Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Tooth Germ: The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Tooth Loss: The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Tooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Tooth Wear: Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processesTooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Tooth, Supernumerary: An extra tooth, erupted or unerupted, resembling or unlike the other teeth in the group to which it belongs. Its presence may cause malposition of adjacent teeth or prevent their eruption.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Tooth, Nonvital: A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Odontometry: Measurement of tooth characteristics.Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Tooth, Impacted: A tooth that is prevented from erupting by a physical barrier, usually other teeth. Impaction may also result from orientation of the tooth in an other than vertical position in the periodontal structures.Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)Tooth, Unerupted: A normal developing tooth which has not yet perforated the oral mucosa or one that fails to erupt in the normal sequence or time interval expected for the type of tooth in a given gender, age, or population group.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Tooth Cervix: The constricted part of the tooth at the junction of the crown and root or roots. It is often referred to as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), the line at which the cementum covering the root of a tooth and the enamel of the tooth meet. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p530, p433)Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Aortic Valve: The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.Tooth Exfoliation: Physiologic loss of the primary dentition. (Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Tooth Avulsion: Partial or complete displacement of a tooth from its alveolar support. It is commonly the result of trauma. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p312)Fused Teeth: Two teeth united during development by the union of their tooth germs; the teeth may be joined by the enamel of their crowns, by their root dentin, or by both.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dentition, Permanent: The 32 teeth of adulthood that either replace or are added to the complement of deciduous teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Tooth DiseasesTooth Calcification: The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)Tooth Ankylosis: Solid fixation of a tooth resulting from fusion of the cementum and alveolar bone, with obliteration of the periodontal ligament. It is uncommon in the deciduous dentition and very rare in permanent teeth. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Aortic Valve Insufficiency: Pathological condition characterized by the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to regurgitation. It is caused by diseases of the AORTIC VALVE or its surrounding tissue (aortic root).Tooth Erosion: Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)Dental Occlusion: The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)Tooth Socket: A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.Aortic Valve Prolapse: The downward displacement of the cuspal or pointed end of the trileaflet AORTIC VALVE causing misalignment of the cusps. Severe valve distortion can cause leakage and allow the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to aortic regurgitation.Tooth Replantation: Reinsertion of a tooth into the alveolus from which it was removed or otherwise lost.Dental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Tooth Resorption: Resorption of calcified dental tissue, involving demineralization due to reversal of the cation exchange and lacunar resorption by osteoclasts. There are two types: external (as a result of tooth pathology) and internal (apparently initiated by a peculiar inflammatory hyperplasia of the pulp). (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p676)Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.OdontoblastsRoot Canal Therapy: A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Ameloblasts: Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Tooth Demineralization: A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Dental Papilla: Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.Dental Cavity Preparation: An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)Dens in Dente: Anomaly of the tooth, found chiefly in upper lateral incisors. It is characterized by invagination of the enamel at the incisal edge.Anodontia: Congenital absence of the teeth; it may involve all (total anodontia) or only some of the teeth (partial anodontia, hypodontia), and both the deciduous and the permanent dentition, or only teeth of the permanent dentition. (Dorland, 27th ed)Enamel Organ: Epithelial cells surrounding the dental papilla and differentiated into three layers: the inner enamel epithelium, consisting of ameloblasts which eventually form the enamel, and the enamel pulp and external enamel epithelium, both of which atrophy and disappear before and upon eruption of the tooth, respectively.Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Tooth Preparation, Prosthodontic: The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)Periodontal Ligament: The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Tooth Attrition: The wearing away of a tooth as a result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It is chiefly associated with aging. It is differentiated from TOOTH ABRASION (the pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by friction, as brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes) and from TOOTH EROSION (the loss of substance caused by chemical action without bacterial action). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p86)Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Age Determination by Teeth: A means of identifying the age of an animal or human through tooth examination.Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Dental Cementum: The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Sinus of Valsalva: The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.Radiography, Bitewing: Technique involving the passage of X-rays through oral structures to create a film record while a central tab or wing of dental X-ray film is being held between upper and lower teeth.Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.Bioprosthesis: Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.Malocclusion: Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Forensic Dentistry: The application of dental knowledge to questions of law.Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Dental Pulp Necrosis: Death of pulp tissue with or without bacterial invasion. When the necrosis is due to ischemia with superimposed bacterial infection, it is referred to as pulp gangrene. When the necrosis is non-bacterial in origin, it is called pulp mummification.Tooth Remineralization: Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.Pan paniscus: The pygmy chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. Its common name is Bonobo, which was once considered a separate genus by some; others considered it a subspecies of PAN TROGLODYTES. Its range is confined to the forests of the central Zaire basin. Despite its name, it is often of equal size to P. troglodytes.Radiography, Panoramic: Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.Periapical Periodontitis: Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.Heart Valve Prosthesis: A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.Prolapse: The protrusion of an organ or part of an organ into a natural or artificial orifice.Matrix Bands: Devices which provide an artificial temporary wall, or matrix, used in filling a prepared cavity.Jaw, Edentulous, Partially: Absence of teeth from a portion of the mandible and/or maxilla.Occlusal Adjustment: Selective grinding of occlusal surfaces of the teeth in an effort to eliminate premature contacts and occlusal interferences; to establish optimal masticatory effectiveness, stable occlusal relationships, direction of main occlusal forces, and efficient multidirectional patterns, to improve functional relations and to induce physiologic stimulation of the masticatory system; to eliminate occlusal trauma; to eliminate abnormal muscle tension; to aid in the stabilization of orthodontic results; to treat periodontal and temporomandibular joint problems; and in restorative procedures. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Porcelain: A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Enamel Proteins: The proteins that are part of the dental enamel matrix.Dental Enamel Hypoplasia: An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.Diastema: An abnormal opening or fissure between two adjacent teeth.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Dental Bonding: An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.Molar, Third: The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.Post and Core Technique: Use of a metal casting, usually with a post in the pulp or root canal, designed to support and retain an artificial crown.Pulpectomy: Dental procedure in which the entire pulp chamber is removed from the crown and roots of a tooth.Mouth, Edentulous: Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Periodontium: The structures surrounding and supporting the tooth. Periodontium includes the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Periodontal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Dental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Root Canal Filling Materials: Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)Resin Cements: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)Forensic Anthropology: Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)Mesial Movement of Teeth: Migration of the teeth toward the midline or forward in the DENTAL ARCH. