Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Inbred C57BLLigands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Warts: Benign epidermal proliferations or tumors; some are viral in origin.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Arrestins: Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Lateral Line System: Aquatic vertebrate sensory system in fish and amphibians. It is composed of sense organs (canal organs and pit organs) containing neuromasts (MECHANORECEPTORS) that detect water displacement caused by moving objects.Mice, Inbred BALB CCD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptor Cross-Talk: The simultaneous or sequential binding of multiple cell surface receptors to different ligands resulting in coordinated stimulation or suppression of signal transduction.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
"Chemokine Receptors: CXCR4". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... CXCR-4 is an alpha-chemokine receptor specific for stromal-derived-factor-1 (SDF-1 also called CXCL12), a molecule endowed with ... a surface polarization of the CXCR4 receptors suggesting that this receptor is implicated in the adhesion phase of human ... "Molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding a LD78 receptor and putative leukocyte chemotactic peptide receptors". International ...
... receptors are G protein-coupled receptors containing 7 transmembrane domains that are found on the surface of ... CXCR that bind CXC chemokines, CCR that bind CC chemokines, CX3CR1 that binds the sole CX3C chemokine (CX3CL1), and XCR1 that ... G proteins are coupled to the C-terminal end of the chemokine receptor to allow intracellular signaling after receptor ... associated with binding receptor and inflammatory chemokines. This often complicates research on receptor-specific therapeutics ...
Atypical chemokine receptor 3 also known as C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) and G-protein coupled receptor 159 (GPR159 ... "Chromosomal mapping of A1 and A2 adenosine receptors, VIP receptor, and a new subtype of serotonin receptor". Genomics. 11 (1 ... This gene encodes a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family. This protein was earlier thought to be a receptor for ... "Entrez Gene: CXCR7 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 7". * Rajagopal S, Kim J, Ahn S, Craig S, Lam CM, Gerard NP, Gerard C, ...
Chemokines and chemokine receptors, of which CXCR stands out, regulate multiple processes such as morphogenesis, angiogenesis, ... In addition, the first 8 residues of the CXCL12 N-terminal serve as a receptor binding site, though only Lys-1 and Pro-2 ... Sorrentino C, Miele L, Porta A, Pinto A, Morello S (August 2016). "Activation of the A2B adenosine receptor in B16 melanomas ... Meanwhile, the RFFESH motif (residues 12-17) in the loop region function as a docking site for CXCL12 receptor binding. CXCL12 ...
... formyl peptide receptors (FPR), chemokines - chemokine receptors (CCR or CXCR), and leukotrienes - leukotriene receptors (BLT ... and alter the receptors. The proteins CheW and CheA bind to the receptor. The absence of receptor activation ... which like the receptors for leukotriene B4, is a G protein-coupled receptor. Aside from the skin, neutrophils are the body's ... While some chemotaxis receptors are expressed in the surface membrane with long-term characteristics, as they are determined ...
... receptor, beta. Reference[uredi - уреди , uredi izvor]. *↑ Wolff B, Burns AR, Middleton J, Rot A (November 1998 ... 1ilq: CXCR-1 N-terminalni peptid vezan za interleukin 8 (minimizovana sredina) ... G-protein spregnuti receptor proteinski signalni put. • interćelijska signalizaciona kaskada. • interćelijska signalizacija. • ... vezivanje za interleukin-8 receptor. • vezivanje za proteine. • aktivnost hemokina. Ćelijska komponenta. • ekstracelularni ...
90% of Waldenström macroglobulinaemia patients as well as various mutations in the CXCR gene found in 27% to 40% of Waldenström ... almost all of which are L265P mutations that continuously activate the same cell-activating pathways as Toll-like receptors; b ... 27 (4): 780-91. doi:10.1038/leu.2012.336. PMC 4112539 . PMID 23288300. Granell M, Calvo X, Garcia-Guiñón A, Escoda L, Abella E ... 43 (4): 677-691. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2016.07.002. PMID 27866585. Willrich MA, Murray DL, Kyle RA (2017). "Laboratory testing for ...
CXCR chemokine receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • chemokine activity. • identical protein binding. Клітинна компонента. • ... regulation of receptor activity. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • neutrophil chemotaxis. • leukocyte ... розташованим у людей на короткому плечі 4-ї хромосоми.  Довжина поліпептидного ланцюга білка становить 114 амінокислот, а ...
Chemokine receptor CXCR3 is a Gαi protein-coupled receptor in the CXC chemokine receptor family. Other names for CXCR3 are G protein-coupled receptor 9 (GPR9) and CD183. There are three isoforms of CXCR3 in humans: CXCR3-A, CXCR3-B and chemokine receptor 3-alternative (CXCR3-alt). CXCR3-A binds to the CXC chemokines CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL10 (IP-10), and CXCL11 (I-TAC) whereas CXCR3-B can also bind to CXCL4 in addition to CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. CXCR3 is expressed primarily on activated T lymphocytes and NK cells, and some epithelial cells. CXCR3 and CCR5 are preferentially expressed on Th1 cells, whereas Th2 cells favor the expression of CCR3 and CCR4. ...
... are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine family. They represent one subfamily of chemokine receptors, a large family of G protein-linked receptors that are known as seven transmembrane (7-TM) proteins, since they span the cell membrane seven times. There are currently seven known CXC chemokine receptors in mammals, named CXCR1 through CXCR7. CXCR1 and CXCR2 are closely related receptors that recognize CXC chemokines that possess an E-L-R amino acid motif immediately adjacent to their CXC motif. CXCL8 (otherwise known as interleukin-8) and CXCL6 can both bind CXCR1 in humans, while all other ELR-positive chemokines, such as CXCL1 to CXCL7 bind only CXCR2. They are both expressed ...
... is a congenital disorder of the white blood cells that causes severe, chronic leukopenia (a reduction of circulating white blood cells) and neutropenia (a reduction of neutrophil granulocytes). The disorder is believed to be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Myelokathexis refers to retention (kathexis) of neutrophils in the bone marrow (myelo). The disorder shows prominent neutrophil morphologic abnormalities. Myelokathexis is amongst the diseases treated with bone marrow transplantation and cord blood stem cells. WHIM syndrome is a very rare variant of severe congenital neutropenia that presents with warts, hypogammaglobunemia, infections, and myelokathexis. A gain in function mutation resulting in a truncated form of CXCR4 is believe to be its cause. WHIM syndrome Aprikyan AA, Liles WC, Park JR, Jonas M, Chi EY, Dale DC (Jan 2000). "Myelokathexis, a congenital disorder of severe neutropenia characterized by accelerated apoptosis and defective ...
... (or Warts, Hypogammaglobulinemia, Immunodeficiency, and Myelokathexis syndrome) is a rare congenital immunodeficiency disorder characterized by chronic noncyclic neutropenia. WHIM syndrome results from autosomal dominant mutations in the gene for the chemokine receptor, CXCR4, resulting in a carboxy-terminus truncation of the receptor of between ten and 19 residues. The gene mutant is located on 2q21. The truncation of the receptor protein results in the inability of downregulation after stimulation. Thus, the receptor remain in an activated state. WHIM syndrome is one of only a few diseases directly and primarily caused by an aberrant chemokine, making its molecular biology important in understanding the role of cell signaling and trafficking. An association with GRK3 has also been observed. Patients exhibit increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections, especially from common serotype human papilloma virus, resulting in warts on the hands and feet ...
