Encyclopedias as Topic
Canine sexual dimorphism in Egyptian Eocene anthropoid primates: Catopithecus and Proteopithecus. (1/398)Two very small late Eocene anthropoid primates, Catopithecus browni and Proteopithecus sylviae, from Fayum, Egypt show evidence of substantial sexual dimorphism in canine teeth. The degree of dimorphism suggests that these early anthropoids lived in social groups with a polygynous mating system and intense male-male competition. Catopithecus and Proteopithecus are smaller in estimated body size than any living primates showing canine dimorphism. The origin of canine dimorphism and polygyny in anthropoids was not associated with the evolution of large body size. (+info)
A modern human pattern of dental development in lower pleistocene hominids from Atapuerca-TD6 (Spain). (2/398)The study of life history evolution in hominids is crucial for the discernment of when and why humans have acquired our unique maturational pattern. Because the development of dentition is critically integrated into the life cycle in mammals, the determination of the time and pattern of dental development represents an appropriate method to infer changes in life history variables that occurred during hominid evolution. Here we present evidence derived from Lower Pleistocene human fossil remains recovered from the TD6 level (Aurora stratum) of the Gran Dolina site in the Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain. These hominids present a pattern of development similar to that of Homo sapiens, although some aspects (e.g., delayed M3 calcification) are not as derived as that of European populations and people of European origin. This evidence, taken together with the present knowledge of cranial capacity of these and other late Early Pleistocene hominids, supports the view that as early as 0.8 Ma at least one Homo species shared with modern humans a prolonged pattern of maturation. (+info)
Ectopic eruption of the maxillary canine quantified in three dimensions on cephalometric radiographs between the ages of 5 and 15 years. (3/398)The eruption paths of 20 ectopic maxillary canine teeth (10 right, 10 left) were measured in three dimensions on annual lateral and depressed postero-anterior cephalometric radiographs of 15 patients between the ages of 5 and 15 years and compared with the eruption of normal canines. It was found that between the ages of 8 and 12 years ectopic canines on the left side moved more anteriorly than the normally erupting canines and the same was true of the right canines between the ages of 7 and 12 years. While the ectopic canines moved occlusally, their vertical movement was less than normal which accounts for the clinical finding that canines are impacted in the palate at a high level. The average palatally ectopic canine always moves palatally, and never shares in the buccal movement shown by normally erupting canines between the ages of 10 and 12 years. It was interesting to find that the differences between growth of normal and ectopic canines in the lateral plane of space are present as early as 5-6 years. (+info)
Effects on tooth movement of force delivery from nickel-titanium archwires. (4/398)The aim of this project was to determine the in vivo effects of tooth movement with nickel-titanium archwires on the periodontium during the early stages of orthodontic treatment. The extent of tooth movement, severity of gingival inflammation, pocket probing depth, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) flow, and the amount of the chondroitin sulphate (CS) glycosaminoglycan (GAG) component of the GCF of one maxillary canine in each of 33 patients treated with a pre-adjusted appliance were measured before and at four stages during the first 22 weeks of treatment. The methods involved the use of a reflex metrograph to determine the type of tooth movement and electrophoresis to quantitate the CS in the GCF. It was found that GCF flow increased after 4 weeks of tooth movement whereas the increase in the amount of CS in the GCF, which is taken to be indicative of periodontal tissue turnover, occurred at the later stage of 10 weeks. Teeth which showed the greatest amount of tooth movement continued to express large amounts of CS in large volumes of GCF until 22 weeks, whilst the CS levels in those teeth moving to a smaller extent declined. These data suggest that nickel-titanium archwires may produce a super-elastic plateau effect in vivo on canine teeth, which are initially displaced from the arch such that large amounts of tooth movement occur in the first 22 weeks of treatment. (+info)
A systematic review of the relationship between overjet size and traumatic dental injuries. (5/398)The aim of this study was to aggregate the risk of traumatic dental injury due to overjet using several published papers and performing a meta-analysis on the results. The 11 articles involved in this investigation were identified by a literature search of Medline (1966-1996) and Exerpta Medica (1985-1996) databases using predetermined keywords, and inclusion and exclusion criteria. In order to assess the quality of each paper, a methodological checklist for observational studies was developed resulting in a score between 0 and 100. The relative risk of overjet, compared with a reference, was expressed as an Odds Ratio (OR). For each study, the OR was computed using the data presented and, subsequently, these ORs were pooled across studies. The effect of confounders (i.e. age, gender), which could bias the relationship between overjet and dental injury was taken into account. Furthermore, the influence of quality of the study on the pooled OR was addressed. The average methodological score was 41. From the results, it can be concluded that children with an overjet larger than 3 mm are approximately twice as much at risk of injury to anterior teeth than children with an overjet smaller than 3 mm. The effect of overjet on the risk of dental injury is less for boys than for girls in the same overjet group. In addition, risk of injury of anterior teeth tends to increase with increasing overjet size. Furthermore, the pooled OR does not seem to be affected by the quality of the studies. (+info)
