Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Mice, Inbred C57BLCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Warts: Benign epidermal proliferations or tumors; some are viral in origin.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Arrestins: Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Mice, Inbred BALB CNeoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.Lateral Line System: Aquatic vertebrate sensory system in fish and amphibians. It is composed of sense organs (canal organs and pit organs) containing neuromasts (MECHANORECEPTORS) that detect water displacement caused by moving objects.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Receptor Cross-Talk: The simultaneous or sequential binding of multiple cell surface receptors to different ligands resulting in coordinated stimulation or suppression of signal transduction.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Cell SeparationTumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization: The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Receptors, Interleukin-8: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-8. Two specific receptor subtypes (type A and B) have been found and bind IL-8 with high affinity.
CXCR-4 is an alpha-chemokine receptor specific for stromal-derived-factor-1 (SDF-1 also called CXCL12), a molecule endowed with ... Expression of this receptor in cancer cells has been linked to metastasis to tissues containing a high concentration of CXCL12 ... C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR-4) also known as fusin or CD184 (cluster of differentiation 184) is a protein that in ... CXCL12 (over-)expressing cancers might not sense the CXCL12 gradient released from the metastasis target tissues since the ...
Meanwhile, the RFFESH motif (residues 12-17) in the loop region function as a docking site for CXCL12 receptor binding. CXCL12 ... Chemokines and chemokine receptors, of which CXCR stands out, regulate multiple processes such as morphogenesis, angiogenesis, ... CXCR4, previously called LESTR or fusin, is the receptor for CXCL12. This CXCL12-CXCR4 interaction used to be considered ... In addition, the first 8 residues of the CXCL12 N-terminal serve as a receptor binding site, though only Lys-1 and Pro-2 ...
Atypical chemokine receptor 3 also known as C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) and G-protein coupled receptor 159 (GPR159 ... and was considered to be an orphan receptor. It is now classified as a chemokine receptor able to bind the chemokines CXCL12/ ... "Chromosomal mapping of A1 and A2 adenosine receptors, VIP receptor, and a new subtype of serotonin receptor". Genomics. 11 (1 ... This gene encodes a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family. This protein was earlier thought to be a receptor for ...
... receptors are G protein-coupled receptors containing 7 transmembrane domains that are found on the surface of ... As well CXCL12 (SDF-1) constitutively produced in the bone marrow promotes proliferation of progenitor B cells in the bone ... CXCR that bind CXC chemokines, CCR that bind CC chemokines, CX3CR1 that binds the sole CX3C chemokine (CX3CL1), and XCR1 that ... G proteins are coupled to the C-terminal end of the chemokine receptor to allow intracellular signaling after receptor ...
ReceptorsEdit. Further information: Chemokine receptor. Chemokine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors containing 7 ... These include: CCL14, CCL19, CCL20, CCL21, CCL25, CCL27, CXCL12 and CXCL13. This classification is not strict; for example, ... CXCR that bind CXC chemokines, CCR that bind CC chemokines, CX3CR1 that binds the sole CX3C chemokine (CX3CL1), and XCR1 that ... G proteins are coupled to the C-terminal end of the chemokine receptor to allow intracellular signaling after receptor ...
Rabbit polyclonal GPCR RDC1/CXCR-7 antibody. Validated in WB, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Horse, Cow, Human ... Receptor for CXCL12/SDF1. Acts as coreceptor with CXCR4 for a restricted number of HIV isolates. ... Anti-GPCR RDC1/CXCR-7 antibody. See all GPCR RDC1/CXCR-7 primary antibodies. ... All lanes : Anti-GPCR RDC1/CXCR-7 antibody (ab72100) at 2 µg/ml. Lane 1 : Human spleen with 5% non-fat milk in TBST. Lane 2 : ...
