The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
A protein that plays a role in GRANULOSA CELLS where it regulates folliculogenesis. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein 15 are linked to reproductive abnormalities such as PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.
A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
Methods used to induce premature oocytes, that are maintained in tissue culture, to progress through developmental stages including to a stage that is competent to undergo FERTILIZATION.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.
The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. In the humans, 6-phosphofructose-1-kinase isozyme C is found in platelets, brain, heart, kidney, colon and testis. This isozyme C can exist as the homotetramer of C subunits (P subunits), or heterotetramer of C type and L type subunits.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A large family of cell regulatory proteins which are structurally related to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. The superfamily is subdivided into at least three related protein families: BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS; GROWTH DIFFERENTIATION FACTORS; and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTORS.
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.
A colorless liquid with a fragrant odor. It is used as an intermediate, solvent and in cosmetics.
A mercaptoethylamine compound that is endogenously derived from the COENZYME A degradative pathway. The fact that cysteamine is readily transported into LYSOSOMES where it reacts with CYSTINE to form cysteine-cysteamine disulfide and CYSTEINE has led to its use in CYSTINE DEPLETING AGENTS for the treatment of CYSTINOSIS.
A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Embryonic and fetal development that takes place in an artificial environment in vitro.
The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
A 38-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase that is abundantly expressed in a broad variety of cell types. It is involved in the regulation of cellular stress responses as well as the control of proliferation and survival of many cell types. The kinase activity of the enzyme is inhibited by the pyridinyl-imidazole compound SB 203580.
A form of creatine kinase found in the BRAIN.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
The transformation of a liquid to a glassy solid i.e., without the formation of crystals during the cooling process.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Formation of CORPUS LUTEUM. This process includes capillary invasion of the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE, hypertrophy of the GRANULOSA CELLS and the THECA CELLS, and the production of PROGESTERONE. Luteinization is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.
The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.
A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.

Impact of anisosmotic conditions on structural and functional integrity of cumulus-oocyte complexes at the germinal vesicle stage in the domestic cat. (1/273)

During cryopreservation, the immature oocyte is subjected to anisosmotic conditions potentially impairing subsequent nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation in vitro. In preparation for cryopreservation protocols and to characterize osmotic tolerance, cat cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage were exposed for 15 min to sucrose solutions ranging from 100 to 2,000 mOsm and then examined for structural integrity and developmental competence in vitro. Osmolarities > or =200 and < or =750 mOsm had no effect on incidence of oocyte nuclear maturation, fertilization success, and blastocyst formation compared to control COC (exposed to 290 mOsm). This relatively high osmotic tolerance of the immature cat oocyte appeared to arise from a remarkable stability of the GV chromatin structure as well as plasticity in mitochondrial distribution, membrane integrity, and ability to maintain cumulus-oocyte communications. Osmolarities <200 mOsm only damaged cumulus cell membrane integrity, which contributed to poor nuclear maturation but ultimately had no adverse effect on blastocyst formation in vitro. Osmolarities >750 mOsm compromised nuclear maturation and blastocyst formation in vitro via disruption of cumulus-oocyte communications, an effect that could be mitigated through 1,500 mOsm by adding cytochalasin B to the hyperosmotic solutions. These results (1) demonstrate, for the first time, the expansive osmotic tolerance of the immature cat oocyte, (2) characterize the fundamental role of cumulus-oocyte communications when tolerance limits are exceeded, and (3) reveal an interesting hyperosmotic tolerance of the immature oocyte that can be increased two-fold by supplementation with cytochalasin B.  (+info)

Reduction of connexin 43 in human cumulus cells yields good embryo competence during ICSI. (2/273)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to predict developmental competence of human oocytes during ICSI via analysis of connexin 43 (Cx43) in cumulus cells surrounding mature oocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human cumulus cells were manually separated from the oocyte-cumulus complex under a microscope. Cx43 mRNA was expressed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) measurement in cumulus cells. RESULTS: There was no significant relationship between expression of Cx43 and fertilisation or cleavage rate. However, Cx43 expression was lower in the good morphology group (blastomeres>7 cells with fragmentation<10% on day 3) when compared to the other groups (p=0.035). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that full reduction of Cx43 expression on cumulus cells at the time of oocyte collection during ICSI is essential for developmental competence of human oocytes.  (+info)

Altered composition of the cumulus-oocyte complex matrix during in vitro maturation of oocytes. (3/273)

BACKGROUND: In vitro maturation (IVM) of mammalian oocytes has potential health benefits for patients undergoing assisted reproduction as an alternative to gonadotrophin treatment. This procedure is also useful for studying the process of oocyte and early embryo development. However, oocytes undergoing IVM have much lower competence than in vivo matured oocytes. Efforts to optimize IVM success have focused on replicating in vivo timing, hormonal milieu and cumulus cell responses associated with maturing oocytes. We have previously identified two extracellular matrix proteins, the protease Adamts1 and hyaluronan-binding proteoglycan Versican, produced by mural granulosa cells that selectively incorporate into the periovulatory cumulus-oocyte complex (COC). METHODS: Murine COC were cultured in the presence of epidermal growth factor and/or FSH. mRNA and protein were measured by real time PCR and Western blot and compared to in vivo derived COC. RESULTS: COCs from mice that underwent IVM for 6 or 20 h in the presence of epidermal growth factor, FSH or in combination had a > 10-fold reduction in mRNA (P < 0.05) for Adamts1 and Vcan when compared with in vivo matured COCs. Hyaluronan synthase 2 expression was up-regulated up to 8-fold (P < 0.05) over the unstimulated control, demonstrating successful induction of cumulus gene expression by the IVM conditions. While in vivo matured COCs showed abundant levels of these proteins, COCs that underwent IVM had neither detectable Adamts1, nor intact or Adamts1-cleaved Vcan. Human cumulus and granulosa cells matured in vivo contained abundant mRNA for Adamts1 and Vcan, demonstrating the potential relevance to human IVM. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that extensively altered COC matrix composition is present during IVM and may contribute to the observed poorer competence of the derived oocytes.  (+info)

Exogenous growth differentiation factor 9 in oocyte maturation media enhances subsequent embryo development and fetal viability in mice. (4/273)

BACKGROUND: Successful oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) would eliminate the need for hormonal stimulation used in assisted reproduction techniques. Unfortunately, oocytes matured in vitro have compromised developmental competence possibly due to disrupted oocyte-cumulus communication resulting from inappropriate levels of oocyte-secreted factors such as growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9). Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous GDF9 during IVM of mouse oocytes on development and subsequent fetal viability. METHODS: Cumulus-oocyte complexes from pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin primed mice were cultured with or without 200 ng/ml exogenous recombinant GDF9, 50 mIU/ml FSH and 10 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF). After 18 h, cumulus expansion was scored and oocytes were fertilized in vitro. Cleavage, blastocyst development, blastocyst total, inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm cell numbers were assessed. Viability of embryos was assessed by transfer to recipient females and pregnancy outcome determined at day 15. RESULTS: Oocytes matured with exogenous GDF9 in the presence of FSH and EGF had higher rates of development, percentage of hatching blastocyst and blastocyst total and ICM cell numbers (all P < 0.05). Although implantation rate and fetal and placental weights were not affected, the number of viable fetuses at day 15 was increased with exogenous GDF9. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous GDF9 during IVM improved embryo development and fetal viability and provides a promising approach for human IVM.  (+info)

Gene silencing of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA by RNA interference in bovine cumulus-granulosa cells. (5/273)

Inhibition of specific gene expression using RNA interference (RNAi) is a valuable tool for functional analysis of a target gene. However, there is little information available concerning RNAi for analysis of gene function in relation to the reproductive physiology of follicular cells in ruminants. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the interfering effect of small interference RNA (siRNA) on expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) mRNA and prostagrandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) production in bovine cumulus-granulosa (CG) cells. Bovine CG cells were collected from aspirated follicles and cultured. After reaching confluency, two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, to investigate the effective concentration of siRNA, 0, 100, 250 and 500 pM of Cox-2 siRNA was introduced into the CG cells, respectively. After 24 h, the amount of Cox-2 mRNA expression was measured by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. In experiment 2, to investigate the time required for effective interference of siRNA and Cox-2 activity, 250 pM siRNA was introduced for 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h. After culture, the amount of Cox-2 mRNA expression was measured and the culture medium was collected to determine the PGF(2alpha) concentration by enzyme immunoassay. The Cox-2 mRNA expression was not affected by introduction of 100 pM siRNA into CG cells for 24 h, but 250 and 500 pM Cox-2 siRNA significantly reduced the Cox-2 mRNA expression. Moreover, the significant suppressive effect of 250 pM siRNA was observed 6 h after introduction, and the reduction of mRNA expression by RNAi became more obvious over 12 h. On the other hand, the PGF(2alpha) concentration in the culture medium was not significantly different 12 h after siRNA introduction; however, the PGF(2alpha) concentration 24 h after siRNA introduction was significantly decreased compared with the control at the same time point. These results suggest that gene silencing of Cox-2 with siRNA is capable of analyzing the function and expression of specific genes in bovine CG cells.  (+info)

Proteolytic activity of the 26S proteasome is required for the meiotic resumption, germinal vesicle breakdown, and cumulus expansion of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes matured in vitro. (6/273)

The resumption of oocyte meiosis in mammals encompasses the landmark event of oocyte germinal vesicle (GV) breakdown (GVBD), accompanied by the modification of cell-to-cell communication and adhesion between the oocyte and surrounding cumulus cells. The concomitant cumulus expansion relies on microfilament-cytoskeletal remodeling and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. We hypothesized that this multifaceted remodeling event requires substrate-specific proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP). We evaluated meiotic progression, cytoskeletal dynamics, and the production of cumulus ECM in porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) cultured with or without 10-200 microM MG132, a specific proteasomal inhibitor, for the first 22 h of in vitro maturation, followed by 22 h of culture with or without MG132. Treatment with 10 microM MG132 arrested 28.4% of oocytes in GV stage (vs. 1.3% in control), 43.1% in prometaphase I, and 16.2% in metaphase I, whereas 83.7% of control ova reached metaphase II (0% of MG132 reached metaphase II). The proportion of GV-stage ova increased progressively to >90% with increased concentration of MG132 (20-200 microM). Furthermore, MG132 blocked the extrusion of the first polar body and degradation of F-actin-rich transzonal projections (TZP) interconnecting cumulus cells with the oocyte. The microfilament disruptor cytochalasin E (CE) prevented cumulus expansion but accelerated the breakdown of TZPs. Ova treated with a combination of 10 microM MG132 and 10 microM CE underwent GVBD, despite the inhibition of proteasomal activity. However, 90.0% of cumulus-free ova treated with 10 microM MG132 remained in GV stage, compared with 16.7% GV ova in control. Cumulus expansion, retention of hyaluronic acid, and the deposition of cumulus ECM relying on the covalent transfer of heavy chains of inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor (IalphaI) were also inhibited by MG132. Cumulus expansion in control COCs was accompanied by the degradation of ubiquitin-C-terminal hydrolase L3, an important regulator of UPP. RAC1, a UPP-controlled regulator of actin polymerization was maintained at steady levels throughout cumulus expansion. We conclude that proteasomal proteolysis has multiple functions in the progression of oocyte meiosis beyond GV and metaphase I stage, polar body extrusion, and cumulus expansion.  (+info)

Gene expression in human cumulus cells: one approach to oocyte competence. (7/273)

BACKGROUND: Dialogue between the oocyte and cumulus cells is essential for oocyte maturation. A prospective laboratory research project was designed to evaluate transcription of specific genes in cumulus cells harvested before intracytoplasmic sperm injection from pre-ovulatory follicles, according to individual oocyte nuclear maturity and developmental competence. Genes were chosen because their expression was induced by the LH peak [Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein (STAR), Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 or PTGS2), Amphiregulin (AREG)] or because they were involved in oocyte lipidic metabolism [Stearoyl-Coenzyme A Desaturase 1 and 5 (SCD1 and SCD5)] or in gap-junctions [Connexin 43 (CX43 or GJA1)]. METHODS: mRNA levels in cumulus cells were assessed by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Expression levels of all genes investigated, except Cx43, were increased after resumption of meiosis. Nuclear maturation was thus associated with increased expression of STAR, COX2, AREG, SCD1 and SCD5 by cumulus cells. When considering only cumulus associated with metaphase II oocytes, gene expression was independent of morphological status at Day 2. In contrast, transcript levels were lower and distributed over a narrower range in cumulus enclosing oocytes achieving blastocyst development at Day 5/6 than in cumulus enclosing oocytes unable to develop beyond the embryo stage. CONCLUSION: Further developmental potential from embryo to blastocyst stage was associated with lower expression in a narrow range for these genes.  (+info)

The protein profile of mouse mature cumulus-oocyte complex. (8/273)

In mammals, the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) is the main component of ovarian follicles. Bi-directional communication between oocytes and surrounding cumulus granulosa cells is essential for the development of oocytes and ovarian follicles. In this study, we performed proteomic profiling of mouse mature COC, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. A total of 259 protein spots were identified, which correspond to 156 individual proteins. We also discovered some protein families, which may play important roles in ovarian follicular development. Immunostaining was conducted to determine the subcellular localization of specific proteins from selected protein families of interest, and to examine their expression patterns during follicle development. These data provide valuable information for future studies to identify proteins involved in ovarian follicular development and related reproductive abnormalities.  (+info)

