Curculigo: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE that contains curculin and cycloartane saponins.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Quinestrol: The 3-cyclopentyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. After gastrointestinal absorption, it is stored in ADIPOSE TISSUE, slowly released, and metabolized principally to the parent compound. It has been used in ESTROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1011)Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Medicine, Chinese Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Famous PersonsToothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Rare BooksPenis: The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.Penile Erection: The state of the PENIS when the erectile tissue becomes filled or swollen (tumid) with BLOOD and causes the penis to become rigid and elevated. It is a complex process involving CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS; HORMONES; SMOOTH MUSCLES; and vascular functions.Rickettsiaceae: A family of small, gram-negative organisms, often parasitic in humans and other animals, causing diseases that may be transmitted by invertebrate vectors.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Myosin-Light-Chain Phosphatase: A phosphoprotein phosphatase that is specific for MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. It is composed of three subunits, which include a catalytic subunit, a myosin binding subunit, and a third subunit of unknown function.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Chiropractic: An occupational discipline founded by D.D. Palmer in the 1890's based on the relationship of the spine to health and disease.Manipulation, Chiropractic: Procedures used by chiropractors to treat neuromusculoskeletal complaints.Hospital Shared Services: Cooperation among hospitals for the purpose of sharing various departmental services, e.g., pharmacy, laundry, data processing, etc.Manipulation, Spinal: Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Massage: The systematic and methodical manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Acupuncture Therapy: Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.Acupuncture: The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).RNA, Transfer, Thr: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying threonine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Anticodon: The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.Aspartylglucosaminuria: A recessively inherited, progressive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of GLYCOSYLASPARAGINASE activity. The lack of this enzyme activity results in the accumulation of N-acetylglucosaminylasparagine (the linkage unit of asparagine-linked glycoproteins) in LYSOSOMES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Transfer, Arg: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying arginine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Fluoroacetates: Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Hypericum: Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.Folklore: The common orally transmitted traditions, myths, festivals, songs, superstitions, and stories of all peoples.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningAntioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Flowering Tops: Tops of plants when in flower, including the stems, leaves and blooms.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Aminopeptidases: A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.Collagen Type IV: A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Exopeptidases: A sub-class of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that act only near the ends of polypeptide chains.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.

Neoculin as a new taste-modifying protein occurring in the fruit of Curculigo latifolia. (1/14)

A unique taste-modifying activity that converts the sense of sourness to the sense of sweetness occurs in the fruit of the plant Curculigo latifolia, intrinsic to West Malaysia. The active component, known as curculin, is a protein consisting of two identical subunits. We have found a new taste-modifying protein, named neoculin, of the same origin. Both chemical analysis and cDNA cloning characterized neoculin as a heterodimeric protein consisting of an acidic, glycosylated subunit of 113 amino acid residues and a basic subunit that is the monomeric curculin itself.  (+info)

Recombinant curculin heterodimer exhibits taste-modifying and sweet-tasting activities. (2/14)

Curculin from Curculigo latifolia is a unique sweet protein that exhibits both sweet-tasting and taste-modifying activities. We isolated a gene that encodes a novel protein highly homologous to curculin. Using cDNAs of the previously known curculin (designated as curculin1) and the novel curculin isoform (curculin2), we produced a panel of homodimeric and heterodimeric recombinant curculins by Escherichia coli expression systems. It was revealed that sweet-tasting and taste-modifying activities were exhibited solely by the heterodimer of curculin1 and curculin2.  (+info)

Antioxidative phenols and phenolic glycosides from Curculigo orchioides. (3/14)

A new orcinol glucoside, orcinol-1-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), was isolated from the rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides GAERTN., together with seven known compounds: orcinol glucoside (1), orcinol-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), curculigoside (4), curculigoside B (5), curculigoside C (6), 2,6-dimethoxyl benzoic acid (7), and syringic acid (8). The structures of these compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic methods. The antioxidant activities of these isolated compounds were evaluated by colorimetric methods based on their scavenging effects on hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anion radicals, respectively. All the compounds showed potent antioxidative activities and the structure-activity relationship is discussed.  (+info)

Extracellular production of neoculin, a sweet-tasting heterodimeric protein with taste-modifying activity, by Aspergillus oryzae. (4/14)