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCL6) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2). As its former name suggests, CXCL6 is a chemoattractant for neutrophilic granulocytes. It elicits its chemotactic effects by interacting with the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. The gene for CXCL6 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster with other CXC chemokine genes. Proost P, Wuyts A, Conings R, Lenaerts J, Billiau A, Opdenakker G, Van Damme J (1993). "Human and bovine granulocyte chemotactic protein-2: complete amino acid sequence and functional characterization as chemokines". Biochemistry. 32 (38): 10170-7. doi:10.1021/bi00089a037. PMID 8399143. Wuyts A, Van Osselaer N, Haelens A, Samson I, Herdewijn P, Ben-Baruch A, Oppenheim J, Proost P, Van Damme J (1997). "Characterization of synthetic human granulocyte chemotactic protein 2: usage of chemokine ...
This protein belongs to family A of G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The gene is preferentially expressed by immature dendritic cells and memory T cells. The ligand of this receptor is macrophage inflammatory protein 3 alpha (MIP-3 alpha). This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may regulate the migration and recruitment of dendritic and T cells during inflammatory and immunological responses. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode the same protein have been described for this gene.. ...
C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) also known as Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) or small-inducible cytokine B10 is an 8.7 kDa protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL10 gene. C-X-C motif chemokine 10 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. The gene for CXCL10 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster among several other CXC chemokines. CXCL10 is secreted by several cell types in response to IFN-γ. These cell types include monocytes, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. CXCL10 has been attributed to several roles, such as chemoattraction for monocytes/macrophages, T cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, promotion of T cell adhesion to endothelial cells, antitumor activity, and inhibition of bone marrow colony formation and angiogenesis. This chemokine elicits its effects by binding to the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3. The three-dimensional crystal structure of this chemokine has been determined under 3 different conditions to a ...
... s are a class of small molecules that antagonize the CCR5 receptor. The C-C motif chemokine receptor CCR5 is involved in the process by which HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, enters cells. Hence antagonists of this receptor are entry inhibitors and have potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of HIV infections. The life cycle of the HIV presents potential targets for drug therapy, one of them being the viral entry pathway. CCR5 and CXCR4 are the main receptors involved in the HIV entry process. These receptors belong to the seven transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family and are predominantly expressed on human T-cells, dendritic cells and macrophages, Langerhans cells. They play an important role as co-receptors that HIV type 1 (HIV-1) uses to attach to cells before viral fusion and entry into host cells. HIV isolates can be divided into R5 and X4 strains. R5 strain is when the virus uses the ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family. This protein is a receptor for interleukin 8 (IL8). It binds to IL8 with high affinity, and transduces the signal through a G-protein-activated second messenger system. Knockout studies in mice suggested that this protein inhibits embryonic oligodendrocyte precursor migration in developing spinal cord. This gene, IL8RB, a gene encoding another high affinity IL8 receptor, and IL8RBP, a pseudogene of IL8RB, form a gene cluster in a region mapped to chromosome 2q33-q36. Stimulation of CXCR1 in neutrophils by its primary ligand, Interleukin 8, leads to neutrophil chemotaxis and activation. ...
C-C chemokine receptor type 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR10 gene. Chemokines are a group of small (approximately 8 to 14 kD), mostly basic, structurally related molecules that regulate cell trafficking of various types of leukocytes through interactions with a subset of 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptors. Chemokines also play fundamental roles in the development, homeostasis, and function of the immune system, and they have effects on cells of the central nervous system as well as on endothelial cells involved in angiogenesis or angiostasis. Chemokines are divided into 2 major subfamilies, CXC and CC, based on the arrangement of the first 2 of the 4 conserved cysteine residues; the 2 cysteines are separated by a single amino acid in CXC chemokines and are adjacent in CC chemokines. CCR10 is a chemokine receptor. Its ligands are CCL27 and CCL28. This receptor is normally expressed by melanocytes, plasma cells and skin-homing T cells. B16 melanoma cell ...
... izaziva potentnu hemotaksu limfocita. Tokom embriogeneze on usmerava migraciju hematopoetskih ćelija i formiranje velikih krvnih sudova. Miševi bez CXCL12 gena su letalni pre rođenja, ili u toku prvog sata života. Kod odraslih CXCL12 igra važnu ulogu u angiogenezi putem regrutovanja endotelnih progenitorskih ćelija (EPC) iz koštane srži kroz CXCR4 zavistan mehanizam. Ova funkcija čini CXCL12 veoma važnim faktorom u karcinogenezi i neovaskularizaciji vezanoj za progresiju tumora. CXCL12 takođe ima ulogu u metastazi tumora gde su ćelije raka koje izražavaju CXCR4 receptor privučene ka metastaznim ciljnim tkivima koja oslobađaju ligand, CXCL12. Kod raka dojke, međutim, povećano CXCL12 izražavanje određuje umanjeni rizik od metastaze. ...
CXCL12 izaziva potentnu hemotaksu limfocita. Tokom embriogeneze on usmerava migraciju hematopoetskih ćelija i formiranje velikih krvnih sudova. Miševi bez CXCL12 gena su letalni pre rođenja, ili u toku prvog sata života. Kod odraslih CXCL12 igra važnu ulogu u angiogenezi putem regrutovanja endotelnih progenitorskih ćelija (EPC) iz koštane srži kroz CXCR4 zavistan mehanizam. Ova funkcija čini CXCL12 veoma važnim faktorom u karcinogenezi i neovaskularizaciji vezanoj za progresiju tumora. CXCL12 takođe ima ulogu u metastazi tumora gde su ćelije raka koje izražavaju CXCR4 receptor privučene ka metastaznim ciljnim tkivima koja oslobađaju ligand, CXCL12. Kod raka dojke, međutim, povećano CXCL12 izražavanje određuje umanjeni rizik od metastaze. ...
CXCL2, hemokin (C-X-C motiv) ligand 2, je mali citokin koji pripada CXC hemokin familiji. Os se takođe zove makrofagni inflamatorni protein 2-alfa (MIP2-alfa), rast-regulisani protein beta (Gro-beta) i Gro onkogen-2 (Gro-2). CXCL2 is 90% identičan u aminokiselinskoj sekvenci sa hemokinom, CXCL1. Ovaj hemokin izlučuju monociti i makrofage i on izaziva hemotaksu polimorfonuclearnih leukocita i hematopoetskih stem ćelija. Gen za CXCL2 je lociran na ljudskom hromozomu 4 u klasteru sa drugim CXC hemokinima. CXCL2 mobiliše ćelije putem interakcije sa hemokin receptorom na ćelijskoj površini koji se zove CXCR2. ...