This study identified a 12-gene signature in human cumulus cells predictive of pregnancy across multiple clinics. The positive predictive value of our test was 81% with an area under the receiver operating characteristic of 0.763 0.079.
In bovine oocytes, the resumption of meiosis is characterized by the breakdown of the germinal vesicle (GVBD). When cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) are cultured in-vitro in the presence of gonadotropins, GVBD is characterized by an initial inhibitory phase, which is followed by an acceleration in the rate of GVBD. An initial transcriptional event is required for gonadotropin-induced in-vitro maturation. The objectives of this thesis were: 1) to define the time course required for transcriptional initiation in bovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs); 2) to determine the pattern of expression for Nr4A1 and Egr1 mRNAs in bovine COCs; and 3) to reduce the expression of Nr4A1 mRNA expression to determine its effect on oocyte maturation. Bovine COCs were cultured in the presence follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) alone or FSH with the transcriptional inhibitor, 5,6-dichloro-1-B-Dribofuranosylbenzamidazole (DRB), in order to refine the time course required for transcription initiation and to determine ...
Comparison of Gene Expression between Cumulus Oocyte Complexes and Naked Oocytes by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization in Swine - Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH);Gene Expression;Cumulus Cells, Porcine;
Kawashima, I., Liu, Z., Mullany, L.K., Mihara, T., Richards, J.S., Shimada, M. (2012) EGF-like factors induce expansion of the cumulus cell-oocyte complexes by activating calpain-mediated cell movement. Endocrinology 153: 3949-3959.. Noma, N., Kawashima, I., Fan, H.Y, Fujia, Y., Kawai, T., Tomoda, Y., Mihara, T., Richards, J.S., Shimada, M.(2011)LH induces Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) type III specific transcripts that interact with EGF-like factor pathways to control granulosa cell differentiation and oocyte maturation.Mol. Endocrinol. 25: 104-116.. Fujita, Y., Mihara, T., Okazaki, T., Shitanaka, M., Kushino, R., Ikeda, C., Negishi, H., Liu, Z., Richards, J.S., Shimada, M. (2011) Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4 on human sperm recognize bacterial endotoxins and mediate apoptosis. Hum. Reprod. 26: 2799-2806.. Fan, H.Y., Liu, Z., Shimada, M., Sterneck, E., Johnson, P.F., Hedrick, S.M., Richards, J.S. (2009)ERK1/2 in ovarian granulosa cells are critical for female fertility. Science, 324: 938-941.. ...
Objectives Cumulus cells play a crucial role as essential mediators in the maturation of ova. Ginger contains 10-gingerol, which induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Based on this hypothesis, this study aimed to determine whether 10-gingerol is able to induce apoptosis in normal cells, namely, cumulus cells. Methods This study used an in vitro analysis by culturing Cumulus cells in M199 containing 10-gingerol in various concentrations (12, 16, and 20 μM) and later detected early apoptotic activity using an Annexin V-FITC detection kit. Result The in vitro data revealed that the number of apoptosis cells increased along with the period of incubation as follows: 12 μM (63.71% ± 2.192%); 16 μM (74.51% ± 4.596%); and 20 μM (78.795% ± 1.435%). The substance 10-gingerol induces apoptosis in cumulus cells by inhibiting HTR1A functions and inactivating GSK3B and AKT-1. Conclusions These findings indicate that further examination is warranted for 10-gingerol as a contraception agent.. ...
Oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryo development are controlled by array of genes that are post-transcriptionally regulated by microRNAs. With respect to this, previously, we identified altered expression of microRNA-130b (miR-130b) during oocyte maturation. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-130b in bovine granulosa and cumulus cell function, oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryo development using gain- and loss-of- function approach. For this study, the granulosa cells, cumulus cells and the oocytes were collected from ovaries obtained from slaughterhouse. The genes targeted by miR-130b were identified using dual-luciferase reporter assay. The role of miR-130b in granulosa and cumulus cell function was investigated by increasing and inhibiting its expression in in vitro cultured cells using miR-130b precursor and inhibitor, respectively while the role of miR-130b on oocyte development, immature oocytes were microinjected with miR-130b precursor and inhibitor and the polar
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of cumulus cells on in vitro fertilization of bovine oocytes derived from in vitro maturation. AU - Chian, R. C.. AU - Okuda, K.. AU - Niwa, K.. PY - 1995/3. Y1 - 1995/3. N2 - The effect of the cumulus cells on in vitro fertilization (IVF) in cattle was evaluated. Frozen-thawed bovine spermatozoa were treated with 5 mM caffeine and 10 μg heparin ml-1 for sperm capacitation. Bovine oocytes with or without cumulus cells after maturation in culture were inseminated by different concentrations of spermatozoa. When the concentration of (0.8-1.5) × 106 spermatozoa ml-1 was employed, the penetration rate was significantly (P , 0.001) higher in cumulus-intact (87%, 130/149) than in cumulus-free (57%, 101/178) oocytes. However, such differences were not observed with sperm concentrations of (2.0-3.0) × 106 and (3.5-5.0) × 106 spermatozoa ml-1 (92% (69/75) vs. 86% (68/79) and 93% (67/72) vs. 91% (73/80) respectively). The polyspermy was significantly (P , 0.05) higher in ...
Thousands of circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been recently discovered in cumulus cells and oocytes from several species. However, the expression and function of circRNA during porcine oocyte meiotic maturation have been never examined. Here, we separately identified 7,067 and 637 circRNAs in both cumulus cells and oocytes via deep sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Further analysis revealed that a faction of circRNAs is differentially expressed (DE) in a developmental stage-specific manner. The host genes of DE circRNAs are markedly enriched to multiple signaling pathways associated with cumulus cell function and oocyte maturation. Additionally, most DE circRNAs harbor several miRNA targets, suggesting that these DE circRNAs potentially act as miRNA sponge. Importantly, we found that maternal circARMC4 knockdown by siRNA microinjection caused a severely impaired chromosome alignment, and significantly inhibited first polar body extrusion and early embryo development. Taken together, these
FIGURE 2 Thin section of the cumulus-oocyte complex in a large non-preovulatory follicle from a rat treated with PMSG and HCG. The specimen was taken 10 h after the HCG innennost cumulus layer, the corona radiata, send processes through the zona pelluc contacts on the surface of the oocyte (small arrows) distinguished from the short cumulus cells are also jo ily . The is image, the cumulus processes are eas ifference in staining density . In th lli on the oocyte surface by the d icrovi d to each other by gap ification junctions that can be identified even at low magn ine (large arrows). X 10,000. FIGURES 3-4 Thin-sections of the contact between cumulus cell processes and the oocyte plasma membrane. FIGURE 3 A gap junction is present as a continuous close apposition of the cumulus cell membrane (C) and the oolemma (two arrows). The cytoplasmic surface of the oolemma junctional membrane contains an accumulation of dense material that is not present in the same region of the cumulus cell process. ...
The close relationship between cumulus cell function and oocyte developmental competence indicates that analysis of cumulus gene expression is a potential non-invasive method to aid embryo selection and IVF outcome. Cumulus was isolated from 674 oocytes from 75 women undergoing ICSI and gene expression analysed by quantitative RT-PCR. Cumulus expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2) was higher with mature oocytes, whereas brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was lower when fertilisation was normal. Expression levels of gremlin (GREM1) and BDNF were weak positive and negative predictors of embryo quality respectively. Ranking of GREM1 expression within cohorts of oocytes showed that oocytes associated with the highest GREM1 expression were more likely to be transferred or cryopreserved than discarded (49 vs 33%, P ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exposing bovine oocytes to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in vivo and in vitro on early embryo development. In experiment 1, cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs, n = 700/group) were challenged with 0, 0.1, 1.0 or 5.0 μg/mL of LPS during in vitro maturation (IVM). Later, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) were performed. In experiment 2, COCs (n = 200/group) matured and in vitro fertilized without LPS were subjected to IVC with the same doses of LPS from experiment 1. In experiment 3, heifers received two injections of saline solution (n = 8) or 0.5 μg/kg of LPS (n = 8) 24 h apart, and 3 days later, COCs were recovered and submitted to IVM, IVF, and IVC. In experiments 1 and 3, the expression of TLR4, TNF, AREG and EREG genes in cumulus cells was evaluated. Exposure to 1 and 5 μg/mL of LPS during IVM decreased nuclear maturation (39.4 and 39.6%, respectively) compared with control (63.6%, P , 0.05). Despite that, no effect on ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exposing bovine oocytes to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in vivo and in vitro on early embryo development. In experiment 1, cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs, n = 700/group) were challenged with 0, 0.1, 1.0 or 5.0 μg/mL of LPS during in vitro maturation (IVM). Later, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) were performed. In experiment 2, COCs (n = 200/group) matured and in vitro fertilized without LPS were subjected to IVC with the same doses of LPS from experiment 1. In experiment 3, heifers received two injections of saline solution (n = 8) or 0.5 μg/kg of LPS (n = 8) 24 h apart, and 3 days later, COCs were recovered and submitted to IVM, IVF, and IVC. In experiments 1 and 3, the expression of TLR4, TNF, AREG and EREG genes in cumulus cells was evaluated. Exposure to 1 and 5 μg/mL of LPS during IVM decreased nuclear maturation (39.4 and 39.6%, respectively) compared with control (63.6%, P , 0.05). Despite that, no effect on ...
STUDY QUESTION: Is the phosphoinositol 1, 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) pathway expression profile in cumulus cells (CCs) a potential marker of oocyte competence and predictive of pregnancy outcome? SUMMARY ANSWER: Eleven genes (AKT1, ARHGEF7, BCL2L1, CCND1, E2F1, HRAS, KCNH2, PIK3C2A, SHC1, SOS1 and SPP1) in the PI3K/AKT pathway were significantly down-regulated in CCs from oocytes that went on to produce a pregnancy compared to CCs associated with a negative outcome. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The PI3K/AKT pathway plays a pivotal role in the interdependence and continuous feedback between the oocyte and CCs. STUDY DESIGN SIZE, DURATION: The expression analysis of 92 transcripts in the PI3K/AKT pathway in CCs from patients with negative or positive pregnancy outcome, after single embryo transfer, was performed. Mouse CCs target gene expression was conducted to associate the expression profile of PI3K/AKT pathway to oocyte developmental profile. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: ...
The objective of the present study was to investigate the cumulus expansions of Nili Ravi buffalo oocytes during cultured in TCM-199 supplemented with 2 μg/ml oestradiol (E(2)), 0.05 IU/ml recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (rhFSH), 2IU/ml human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), and 0.12 IU/ml insulin (I). The cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) were collected from 2-8mm follicles from local abattoir ovaries. Supplementation of medium with single hormones showed significant (P,0.0001) increase in mean diameter of COCs with rhFSH except E(2), hCG and insulin after 24 hours compared to the increase in the mean diameter of COCs matured in TCM-199 without any hormonal supplementation ...
Intercellular gap-junctional communication (GJC) plays an important role in ovarian cell physiology. Closure of GJC has been proposed to be involved in oocyte maturation, particularly in the resumption of meiosis, both in vivo and in vitro, by controlling the flow of meiosis inhibitors, such as cAMP and cGMP. Understanding how GJC dynamics are regulated during in vitro maturation (IVM) could provide a powerful tool for controlling meiotic resumption and oocyte maturation in vitro. Since little is known about the GJC dynamic regulation between cumulus cells, we have developed an assay based on recovery of calcein fluorescence in photobleached cumulus cells, a gap-FRAP assay. The GJC profile has been characterized during the first hours of porcine IVM. We showed that equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) down-regulated GJC effectiveness between cumulus cells. However, human chorionic gonadotropin was not down-regulating GJC effectiveness. We also showed that the GJC ...
Cumulus Evaluation, Oocyte Competence and MiRNA DR. ALISON BARTOLUCCI Alison is the Director of Laboratory Operations at the Center for Advanced Reproductive Services at the University of Connecticut. Prior to becoming a
ASICS GEL-CUMULUS 19 rouge/noir, GEL CUMULUS 19 HOMME La gel cumulus 19 est la chausse de haute performance idéal pour les coureurs de demi-fond et de fond. Cette nouvelle version de la gel cumulus est faite pour une course sur route quelle que soit la cadence.
We aimed to elucidate the effects of PGE2 and PGF2a on the in vitro maturation (IVM) of bovine oocytes. First, cumulus-oocyte complexes were matured in the media supplemented with or without PGE2, PGF2a, or PGE2 plus PGF2a for the final 24, 12, or 6 h of culture. Then, the cumulus-oocyte complexes were matured in the absence or presence of a PG endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) enzyme inhibitor (NS398) supplemented with PGE2, PGF2a, or PGE2 plus PGF2a. Finally, the expression of genes associated with PGs activity in cumulus cells (PTGS2, PG E-synthase-1 [PTGES1], and aldo-keto reductase 1 [AKR1B1]) or oocytes (receptors for PGE2 [PTGER2] and PGF2a [PTGFR]) of different competencies was quantified. Supplementation of the IVM medium with PGs did not improve in ...
Association between the proportion of dominant follicles and oocyte developmental competence. Li, Yi; Li, Rui-Qi; Ou, Song-Bang; Ren, Ling; Zhang, Ning-Feng; Wei, Li-Na; Zhang, Qing-Xue; Yang, Dong-Zi // Journal of Assisted Reproduction & Genetics;Dec2014, Vol. 31 Issue 12, p1599 Purpose: To explore the optimal timing for hCG triggering by investigating the impact of different proportion of dominant follicles on the oocyte developmental competence. Methods: One hundred ninety-eight infertile women were divided into three groups according to the proportion of dominant... ...
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We in this study have been able to locate the cumulus in 94.6% of the cases in conception cycles and in 53% of non-conception cycles by surface rendering [Table
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Pursuant to FCC Amends Section 73.1216 of the Commissions Rules, the following information and rules links pertain to specific Cumulus corporate contesting run on this and other Cumulus stations.. Pick Your Pearl Jam ...
Clouds come in all sorts of types, including cumulus, cumulonimbus, stratus, and cirrus. Learn how to tell each cloud type apart.. ...
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Expansion of the mouse cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) is dependent on oocyte-secreted paracrine factors. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily molecules are prime candidates for the cumulus expansion-enabling factors (CEEFs), and we have recently determined that growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) alone is not the CEEF. The aim of this study was to examine oocyte paracrine factors and their signaling pathways that regulate mouse cumulus expansion. Using RT-PCR, oocytes were found to express the two activin subunits, Inhba and Inhbb, and activin A and activin B both enabled FSH-induced cumulus expansion of oocytectomized (OOX) complexes. Follistatin, an activin-binding protein, neutralized activin-induced expansion but had no effect on oocyte-induced expansion. The type I receptors for GDF9 and activin are activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) and ALK4, respectively, both of which activate the same SMAD 2/3 signaling pathway. We examined the requirement for this signaling system ...
We investigated the effect mouse cumulus cells (mCCs) on the in vitro maturation (IVM) and developmental potential of bovine denuded germinal vesicle oocytes (DOs). Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), DOs and DOs cocultured with either mCCs (DOs + mCCs) or bovine cumulus cells (bCCs; DOs + bCCs) were subjected to IVM. The meiosis II (MII) rates of DOs, glutathione (GSH) contents, zona pellucida (ZP) hardening and parthenogenetic blastocyst rates of MII oocytes were determined. The relative expression levels of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP-15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) in MII oocytes were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). mCCs significantly increased the MII rate of DOs from 53.5 ± 3.58% to 69.67 ± 4.72% (p , 0.05) but had no effect on the GSH content (2.17 ± 0.31 pmol/oocyte with mCCs, 2.14 ± 0.53 pmol/oocyte without mCCs). For the DOs + mCCs group, the BMP-15 and GDF-9 expression levels were significantly higher and the ZP ...
