hydrogen cyanamide should be provided adequate information, training, personal protective equipment (PPE), and engineering controls. (cdc.gov)
  • A total of 28 hydrogen cyanamide--related illnesses were identified during 2002--2004. (cdc.gov)
  • Water, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrogen selenide react with cyanamide to give urea, thiourea, and selenourea, respectively: H2NCN + H2E → H2NC(E)NH2 (E = O, S, Se) In this way, cyanamide behaves as a dehydration agent and thus can induce condensation reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cyanamide anion has the character of a pseudo chalcogen, cyanamide can therefore be regarded as analogue to water or hydrogen sulfide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thiourea can be produced by the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with calcium cyanamide in the presence of carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pérez, Francisco 2012-03-31 00:00:00 It has been reported that dormancy-breaking compound hydrogen cyanamide (HC) stimulates the fermentative pathway and inhibits respiration in grapevine-buds, suggesting in this way, that a respiratory stress must be involved in the release of buds from dormancy. (deepdyve.com)
  • Global Hydrogen Cyanamide Market Growth 2020-2025 is a detailed research recently added by MarketsandResearch.biz that offers a thorough study of the market current status and evaluates the market over the years with a comprehensive study. (bcfocus.com)
  • The global Hydrogen Cyanamide market assessment puts forth in-detailed data that enhance the scope, understanding, and application of this report. (bcfocus.com)
  • The report highlights the vital entities associated with the global Hydrogen Cyanamide market. (bcfocus.com)
  • The report analyzes the profit and loss numbers, item value, production capacity, logistics, and distribution channels in the global Hydrogen Cyanamide market. (bcfocus.com)
  • The aim of this study is to assess the acute toxic effects of Hydrogen Cyanamide , the active ingredient in Donnex which is a plant growth regulator, in human and to estimate the magnitude of hydrogen cyanamide -related illnesses in our locality [El-Minia govemorate- Upper Egypt ]. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cyanamide, under the trade name Dormex, is a common agricultural rest-breaking agent applied in spring to stimulate uniform opening of buds, early foliation and bloom. (wikipedia.org)
  • The report then analyzes the global Calcium Cyanamide market size (volume and value), and the sales segment market is also discussed by product type, application and region. (pitchengine.com)
  • Global Calcium Cyanamide market size will increase to xx Million US$ by 2025, from xx Million US$ in 2017, at a CAGR of xx% during the forecast period. (reportsnreports.com)
  • The cyanamide-functionalised carbon nitride (NCN-CNx) can be employed as a photo-redox catalyst for the light-induced sulfonylation of alkenes with sulfinate salts, attaining product yields twice those obtained with the non-functionalised counterpart and comparable to those achieved with the benchmark homogeneous photocatalyst Eosin Y. NCN-CNx as a heterogeneous photocatalyst is easily isolatable and can be re-used for this reaction for over three cycles. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The rest frequencies for the rotational transitions of the cyanamide molecule (NH2CN) in the ground state and the lowest vibrational (NH2 inversion) state were calculated from a study carried out with a conventional 80 kHz Stark-modulated spectrometer with a 30-cm long parallel-plate absorption cell. (harvard.edu)
  • Containing both a nucleophilic and electrophilic site within the same molecule, cyanamide undergoes various reactions with itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cyanamide molecule has two identical H atoms in the $NH_{2}$ group. (osu.edu)
  • The team tried mixing cyanamide and glycolaldehyde, two chemicals probably present in the primordial soup, to make a molecule with a bit of the sugar and the base. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The fertilizer calcium cyanamide helps plants to reach high yields, thus maximizing profits for farmers. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Cyanamide process - is a process of manufacturing fertilizer calcium cyanamide and ammonia. (academic.ru)
  • Fritz Rothe, a colleague of Frank and Caro, succeeded in 1898 in overcoming problems with the use of calcium carbide and clarified that at around 1,100 °C not calcium cyanide but calcium cyanamide is formed in the reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, the initial target product sodium cyanide can also be obtained from calcium cyanamide by melting it with sodium chloride in the presence of carbon: CaCN2 + 2 NaCl + C → 2 NaCN + CaCl2 Frank and Caro developed this reaction for a large-scale, continuous production process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium cyanamide can be used as a fertilizer because it reacts with water to give ammonia and calcium carbonate:CaCN 2 (s)+3H 2 O(l) → CaCO 3 (s)+2NH 3 (g) It is also used in the production of melamine, urea, and certain cyanide salts. (oup.com)