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Denture Design: The plan, delineation, and location of actual structural elements of dentures. The design can relate to retainers, stress-breakers, occlusal rests, flanges, framework, lingual or palatal bars, reciprocal arms, etc.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Root Canal Preparation: Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)Denture, Partial, Removable: A partial denture designed and constructed to be removed readily from the mouth.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Dental Prosthesis: An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)Dental Leakage: The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.Root Canal Obturation: Phase of endodontic treatment in which a root canal system that has been cleaned is filled through use of special materials and techniques in order to prevent reinfection.Pulpitis: Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Orthodontic Appliances: Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.MSX1 Transcription Factor: A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Dental Sac: Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.Bahamas: A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)Mitral Valve: The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.Pulmonary Valve: A valve situated at the entrance to the pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle.Periapical Diseases: Diseases of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE surrounding the root of the tooth, which is distinguished from DENTAL PULP DISEASES inside the TOOTH ROOT.Dental Veneers: The use of a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or acrylic resin, applied to the surface of natural teeth, crowns, or pontics by fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention.Amelogenin: A major dental enamel-forming protein found in mammals. In humans the protein is encoded by GENES found on both the X CHROMOSOME and the Y CHROMOSOME.PAX9 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is involved in ODONTOGENESIS.Replantation: Restoration of an organ or other structure to its original site.Aortic Valve Stenosis: A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Denture, Partial, Fixed: A partial denture attached to prepared natural teeth, roots, or implants by cementation.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Fibroblast Growth Factor 4: A HEPARIN binding fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in LIMB BUDS development.Dental Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Periodontal Index: A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.Dentin SensitivityDental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.Orthodontic Brackets: Small metal or ceramic attachments used to fasten an arch wire. These attachments are soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or cemented directly onto the teeth. Bowles brackets, edgewise brackets, multiphase brackets, ribbon arch brackets, twin-wire brackets, and universal brackets are all types of orthodontic brackets.Ectodysplasins: Transmembrane proteins belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that play an essential role in the normal development of several ectodermally derived organs. Several isoforms of the ectodysplasins exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the MRNA for the protein. The isoforms ectodysplasin A1 and ectodysplasin A2 are considered biologically active and each bind distinct ECTODYSPLASIN RECEPTORS. Genetic mutations that result in loss of function of ectodysplasin result in ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA 1, ANHIDROTIC.Glass Ionomer Cements: A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Calcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Inlays: Restorations of metal, porcelain, or plastic made to fit a cavity preparation, then cemented into the tooth. Onlays are restorations which fit into cavity preparations and overlay the occlusal surface of a tooth or teeth. Onlays are retained by frictional or mechanical factors.Acid Etching, Dental: Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Periodontal Splints: Fixed or removable devices that join teeth together. They are used to repair teeth that are mobile as a result of PERIODONTITIS.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gutta-Percha: Coagulated exudate isolated from several species of the tropical tree Palaquium (Sapotaceae). It is the trans-isomer of natural rubber and is used as a filling and impression material in dentistry and orthopedics and as an insulator in electronics. It has also been used as a rubber substitute.Chordae Tendineae: The tendinous cords that connect each cusp of the two atrioventricular HEART VALVES to appropriate PAPILLARY MUSCLES in the HEART VENTRICLES, preventing the valves from reversing themselves when the ventricles contract.Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Periapical Tissue: Tissue surrounding the apex of a tooth, including the apical portion of the periodontal membrane and alveolar bone.Pit and Fissure Sealants: Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.Dentin-Bonding Agents: Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.Dentinogenesis: The formation of dentin. Dentin first appears in the layer between the ameloblasts and odontoblasts and becomes calcified immediately. Formation progresses from the tip of the papilla over its slope to form a calcified cap becoming thicker by the apposition of new layers pulpward. A layer of uncalcified dentin intervenes between the calcified tissue and the odontoblast and its processes. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Orthodontics, Corrective: The phase of orthodontics concerned with the correction of malocclusion with proper appliances and prevention of its sequelae (Jablonski's Illus. Dictionary of Dentistry).Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Orthodontic Extrusion: Orthodontic movement in the coronal direction achieved by outward tension on the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT. It does not include the operative procedure that CROWN LENGTHENING involves.Heart Valves: Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Endodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).Orthodontic Appliance Design: The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Periodontal Pocket: An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment and bone resorption.Pulpotomy: Dental procedure in which part of the pulp chamber is removed from the crown of a tooth.Bruxism: A disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth.Phonocardiography: Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)Denture, Partial, Fixed, Resin-Bonded: A commonly used prosthesis that results in a strong, permanent restoration. It consists of an electrolytically etched cast-metal retainer that is cemented (bonded), using resins, to adjacent teeth whose enamel was previously acid-treated (acid-etched). This type of bridgework is sometimes referred to as a Maryland bridge.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Tooth, Artificial: A fabricated tooth substituting for a natural tooth in a prosthesis. It is usually made of porcelain or plastic.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Acrylic ResinsDental Restoration, Temporary: A prosthesis or restoration placed for a limited period, from several days to several months, which is designed to seal the tooth and maintain its position until a permanent restoration (DENTAL RESTORATION, PERMANENT) will replace it. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Truncus Arteriosus: The arterial trunk arising from the fetal heart. During development, it divides into AORTA and the PULMONARY ARTERY.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Dental Abutments: Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Epoxy Resins: Polymeric resins derived from OXIRANES and characterized by strength and thermosetting properties. Epoxy resins are often used as dental materials.JordanDental Marginal Adaptation: The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Orthodontic Space Closure: Therapeutic closure of spaces caused by the extraction of teeth, the congenital absence of teeth, or the excessive space between teeth.Aortic Aneurysm: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.Dentures: An appliance used as an artificial or prosthetic replacement for missing teeth and adjacent tissues. It does not include CROWNS; DENTAL ABUTMENTS; nor TOOTH, ARTIFICIAL.Phosphoric Acids: Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.Dentin, Secondary: Dentin formed by normal pulp after completion of root end formation.Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
1. Tooth 2. Enamel 3. Dentin 4. Dental pulp ::5. cameral pulp ::6. root pulp :7. Cementum :8. Crown ::9. Cusp ::10. Sulcus :11 ... In immature teeth the root is not fully formed leading to an open apex. This is also seen in some pathological teeth. ... In anatomy the apical foramen is the opening at the apex of the root of a tooth, through which the nerve and blood vessels that ... A tooth may have multiple small accessory canals in the root apex area forming an apical delta which can complicate the ...