Selection of the best oocyte for subsequent steps of fertilization and embryo transfer was shown to be the crucial step in human infertility treatment procedure. Oocyte selection using morphological criteria mainly Zona pellucida (ZP) has been the gold standard method in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) clinics, but this selection approach has limitations in terms of accuracy, objectivity and constancy. Recent studies using OMICs-based approaches have allowed the identification of key molecular markers that quantitatively and non-invasively predict the oocyte quality for higher pregnancy rates and efficient infertility treatment. These biomarkers are a valuable reinforcement of the morphological selection criteria widely used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. In this context, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between transcriptomic predictors of oocyte quality found by our group and the conventional morphological parameters of oocyte quality mainly the ZP
Structure of the cumulus matrix and zona pellucida in the golden hamster: a new view of sperm interaction with oocyte-associated extracellular matrices.
Complete denudation of oocytes before slush nitrogen vitrification does not influence survival rates but positively affects oocyte meiotic spindle competence. These data support the hypothesis that cumulus cells during vitrification represent an obstacle to cryoprotectant penetration more than having a protective role for the oocyte.. ...
Oocytes are generally recovered as a cumulus-oocyte complex, an oocyte surrounded by the cumulus cells that nourish it, dislodged from the follicle wall. Initially as a follicle grows, the cumulus cells are tightly adhered to the follicle wall and the mass of cells itself is very dense; the cells are very close together. As the follicle grows and becomes a dominant follicle the cumulus mass starts to expand as the cells secrete an extracellular matrix that spreads them apart. Nearing ovulation this expansion makes the attachment to the follicle wall weaker and weaker so that during ovulation the oocyte can be swept from the follicle into the oviduct. The loosening of the attachment makes the oocyte somewhat easier to recover nearing ovulation, although as the follicle enlarges it is more difficult to create the turbulence necessary to dislodge the oocyte. For these reasons, aspiration of the immature follicles with their firmly attached cumulus-oocyte complex, tend to have the highest recovery ...
Oocytes are generally recovered as a cumulus-oocyte complex, an oocyte surrounded by the cumulus cells that nourish it, dislodged from the follicle wall. Initially as a follicle grows, the cumulus cells are tightly adhered to the follicle wall and the mass of cells itself is very dense; the cells are very close together. As the follicle grows and becomes a dominant follicle the cumulus mass starts to expand as the cells secrete an extracellular matrix that spreads them apart. Nearing ovulation this expansion makes the attachment to the follicle wall weaker and weaker so that during ovulation the oocyte can be swept from the follicle into the oviduct. The loosening of the attachment makes the oocyte somewhat easier to recover nearing ovulation, although as the follicle enlarges it is more difficult to create the turbulence necessary to dislodge the oocyte. For these reasons, aspiration of the immature follicles with their firmly attached cumulus-oocyte complex, tend to have the highest recovery ...
Gap junctional conversation (GJC) takes on a primordial part in oocyte maturation and meiotic resumption in mammals by directing the transfer of several substances between cumulus cells as well as the oocyte. gonadotropins, recommending that it could be the main regulator of GJC. Furthermore, the degradation of Cx43 indicated after 4.5 h of IVM in response to equine chorionic gonadotropin seemed to involve the proteasomal complex. Cx43 localisation were connected with GJC. Used together, these outcomes show for the very first time that gonadotropins control Cx43 protein manifestation, degradation and localisation in porcine COC through the first a long time of IVM. Rules of Cx43 may subsequently, via GJC, take part in the introduction of completely competent oocytes. Intro Gap junctional conversation (GJC) plays important roles in various cells and cell types, including ovaries, follicles and cumulus oocyte complicated (COC). Certainly, GJC is usually involved in many physiological and ...
Between 1996 and 2000 79 Belgian blue donor cows were submitted to OPU-IVF. They all had a history in classical embryo transfer programs with disappointing results. Two different in vitro embryo production protocols were used. Between 1996 and 1998 (period A), oocytes were matured in M199 and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Foetal Calf Serum (FCS) were added. Subsequently, the oocytes were cultured in a granulosa co-culture system in a Synthetic Oviduct Fluid (SOF) medium. From 1998 until 2000 (Period B), M199, FCS, equine chorionic gonatrophin (eCG) and a granulosa cell co-culture were used for in vitro maturation.Zygotes were subsequently cultured in SOF with a co-culture of bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOEC). During period A, 531 OPU-IVF sessions were performed, collecting 2111 cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs), of which 928 (44 %) were of good morphological quality. The In vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF) and culture (IVC) resulted in 241 transferable embryos. When fresh ...
My research program investigates the oocyte, better known as ovule, but in its immature state. Our team is especially interested in cell signalling since it plays a primordial role in the gametes maturation. Even more specifically, we investigate the role of cyclic nucleotide enzyme degradation, namely phosphodiesterases (PDEs). We have made interesting discovering by identifying new families of PDEs found in cumulus cells, some of which seem to be regulated through their association with membrane lipids of the raft family and others which are very sensitive to cAMP regulation. We are also interested in understanding the dialogue between cumulus cells and the oocyte. We have developed a tools for the functional evaluation of cumulus cells response by measuring Gap junction communication using fluorophores and photobleaching. Thanks to this approach, we are among world leaders involved in demonstrating the high level of regulation of gap junctions during in vitro maturation. We are very ...
Involved in sperm-egg adhesion. Upon fertilization sperm must first penetrate a layer of cumulus cells that surrounds the egg before reaching the zona pellucida. The cumulus cells are embedded in a matrix containing hyaluronic acid which is formed prior to ovulation. This protein aids in penetrating the layer of cumulus cells by digesting hyaluronic acid (By similarity).
The Dead Cell Removal Kit is a fast and straightforward way of eliminating dead cells from cell cultures or tissue preparations. The Dead Cell Removal Kit contains ready-to-use MicroBeads and Binding Buffer for the magnetic labeling of cell debris, dead cells, and dying cells. The magnetically labeled material is removed by magnetic separation and pure, viable cells are obtained within 25 minutes. | Belgique
This observation is routinely performed by the study nurses of the fertility center for every patient undergoing standard ART treatment and is thus available from the fertility center database. This measurement does not include a scale, there is either a child born or not. The date of delivery and the gender of the child are asked together with eventual complications ...
Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) were collected from abbatoir-derived llama ovaries and cultured in vitro for 28, 30, or 36 h at 39 degrees C in 5% CO2 to determine the time required for maturation. The majority of COC (n = 298, 87%) were classified as categories I and 2 (COC with ,= 5 layers or 2-4 compact layers of cumulus cells, respectively) and homogeneous ooplasm, and the proportion that underwent nuclear maturation (MII) was 78, 81 and 80%, after 28, 30 and 36 h, respectively (P = 0.65). To compare the effectiveness of FSH versus eCG for inducing in vivo maturation, in experiment 2, llamas (n = 20 per group) were treated with: (1) 25 mg FSH, twice-daily for 4 day, plus 5 mg armour of LH at the end of FSH treatment; or (2) 1000 IU of eCG, plus 5 mg armour of LH 4 day after eCG treatment. The FSH- and eCG-treated groups did not differ (P = 0.85) with respect to the number of follicles ,= 6 mm at the time of COC collection (17.9 +/- 2.2 versus 17.7 +/- 2.2), the number of COC collected (10.7 ...
To assess whether the GnRH-agonist or urinary-hCG ovulation triggers affect oocyte competence in a setting entailing vitrified-warmed euploid blastocyst tr
BACKGROUND: Oocytes are the female gametes which establish the program of life after fertilization. Interactions between oocyte and the surrounding cumulus cells at germinal vesicle (GV) stage are considered essential for ...
BACKGROUND: Oocytes are the female gametes which establish the program of life after fertilization. Interactions between oocyte and the surrounding cumulus cells at germinal vesicle (GV) stage are considered essential for ...
Its the kind of conservative media story only conservatives understand. The latest numbers are out for Michael Savages radio show. Recall that Savage was a key player in the battle between Sean Hannity and Cumulus radio. A battle that had an exasperated Hannity finally firing Cumulus, as reported here in NewsBusters at the time. But not before Savage, whom Cumulus had in the
Vettese, S., Thompson, P. & Allan, D. (2017). A study of the multi generational relationship with making through mediated designing in collaborative, digital environments: implications for learning and open access fabrication. In Cumulus Hong Kong 2016, Cumulus Working Papers, Open Design for E-very-thing, 23 - 30. ISBN 9789526000800. ...
Today will be a special one in the desert. Cumulus bases are going to be really LOW for summer, maybe only 3-4 kft above the ground, and likely warmer than 15 C (50 F). Maybe 50 F doesnt sound special, but it is. A base temperature of summer clouds that warm is rarely observed here. And with that, and all the posts here about the temperatures that ice forms (around -10 C, 14 F) are out the window. Ice will form at much higher temperatures than usual.. This is because on a day when the Cumulus bases are that warm, rain forms by collisions between droplets before clouds even reach the -5 C (23 F) level, the highest temperature at which Ma Nature can produce ice. Rain mgiht even form in our clouds today even before the freezing level itself!. This is so exciting for an Arizonan who has studied ice-in-clouds development over the years because today ice will form in clouds around the -5 to -10 C level, and the mechanism of Mssrs Hallett and Mossop will be heavily involved as well as other lesser ...
2. Explain how clouds are made. Describe the different kinds of clouds-stratus, cumulus, cumulonimbus, and cirrus-and what kind of weather can be associated with these cloud types ...
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene targets. Accurate quantification of miRNA expression using validated internal controls should aid in the understanding of their role in epigenetic modification of genome function. To date, most studies that have examined miRNA expression levels have used the global mean expression of all expressed genes or the expression of reference mRNAs or nuclear RNAs for normalization. We analyzed the suitability of a number of miRNAs as potential expression normalizers in bovine oocytes and early embryos, and porcine oocytes. The stages examined were bovine oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) and metaphase II stages, bovine zygotes, 2, 4 and 8 cell embryos, morulae and blastocysts, as well as porcine cumulus oocyte complexes, GV, metaphase I and II oocytes. qRT-PCR was performed to quantify expression of miR-93, miR-103, miR-26a, miR-191, miR-23b, Let-7a and U6 for bovine samples and miR-21, miR-26a, miR-93, miR-103,
Generation and culture of PSCs. We induced superovulation in 6- to 8-week-old (C57BL/6J × DBA/2J)F1 (B6D2F1) mice by i.p. injection of 7.5 U pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and, 48 hours later, 7.5 U human choriogonadotropin (hCG). We harvested oviducts and collected cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) 16 hours after hCG injection. Cumulus cells were removed with hyaluronidase (1 mg/ml for 10 minutes at room temperature). We subsequently activated oocytes with strontium chloride (10 mmol/l in Ca2+-free CZB medium in mmol/l: NaCl 82.7, KCl 4.68, KH2PO4 1.17, MgSO4 1.18, D-glucose 5.6, Na-lactate 30.1, EDTA2Na 0.1, NaHCO3 25, Na-pyruvate 0.62, glutamine 1; supplemented with 5 mg/ml BSA, and 100 U/ml penicillin and 100 μg/ml streptomycin [100 P/S]) for 6 hours and prevented second polar body extrusion with cytochalasin B (5 μg/ml). Blastocysts formed during culture in mineral oil-covered Ca2+-containing (1.71 mmol/l) CZB medium for 6 days. We transferred blastocysts onto mitomycin C (10 ...
Treatment of in vitro matured bovine oocytes with colcemid results in a membrane protrusion that contains maternal chromosomes, which can be easily removed by aspiration. Four experiments were designed to evaluate the overall and temporal effects of conditioned medium (CM) by bovine cumulus cells on development of nuclear transfer (NT) bovine embryos and to examine the chromosomal composition and allocation of inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) of the subsequent blastocysts. The nuclear transfer embryos were cultured in various CR1aa media conditioned by preculture with bovine cumulus cells. Development to the blastocyst stage in BSA-containing CM (BCM) and serum-containing CM (SCM) were similar to co-culture group (24-30%). The 24 hr-conditioned BCM yielded higher blastocyst development than 48 and 72 hr-conditioned BCM. Temporary exposure of embryos to BCM and SCM followed by CR1aa was also studied. Morula and blastocyst development were not different among the groups cultured in BCM for 72,
Ovarian stimulation plays a pivotal role in assisted reproductive therapies, to increase the number of embryos available for treatment; however, there is no clear consensus from meta-analyses in the literature which, if any, of the preparations in use are superior in terms of clinical outcomes. The aim of this thesis was to examine the effect of common human gonadotrophin preparations with different half lives and LH activity (hMG, rFSH and Pergoveris) on embryo quality and resulting offspring, compared to non- stimulated negative controls and positive PMSG treated controls, using the mouse model. The studies in this thesis indicated that an LH ceiling threshold is evident during folliculogenesis, where the use of long acting LH preparations resulted in higher numbers of fragmented oocytes, absent of cumulus cells (P,0.001), reduced expression of the pro and anti-angiogenic factors, MYHII and PEDF in cumulus cells (P,0.05), increased embryonic developmental arrest (P,0.001) and perturbed IGF2 ...
Bohannon, a Memphis native, joins Cumulus from iHeartMedia-Memphis, where he was most recently Area President. He served iHeartMedia/Clear Channel Radio in various capacities and markets for over 20 years, was previously Market Manager for iHeartMedia-Memphis; Director of Sales for iHeartMedia in Greenville, SC; and Regional Vice President for Clear Channel Radio-Charlotte, NC. Bohannon was also previously Director of Sales for Apex Broadcasting. Bohannon is Board Chair for both The First Tee of Memphis and Junior Achievement of The Mid-South and is a Member of the Board of Directors of The Consortium MMT ...
Dentre os principais desafios que persistem no campo da biologia da reprodução está a compreensão da natureza dos processos celulares e moleculares que determinam a qualidade dos oócitos. Um dos fenômenos a serem melhor compreendidos é a aquisição da competência do oócito, e qual o papel desempenhado pelo ambiente folicular que circunda o gameta no seu potencial de desenvolvimento. As células foliculares, especialmente as células do cumulus, certamente desempenham um papel fundamental na aquisição da competência de oócitos in vivo. Durante a maturação in vitro (MIV) do oócito observa-se expansão e mucificação das células da granulosa que formam o complexo cumulus oophorus-oócito (CCO), em função da intensa síntese de componentes da matriz extracelular. Essas modificações no aspecto do cumulus são utilizadas como indicativo da ocorrência de maturação oocitária e contribuem para que ocorra a fecundação. A expressão de proteínas associadas à matriz ...
Low, mid and high cloud cover: Cloud cover at different altitudes. High clouds (8-15 km) like cirrus are less significant for total cloud cover than low (below 4 km) like stratus, cumulus and fog or mid clouds (4-8 km) like alto cumulus and alto stratus ...
The Gel Kayano, Gel Cumulus, and GT 2000 are few shoe models from Asics that basically made a reputation in the operating trade. The adidas name dates again to 1948, deriving from the primary two syll