The effect of tooth position on the image of unerupted canines on panoramic radiographs. (6/398)The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether panoramic tomograms, which are routinely used in orthodontic practice, can provide adequate information to localize an impacted canine. The effect of changes in position and inclination of an impacted canine on orthopantomograms was investigated in an experimental set-up. An upper canine was removed from a human skull and replaced in a positioning system, enabling simulated positional variations in impactions. In comparison with the image of a contralateral well-aligned canine, the length of the impacted tooth always decreased or remained unchanged, whereas the tooth width increased or remained unchanged. The angulation of the image was unaffected by varying the position of the impacted canine, but altered when the inclination of the tooth in a sagittal or frontal direction was changed. If there was any transversal shift of the impacted canine on the orthopantomogram, it was always towards the mid-sagittal plane. The curvature of the tooth increased after dorsal inclination and decreased after ventral inclination (in comparison with the contralateral well-aligned canine). (+info)
A medico-legal review of some current UK guidelines in orthodontics: a personal view. (7/398)This article is a critical analysis from a medico-legal perspective of some current authoritative UK clinical guidelines in orthodontics. Two clinical guidelines have been produced by the Royal College of Surgeons of England and four by the British Orthodontic Society. Each guideline is published with the analysis immediately following it. Following recent UK case law (Bolitho v City & Hackney Health Authority, 1997) which allows the courts to choose between two bodies of responsible expert medical opinion where they feel one opinion is not 'logical', it is likely that the UK courts will increasingly turn to authoritative clinical guidelines to assist them in judging whether or not an appropriate standard of care has been achieved in medical negligence cases. It is thus important for clinicians to be aware of the recommendations of such guidelines, and if these are not followed the reasons should be discussed with the patient and recorded in the clinical case notes. This article attempts to highlight aspects of the guidelines that have medico-legal implications. (+info)
Determination of the centre of resistance in an upper human canine and idealized tooth model. (8/398)The purpose of this investigation was to analyse the influence of geometric and material parameters of a human canine on initial tooth mobility, and the stress and strain profiles in the periodontal ligament. While the material parameters of tooth and bony structures are known within an uncertain limit of approximately a factor of 10, values reported for the elasticity parameters of the periodontal ligament differ significantly. In the course of this study, bilinear behaviour was assumed for the mechanical property of the periodontium. The finite element model of an elliptical paraboloid was created as an approximation to the geometry of a human canine to reduce calculation time and to determine influences of the geometry on numerical results. The results were compared with those obtained for a realistic human canine model. The root length of both models was 19.5 mm. By calculating pure rotational and pure tipping movements, the centre of resistance (CR) was determined for both models. They were located on the long axis of the tooth approximately 7.2 mm below the alveolar crest for the idealized model and 8.2 mm for the canine model. Thus, the centre of resistance of a human canine seems to be located around two-fifths of the root length from the alveolar margin. Using these results, uncontrolled tipping (1 N of mesializing force and 5 Nmm of derotating momentum), as well as pure translation (additionally about 10 Nmm of uprighting momentum) were calculated. Comparing the idealized and the realistic models, the uncontrolled tipping was described by the parabolic-shaped model within an accuracy limit of 10 per cent as compared with the canine model, whereas the results for bodily movement differed significantly showing that it is very difficult to achieve a pure translation with the realistic canine model. (+info)
A cuspid, also known as a canine tooth or cuspid tooth, is a type of tooth in mammals. It is the pointiest tooth in the dental arch and is located between the incisors and bicuspids (or premolars). Cuspids have a single cusp or pointed tip that is used for tearing and grasping food. In humans, there are four cuspids, two on the upper jaw and two on the lower jaw, one on each side of the dental arch.
An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.
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A tooth is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (upper and lower) of many vertebrates and used for biting and chewing food. In humans, a typical tooth has a crown, one or more roots, and three layers: the enamel (the outermost layer, hardest substance in the body), the dentin (the layer beneath the enamel), and the pulp (the innermost layer, containing nerves and blood vessels). Teeth are essential for proper nutrition, speech, and aesthetics. There are different types of teeth, including incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, each designed for specific functions in the mouth.
An incisor is a type of tooth that is primarily designed for biting off food pieces rather than chewing or grinding. They are typically chisel-shaped, flat, and have a sharp cutting edge. In humans, there are eight incisors - four on the upper jaw and four on the lower jaw, located at the front of the mouth. Other animals such as dogs, cats, and rodents also have incisors that they use for different purposes like tearing or gnawing.
Tooth eruption is the process by which a tooth emerges from the gums and becomes visible in the oral cavity. It is a normal part of dental development that occurs in a predictable sequence and timeframe. Primary or deciduous teeth, also known as baby teeth, begin to erupt around 6 months of age and continue to emerge until approximately 2-3 years of age. Permanent or adult teeth start to erupt around 6 years of age and can continue to emerge until the early twenties.