Neoculin (NCL), a protein with sweetness approximately 500-fold that of sugar, can be utilized as a nonglycemic sweetener. It also has taste-modifying activity to convert sourness to sweetness. NCL is a heterodimer composed of an N-glycosylated acidic subunit (NAS) and a basic subunit (NBS), which are conjugated by disulfide bonds. For the production of recombinant NCL (rNCL) by Aspergillus oryzae, alpha-amylase with a KEX2 cleavage site, -K-R-, was fused upstream of each of NAS and NBS and the resulting fusion proteins were simultaneously expressed. For accurate and efficient cleavage of the fusion construct by KEX2-like protease, a triglycine motif was inserted after the KEX2 cleavage site. As NBS showed lower production efficiency than did NAS, a larger amount of the NBS expression plasmid than of NAS expression plasmid was introduced during cotransformation, resulting in successful production of rNCL in the culture medium. Moreover, to obtain a higher production yield of rNCL, the active form of hacA cDNA encoding a transcription factor that induces an unfolded protein response was cloned and expressed constitutively. This resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in the level of rNCL production (2.0 mg/liter). rNCL was purified by chromatography, and its NAS was found to be N-glycosylated as expected. The original sweetness and taste-modifying activity of rNCL were comparable to those of native NCL when confirmed by calcium imaging with human embryonic kidney cells expressing the human sweet taste receptor and by sensory tests.  (+info)

Curculin exhibits sweet-tasting and taste-modifying activities through its distinct molecular surfaces. (5/14)

Curculin isolated from Curculigo latifolia, a plant grown in Malaysia, has an intriguing property of modifying sour taste into sweet taste. In addition to this taste-modifying activity, curculin itself elicits a sweet taste. Although these activities have been attributed to the heterodimeric isoform and not homodimers of curculin, the underlying mechanisms for the dual action of this protein have been largely unknown. To identify critical sites for these activities, we performed a mutational and structural study of recombinant curculin. Based on the comparison of crystal structures of curculin homo- and heterodimers, a series of mutants was designed and subjected to tasting assays. Mapping of amino acid residues on the three-dimensional structure according to their mutational effects revealed that the curculin heterodimer exhibits sweet-tasting and taste-modifying activities through its partially overlapping but distinct molecular surfaces. These findings suggest that the two activities of the curculin heterodimer are expressed through its two different modes of interactions with the T1R2-T1R3 heterodimeric sweet taste receptor.  (+info)

Acid-induced sweetness of neoculin is ascribed to its pH-dependent agonistic-antagonistic interaction with human sweet taste receptor. (6/14)


New acetylenic norlignan compounds from rhizomes of Curculigo crassifolia. (7/14)

Two pairs of diastereoisomeric acetylenic norlignan compounds with PhCH(OR(1))CH(OR(2))CH(2)C triple bond CPh skeleta: (1R, 2R)-1-O-methylnyasicoside (1) and (1S, 2R)-1-O-methylnyasicoside (2), and (1R, 2R)-crassifogenin D (3) and (1S, 2R)- crassifogenin D (4), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Curculigo crassifolia. Compounds 3 and 4 are new and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparisons with literature data.  (+info)

Curculigo orchioides: the black gold with numerous health benefits. (8/14)

Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. (family Amaryllidaceae) is an endangered rasayana herb which is popularly known as "Kali Musli". The plant is native to India, and holds a special position as a potent adaptogen and aphrodisiac in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is an important ingredient of many Ayurvedic preparations and is considered to have aphrodisiac, immunostimulant, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic activities. Various chemical constituents like mucilage, phenolic glycosides, saponins and aliphatic compounds from the plant have been reported. The plant is also considered as an important component of various herbal preparations of the Chinese and Kampo medicine. The present review is an attempt to enumerate various biologically tested activities and evaluation of different phytochemicals present in this important medicinal plant.  (+info)

  • Perhaps one of the most interesting ingredients found in Pro Solution Pills is curculigo, which is also known and marketed as kali musli. (
  • The active constituents of the herb that may help contribute to curculigo tea benefits are largely found in the roots or rhizomes and include mucilage, saponins, resin, tannin, calcium oxalates, and phenolic glycosides like curculigosides which contain curculigoside A, B, C and D which may be helpful in countering the aggregation of beta-amyloid in Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Effect of Curculigo orchioides rhizomes on sexual behaviour of male rats. (
  • Curculigo orchioides is the full scientific name of this perennial flowering plant species that grows in parts of India and Sri Lanka, as well as parts of China, Japan, Taiwan and Southeast Asia. (
  • Species Curculigo annamitica Gagnep. (
  • A new species, Curculigo sabui S.P.Gaikwad & Gore is described from margins of temporary fresh water streams in Yedshi‐Ramling Wild Life Sanctuary of Balaghat Ranges of Maharashtra, India. (
  • These phytochemicals present in the curculigo herb have allowed it to be included in the cocktail of ingredients of certain commercial brands that aim to treat ailments and physical conditions. (
  • With respect to adipogenesis, the Australian plants Acacia tetragonophylla , Beyeria leshnaultii and Euphorbia drumondii and the Indian plants Pterocarpus marsupium , Andrographis paniculata and Curculigo orchioides reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes. (
  • The androgenic supplement Natadrol, for example, includes curculigo due to its sexual stimulatory effect. (
  • crucial for sperm quality and motility Reishi mushroom increases stamina and energy Curculigo aphrodisiac, improves erections and sex drive. (