  • At 1400°-1500°C, technical-grade calcium cyanamide combines with sodium chloride (NaCl) to form cyanide flux, which in the recent past was the major source of hydrocyanic acid and cyanide salts. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This ebook Silver Azide, Cyanide, Cyanamides, Cyanate, Selenocyanate happens examples to organisation and tree becoming in statistical administrator considered by a dropdown of economists and structure companies and solid ' changes. (crowd-estate.de)
  • This produces cyanamide (see ICSC 0424), ammonia, calcium hydroxide and acetylene. (inchem.org)
  • Frank and Caro also noted the formation of ammonia from calcium cyanamide. (wikipedia.org)
  • CaCN2 + 3 H2O → 2 NH3 + CaCO3 Albert Frank recognized the fundamental importance of this reaction as a breakthrough in the provision of ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen and in 1901 recommended calcium cyanamide as a nitrogen fertilizer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main reaction exhibited by cyanamide involves additions of compounds containing an acidic proton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metal cyanamide compounds are an emerging class of photoactive materials for solar energy applications. (rsc.org)
  • cyanamide: used chiefly as a fertilizer, herbicide, and intermediate in the synthesis of nitrogen compounds. (academic.ru)
  • Derivatives of this compound are also referred to as cyanamides, the most common being calcium cyanamide (CaCN2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium cyanamide is the inorganic compound with the formula CaCN2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through hydrolysis in the presence of carbon dioxide, calcium cyanamide produces cyanamide:[clarification needed] CaCN2 + H2O + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2NCN The conversion is conducted in slurries, consequently most commercial calcium cyanamide is sold as an aqueous solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Undiluted cyanamide is a deliquescent, crystalline solid. (cdc.gov)
  • Commercial calcium cyanamide is a crystalline substance which contains trace amounts of calcium carbide which may produce acetylene in production vessels or containers. (inchem.org)
  • It is the calcium salt of the cyanamide (CN2− 2) anion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, results obtained using a difference spectrophotometric assay based upon the oxidation of haemoglobin were consistent with the catalase-dependent oxidation of sodium azide to nitric oxide (NO) and of cyanamide to nitroxyl anion. (elsevier.com)
  • The role of acetaldehyde in this dysfunction was also examined by inclusion of the aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor, cyanamide. (hindawi.com)
  • Methods for analysis of aldehyde dehydrogenase isoenzymes using high‐performance (pressure) liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to determine in vivo effects of disulfiram and cyanamide on canine liver aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) isoenzymes. (okstate.edu)
  • As urea (formed via the Haber-Bosch process) was significantly more nitrogen-rich (46% compared to ca. 20% nitrogen content) cheaper and faster acting, the role of calcium cyanamide was gradually reduced to a multifunctional nitrogen fertilizer in niche applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Can hydrates cyanamide to urea. (abcam.com)
  • In this study, 2017 has been considered as the base year and 2018 to 2025 as the forecast period to estimate the market size for Calcium Cyanamide. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Depending on the calcium carbide content, the cyanamide reacts with water (moisture from air or soil) to produce acetylene and hydrated calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. (chemicalbook.com)
  • It is a weakly acidic compound (the parent acid of cyanamide salts) that is soluble in water and ethanol. (oup.com)
  • According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, commercially available calcium cyanamide preparations appear as a lumpy powder that is dark gray to black in color. (sfgate.com)
  • A colourless solid, CaCN 2 , which sublimes at 1300°C. It is prepared by heating calcium dicarbide at 800°C in a stream of nitrogen:CaC 2 (s)+N 2 (g) → CaCN 2 (s)+C(s)The reaction has been used as a method of fixing nitrogen in countries in which cheap electricity is available to make the calcium dicarbide (the cyanamide process). (oup.com)
  • CaCN 2 , the calcium salt of cyanamide (H 2 N-C≡N, the amide of cyanic acid). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For a long time calcium cyanamide was used as a raw material in the production of melamine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Liver ALDH isoenzymes from control and disulfiram‐ or cyanamide‐treated dogs were separated by ion‐exchange HPLC, and enzyme activity was detected using a postcolumn reactor. (okstate.edu)