The process of tooth eruption involves several stages, including the formation of the tooth within the jawbone, the movement of the tooth through the bone and surrounding tissues, and the final emergence of the tooth into the mouth. Proper tooth eruption is essential for normal oral function, including chewing, speaking, and smiling. Any abnormalities in the tooth eruption process, such as delayed or premature eruption, can indicate underlying dental or medical conditions that require further evaluation and treatment.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "nuclear energy" is not a medical term. It refers to the energy released by nuclear reactions, such as those that occur in the sun and other stars, or in nuclear power plants on Earth. Medical definitions typically relate to terms used in the practice of medicine, public health, or healthcare. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help with those instead!
A deciduous tooth, also known as a baby tooth or primary tooth, is a type of temporary tooth that humans and some other mammals develop during childhood. They are called "deciduous" because they are eventually shed and replaced by permanent teeth, much like how leaves on a deciduous tree fall off and are replaced by new growth.
Deciduous teeth begin to form in the womb and start to erupt through the gums when a child is around six months old. By the time a child reaches age three, they typically have a full set of 20 deciduous teeth, including incisors, canines, and molars. These teeth are smaller and less durable than permanent teeth, but they serve important functions such as helping children chew food properly, speak clearly, and maintain space in the jaw for the permanent teeth to grow into.
Deciduous teeth usually begin to fall out around age six or seven, starting with the lower central incisors. This process continues until all of the deciduous teeth have been shed, typically by age 12 or 13. At this point, the permanent teeth will have grown in and taken their place, with the exception of the wisdom teeth, which may not erupt until later in adolescence or early adulthood.
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Internet Scientific Publications
- The upper canines are sometimes called eyeteeth or cuspids. (kidshealth.org)
- Canines (also known as cuspids or fangs) are found behind the front teeth, which are also used to grasp. (petmd.com)
- Canines - Also called cuspids. (colonialdentalgroup.com)
- There are 20 primary teeth: one pair each of upper and lower central (front) incisors, lateral incisors, canines (cuspids), first molars, and second molars. (msdmanuals.com)
- Our lifelike plastic skull dissects into three parts, and has three removable teeth (incisor, cuspid, and molar). (dickblick.com)
- Orthodontic manikin help dental school students practicing Impacted Cuspid Teeth. (buyamag.com)
- It clearly shows suture lines, and features a movable jaw, cut calvarium and 3 removable lower teeth - incisor, cuspid and molar. (xump.com)
- Cuspids - Front teeth that typically have a protruding edge. (colonialdentalgroup.com)
- The cuspid teeth are very strong biting teeth and have the longest roots of any human teeth. (middletownoralsurgery.com)
- Normally, the maxillary cuspid teeth are the last of the "front" teeth to erupt into place. (middletownoralsurgery.com)
- The techniques involved to aid eruption can be applied to any impacted tooth in the upper or lower jaw, but most commonly they are applied to the maxillary cuspid (upper eye) teeth. (middletownoralsurgery.com)
- It has two bicuspid pontics suspended in between the cuspid and lateral, both of ceramco materials, are individual units. (fbi.gov)
- Because No. 27 was going to be restored with an implant, lateral guidance went from No. 28 first, then to cuspid, then to central in the cross-over position. (dentistryiq.com)
- This pan-cuspid character\'s gaping maw makes an immediate impression on anyone he meets, although such impressions may be distinctly tooth-shaped. (thehorrordome.com)
- The maxillary cuspid (upper eyetooth) is the second most common tooth to become impacted. (middletownoralsurgery.com)
- If a cuspid tooth gets impacted, every effort is made to get it to erupt into its proper position in the dental arch. (middletownoralsurgery.com)
- A cuspid-protected, anterior-guided occlusion was established on the appliance. (dentistryiq.com)
- The practitioner also noticed he was missing some facial volume on the laterals when compared to the cuspids. (glidewelldental.com)
- After analysis, the occlusal contacts were classified according to the established criteria as: tripodism, bipodism, monopodism, cuspid to a marginal ridge, cuspid to two marginal ridges, cuspid tip to inclined plane, surface to surface and top to top. (usp.br)
- CL: Cuspid left. (who.int)
- When upper lateral incisors are missing and the treatment plan is to substitute the upper cuspids to replace the upper lateral incisors, when and how. (speareducation.com)
- In the case of dentophobia, "the phobia often manifests itself in the form of paranoid delusions of dentist as torturer, drilling through cuspid and mandible, lacerating gum tissue, and striking repeatedly at the exposed nerve endings, while the patient, secured to the chair, remains conscious throughout the procedure. (weburbanist.com)
- The data controller is Cuspid Selections SRL with registered office in via Fontanini n. 112, 43124 Parma in the person of the legal representative. (cuspidselections.com)
- There's already a 9-foot latex pterodactyl camouflaged by an avocado tree and a cabinet of skulls with surly looking cuspids in the living room. (cryptomundo.com)
- and No. 12 would need to be made to mimic a cuspid in appearance). (dentistrytoday.com)