Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous: An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.Leishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Leishmania braziliensis: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania viannia that infects man and animals. It causes cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS) depending on the subspecies of this organism. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, is the vector. The Leishmania braziliensis complex includes the subspecies braziliensis and peruviana. Uta, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, is caused by the subspecies peruviana.Leishmaniasis, Diffuse Cutaneous: A form of LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS caused by Leishmania aethiopica in Ethiopia and Kenya, L. pifanoi in Venezuela, L. braziliensis in South America, and L. mexicana in Central America. This disease is characterized by massive dissemination of skin lesions without visceral involvement.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Skin DiseasesLeishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous: A disease characterized by the chronic, progressive spread of lesions from New World cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by species of the L. braziliensis complex to the nasal, pharyngeal, and buccal mucosa some time after the appearance of the initial cutaneous lesion. Nasal obstruction and epistaxis are frequent presenting symptoms.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Meglumine: 1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.Psychodidae: Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.Leishmania tropica: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and rodents. This taxonomic complex includes species which cause a disease called Oriental sore which is a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World.Leishmania guyanensis: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania viannia that infects man and animals and causes mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS). Transmission is by Lutzomyia sandflies.Phlebotomus: A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).Leishmania major: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Leishmania mexicana: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.Leishmania infantum: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Antimony: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.Antimony Sodium Gluconate: Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis.Leishmaniasis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with LEISHMANIA.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.DNA, Kinetoplast: DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.Skin UlcerProtozoan Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.Paromomycin: An oligosaccharide antibiotic produced by various STREPTOMYCES.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)BrazilDNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.VenezuelaPhosphorylcholine: Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.ColombiaBenzethonium: Bactericidal cationic quaternary ammonium surfactant used as a topical anti-infective agent. It is an ingredient in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, etc., and is used to disinfect apparatus, etc., in the food processing and pharmaceutical industries, in surgery, and also as a preservative. The compound is toxic orally as a result of neuromuscular blockade.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Parasite Load: Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.Hyraxes: Any of certain small mammals of the order Hyracoidea.Lumpy skin disease virus: A species of CAPRIPOXVIRUS causing a cattle disease occurring in Africa.Pentamidine: Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Psoriasis: A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.Skin Diseases, Parasitic: Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.AfghanistanSkin Diseases, Vesiculobullous: Skin diseases characterized by local or general distributions of blisters. They are classified according to the site and mode of blister formation. Lesions can appear spontaneously or be precipitated by infection, trauma, or sunlight. Etiologies include immunologic and genetic factors. (From Scientific American Medicine, 1990)PeruPanamaMice, Inbred BALB CLumpy Skin Disease: A poxvirus infection of cattle characterized by the appearance of nodules on all parts of the skin.Dermatitis: Any inflammation of the skin.Suriname: A republic in the north of South America, bordered on the west by GUYANA (British Guiana) and on the east by FRENCH GUIANA. Its capital is Paramaribo. It was formerly called Netherlands Guiana or Dutch Guiana or Surinam. Suriname was first settled by the English in 1651 but was ceded to the Dutch by treaty in 1667. It became an autonomous territory under the Dutch crown in 1954 and gained independence in 1975. The country was named for the Surinam River but the meaning of that name is uncertain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1167 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p526)Tunisia: A country in northern Africa between ALGERIA and LIBYA. Its capital is Tunis.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Military Facilities: Areas designated for use by the armed forces personnel.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Skin Diseases, Viral: Skin diseases caused by viruses.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Dermatology: A medical specialty concerned with the skin, its structure, functions, diseases, and treatment.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Skin Aging: The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.Geography, Medical: The area of medicine concerned with the effects on health and disease due to geographic factors such as CLIMATE, environmental conditions, and geographic location.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.BoliviaArgentinaPopulation Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.IranDermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Asia, Central: The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Ointments: Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.French Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)Facial DermatosesDermatitis, Occupational: A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place.Skin Diseases, Genetic: Diseases of the skin with a genetic component, usually the result of various inborn errors of metabolism.Perissodactyla: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)Morocco: A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.Intradermal Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.EcuadorEyelid DiseasesSensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Erysipeloid: An infection caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae that is almost wholly restricted to persons who in their occupation handle infected fish, shellfish, poultry, or meat. Three forms of this condition exist: a mild localized form manifested by local swelling and redness of the skin; a diffuse form that might present with fever; and a rare systemic form associated with endocarditis.Aminoquinolines: Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Cryotherapy: A form of therapy consisting in the local or general use of cold. The selective destruction of tissue by extreme cold or freezing is CRYOSURGERY. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Sri LankaDNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.IndiaDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.SyriaCytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Acne Vulgaris: A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Leprosy, Lepromatous: A chronic communicable infection which is a principal or polar form of LEPROSY. This disorder is caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE and produces diffuse granulomatous skin lesions in the form of nodules, macules, or papules. The peripheral nerves are involved symmetrically and neural sequelae occur in the advanced stage.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Achillea: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.USSRCalophyllum: A plant genus of the family CLUSIACEAE. Members contain costatolide, calanolides and 4-phenylfuranocoumarins (FUROCOUMARINS).Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Skin Diseases, Infectious: Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Prurigo: A name applied to several itchy skin eruptions of unknown cause. The characteristic course is the formation of a dome-shaped papule with a small transient vesicle on top, followed by crusting over or lichenification. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Pemphigus: Group of chronic blistering diseases characterized histologically by ACANTHOLYSIS and blister formation within the EPIDERMIS.Ear, External: The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.Trypanocidal Agents: Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Libya: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria, having southern border with Chad, Niger, and Sudan. Its capital is Tripoli.Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Eczema: A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed).Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Mice, Inbred C57BLT-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Secosteroids: Steroids in which fission of one or more ring structures and concomitant addition of a hydrogen atom at each terminal group has occurred.Dermatitis, Seborrheic: A chronic inflammatory disease of the skin with unknown etiology. It is characterized by moderate ERYTHEMA, dry, moist, or greasy (SEBACEOUS GLAND) scaling and yellow crusted patches on various areas, especially the scalp, that exfoliate as dandruff. Seborrheic dermatitis is common in children and adolescents with HIV INFECTIONS.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Injections, Intralesional: Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Penile Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PENIS or its component tissues.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Pruritus: An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Skin Diseases, Bacterial: Skin diseases caused by bacteria.Rosacea: A cutaneous disorder primarily of convexities of the central part of the FACE, such as FOREHEAD; CHEEK; NOSE; and CHIN. It is characterized by FLUSHING; ERYTHEMA; EDEMA; RHINOPHYMA; papules; and ocular symptoms. It may occur at any age but typically after age 30. There are various subtypes of rosacea: erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous, and ocular (National Rosacea Society's Expert Committee on the Classification and Staging of Rosacea, J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 46:584-7).Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Thymopentin: Synthetic pentapeptide corresponding to the amino acids 32-36 of thymopoietin and exhibiting the full biological activity of the natural hormone. It is an immunomodulator which has been studied for possible use in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, AIDS, and other primary immunodeficiencies.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Epidermolysis Bullosa: Group of genetically determined disorders characterized by the blistering of skin and mucosae. There are four major forms: acquired, simple, junctional, and dystrophic. Each of the latter three has several varieties.Keratosis: Any horny growth such as a wart or callus.TurkeyLymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Dermatologic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Pemphigoid, Bullous: A chronic and relatively benign subepidermal blistering disease usually of the elderly and without histopathologic acantholysis.Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous: A form of lupus erythematosus in which the skin may be the only organ involved or in which skin involvement precedes the spread into other body systems. It has been classified into three forms - acute (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC with skin lesions), subacute, and chronic (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, DISCOID).Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Back: The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.Langerhans Cells: Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.