... chemokine receptor binding, CXCR chemokine receptor binding, adult locomotory behavior ... CXCR chemokine receptor binding Source: RGDInferred from sequence orthologyi*20388803 ... CXCR chemokine receptor binding Source: RGDInferred from sequence orthologyi*20388803 ... R-RNO-376176. Signaling by ROBO receptors. R-RNO-380108. Chemokine receptors bind chemokines. R-RNO-418594. G alpha (i) ...
CXCR-4 is the specific receptor of chemotactic factor CXCL12. Many lines of evidence indicate that the CXCL12/CXCR-4 biological ... Currently, the receptors known to be related to PC mainly consist of chemokine epidermal growth factor receptor 4 (CXCR-4), ... "The chemokine receptors CXCR4/CXCR7 and their primary heterodimeric ligands CXCL12 and CXCL12/high mobility group box 1 in ... The Molecular Imaging Probe Targeting CXCR-4. In 2012, He et al. [118] reported a study of the anti-CXCR-4 monoclonal antibody ...
In a number of previous studies, the interaction of C-X-C motif chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4 with CXCL12 has been observed to ... C‑X‑C motif chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4/CXCL12 is associated with tumor invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancer. The ... CXCR, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor; CXCR, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; VEGF, vascular ... Cells with a cytomembrane and cytoplasm that was stained by the CXCL12/CXCR4 antibody were defined as CXCL12/CXCR4 positive. ...
This process is triggered by chemokines binding and signaling through their cognate G-protein-coupled receptors on leukocytes ... Chemokine CXCL12 * Chemokines * Glycosaminoglycans * Receptors, CCR10 * Receptors, CXCR * Receptors, Chemokine * chemokine ... This process is triggered by chemokines binding and signaling through their cognate G-protein-coupled receptors on leukocytes ...
These CXCR-4 receptors, in turn, recruited chemokine proteins called CXCL-12 that guided the stem cells to specific sites. ... In the mice, inflammatory cells - reacting to the virally induced nerve damage - were observed activating receptors on the ...
MMP-12 specifically cleaves human ELR+ CXC chemokines (CXCL1, -2, -3, -5, and -8) at E-LR, the critical receptor-binding motif ... All bind the CXC-receptor (CXCR) 1; CXCL6 and -8 also signal through CXCR2.7 Mice lack complete homologs of the 7 human ELR+ ... 11 and that CXCL12 was inactivated by specific MMP cleavage at position 4-5,23 leading to a switch in receptor recognition.24 ... The ELR motif in hCXCL8 (IL-8) is essential for CXCR binding,5 activation, and PMN chemotaxis.6 Therefore, we hypothesized that ...
The α-chemokine, stromal cell-derived factor-1α, binds to the transmembrane G-protein-coupled CXCR-4 receptor and activates ... Chemotactic activity of CXCL12 isoforms. CXCL12 (▪), CXCL12-1Cit (♦), CXCL12-3Cit (▴), and CXCL12-5Cit (○) were tested for ... CXCR4-dependent calcium signaling of citrullinated CXCL12. CXCL12 (▪), CXCL12-1Cit (♦), CXCL12-3Cit (▴), and CXCL12-5Cit (○) ... Effect of citrullination on CXCL12-mediated receptor binding. Competition for CXCL12 binding to the receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 ...
We determined whether stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1/CXCL12 and its receptor, CX chemokine receptor (CXCR)4, are important ... Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCL12 Attenuates Diabetes in Mice and Promotes Pancreatic β-Cell Survival by Activation ... Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCL12 Attenuates Diabetes in Mice and Promotes Pancreatic β-Cell Survival by Activation ... Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCL12 Attenuates Diabetes in Mice and Promotes Pancreatic β-Cell Survival by Activation ...
Their receptors are named CXCR, CCR, XCR, CX3CR, respectively [142, 143]. Recent discoveries have also highlighted the pivotal ... Zerumbone down-regulates chemokine receptor CXCR4 expression leading to inhibition of CXCL12-induced invasion of breast and ... Targeting interleukin-4 receptors for effective pancreatic cancer therapy. Cancer Res. 2002;62:3575-3580. [PubMed] ... NGF and its receptor TrkA are overexpressed in pancreas cancer cell lines and the perineurium of peripheral nerves [53]. ...