... as a primary attachment receptor and CXCR4 as a co-receptor.... *. Pre-existing immunity to pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes ... that CXCR-4 and CD134 are the major co-receptor and primary binding receptor respectively for feline immunodeficiency virus ( ... CD134 is a primary binding receptor for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and with CXCR4 facilitates infection of CD4(+) T ... Shared usage of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by the feline and human immunodeficiency viruses. B J Willett. Department of ...
The Chemokine Receptor CXCR-4 Is Expressed on CD34+Hematopoietic Progenitors and Leukemic Cells and Mediates Transendothelial ... The Chemokine Receptor CXCR-4 Is Expressed on CD34+Hematopoietic Progenitors and Leukemic Cells and Mediates Transendothelial ... The Chemokine Receptor CXCR-4 Is Expressed on CD34+Hematopoietic Progenitors and Leukemic Cells and Mediates Transendothelial ... The Chemokine Receptor CXCR-4 Is Expressed on CD34+Hematopoietic Progenitors and Leukemic Cells and Mediates Transendothelial ...
... including CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 2, CXCR3, CXCR4, CCR1, CCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CCR9, and CX3CR1 (42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47). The ... Complement anaphylatoxin receptors on neurons: new tricks for old receptors. Trends Neurosci. 22: 397. ... Purification of the active C5a receptor from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes as a receptor-Gi complex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... It is thus probable that neuronal C5a receptors subserve different functions than the C5a receptors on myeloid cells. Numerous ...
Acts as a coreceptor (CD4 being the primary receptor) for HIV-1 X4 isolates and as a primary receptor for some HIV-2 isolates. ... Receptor for the C-X-C chemokine CXCL12/SDF-1 that transduces a signal by increasing intracellular calcium ions levels and ... Acts as a receptor for extracellular ubiquitin; leading to enhance intracellular calcium ions and reduce cellular cAMP levels. ...
Various triggers, including recently identified autoantigens, Toll-like receptor agonists, chemerin, and thymic stromal ... C-C chemokine receptor; CXCL: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand; CXCR: C-X-C motif chemokine receptor; IFN: interferon; IL: ... C-C chemokine receptor; CXCL: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand; CXCR: C-X-C motif chemokine receptor; IFN: interferon; IL: ... A receptor for the heterodimeric cytokine IL-23 is composed of IL-12Rbeta1 and a novel cytokine receptor subunit, IL-23R. J. ...
Neutralizes the anticoagulant effect of heparin because it binds more strongly to heparin than to the chondroitin-4-sulfate ... CXCR chemokine receptor binding Source: GO_CentralInferred from biological aspect of ancestori*. "Phylogenetic-based ... CXCR chemokine receptor binding Source: GO_CentralInferred from biological aspect of ancestori*. "Phylogenetic-based ... CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding Source: UniProtKB ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct assay for the ...
... seven transmembrane helix receptor; seven-transmembrane-segment receptor, spleen; Stromal cell-derived factor 1 receptor; WHIMS ... CXCR-4; D2S201E; D2S201ESDF-1 receptor; FB22; Fusin; HM89; HM89NPYRL; HSY3RR; LAP3; LAP-3; LCR1; LESTR; LESTRCD184 antigen; ... leukocyte-derived seven-transmembrane-domain receptor; lipopolysaccharide-associated protein 3; neuropeptide Y receptor Y3; ... CD184; chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4; chemokine (C-X-C motif), receptor 4 (fusin); C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4; CXCR4 ...
E) Dense expression of chemokine receptor (CXCR)-4 in a plexiform lesion. (F) Expression of epithelial growth factor receptor ( ... Figure 4.. Plexiform lesions (*) from patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. (A) Loss of Wnt7a can be seen in ...
Ubiquitinates chemokine receptor CXCR4 and regulates sorting of CXCR4 to the degradative endocytic pathway following ligand ... regulates sorting of Wnt receptor FZD4 to the degradative endocytic pathway probably by modulating PI42KA activity (By ... CXCR chemokine receptor binding Source: MGI. *ligase activity Source: BHF-UCL ,p>Inferred from Mutant Phenotype,/p> ,p> ... positive regulation of receptor catabolic process Source: MGI. *positive regulation of T cell anergy Source: MGIInferred from ...
All bind the CXC-receptor (CXCR) 1; CXCL6 and -8 also signal through CXCR2.7 Mice lack complete homologs of the 7 human ELR+ ... The ELR motif in hCXCL8 (IL-8) is essential for CXCR binding,5 activation, and PMN chemotaxis.6 Therefore, we hypothesized that ... The ELR motif in ELR+ CXC chemokines is crucial in cognate receptor binding and activation.5 Therefore, cleavage here is likely ... Scanning mutagenesis of interleukin-8 identifies a cluster of residues required for receptor binding. J Biol Chem 1991;266: ...
We analyzed flow cytometry to evaluate the status of the IL-8 receptor after curcumin treatment. The change in the distribution ... Rab11 is a low molecular weight G protein associated with the CXCR recycling pathway. Following curcumin treatment, ... of receptors intracellularly and on the cell surface suggested that curcumin may affect the receptor trafficking pathway ... Curcumin reduced calcium ion flow induced by internalization of the IL-8 receptor. ...
CXCR, CXC chemokine receptor; CyPA, cyclophilin A; ENA, epithelial cell-derived neutrophil activating peptide; Erk1/2, ... CC chemokine receptors; CD74, cluster of differentiation 74; CXC, C-X-C motif in chemokine; CXCL, chemokine C-X-C-motif ligand ... protease activated receptor 1; PF4, platelet factor 4; PGE1, prostaglandin E1; PI3K, phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PLC, ... Role of chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 for platelet function. Madhumita Chatterjee, Dominik Rath, Meinrad Gawaz ...
Inactivation of HIV-1 chemokine co-receptor CXCR-4 by a novel intrakine strategy *Ji-Dai Chen ... Rights & permissionsfor article Inactivation of HIV-1 chemokine co-receptor CXCR-4 by a novel intrakine strategy . Opens in a ... Genetic co-inactivation of macrophage- and T-tropic HIV-1 chemokine coreceptors CCR-5 and CXCR-4 by intrakines *X Bai ... Rights & permissionsfor article Genetic co-inactivation of macrophage- and T-tropic HIV-1 chemokine coreceptors CCR-5 and CXCR- ...
CXCR. Chemokine (C-X-C) receptor. EGFR. Epidermal growth factor receptor. ERBB2. ERB-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 ... 4.. Lesina M, Wormann SM, Morton J, Diakopoulos KN, Korneeva O, Wimmer M, et al. RelA regulates CXCL1/CXCR2-dependent oncogene- ...
CXCR, chemokine receptor; DEC, differentiated embryo chondrocyte expressed; EDN, endothelin; ENO, enolase; EPO, erythropoietin ... transferrin receptor; TGFA and TGFB, transforming growth factor-α and -β; TPI, triose phosphate isomerase; VEGFR, VEGF receptor ... ADM, adrenomedullin; ADRA1B, α1B-adrenergic receptor; ALD, aldolase; ANGPT, angiopoietin; CITED, CREB binding protein (CBP)/ ... Hypoxia-inducible factor regulates survival of antigen receptor-driven T cells. J Immunol 171: 6534-6540, 2003. ...