*List of MeSH codes (C17)

... skin diseases, parasitic MeSH C17.800.838.775.424 --- larva migrans[disambiguation needed] MeSH C17.800.838.775.560 --- ... leishmaniasis, cutaneous MeSH C17.800.838.775.560.400.350 --- leishmaniasis, diffuse cutaneous MeSH C17.800.838.775.560.400.385 ... skin diseases, viral MeSH C17.800.838.790.260 --- erythema infectiosum MeSH C17.800.838.790.290 --- exanthema subitum MeSH ... staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome MeSH C17.800.838.765.790 --- syphilis, cutaneous MeSH C17.800.838.765.820 --- tuberculosis ...

*Common gundi

These protozoan parasites are causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis, a skin disease transmitted by female sandflies, and ... The parasitic organism Toxoplasma gondii was first described in 1908 in Tunis by Charles Nicolle and Louis Manceaux within the ... ISBN 0-8014-1753-8. Leishmaniasis: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional. ScholarlyEditions. 2013. p. 17. ISBN 978-1- ...

*Leishmaniasis

... evidence of the cutaneous form of the disease in Ecuador and Peru appears in pre-Inca pottery depicting skin lesions and ... Cunningham, DD (1885). On the presence of peculiar parasitic organisms in the tissue of a specimen of Delhi boil. Scientific ... The disease can present in three main ways: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral leishmaniasis. The cutaneous form presents ... The disease may occur in a number of other animals, including dogs and rodents. The symptoms of leishmaniasis are skin sores ...

*ICD-10 Chapter I: Certain infectious and parasitic diseases

Leishmaniasis (B55.0) Visceral leishmaniasis (B55.1) Cutaneous leishmaniasis (B55.2) Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (B55.9) ... skin) NOS Infestation by mites NOS Skin parasites NOS (B89) Unspecified parasitic disease (B90) Sequelae of tuberculosis (B91) ... HIV disease resulting in multiple infections (B20.8) HIV disease resulting in other infectious and parasitic diseases (B20.9) ... disease Resulting in infectious and parasitic diseases (B20.0) HIV disease resulting in mycobacterial infection (B20.1) HIV ...