Anti-CXCL12 antibody , Application: WB , Predicted species reactivity: Bovine, Dog, Pig, Rat , Product type: Rabbit polyclonal ... CXCR chemokine receptor binding. 20. Growth factor activity. 831. Receptor binding. 932. ... Top Products For CXCL12:. CXCR4 Receptor Internalization Biotinylated CXCL12 Protein (OPCB00014). Application: Species: ... CXCL12 ELISA standard curve. CXCL12 ELISA Kit (Mouse) (OKEH04065). Application: Species: Mouse. ...
CXCR-4 is an alpha-chemokine receptor specific for stromal-derived-factor-1 (SDF-1 also called CXCL12), a molecule endowed with ... Expression of this receptor in cancer cells has been linked to metastasis to tissues containing a high concentration of CXCL12 ... C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR-4) also known as fusin or CD184 (cluster of differentiation 184) is a protein that in ... CXCL12 (over-)expressing cancers might not sense the CXCL12 gradient released from the metastasis target tissues since the ...
J. T. Kaifi, E. F. Yekebas, P. Schurr et al., "Tumor-cell homing to lymph nodes and bone marrow and CXCR4 expression in ... The serum CXCL12 levels were significantly higher (. ), while its receptor CXCR4 was significantly lower (. ) in EC patients ... our finding revealed that serum CXCL12 was significantly related to the levels of its specific receptor CXCR4; thus the CXCL12/ ... It may be suggested that upregulation of CXCL12 and its specific receptor levels with increase in III stage of EC might be a ...
SDF-1 binds to a receptor named CXCR-4 (short for C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4. SDF-1 is sometimes referred to as CXCL12, ... Leukemia tumor cells express this CXCR-4 receptor either on their surface or inside the cell. They notice and respond to SDF-1 ... Thats because that chemokine SDF-1 and its receptor CXCR4 are critical during stem cell transplants to get the new stem cells ...
CXCR-4 is an alpha-chemokine receptor specific for stromal-derived-factor-1 (SDF-1 also called CXCL12), a molecule endowed with ... This receptor is one of several chemokine receptors that HIV isolates can use to infect CD4+ T cells. In row 30 of Table 6 we ... Tat induces the production of human interleukin-6 (huIL-6) and its receptor (huIL-6Ra) and activate STAT3 signaling [27]. In ... Kim Y, Mbonye U, Hokello J, Karn J: T-cell receptor signaling enhances transcriptional elongation from latent HIV proviruses by ...
... is a CXCR4 chemokine receptor antagonist for CXCR4 and CXCL12-mediated chemotaxis with IC50 of 44 nM and 5.7 nM.Find all the ... Plerixafor (AMD3100) is a chemokine receptor antagonist for CXCR4 and CXCL12-mediated chemotaxis with IC50 of 44 nM and 5.7 nM ... Plerixafor 8HCl (AMD3100 8HCl) is the hydrochloride of Plerixafor, a chemokine receptor antagonist for CXCR4 and CXCL12- ... Plerixafor 8HCl (AMD3100 8HCl) is the hydrochloride of Plerixafor, a chemokine receptor antagonist for CXCR4 and CXCL12- ...
CXC Chemokine CXCL12 and Its Receptor CXCR4 in Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri): Structure, Expression and Function ... Stromal-Derived Factor-1α/CXCL12-CXCR 4 Axis Is Involved in the Dissemination of NSCLC Cells into Pleural Space ... Assessment of CXCL12 (SDF-1α) Polymorphisms and Its Serum Level in Posttransfusion Occult HBV-infected Patients in Southeastern ... The CXCL12γ Chemokine Displays Unprecedented Structural and Functional Properties that Make It a Paradigm of Chemoattractant ...