CuspCusp of Carabelli • Dan Crane • Darlie • David J. Acer • Deciduous • Deciduous teeth • Delta Dental • Dens evaginatus • ... Tooth-friendly • Tooth abscess • Tooth bleaching • Tooth brushing • Tooth development • Tooth enamel • Tooth eruption • Tooth ... fusion • Tooth gemination • Tooth loss • Tooth painting • Tooth polishing • Tooth regeneration • Tooth squeeze • Tooth Tunes • ... Dental pertains to the teeth, including dentistry. Topics related to the dentistry, the human mouth and teeth include: Contents ...
Central teeth are about 38 μm wide with convex cutting edge. There are 3-8 lateral cusps. Central cusp are pointed or hoe- ... Lateral tooth face is rectangular. Central cusp is pointed or hoe-shaped. There are 2-5 lateral cusps (inner) and 3-7 (outer). ... larger number of cusps on the inner side of the lateral teeth and on the outer marginal teeth, larger penial lobe, narrower ... Inner and outer marginal teeth both have 14-21 cusps and basally positioned rectangular wing. Hypobranchial gland is large, ...
Adults have over 60 rows of small teeth in either jaw; each tooth has three long cusps. The five pairs of gill slits are small ...
Extraneous tooth cusps are documented in Tyrannosaurus. Some teeth show evidence of bite marks by other Tyrannosaurus. The ... Broken and subsequently worn teeth are known from Tyrannosaurus. One preserved T. rex jaw bears a strongly tilted tooth crown. ... A tyrannosaur tooth with a split carina was discovered in China's Minhe Formation. Several pathologies are known from the genus ... Five other pathologies have been documented in Sue; a pathology on each side of its skull, a twisted and discolored tooth, two ...
There are no cusps on the tooth. Instead, the surface area of the tooth used in eating is called an incisal ridge or incisal ... a number is used in conjunction with a symbol designating in which quadrant the tooth is found. For this tooth, the left and ... The mandibular central incisor is the tooth located on the jaw, adjacent to the midline of the face. It is mesial (toward the ... The mandibular central incisors are usually the first teeth to appear in the mouth, typically around the age of 6-8 months. In ...
Radula: the rachidian tooth is broader than high and has the lateral wings prominent. The lateral tooth cusp is broad to absent ... The columellar tooth is absent. There is no umbilical septum. The shell has punctate microsculpture. ...
The formula of the radula is 2·1·1·1·2. The central tooth is subquadrangular, multicuspid; the central cusps are very long and ... sharp; lateral teeth are multicuspid, marginals are narrow, with a few obsolete denticles on the margin. Species in the genus ...
The lateral teeth have few to numerous cusps. The marginal teeth are usually with numerous cusps. The species usually have both ... The taenioglossate radula consists of more than fifty rows of teeth. The central tooth is trapezoidal. ...
... there are three tooth rows at the upper symphysis (jaw midpoint) and one row at the lower. The teeth have three cusps. The five ... The rather large mouth is curved, with the upper teeth exposed when closed. There are short furrows at the corners of the mouth ... The jaws contain 26-28 upper and 27 lower tooth rows on each side; in addition, ... which have arrowhead-shaped crowns with a central ridge and three posterior teeth. This shark has a striking dorsal color ...
3/3 making twenty teeth in total. The molars have two-lobed cusps. The upper incisors are grooved and the enamel on the molars ... The check teeth have roots. Fur-lined cheek pouches are a feature across the family Heteromyidae. They have openings near the ...
... s have multicuspid teeth. However, males typically have longer teeth with fewer cusps. This is believed to ...
The radular tooth has serrations, and a terminating cusp. Geographical distribution The species in this genus occur in the Indo ... Radular tooth (not known for fossil species) The anterior section of the radular tooth is shorter than the length of the ... Radular tooth (not known for fossil species) The radula has an elongated anterior section with serrations and a large exposed ... Feeding habits The radular tooth suggests that these cone snails are vermivorous, meaning that the cones prey on polychaete ...
Each tooth is small with a low, blunt cusp; in adult males the teeth at the center are sharp and backward-pointing. The five ... The wide, straight mouth contains 32-60 tooth rows in either jaw, increasing in number with age. ...
The central tooth of the radula has no cusps. This marine genus occurs off the Philippines, Indo-China, Indo-Malaysia, Papua ...