*Robovirus

The resulting disease, cutaneous leishmaniasis, causes large skin lesions on the face, arms, and legs. Rodent populations are ... Laboratory Identification of Parasitic Disease of Public Health Concern- "Leishmaniasis". CDC. Last reviewed: 2015, May 3. ... "Leishmaniasis" World Health Organization. Website: http://www.who.int/leishmaniasis/cutaneous_leishmaniasis/en/ Human Health in ... "Rodents"., CDC-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Page last reviewed 2010 July 29. Content SourceL Centers for Disease ...

*Parasitic flies of domestic animals

New York, Academic Press, ISBN 0-12-474080-4. Paterson, S. (2008) Manual of Skin Diseases of the Dog and Cat. Oxford, Blackwell ... 2009) Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum transmitted by Phlebotomus tobbi. International Journal for ... Disease caused by the feeding activity of the flies is described here under Parasitic disease. Disease caused by small ... Disease caused by the feeding activity of dipteran flies is described here under Parasitic disease. Disease caused by small ...

*Neglected tropical diseases

Leishmaniasis[edit]. Main article: Leishmaniasis. The three forms of leishmaniasis are visceral (Kala-azar), cutaneous, and ... "Schistosomiasis-Disease". CDC, Division of Parasitic Diseases. Retrieved 2016-10-17.. *^ a b c d e f g h i "Soil-transmitted ... skin rashes, lesions, intense itching, and skin depigmentation.[50] It is a vector-borne disease, caused by filarial worm ... "Human Parasitic Diseases. 2015 (7): 11. doi:10.4137/HPD.S19569.. *^ a b c d Singer, Merrill; Bulled, Nicola (2012-11-01). " ...

*Visceral leishmaniasis

This disease is not the same as cutaneous leishmaniasis, a milder disease caused by another protozoan of the Leishmania genus ... The blackening of the skin that gave the disease its common name in India does not appear in most strains of the disease, and ... This disease is the second-largest parasitic killer in the world (after malaria), responsible for an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 ... For the disease in canids, see canine leishmaniasis.. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar[2] (UK: /ˌkɑːlə əˈz ...

*Heat therapy

A study from 2005 showed heat therapy to be effective in treating leishmaniasis, a tropical parasitic skin infection. Heat ... "Efficacy of Thermotherapy to Treat Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania tropica in Kabul, Afghanistan: A Randomized, ... Controlled Trial". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 40 (8): 1148-1155. doi:10.1086/428736. ISSN 1058-4838. PMID 15791515. " ... It can be beneficial to those with arthritis and stiff muscles and injuries to the deep tissue of the skin. Heat may be an ...

*Chagas disease

Leishmaniasis. *Leishmania major / L. mexicana / L. aethiopica / L. tropica *Cutaneous leishmaniasis. *L. braziliensis * ... Parasitic infestations, stings, and bites of the skin. *Insect-borne diseases. *Neglected diseases ... Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protist Trypanosoma cruzi ... Infectious diseases - Parasitic disease: protozoan infection: Excavata (A06-A07, B55-B57, 007, 085-086) ...

*List of cutaneous conditions

Skin Disorders at Curlie (based on DMOZ) All the Internet - Directory - Main/Health/Conditions_and_Diseases/Skin_Disorders ... cutaneous larva migrans) Cutaneous leishmaniasis (Aleppo boil, Baghdad boil, bay sore, Biskra button, Chiclero ulcer, Delhi ... Parasitic infestations, stings, and bites in humans are caused by several groups of organisms belonging to the following phyla ... Cowden's disease, multiple hamartoma syndrome) Cutaneous ciliated cyst Cutaneous columnar cyst Cutaneous horn (Cornu cutaneum) ...

*Phlebotomus

Hemoflagellates: Cutaneous and Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis. In: Barron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical ... an important parasitic disease, while transmission in the New World, is generally via sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia. The ... with the final larval skin remaining attached to the pupa, the long hairs protruding. In cooler climates, the larvae may ... BDWD Family List Aoun, K.; Bouratbine, A. (2014). "Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review". Parasite. 21: 14. doi: ...

*Visceral leishmaniasis

This disease is not the same as cutaneous leishmaniasis, a milder disease caused by another protozoan of the Leishmania genus ... The blackening of the skin that gave the disease its common name in India does not appear in most strains of the disease, and ... This disease is the second-largest parasitic killer in the world (after malaria), responsible for an estimated 200,000 to ... and a new disease, post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Brahmachari's cure for visceral leishmaniasis was the urea salt of para ...

*List of parasites of humans

visceral leishmaniasis - worldwide; cutaneous leishmaniasis - Old World; mucocutaneous leishmaniasis - New World Phlebotomus, ... Strongyloidiasis - Parasitic pneumonia Strongyloides stercoralis intestines, lungs, skin (Larva currens) stool, blood skin ... Infectious diseases - Parasitic disease: protozoan infection: Excavata (A06-A07, B55-B57, 007, 085-086) ... prolonged skin-to-skin contact Scabies Arachnida:Sarcoptes scabiei skin microscopy of surface scrapings worldwide skin-to-skin ...