The chemokine receptors CXCR-4 and IL-8RB were up-regulated to similar extents by gene arrays and RT-PCR. CXCR-4 was up- ... platelet-derived growth factor receptor B, NOTCH4, LIF receptor, LFA-1, TGF-β receptor 1, G-CSF receptor, and IFN-γ receptor. ... Our gene array data suggested that LL-37 up-regulates the expression of the chemokine receptors IL-8RB, CXCR-4, and CCR2 by 10 ... LL-37 also up-regulated the chemokine receptors CXCR-4, CCR2, and IL-8RB. These findings indicate that LL-37 may contribute to ...
CXCR chemokine receptor binding. 20. Growth factor activity. 831. Receptor binding. 932. ... The intercrines are characterized by the presence of 4 conserved cysteines which form 2 disulfide bonds. They can be classified ...
CXCR, CXC chemokine receptor; CX3CR1, CX3C chemokine receptor 1; EGFP, enhanced green fluorescent protein; ELISPOT, enzyme- ... G protein-coupled receptors, including chemokine receptors and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors. The number of antigen- ... After the first immunization, expression of CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) and CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5) decreased in ... including chemokine receptors and S1P receptors, play a pivotal role in the regulation of lymphocyte migration from the aLNs to ...
SDF-1 is 1 of over 40 chemokines for which there are 18 known receptors. The SDF-1 receptor, CX chemokine receptor (CXCR)4, is ... We determined whether stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1/CXCL12 and its receptor, CX chemokine receptor (CXCR)4, are important ... mice with genetic inactivation of either the insulin receptor (BIRKO mice) (20) or the IGF-1 receptor (BIGFKO mice) (21) ... the SDF-1/CXCR4 ligand-receptor pair is uniquely without crosstalk with other chemokines or receptors. SDF-1 and CXCR4 modulate ...
Mutational analysis of potential metal ion binding residues in the main ligand binding crevice of the CXCR4 receptor showed ... linker to the CXCR4 chemokine receptor was increased 7, 36, and 50-fold, respectively, by incorporation of the following: Cu(2+ ... 4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (cyclam) rings connected through a 1,4-dimethylene(phenylene) ... Preparation and Quality Control of 111 In-Plerixafor for Chemokine Receptor CXCR 4. *Ayuob Aghanejad, Amir Reza Jalilian, +6 ...
Besides vasoactive factors, PHI significantly increased cerebral chemokine receptor CXCR-4 mRNA levels. In conclusion, the ... Also VEGF and its receptors are expressed in the inner ear. Changes in the expression of VEGF or its receptors have been found ... Functional receptor is required for survival of erythroid precursors. Circulating RBCs retain a low number of the receptor ... The present study demonstrates the presence of NMDA receptors in rat erythrocytes. The receptors are most abundant in both ...
The therapeutic potential of a C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR-4) antagonist on hypertrophic scarring in vivo. Wound ... Morphologic and histologic comparison of hypertrophic scar in nude mice, T-cell receptor, and recombination activating gene ... PLOS one 10(4). E0123054, 2015. * Liu H, Ding J, Ma Z, Zhu Z, Shankowsky HA, Tredget EE. A novel subpopulation of peripheral ... 4. Glutamine supplementation in burn patients (completed Phase I, Phase II on going) ...
Activation of CXC chemokine receptor CXCR4 expressed by embryonic neural progenitors has been shown to be important for the ... 8A,B). The CX3CR1 chemokine receptor is the receptor for the chemokine fractalkine and is predominantly expressed in microglial ... and olfactory bulb express a number of other chemokine receptors in addition to CXCR4 (Tran et al., 2004b). Interestingly, ... Jaime Grutzendler for CXCR3-EGFP mice, Dr. Warren Tourtellotte for the EGFP adenovirus, and Dr. Tsuneya Ikezu for the β-amyloid ...
atypical chemokine receptor 3. Names. C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7. CXC-R7. CXCR-7. G-protein coupled receptor RDC1 homolog ... 7 receptors were co-expressed in BMSCs and synergistically promoted BMSC migration. Title: CXCR-7 receptor promotes SDF-1α- ... Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA). * Transcriptomine: regulation of the Cxcr7 gene by nuclear receptor signaling ... Ackr3 atypical chemokine receptor 3 [Rattus norvegicus] Ackr3 atypical chemokine receptor 3 [Rattus norvegicus]. Gene ID:84348 ...
Identification and localization of the cytokine SDF1 and its receptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4, to regions of necrosis and ... CXCR-4, a chemokine receptor, is overexpressed in and required for proliferation of glioblastoma tumor cells. J Surg Oncol 1998 ... For CXCR4, epidermal growth factor receptor ( 37), platelet-derived growth factor receptor ( 38), and mammalian target of ... The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is required for the retention of B lineage and granulocytic precursors within the bone marrow ...