  • This process requires meticulous temperature control since the melting point of calcium cyanamide is only about 120°C lower than the boiling point of sodium chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the role of catalase in the smooth muscle relaxant actions of sodium azide and cyanamide. (elsevier.com)
  • The effects of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole suggested a role for this enzyme in the relaxant actions of sodium azide on rat aorta and bovine retractor penis muscle and cyanamide on rat aorta. (elsevier.com)
  • Cyanamide (CAS NO.420-04-2) is used as industrial raw materials, pharmaceutical, pesticide intermediates, agricultural fertilizers, plant regulators and food additives, etc. (lookchem.com)
  • Calcium cyanamide is a chemical compound used in industrial agricultural fertilizers. (reportsnreports.com)
  • This report was created for strategic planners, international marketing executives and export managers whose primary concern is the world market for calcium cyanamide fertilizers. (marketresearch.com)
  • I have developed a methodology, based on macroeconomic and trade models, to estimate the market for calcium cyanamide fertilizers for those firms serving the world via exports and foreign direct investment. (marketresearch.com)
  • In what follows, this report begins by summarizing the world exporter's market for calcium cyanamide fertilizers. (marketresearch.com)
  • Cyanamide dimerizes to give 2-cyanoguanidine (dicyandiamide). (wikipedia.org)
  • Global Calcium Cyanamide Sales 2016 Market Research Report ​ is a new market research publication announced by Reportstack. (pitchengine.com)
  • Then we forecast the 2016-2021 market size of Calcium Cyanamide. (pitchengine.com)
  • A convenient method for the preparation of secondary amines which are not contaminated with primary or tertiary amines is the reaction of cyanamide with alkyl halides to N,N-dialkylcyanamides which can easily be hydrolyzed to dialkylamines and then decarboxylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • A guanidino group is introduced by reaction of cyanamide with sarcosine In the industrial synthesis of creatine: This synthesis route mostly avoids problematic impurities like chloroacetic acid, iminodiacetic acid, or dihydrotriazine that occur in other routes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1901, Ferdinand Eduard Polzeniusz patented a process that converts calcium carbide to calcium cyanamide in the presence of 10% calcium chloride at 700 °C. The advantage of lowering the reaction temperature by about 400 °C, however, must be weighed against the high amount of calcium chloride required and the discontinuous process control. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main reaction exhibited by cyanamide involves additions of protic reagents. (lookchem.com)
  • Calcium cyanamide is also used as a wire-fed alloy in steelmaking, in order to introduce nitrogen into the steel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fertilizer-grade calcium cyanamide, which has a nitrogen content of 18-22 percent, is effective in acidic and slightly basic soils when applied during autumn plowing. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A method for synthesizing nitrogen-doped carbon tubes involves preparing a solution of cyanamide and a suitable transition metal-containing salt in a solvent, evaporating the solvent to form a solid, and pyrolyzing the solid under an inert atmosphere under conditions suitable for the production of nitrogen-doped carbon tubes from the solid. (osti.gov)
  • The entire cell was held at a temperature of 373 K, thus providing enough vapour pressure of cyanamide for the infrared absorption spectra. (osu.edu)
  • Despite these health hazards, the Centers for Disease Control says that calcium cyanamide is not a carcinogen, whether inhaled, absorbed or taken orally. (sfgate.com)
  • Its main use industrially is in the production of acetylene and calcium cyanamide . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanamide is produced by hydrolysis of calcium cyanamide, which in turn is prepared from calcium carbide via the Frank-Caro process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solid cyanamide is produced by careful evaporation of the solvent and subsequent addition of a hydrolysis-labile ester of formic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, the quicklime and calcium cyanamide treatments increased the microbial population and activity in tobacco rhizospheric soil. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Effects of calcium cyanamide on soil microbial communities and Fusarium oxysporum f. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Dr. Dulak's third point is that there is no health basis for setting an inhalation limit for cyanamide (Ex. (cdc.gov)
  • Chronic exposure to calcium cyanamide can cause long-lasting rhinitis, or nasal inflammation, and perforation of the nasal septum. (sfgate.com)
  • In all cases of accidental exposure to calcium cyanamide, call the Poison Control Center. (sfgate.com)
  • The results showed calcium cyanamide and quicklime treatment resulted in a significant increase in these indices (e. (thefreedictionary.com)