*Mouth ulcer

Similarly, cutaneous (skin) conditions can also involve the mouth and sometimes only the mouth, sparing the skin. The different ... Parasitic. leishmaniasis Many infections can cause oral ulceration (see table). The most common are herpes simplex virus ( ... Vesiculobullous diseases[edit]. Main article: Vesiculobullous disease. Due to various factors (saliva, relative thinness of ... Zbar AP, Ben-Horin S, Beer-Gabel M, Eliakim R (March 2012). "Oral Crohn's disease: is it a separable disease from orofacial ...

*List of infectious diseases

cutaneous. (dermatomycosis):. Tinea = skin;. Piedra (exothrix/. endothrix) = hair. Ascomycota. Dermatophyte. (Dermatophytosis) ... parasitic dipterous fly larvae Neonatal conjunctivitis (Ophthalmia neonatorum) most commonly Chlamydia trachomatis and ... Legionellosis (Legionnaires' disease) Legionella pneumophila Legionellosis (Pontiac fever) Legionella pneumophila Leishmaniasis ... Intestinal disease by Capillaria philippinensis, hepatic disease by Capillaria hepatica and pulmonary disease by Capillaria ...

*Regional Leishmaniasis Control Center

Abdul-Ghani, Rashad (2017-01-17). "Combat against Neglected Parasitic Diseases in Yemen: The Need for Mapping as a Prerequisite ... Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma (CTCL) Superimposed on Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (DCL) in an Immunocompromised Female from ... "Leishmaniasis and malignancy: A review and perspective". Clinical Skin Cancer. doi:10.1016/j.clsc.2017.10.003. Official website ... Al-Kamel, Mohamed (July 2017). "Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma (CTCL) Superimposed on Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (DCL) in ...

*Toxoplasmosis

While rare, skin lesions may occur in the acquired form of the disease, including roseola and erythema multiforme-like ... Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Infections with toxoplasmosis usually cause no obvious ... Diagnosis of cutaneous toxoplasmosis is based on the tachyzoite form of T. gondii being found in the epidermis. It is found in ... Klaus, Sidney N.; Shoshana Frankenburg, and A. Damian Dhar (2003). "Chapter 235: Leishmaniasis and Other Protozoan Infections ...

*人畜共通傳染病 - 維基百科,自由的百

skin appendage(英語:skin appendage)s *Nail disease(英語:Nail disease) ... 利什曼原蟲症 Leishmaniasis. *表皮幼蟲移行症Cutaneous larval migrans ... A/B, 001-139(英語:List of ICD-9 codes 001-139: infectious and parasitic diseases)). *傳染病/感染:細菌性疾病 *G+ ... N, 580-629(英語:List of ICD-9 codes 580-629: diseases of the genitourinary system)). *Urologic

*Blasio Vincent Ndale Esau Oriedo

... or visceral leishmaniasis is a deadly parasitic disease endemic to the tropics, subtropics, and southern Europe. The disease ... "Studies in Mediterranean leishmaniasis: 3. The leishmanin skin test in kala-azar." Transactions of the Royal Society of ... intradermal reactions to different trypanosomatid antigens of patients suffering from cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis ... Kala-azar (black fever) or visceral leishmaniasis is a deadly parasitic disease endemic to the tropics, subtropics, and ...

*आइसीडी-१० अध्याय ब - विकिपीडिया

Skin parasites NOS. *(B89.) Unspecified parasitic disease *(B89.0) Other acariasis ... B55.) Leishmaniasis *(B55.0) Visceral leishmaniasis. *(B55.1) Cutaneous leishmaniasis. *(B55.2) Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis ... B20.7) HIV disease resulting in multiple infections. *(B20.8) HIV disease resulting in other infectious and parasitic diseases ... B20.) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease Resulting in infectious and parasitic diseases *(B20.0) HIV disease resulting ...

*Schistosomiasis

Human disease caused by parasitic worms called schistosomes. This article is about the disease. For the organism, see ... 2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6. .. ... Ancylostomiasis / Cutaneous larva migrans. *Necator americanus *Necatoriasis. *Angiostrongylus cantonensis *Angiostrongyliasis ... Schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever and bilharzia,[9] is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms called schistosomes.[5] ...

*Infection

Intestinal infectious diseases Tropical diseases include Chagas disease, dengue fever, lymphatic filariasis, leishmaniasis, ... In practice most minor infectious diseases such as warts, cutaneous abscesses, respiratory system infections and diarrheal ... Also, this virus must spread through skin lesions or permeable membranes such as the eye. Thus, the initial stage of Ebola is ... Infections can be further classified by causative agent (bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic), and by the presence or absence ...