Radula: the rachidian tooth is broader than high and has lateral wings prominent. The lateral tooth cusp is broad. There are ... The columella has no sinus or tooth. Tha aperture has a rhomboidal shape. There is no umbilical septum. ... less than 10 marginal tooth pairs. Species within the genus Asthelys include: Asthelys antarctica Marshall, 1988 Asthelys ...
The teeth had a selenodont structure; enamel ridges with crescent-shaped cusps. Selenodont teeth are found in modern grazers ... and browsers such as cattle and deer, but Pantolambda's teeth were low-crowned and indicate a not very specialized diet. ...
The central teeth contain no cusps. The median tooth consists of a narrow oblong quadrate basal plate, frequently with ... a simple plate without cusp, bearing supporting wings at the sides. Frequently the central teeth are asymmetrical in this group ... The laterals bear supporting wings at their outer angles, and are various in form, with or without cusps. The inner marginals ... The median, lateral and marginal teeth are always present, and the formula is invariably ∞.5.1.5.∞. ...
Radula: the rachidian tooth is higher than broad and has lateral wings reduced or absent. The lateral tooth cusp is narrow. ... There are less than 10 marginal tooth pairs. Species within the genus Quinnia include: Quinnia cazioti (Dautzenberg, 1925) ... The columellar tooth is present. There is no umbilical septum. ...
Radula: The rachidian tooth is broader than high with lateral wings prominent. The lateral tooth cusp is broad. The radula ... contains less than 10 marginal tooth pairs. Species within the genus Ancistrobasis include: Ancistrobasis adonis Marshall, 1991 ...
P3 is the second largest cheek tooth, P4 the largest; both are very similar, dominated by the central cusp.[14] ... the lower incisors are simple conical teeth curved distally and aligned with the cheek teeth. I1, the smallest tooth, is ... He concluded that the teeth must have belonged to a mammal since they were two-rooted, that they must have been teeth from a ... Dorudon ("spear-tooth") is a genus of extinct basilosaurid ancient whales that lived alongside Basilosaurus 40.4 to 33.9 ...
There are 26 laterals with the outer 5 without cusps. The inner ones are larger, with wide cusps and narrower bases. The ... In Entemnotrochus adansonianus (Crosse & P. Fischer, 1861) there are considerable differences in the teeth. Some of the uncini ... The long radula has a long, narrow rhachidian tooth. It is lanceolate with its tip narrowand recurved. ... and with scythe-shaped 1-3 denticulate cusps. The outer uncini are very numerous (40-50), small, very oblique. ...
The radula shows a rhachidian tooth with no basal cusps. Their stomach has a caecal appendix at its pyloric end. They have a ...
Mandibular second premolars have three cusps. There is one large cusp on the buccal side of the tooth. The lingual cusps are ... Teeth can belong to one of two sets of teeth: primary ("baby") teeth or permanent teeth. Often, "deciduous" may be used in ... There are no cusps on the teeth. Instead, the surface area of the tooth used in eating is called the incisal ridge or incisal ... Cusp ridges are ridges that radiate from cusp tips. There are two marginal ridges, mesial and distal, present on all teeth. On ...
The molars are very worn, so that only traces of the cusps remain; no accessory small cusps are visible. Each of the teeth has ...
Lower cheek teeth rounded without accessory cusps. The wing span of the adult is about 48 cm. Juveniles are lighter than adults ...
Each tooth bearing smaller teeth Serrate. Serrata. Saw-toothed; with asymmetrical teeth pointing forward ... With a sharp, elongated, rigid tip; tipped with a cusp Emarginate. _. Indented, with a shallow notch at the tip ...
The teeth are small and arranged in a dense quincunx pattern; each tooth has a single sharp cusp. There are around 22-24 and 20 ... tooth rows in the upper and lower jaws respectively. The five pairs of gill slits are placed on the underside of the disc. The ...
If you get filling done to restore the lingual cusp, then it will further make the tooth weak and tooth will become more ... The lingual cusp broke but the restoration is in place and there is no damage to the restoration or the remaining of the tooth ... If the lingual cusp of the tooth is fractured, then amalgam or composite filling can be given but that wont be very successful ... In my opinion, it would be better if you get the fractured tooth restored with dental crown which will make the tooth to last ...
... distal cusps rather than mesial cusps,and increases from M1 to M3.This research investigated the molar RBCAs of modern Chinese ... evolutionary research has been important but it has been difficult to measure precisely the occlusal or cusp areas of the teeth ... absolute occlusal area and relative basal cusp area(RBCA),of maxillary and mandibular molars of recent Northern Chinese have ... Studies of the molar crown basal area and relative basal cusp area in human ...
... cusp capping is the process of using composite fillings to replace cusps in teeth. ... Cusp Capping. Cusp capping is the process of using composite fillings to replace the cusps in teeth. A cusp is a hard ... Canine teeth have one cusp, premolars have two cusps and molars typically have four to five cusps. ... such as tooth fracture. Cusp capping can also be used to strengthen severely damaged teeth, teeth with poor pulpal health and ...
View AAE patient education videos on treatment for cracked teeth. ... Do you have a cracked tooth or cracked teeth? See symptoms here ... Fractured Cusp. When a piece of a tooths chewing surface breaks off, often around a filling, its called a fractured cusp. A ... Split Tooth. A split tooth is often the result of the long-term progression of a cracked tooth. The split tooth is identified ... A cracked tooth means a crack extends from the chewing surface of your tooth vertically toward the root. The tooth is not yet ...
