Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.
Inherited myotonic disorders with early childhood onset MYOTONIA. Muscular hypertrophy is common and myotonia may impair ambulation and other movements. It is classified as Thomsen (autosomal dominant) or Becker (autosomal recessive) generalized myotonia mainly based on the inheritance pattern. Becker type is also clinically more severe. An autosomal dominant variant with milder symptoms and later onset is known as myotonia levior. Mutations in the voltage-dependent skeletal muscle chloride channel are associated with the disorders.
A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
Muscle Relaxants, Central
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
Volatile Organic Compounds
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Carbonic Anhydrase I
Infections of the respiratory tract with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS. Infections may result in allergic reaction (ALLERGIC BRONCHOPULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS), colonization in pulmonary cavities as fungus balls (MYCETOMA), or lead to invasion of the lung parenchyma (INVASIVE PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS).
Carbonic Anhydrase II
Double-layered inflatable suits which, when inflated, exert pressure on the lower part of the wearer's body. The suits are used to improve or stabilize the circulatory state, i.e., to prevent hypotension, control hemorrhage, and regulate blood pressure. The suits are also used by pilots under positive acceleration.
Dictionaries as Topic
Terminology as Topic
The outer margins of the ABDOMEN, extending from the osteocartilaginous thoracic cage to the PELVIS. Though its major part is muscular, the abdominal wall consists of at least seven layers: the SKIN, subcutaneous fat, deep FASCIA; ABDOMINAL MUSCLES, transversalis fascia, extraperitoneal fat, and the parietal PERITONEUM.
Fast excitatory synaptic transmission mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in Drosophila neurons. (1/107)Difficulty in recording from single neurons in vivo has precluded functional analyses of transmission at central synapses in Drosophila, where the neurotransmitters and receptors mediating fast synaptic transmission have yet to be identified. Here we demonstrate that spontaneously active synaptic connections form between cultured neurons prepared from wild-type embryos and provide the first direct evidence that both acetylcholine and GABA mediate fast interneuronal synaptic transmission in Drosophila. The predominant type of fast excitatory transmission between cultured neurons is mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Detailed analysis of cholinergic transmission reveals that spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) are composed of both evoked and action potential-independent [miniature EPSC (mEPSC)] components. The mEPSCs are characterized by a broad, positively skewed amplitude histogram in which the variance is likely to reflect differences in the currents induced by single quanta. Biophysical characteristics of the cholinergic mEPSCs include a rapid rise time (0.6 msec) and decay (tau = 2 msec). Regulation of mEPSC frequency by external calcium and cobalt suggests that calcium influx through voltage-gated channels influences the probability of ACh release. In addition, brief depolarization of the cultures with KCl can induce a calcium-dependent increase in sEPSC frequency that persists for up to 3 hr after termination of the stimulus, illustrating one form of plasticity at these cholinergic synapses. These data demonstrate that cultured embryonic neurons, amenable to both genetic and biochemical manipulations, present a unique opportunity to define genes/signal transduction cascades involved in functional regulation of fast excitatory transmission at interneuronal cholinergic synapses in Drosophila. (+info)
Rapid and reversible effects of activity on acetylcholine receptor density at the neuromuscular junction in vivo. (2/107)Quantitative fluorescence imaging was used to study the regulation of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) number and density at neuromuscular junctions in living adult mice. At fully functional synapses, AChRs have a half-life of about 14 days. However, 2 hours after neurotransmission was blocked, the half-life of the AChRs was now less than a day; the rate was 25 times faster than before. Most of the lost receptors were not quickly replaced. Direct muscle stimulation or restoration of synaptic transmission inhibited this process. AChRs that were removed from nonfunctional synapses resided for hours in the perijunctional membrane before being locally internalized. Dispersed AChRs could also reaggregate at the junction once neurotransmission was restored. The rapid and reversible alterations in AChR density at the neuromuscular junction in vivo parallel changes thought to occur in the central nervous system at synapses undergoing potentiation and depression. (+info)
Protein kinase C activity regulates slow myosin heavy chain 2 gene expression in slow lineage skeletal muscle fibers. (3/107)Expression of the slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC) 2 gene defines slow versus fast avian skeletal muscle fiber types. Fetal, or secondary, skeletal muscle fibers express slow MyHC isoform genes in developmentally regulated patterns within the embryo, and this patterning is at least partly dependent on innervation in vivo. We have previously shown that slow MyHC 2 gene expression in vitro is regulated by a combination of innervation and cell lineage. This pattern of gene expression was indistinguishable from the pattern observed in vivo in that it was restricted to innervated muscle fibers of slow muscle origin. We show here that slow MyHC 2 gene expression in the slow muscle fiber lineage is regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Inhibition of PKC activity induced slow MyHC 2 gene expression, and the capacity to express the slow MyHC 2 gene was restricted to muscle fibers of slow muscle (medial adductor) origin. Fast muscle fibers derived from the pectoralis major did not express significant levels of slow MyHC 2 with or without inhibitors of PKC activity. This differential expression pattern coincided with different inherent PKC activities in fast versus slow muscle fiber types. Furthermore, over-expression of an unregulated PKCalpha mutant suppressed slow MyHC 2 gene expression in muscle fibers of the slow lineage. Lastly, denervation of skeletal muscles caused an increase in PKC activity, particularly in the slow medial adductor muscle. This increase in PKC activity was associated with lack of slow MyHC 2 gene expression in vivo. These results provide a mechanistic link between innervation, an intracellular signaling pathway mediated by PKC, and expression of a muscle fiber type-specific contractile protein gene. Dev Dyn 1999;216:177-189. (+info)
Formation of cholinergic synapses between dissociated sympathetic neurons and skeletal myotubes of the rat in cell culture. (4/107)Sympathetic principal neurons, dissociated from superior cervical ganglia of newborn rats, were plated into cultures containing rat skeletal myotubes formed from previously plated primary myoblasts. Electrophysiological evidence is presented that the neurons developed cholinergic synapses with the myotubes. In addition, the neurons developed cholinergic synapses with each other as previously reported [O'Lague et al. (1974) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 71, 3602-3606]. The acetylcholine receptors of myotubes differed from those of the neurons in their sensitivities to curare and hexamethonium, in a manner expected of adult muscle and ganglionic receptors. alpha-Bungarotoxin blocked synaptic transmission from neuron to myotube, but not from neuron to neuron in the same culture. (+info)