We explored the prognostic significance of C-X-C ligand-motif (CXCL) 12, CXCL13, and receptor (CXCR) 5 on disease-free survival ... It is known that CXCR7, a second CXCL12 receptor, regulates TEM of CXCR4+CXCR7+ tumor cells towards a CXCL12 source. In this ... expression of CXCL12, CXCL13, and CXCR5; estrogen receptor; progesterone receptor (PgR); microtubule-associated protein tau and ... PURPOSE: The biological axes of chemokines and chemokine receptors, such as CXCR4/CXCL12, CCR7/CCL19 (CCL21), CCR9/CCL25, and ...
atypical chemokine receptor 3. Names. C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7. CXC-R7. CXCR-7. G-protein coupled receptor RDC1 homolog ... CXCR4 and CXCR7 form a functional receptor unit for SDF-1/CXCL12 in primary rodent microglia. Lipfert J, et al. Neuropathol ... Title: Chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 and atypical chemokine receptor 3 regulate vascular α₁-adrenergic receptor function. ... 7 receptors were co-expressed in BMSCs and synergistically promoted BMSC migration. Title: CXCR-7 receptor promotes SDF-1α- ...
Meanwhile, the RFFESH motif (residues 12-17) in the loop region function as a docking site for CXCL12 receptor binding. CXCL12 ... Chemokines and chemokine receptors, of which CXCR stands out, regulate multiple processes such as morphogenesis, angiogenesis, ... CXCR4, previously called LESTR or fusin, is the receptor for CXCL12. This CXCL12-CXCR4 interaction used to be considered ... In addition, the first 8 residues of the CXCL12 N-terminal serve as a receptor binding site, though only Lys-1 and Pro-2 ...
3. S. Ghosh, A. Preet, J.E. Groopman, and R.K. Gaju, "Cannabinoid Receptor CB 2 Modulates the CXCL 12/ CXCR 4-Mediated ... This first receptor was termed cannabinoid receptor 1, or CB1.4 Five years later, a second receptor for cannabinoids, CB2, was ... This makes evolutionary sense, since the CB1 and CB2 receptors would not be present on our cells if we did not normally make ... 160 (2010); A. Preet, Z. Qamri, M. Nasser, A. Prasad, K. Shilo, X. Zou, J.E. Groopman, and R. Ganju, "Cannabinoid Receptors, CB ...
CXCL) 12 production through chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor (CXCR) 4 pathway; thus, MPs released from apoptotic endothelial ... CXCL12. chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand. CXCR4. chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor. EPC. endothelial progenitor cell. EGFR. ... receptor (patched/smoothened receptors) and were associated with an increase in nitric oxide production as a consequence of the ... epidermal growth factor receptor. MP. microparticles. MPsShh+. MPs expressing the morphogen Sonic hedgehog. PI3K. ...
CXCR, CX3CR, and XCR).[77] The receptors are found on inflammatory, endothelial, and epithelial cells. For example, the CXCL12- ... CXCL12, CX3CL1, and CCL20) is to regulate cell trafficking into and out of the TME by binding to a family of receptors (i.e., ... HBV has a tropism for hepatocytes, into which it enters through the sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide receptor.[51 ... there is loss of insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor, resulting in unchecked proliferation.[34] CTNNB1 is most commonly ...
2] Hatse et al (2006). "Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (CXCL12) binds to endothelial cells and signals through a receptor ... different from CXCR". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 348, 192-199. [3] Strong et al (2006). "Synthetic ... The bright AF647® dye enables straightforward use in applications such as flow cytometry[2], and receptor recognition[3] ... chemokines directly labeled with a fluorescent dye as tools for studying chemokine and chemokine receptor interactions". Eur. ...