CXCL12Signaling pathwayFusinBlocking antibodyChemotaxisFlow cytometryCD184Involvement of chemokine receptorsChemokines and chemokine receptorsExpression of CXC chemokine receptorBindsHoming of hematopoietic stemCytokineStromalEGFRCXCR7Glucagon‑like pProteinHuman chemokine receptorsVarious chemokine receptorsProgenitor CellsNovel chemokine receptorHematopoieticInflammationLigand-receptor pairCCR5Signal TransductionMetastasisGPCRAntagonistSuperfamilyAntigen ReceptorsPathwaysGeneFunctional ReceptorInhibitorGrowthMigrationTumor cellsChemokine ligand2017EndothelialCellCoreceptorsAngiogenesisCXCLChemotactic
- Receptor for the C-X-C chemokine CXCL12/SDF-1 that transduces a signal by increasing intracellular calcium ions levels and enhancing MAPK1/MAPK3 activation. (abcam.com)
- how these receptors differentially mediate the functional and survival response to the chemokines CXCL11, CXCL12 and MIF. (biochemsoctrans.org)
- We determined whether stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1/CXCL12 and its receptor, CX chemokine receptor (CXCR)4, are important for the survival of β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Enhanced expression of the CXCl12/SDF-1 chemokine receptor CXCR7 after cerebral ischemia in the rat brain. (nih.gov)
- CXCR4 and CXCR7 form a functional receptor unit for SDF-1/CXCL12 in primary rodent microglia. (nih.gov)
- The chemokine CXCL12 and its cognate receptor CXCR4 regulate malignant brain tumor growth and are potential chemotherapeutic targets. (aacrjournals.org)
- Although most chemokine receptors bind more than one ligand ( 3 ), CXCR4 is a unique receptor for stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α)/CXCL12, which is constitutively expressed in lymph nodes, lung, liver, and bone marrow ( 26 , 30 , 36 , 41 ). (physiology.org)
- C‑X‑C motif chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4/CXCL12 is associated with tumor invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancer. (spandidos-publications.com)
- In a number of previous studies, the interaction of C-X-C motif chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4 with CXCL12 has been observed to perform an important role in tumor proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis and migration in numerous types of cancer ( 5 - 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- CXCR-4 is an alpha-chemokine receptor specific for stromal-derived-factor-1 (SDF-1 also called CXCL12), a molecule endowed with potent chemotactic activity for lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
- Expression of this receptor in cancer cells has been linked to metastasis to tissues containing a high concentration of CXCL12, such as lungs, liver and bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
- CXCL12 (over-)expressing cancers might not sense the CXCL12 gradient released from the metastasis target tissues since the receptor, CXCR4, is saturated with the ligand produced in an autocrine manner. (wikipedia.org)
- The CXC chemokine, CXCL12, also known as SDF-1α, is highly expressed in bone marrow stromal cells and potently stimulates the migration of T cells and monocytes via interactions with its cell surface receptor, CXCR4 receptor [ 3 ]. (ijbs.com)
- The activation of this signaling pathway requires functional CD4 receptors and is independent of binding to CXCR4. (asm.org)
- These results provide firm molecular evidence that binding of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins to CD4 receptor initiates a signaling pathway(s) independent of the binding to the chemokine receptor that leads to the aberrant expression of inflammatory genes and may contribute significantly to HIV-1 replication as well as to deregulation of the immune system. (asm.org)
- However, binding of HIV-1 virions to their receptors alone can also induce cellular signaling since both the primary CD4 receptor and the chemokine coreceptors ( 19 , 59 ) can trigger the signaling pathway upon ligand binding. (asm.org)
- The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor CXCR-4 (fusin, LESTR) are likely to be involved in the trafficking of hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells, as suggested by the reduced bone marrow hematopoiesis in SDF-1-deficient mice and the chemotactic effect of SDF-1 on CD34 + progenitor cells. (bloodjournal.org)
- 4 The chemotactic effect of SDF-1 is mediated by the chemokine receptor CXCR-4 (fusin, LESTR), which is expressed on mononuclear leukocytes and shows structural similarities to the IL-8 receptor. (bloodjournal.org)
- C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR-4) also known as fusin or CD184 (cluster of differentiation 184) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCR4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- 7-9 However, the presence of CXCR-4 on the cell surface is not necessarily related to chemotaxis induced by SDF-1. (bloodjournal.org)
- 4 These PMN chemoattractants contain a conserved Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR) motif proximal to the CXC sequence, which is critical in cognate receptor binding and activation, 5 as well as PMN chemotaxis. (bloodjournal.org)
- 4 Although several studies have shown that VEGFR-2/KDR is the signal transducer for VEGF-induced mitogenesis, chemotaxis, and cytoskeletal reorganization and thus is the principal receptor involved in angiogenesis, 7 14 15 16 VEGFR-1/Flt-1 has a 10-fold higher binding affinity. (arvojournals.org)
- CCL18 has been described to mediate various functions such as chemotaxis mediated by G-protein coupling, intracellular calcium mobilization, and actin polymerization, however its classical, signaling chemokine receptor(s), presumably a 7TM GPCR, remains elusive. (frontiersin.org)
- Experiments were performed to determine if an extract of S. stercoralis would trigger eosinophil chemotaxis, and to then compare the chemotactic migration response, including second messenger signals and receptors, to those mechanisms triggered by host chemoattractants. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Therefore, chemoattractants derived from parasites and host species stimulate similar receptors and second messenger signals to induce eosinophil chemotaxis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Chemotaxis typically requires the stimulation of 7 transmembrane pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G protein-coupled chemokine receptors (GPCR) [ 19 , 20 , 21 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 (CXC chemokine ligand-12) is a member of the CXC subfamily of chemokines, which, through its cognate receptor (CXC chemokine receptor [CXCR]4), plays an important role in chemotaxis of cancer cells and in tumour metastasis. (nih.gov)
- Overall, these new findings demonstrate that E. coli -induced MCP-1 causes neutrophil recruitment directly via chemotaxis as well as indirectly via modulation of keratinocyte cell-derived chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, and LTB 4 . (asm.org)
- Reparixin is a potent inhibitor of both CXCL8 receptors CXCR1/2, it inhibits weakly CXCR2-mediated cell migration (IC50=100 nM), whereas it strongly blocks CXCR1-mediated chemotaxis (IC50=1 nM). (adooq.com)
- By flow cytometry, CXCR-4 was found to be expressed in significant amounts on circulating CD34 + hematopoietic progenitor cells, including more primitive subsets (CD34 + /CD38 − and CD34 + /Thy-1 + cells). (bloodjournal.org)
- We analyzed flow cytometry to evaluate the status of the IL-8 receptor after curcumin treatment. (hindawi.com)
- Additional file 4: Representative flow cytometry scatter plots for the analysis of macrophage phenotype marker expression. (springermedizin.de)
- Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were cultured with cortisol and analyzed for C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) expression by flow cytometry. (physiology.org)
- Following incubation of the ADSCs with Ex‑4, cell proliferation was measured using an MTT assay and the expression levels of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) were investigated by reverse transctiption quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR), western blot analysis and flow cytometry. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Chemokine receptor expression on neutrophils from blood or BAL fluid of patients with ARDS was analysed by flow cytometry. (bmj.com)
- OBJECTIVES To investigate the possible involvement of chemokine receptors in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC). (semanticscholar.org)
- To address this issue, we started to identify human chemokine receptors expressed in professional APC, dendritic cells (DC), and to clarify the involvement of chemokine receptors in antigen presentation. (nii.ac.jp)
- Among the genes predicted to be up-regulated by LL-37 were those encoding chemokines and chemokine receptors. (jimmunol.org)