Spontaneous acetylcholine secretion from developing growth cones of Drosophila central neurons in culture: effects of cAMP-pathway mutations. (5/107)We describe a novel bioassay system that uses Xenopus embryonic myocytes (myoballs) to detect the release of acetylcholine from Drosophila CNS neurons. When a voltage-clamped Xenopus myoball was manipulated into contact with cultured Drosophila "giant" neurons, spontaneous synaptic current-like events were registered. These events were observed within seconds after contact and were blocked by curare and alpha-bungarotoxin, but not by TTX and Cd(2+), suggesting that they are caused by the spontaneous quantal release of acetylcholine (ACh). The secretion occurred not only at the growth cone, but also along the neurite and at the soma, with significantly different release parameters among various regions. The amplitude of these currents displayed a skewed distribution. These features are distinct from synaptic transmission at more mature synapses or autapses formed in this culture system and are reminiscent of the transmitter release process during early development in other preparations. The usefulness of this coculture system in studying presynaptic secretion mechanisms is illustrated by a series of studies on the cAMP pathway mutations, dunce (dnc) and PKA-RI, which disrupt a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase and the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, respectively. We found that these mutations affected the ACh current kinetics, but not the quantal ACh packet, and that the release frequency was greatly enhanced by repetitive neuronal activity in dnc, but not wild-type, growth cones. These results suggest that the cAMP pathway plays an important role in the activity-dependent regulation of transmitter release not only in mature synapses as previously shown, but also in developing nerve terminals before synaptogenesis. (+info)
Dual effects of ether on end-plate currents. (6/107)1. The effects of diethyl ether (ether) on miniature end-plate currents (m.e.p.c.s) and on acetylcholine-activated end-plate channels were measured in toad sartorius muscle fibres with voltage-clamp and extracellular recording techniques. 2. At low concentrations (less than 20 mM) either made m.e.p.c.s decay faster than normal. At high concentrations (greaster than 40 mM), the decay of m.e.p.c.s was slower than normal. With all concentrations, the cecay remained exponential with single time constant, tau D. 3. At low concentrations ether did not affect the growth phase of m.e.p.c.s and only slightly reduced the amplitude of m.e.p.c.s. At the higher concentrations, the growth phase was slowed and m.e.p.c.s were significantly reduced in amplitude. 4. Ether at all concentrations (5--70 mM) reduced end-plate channel lifetime, the effect increasing with ether concentration. Ether did not significantly alter the elementary channel conductance or the actylcholine null (reversal) potential. 5. Curare reduced tau D which had been prolonged by high concentrations of ether. Ether itself at high concentrations caused a reduction in tau D increased by neostigmine. It is proposed that high concentrations of either inhibit acetylcholine hydrolysis by acetylcholinesterase. 6. The effect of ether in reducing end-plate channel lifetime and reducing m.e.p.c. amplitude, without significantly altering the normal voltage and temperature sensitivity of channel lifetime, is consistent with the proposal that either reduces the stability of open end-plate channels. (+info)
The effects of prolonged repetitive stimulation in hemicholinium on the frog neuromuscular junction. (7/107)1. Cutaneous pectoris nerve-muscle preparations from the frog were stimulated for prolonged periods in solutions with curare alone, curare and hemicholinium no. 3 (HC-3), or curare and glucose plus choline. End-plate potentials (e.p.p.s) and miniature end-plate potentials (m.e.p.p.s) were recorded intracellularly. Black widow spider venom (BWSV) was applied to determine the degree of depletion of the transmitter stores. 2. The ultrastructure of the neuromuscular junctions was studied in the electron microscope. Some of the preparations were fixed immediately at the end of the period of stimulation and others were fixed about an hour after BWSV had been applied. In some experiments horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was present during the period of stimulation and the fixed tissue was treated to reveal the distribution of the tracer. 3. The amplitude of the e.p.p. fell rapidly to almost zero during 2 hr of stimulation at 2/sec in 100 muM HC-3 and little recovery occurred during a subsequent hour of rest. About 2-7 times 10-5 quanta were secreted. The e.p.p.s usually persisted throughout the period of stimulation in the other solutions and 2-2-6 times as much transmitter was secreted. 4. When BWSV was applied immediately at the end of the period of stimulation in HC-3, almost no m.e.p.p.s were discharged and only small m.e.p.p.s were discharged when the venom was applied after an hour of rest. 5. When BWSV was applied to unstimulated terminals that had been bathed in HC-3, or to terminals that had been stimulated and rested for an hour in glucose plus choline, m.e.p.p.s of nearly normal amplitude were discharged. 6. Terminals stimulated for 2 hr at 2/sec in 100 muM HC-3 contained a normal complement of synaptic vesicles and a large proportion of vesicles were labelled with HRP when the tracer was present during the period of stimulation. 7. BWSV induced the almost complete depletion of vesicles from terminals that had been stimulated in HC-3. 8. Depletion of vesicles also occurred when terminals were stimulated for 20 min at 10/sec after they had been previously stimulated for 2 hr at 2/sec in HC-3. These terminals showed extensive infolding of the axolemma and they contained swollen mitochondria. 9. These results indicate that stimulation in HC-3 depletes terminals of their store of transmitter but not of their population of vesicles and that vesicles empty of transmitter can fuse with and reform from the axolemma of the nerve terminal. (+info)
The action of acetylcholine antagonists on amino acid responses in the frog spinal cord in vitro. (8/107)1 The isolated hemisected frog spinal cord has been used to study the action of acetylcholine antagonists on amino acid responses by means of sucrose gap recording. 2 Primary afferents and motoneurones were shown to contain few, if any, cholinoceptors, since acetylcholine and carbachol responses were essentially abolished when synaptic transmission was blocked with magnesium ions or when action potentials were blocked by tetrodotoxin. 3 Curare antagonized the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and beta-alanine depolarizations of primary afferents and hyperpolarizing action of these amino acids on motoneurones. Nicotine also antagonized beta-alanine depolarizations and to a small extent GABA depolarizations of primary afferents. These actions are similar to but weaker than those obtained previously with picrotoxin. 4 Atropine selectively antagonized beta-alanine depolarizations of primary afferents and blocked beta-alanine and glycine hyperpolarizations of motoneurones. GABA responses were entirely resistant to the action of atropine. These actions are similar to but 50 times weaker than those obtained previously with strychnine. 5 Dihydro-beta-erythroidine, tetraethylammonium, and gallamine were entirely ineffective in antagonizing amino acid responses. Since these agents are known to block the dorsal root potential elicited by ventral root stimulation but have no effect on the amino acid responses of primary afferents, it is evident that a cholinergic step is involved in this pathway. (+info)
Curare and Nervous System
BojoBass (bojobass at aol.com) wrote: : I am a biology professor. I was wondering what curare actually does to a : working nerve fiber on the molecular and then organismic level. [stuff deleted] Curare is a crude form; the active agent is d-tubocurarine. (d-, as in dextro-, for the d- stereoisomer). d-tubocurarine binds with high affinity to the nicotinic cholinergic receptor. Normally, this receptor binds the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released by motor neurons (nerve cells which control muscle). When d-tubocurarine is present, it blocks the acetylcholine binding site of the receptor and prevents acetylcholine from depolarizing the muscle. This, in turn, prevents muscle contraction. Curare causes death by paralysis of the respiratory muscles, particularly the diaphragm. Presumably, cooking the meat renders the d-tubocurarine inactive, although Im not certain about this. Reference: Goodman and Gilman, _Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics_, 6th ed. pp. 223-231. If you dont have ...