The cingulum of the tooth is a component of dental anatomy that you cant really see, but you can feel with your tongue. ... Talon Cusp. In very rare occasions, an extra cusp develops on the tongue-facing surface of a front tooth in the cingulum area. ... A tooth with a talon cusp may have an odd appearance, but if it isnt interfering with the opposing tooth when biting, it ... Do You Know All the Human Teeth Names? Get a better understanding of the human teeth names, each tooths location in the mouth ...
cusp n. 1. A point or pointed end. 2. Anatomy a. A pointed or rounded projection on the chewing surface of a tooth. b. A ... cusp tips synonyms, cusp tips pronunciation, cusp tips translation, English dictionary definition of cusp tips. ... cusp - small elevation on the grinding surface of a tooth. tooth - hard bonelike structures in the jaws of vertebrates; used ... n (of tooth) → Höcker m; (of moon) → Spitze f → (der Mondsichel); (Astrol) → Eintritt m → in ein neues Zeichen; on the cusp of ...
The clinical exam observed the presence of a supernumerary tooth with talon cusp type III in the canine region which had a ... Tooth, Supernumerary/diagnosis , Tooth, Unerupted/surgery , Tooth, Unerupted/diagnosis ... The talon cusp is defined as a developmental anomaly in which an accessory cusp-like structure projects in the area of the ... Full text: Available Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Tooth, Supernumerary / Tooth, Unerupted / Dentition, Permanent / ...
Individual tooth anatomy talon cusps? Bulbous. crowns?. Contact points food packing? Cleansability? Ledges / deficiencies on ... Individual tooth mobility (mobility index) excessive mobility may compromise function / make a tooth susceptible to sub- ... Residual tooth support (radiographically) helps determine long-term prognosis. Chronically infected teeth with minimal bone ... Tooth wear? may find secondary occlusal trauma to a tooth that is already periodontally diseased. This can accelerate the ...
1. Tooth 2. Enamel 3. Dentin 4. Dental pulp ::5. cameral pulp ::6. root pulp :7. Cementum :8. Crown ::9. Cusp ::10. Sulcus :11 ... In immature teeth the root is not fully formed leading to an open apex. This is also seen in some pathological teeth. ... In anatomy the apical foramen is the opening at the apex of the root of a tooth, through which the nerve and blood vessels that ... A tooth may have multiple small accessory canals in the root apex area forming an apical delta which can complicate the ...
Tooth Abnormalities/complications*. LinkOut - more resources. Medical. *Tooth Decay - MedlinePlus Health Information ... Dental caries and periapical pathology associated with talon cusp.. Chawla HS, Tewari A, Gopalakrishnan NS. ...
The number of cusps appears to be a factor of both cusp size and tooth size. Thus a large tooth can incorporate more cusps by ... fusion of tooth germs, creation of new tooth germs, and the generation of additional teeth from existing tooth germs. The ... Changing tooth complexity. The complexity of the tooth can be altered by the addition or removal of cusps. As has been ... Reducing tooth number. In the mouse, the number of tooth germs that form has been reduced by the death of tooth germs that ...
Mild hypodontia is associated with smaller tooth dimensions and cusp numbers than in controls.. Kerekes-Máthé B1, Brook AH2, ... Carabelli cusps were present in the hypodontia group less frequently, the difference being highly significant (p=0.0002) in ... Department of Morphology of Teeth and Dental Arches, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Tg-Mures, Gh ... Department of Morphology of Teeth and Dental Arches, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Tg-Mures, Gh ...
Posterior tooth preparation Page 16 Should be parallel to the inward facing inclines of the cusps of the opposing tooth, at ... The depth orientation grooves should be 1.5mm deep on functional cusps and 1mm deep on non-functional cusps. The tooth ... Intact or minimally restored teeth. Teeth with crown length that is average or that exceeds the average. Teeth with normal ... Functional Cusp Bevel: * 22. Posterior tooth preparation Page 22 Is done using round end tapered diamond and no: 171 bur. Depth ...
This tooth is a A. mandibular first molar. B. mandibular second molar. C. mandibular second premolar. D. maxillary first molar. ... This tooth has two roots and five cusps. ... This tooth has two roots and five cusps. This tooth is a A. ... This tooth has two roots and five cusps. This tooth is a A. mandibular first molar. B. mandibular second molar. C. mandibular ... This tooth has two roots and five cusps. This tooth is a mandibular first molar. ...
Humans have two sets of teeth, the baby teeth (also called the primary teeth) and the permanent teeth. Children have 20 primary ... teeth; they are replaced by 32 permanent teeth by about age 13. ... A bicuspid tooth has 1 root. Bicuspids have two points (cusps) ... Teeth. Urinary System. Classroom. Activities. Tooth Quiz. Tooth Quiz Answers. Tooth Anatomy. Tooth Anatomy Printout. Label a ... Tooth Anatomy Printout. Teeth. Label Teeth Printout. Label Tooth Printout. Tooth Anatomy Quiz Printout. Todays featured page: ...
Its teeth look adapted for eating fish: the first two molars had cusps in a straight row, which made them more suitable for ... These teeth are sharp-cusped and similar in shape to those of piscivorous mammals, and unlike the teeth of contemporary mammals ... their teeth are differentiated, occlude, and have mammal-like cusps; they have a zygomatic arch; and the structure of the ... A small mammaliomorph called Sinocodon, generally assumed to be the sister group of all later mammals, had front teeth in even ...
The roots of teeth are embedded in the maxilla (upper jaw) or the mandible (lower jaw) and are covered by gingiva gums. Teeth ... When the genome within each tooth is properly signaled, it will begin to heal the tooth from the inside out against caries and ... CGRP [is] present in much higher concentrations than SP and NKA in both painful and non-painful teeth. The painful teeth had ... Agriculture/Quiz · Deoxyribonucleic acids/Quiz · Geochemistry/Quiz · Human teeth/Quiz · Phosphate biochemistry/Quiz · Phosphate ...