- The distinction between roles in homoeostasis and disease has been used as a means of functionally classifying both chemokines and chemokine receptors, although several chemokines have both homeostatic and inflammatory functions [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The myeloid receptor for C5a (C5aR, CD88), a member of the rhodopsin superfamily, binds C5a with high affinity ( K d = 1.4 nM) ( 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Neutralizes the anticoagulant effect of heparin because it binds more strongly to heparin than to the chondroitin-4-sulfate chains of the carrier molecule. (uniprot.org)
- We have previously reported ( 14 ) that SDF-1 binds a second receptor, which we assigned the temporary designation of CCX-CKR2 until further characterization was obtained. (rupress.org)
- SDF-1 binds to a receptor named CXCR-4 (short for C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4. (denvernaturopathic.com)
- MCP-1 is produced by a variety of cells, including epithelial cells ( 41 ), endothelial cells, fibroblasts ( 42 ), and monocytes/macrophages ( 48 ), and it binds to the G protein-coupled transmembrane receptor chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2). (asm.org)
- We conclude that CXCR-4 is expressed on CD34 + cells including more primitive, pluripotent progenitors, and may therefore play a role in the homing of hematopoietic stem cells. (bloodjournal.org)
- The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is essential for migration and homing of hematopoietic stem cells. (ahajournals.org)
- 14-16 The CXCR4 receptor, which is highly expressed on both endothelial and hematopoietic progenitor cells, 17,18 has been shown to be essentially involved in mobilization and homing of hematopoietic stem cells, 19,20 and CXCR4-dependent migration toward stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) correlated with stem cell function. (ahajournals.org)
- Lower levels of antigen for activation (9) , more rapid activation kinetics (10) , broader cytokine production (11) , and specific trafficking patterns mediated by the up-regulation of surface markers such as VLA-4 (12) and CXCR-4 (13) are all hallmarks of memory T cells that make them ideal candidates for such therapeutic approaches. (aacrjournals.org)
- On the other hand, Tfh generation is negatively regulated at specific steps of Tfh generation by specific cytokine (IL-2, IL-7), surface receptor (PD-1, CTLA-4), transcription factors B lymphocyte maturation protein 1, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5, T-bet, KLF-2 signaling, and repressor miR 146a. (frontiersin.org)
- It also serves as cell surface receptor for the cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) which, when bound to the encoded protein, initiates survival pathways and cell proliferation. (cancerindex.org)
- Members of the IL-17 and IL-17 receptor families share strikingly little sequence homology to other cytokine classes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Various triggers, including recently identified autoantigens, Toll-like receptor agonists, chemerin, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin may activate the pathogenic cascade resulting in enhanced production of pro-inflammatory and proliferation-inducing mediators such as interleukin (IL)-17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-23, IL-22, interferon (IFN)-α, and IFN-γ by immune cells. (mdpi.com)
- Involvement of the Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 and Its Ligand Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1α in Breast Cancer Cell Migration Through Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells 1 1NIH grant NS39558 (S. Avraham), the Susan G. Komen Fellowship (S. Avraham), the Milheim Foundation (S. Avraham), CA97153 (H. Avraham), and K18 PAR-02-069 (H. Avraham). (aacrjournals.org)
- Stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α) is a member of the CXC or α-chemokine subfamily and is the only known ligand for the chemokine receptor CXCR4 ( 7 -9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- In addition, the expression levels of stromal cell‑derived factor‑1α (SDF‑1α) were evaluated in the NRVC‑CM treated with Ex‑4 by ELISA, RT‑qPCR and western blot analysis. (spandidos-publications.com)
- The stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) chemokine and its unique receptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), are important in the mobilization and recruitment of ADSCs ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor CXCR4 are key molecules involved in homing and little is known about their activation in cardiopathies. (biomedcentral.com)
- The chemokine stromal-derived factor (SDF)-1 and its unique receptor CXCR4 are essential for normal cardiovascular development but also play a critical role in postnatal vasculogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
- The stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXC chemokine receptor-4 (SDF-1/CXCR4) signal has been shown to be important in various immunological reactions. (biomedcentral.com)
- CXCR4 is a receptor for the C-X-C chemokine SDF-1 (Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1). (creativebiomart.net)
- Unlike many other chemokine receptors, ligand activation of CXCR7 does not cause Ca 2+ mobilization or cell migration. (rupress.org)
- Consistent with a role for CXCR7 in cell survival and adhesion, a specific, high affinity small molecule antagonist to CXCR7 impedes in vivo tumor growth in animal models, validating this new receptor as a target for development of novel cancer therapeutics. (rupress.org)
- With an expanded understanding of CCX-CKR2 properties, we now rename this receptor CXCR7 and provide evidence for its role in oncologic processes. (rupress.org)
- Neuronal C5a receptors bound C5a-coated fluorescent microspheres, and primary rodent hippocampal neurons responded to C5a with increased calcium fluxes via a pertussis-sensitive, presumably Gi-coupled protein. (jimmunol.org)
- Additional studies with human neuroblastoma cells conducted to address the functional role of C5a receptors revealed that C5a triggered rapid activation of protein kinase C and activation and nuclear translocation of the NF-κB transcription factor. (jimmunol.org)
- This has been demonstrated at the mRNA and protein levels for neurons in vivo in transgenic (tg) 4 mice expressing IL-3 in astrocytes ( 19 ) and in other inflammatory models in mice including bacterial meningitis ( 20 ), postintraperitoneal injection of TNF-α ( 20 ), traumatic injury ( 21 ), and postventricular injection of kainic acid ( 22 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. (abcam.com)
- Rab11 is a low molecular weight G protein associated with the CXCR recycling pathway. (hindawi.com)
- Experimental evaluation of the generalized vibrational theory of G protein-coupled receptor activation. (semanticscholar.org)
- The protein encoded by this gene is a chemokine that is highly similar to platelet factor 4. (genecards.org)
- The encoded protein displays a strong antiangiogenic function and is regulated by chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3. (genecards.org)
- PF4V1 (Platelet Factor 4 Variant 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- SDF-1α interacts specifically with the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor, CXCR4 ( 15 , 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- To determine whether Flt24K, a recombinant construct of domains 2 to 4 of VEGFR-1 (Flt) coupled with an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal (KDEL) can bind VEGFR-2 and induce apoptosis, unfolded protein response (UPR), and regression of injury-induced corneal neovascularization. (arvojournals.org)
- These receptors belong to the superfamily of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors. (asm.org)
- Investigation of its ability to elicit G-protein-coupled signaling showed that it does not involve extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, and it is not able to induce receptor internalization, as assessed on CCR3. (frontiersin.org)
- The family consists of approximately 50 chemokines which trigger their biological responses by activating seven-transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled receptors (7TM GPCRs) on their target cells, 20 of which have been identified to date. (frontiersin.org)
- PITPNM3, which is also known as PYK2 N-terminal domain-interacting receptor 1 (Nir1), belongs to the phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITP) membrane-associated subfamily. (frontiersin.org)
- Chemokines are small peptides that are known to exert potent regulatory effects on migration and activation of various immune and non hematopoietic cells via ligation to their seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) [ 1 , 2 ]. (ijbs.com)
- Pretreatment of eosinophils with pertussis toxin, a G protein-coupled receptor inhibitor, inhibited migration of the eosinophils to the parasite extract. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- To verify these observation at protein level, we established monoclonal antibodies to a panel of C-C and C-X-C type chemokine receptors. (nii.ac.jp)