Microsoft Corporation (, abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.Learn How to Stop Moles in Their Tracks with TOMCAT Mole Poison .These poisons function by competitively and . Curare was used as a paralyzing poison by South . tubocurarine can bind readily to the receptors for .Summative Assessment/ Module 4 . Curare is a paralyzing poison that functions as . What is the most likely effect of a drug that acts as an antagonist for the .Curare had been used as a source of . Virchow and Munter confirmed the paralyzing action was . Tubocurarine chloride acts as an antagonist for the .TOMCAT Products Will Control Your Mole or Gopher Problem.Curare. Curare is a classic antagonist of nicotinic AChRs and . of the arrow poison curare, . pharmacological effects of curare in causing respiratory paralysis.B neurotransmitters can inhibit neural impulse transmission . B) neurotransmitters can inhibit neural impulse . Curare is a paralyzing ...
Intestinale e Candidosi orale Sintomi & approccio naturale per curare Candida Albicans
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Curare | Word Curare at Open Dictionary of English by LearnThat Foundation
Curare definition, n. - A toxic alkaloid found in certain tropical South American trees that is a powerful relaxant for striated muscles.. See more.
Once known| only as the flying death, curare has become one of medicines most trusted weapons | WordReference Forums
Curare is a blackish, powder like substance made from roots and bark of woody vine that grows in South America, Although many people know that curare is a...
1. Liquid ammonia does not inactivate curare by remaining in contact with it for 48 hours.. 2. Curare which has been treated with liquid ammonia forms a much finer dispersion in water than does untreated curare.. 3. Curare can be fractionated in liquid ammonia by the use of sintered glass filters with the removal of more than 50% of inert material.. 4. The insoluble fraction of curare in liquid ammonia when treated with glycine becomes more potent, prolonged in action and less toxic than curare.. ...
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curare | chemical compound | Britannica.com
curare: Drug belonging to the alkaloid family of organic compounds, derivatives of which are used in modern medicine primarily as skeletal muscle relaxants, being administered concomitantly...
Curare | PPC Wiki | Fandom
Curare is a a darkly colored, resinous extract obtained from various woody plants native to South America. It is arguably best known for its use as the "poison" aspect of poisoned arrows and darts, though it can also be used as an anesthetic and muscle relaxant, if it is prepared correctly. If...
Cheryl & ethnovet: Curare and ouabain
https://www.chemistryworld.com/podcasts/curare-and-ouabain/3008865.article Podcasts By Jamie Durrani6 April 2018 Jamie Durrani presents a pair of plant-based poisons Ben Valsler Weve got a killer double-bill this week, as Jamie Durrani presents a pair of poisons… Jamie Durrani While the hot black stuff is simmering down to about the volume of a pint, it must not be allowed to scorch. Guarding your hand with a thick green leaf, you anxiously remove individual embers from the fire or, if you think best, shove them closer to the pot and blow gently on them. It is your only means of temperature control in the most delicate and nerve-racking procedure in all the jungle. Illustration of Acokanthera schimperi flowers, leaves, fruit and seeds Source: Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhlers Medizinal-Pflanzen Acokanthera schimperi This is how the early 20th century explorer Richard Gill described how inhabitants of the Amazon rainforest produced the flying death - curare. This alkaloid is extracted from ...
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Find out about why curare poison-tipped darts have been used for blowgun hunting by Amazon rainforest natives for thousands of years, and still in use.
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Il tuo libro di cucina per curare la scoliosi: La tua dieta per una schiena più sana! (Italian Edition) eBook: Kevin Lau:...
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Neuromuscular Transmission Can Be Altered by Toxins Drugs and Trauma - Skeletal Muscle
The complex series of events making up neuromuscular transmission is subject to interference at several steps. Presynaptic blockade of the neuromuscular junction can occur if calcium does not enter the presynaptic terminal to participate in migration and emptying of the synaptic vesicles. The drug hemicholinium interferes with choline uptake by the presynaptic terminal and, thus, results in the depletion of ACh. Botulinum toxin interferes with ACh release. This bacterial toxin is used to treat focal dystonias (see Clinical Focus Box 9.1).. Postsynaptic blockade can result from a variety of circumstances. Drugs that partially mimic the action of ACh can be effective blockers. Derivatives of curare, originally used as arrow poison in South America, bind tightly to ACh receptors. This binding does not result in opening of the ion channels, however, and the endplate potential is reduced in proportion to the number of receptors occupied by curare. Muscle paralysis results. Although the muscle can be ...
Hardluck Asthma: 1942: Curare used as anaesthetic/ paralytic
The poison was first used during artificial respiration in 1811 by Sir Benjamin Brodie in England. Other 19th century physicians used it as an anaesthetic, although they struggled to find the best dose to use. Some physicians even experimented by using it for various diseases, and some of these experiments resulted in better treatment. (2, page 227)(1, page 177-178 ...
Comparison of the Bilateral TAP Block Versus Curare in Muscle Relaxation of the Abdominal Wall During Laparoscopic Digestive...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
THE ACTION OF CURARE ON THE SMOOTH MUSCLE OF THE SMALL INTESTINE AND ON THE BLOOD PRESSURE | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications
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Le cure musicali. applicazioni musicoterapiche in ambito psichiatrico.,torino,cosmopolis,2012 | 318
A cura di G. Manarolo. Torino, 2012; br., pp. 352, cm 17x24. (Arte. Curare con lArte). italiano 88-87947-5 Arte. Curare con lArte
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Journal of Clinical and Basic Cardiology - Instructions for Authors
Methods section. For animals used in experiments, state the species, strain, number used, and other pertinent descriptive characteristics. For human subjects or patients, describe their characteristics. When describing surgical procedures on animals, identify the preanesthetic and anesthetic agents used and state the amount or concentration and the route and frequency of administration for each. The use of paralytic agents, such as curare or succinylcholine, is not an acceptable substitute for anesthetics. For other invasive procedures on animals, report the analgesic or tranquillising drugs used. If none were used, provide justification for such exclusion. Generic names of drugs must be given. Manuscripts that describe studies on humans must indicate that the study was approved by an institutional review committee and that the subjects gave informed consent. Reports of studies on both an imals and humans must indicate that the procedures followed were in accordance with institutional guidelines ...
Zbrafish] anaesthetic for physiology
Hi all, Does anyone know of an anaesthetic that can be used in an electrophysiology paradigm in fish? We are interested in measuring nerve conductance velocity. Tricaine/Mesab/MS-222 blocks action potentials and therefore is useless for us. Has anyone used curare to block movements? What about analgesics? Thanks, Christian -- *********************************** Christian Brösamle Department of Biochemistry Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München Schillerstrasse 44 80336 München Germany tel: +49 89 2180 75-451 fax: +49 89 2180 75-415 ...