SH12-001 - SEVERE PATHOLOGICAL ORTHACANTHUS TOOTH WITH NO CUSPS ITEM # SH12-001 ID Orthacanthus FOUND Wellington Formation - ... UNBROKEN SPINOSAURUS DINOSAUR 2 INCH FOSSIL TOOTH *DT5-413 This is a GENUINE fossil Spinosaurus dinosaur tooth. This tooth is ... TWO MOSASAUR FOSSIL TEETH FROM A HALISAURUS MARINE REPTILE *DT1-134 This is a set of two choice grade complete fossil teeth of ... GLOBIDENS MOSASAUR TOOTH IN MATRIX *DT1-038 This rare mosasaur tooth specimen was collected from the phosphate mine region in ...
... the number of cusps on central teeth; notching of inner marginal teeth; number of cusps on outer marginal teeth; the male ... the shape of the central cusp of the central teeth; ...
2A. Preopercular spines with 2-5 radiating cusps; skin unpigmented; teeth small and numerous (Haplophryne Regan, 1912) ... 3-7 teeth on upper denticular, 2-13 teeth on lower denticular; pterygiophore of illicium without connection to upper denticular ... 2B. Preopercular spine simple or absent; skin darkly pigmented; teeth large and few (go to 3) ... jaw teeth present in Photocorynus and Haplophryne, absent in Borophryne and Linophryne; upper denticular simple or with a short ...
Prevalence of cusp fractures in teeth restored with amalgam and with resin-based composite ... amalgam-restored teeth and resin-based composite-restored teeth but the teeth in older people are more likely to suffer a cusp ... Prevalence of cusp fractures in teeth restored with amalgam and with resin-based composite. Article Abstract:. Many dentists ... believe that teeth restored with amalgam are more likely to be associated with cusp fractures than those restored with resin- ...
Prevalence and Distribution of Carabelli Cusp in Maxillary Molars in Deciduous and Permanent Dentition and Its Relation to ... Tooth Size in a Group of Iranian Adult and Pediatric Dental Patients ... It is believed that this cusp is seen in people with larger teeth. Since it has different prevalence among populations, it can ... Mavrodisz K, Rozsa N, Budai M, Soos A, Pap I, Tarjan I. Prevalence of accessory tooth cusps in a contemporary and ancestral ...
Describe the tooth structures for Premolars. Flatter surface, cusps. May have 2-3 roots. Used for shearing, and grinding. ... CI 1 = slight calculus (1/3 tooth surface). CI 2 = Moderate (up to 2/3). CI 3 = heavy calculus (> 2/3) ... MAL 1 = normal jaw with specific teeth incorrectly positioned. MAL 2 = mandible shorter than maxilla. MAL 3 = maxilla shorter ... Larger tooth, may have 1-3 roots. Used for shearing and grinding. ...
One tooth (Figs. 1, 2, 7, Supplementary Fig. 3) was cut along the buccolingual plane and through the tip of a cusp. Another ... 12, where the c-axes are +30° and −60°, respectively, that is, parallel and 30° from the surface of the tooth cusp. In order to ... Analyzing the entirety of the enamel layer, which is 4 mm thick under the tooth cusp in Supplementary Fig. 3, we found that the ... It covers the tooth crowns in humans5,6 and in all tetrapods7, and enamel-like tooth coatings first appeared 500 million years ...
... lower teeth with erect, narrow serrated cusps and transverse roots. A narrow interdorsal ridge present. Pectoral fins large, ... Usually 14/13-14 rows of anteroposterior teeth in each jaw half but varying from 14-15/12-15; upper teeth with broadly ... triangular serrated upper teeth without cusplets, usually 14/13-14 rows of anterolateral teeth, an interdorsal ridge, large ... Threat to humans: Although relatively large and common, and with large, triangular teeth, this species has never been indicted ...
  • The treatment can restore the structure and functionality of your tooth and it only takes on procedure and a possible follow-up procedure compared to the three procedures that crowns and dental implants take. (dhealth.com.au)
  • Chipped teeth account for the majority of dental injuries. (aae.org)
  • Some components of dental anatomy, such as the cingulum ridge on a tooth, can't be seen too well, but you can feel it with your tongue. (colgate.com)
  • Endodontic therapy is often the solution, but if the tooth does not respond to this treatment, a dental professional might recommend extraction. (colgate.com)
  • Dental caries and periapical pathology associated with talon cusp. (nih.gov)
  • In anatomy the apical foramen is the opening at the apex of the root of a tooth , through which the nerve and blood vessels that supply the dental pulp pass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Department of Morphology of Teeth and Dental Arches, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Tg-Mures, Gh. (cdc.gov)
  • The associations seen clinically between variations in tooth number, size and shape reflect the repetitive genetic interactions occurring between the epithelium and mesenchyme during the initiation and morphogenetic stages of the Complex Adaptive System that is dental development. (cdc.gov)
  • The findings are compatible with a model of dental development as a Complex Adaptive System incorporating associations between tooth number, size and shape. (cdc.gov)
  • It is the normally visible dental tissue of a tooth and must be supported by underlying dentin. (bionity.com)
  • This accessory cusp can occur as an isolated entity or in association with other dental anomalies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Dental pertains to the teeth, including dentistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dental anatomy is a field of anatomy dedicated to the study of human tooth structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of teeth as they contact one another falls elsewhere, under dental occlusion . (wikipedia.org)
  • Dental anatomy is also a taxonomical science: it is concerned with the naming of teeth and the structures of which they are made, this information serving a practical purpose in dental treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Sarita Arteaga, associate professor in the Department of Reconstructive Sciences with the UConn School of Dental Medicine , says while some of these dental health "don'ts" can do immediate damage to your teeth (by cracking or breaking them), the effects of others may add up over time, harming your dental health in the long run. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Jaw clenching or tooth grinding can also damage dental work. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Using your teeth as a tool is a threat to dental health and can damage dental work or cause your teeth to crack. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In order to get to the bottom of your tooth pain, your doctor will consider several potential diagnoses based on your medical history, dental exam, and sometimes an imaging test, usually an X-ray. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Our next four tests drill on the subject of tooth identification, both by shape and the position in the dental arch. (animated-teeth.com)