Capacitated sperm are attracted to progesterone, which is secreted from the cumulus cells surrounding the oocyte. Progesterone ... Some sperm cells consume their acrosome prematurely on the surface of the egg cell, facilitating the penetration by other sperm ... "The sperm chemoattractant secreted from human cumulus cells is progesterone". Human Reproduction. 23 (10): 2339-2345. doi: ... The fusion of cell membranes of the secondary oocyte and sperm takes place. In preparation for the fusion of their genetic ...
ZIP12 mRNA is more abundant in mouse oocytes compared to cumulus cells, which indicates that ZIP12 may play a role in ... Lisle RS, Anthony K, Randall MA, Diaz FJ (April 2013). "Oocyte-cumulus cell interactions regulate free intracellular zinc in ... In Neuro-2a cells and primary mouse neurons transfected with shRNA specifically targeting ZIP12, the neural cells have shorter ... To study how ZIP12 is important for a neural cell to extend neurites out from the cell body, researchers used short hairpin RNA ...
2009). "MATER protein as substrate of PKCepsilon in human cumulus cells". Mol. Hum. Reprod. 15 (8): 499-506. doi:10.1093/molehr ... 2009). "Human MATER localization in specific cell domains of oocytes and follicular cells". Reprod. Biomed. Online. 18 (2): 226 ... Cell Biol. 4 (2): 95-104. doi:10.1038/nrm1019. PMID 12563287. S2CID 31417018. Maraldi T, Riccio M, Sena P, et al. ( ... gene and protein in pig somatic tissues and germ cells". J. Reprod. Dev. 56 (1): 41-8. doi:10.1262/jrd.09-098a. PMID 19815987 ...
Wang HX, Tekpetey FR, Kidder GM (2009). "Identification of WNT/beta-CATENIN signaling pathway components in human cumulus cells ... 2008). "Relation between cell-to-cell adhesion and angiogenesis and clinico-morphological prognostic factors in patients with ... "Ph+/VE-cadherin+ identifies a stem cell like population of acute lymphoblastic leukemia sustained by bone marrow niche cells". ... Cell. Biol. 28 (24): 7368-79. doi:10.1128/MCB.00744-08. PMC 2593444. PMID 18852287. Sharma M, Henderson BR (2007). "IQ-domain ...
... glycoprotein composition and cell-to-cell interactions in the cumulus-oocyte complex.[citation needed] An obituary was ... steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells and follicular growth; ...
Wang HX, Tekpetey FR, Kidder GM (2009). "Identification of WNT/beta-CATENIN signaling pathway components in human cumulus cells ... 2007). "Regulation of norrin receptor frizzled-4 by Wnt2 in colon-derived cells". BMC Cell Biol. 8: 12. doi:10.1186/1471-2121-8 ... 2009). "Downregulation of Wnt2 and beta-catenin by siRNA suppresses malignant glioma cell growth". Cancer Gene Ther. 16 (4): ... These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate ...
Oocytes are classified depending on their condition, such as number of cumulus cells. The best oocytes are chosen to be matured ... Ouandaogo ZG, Assou S, Haouzi D, Anahory T, Dechaud H, Hamamah S (2010). "Gene expression profile in human cumulus cells of ... This results in an expanding or dispersed pattern of the cumulus oophorus around the egg cell, facilitating its identification ... develop into primary follicle containing cuboidal granulosa cells. A secondary follicle is formed with a few granulosa cell ...
Microarray data for cumulus cells during natural and stimulated in vitro fertilization show relatively high levels of ... "Modified natural and stimulated in vitro fertilization cycles: cumulus cells - - GEO DataSets - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. ...
Found in Cumulus Oophorus, stimulates binding of the spermatozoa to the zona pellucida. First, cumulus cells reduce the ... cumulus cell, immune cell and clinical associations". Human Reproduction Update. 13 (3): 275-87. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmm004. ... inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in monocytic cells". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 41 ... It is synthesized by the glandular cells of endometrium in the luteal phase of menstrual cycle. The temporal and spatial ...
An increase in cumulus cell number causes a concomitant increase in antrum fluid volume that can swell the follicle to over 20 ... For ovulation to be successful, the ovum must be supported by the corona radiata and cumulus oophorous granulosa cells. The ... Mucification is the secretion of a hyaluronic acid-rich cocktail that disperses and gathers the cumulus cell network in a ... By this time, the oocyte has completed meiosis I, yielding two cells: the larger secondary oocyte that contains all of the ...
However, some cells can rise to 70000 feet. Another option would be to navigate around the cells. This is strongly discouraged ... He entered a seemingly innocuous cumulus at 2,000 feet (610 m). This cumulus evolved into a large cumulonimbus. At first, the ... Moreover, even the cumulus congestus associated with a supercell thunderstorm can be very dangerous. Tornadoes can be produced ... In particular, in the forward area of the supercell, one can find a flanking line made of cumulus congestus or small ...
Huang, Zhongwei; Wells, Dagan (2010). "The human oocyte and cumulus cells relationship: New insights from the cumulus cell ... The cumulus-oocyte complex contains layers of tightly packed cumulus cells surrounding the oocyte in the Graafian follicle. The ... Before ovulation, the cumulus complex goes through a structural change known as cumulus expansion. The granulosa cells ... The female germ cells produce a primordial germ cell (PGC), which then undergoes mitosis, forming oogonia. During oogenesis, ...
Typical of later stages of follicle development is the appearance of cumulus cells. GDF9 causes the expansion of cumulus cells ... allowing the expansion of cumulus cells. Silencing of GDF9 expression results in the absence of cumulus cell expansion, this ... Single-cell expression analysis of BMP15 and GDF9 in mature oocytes and BMPR2 in cumulus cells of women with polycystic ovary ... cumulus and theca cells. Paracrine interactions between the developing oocyte and its surrounding follicular cells is essential ...
Progesterone from the cumulus cells is the sperm chemoattractant secreted by the rabbit oocyte cumulus complex. PLOS One 3, ... One is the cumulus cells that surround the oocyte, and the other is the mature oocyte itself. The chemoattractant secreted from ... The subsequent findings that cumulus cells of both human and rabbit (and, probably, of other mammals as well) secrete the ... Cell Biol. 7, 276-285. Alvarez, L., Friedrich, B.M., Gompper, G., Kaupp. U.B. (2013). "The computational sperm cell". Trends in ...
Cumulus clouds are formed by the rising air in a thermal as it ascends and cools, until the water vapor in the air begins to ... Thermals are also seen on the sun, typically forming hexagonal prisms (Bénard cells). Air current Atmospheric thermodynamics ... Thermals are often indicated by the presence of visible cumulus clouds at the top of the thermal. When a steady wind is present ... thermals and their respective cumulus clouds can align in rows oriented with wind direction, sometimes referred to as "cloud ...
One is the cumulus cells that surround the oocyte, and the other is the mature oocyte itself. The chemoattractant secreted from ... The subsequent findings that cumulus cells of both human and rabbit (and, probably, of other mammals as well) secrete the ... A key feature of sperm chemotaxis in humans is that this process is restricted to capacitated cells - the only cells that ... and sperm chemoattractants secreted from the oocyte and its surrounding cumulus cells, respectively - strongly suggest the ...
She was named after the cumulus cells surrounding the developing oocyte in the ovarian follicle in mice. Nuclei from these ... Cumulina (October 3, 1997-May 5, 2000), a mouse, was the first animal cloned from adult cells that survived to adulthood. She ... cells were put into egg cell devoid of their original nuclei in the Honolulu cloning technique. All other mice produced by the ...
... detection algorithm output on tornadic cells in Northern Michigan on July 3, 1999. Tornado formation is not ... Two, a thundercloud, or occasionally a cumulus cloud, must be present. During a thunderstorm, updrafts are occasionally ...
... after the cumulus cells whose nuclei were used to clone her. At the time of the publication of this work over fifty mice ... cell nuclei as well as the production of pluripotent stem cells from adult cells for therapeutic purposes. He retired in 2005, ... The first male animal cloned from adult cells was announced in 1999. In 2004 the laboratory participated in the cloning of an ... The first one was a female named Cumulina from the cells that surround the developing ovarian follicle in mice. Yanagimachi was ...
... and excrete the oocyte with a complement of cumulus cells in a process called ovulation. In natural cycles, ovulation may occur ... Each type of cell behaves differently in response to FSH. Theca interna cells express receptors for luteinizing hormone (LH). ... In addition, as more estrogen is secreted, more LH receptors are made by the theca cells, inciting theca cells to create more ... adjacent to the antrum and cumulus oophorous, which connects the membrana and corona radiata granulosa cells together. ...
... the identified eggs are stripped of surrounding cells (also known as cumulus cells) and prepared for fertilisation. An oocyte ... Characteristics of cells from the cumulus oophorus and the membrana granulosa, which are easily aspirated during oocyte ... Before the transfer of a pre-embryo back to a woman's uterus, one or two cells are removed from the pre-embryos (8-cell stage ... In both PGS and PGD, individual cells from a pre-embryo, or preferably trophectoderm cells biopsied from a blastocyst, are ...
... and finally cumulus cells. Experimental evidence has demonstrated that the released contents of the cortical granules modify ... This space is called the cortical granule free domain (CGFD) and has been observed in both the cell's meiotic spindle regions ... The oocyte has been shown to obtain maximum proficiency for releasing calcium at this same cell stage, between metaphase I and ... Within the oocyte, cortical granules are located along the cortex, the region furthest from the cell's center. Following ...
From the ideation stage to preparing a prototype, & through to the pilot stage to start production, the incubation cell ... and CUMULUS. These memberships offer opportunities for students to get exposure and experience through participation in ... Design Business Incubator The Business Incubation Cell at ARCH provides the necessary resources, services, coaching, mentoring ... National Organisations like CUMULUS, International Foundation of Fashion Technology Institutes (IFFTI), World Design ...
... and chemotactic gradients of progesterone have been confirmed as the signal emanating from the cumulus oophorus cells ... contained in the central cell) in the centre of the gametophyte. The resulting cell is triploid (3n). This triploid cell ... Two daughter cells are produced by one parent cell. It involves the process of mitosis. Fertilisation in fungi. In many fungi ( ... First, the cytoplasms of the two gamete cells fuse (called plasmogamy), producing a dikaryotic or heterokaryotic cell with ...
"Mouse sperm lacking cell surface hyaluronidase PH-20 can pass through the layer of cumulus cells and fertilize the egg". The ... White blood cells produce hyaluronidase to move more easily through connective tissue to get to infected sites. In mammalian ... The majority of mammalian ova are covered in a layer of granulosa cells intertwined in an extracellular matrix that contains a ... Alberts B (2008). Molecular biology of the cell. New York: Garland Science. p. 1298. ISBN 978-0-8153-4105-5. Media related to ...
This effect of vortex formation at the vertices of hexagonal cells is an example of vertex vortices. The layer of cumulus seen ... In some cases the steam devils may rise directly into the cumulus, in these cases the cumulus may actually be caused by the ... The resulting large scale view is a layer of arctic steam fog close to the water surface, a layer of cumulus just above the ... The steam fog tends to form irregular hexagonal cells in the horizontal plane which are elongated in the direction of the wind ...
Lightning; this is sure to be a thunderstorm (note that towering cumulus can produce lightning but will not possess an ... "Cloud top height variability of strong convective cells". Journal of Applied Meteorology. 13 (8): 918-922. Bibcode:1974JApMe.. ...
Cumulus oophorus is a cluster of cells (called cumulus cells) that surround the oocyte both in the ovarian follicle and after ... It contains numerous granulosa cells. Granulosa cells or follicular cells are cells that surround the oocyte within the ... The granulosa cells, in turn, are enclosed in a thin layer of extracellular matrix - the follicular basement membrane or basal ... They also consist of granulosa cells and theca of follicle. Once a month, one of the ovaries releases a mature egg (ovum), ...
Included in the follicles are the cumulus oophorus, membrana granulosa (and the granulosa cells inside it), corona radiata, ... Primitive ova are seen in their cell-nests. The Genital cord or genital ridge is still discernible in this young child. A blood ...
According to the Glossary of Meteorology, a funnel cloud is any rotating cloud pendant from a cumulus or cumulonimbus, and thus ... Multiple tornadoes produced by the same storm cell are referred to as a "tornado family".[21] Several tornadoes are sometimes ... Tornadic storms do not contain more lightning than other storms and some tornadic cells never produce lightning at all. More ... They form at the bases of cumulus congestus clouds over tropical and subtropical waters. They have relatively weak winds, ...
The Met Office, with cumulus humilis cloud; the Met Office Cray XC40 (previously a Power 775) computer takes 4.8m weather ... Nearby on Lydiard Fields in Lydiard Tregoze is Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells, which in 2002 was the world's first production site ...
"Mouse sperm lacking cell surface hyaluronidase PH-20 can pass through the layer of cumulus cells and fertilize the egg". The ... Alberts B (2008). Molecular biology of the cell. New York: Garland Science. p. 1298. ISBN 0-8153-4105-9. .. ... In most mammalian fertilization, hyaluronidase is released by the acrosome of the sperm cell after it has reached the oocyte, ... The majority of mammalian ova are covered in a layer of granulosa cells intertwined in an extracellular matrix that contains a ...
PGD is a process in which one or two cells from an embryo on Day 3 or Day 5 are extracted and the cells genetically analyzed. ... cumulus oophorus) surrounding the oocyte. The device provides microscopic droplets of hyaluronan hydrogel attached to the ... This is due to the fact that in IVF acrosome reaction has to take place and thousands of sperm cells have to be involved. Once ... After the procedure, the oocyte will be placed into cell culture and checked on the following day for signs of fertilization. ...
為了排卵成功,需要大腦中的辐射冠(英语:corona radiata)及卵丘(英语:cumulus oophorus)颗粒细胞的配合。後者會有一段增殖及粘液化的過程,稱為卵丘擴展。粘液化是分泌含有豐富透明质酸的混合物,可以分散及聚集附近的卵丘細胞,在卵子 ... Human Sexuality: From Cells to Society. Cengage Learning. 2012: 322 [2013-11
Convective rain, or showery precipitation, occurs from convective clouds, e.g. cumulonimbus or cumulus congestus. It falls as ... Owen E. Thompson (1996). Hadley Circulation Cell. Archived 2009-03-05 at the Wayback Machine Channel Video Productions. ... itself the ascending branch of the Hadley cell. Mountainous locales near the equator in Colombia are amongst the wettest places ...
ovarian cumulus expansion. • negative regulation of smooth muscle cell differentiation. • positive regulation of cytokine ... positive regulation of cell division. • negative regulation of cell proliferation. • positive regulation of smooth muscle cell ... cell-cell signaling. • anatomical structure morphogenesis. • response to peptide hormone. • التئام الجروح. • mRNA transcription ... regulation of cell motility. • epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. • peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation. • ...
Basic cells in this grid are triangles instead of the four corner cells in a traditional latitude-longitude grid. The advantage ... A typical cumulus cloud has a scale of less than 1 kilometer (0.6 mi), and would require a grid even finer than this to be ... phase changes of water and surface hydrology are calculated within each grid cell, and the interactions with neighboring cells ... Field of cumulus clouds, which are parameterized since they are too small to be explicitly included within numerical weather ...
... and chemotactic gradients of progesterone have been confirmed as the signal emanating from the cumulus oophorus cells ... contained in the central cell) in the centre of the gametophyte. The resulting cell is triploid (3n). This triploid cell ... In flowering plants a second fertilisation event involves another sperm cell and the central cell which is a second female ... First, the cytoplasms of the two gamete cells fuse (called plasmogamy), producing a dikaryotic or heterokaryotic cell with ...
This multifunctional protein is a hyaluronidase that enables sperm to penetrate through the hyaluronic acid-rich cumulus cell ... "A hyaluronidase activity of the sperm plasma membrane protein PH-20 enables sperm to penetrate the cumulus cell layer ... cell membrane. • membrane. Biological process. • fusion of sperm to egg plasma membrane involved in single fertilization. • ... "J. Cell Biol. 111 (6 Pt 2): 2939-49. doi:10.1083/jcb.111.6.2939. PMC 2116349. PMID 2269661.. ...
Cumulus clouds look white because the water droplets reflect and scatter the sunlight without absorbing other colors. ... by the human visual system as white when the incoming light to the eye stimulates all three types of color sensitive cone cells ...