Includes chapters that discuss anesthetics, hypnotics, antiseptics, and other substances. Digitalis, atropine, curare, cannabis, cocaine and morphine are discussed in detail. Volume II, 1897 ...
Includes chapters that discuss anesthetics, hypnotics, antiseptics, and other substances. Digitalis, atropine, curare, cannabis, cocaine and morphine are discussed in detail. Volume II, 1897 ...
Includes chapters that discuss anesthetics, hypnotics, antiseptics, and other substances. Digitalis, atropine, curare, cannabis, cocaine and morphine are discussed in detail. Volume II, 1897 ...
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Hemifacial spasm develops by vascular compression of facial nerve at the root exit zone from brain stem. Microvascular decompression (MVD) is known for its curative treatment. Lateral spread response (LSR) is a kind of pathologic electromyographic (EMG) wave form which develops when facial nerve is compressed by vessel. There have been reports of monitoring LSR during MVD surgery helps predicting the clinical outcome of MVD.. As neuromuscular blockade during LSR monitoring decreases the amplitude of EMG, partial neuromuscular blockade is usually maintained during general anesthesia for MVD. However, there have been no evidence of which degree of partial neuromuscular blockade should be performed during LSR monitoring under sevoflurane anesthesia. Therefore, the investigators performed a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of different degree of partial neuromuscular blockade on the LSR monitoring for MVD surgery. ...
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Studies are carried out in cats anesthetized with Nembutal in order to observe the effects on the indirectly stimulated quadriceps muscle when the animal has received prostigmine under curarization. The following observations are made.. Picrotoxin has practically no effect. What little it does have seems to be a feeble reinforcement of the effect of prostigmine and of curare (fig. 1 and Section A of Results).. Strychnine has a complex reaction. For a few seconds it reinforces the action of curare and of prostigmine and then produces a moderate decurarization or a violent deprostigminization (fig. 2 and Section B of Results).. Metrazol weakly reinforces the action of prostigmine and behaves as a decurarizing drug (fig. 3 and Sec. C of Results).. The behaviour of these three substances is discussed in the light of our present knowledge of the theory of neural transmission. The conclusion is drawn that the behavior of picrotoxin and strychnine cannot be explained by the classical theory of the two ...
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Finally, we found that DC sensing of HIV-1 and HIV-2 required the DNA sensor cGAS. Treatment consisted of viagra without prescription two 35-day cycles of combination chemotherapy with CPT-11 and UFT. Nerve regression and sprouting were found in animals chronically paralysed with curare over several weeks as well as in untreated frogs (winter and summer frogs, laboratory frogs, fed and unfed). However, environmental change may also reconfigure multispecies interactions when both species composition and phenology remain intact. Arterial spin-labeling MR imaging is now acknowledged for the noninvasive quantification of cerebral blood flow.. Structural and functional basis for JAK3-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency. Person-mean centering was applied to psychological factors to disaggregate between- and within-individual association. In this experiment, we investigated the changes in serum levels of soluble RANKL (sRANKL), OPG, IL-6, and IL-6sR in patients with glucocorticoid-induced ...
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Curare. Vol 16, 1993: 66 -70 148. Presentation of Hysteria in a Sample of Egyptian Patients - An Update: Neurology, Psychiatry ...
Curare Sonderband. 12. Berlin: Verlag für Wissenschaft Und Bildung. pp. 72-73. ISBN 9783861355687. Archived from the original ...
Curare has also been used medicinally by South Americans to treat madness, dropsy, edema, fever, kidney stones, and bruises. ... If curare affects the respiratory muscles, then its effects can become life-threatening, placing the victim at risk for ... Curare is a plant poison derived from - among other species - Chondrodendron tomentosum and various species belonging to the ... Curare acts as a neuromuscular blocking agent that induces flaccid paralysis. This poison binds to the acetylcholine (ACh) ...
1992) "Curare". In: Maltby JR, Shephard DAE (Eds.), Harold Griffith - His Life and Legacy; Suppl. to Canadian Journal of ...
Gaeta, Saverio (July 12, 2009). "IL MONDO DA CURARE". Famiglia Cristiana. Retrieved April 22, 2020. "SIAE: GIANNI PROFITA NUOVO ...
Curare 29 (1), Special Issue. Viola Hoerbst and Sylvie Schuster eds. 2005: *(with Stephanie Larchanche and Samba Yatera) The ...
He and Córdova agreed to share their herbal knowledge, he about curare, Córdoba about ayahuasca. Regarding curare, it took ... Schultes and Raffauf (1992) 243-255, at 243-244 (curare quotes). A preferred source of curare is often the Amazon vine ... Curare is known by many tribes across the Amazon forest, where it has served as a poison. Over a low fire the purified extract ... The extract, named curare, when injected into the body can cause a temporary paralysis of skeletal muscles; it functions as an ...
Griffith, Harold; Johnson, G. Enid (July 1942). "The Use of Curare in General Anesthesia". Anesthesiology. 3 (4): 418-20. doi: ... Czarnowski, Charles; Bailey, Jason (September 2007). "Curare and a Canadian connection". Canadian Family Physician. 53 (9): ... when he and resident Enid Johnson used curare for the first time during anesthesia to produce muscle relaxation. On that day, ... pertain to his introduction of curare into anesthesiology and contain correspondence, case records, and reprints in addition to ...
They were also poisoned with curare. For the release, the arrow was held between the index and the middle finger. Some trumpets ... Wanám poisoned their arrows with curare and carried them with the points in a bamboo sheath to prevent accidents. They hunted ...
Doctor Blood's Coffin
He has been immobilised by Peter's curare. Linda confronts Peter, He tells her that he will put the living hearts of wastrels ... Peter explains it away as a gift from a schoolmate - an ancient South American curare container. Peter speaks oddly to Linda ... The liquid in the syringe is curare. Trying to deflect suspicion, Peter says that, coincidentally, he and Linda had recently ... "though rich in curare, flashing scalpels, decayed flesh and Cornish landscapes, lacks style, suspense and imagination and will ...
CGK204 CURARE: CGK204 with black PVD finish and yellow accents. CGK205: 43mm GMT (independent second hour hand) chronograph, ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "CGK204 CURARE". Temption Watches. Retrieved 2020-10-02. CS1 maint: discouraged ...
The effect with which injected curare poison is usually associated is muscle paralysis and resultant death. Curare notably ... The term "curare" is ambiguous because it has been used to describe a number of poisons which at the time of naming were ... Part 1. Notes on the Early History of Curare". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 36 (1): 1-26. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(92)90056-w. ... Schlesinger, Edward B (1946). "Curare A Review of Its Therapeutic Effects and Their Physiological Basis". The American Journal ...