- The present invention provides agents comprising or consisting of a binding moiety with specificity for interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP) for use in inducing cell death and/or inhibiting the growth and/or proliferation of cells associated with a solid tumour, wherein the cells express IL1RAP. (freepatentsonline.com)
- A related aspect of the invention provides agents comprising or consisting of a binding moiety with specificity for interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP) for use in detecting pathological cells associated with a solid tumour, wherein the cells express IL1RAP. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 65. A method for treating a solid tumor comprising administering to the human an effective amount of an anti-interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP) antibody with specificity for an extracellular domain of human IL1RAP wherein cells of the solid tumor express IL1RAP. (freepatentsonline.com)
- C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is a widely expressed G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptor. (ptglab.com)
- This receptor shows the highest level of similarity to CCR1 but shows significant differences in regions of the protein that are likely to be involved in ligand binding and signalling. (biomedcentral.com)
- The chemokine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors with a conserved seven hydrophobic transmembrane structure and an extracellular N-terminus and intracellular C-terminus. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this study we therefore examined the expression of CXCR4 protein in surgically resected human ductal carcinomas by immunohistochemical staining, and analyzed whether the expression pattern of this chemokine receptor is correlated with metastatic potential and is predictive of clinical outcome in these patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- HEK293T-HuCXCR4-FLAG cell line is a hypotriploid human cell line, which has been transfected with a Human chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) tagged in the N-terminus with FLAG to allow stably express of the human CXCR4 tagged in the N-terminus with FLAG protein. (creativebiomart.net)
- All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein-linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors, that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
- CXCR-4 expressed in variable amounts on primary AML leukemic cells is functionally active and may be involved in the trafficking of malignant hematopoietic cells. (bloodjournal.org)
- Recent data also suggest a role of SDF-1/CXCR-4 in hematopoietic stem cell migration. (bloodjournal.org)
- Drugs that block the CXCR4 receptor appear to be capable of "mobilizing" hematopoietic stem cells into the bloodstream as peripheral blood stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
- When EGFP-NPs from CC chemokine receptor CCR 2 knock-out mice were transplanted into slices, they exhibited little migration toward sites of inflammation. (jneurosci.org)
- Given the involvement of CXCR4 and CCR5 in HIV, cancers, stem cell mobilization and inflammation, these receptors have emerged as potential targets for therapeutic manipulation and intervention [ 5 ]. (ijbs.com)
- the SDF-1/CXCR4 ligand-receptor pair is uniquely without crosstalk with other chemokines or receptors. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Until recently, SDF-1 and CXCR4 were believed to be a relatively monogamous ligand-receptor pair (other chemokines are promiscuous, tending to use several different chemokine receptors). (wikipedia.org)
- Binding of HIV-1 to CD4 is necessary but not sufficient for productive infection, and chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 were first identified as HIV-1 coreceptors. (asm.org)
- Binding of HIV-1 to either CXCR4 or CCR5 receptors generally determines the tropism of HIV-1 strains either for T cells or macrophages, respectively. (asm.org)
- Interestingly, the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 have attracted substantial interest because they form portals of cellular entry for the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2) and related simian or feline retroviruses[ 5 ]. (ijbs.com)
- While all the HIV-1 strains require CD4 to enter and infect cells, several laboratory and clinical HIV-1 variants utilize the chemokine receptors CXCR4 (for T-tropic/X4 strain or syncytium-inducing viruses), CCR5 (for M-tropic/R5 strain or non-syncytium-inducing viruses) and/or both receptors (for dual tropic R5X4 strains) for binding and entry. (ijbs.com)
- Additionally, perivascular macrophages and parenchymal microglia are bone marrow derived and have the ability to express CD4 and chemokine receptors, including CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3, CCR5, and CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)4, which are coreceptors for HIV and SIV ( 14 )( 36 )( 37 ). (rupress.org)
- Publications] Fukada K.: 'Functional expression of the chemokine receptor CCR5 on virus epitope-specific memory and effector CD8+ T ceels'J.Immunol. (nii.ac.jp)
- By definition leukocyte chemoattraction is the hallmark function of chemokines, however chemokines also induce cellular responses that are unrelated to leukocyte migration such as cell differentiation and activation ( 1 ), apoptosis ( 2 ), development ( 3 ), angiogenesis ( 4 ), or tumor growth and metastasis ( 5 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
- We are evaluating if the disruption of the CXCR-4/SDF-1 interaction can prevent bone metastasis in a murine model. (wustl.edu)
- The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK)/RANK ligand pathway has emerged as the key pathway regulating osteolysis in skeletal metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bone metastasis is associated with increased morbidity and portends a poor outcome, with decreased survival, in cancer patients [ 3 , 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Recent studies have suggested that CXCR4 is expressed in certain cancer cells and that they use this chemokine receptor efficiently for metastasis formation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) belongs to the seven transmembrane GPCR family and serves as an endogenous ligand for the predominantly stomach-derived hormone ghrelin [ 7 , 8 ]. (ijbs.com)
- The chemokine SDF-1alpha and its GPCR receptor CXCR4 have a one-to-one specificity that is unique among chemokines and their receptors. (creative-biogene.com)
- D-LysGrowth Hormone Releasing Peptide-6 (DLS) is widely utilized in vivo and in vitro as a selective ghrelin receptor (GHS-R) antagonist. (ijbs.com)
- These data demonstrate that DLS is not the specific and selective antagonist as thought for GHS-R1a and appears to have additional effects on the CXCR4 chemokine receptor. (ijbs.com)
- YM-90709 is an interleukin-5 receptor antagonist. (adooq.cn)
- Although capable of stimulating intracellular signaling pathways leading to chemotactic responses in a variety of cell types, the C5aR is not a member of any of the chemokine receptor families, since it lacks the conserved disulfide bonds which characterize these receptors. (jimmunol.org)
- These results indicated that Ex‑4 augmented the SDF‑1α/CXCR4 cascade by activating the PI3K/Akt pathways in the ADSCs and NRVCs. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Production of IL-2 by these cells is the final event following various second-messenger intracellular pathways that integrate signals from surface receptors. (asm.org)
- This combination of in vitro and in vivo models offers the opportunity to identify cellular receptors and pathways that are conserved between mice and humans as well as species-specific differences in innate and adaptive immune response to vaccines and vaccine adjuvants. (biomedcentral.com)
- GO annotations related to this gene include heparin binding and CXCR chemokine receptor binding . (genecards.org)
- In summary, we have provided the first characterisation of the complete bovine chemokine receptor gene repertoire including a gene that is potentially unique to cattle. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here we investigated two candidate gene polymorphisms that may contribute to disease susceptibility: a CXCR-1 (+2607 G/C) gene polymorphism that is implicated in IL-8 binding and neutrophil trafficking as well as the interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) (+874 T/A) polymorphism which is linked to levels of IFNgamma production. (cdc.gov)
- Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) activates the transcription of genes encoding secreted signaling proteins, including angiogenic growth factors and survival factors, cell surface receptors, extracellular matrix proteins and modifying enzymes, transcription factors, cytoskeletal proteins, proapoptotic proteins, and glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes. (physiology.org)
- In case of infection, HIV virus drives expansion of Tfh cell and blocking of programed death 1 (PD-1) receptor in HIV-infected humanized mice, inhibited HIV viral growth ( 14 , 15 ). (frontiersin.org)