Receptors, CXCR/genetics. *Receptors, CXCR/metabolism. *Zebrafish/genetics. *Zebrafish/physiology*. *Zebrafish Proteins/ ... Chemokine CXCL12/genetics. *Chemokine CXCL12/metabolism. *Chemotactic Factors/genetics. *Chemotactic Factors/metabolism* ... Finally, by engineering an external source of the atypical receptor Cxcr7 that moves with the primordium, we show that a self- ... by applying a fluorescent timer approach to measure ligand-triggered receptor turnover in living animals. Using the zebrafish ...
  • In this update, we will highlight these recent developments, in particular the identification of components regulating the transcriptional machinery of the proatherogenic chemokine CCL5, distinct roles of its receptors CCR1 and CCR5 in plaque formation and immunobalance, and differential site- and stage-specific effects of T cell-activating chemokines and their receptors, eg, CXCL10 and CXCR3. (ahajournals.org)
  • BACKGROUND Chemokines and their receptors, well known for their ability to attract leucocytes, also play important roles for tumour progression. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To develop such immunotherapeutic strategies for cancer patients, one must identify chemokines and their receptors involved in T-cell migration toward tumor cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RESULTS of gene-chips indicated that there was low or no expression of CCR10, CXCR1, CXCR3 and CXCR5 in BPH-1 cells, whereas the expression of these receptors in BPH-1 cells was increased by PBMCs, and the expression was high in LNCaP cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • We have isolated and identified by differential display analysis 182 differentially expressed cDNAs from CXCR3-transfected Jurkat T cells following treatment with CXCL12 or CXCL10. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemokine receptor CXCR3 promotes growth of glioma. (rndsystems.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: CXCL12 alpha (SDF-1 alpha) Polyclonal Antibody, eBioscience™ from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 14-7992-81, RRID AB_468513. (thermofisher.com)
  • 1 , 2 For example, the excessive activation of microglial cells by pathogenic endotoxin, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) present in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, can increase the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. (jcpjournal.org)
  • The IL-17/IL-17 receptor superfamily is the most recent class of cytokines and receptors to be described, and until recently very little was known about its function or molecular biology. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For this reason, cytokines have been divided into a limited number of families based primarily on structural features of their receptors [ 1 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Massague et al have shown that breast cancer cell line subpopulations with elevated bone metastatic activity overexpress chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), interleukin 11 (IL11), osteopontin (OPN) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) (Cancer Cell 3:537, 2003). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study we therefore examined the expression of CXCR4 protein in surgically resected human ductal carcinomas by immunohistochemical staining, and analyzed whether the expression pattern of this chemokine receptor is correlated with metastatic potential and is predictive of clinical outcome in these patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we describe modification of the CXC chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1α/CXCL12 by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) that converts arginine residues into citrulline (Cit), thereby reducing the number of positive charges. (jimmunol.org)
  • Unlike most chemokines whose function and expression are specific and centered around their role in leukocyte trafficking, both stromal cell-derived factor 1/CXCL12 and its first identified receptor CXCR4 were found to be expressed in a wide variety of cell types and tissues ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • We determined whether stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1/CXCL12 and its receptor, CX chemokine receptor (CXCR)4, are important for the survival of β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In MA.14, we found that serum β-CTx was associated with bone-only relapse while Basik et.al showed that higher serum stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) (ligand for CXCR-4) levels were associated with worse overall event-free survival (EFS) (ASCO 2010). (aacrjournals.org)
  • USL311 prevents the binding of stromal-cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) to CXCR4. (csnpharm.com)
  • The stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXC chemokine receptor-4 (SDF-1/CXCR4) signal has been shown to be important in various immunological reactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We analyzed cortisol- or plasma-treated PBMC to determine their ability to migrate through membrane filters in response to stromal cell-derived factor 1α/CXCL12. (physiology.org)
  • In this context, the impact of CXCL12 (also known as stromal cell-derived factor-1: SDF-1)/CXCR4 signaling has recently been linked to chemoresistance in FLT3/ITD AML. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We also review the potential utility of targeting CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in combination of immunotherapy and/or chemotherapy based on up-to-date literature and ongoing research progress. (eurekaselect.com)