He conducted extensive studies on the actions of digitalis, muscarine (a product of certain mushrooms), choline and curare. In ... 1895 he classified curare into three groups; "calabash curares" (usually taken from the family Loganiaceae, Strychnos species ...
This alkaloid is the main toxic component of Calabash curare, and one of the most toxic plant alkaloids known. The lethal dose ... Toxiferine (C-toxiferine I) is a curare toxin. It is a bisindole alkaloid derived from Strychnos toxifera and a nicotinic ...
For dogs that had been under the influence of curare when they first learned the response, after the curare was no longer in ... Once they were given curare again, the response returned. This result indicated that the dogs' ability to recall the responses ... Edward Girden and Elmer Culler conducted an experiment on conditioned responses in dogs under the influence of the drug curare ...
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Umberto Mazzone (2012). "Il Seicento nell'episcopato bolognese". Governare lo Stato e curare le anime (in Italian). ...
The curare was obtained from poisonous plants and frogs. The religion of the Muzo consisted of few gods. Their creator god was ...
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Curare: Journal of Medical Anthropology 31(1): 87-97. Edgar, Iain R. 2007. The Inspirational Night Dream in the Motivation and ...
Jessica Lucia Roiz (2015-08-27). "J Quiles: A Promising New Urban Artist With 'Me Curare'". Pulsopop.com. Retrieved 2016-09-25 ... ", "Nos Envidian". That same year, he also released the single "Me Curare", which gained traction with a remix featuring ...
Richard Gill (plant collector)
Because Gill was known and trusted, the people agreed to prepare curare for him in exchange for cloth, knives and other goods. ... Gill noted which plants were gathered for the curare mixture and took samples of each, along with scores of others that he ... Richard C. Gill (c.1901-1958) was best known for an expedition to describe the preparation of curare, and bring back samples, ... Given his experiences in Ecuador, he set up an expedition to obtain and describe the preparation of curare. Walking with a ...
The extract has been suggested as a substitute for curare. An analysis by Rio de la Loza showed the seeds contain 13.35 solid ...
Pancuronium is a typical non-depolarizing curare-mimetic muscle relaxant. It competitively inhibits the nicotinic acetylcholine ...
Doses of 6 mg/kg were curare-like in the dog; similar effects were also observed in the toad, Bufo arenarum. Candicine (as ...
Curare' or Tiger severum until officially named as the true severus. The mouthbrooder who previously was thought to be Heros ...
Michael Moorcock bibliography
Curare, appeared in the 2012 anthology Zenith Lives!. The first was published as by Roger Harris (who had written the book, ...
u. Pharmacol., 52, 28 (1899). (About urine secretion and diabetes after the intoxication with protocurare and curare). Kurata ...
History of general anesthesia
Betcher, A (1977). "The civilizing of curare: a history of its development and introduction into anesthesiology". Anesthesia & ... curare found use in the operating rooms at Bellvue by E.M. Papper and Stuart Cullen in the 1940s using preparations made by ... of Anesthesiologists Arthur Ernest Guedel ASA physical status classification system Blood transfusion Boyle's machine Curare ...
Drugs that interfere with nerve function, such as curare, can also cause paralysis. Pseudoparalysis (pseudo- meaning "false, ...
History of wound care
For example, curare, which was an ancient South American arrow poison, was used in the 20th century as the muscle relaxant ... 1977). "The Civilizing of Curare: A History of Its Development and Introduction into Anesthesiology". Anesthesia & Analgesia. ...
The term "cure" is derived from the Latin curare, meaning to take care of. It was first recorded in reference to fish in 1743. ...
curare | chemical compound | Britannica.com
curare: Drug belonging to the alkaloid family of organic compounds, derivatives of which are used in modern medicine primarily ... pot curare in earthenware jars, tube curare in bamboo, and calabash curare in gourds. Tube curare was the most toxic form, ... Curare, drug belonging to the alkaloid family of organic compounds, derivatives of which are used in modern medicine primarily ... Crude curare is a resinous dark brown to black mass with a sticky to hard consistency and an aromatic, tarry odour. Crude ...
Curare - definition of curare by The Free Dictionary
curare synonyms, curare pronunciation, curare translation, English dictionary definition of curare. also cu·ra·ri n. 1. A dark ... curare. [kjʊəˈrɑːrɪ] N → curare m. cu·ra·re n. curare, veneno extraído de varios tipos de plantas y usado como relajante ... Amazonas: Corregimiento La Pedrera, Resguardo Indigena Curare Los Ingleses, Comunidad Curare, orillas del quebradon Curare ( ... curare. (kjʊˈrɑːrɪ) or curari. n. 1. (Pharmacology) black resin obtained from certain tropical South American trees, esp ...
Curare and Nervous System
... Jim Hutchins hutchins at fiona.umsmed.edu Fri Feb 10 16:28:32 EST 1995 *Previous message: Curare and ... I was wondering what curare actually does to a : working nerve fiber on the molecular and then organismic level. [stuff deleted ... Curare causes death by paralysis of the respiratory muscles, particularly the diaphragm. Presumably, cooking the meat renders ... Curare is a crude form; the active agent is d-tubocurarine. (d-, as in dextro-, for the d- stereoisomer). d-tubocurarine binds ...
curare facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about curare
Make research projects and school reports about curare easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Curare Medical Discoveries COPYRIGHT 1997 Thomson Gale. Curare. Curare is a name used to identify a variety of highly toxic ( ... tube-curare); in gourds (calabash-curare) containing material from Strychnos species; and in earthenware pots (pot-curare). In ... curare substance obtained from plants, used by S. Amer. Indians to poison arrows. XVIII.. Also woorara (XVIII), urari, (w) ...
For the DC Comics character, see Curare. Curare is not to be confused with Curara. Curare is a common name ... Curare This page is about the plant toxins. ... Curare is not to be confused with Curara.. Curare is a common ... Curare and anaesthesia. Isolated attempt to use curare during anesthesia dates back to 1912 by Arthur Lawen of Leipzig. But ... Ourare, Ourari, Urari, and Uirary. d-Tubocurarine, the popular alkaloid of Curare used as a medicine, was available as ...
The Effects of Curare on Nerve Impulse
Curare Poisoning. Anti-cholinesterase drugs, such as physostigmine or neostigmine, can reverse the effects of curare poisoning ... Dosage and dosing intervals all determine the severity of curares effect.. Time Frame. Curare immobilises muscles minutes ... Curare acts at the junction between the nerve and muscle to block the transmission of nerve impulses. Nerve impulses are ... When curare binds instead of acetylcholine, the receptors do not become activated, and there is loss of muscle function, ...
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... ha contribuito a facilitare il lancio di nuovo test clinico nel Regno Unito di una droga che potrebbe contribuire a curare i ... Il test clinico recentemente lanciato può contribuire a curare i pazienti COVID-19. *Download PDF Copy ... ha contribuito a facilitare il lancio di nuovo test clinico nel Regno Unito di una droga che potrebbe contribuire a curare i ...