*Infection

Tropical diseases include Chagas disease, dengue fever, lymphatic filariasis, leishmaniasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis ... Disability-adjusted life year for infectious and parasitic diseases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.[37]. no data ... In practice most minor infectious diseases such as warts, cutaneous abscesses, respiratory system infections and diarrheal ... As an example, several staphylococcal species remain harmless on the skin, but, when present in a normally sterile space, such ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reinfection in American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. T2 - Evaluation of Clinical Outcomes in the Hamster Model. AU - Osorio, Y.. AU - Gonzalez, S. J.. AU - Gama, V. L.. AU - Travi, B. L.. PY - 1998/1/1. Y1 - 1998/1/1. N2 - There is no clear understanding of the outcome of reinfection in New World cutaneous leishmaniasis, and its role in the relationship to the development of protection or secondary disease. For this reason, reinfection experiments with homologous (Leishmania panamensis-L. panamensis) and heterologous (L. major-L. panamensis) species of leishmaniae were conducted in the hamster model. The different protocols for primary infections prior to the challenge with L. panamensis were as follows: (a) L. major, single promastigote injection, (b) L. major, three booster infections, (c) L. panamensis, followed by antimonial treatment to achieve subclinical infection, (d) L. panamensis, with active lesions, (e) sham infected, ...
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infection caused by various species of Leishmania protozoa and is endemic in more than 70 countries throughout Latin America, Asia, Middle-East and southern Europe. The global number of reported cases has increased in the past decades because of improved diagnosis and case notification, but also because of drug resistance and inadequate vector control as a result of urbanisation and deforestation.1Leishmania parasites are transmitted by sandflies belonging to either Phlebotomus spp (Asia, Europe, Middle-East and North-Africa) or Lutzomya spp (Central and South America). The ecological context of the transmission cycles between the Old World (i.e., Africa, Asia and Europe) and the New World (i.e., the Americas) is different. New World cutaneous leishmaniasis is mostly associated with forests, whereas an open semi-arid climate is the transmission environment for Old World cutaneous ...
immune Uncategorized 1135280-28-2 supplier, a 140 kDa B-cell specific molecule, Mouse monoclonal to CD22.K22 reacts with CD22 In Tunisia, instances of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by are increasing and spreading from the south-west to new areas in the center. analysis also suggests previous (Bayesian model-based approach) and current (F-statistics) flows of genotypes between governorates and districts. Human activities as well as reservoir dynamics and the consequences of environmental adjustments could explain the way the disease progresses. This study provides new insights into the evolution and spread of in Tunisia that might improve our understanding of the parasite flow between geographically and temporally distinct populations. Author Summary In Tunisia, zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) constitutes a significant public health problem. Since 1884, the Gafsa, Kairouan and Sidi Bouzid governorates are the most endemic ...
Abstract: : Purpose: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis remains endemic in many regions of the world. The purpose of this study is to report the ocular complications of cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Methods: Seven patients from the southern region of Saudi Arabia presented to The Eye Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Five patients complained of decrease in vision in both eyes, two patients presented with lid deformity, and one patient complained of redness of the eye. History of cutaneous ulcers over the cheeks elicited in five patients, and two patients had cutaneous ulcers over the arms and cheek. Cutaneous ulcers appeared 6-12 months prior to the onset of ocular symptoms, and healed leaving scars. Laboratory work-up for uveitis, interstitial keratitis, and phlyctenulosis were negative. Results: There were five males and two female patients with an age range of 15-70 years and a mean age of 26 years. The ...
Dual effect of Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva on Leishmania braziliensis infection is mediated by distinct saliva-induced cellular recruitment into BALB-c mice ear. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
BACKGROUND Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala azar) is the most serious form of human leishmaniasis, responsible for over 20,000 deaths annually, and post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a stigmatizing skin condition that often occurs in patients after successful treatment for VL. Lack of effective or appropriately targeted cell mediated immunity, including CD8+ T cell responses, underlies the progression of VL and progression to PKDL, and can limit the therapeutic efficacy of anti-leishmanial drugs. Hence, in addition to the need for prophylactic vaccines against leishmaniasis, the development of therapeutic vaccines for use alone or in combined immuno-chemotherapy has been identified as an unmet clinical need. Here, we report the first clinical trial of a third-generation leishmaniasis vaccine, developed intentionally to induce Leishmania-specific CD8+ T cells. METHODS We conducted a ...
Mucosal leishmaniasis is a rare form of the disease, that affects only 6% of the patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World. It causes deformities and may be lethal if not treated. It is part of the neglected tropical diseases because on the past sixty years there was few progress regarding other treatment options or improvement at quality of life of its patients. Also, there was little interest from the pharmaceutical industry and government authorities to develop new researches. The standard treatment, meglumine antimoniate, is toxic, invasive, requires trained personnel and has many adverse effects and restrictions. On the other hand, miltefosine is the first oral drug to demonstrate efficacy against mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Few clinical trials have being performed in Central and South American countries, but so far, just one involved mucosal leishmaniasis patients, and ...