- 4 - 6 Murine tumor models have demonstrated that recruitment and incorporation of EPC is essential for tumor angiogenesis and growth. (haematologica.org)
- Migration of leukemic cells might also depend on the expression of chemokine receptors. (bloodjournal.org)
- Leukemic blasts (mostly CD34 + ) from patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) expressed variable amounts of CXCR-4, which was functionally active, as demonstrated by a positive correlation between the SDF-1-induced transendothelial migration and the cell surface density of CXCR-4 (r = 0.97). (bloodjournal.org)
- Also recombinant SDF-1β induced migration of CXCR-4-positive leukemic blasts. (bloodjournal.org)
- SDF-1 and CXCR4 modulate cell migration and survival during development and tissue remodeling ( 4 , 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Findings indicate that CXCR-4 and -7 receptors were co-expressed in BMSCs and synergistically promoted BMSC migration. (nih.gov)
- Title: CXCR-7 receptor promotes SDF-1α-induced migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the transient cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rat hippocampus. (nih.gov)
- The aim was to determine the effect and mechanisms of Ex‑4 on the migration of ADSCs to neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocyte‑derived conditioned medium (NRVC‑CM). The ADSCs and cardiomyocytes were cultured in vitro. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Furthermore, a Transwell migration assay revealed marked translocation of the ADSCs through the membranes, towards the NRVC‑CM, following treatment with Ex‑4. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Recent evidence from our laboratory suggests that a chemokine SDF-1 and its receptor CXCR-4 are intimately involved in the processes of gonocyte survival and differentiation in the fetal testes and the eventual migration of the GSC population to the stem cell "niche" located in the basement membrane in the post natal testes. (edu.au)
- Altered chemotactic migration and raft residence was also observed in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells expressing high and low levels of CD24 and CXCR4 receptor. (biologists.org)
- The chemokine and chemokine receptor families play critical roles in both the healthy and diseased organism mediating the migration of cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Leukemia tumor cells express this CXCR-4 receptor either on their surface or inside the cell. (denvernaturopathic.com)
- The preferential skeletal localization of tumor cells is attributed to the biologic and molecular characteristics of tumor cells as well as the bone microenvironment [ 4 , 7 - 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- In contrast, CD34 + leukemic cell lines (KG1, KG1a, Kasumi-1, MOLM-1) expressed low levels or were negative for CXCR-4, and did not migrate. (bloodjournal.org)
- By reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), however, basal levels of CXCR-4 mRNA were also detected in all leukemic cell lines. (bloodjournal.org)
- The change in the distribution of receptors intracellularly and on the cell surface suggested that curcumin may affect the receptor trafficking pathway intracellulary. (hindawi.com)
- CXC chemokine receptor CXCR4 expression enhances tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of basal cell carcinoma. (semanticscholar.org)
- METHODS We performed an expression analysis of chemokine receptors using a well-characterized human BCC cell line. (semanticscholar.org)
- It is generally believed that SDF-1 mediates these many disparate processes via a single cell surface receptor known as chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). (rupress.org)
- SDF-1 has been thought to mediate all of these functions exclusively via a single cell surface receptor known as chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) ( 6 ). (rupress.org)
- Although CD4 generally functions by association with the T-cell receptor, it has been also identified as a receptor for IL-16 ( 12 , 18 ), suggesting that it can transmit signals independently of the T-cell receptor. (asm.org)
- That's because that chemokine SDF-1 and its receptor CXCR4 are critical during stem cell transplants to get the new stem cells to engraft into the bone marrow. (denvernaturopathic.com)
- Usage of the coreceptors CCR-5, CCR-3, and CXCR-4 by primary and cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 2. (asm.org)
- Cell lines coexpressing CD4 and these chemokine receptors were infected with a panel of seven primary HIV-2 isolates passaged in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and three laboratory HIV-2 strains passaged in T-cell lines. (asm.org)
- One HIV-2 isolate replicating in normal or CCR-5-negative PBMC failed to infect CXCR-4+ cells or the U87MG-CD4 and sMAGI cell lines, which are permissive to infection by HIV-2 but not by HIV-1. (asm.org)
- SDF-1 and its receptor CXCR-4 have been shown to be one mechanism by which blood cell precursors home to the bone. (wustl.edu)
- We hypothesize that the SDF-1/CXCR-4 interaction plays a role in tumor cell homing to bone as well. (wustl.edu)
- Robust regulation of Tfh cell response and subsequent antibody maturation are critical for infection clearance ( 2 , 3 ), whereas aberrancy in controlling Tfh immune response is implicated in progression of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), arthritis, and type I/II diabetes ( 4 - 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
- 10. A method of treating a disorder requiring cell or tissue replacement, the method comprising providing to a subject in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of stem cells treated with a matrix metalloprotease or an active portion thereof, which is capable of increasing a level of at least one chemoattractant receptor of the stem cells, thereby treating the disorder requiring cell or tissue replacement in the subject. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 18. A culture medium suitable for increasing the sensitivity of stem cells to a chemoattractant, the culture medium comprising a matrix metalloprotease or an active portion thereof which is capable of increasing a level of at least one chemoattractant receptor of the stem cells and a buffer solution suitable for stem cell culturing. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Furthermore, neutrophils isolated from the blood or BAL fluid differentially regulated the cell surface expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 1 and C-C chemokine receptor type 2 during ARDS. (bmj.com)
- In fact, antigen-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation is initiated via the engagement of the T-cell receptor complex that triggers IL-2 and IL-2 receptor production, and the following autocrine interaction of IL-2 and IL-2R allows T-cell proliferation to occur. (asm.org)
- The cell of origin of glioblastomas has been recently considered to be of the neural stem cell (NSC) lineage and this concept is supported by the recent experimental data generated from multiple laboratories showing that only CD133 + (a cell surface marker of normal human NSC) but not CD133 − cells isolated from glioblastoma tumors contain tumor-initiating cells ( 4 - 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Forkhead box (FOX) proteins are a large family of transcription factors with important functions in multiple biological processes, such as cell cycle control, cell differentiation, proliferation and development [ 1 - 4 ]. (jcancer.org)
- In mammals, there are four FOXO genes, FOXO1 , 3 , 4 , and 6 , which play important roles as tumor suppressors in a variety of cancers through diverse mechanisms, such as initiating apoptosis, prompting cell cycle arrest, and regulating the expression of genes that facilitate DNA repair [ 24 - 26 ]. (jcancer.org)
- FACS analysis of the of CXCR-4, CXCR-2, c-Kit, RAGE and PSGL-1 by CD34/CD133-positive cells in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell fraction of healthy volunteers ( n = 15), non-septic intensive care unit (ICU) patients ( n = 11) and septic patients ( n = 30). (biomedcentral.com)
- Among these molecules, TNF-α, TNF-β, CD30 ligand, 4-1BB ligand, Fas ligand, and Apo-2 ligand (TRAIL) have been reported to be involved in apoptotic cell death. (google.com)
- Among other homeostatic chemokine receptors include: CCR9, CCR10, and CXCR5, which are important as part of the cell addresses for tissue-specific homing of leukocytes. (wikipedia.org)
- 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Corneal angiogenesis is driven by increased secretion of VEGF. (arvojournals.org)
- Several other reports demonstrate that SDF-1 can induce angiogenesis in a variety of ex vivo and in vivo models ( 4 , 5 ). (rupress.org)
- 4 Thus, it is largely accepted that vasculogenesis may play a key role in embryogenesis, whereas angiogenesis occurs during both prenatal and postnatal life. (ahajournals.org)