Daunik Lazro / Jean Francois Pauvros / Roger Turner: Curare album review @ All About Jazz
Curare album review by John Sharpe, published on March 19, 2012. Find thousands jazz reviews at All About Jazz! ... Silence could be the fourth member of the group responsible for the cooperatively derived Curare, joining the French pairing of ... Roger Turner CD/LP/Track Review Daunik Lazro John Sharpe NoBusiness Records Joe McPhee evan parker Elliott Sharp Curare ...
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Urari buruzko kontu hauen berri jakin ondoren, hurrengo urratsa ura aurrezteko aholkuak aintzat hartu eta horien arabera ... Horra hor urari buruzko zenbait jakingarri, kontsumitzaile askok jakingo ez dituztenak, segur aski. Horien berri izatea ... lursail baten gainetik joaten den euri-urari esaten zaio isurketa-ura), bai lurrundu egiten delako landarera iritsi aurretik; ...
Blue Planet Biomes - Curare
Curare must get into the blood system for it to work. It doesnt hurt to eat something killed by a poisoned curare arrow, for ... Curare. Common Names: Curare, Grieswurzel, Pareira Brava, Pareira, Vigne Sauvage. Genus: Chondrodendron. Species: tomentosum. ... "Curare", http://www.botgard.ucla.edu/html/botanytextbooks/economicbotany/Curare/. "Curare", http://peace.saumag.edu/faculty/ ... Curare grows as a large liana, or vine, found in the canopy of the South American rainforest. The vine may get as thick as 4 ...
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Curare - History, Tubocurarine - Plants, Poison, Curares, and Rainforests - JRank Articles
Curare. History, Tubocurarine. Curare (pronounced cue-rah-ree) is a general term for certain chemical substances found in ... The plant Strychnos toxifera produces the strongest type of curare for the hunters of the rainforests. Other curare type plants ... The word curare is derived from woorari, a word of native American origin from the Amazon and Orinoco basins meaning poison. ... The hunters final curare preparation is composed of "curares" or poisons from various plants. Curares from these plants share ...
Molecular dissection of subunit interfaces in the acetylcholine receptor: identification of residues that determine curare...
Evidence of Nicotine-Induced, Curare-Insensitive, Behavior in Planarians. Oné R. Pagán, Erica Montgomery, Sean Deats, Daniel ... Molecular dissection of subunit interfaces in the acetylcholine receptor: identification of residues that determine curare ... Molecular dissection of subunit interfaces in the acetylcholine receptor: identification of residues that determine curare ... Molecular dissection of subunit interfaces in the acetylcholine receptor: identification of residues that determine curare ...
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Urare - Radioamator.ro
Ma bucur sa vad atatea ganduri frumoase si dati-mi voie sa va urez cu si mai multa bucurie Craciun Fericit, sanatate si sa va mearga-n plin, sa va bucurati de viata alaturi de cei dragi si sa va vedeti toate visele implinite, mai ales cele legate de pasiunea comuna care ne uneste pe toti - radioamatorismul ...
Curare | definition of curare by Medical dictionary
... curare explanation free. What is curare? Meaning of curare medical term. What does curare mean? ... Looking for online definition of curare in the Medical Dictionary? ... curare. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to curare: atropine curare. [koo-rah´re ... curare. also curari. (ko͝o-rä′rē, kyo͝o-). n.. 1. A dark resinous extract obtained from several tropical American woody plants ...
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Curare : Quiz (The Full Wiki)
More interesting facts on Curare Include this on your site/blog: Categories: Muscle relaxants , Nicotinic antagonists , ... Question 4: Curare IPA: [k(j)uːˈrɑːri]  is a common name for various ________ originating from South America.. Batrachotoxin ... Question 1: Curare (d-tubocurarine) is no longer used for ________ during surgery as better drugs are now available.. Medicine ... Question 5: Curare is an example of a non-depolarizing ________ that blocks the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), one ...
Curare. (Curara). - THE GUIDING SYMPTOMS OF OUR MATERIA MEDICA By CONSTANTINE HERING, M.D.
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Comparison of the Bilateral TAP Block Versus Curare in Muscle Relaxation of the Abdominal Wall During Laparoscopic Digestive...
Active Comparator: curare Patients will be randomized into two parallel groups. One group will receive curare, another benefit ... Curare. Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents. Neuromuscular Blocking Agents. Neuromuscular Agents. Peripheral Nervous System ... Comparison of the Bilateral TAP Block Versus Curare in Muscle Relaxation of the Abdominal Wall During Laparoscopic Digestive ... Comparison of the Bilateral Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) Block Versus Curare in Muscle Relaxation of the Abdominal Wall ...
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Curare - used, first, body, produced, plant, Artificial Curare
Artificial Curare Because the effects of natural curare were still unpredictable, Swiss-Italian pharmacologist Daniele Bovet ( ... The effects of curare do not last long, and a person or animal who has been poisoned by this substance can fully recover if ... Curare is a name used to identify a variety of highly toxic (poisonous) extracts from some types of woody vines that grow in ... Curare contains two alkaloids: curine, which paralyzes the muscle fibers of the heart, and curarine, which paralyzes the motor ...
Find out about why curare poison-tipped darts have been used for blowgun hunting by Amazon rainforest natives for thousands of ... Return from Curare to Amazon Rainforest Return from Curare to Brazil Unique South America Travel Experience Home By Daniel ... Calabash curare:. Carried in small gourds. *Pot curare:. Carried in small clay pots, it is used by some Easter Amazonian tribes ... Curare... Deadly poison of the Amazon Rainforest. Curare Leaf. Amazon Rainforest For millennia Amazon rainforest tribes have ...