An effective adaptive immune response requires activation of specific CD4 T cells. The capacity of B cells to activate CD4 T cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) has not been evaluated. CD4 T cell activation by B cells of cutaneous leishmaniasis patients was evaluated by culture of PBMCs or purified B cells and CD4 T cells with Leishmania panamensis antigens. CD4 T cell and B cell activation markers were evaluated by flow cytometry and 13 cytokines were measured in supernatants with a bead-based capture assay. The effect of Leishmania antigens on BCR-mediated endocytosis of ovalbumin was evaluated in the Ramos human B cell line by targeting the antigen with anti-IgM-biotin and anti-biotin-ovalbumin-FITC. Culture of PBMCs from cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with Leishmania antigens resulted in upregulation of the activation markers CD25 and CD69 as well as increased ...
OBJECTIVES. Canine leishmaniasis is an endemic zoonotic disease highly widespread in the Mediterranean basin. There is a broad spectrum on clinical features ranging from local cutaneous forms to visceral forms, depending mainly on hosts immune response. Mucosal leishmaniasis is an atypical presentation form produced by metastatic leishmanial dissemination all through the mucous membranes that was firstly described by Font et al. in 1995. To try to describe five new cases of mucosal leishmaniasis is the first objective of this work, one of the cases was localized on a bitch nipple, and that, to the authors knowledge hasnt been previously described. Second objective is focused in the study of the incidence of this rare leishmaniasis type, in order to make a right valuation within the differential diagnosis of tumor-like lesions of mucous membranes.. MATERIALS. The present study was accomplished over 983 dogs that were brought ...
Genetic factors play a crucial role in host susceptibility or resistance to infectious diseases. Variations within the SLC11A1 gene were assessed in this study with respect to cutaneous leishmaniasis in Pakistan which has not been reported before from this region. A total of eight polymorphisms present in SLC11A1 gene were analyzed and their possible role in disease association and linkage was tested.. Six of these genetic variations (rs2276631, rs2290708, rs3731864, rs201565523, rs17235409 and rs17235416) have been analyzed before in various populations with regard to leishmaniasis. In addition to these six SNPs, two polymorphisms, rs2695342 (825A/G) in exon 9 and rs17215556 (V443A) in exon 13, not investigated previously for their role in cutaneous leishmaniasis, were also included. The SNP rs2695342 (825A/G) in exon 9 alters the codon GCA to GCG. The resultant mutation is synonymous with no change in the ...
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that distresses millions in the poorest regions of the globe. There are no anti-Leishmania vaccines approved for human use. Mice pre-exposed to uninfected sand fly bites (USFB) are protected against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). To test if pre-exposure to USFB protects rhesus monkeys against CL, we first developed a model where monkeys challenged with 50 L. major-infected Phlebotomus duboscqi sand flies developed self-healing cutaneous lesions mimicking human CL. In a following experiment, we exposed animals 3 times, every 21 days, to 20 uninfected P. duboscqi. We found that 70% of the monkeys reacted to USFB(DTH reaction and antibodies). Twenty-one days after the last exposure to USFB naïve, pre-exposed reactive (PE-R) and pre-exposed non-reactive monkeys were challenged with 50 L. major-infected P. duboscqi. We observed a reduction in disease burden and healing time in the PE-R group. This protection ...
To development a reliable murine model of Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis infection, parasites were injected into BALB/c mice in the presence of phlebotomine sand fly salivary gland lysates, which have previously been shown to greatly increase the infectivity of L. major in mice. When injected with salivary gland lysates, L. braziliensis braziliensis produced progressively enlarging cutaneous nodules, containing many macrophages filled with Leishmania amastigotes. In contrast, L. braziliensis injected without gland extracts produced small and rapidly regressing lesions. Isoenzyme analysis, monoclonal antibodies, and the polymerase chain reaction with L. braziliensis-specific oligonucleotide primers and probes confirmed that parasites causing the lesions were L. braziliensis. ...
On behalf of the organizing committee, we are delighted to welcome you to Caparica (Lisbon, Portugal), for the 1st International Caparica Congress on Leishmaniasis 2018 (LEISHMANIASIS2018).. The Conference will take place in Costa de Caparica the 29th, 30th and 31st October 2018.. This conference intends to gather researchers working in areas related to Leishmaniasis, from treatment to prevention. In fact, as leishmaniasis is slowly but constantly, increasing worldwide, this conference is addressed to show the latest research trends in this area. The idea is to push forward the battle against this persistent disease.. The conference will promote networking sessions to link the different skills of participants so international teams will be created to apply to funding at international level.. We are confident that you will appreciate the breadth and quality of the scientific program and the city of Caparica.. We look forward to seeing you in ...