Characteristics of cells from the cumulus oophorus and the membrana granulosa, which are easily aspirated during oocyte ... Before the transfer of a pre-embryo back to a woman's uterus, one or two cells are removed from the pre-embryos (8-cell stage ... In both PGS and PGD, individual cells from a pre-embryo, or preferably trophectoderm cells biopsied from a blastocyst, are ... where a sperm cell is injected directly into the egg cell. This is used when sperm has difficulty penetrating the egg. In these ...
... cell and captured in the updraft of a more intense "daughter cell". This however is an exceptional case.[15] ... Mixing of air during the day which expands the height of the planetary boundary layer leads to increased winds, cumulus cloud ... There are four main types of thunderstorms: single-cell, multicell, squall line (also called multicell line) and supercell. ... or a cumulus cloud, in rare cases. Tornadoes come in many sizes but typically form a visible condensation funnel whose ...
... and chemotactic gradients of progesterone have been confirmed as the signal emanating from the cumulus oophorus cells ... contained in the central cell) in the centre of the gametophyte. The resulting cell is triploid (3n). This triploid cell ... First, the cytoplasms of the two gamete cells fuse (called plasmogamy), producing a dikaryotic or heterokaryotic cell with ... one of the two sperm cells fertilises the egg cell (at the bottom of the gametophyte near the micropyle), forming a diploid (2n ...
Theca cells. Theca lutein cells. androgens,[10] progesterone[10] Granulosa cells. Granulosa lutein cells. progesterone,[5] ... thecal-lutein cells) and follicular granulosa cells luteinize into large luteal cells (granulosal-lutein cells) forming the ... Its cells develop from the follicular cells surrounding the ovarian follicle.[5] The follicular theca cells luteinize into ... activity within the cell. Small luteal cells have LH receptors that regulate PKA activity within the cell. PKA actively ...
... and chemotactic gradients of progesterone have been confirmed as the signal emanating from the cumulus oophorus cells ... contained in the central cell) in the centre of the gametophyte. The resulting cell is triploid (3n). This triploid cell ... "Cell. 184 (11): 2860-2877.e22. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2021.04.013. PMC 8162515. PMID 33964210.. ... First, the cytoplasms of the two gamete cells fuse (called plasmogamy), producing a dikaryotic or heterokaryotic cell with ...
The storm is really a multi-cell storm with new, more vigorous cells that form on the upwind side, replacing older cells that ... The first stage of a thunderstorm is the cumulus stage or developing stage. During this stage, masses of moisture are lifted ... There are four main types of thunderstorms: single-cell, multi-cell, squall line (also called multi-cell line) and supercell. ... There are four types of thunderstorms: single-cell, multi-cell cluster, multi-cell lines and supercells. Supercell ...
Holes in the internal ribs allow a free flow of air from the open cells to these closed cells to inflate them, and also to the ... Potential thermals can be identified by land features that typically generate thermals or by cumulus clouds, which mark the top ... In 1966, Canadian Domina Jalbert was granted a patent for a multi-cell wing type aerial device-"a wing having a flexible canopy ... Static line towing with stretchy rope and a load cell as a tension meter has been used in Poland, Ukraine, Russia, and other ...
... in mammals also facilitates the passage of the sperm through the cumulus oophorus (a layer of cells) and the ... As a result, sperm movement is activated.[3] The change in cell volume which alters intracellular ion concentration can also ...
Included in the follicles are the cumulus oophorus, membrana granulosa (and the granulosa cells inside it), corona radiata, ... Germ cell tumor Seen most often in young women or adolescent girls. Other germ cell tumors are: Endodermal sinus tumor and ... Follicular cells flat epithelial cells that originate from surface epithelium covering the ovary, are surrounded by Granulosa ... "Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment". National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 2017-12-01.. ...
Micrograph of a small-cell carcinoma showing cells with nuclear moulding, minimal amount of cytoplasm and stippled chromatin. ... Micrograph showing the yolk sac component of a mixed germ cell tumour. H&E stain. ... a solid or fluid-filled cystic lesion that may or may not be formed by an abnormal growth of neoplastic cells) that appears ... Spindle cell nodule Vaginal Solitary Fibrous Tumor [9][16][17][18][34] ...
Shallower Cumulus and Stratocumulus can be seen off the Eastern Seaboard.. Weather satellites equipped with scanning ... Infrared solar cells. *Infrared thermometer. *Infrared window. *List of infrared articles. *People counter ...
Acidophil cell (Somatotropic cell, Prolactin cell) · Basophil cell (Corticotropic cell, Gonadotropic cell, Thyrotropic cell) · ... Thyroid isthmus · Lobes of thyroid gland · Pyramidal lobe of thyroid gland Follicular cell · Parafollicular cell ... Ang produktong gameto ay mga selulang lithayop o binhi (germ cell) na haploid. Halimbawa, ang ispermatosoon at obum (itlog) ay ...
A half-rack Blue Gene/Q system, with about 100 TFLOPS (peak), called Cumulus was installed at A*STAR Computational Resource ... until in June 2008 it was overtaken by IBM's Cell-based Roadrunner system at Los Alamos National Laboratory, which was the ...
Dynamic processes within and between convective cells, such as updraft merging and cloud base areal size, factor into the ... "Entrainment and Detrainment in Numerically Simulated Cumulus Congestus Clouds. Part I: General Results". J. Atmos. Sci. 55 (23 ... "Entrainment and Detrainment in Numerically Simulated Cumulus Congestus Clouds. Part III: Parcel Analysis". J. Atmos. Sci. 55 ( ...
They live on the Planet Cumulus and are led by King Cumulus Regulus (voiced by Allen Swift). When people "interfere with them" ... Eel was then confined in a glass prison cell. In "The Vacuum Gun," Electric Eel and his gang were recruited by Simon Bar ...
The mtDNA number and viability of cumulus cells and oocytes remained unchanged. When the oocytes were denuded from the cumulus ... apoptosis of cumulus cells, and lactate dehydrogenase levels. Thus, cf-mtDNA was present in FF in a wide range of length, and ... and explored whether the cfDNA level in the culture medium could reflect mitochondrial dysfunction in cumulus cell-oocyte ... In contrast, CCCP treatment of granulosa cells significantly increased the amount of cf-mtDNA in the spent culture medium, ...
... Tamadir Al-Edani,1,2 Said ... Q. Li, D.-Q. Miao, P. Zhou et al., "Glucose metabolism in mouse cumulus cells prevents oocyte aging by maintaining both energy ... S. Assou, D. Haouzi, J. de Vos, and S. Hamamah, "Human cumulus cells as biomarkers for embryo and pregnancy outcomes," ... R. B. Gilchrist, M. Lane, and J. G. Thompson, "Oocyte-secreted factors: regulators of cumulus cell function and oocyte quality ...
Single-center Prospective Cumulus Cell Test Study in rFSH Patients. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Cumulus Cell mRNA Analysis as Oocyte Quality Marker in the Fertility Lab in a Prospective Single-center Study for rFSH ... Performing an additional non-invasive oocyte diagnostic test based on cumulus cell gene expression could improve the outcome of ... Classification of the oocyte/embryo based on the gene expression pattern observed in the cumulus cells ...
Ovulated oocyte-cumulus cell masses were well preserved histologically and many but not all gave strong evidence of HSDH when ... The HSDH reaction observed near the basement membrane was more pronounced than in cells nearer the antrum. Cumulus masses were ... Heterogeneity of intrafollicular somatic cells and ovulated cumulus masses as evidenced by delta5-3beta-HSDH activity.. ... observed in PMSG treated mice that resembled the cells surrounding ovulated oocytes. ...
The cumulus granulosa cells detached from the zona pellucida after fertilization were allowed to spontaneously adhere to the ... We investigated the possibility that human granulosa cells from the cumulus mass obtained during human in vitro fertilization/ ... the cells respond predictably like other comparable granulosa cell systems. We conclude that human cumulus cells are a readily ... human cumulus granulosa cells are readily available from IVF/ET programs, (2) the techniques for maintaining the cells in ...
A statistically significant association was found between the degree of apoptosis in cumulus cells and the type of gonadotropin ... and the apoptosis rate in cumulus cells.. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective and observational study into an university-affiliated ... during controlled ovarian stimulation affects the endocrine profile in follicular fluid and apoptosis rate in cumulus cells.. ... ovarian stimulation significantly affects endocrine profiles in follicular fluid and the apoptosis rate in cumulus cells. ...
Human Empty zona-cumulus-corona cell complex. * For permission to use this image or to obtain a higher quality please contact: ...
... pertinent to cell-cell contacts and because gap junctions play a critical role in cell-cell contacts of mammalian cumulus cells ... IMD/ADM2 signaling is important for cumulus cell survival and normal cell-cell contacts in COCs. A, treatments of FSH or IMD ... Intact COCs with at least three layers of cumulus cells were collected for the separation of cumulus cells and denuded oocytes ... Second, our in vitro data implied that FSH promotes oocyte-cumulus cell interactions indirectly by stimulating cumulus cells, ...
... in cumulus cell-enclosed mouse oocytes was examined when meiotic arrest was maintained in vitro with purines, dibutyryl cAMP ( ... solely by oocyte-cumulus cell uncoupling and termination of the transfer of an inhibitory meiotic signal from cumulus cells to ... The data suggest the generation of a positive signal within cumulus cells in response to hormone treatment that acts upon the ... The frequency of FSH- and EGF-induced GVBD in cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes was significantly higher than the frequency of GVBD ...
Oocyte-secreted BMP-15 and BMP-6 signal through the cumulus cell receptor BMPR-II to actively prevent cumulus cell death. ... Determination of DNA damage by TUNEL (assessment of cumulus cell apoptosis). Cumulus cell apoptotic DNA was detected using ... Paracrine factors secreted by the oocyte regulate a broad range of cumulus cell functions. Characteristically, cumulus cells ... cumulus cell apoptosis significantly decreased (P,0.001), whether in the presence or absence of FSH (Fig. 4C,D). Cumulus cell ...
... p-EIF4EBP1 and ACTB in cumulus cells of COCs, oocytectomized cumulus cells (OOX) and oocytectomized cumulus cells co-cultured ... In order to gain further insights into the roles that MTOR plays in cumulus cells, particularly those specific to cumulus cells ... To compare global changes of gene expression in cumulus cells after hCG administration in vivo, cumulus cells were isolated ... 2B). Interestingly, Ddit4 mRNA was unchanged in oocytectomized cumulus cells (Fig. S1A). Treating oocytectomized cumulus cells ...
"Influence of follicular fluid and cumulus cells on oocyte quality: clinical implications, Journal of Assisted Reproduction and ... Coculture with cumulus cells improves maturation of mouse oocytes denuded of the cumulus oophorus: observations of nuclear and ... Hyaluronic acid synthesis by mural granulosa cells and cumulus cells in vitro is selectively stimulated by a factor produced by ... mRNA expression pattern of insulin-like growth factor components of granulosa cells and cumulus cells in women with and without ...
BMP15 prevents cumulus cell apoptosis through CCL2 and FBN1 in porcine ovaries. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2009;32:264-78. CrossRef ... Cumulus cells (CC) play important roles in oocyte development and cumulus expressed genes can be used as markers for oocyte ... Gene expression profile of cumulus cells derived from cumulus-oocyte complexes matured either in vivo or in vitro. Reprod ... Temporal expression of cumulus cell marker genes during in vitro maturation and oocyte developmental competence. Zeitschrift:. ...
... role of cumulus cells and epidermal growth factor in the culture medium.. PT GOUD, AP GOUD, Chen Qian (UGent), H LAVERGE, ... "In-vitro Maturation of Human Germinal Vesicle Stage Oocytes: Role of Cumulus Cells and Epidermal Growth Factor in the Culture ... In-vitro maturation of human germinal vesicle stage oocytes: role of cumulus cells and epidermal growth factor in the culture ... "In-vitro Maturation of Human Germinal Vesicle Stage Oocytes: Role of Cumulus Cells and Epidermal Growth Factor in the Culture ...
When compared with results obtained using a traditional cumulus cell removal protocol, early cumulus cell removal has both ... cumulus cells removed at 3 h or 20 h after insemination, respectively). Same origin embryos (either 3 h or 20 h) were ... To investigate whether cumulus cell removal after a 3 h co-incubation of gametes can affect the outcomes of in vitro ... Cumulus cell removal. The cumulus cells and oocytes in the 3 h group were incubated with sperm for 3 h. Following incubation, ...
Microarray data revealed that 48 and 27 differentially expressed candidate genes in cumulus cells (CCs) were respectively ... From: Use of Both Cumulus Cells Transcriptomic Markers and Zona Pellucida Birefringence to Select Developmentally Competent ...
Microarray data revealed that 48 and 27 differentially expressed candidate genes in cumulus cells (CCs) were respectively ... Gene expression profiles of cumulus cell oocyte complexes during ovulation reveal cumulus cells express neuronal and immune- ... Shimada M, Richards JS: Cumulus Cells are an Essential Mediator of Ovulation Stimuli from Granulosa Cells to Oocyte. Journal of ... cell cycle under-regulation and cell differentiation (FOSB, CCAR1, CCNA2, CDKNA1, HDAC2, PRDX2, PANX1) as well as cell death- ...
... Adamiak, S; Ewen, M; ... 100 Diet and fatty acid composition of bovine plasma, granulosa cells, and cumulus-oocyte complexes.. Livestock Library/Manakin ... granulosa cells (GCs), and cumulus?oocyte complexes (COCs) from the 32 heifers used in that study. Blood samples were collected ...
Expression of cumulus-specific genes in SCNT-derived embryos at 2-cell, 4-cell and day 4.5 blastocyst stages was compared with ... Cumulus cells of C57xCBA F1 female mouse were injected into enucleated oocytes, followed by activation in 10 micromol/L ... Cumulus-specific genes are transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer in a mouse model. ... Tong, G.Q.,Heng, B.C.,Ng, S.C. (2007). Cumulus-specific genes are transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear ...
Dive into the research topics of Cumulus Cells and their Associations with Immune Functions. Together they form a unique ...
Exposure of mouse cumulus cell nuclei to porcine ooplasmic extract eliminates TATA box protein binding to chromatin, but has no ... Tong, G.Q., Heng, B.C., Ng, S.C. (2006). Exposure of mouse cumulus cell nuclei to porcine ooplasmic extract eliminates TATA box ...
... or cumulus cells restored partially the developmental potential of cumulus-denuded oocytes (DOs). Therefore, cumulus cells are ... cumulus cells were collected and vigorously pipetted to allow separation of the cells. Then, the cells were counted in a ... LanGCChangZLLuoMJJiangYLHanDWuYGHanZBMaSFTanJH2006Production of cloned goats by nuclear transfer of cumulus cells and long-term ... LanGCChangZLLuoMJJiangYLHanDWuYGHanZBMaSFTanJH2006Production of cloned goats by nuclear transfer of cumulus cells and long-term ...
The host genes of DE circRNAs are markedly enriched to multiple signaling pathways associated with cumulus cell function and ... Here, we separately identified 7,067 and 637 circRNAs in both cumulus cells and oocytes via deep sequencing and bioinformatic ... have been recently discovered in cumulus cells and oocytes from several species. However, the expression and function of ... the first time that circRNAs are abundantly and dynamically expressed in a developmental stage-specific manner in cumulus cells ...
Jindal S, Greenseid K, Berger D, Santoro N, Pal L. Impaired Gremlin 1 (GREM1) expression in cumulus cells in young women with ... Jindal, S, Greenseid, K, Berger, D, Santoro, N & Pal, L 2012, Impaired Gremlin 1 (GREM1) expression in cumulus cells in young ... Impaired Gremlin 1 (GREM1) expression in cumulus cells in young women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). In: Journal of ... Jindal, S., Greenseid, K., Berger, D., Santoro, N., & Pal, L. (2012). Impaired Gremlin 1 (GREM1) expression in cumulus cells in ...
Transcriptomic and proteomic approaches on somatic cells surrounding the oocyte (granulosa cells, cumulus cells [CCs]) have ... The knockdown efficiency of VCL, RGS2 and SRC were measured in HEK293 cells by WB and by RPPA and were acceptable for VCL and ... of interest were validated for their utilisation in RPPA by measuring siRNA-mediated knockdown efficiency in HEK293 cells in ... The number of cells composing a cumulus was estimated to be more than 17 individual cumulus cells with a Tomas chamber. ...