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AlkaloidPentruMesajeSouth AmericaEffects of curareSarbatoriTomentosumTubocurarineAlkaloidsPoisonAnul NouWoorariCrudeTypes of curareAction of curareHistory of curare2020CuraraTube curareCome curareMusclesHttpsToxiferaNervous System1935Nerve impulsesPreparationsWouraliToxicNeuromuscular blockCompoundsPreyPoisonsParalysisArrowsAcetylcholinePancuroniumBambooDeadlyDrugsVineWaterton
- Curare , drug belonging to the alkaloid family of organic compounds , derivatives of which are used in modern medicine primarily as skeletal muscle relaxants, being administered concomitantly with general anesthesia for certain types of surgeries , particularly those of the chest and the abdomen. (britannica.com)
- The principal alkaloid responsible for the pharmacological action of curare preparations is tubocurarine , first isolated from tube curare in 1897 and obtained in crystalline form in 1935. (britannica.com)
- A chemically pure alkaloid (an organic base of a plant, containing nitrogen and usually oxygen) of curare was introduced in 1942 by Thomas Cullen. (encyclopedia.com)
- In medicine, curare has been superseded by a number of curare-like agents (pancuronium, an alkaloid-like substance with steroidal skeleton in its molecule), that have a similar pharmacodynamic profile but with fewer side effects. (bionity.com)
- Curare is an alkaloid, and acts as a neuromuscular blocking agent to produce paralysis in muscles. (blueplanetbiomes.org)
- Tubocurarine, an anesthetic muscle relaxant introduced into medical practice in the early 1940s contains a curare alkaloid from the chondrodendron plant family. (jrank.org)
- Strychnos toxifera produces the strongest type of curare, in combination with other alkaloid plants. (unique-southamerica-travel-experience.com)
- Curare (known to Waterton as 'Wourali') is a common name for various plant extract alkaloid arrow poisons. (overtown.org.uk)
- A new quaternary indole alkaloid, venecurine, has been isolated by chromatographie techniques from a curare obtained from the Hoti tribe of Venezuela. (uclouvain.be)
- Adauga Texte Mesaje & urari! (mesaje-urari.ro)
- Crude preparations of curare have long been used as arrow poisons to aid in the capture of wild game by the Indians of South America . (britannica.com)
- Curare is a name used to identify a variety of highly toxic (poisonous) extracts from some types of woody vines that grow in South America . (encyclopedia.com)
- European scientists began studying curare in the late sixteenth century after explorers learned that Indians living along the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers in South America had been using it for centuries to make poison-tipped hunting arrows. (encyclopedia.com)
- Curare is a common name for various dart poisons ( arrow poisons ) originating from South America. (bionity.com)
- Curare is a blackish, powder like substance made from roots and bark of woody vine that grows in South America, Although many people know that curare is a deadly poison, they do not know that it can save life as well as take it. (wordreference.com)
- Curare is a a darkly colored, resinous extract obtained from various woody plants native to South America. (fandom.com)
Effects of curare4
- Patients with neuromuscular disorders such as myasthenia gravis , in which acetylcholine activity is already reduced, are highly sensitive to the effects of curare-like drugs. (britannica.com)
- The effects of curare do not last long, and a person or animal who has been poisoned by this substance can fully recover if given artificial respiration until the poison wears off. (encyclopedia.com)
- Anti-cholinesterase drugs, such as physostigmine or neostigmine, can reverse the effects of curare poisoning. (ehow.co.uk)
- The effects of curare set in within a minute if it is injected directly into an artery and between 15-25 minutes if-as when it is used to tip arrows-it is introduced through muscle tissue. (fandom.com)
- Cele mai interesante urari de sarbatori. (fashionlife.ro)
- Curare is a generic term for South American arrow poisons, usually from the strychnos toxifera or chondrodendron tomentosum plants. (ehow.co.uk)
- The curare vine Chondrodendon tomentosum - known as ampihuasca by the Yagua Indias of Loreto, Peru (ampi = poison) - is one of the key ingredients of the mixture. (unique-southamerica-travel-experience.com)
- Chondrodendron tomentosum, known as curare or grieswurzel, grows within rainforest canopies. (ehow.com)
- One of the main ingredients is an extract of the plant Chondrodendron tomentosum .Â Curare is used for medicinal purposes in a highly diluted form. (mentalfloss.com)
- The first breakthrough leading to successful medical use of curare came in 1935, when Harold King isolated its active principle, which he called tubocurarine. (encyclopedia.com)
- Also known as tubocurarine, curare functions as a neuromuscular blocking agent, or muscle relaxant. (ehow.co.uk)
- curare is used clinically (for example, as d- tubocurarine chloride, metocurine iodide) to relax muscles during surgery. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Curare (d-tubocurarine) is no longer used for ________ during surgery as better drugs are now available. (thefullwiki.org)
- In many curare preparations, the major active ingredient is d-tubocurarine. (blogspot.com)
- In addition to inducing skeletal muscle relaxation under general anesthesia, certain curare alkaloids are widely employed as relaxants to facilitate endotracheal intubation (the insertion of a tube into the windpipe to keep the upper airway open in a person who is unconscious or unable to breathe on his or her own). (britannica.com)
- Curare alkaloids produce their effects with a minimal concentration of anesthetic agent, which allows patients to recover promptly and reduces the risk of postoperative pneumonias and other complications associated with surgery under general anesthesia. (britannica.com)
- Curare contains two alkaloids: curine, which paralyzes the muscle fibers of the heart, and curarine, which paralyzes the motor nerve endings in voluntary muscles. (encyclopedia.com)
- The term curare actually refers to a variety of plant extracts, all of which contain a mixture of different alkaloids. (blogspot.com)
- It is possible that the poison he described was not curare at all. (bionity.com)
- Curare has also been used historically as a paralyzing poison by South American indigenous people. (bionity.com)
- Although curare is a potential nervous-system poison, medical texts, including "Goodman & Gilman's Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics," agree on one thing: the discovery of its effects on nerve impulse was a milestone for anaesthesia practice, which opened the way for the discovery of better and safer muscle relaxants. (ehow.co.uk)
- The word curare is derived from woorari , a word of native American origin from the Amazon and Orinoco basins meaning poison. (jrank.org)
- According to M. Goudot, who learned the mode of preparation from an Indian tribe, it is made by adding to the concentrated juice of a creeping plant called Curari, the poison obtained from the virus bags of some of the most venomous serpents. (homeoint.org)
- Basically, curare is a fast-action poison that it doesn't actually kill, it causes paralysis instead. (unique-southamerica-travel-experience.com)
- As a poison, curare causes paralysis in all voluntarily controlled muscles (such as those in the eyes and arms), but will not affect the victim's heartbeat or their ability to feel pain. (fandom.com)
- Curare made its first appearance in the PPC in "Rambling Band" in the Original Series , though the poison Acacia used was not identified until Acacia mentioned it in her author's note at the end of "Lady of the Fellowship," along with a congratulations to Maranogh, who managed to identify the poison using clues within the chapter. (fandom.com)
- Ouabain structure Ouabain Although they are both harvested from plants and used as an arrow poison, ouabain's biological mechanism is quite different from that of curare. (blogspot.com)
- Curare is a mixture of various South American natural resources used for poison arrows and blowgun darts. (mentalfloss.com)
- Curare (Wourali) was used as a paralyzing poison by South American indigenous people. (overtown.org.uk)
- Curare (succicholine) was a famous native American poison. (blogspot.com)
- Daca ati ramas in pana de felicitari online, va recomand urmatorul site, de unde veti putea trimite super urari de Craciun si Anul Nou. (dingalati.ro)