The northward spread of leishmaniasis from Mediterranean to Continental Europe affects our area where it is typically associated with Leishmania infantum infection. In this study a 22-year survey was performed in patients (including both patients with and without history of travel through endemic areas other than Italy) attending the University Hospital of Parma, Northern Italy, in order to make a contribution to describe the cases of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) diagnosed in this area. One hundred fifty-six samples from 134 patients with clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis (96 suspected of having VL, 37 CL and one both VL and CL) were analyzed in our laboratory during 1992-2013 by microscopy, culture and, from 2005, also by real-time PCR. Leishmania spp. were detected in 23 samples of 15 patients (seven with VL and eight with CL), representing an infection rate of 11.2%. The figure of ...
A research team at The University of Texas at El Paso is one step closer to developing an effective human vaccine for cutaneous leishmaniasis, a tropical disease found in Texas and Oklahoma, and affecting some U.S. troops stationed in Afghanistan and Iraq.. UTEP biological sciences doctoral student Eva Iniguez; her mentors Rosa Maldonado, Ph.D., and Igor Almeida, Ph.D.; and their teams and collaborators in Liverpool (Alvaro Acosta-Serrano, Ph.D.) and Saudi Arabia (Waleed Al-Salem, Ph.D.), recently published their research findings in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, the first journal solely devoted to the worlds most neglected tropical diseases.. Leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan leishmania parasites, which are transmitted by the bite of infected female phlebotomine sandflies - flies that are three times smaller than a mosquito. According to the World Health Organization, there are an estimated 700,000 to 1 million ...
PENAFORTE, Klauber Menezes et al. Leishmania infection in a population of dogs: an epidemiological investigation relating to visceral leishmaniasis control. Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet. [online]. 2013, vol.22, n.4, pp.592-596. ISSN 1984-2961. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612013000400022.. Identification of factors associated with Leishmania infection in dogs is essential for targeting visceral leishmaniasis control actions. Thus, the present study analyzed some of these factors in a population of dogs in a Brazilian municipality, along with the limitations of control strategies implemented there. The association between the exposure variables and occurrences of infection was analyzed through logistic regression models. The disease control interventions were treated qualitatively. Out of the 755 animals examined, 13.6% (103/755) were seropositive. Of these, 23.3% (24/103) were asymptomatic and 76.7% (79/103) presented at least one clinical sign possibly associated with ...
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is characterized by cutaneous lesions that heal spontaneously or after specific treatment. This paper reports on the analysis of kDNA minicircle sequences from clinical samples (typical lesions and scars) that were PCR-amplified with specific primers for Leishmania species of the subgenus Viannia. From 56 clinical isolates we obtained a single amplified fragment (ca. 790 bp), which after cloning and sequencing resulted in 290 minicircle sequences from both active lesions and scars. We aimed to get a compositional profile of these sequences in clinical samples and evaluate the corresponding compositional changes. Sequences were analyzed with the compseq and wordcount (Emboss package) to get the composition of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotides. Additionally, we built a nucleotide dictionary with words of 7, 8, 9 and 10 nucleotides. This compositional analysis showed that minicircles amplified from active ...
The municipality of Ilhéus, State of Bahia, has a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis where entomological studies were carried out to determine the sand fly species and their habits. Lutzomyia migonei, L. sallesi, L. tupynambai, L. schreiberi, L. intermedia, L. whitmani, L. yuilli yuilli, L. fisch...
Health, ...Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a non-lethal disease but can have grav...Van der Meide has developed and evaluated a technique for the detectio...Part of the research was carried out in Suriname. Van der Meide discov...,Improved,diagnosis,of,cutaneous,leishmaniasis,thanks,to,new,techniques,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Cytochrome b and Molecular Typing of Leishmania spp. in a Passive Sampling of Suspected Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Eastern Iran
Leishmaniasis is a disease spread by the bite of the sandfly. It is found mostly in tropical countries. There are several types of leishmaniasis, and they vary in symptoms and severity. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, or kala azar) is the most severe; left untreated, it is always fatal. Its symptoms include fever, weight loss, anemia, and a swelling of the spleen and liver. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL, or espundia) produces lesions that affect the nose, mouth, and throat and can destroy their mucous membranes. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) produces skin ulcers, sometimes as many as 200, that cause disability and extensive scarring. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) is similar to CL, and infected people are prone to relapses. Approximately 12 million cases of leishmaniasis exist today. ...
Transmission of Leishmania tropica was studied in 2 adjacent foci in Israel where vector populations differ. Only Phlebotomus sergenti was found infected with L. tropica in the southern focus; P. arabicus was the main vector in the northern focus. Rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) were incriminated as reservoir hosts in both foci. L. tropica strains from the northern focus isolated from sand flies, cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, and rock hyraxes were antigenically similar to L. major, and strains from the southern focus were typically L. tropica. Laboratory studies showed that P. arabicus is a competent vector of L. tropica, and P. sergenti is essentially refractory to L. tropica from the northern focus. Susceptibility of P. arabicus may be mediated by O glycoproteins on the luminal surface of its midgut. The 2 foci differ with respect to parasites and vectors, but increasing peridomestic rock hyrax populations are probably responsible for emergence of ...