Cumulus cells of oocyte-cumulus complexes secrete a meiosis-activating substance when stimulated with FSH. A G Byskov, C Yding ... medium on the incidence of cumulus cell expansion and nuclear maturation in canine oocytes. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) ... The cumulus cell expansion in the 5 microg/ml FSH group (397.2 +/- 64.3 microm) was significantly higher than those in the ... Canine oocyte maturation in culture: significance of estrogen and EGF receptor gene expression in cumulus cells. S Hatoya, Y ...
For this study, the granulosa cells, cumulus cells and the oocytes were collected from ovaries obtained from slaughterhouse. ... The role of miR-130b in granulosa and cumulus cell function was investigated by increasing and inhibiting its expression in in ... Here, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-130b in bovine granulosa and cumulus cell function, oocyte maturation and ... This study demonstrated that in vitro functional modulation of miR-130b affected granulosa and cumulus cell proliferation and ...
Copy For Citation BİRLER S. TURKISH JOURNAL OF VETERINARY SCIENCES, vol.20, pp.163-167, 1996 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded) ...
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressing EF showed high self-renewal capacity and maintained an undifferentiated state despite ... Genetically defined ES models are needed to understand how EF expression changes bone precursor cell differentiation, how ES ... Combinatorial targeting of survival and cell cycle progression pathways could counteract this aggressive childhood cancer. ... or Cdk4 or their combined pharmacologic inhibition resulted in growth arrest and apoptosis in both established human ES cell ...
Mammalian cumulus cells have important functions during oocyte maturation process such as: reduction in steroidogenesis and ... 2006). Then, the cumulus cells were removed by vortexing and oocytes were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde during 15 min and ... Considering that Grb10 mRNA was expressed in oocyte and cumulus cells, COCs from different follicle sizes were used in ... Grb10 protein is clearly reduced in cumulus cells of follicle larger than 6mm compared with those of smaller follicles. ...
  • This study examined the concentration of cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cf-mtDNA) in porcine follicular fluid (FF) and explored whether the cfDNA level in the culture medium could reflect mitochondrial dysfunction in cumulus cell-oocyte complexes (COCs). (go.jp)
  • Except for the well characterized BMP family proteins, including GDF9 and BMP15, oocytes are known to secrete oocyte secreted factors that are important for the regulation of cumulus cell survival and the maintenance of tertiary structure of cumulus cell-enclosed oocyte complexes (COCs). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The importance of oocytes in cumulus-cell-function regulation was first identified by studies showing that the removal of oocytes from cumulus cell-enclosed oocyte complexes (COCs) impairs various cumulus cell functions ( 8 , 19 , 24 , 29 - 31 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Both agents significantly stimulated cAMP production in oocyte-cumulus cell complexes. (nih.gov)
  • Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) were aspirated from abattoir-derived ovaries and oocytectomized (OOX) by microsurgical removal of the oocyte. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that oocyte-derived paracrine factors, particularly GDF9 and GDF9-BMP15 heterodimer, promote the development and survival of cumulus-cell-oocyte complexes (COCs), partly by suppressing the expression of Ddit4l , a negative regulator of MTOR, and enabling the activation of MTOR signaling in cumulus cells. (biologists.org)
  • Gene expression profile of cumulus cells derived from cumulus-oocyte complexes matured either in vivo or in vitro. (springermedizin.de)
  • 100 Diet and fatty acid composition of bovine plasma, granulosa cells, and cumulus-oocyte complexes. (livestocklibrary.com.au)
  • Here we report the effects of these dietary treatments on the fatty acid (FA) composition of plasma, granulosa cells (GCs), and cumulus?oocyte complexes (COCs) from the 32 heifers used in that study. (livestocklibrary.com.au)
  • Cysteamine supplementation increased the GSH level and blastocyst rates of both cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and DOs, while the addition of cystine increased the GSH level and blastulation only in the presence of cumulus cells (COCs or DOs co-cultured on a cumulus cell monolayer). (bioscientifica.com)
  • Removal of cumulus cells before in vitro maturation (IVM) was detrimental to oocyte maturation, and co-culture with cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) or cumulus cells restored partially the developmental potential of cumulus-denuded oocytes (DOs). (bioscientifica.com)
  • Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured in TCM-199 supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS), 1 mg/ml cysteine, 0.2 mm pyruvic acid and different concentrations of FSH or LH (control, 0.5, 5 or 50 microg/ml) at 38.5 degrees C, 5% CO(2) in air for 72 h. (qxmd.com)
  • Gonadotropins, serum, and amino acids alter nuclear maturation, cumulus expansion, and oocyte morphology in hamster cumulus-oocyte complexes in vitro. (qxmd.com)
  • Cumulus cells of oocyte-cumulus complexes secrete a meiosis-activating substance when stimulated with FSH. (qxmd.com)
  • Follicle size-dependent effects of sow follicular fluid on in vitro cumulus expansion, nuclear maturation and blastocyst formation of sow cumulus oocytes complexes. (qxmd.com)
  • Effect of inhibition of synthesis of inducible nitric oxide synthase-derived nitric oxide by aminoguanidine on the in vitro maturation of oocyte-cumulus complexes of cattle. (qxmd.com)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the mRNA expression and protein localization of Grb10 gene in bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from different follicle sizes. (scielo.br)
  • The present study examined the phagocytic action of cumulus cells on sperm after dispersion of cumulus-oocyte complexes. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Cell-to-cell communication was characterized in cumulus-oocyte complexes from rat ovarian follicles before and after ovulation. (edu.au)
  • The results indicate that mechanical removal of cumulus cells from immature bovine oocytes does not affect their maturation competence but reduces the blastocyst rate when compared with intact cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs). (unimi.it)
  • It is known that the in vitro embryo production system is influenced by several factors, among them, the morphological quality of cumulus -oocyte complexes (COCs). (usp.br)
  • Differential gene expression analysis was performed for 10 clusters of cumulus cells obtained from 10 cumulus - oocyte complexes from 10 patients . (bvsalud.org)
  • These results suggest that the preferential sperm concentration was (0.8-1.5) × 10 6 spermatozoa ml -1 in the present IVF system, and that removal of sperm-cumulus complexes from the oocyte surface at 12 h after insemination may prevent the increase of polyspermy, especially by use of higher sperm concentrations. (elsevier.com)
  • Using RT-PCR, oocytes were found to express the two activin subunits, Inhba and Inhbb, and activin A and activin B both enabled FSH-induced cumulus expansion of oocytectomized (OOX) complexes. (edu.au)
  • Developmental regulation of effect of epidermal growth factor on porcine oocyte-cumulus cell complexes: nuclear maturation, expansion, and F-actin remodeling. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Epidermal growth factor (EGF) efficiently stimulates expansion of mouse and rat oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCC). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Comparative proteome analysis of porcine follicular fluid and serum reveals that excessive alpha(2)-macroglobulin in serum hampers successful expansion of cumulus-oocyte complexes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Only samples derived from cumulus-oocyte complexes containing mature oocytes showing polar body were processed. (fertstertforum.com)
  • CCs from single cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from 16 patients who underwent a single embryo transfer were analyzed. (unict.it)
  • The effect of melatonin during in vitro maturation (IVM) on DNA damage of cumulus cells (CCs) from bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and embryo development was evaluated. (unesp.br)
  • However, FSH did not elevate the levels of Npr2 mRNA in cultured cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) isolated from mice not stimulated in vivo with eCG. (qxmd.com)
  • Cyclic guanosine monophosphate does not inhibit gonadotropin-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 in pig cumulus-oocyte complexes. (qxmd.com)
  • Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected from SF or MF of prepubertal gilt ovaries. (elsevier.com)
  • Ferré, P, Bui, TMT , Wakai, T & Funahashi, H 2016, ' Effect of removing cumulus cells from porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes derived from small and medium follicles during IVM on the apoptotic status and meiotic progression of the oocytes ', Theriogenology . (elsevier.com)
  • NRG1 likely binds to ERBB3/ERBB2 complexes that are expressed in granulosa cells and cumulus cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • When cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured with both NRG1 and AREG, the matured oocytes exhibited significantly higher developmental competence as compared with that of oocytes cultured with AREG alone. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Based on genomic screening and studies of COCs cultured in vitro , we showed that intermedin (IMD)/adrenomedullin 2 (ADM2) is a novel oocyte-derived ligand important for the regulation of cell interactions in COCs that functions, in part, by suppressing cumulus cell apoptosis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Knockdown of Ddit4l activated MTOR signaling in cumulus cells, whereas inhibition of MTOR in COCs compromised oocyte developmental competence and cumulus cell survival, with the latter likely to be attributable to specific changes in a subset of transcripts in the transcriptome of COCs. (biologists.org)
  • Therefore, oocyte suppression of Ddit4l expression allows for MTOR activation in cumulus cells, and this oocyte-dependent activation of MTOR signaling in cumulus cells controls the development and survival of COCs. (biologists.org)
  • O presente trabalho estudou a interação cumulus e oócito no processo de morte celular programada nos complexos de cumulus oophoros (COCs) de diferentes classes morfológicas em bovinos. (usp.br)
  • Os COCs foram utilizados para avaliação da maturação nuclear em 0 e em 24h de cultivo do grau de fragmentação do DNA das células do cumulus (CC) antes e após a maturação in vitro , avaliação da competência do desenvolvimento embrionário partenogenético até o 9º dia pós-ativação, avaliação da qualidade dos blastocistos e estimativa dos transcritos e proteínas BCL-2 e BAX em CC maturados por 24h. (usp.br)
  • The present work aimed to study the cumulus -oocyte interaction on the process of programmed cell death in bovine COCs of different morphological classes. (usp.br)
  • Before in vitro maturation (IVM), the nuclear maturation in COCs and DNA fragmentation in cumulus cells (CC) were evaluated. (usp.br)
  • Notably, Etv4 is highly expressed in the cumulus cells of ovulated COCs at 16-h post-human chorionic gonadotropin. (wustl.edu)
  • We also examined the effects of PLAT and SERPINE1 on germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and oocyte cyclic 3' 5' adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, cumulus expansion index, and expansion-related gene expression in oocytes derived from bovine COCs cultured for 4, 8, and 12 h and in COCs cultured for 16 h. (bioportfolio.com)
  • suppression of PLAT activity via accumulation of SERPINE1 in COCs results in cumulus expansion from 8 to 16 h of IVM. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A non-invasive test for assessing embryo potential by gene expression profiles of human cumulus cells: a proof of concept study," Molecular Human Reproduction , vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 711-719, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Impact of maternal aging on the molecular signature of human cumulus cells," Fertility and Sterility , vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 1574.e5-1580.e5, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • MicroRNAs: new candidates for the regulation of the human cumulus-oocyte complex," Human Reproduction , vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 3038-3049, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Introduction of estrogenic agents previously shown to suppress P production in porcine or human culture systems using mural granulosa cells showed comparable effects in this human cumulus cell system. (rti.org)
  • 17 beta-estradiol (10(-5) M), clomiphene citrate (10(-5) M), and o,p-DDT (10(-5)) significantly inhibited hCG-supported P production by human cumulus cells in vitro. (rti.org)
  • This system has the advantages that (1) human cumulus granulosa cells are readily available from IVF/ET programs, (2) the techniques for maintaining the cells in culture are extremely simple, (3) a marker of highly differentiated granulosa cell function (P production) can be reliably measured, and (4) the cells respond predictably like other comparable granulosa cell systems. (rti.org)
  • Human cumulus granulosa cell gene expression: a predictor of fertilization and embryo selection in women undergoing IVF. (springermedizin.de)
  • Superoxide dismutase expression in human cumulus oophorus cells. (scienceopen.com)
  • In addition, earlier work on cultured follicles has established that oocytes actively participate in the regulation of the surrounding cumulus cells, which are distinguished from steroid-producing mural granulosa cells in gene expression, protein synthesis, and physical interactions ( 16 , 18 - 28 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cumulus cells expressed less Ddit4l mRNA and protein than mural granulosa cells, which is in striking contrast to the expression of phosphorylated RPS6 (a major downstream effector of MTOR). (biologists.org)
  • Cumulus cells, which are associated with the oocyte, express the receptor NPR2, a guanylyl cyclase, whereas mural granulosa cells express ligand NPPC. (qxmd.com)
  • Stimulation of follicular development in vivo with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) promoted expression of Npr2 mRNA by cumulus cells and some periantral mural granulosa cells. (qxmd.com)
  • Fzd1 encodes a WNT receptor whose expression is markedly induced in both mural granulosa cells and cumulus cells during the preovulatory period, in a manner similar to Wnt4 . (bioone.org)
  • The granulosa cells that surround the mammalian oocyte are known as the cumulus oophorus. (edu.au)
  • NPPC/NPR2 signaling is essential for oocyte meiotic arrest and cumulus oophorus formation during follicular development in the mouse ovary. (qxmd.com)
  • The cumulus oophorus, (discus proligerus), is a cluster of cells that surround the oocyte both in the ovarian follicle and after ovulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functions of the cumulus oophorus include coordination of follicular development and oocyte maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cumulus oophorus cells contribute heavily to the maturation and eventual fertilization of an oocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a follicle grows in size and the antrum develops, more layers of cumulus oophorus cells accumulate around the oocyte to aid in the acrosome reaction and sperm penetration into the oocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proximity between the cumulus oophorus cells and the oocyte favors bidirectional communication, which is vital for oocyte development. (wikipedia.org)
  • after ovulation, the cumulus oophorus becomes what? (studystack.com)
  • Association of creatin kinase B and peroxiredoxin 2 expression with age and embryo quality in cumulus cells," Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics , vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 629-639, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • We investigated the possibility that human granulosa cells from the cumulus mass obtained during human in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF/ET) might be useful for screening of potential reproductive toxicants in vitro. (rti.org)
  • The cumulus granulosa cells detached from the zona pellucida after fertilization were allowed to spontaneously adhere to the incubation dish following transfer (removal) of the embryo. (rti.org)
  • This study aimed to investigate temporal changes in the expression of cumulus marker genes during oocyte maturation as possible biomarkers of embryo developmental competence in ovine. (springermedizin.de)
  • Further, the association between the temporal cumulus gene expression and in vitro oocyte and embryo development was assessed. (springermedizin.de)