- Crude curare is a resinous dark brown to black mass with a sticky to hard consistency and an aromatic, tarry odour. (britannica.com)
- Crude preparations of curare were classified according to the containers used for them: pot curare in earthenware jars, tube curare in bamboo , and calabash curare in gourds . (britannica.com)
- It was isolated from the crude drug (from a museum sample of curare) in 1935 by Harold King (1887-1956) of London, working in Sir Henry Dale 's laboratory. (bionity.com)
- He learned the art of curare extraction, and procured large quantities of the crude substance. (blogspot.com)
Types of curare1
- According to scientists, there are three types of curare - named by Europeans after the type of containers Amazon tribes use to carry it, not because of the ingredients used in the preparation. (unique-southamerica-travel-experience.com)
Action of curare2
- For a few seconds it reinforces the action of curare and of prostigmine and then produces a moderate decurarization or a violent deprostigminization (fig. 2 and Section B of Results). (aspetjournals.org)
- In 1857, Claude Bernard (1813-1878) published the results of his experiments in which he demonstrated that the mechanism of action of curare was a result of interference in the conduction of nerve impulses from the motor nerve to the skeletal muscle, and that this interference occurred at the neuromuscular junction. (overtown.org.uk)
History of curare1
- The history of curare is both curious and convoluted. (rcpe.ac.uk)
- In march 2020, the editorial team of Curare. (h-net.org)
- Curare is not to be confused with Curara. (bionity.com)
- Traumatologia veterinaria: come curare le ferite aperte? (affinity-petcare.com)
- hence, competition at the neuromuscular junction by curare prevents nerve impulses from activating skeletal muscles. (britannica.com)
- Curare causes death by paralysis of the respiratory muscles, particularly the diaphragm. (bio.net)
- Over the next ten years, many doctors began using curare to relax their patients' muscles during abdominal surgery or during tracheal intubation (the inserting of a tube into the trachea to allow a patient to breathe). (encyclopedia.com)
- Curare immobilises muscles minutes after injection. (ehow.co.uk)
- Curare acts at the junction between nerves and muscles and produces complete paralysis of all voluntary movement without having any effect on consciousness. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Curare produces muscular paralysis, probably through its action on the nerve endings in the muscles, without affecting either the muscle substance or the nerve substance, and without impairing sensation and consciousness. (homeopathycenter.org)
- The victim of a curare-dipped arrow will quickly become paralysed and - without assistance - they will asphyxiate, as their respiratory muscles can no longer contract. (blogspot.com)
- The prey was shot by arrows or blowpipe darts dipped in curare, leading to asphyxiation owing to the inability of the victim's respiratory muscles to contract. (overtown.org.uk)
- Curare causes weakness of the skeletal muscles and, when administered in a sufficient dose, eventual death by asphyxiation due to paralysis of the diaphragm. (overtown.org.uk)
- https://www.chemistryworld.com/podcasts/curare-and-ouabain/3008865.article Podcasts By Jamie Durrani6 April 2018 Jamie Durrani presents a pair of plant-based poisons Ben Valsler We've got a killer double-bill this week, as Jamie Durrani presents a pair of poisons… Jamie Durrani 'While the hot black stuff is simmering down to about the volume of a pint, it must not be allowed to scorch. (blogspot.com)
- The plant Strychnos toxifera produces the strongest type of curare for the hunters of the rainforests. (jrank.org)
- During the nineteenth century, doctors tried to use curare as a muscle relaxant in the treatment of rabies, tetanus (an infectious disease that usually enters the body through a wound), and epilepsy (a chronic, or lasting, disease of the nervous system characterized by convulsions), but these trials were unsuccessful because available curare extracts were not of equal quality and potency (strength). (encyclopedia.com)
- After 1935, with the identification of the plant (and the main paralyzing agent), curare was introduced to modern medicine as muscle relaxant during surgery. (unique-southamerica-travel-experience.com)
- Curare acts at the junction between the nerve and muscle to block the transmission of nerve impulses. (ehow.co.uk)
- Animals are hunted with blowguns loaded with darts that have been prepared with lethal doses of the curare preparations. (jrank.org)
- George Harley (1829-1896) showed in 1850 that curare (wourali) was effective for the treatment of tetanus and strychnine poisoning. (bionity.com)
- Of these three families, some formulas belonging to the calebas curare are the most toxic, relative to their LD 50 values. (bionity.com)
- 4. The insoluble fraction of curare in liquid ammonia when treated with glycine becomes more potent, prolonged in action and less toxic than curare. (aspetjournals.org)
- Curare is active - toxic or muscle-relaxing, depending on the intended use - only by an injection or a direct wound contamination by poisoned dart or arrow. (overtown.org.uk)
- In modern medicine, curare is classified as a neuromuscular blocking agent-it produces flaccidity in skeletal muscle by competing with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction (the site of chemical communication between a nerve fibre and a muscle cell). (britannica.com)
- He succeeded in 1947 with the medicine gallamine, and then went on to make more than 400 compounds that had the same effects as curare. (encyclopedia.com)
- One of these compounds, succinylcholine, became a widely used and effective curare substitute that could be given in precise dosages with predictable effects. (encyclopedia.com)
- It is harmless if taken orally   because curare compounds are too large and too highly charged to pass through the lining of the digestive tract to get absorbed into the blood. (bionity.com)
- Despite this, curare compounds are harmless when ingested orally - they must be get into the bloodstream to have an effect - which is why it is safe for people to eat curare-poisoned prey. (blogspot.com)
- The hunters final curare preparation is composed of "curares" or poisons from various plants. (jrank.org)
- When curare binds instead of acetylcholine, the receptors do not become activated, and there is loss of muscle function, paralysis and possibly death. (ehow.co.uk)
- Indigenous tribes of the Amazon basin used curare-laden arrows to hunt game for food. (mentalfloss.com)
-  After twenty-five years he showed that acetylcholine is responsible for neuromuscular transmission which can be blocked by curare. (bionity.com)
- Curare is an example of a non-depolarizing muscle relaxant (aka, competitive antagonist) which blocks the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor , one of the two types of cholinergic (acetylcholine) receptors on the post synaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction . (bionity.com)
- Curare competes with acetylcholine--or Ach--for receptors on muscle cells. (ehow.co.uk)
- These drugs block acetylcholine breakdown at the neuromuscular junction, so acetylcholine molecules can outnumber curare and activate unoccupied muscle receptors. (ehow.co.uk)
- Curare is an example of a non-depolarizing ________ that blocks the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) , one of the two types of acetylcholine (ACh) receptors . (thefullwiki.org)
- It has been largely replaced by various curare-like drugs, including atracurium, pancuronium, and vecuronium. (britannica.com)
- tube or bamboo curare (so named because of its packing into hollow bamboo tubes. (overtown.org.uk)
-  The deadly effects of various Amazonian plant mixtures called curare were learned by early European explorers. (bionity.com)
- Drugs like curare which is a muscle relaxant, misoprostol, cocaine and alcohol are associated with this condition. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In 1954, a sensational article was published by Beecher and Todd suggesting that the use of muscle relaxants (drugs similar to curare) increased death due to ________ nearly six fold. (thefullwiki.org)
- Curare grows as a large liana, or vine, found in the canopy of the South American rainforest. (blueplanetbiomes.org)