  • Also, teeth will be lost ahead of time, if no proper dental hygiene is maintained. (stabroeknews.com)
  • He helped identify Revolutionary War dead who had been buried on the battlefield by their teeth and dental work. (howstuffworks.com)
  • There are dozens of methods for labeling teeth in use, but the three most popular methods are the Universal System , the Palmer Method and the FDI (Fédération Dentaire Internationale) World Dental Federation notation. (howstuffworks.com)
  • A bridge is a set of dental crowns covering the gap created by one or more missing teeth. (avesis.com)
  • Dental formula--Only one half of the total number of teeth is written in the formula. (ku.edu)
  • Highly acidic foods can cause tooth erosion (dental erosion), which is the irreversible loss of tooth structure. (colgate.com)
  • The American Dental Association recommends that children visit their dentist after the first tooth erupts in the mouth. (colgate.com)
  • It is also important that the dental hygienist review brushing instructions with the parents to make sure the teeth are healthy and clean. (colgate.com)
  • Dental Veneer-A thin covering that is placed over the tooth if you have small chip in the surface. (denverhealth.org)
  • A 6-year-old girl with BSCL characterised by classical features of the condition including a growth disorder, precocious puberty, endocrine disturbances, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and fatty infiltration of the liver was referred for treatment under GA. Dental manifestations included aberrant tooth morphology, macrodontia and generalised severe crowding. (springer.com)
  • A pediatric dental resident was rotating in the clinic and he diagnosed the patient with a single tooth that was most likely a fused tooth. (pediatriceducation.org)
  • The modules in week 2 describe basic dental anatomy including embryology of the oral cavity, oral functions, basic tooth structure, and clinical implications of disease. (coursera.org)
  • A dental restoration or dental filling is a treatment to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure resulting from caries or external trauma as well as to the replacement of such structure supported by dental implants . (wikipedia.org)
  • In this technique the restoration is fabricated outside of the mouth using the dental impressions of the prepared tooth. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the indirect restoration is being prepared, a provisory/ temporary restoration is sometimes used to cover the prepared tooth to help maintain the surrounding dental tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Removable dental prostheses (mainly dentures ) are sometimes considered a form of indirect dental restoration, as they are made to replace missing teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are numerous types of precision attachments (also known as combined restorations) to aid removable prosthetic attachment to teeth, including magnets, clips, hooks, and implants which may themselves be seen as a form of dental restoration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reasons why teeth may break are numerous and only a dental professional can assess the extent of damage for tooth restoration or extraction. (bakerstreetdental.com)
  • The type of tooth damage determines the level and kind of dental treatment needed. (bakerstreetdental.com)
  • If the nerve and blood vessels within the dental pulp are exposed, infection may set in causing pain and potential tooth loss. (bakerstreetdental.com)
  • Daily tooth wear causes fine tooth cracks on the tooth surface and dentists may advise restoration treatment or filling during a dental check-up. (bakerstreetdental.com)
  • Moreover, unlike dental implants, the regenerated teeth develop the periodontal ligaments that tie normal teeth to the supporting bone and the nerve fibers that give sensitivity to chewing pressure and other stresses. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • The sections of the cusps that have cavities or are damaged will be removed. (dhealth.com.au)
  • 9. The orthodontic treatment plan of claim 8 , wherein the shell appliances comprise a plurality of successive appliances having teeth receiving cavities, and wherein cavities of at least two successive appliances have different geometries shaped to receive and reposition the patient's teeth. (google.com)
  • generating a patient removable appliance for each of at least two of the intermediate arrangements, each patient removable appliance having cavities and wherein the cavities of appliances for the at least two intermediate arrangements have different geometries shaped to receive and resiliently reposition teeth from one arrangement to a successive arrangement. (google.com)
  • 11. What instrument is used to detect cavities, calculus, and tooth irregularities? (sellfy.com)
  • Dentin may become exposed as a result of cavities, worn fillings, or from cracked teeth. (verywellhealth.com)
  • These particles remove the decayed portion of a tooth, often without the need for anesthesia, which makes it a particularly good choice for treating children's cavities. (avesis.com)
  • Cavities can allow bacteria and contaminants to access the softer tissue and nerves within and beneath the tooth. (avesis.com)
  • A medium-sized gray shark with short rounded snout, an extremely tall triangular first dorsal fin with its origin over or anterior to the pectoral insertions, broad- and high-cusped, triangular serrated upper teeth without cusplets, usually 14/13-14 rows of anterolateral teeth, an interdorsal ridge, large pectoral fins, a moderately large dorsal with a short rear tip, and no conspicuous markings on fins. (fao.org)
  • G. japonicus has five rows of teeth on the radula which places this species into genus Gonatopsis sensu stricto. (tolweb.org)
  • five rows of teeth on the radula. (tolweb.org)
  • Radula composed of 5 rows of teeth. (tolweb.org)
  • Identification is further complicated because many meristic (number of vertebrae, tooth rows, etc.) and morphometric characters present little consistent variation between species, diminishing the relevance of features that are traditionally diagnostic in batoids. (scielo.br)
  • In relation to congeners in the Paraná-Paraguay basin, P. falkneri is further distinguished from P. motoro by lacking on disc ocelli formed by strong black concentric rings, by the more flattened aspect of its disc, by presenting much smaller dermal denticles, and by having a greater number of tooth rows in upper jaw (30-45 vs. 23-32, respectively). (biolib.cz)
  • Tooth rows varying from 30-45 on upper jaw and 29-43 on lower jaw. (biolib.cz)