To the Editor: Kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis) is a fatal disease caused by a protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani and transmitted by the female sandfly, Phlebotomus argentipes. In the state of Assam, India, kala-azar epidemics occurred during 1875-1950 and resulted in thousands of deaths in the districts of Kamrup, Garo Hills, Goalpara, and Nagaon (1,2). The disease gradually disappeared from Assam because of the extensive use of DDT in the national malaria elimination program, and results of later entomologic studies indicated that there were no P. argentipes sandflies in this region after DDT use (3). However, sporadic kala-azar cases appeared again in Assam in 2004 (4), and in 2008, we reported a kala-azar outbreak in Kamrup (5), where kala-azar epidemics had occurred during the 1870s (1).. At bimonthly intervals during 2012, we conducted house-to-house surveys in 4 villages in the district of Kamrup, 845 households and 4,376 persons. Residents are socioeconomically poor and depend ...
Abstract. This study describes the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of leishmaniasis and the pharmacological treatment of this disease in the municipality of Pueblo Rico, Risaralda, between January 2010 and December 2014. An observational study was conducted using information from the clinical records and epidemiological reports of patients diagnosed and confirmed with leishmaniasis of any age and sex, including sociodemographic, clinical, and pharmacological variables of the therapy received. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed. A total of 539 cases of leishmaniasis were confirmed, with 29.5% occurring in children under 5 years of age. The median age was 10 years, with predominance in males (55.5%). The indigenous Emberá (aboriginal Americans) were the most affected (50.8%), and 93.3% of cases occurred in people living in scattered rural areas. All lesions corresponded to cutaneous leishmaniasis, of ...
Leishmaniasis is a complex disease, with visceral and cutaneous manifestations, and is caused by over 15 different species of the protozoan parasite genus Leishmania. There are significant differences in the sensitivity of these species both to the standard drugs, for example, pentavalent antimonials and miltefosine, and those on clinical trial, for example, paromomycin. Over 60% of patients with visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar State, India, do not respond to treatment with pentavalent antimonials. This is now considered to be due to acquired resistance. Although this class of drugs has been used for over 60 years for leishmaniasis treatment, it is only in the past 2 years that the mechanisms of action and resistance have been identified, related to drug metabolism, thiol metabolism, and drug efflux. With the introduction of new therapies, including miltefosine in 2002 and paromomycin in 2005-2006, it is essential that there be a strategy to ...
Abstract. Miltefosine has been used in the treatment of several new world cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) species with variable efficacy. Our study is the first evidence on its clinical efficacy in Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. In this phase II/III randomized clinical trial, 90 CL patients were randomly allocated (2:1) to oral miltefosine (2.5 mg/kg/day/28 days) (N = 60) or parenteral antimony (15-20 mg/Sb/kg/day/20 days) (N = 30) according to age groups: 2-12 y/o and 13-65 y/o. Patients were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) noninfected parasitological proven CL without previous treatment. Definitive cure was accessed at 6 months follow-up visit. No severe adverse events occurred. Vomiting was the most frequent adverse event (48.3%) followed by nausea (8.6%) and diarrhea (6.7%). Cure rates were 71.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 57.8-82.7) and 53.6% (95% CI = 33.9-72.5) (P = 0.05) for miltefosine and antimonial, respectively. There were no differences in cure rates ...
RAMAYO, L.G. et al. Study of the sera electrophoretic profile in dogs infected with visceral leishmaniasis from Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. InVet [online]. 2011, vol.13, n.2, pp. 69-76. ISSN 1668-3498.. Visceral leishmaniasis in a zoonotic disease caused by protozoan Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi), transmited by phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis. Canines are its main reservoir in urban and suburban areas. Forty sera from sick dogs with leishmaniasis confirmed by parasitological diagnosis were analized in a retrospective study. Sera were obtained during 2006-2008 in the city of Posadas, Misiones province, Argentina. Eighty % (32 out of 40) of these samples showed distortions in the electrophoretic profile, characterized by a diminished albumin/globulin ratio and the presence of polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia in 52.5 % (21 out of 40) of the samples, or IgG-monoclonal hypergammaglobulinemia in 27.5 % (11 out of 40) of the samples. Five of these sera ...
Cutaneous Old World leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica in an Afghan woman. A, Initial presentation of the dry, plaque-like lesion with central nodule on
Neutrophils, by interacting with monocytes, dendritic cells, T cells, and B cells, through cell-cell contact or secreted products, drive inflammatory responses involved in host defense and tissue repair (7). Neutrophils have been shown to play an active role in the control of infections with specific and distinct pathogens such as Legionella (17), Toxoplasma (27), Mycobacterium (28), Entamoeba (29), Histoplasma (30), and Cryptosporidium (31). BALB/c mice infected in the ear dermis with L. braziliensis develop cutaneous lesions at the site of inoculation and histological analyses of infected ear sections have demonstrated a constant recruitment of neutrophils to the inoculation site (14). Since in this experimental model ear lesions heal spontaneously, we hypothesized that neutrophils exert a protective effect. Data presented herein collectively indicate that live neutrophils play an important yet unresolved role during experimental infection with Lb: in vivo neutrophil depletion increased ...