  • The cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) morphology and cytology are amongst the main parameters that have been used in ART clinics to select the best oocyte for subsequent steps of fertilization and early embryo development in human and livestock species [ 6 , 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the removal of cumulus cells from oocytes or zygotes at various stages of development is inevitable for some embryo manipulation techniques. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Here, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-130b in bovine granulosa and cumulus cell function, oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryo development using gain- and loss-of- function approach. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study demonstrated that in vitro functional modulation of miR-130b affected granulosa and cumulus cell proliferation and survival, oocyte maturation, morula and blastocyst formation suggesting that miR-130b is involved in bovine oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryo development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although further confirmatory studies are necessary, findings of this study suggest that these pathways, especially circadian entrainment in cumulus cells , may be essential for embryo development and pregnancy . (bvsalud.org)
  • 1. A method of treating a patient in need of cell or tissue transplantation comprising administering to or transplanting into said patient at least one cell or tissue obtained from a cloned ungulate animal or embryo. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • To compare the transcriptome of cumulus cells associated with a euploid embryo that resulted in live birth with that of a sibling euploid embryo without sustained implantation. (fertstertdialog.com)
  • The cumulus cell transcriptome from the embryo resulting in live birth was compared with that of its sibling embryo without sustained implantation to investigate potential biomarkers that may aid in embryo selection. (fertstertdialog.com)
  • Differential gene expression in cumulus cells associated with a euploid embryo resulting in live birth and its sibling euploid embryo without sustained implantation using next-generation RNA sequencing (RNAseq). (fertstertdialog.com)
  • The RNAseq profiles were similar between cumulus cells associated with a euploid embryo resulting in live birth and its sibling embryo that did not sustain implantation. (fertstertdialog.com)
  • As a part of the process of in vitro fertilization, gene expression profiling of cumulus cells can be performed to estimate oocyte quality and the efficiency of an ovarian hyperstimulation protocol, and may indirectly predict oocyte aneuploidy, embryo development and pregnancy outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The early embryo of the spider Achaearanea tepidariorum is emerging as a model for the simultaneous study of cell migration and pattern formation. (biologists.org)
  • As the CM cells arrive at a site on the germ disc rim, the surrounding epithelial cells begin to differentiate into extraembryonic tissue, signifying the dorsal side of the developing embryo. (biologists.org)
  • In spiders, the developing embryo must form an organizer called the "cumulus" or the spiderling will not develop correctly. (elifesciences.org)
  • The cumulus forms in the center of the so-called germ-disc (the embryonic pole of the embryo) and migrates underneath the ectoderm towards the rim of the disc. (elifesciences.org)
  • From the opening of the book the reader is lead on a fantastic voyage from the formation of the primordial oocyte to the development of the early embryo, passing through crucial processes of oogenesis, such as co-ordination of oocyte and follicle growth, gene expression and organelle reorganization during growth and maturation, epigenetic mechanisms, regulation of meiosis, totipotency, cell polarity, oogenesis in vitro and maternal regulation of early development. (springer.com)
  • Up to the eight-cell embryo stage, the blastomeres are morphologically identical and distributed symmetrically in the mammalian embryo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Vertebrate embryos are characterized by an elongated antero-posterior (AP) body axis, which forms by progressive cell deposition from a posterior growth zone in the embryo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Fertilization in flowering plants involves two sperm cells and two female gametes, the egg cell and the central cell, progenitors of the embryo and the endosperm, respectively. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cumulus cells (CC) play important roles in oocyte development and cumulus expressed genes can be used as markers for oocyte quality. (springermedizin.de)
  • In contrast, it was observed that as maturation progressed, the cumulus expression of most of the favorable genes was reduced and was found significantly downregulated at the completion of IVM in the poor as compared to the competent oocytes. (springermedizin.de)
  • Microarray data revealed that 48 and 27 differentially expressed candidate genes in cumulus cells (CCs) were respectively overexpressed and underexpressed in the ZGP (Zona Good Pregnant) versus ZBNP (Zona Bad Non Pregnant) groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cumulus-specific genes are transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer in a mouse model. (nus.edu.sg)
  • This study investigated whether four cumulus-specific genes: follicular stimulating hormone receptor (FSHr), hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2), prostaglandin synthase 2 (Ptgs2) and steroidogenic acute regulator protein (Star), were correctly reprogrammed to be transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a murine model. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Expression of cumulus-specific genes in SCNT-derived embryos at 2-cell, 4-cell and day 4.5 blastocyst stages was compared with corresponding in vivo fertilized embryos by real-time PCR. (nus.edu.sg)
  • It was demonstrated that immediately after the first cell cycle, SCNT-derived 2-cell stage embryos did not express all four cumulus-specific genes, which continually remained silent at the 4-cell and blastocyst stages. (nus.edu.sg)
  • It is therefore concluded that all four cumulus-specific genes were correctly reprogrammed to be silent following nuclear transfer with cumulus donor cells in the mouse model. (nus.edu.sg)
  • This would imply that the poor preimplantation developmental competence of SCNT embryos derived from cumulus cells is due to incomplete reprogramming of other embryonic genes, rather than cumulus-specific genes. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The production of genetically modified animals is essential for elucidating the roles of genes, but the traditional method, which involves homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells and the production of chimeric mice, is costly and time-consuming. (nature.com)
  • Genetic mutations in germline or somatic cells lead to expression alteration of the cognate or downstream genes. (hindawi.com)
  • However, ovulation triggering with GnRHa may improve the oocyte microenvironment and cumulus cell genes expression in Let-COH, suggesting a positive impact on oocyte quality in breast cancer patients. (springer.com)
  • In a paired study comparing the cumulus cell transcriptome of euploid sibling blastocysts, no differentially ex- pressed genes predictive of live birth were identified. (fertstertdialog.com)
  • Collectively, the results show that Etv4 and Etv5 are expressed in granulosa and cumulus cells during folliculogenesis and ovulation, suggesting that they influence cellular events in the ovary by regulating downstream genes such as Ptgs2. (wustl.edu)
  • In gene expression profiling of cumulus cells, genes where increased expression is correlated with higher oocyte competence or better pregnancy outcomes, include: HAS2, GREM1 and PTGS2. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to form and maintain the cumulus, various genes must be turned on in a carefully controlled order in exactly the right cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • This gene is required for cumulus maintenance and it also helps to activate a number of other cumulus-specific genes. (elifesciences.org)
  • In years to come, the unraveling of these gene pathways, where genes sequentially turn other genes on and off, will allow us to more fully understand how a single cell can grow into a complete adult animal. (elifesciences.org)
  • The actions of FSH and EGF required the presence of cumulus cells. (nih.gov)
  • At the end of IVM, apoptotic status and meiotic progression of the oocytes were compared with oocytes matured in the presence of cumulus cells (CCs) by Annexin-V/PI assay and 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. (elsevier.com)
  • Cytoplasmic glutathione regulated by cumulus cells during porcine oocyte maturation affects fertilization and embryonic development in vitro. (springermedizin.de)
  • This indicates that EGF may have a physiological role in regulation of porcine cumulus expansion in preovulatory follicles, presumably as a mediator of signals elicited by the LH surge. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Porcine natriuretic peptide type B (pNPPB) maintains mouse oocyte meiotic arrest via natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2) in cumulus cells. (qxmd.com)
  • abstract = "Purpose: A symbiotic relationship between ovarian granulosa cells (GC) and the developing oocyte is critical. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Objective: To demonstrate the effects of peroxynitrite (ONOO-) on metaphase II mouse oocyte spindle structure and chromosomal alignment in presence and absence of cumulus cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The study revealed noticeable differences in the cumulus gene expression profile at different stages of IVM between ovine oocytes of differential developmental ability. (springermedizin.de)
  • Synergic actions between cysteamine, cystine and cumulus cells restore the GSH level and developmental capacity of goat DOs. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Effects of size and cell cycle stages of nuclear donor cells on the developmental competence of cloned rabbit embryos / Ju, J.C. (nchu.edu.tw)
  • Haploid ES cells elegantly combine the advantages of haploidy and pluripotency and offer a unique in vitro system for genetic analyses of molecular, cellular and developmental events in various cell lineages. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This process eventually leads to follicle rupture, cumulus expansion, and oocyte maturation ( 9 - 17 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The efficacy of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and dibutyryl cGMP (dbcGMP) as inducers of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) in cumulus cell-enclosed mouse oocytes was examined when meiotic arrest was maintained in vitro with purines, dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP), or the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). (nih.gov)
  • Folliculogenesis results from a complex balance between proliferation, differentiation and cell death, of both the somatic and germ cell compartments of the follicle. (biologists.org)
  • The results indicated that the loss of cumulus gene expression along the maturation period in the poor oocytes was related to their intrinsic poor quality in the ovarian follicle. (springermedizin.de)
  • In general, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) play important roles in the regulation of cumulus cell expansion and oocyte maturation. (qxmd.com)
  • Background: Within the ovary, the optimal growth of the follicle, oocyte maturation and ovulation are highly conditioned by the two-way cross talk and interactions between the oocyte and the immediate somatic cells, known as cumulus cells (CCs). (jri.ir)
  • Since a number of known hormone-dependent metabolic and morphologic changes occur during this rather brief time period (4), the follicle represents a unique system to study the regulation of heterologous cell interactions during development and differentiation. (edu.au)
  • For example, receptors for human chorionic gonadotropin are present on granulosa cells in the peripheral region of the follicle whereas the granulosa cells near the antral cavity and the oocyte have few detectable receptors for the hormone (1). (edu.au)
  • In addition, some of the granulosa cells are physically associated with the follicle wall, some with the oocyte, some with other granulosa cells, and some with the antral fluid. (edu.au)
  • cumulus oo´phorus a mass of follicular cells surrounding the ovum in the vesicular ovarian follicle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The extracellular matrix [ECM] of the cumulus oocyte complex [COC] is composed of several molecules that have different roles during follicle development. (bvsalud.org)
  • The meiotic response of cumulus cell-enclosed mouse oocytes to follicle-stimulating hormone in the presence of different macromolecules. (scienceopen.com)
  • Gene expression profiles of cumulus cells obtained from women treated with recombinant human luteinizing hormone plus recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone or highly purified human. (fertstertforum.com)
  • Prophase I arrest of mouse oocytes mediated by natriuretic peptide precursor C requires GJA1 (connexin-43) and GJA4 (connexin-37) gap junctions in the antral follicle and cumulus-oocyte complex. (qxmd.com)
  • We first discuss how meiotic prophase arrest is maintained in mammalian oocytes, and how luteinizing hormone (LH) action on receptors in the cells of the surrounding follicle causes meiosis to resume. (springer.com)
  • The LH receptors are located exclusively in the outer granulosa cells of the follicle and signal through a G s -linked receptor to cause a decrease in cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). (springer.com)
  • Browne CL, Wiley HS, Dumont JN (1979) Oocyte-follicle cell gap junctions in Xenopus laevis and the effects of gonadotropin on their permeability. (springer.com)
  • Clarke HJ (2018) Regulation of germ cell development by intercellular signaling in the mammalian ovarian follicle. (springer.com)
  • Conclusion(s): This study sheds light on MMP and TIMP expression in granulosa and cumulus cells, and it may help in understanding the fine regulation of oocyte maturation inside the follicle. (mendeley.com)
  • after meiotic prophase I, and with the addition of follicle cells (stroma cells), oocytes are called what? (studystack.com)
  • what are the granulosa cells of the secondary follicle that remain around the oocyte? (studystack.com)
  • whereas, PTCH1 mRNA was detected primarily in theca cells of the same follicle. (usda.gov)
  • In addition, we assessed in those OCC changes in morphology of cumulus cells and assembly of F-actin microfilaments, which are necessary for expansion to occur. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cumulus cells of the large OCC underwent essential changes of their morphology and extensive rearrangement of F-actin microfilaments following stimulation with EGF. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Methods and cell lines for cloning ungulate embryos and offspring, in particular bovines and porcines, are provided. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The resultant fetuses, embryos or offspring are especially useful for the expression of desired heterologous DNAs, and may be used as a source of cells or tissue for transplantation therapy for the treatment of diseases such as Parkinson's disease. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The nuclei are reprogrammed to direct the development of cloned embryos, which can then be transferred into recipient females to produce fetuses and offspring, or used to produce cultured inner cell mass cells (CICM). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Compelling evidence suggests that histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) influences the development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. (rroij.com)
  • The current study was conducted to determine the effect of pretreatment of donor cumulus cells with Scriptaid (a novel HDACi) on cell cycle, histone acetylation and cloning embryos development in ovine. (rroij.com)
  • Then, we quantitatively assessed the alterations of acetylation levels in histone H3 lysine 9 (acH3K9) and histone H4 lysine 12 (acH4K12) of cumulus cells and SCNT embryos by immunofluorescence staining. (rroij.com)
  • In conclusion, donor cumulus cells treated with Scriptaid is beneficial to early development of SCNT embryos, ascending acH3K9/ acH4K12 and G0/G1 phase cells proportion of cumulus cell. (rroij.com)
  • The cumulus cell transcriptome is not predictive of live birth within an individual patient's cohort of euploid embryos. (fertstertdialog.com)
  • Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) has been proved to increase the acetylation level in somatic cells or in nuclear transfer embryos because it makes the chromatin more flexible thereby allowing the combination of transcriptional factors [ 9 - 11 ]. (rroij.com)
  • At the earliest stages of animal development, embryos consisting of only a handful of cells must figure out where each part of their body will come from. (elifesciences.org)
  • Similar to the vertebrate experiments, Holm showed that transplanting cumulus material was able to induce a secondary axis in spider embryos ( Holm, 1952 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Vector injection into the perivitelline space has emerged as the standard delivery method to transduce lentivirus to mammalian oocytes or one-cell embryos, but its application is limited by the need for high titers of lentivirus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effects of the age of cell donor animal on in vitro development of ovine nuclear transfer (NT) embryos were investigated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A pilot study of intracellular calcium profiling and cell cycle synchronization in rabbit embryonic stem cells. (nchu.edu.tw)