  • By 3.5 million years ago, our ancestors' teeth were arranged in rows that were slightly wider apart at the back than at the front. (australianmuseum.net.au)
  • This made the face more vertical and forced the side rows of teeth to bend into a rounded arc shape. (australianmuseum.net.au)
  • The change in diet gave way to the formation of three longitudinal rows of cusps on their teeth. (redorbit.com)
  • tooth rows extremely numerous, in over 300 rows in either jaw of adults and subadults. (fao.org)
  • Treatment for dens invagination depends on the tooth and tissues involved. (colgate.com)
  • But, if your dentist hasn't diagnosed you with dens invagination or a talon cusp, you can be confident that you have a healthy, normal cingulum. (colgate.com)
  • When the outer hard tissues of the tooth are cracked, chewing can cause movement of the pieces, and the pulp can become irritated. (aae.org)
  • Extensive cracks can lead to infection of the pulp tissue, which can spread to the bone and gum surrounding the tooth. (aae.org)
  • A fractured cusp rarely damages the pulp, and usually doesn't cause much pain. (aae.org)
  • But in more serious situations, the fold extends to the root of the tooth and either perforates the pulp or opens into the periodontal ligament, which is the connective tissue in the middle of a tooth. (colgate.com)
  • pulp - the soft center of the tooth. (enchantedlearning.com)
  • the "soft center of a tooth" is called the pulp . (wikiversity.org)
  • This means that the tissue in the center of the tooth ( nerve/tooth pulp ), which is rich in blood vessels and nerves, becomes inflamed and irritated. (verywellhealth.com)
  • It protects the softer inner pulp of the tooth that contains nerves and blood vessels. (denverhealth.org)
  • The treatment goal is to protect the tooth and the pulp interior. (denverhealth.org)
  • A root canal clears out the damaged pulp and places a new filler in the tooth. (denverhealth.org)
  • However, a broken tooth cusp may result in further breakage and expose the inner tooth pulp. (bakerstreetdental.com)
  • Sometimes, there's also a groove on the tooth that goes partially through the cingulum, according to Pocket Dentistry . (colgate.com)
  • Early treatment through emergency dentistry for a chipped tooth ensures further breakage and infection is prevented. (bakerstreetdental.com)
  • Severe tooth cracks usually require emergency dentistry treatment to prevent infection and alleviate pain. (bakerstreetdental.com)
  • The clinical exam observed the presence of a supernumerary tooth with talon cusp type III in the canine region which had a carious lesion in the developmental groove at the mesial surface and caused a prolonged retention of permanent tooth . (bvsalud.org)
  • Jernvall J. Mamalian molar cusp patterns: Developmental mechanisms of diversity. (springer.com)
  • Mavrodisz K, Rozsa N, Budai M, Soos A, Pap I, Tarjan I. Prevalence of accessory tooth cusps in a contemporary and ancestral Hungarian population. (ac.ir)
  • It must be done with skill and meticulous attention to detail, for everything else that follows - pulpal vitality, periodontal health, a good esthetic result, proper occlusion, protection of remaining tooth structure, and the longevity of the restoration itself - will depend on it. (slideshare.net)
  • Vertical root fractures are cracks that begin in the root of the tooth and extend toward the chewing surface. (aae.org)
  • Many dentists believe that teeth restored with amalgam are more likely to be associated with cusp fractures than those restored with resin-based composite. (readabstracts.com)
  • There is a severe amount of pressure on your teeth when you do that, and you can get microfractures or actual fractures in your teeth. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Tooth fractures are more common in older adults because teeth wear down over time. (denverhealth.org)
  • Not all tooth fractures cause symptoms. (denverhealth.org)
  • The tooth shows putative plesiomorphic cusp (few cusps, no serrations) and apomorphic root characters (relatively deep, quadrangular). (cambridge.org)
  • 15 . The system of claim 1 , wherein said design tools include functions for enabling the operator to view different views of said 3D image for analyzing a patient's dentition at different contextual levels, said different levels including an individual tooth level, a single arch level, and a whole mouth level. (google.com.au)
  • Tooth development is the complex process by which teeth form from embryonic cells , grow , and erupt into the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue interactions in embryonic mouse tooth germs. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A Japanese group, led by cell biologist Takashi Tsuji of Tokyo University of Science in Noda, Chiba Prefecture, focused on tooth germs, the embryonic tissues that develop into teeth. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • Cusp capping is the process of using composite fillings to replace the cusps in teeth. (dhealth.com.au)
  • This procedure is effective in restoring the structure of damaged teeth and in providing support for the application of fillings to other areas of the teeth. (dhealth.com.au)
  • Metal fillings are compressed into the cavity tightly enough to not fall out, but porcelain onlays and inlays are bonded to the tooth, and become part of it thus providing a more stable and durable foundation. (bestsyndication.com)
  • Porcelain inlays and onlays are custom-fabricated fillings to help restore teeth that have a cavity. (bestsyndication.com)
  • These days, composite fillings, made of polymer, are preferable to metal amalgams because they're tooth colored and draw less attention to themselves in the mouth. (avesis.com)
  • When a piece of a tooth's chewing surface breaks off, often around a filling, it's called a fractured cusp. (aae.org)
  • It is widely accepted that there is a factor within the tissues of the first branchial arch that is necessary for the development of teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supraneurals, branchiostegal, gill-rakers of first branchial arch, tooth cusps, unbranched anal-fin rays, procurrent caudal-fin ray counts and position of pterygiophores were taken from cleared and stained (c&s) specimens, prepared according to Taylor & Van Dyke (1985) . (scielo.br)
  • The tooth, identified as a right upper second molar, represents the first carnivoran material reported from the Choptank Formation and part of a limited record of borophagine canids from eastern North America. (cambridge.org)
  • Tooth #3, the upper right first molar , with the beginning of an MO preparation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cone-shaped teeth in the upper jaw are short. (planetcatfish.com)