  • 9. Doetschman, T., Gene transfer in embryonic stem cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The differential transcriptome and ontology profiles of floating and cumulus granulosa cells in stimulated human antral follicles," Molecular Human Reproduction , vol. 16, no. 4, Article ID gap103, pp. 229-240, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Together, our studies indicated that mammalian oocytes deploy a G protein-coupled receptor ligand to coordinate normal interactions of oocytes and cumulus cells and provided a better understanding of how the tertiary structure of a COC is maintained as follicles undergo exponential growth during the late stages of folliculogenesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Communication between oocytes and their companion somatic cells promotes the healthy development of ovarian follicles, which is crucial for producing oocytes that can be fertilized and are competent to support embryogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • FSH caused cumulus expansion, F-actin remodeling, and enhancement of oocyte nuclear maturation in OCC originated from both small and large follicles. (semanticscholar.org)
  • once primordial follicles become primary follicles, the squamous follicular cells become what? (studystack.com)
  • PTCH1 expression was also detected in granulosa cells of some E-I follicles. (usda.gov)
  • Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like factors [amphiregulin (AREG), betacellulin, and epiregulin] are induced by LH and activate the EGF receptor (ERBB1)/ERK1/2 pathway in granulosa cells and cumulus cells of preovulatory follicles to impact ovulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The innermost layer of cells in the cumulus, the corona radiata, sends cytoplasmic processes through the intervening zona pellucida to contact the oolemma (9, 20, 26, 31). (edu.au)
  • The innermost layer of these cells is the corona radiata. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collectively, these results document that the expression of type III NRG1 is induced in granulosa cells during ovulation and that NRG1 enhances AREG-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in both granulosa cells and cumulus cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Canine oocyte maturation in culture: significance of estrogen and EGF receptor gene expression in cumulus cells. (qxmd.com)
  • The gap junctions are formed on the oocyte surface by cumulus cell processes that traverse the zona pellucida and contact the oolemma. (edu.au)
  • Upon fertilization sperm must first penetrate a layer of cumulus cells that surrounds the egg before reaching the zona pellucida. (uniprot.org)
  • Ovarian folliculogenesis has been studied as a model of hormonal regulation of development and differentiation, cell death, and cell-cell communication. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) had no significant effect on cumulus cell apoptosis. (biologists.org)
  • Indeed, specific oocyte factors are involved in the differentiation and expansion of CCs, and prevent the apoptosis and luteinisation of the oocyte-cumulus complex (see [ 6 ] for review). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetically defined ES models are needed to understand how EF expression changes bone precursor cell differentiation, how ES arises and through which mechanisms of inhibition it can be targeted. (nature.com)
  • The first well-described differentiation event during mammalian embryogenesis occurs after compaction, when the _______________________ and _______________________ cells are formed. (iastate.edu)
  • Transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily molecules are prime candidates for the cumulus expansion-enabling factors (CEEFs), and we have recently determined that growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) alone is not the CEEF. (edu.au)
  • The hedgehog signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and turnover in a variety of mammalian embryonic and adult tissues including bovine ovarian granulosa and theca cells. (usda.gov)
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells capable of differentiation into various cell types. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Through proliferation and differentiation, a single cell, the zygote, can give rise to a complex organism composed of many types of cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Plays an important role in the regulation of cell survival, cell division, angiogenesis, cell differentiation and cell migration. (abcam.com)
  • LH-induced neuregulin 1 (NRG1) type III transcripts control granulosa cell differentiation and oocyte maturation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Observed patterns for IHH and PTCH1 mRNA in granulosa and theca cells further indicate a potential paracrine role for the hedgehog signaling pathway in ovarian follicular development in cattle. (usda.gov)
  • To investigate whether cumulus cell removal after a 3 h co-incubation of gametes can affect the outcomes of in vitro fertilization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In conclusion, we demonstrate that denuded immature oocytes can be vitrified after cumulus cells removal and successfully develop up, after thawing, to the blastocyst stage, following in vitro maturation and fertilization. (unimi.it)
  • The effect of the cumulus cells on in vitro fertilization (IVF) in cattle was evaluated. (elsevier.com)
  • Chian, RC, Okuda, K & Niwa, K 1995, ' Influence of cumulus cells on in vitro fertilization of bovine oocytes derived from in vitro maturation ', Animal Reproduction Science , vol. 38, no. 1-2, pp. 37-48. (elsevier.com)
  • This includes progression of the meiotic cell cycle and development of the ability to undergo the release of calcium that activates development at fertilization. (springer.com)
  • MMP9 is specifically expressed only in granulosa, whereas MMP2 is more expressed in cumulus and granulosa cells in cases of reduced ovarian response and decreased fertilization rate. (mendeley.com)
  • This layer of cells must be penetrated by spermatozoa for fertilization to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • In-vitro maturation of human germinal vesicle stage oocytes: role of cumulus cells and epidermal growth factor in the culture medium. (ugent.be)
  • We investigated the effects of supplementation of FSH or LH in in vitro maturation (IVM) medium on the incidence of cumulus cell expansion and nuclear maturation in canine oocytes. (qxmd.com)
  • Transcriptomic and proteomic approaches on somatic cells surrounding the oocyte (granulosa cells, cumulus cells [CCs]) have been proposed for the identification of biomarkers of oocyte competence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This biological communication between cell lines triggered the interest in the study of CCs as a biomarker of oocyte competence. (jri.ir)
  • STUDY QUESTION: Is the phosphoinositol 1, 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) pathway expression profile in cumulus cells (CCs) a potential marker of oocyte competence and predictive of pregnancy outcome? (unict.it)
  • Oocyte maturation consists of numerous rearranges in cell nucleus and cytoplasm, which are essential to finalize its competence to fertilize. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Furthermore, early cumulus cell removal can also reduce the required co-incubation time between sperm and oocytes, and help eliminate degradation products from granulosa cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The function of cumulus cells after sperm penetration is not well understood. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • In a co-incubation system of cauda sperm and cumulus cells, the sperm heads were beginning to vanish after 2.5 h and 77% ± 1.34 of sperm heads had disappeared at 30. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Most of the sperm heads were engulfed by cumulus cells. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Immunofluorescent studies showed that cumulus cells were expressing the CD36 molecule, and sperm were exposing phosphatidylserine (PS). (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Anti-CD36 antibody and annexin V inhibited the engulfment of sperm by cumulus cells by 26.0% and 40.5%, respectively. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • These results suggested that the cumulus cells recognized the PS molecules on sperm via CD36 and this molecular interaction possibly triggered the phagocytosis of sperm by cumulus cells. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • These results suggest that cumulus cells might play a role in inhibiting undesired immune reactions induced by sperm antigens. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • 0.05) higher in cumulus-intact than in cumulus-free oocytes in all sperm concentrations (25% (17/68) vs. 10% (4/41), 29% (20/69) vs. 16% (11/68) and 31% (21/67) vs. 19% (14/73) respectively). (elsevier.com)
  • When oocytes with or without cumulus cells were inseminated by a concentration of (2.0-3.0) × 10 6 spermatozoa ml -1 , the penetration rate was almost completed at 12 h after insemination in cumulus-intact oocytes (83%, 80/96), whereas the sperm penentration was delayed in cumulus-free oocytes (64%, 42/66). (elsevier.com)
  • These results indicate that the cumulus cells participated in the mechanisms of bovine sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction and that the polyspermy was directly affected by the number of capacitated and acrosome reacting sperm on the oocyte surface. (elsevier.com)
  • Inhibition of monkey sperm hyaluronidase activity and heterologous cumulus penetration by flavonoids. (scienceopen.com)
  • These results are the first to demonstrate that oocyte-secreted factors, and particularly BMP15 and BMP6, maintain the low incidence of cumulus cell apoptosis by establishing a localized gradient of bone morphogenetic proteins. (biologists.org)
  • The mtDNA number and viability of cumulus cells and oocytes remained unchanged. (go.jp)
  • Conclusion(s): ONOO - affects the viability of cumulus cells and the oocyte spindle structure in a dose-dependent manner. (elsevier.com)
  • A statistically significant association was found between the degree of apoptosis in cumulus cells and the type of gonadotropin. (nih.gov)
  • The substance 10-gingerol induces apoptosis in cumulus cells by inhibiting HTR1A functions and inactivating GSK3B and AKT-1. (uin-malang.ac.id)
  • Paracrine factors secreted by the oocyte regulate a broad range of cumulus cell functions. (biologists.org)
  • what is the glycoprotein layer secreted by the oocyte and the granulosa cells? (studystack.com)
  • Cumulus cells of C57xCBA F1 female mouse were injected into enucleated oocytes, followed by activation in 10 micromol/L strontium chloride for 5 h and subsequent in vitro culture up to the blastocyst stage. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Transcriptome profiling of cumulus cells from sibling oocytes for correlation with live birth after euploid blastocyst transfer. (fertstertdialog.com)
  • Human embryonic stem cell-derived blastocyst-like spheroids resemble human trophectoderm during early implantation process To study the use of human embryonic stem cell-derived trophoblastic spheroids (BAP-EB). (embies.com)
  • In addition to gonadotropins from the pituitary and follicular paracrine factors, oocyte secreted factors have been shown to play critical roles in the regulation of follicular cell functions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. (genecards.org)
  • Moreover, SB-431542 also antagonized epidermal growth factor-stimulated, oocyte-induced cumulus expansion. (edu.au)
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling-dependent calcium elevation in cumulus cells is required for NPR2 inhibition and meiotic resumption in mouse oocytes. (qxmd.com)
  • This temporal pattern of the termination of communication between the cumulus and the oocyte may indicate that communication provides a mechanism for regulating the maturation of the oocyte during follicular development before ovulation. (edu.au)
  • Since gap junctions have been implicated as a structural pathway for cell-to-cell communication (7, 16, 17, 23),' it has been tempting to speculate that the presence of these junctional elements may indicate that there is a significant exchange of molecules between the cumulus cells and oocyte during follicular development. (edu.au)
  • Expression of atresia biomarkers in granulosa cells after ovarian stimulation in heifers The use of younger gamete donors in dairy cattle genetic selection programs significantly. (embies.com)
  • Future research could use fluorescent biomarkers to determine the cells' health in the frozen state, or look into what is preventing the egg cells from reaching a glass-like phase. (gc.ca)
  • Molecular mechanisms of ovulation: co-ordination through the cumulus complex. (springermedizin.de)
  • Numerous, small gap junctional contacts were present between cumulus cells and oocytes before ovulation. (edu.au)
  • In the hours preceding ovulation, the frequency of gap junctional contacts between cumulus cells and the oocyte was reduced, and the cumulus was disorganized. (edu.au)
  • Electrophysiological measurements indicated that bidirectional ionic coupling was present between the cumulus and oocyte before ovulation. (edu.au)
  • Examination of the extent of ionic coupling in cumulus-oocyte specimens before and after ovulation revealed that ionic coupling between the cumulus and oocyte progressively decreased as the time of ovulation approached. (edu.au)
  • In summary, cell communication is a characteristic feature of the cumulusoocyte complex, and this communication is terminated near the time of ovulation. (edu.au)
  • The cumulus cells are embedded in a matrix containing hyaluronic acid which is formed prior to ovulation. (uniprot.org)
  • Herein, we document that two transcripts of the neuregulin (Nrg1) gene are expressed in granulosa cells, and that the type III Nrg1 is induced during ovulation in an ERK1/2 and C/EBPβ-dependent manner. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The growth and development of the oocyte is influenced by the functional activities of the surrounding somatic cells (cumulus or granulosa and theca cells). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overexpression of miR-130b increased the granulosa and cumulus cell proliferation, while inhibition showed the opposite phenotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Functionally, knockdown of Mcl1 or Cdk4 or their combined pharmacologic inhibition resulted in growth arrest and apoptosis in both established human ES cell lines and EF-transformed mouse MSCs. (nature.com)
  • Under no conditions did FSH stimulate maturation in cumulus cell-free oocytes. (scienceopen.com)
  • The actions of OSFs encompass many aspects of follicular cell functions, including the expression of cumulus cell markers, proliferation, apoptosis, luteinization, and cumulus expansion ( 18 , 19 , 36 - 43 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • May be involved in cell proliferation and cell motility. (genecards.org)
  • CC Contributes to inflammation, wound healing, tissue repair, and CC oocyte maturation by regulating angiogenesis and vascular CC remodeling and by stimulating cell proliferation CC (PubMed:24631357). (genome.jp)
  • Hedgehog signaling does not appear to contribute to increased folliculogenesis in adult Twinner ovaries but may have a role in germ cell proliferation during embryogenesis. (usda.gov)
  • For this purpose, four sources of DNA including CCs, blood lymphocytes, buccal cells and immature oocytes were analyzed in the present report. (jri.ir)
  • Cumulus migration is dependent on the Hh-signaling pathway ( Akiyama-Oda and Oda, 2010 ) and it was shown that the knockdown of components of this signaling pathway results in cumulus migration defects and in the ectopic opening of the germ-disc ( Akiyama-Oda and Oda, 2010 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • The NRG1 pathway has two roles: one is to enhance AREG-induced progesterone production in granulosa cells, and the other is to regulate oocyte maturation by a cumulus cell-dependent mechanism. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Leukemia inhibitory factor induces cumulus expansion in immature human and mouse oocytes and improves mouse two-cell rate and delivery rates when it is present during mouse in vitro oocyte maturation. (qxmd.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor roscovitine induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in rabbit retinal pigment epithelial cells. (nchu.edu.tw)
  • Ginger contains 10-gingerol, which induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells. (uin-malang.ac.id)
  • In many species, the signal for oocyte maturation acts initially on somatic cells surrounding the oocyte, rather than on the oocyte itself. (springer.com)
  • Expressed in granulosa and cumulus cells. (abcam.com)
  • The HSDH reaction observed near the basement membrane was more pronounced than in cells nearer the antrum. (cdc.gov)
  • The major population of cells within the follicular antrum are epithelial granulosa cells. (edu.au)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressing EF showed high self-renewal capacity and maintained an undifferentiated state despite high apoptosis. (nature.com)
  • Despite EF-induced toxicity, murine or human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) tolerate expression, but only murine EF-transduced MSC displayed sarcoma formation upon transplantation in immunocompromised mice. (nature.com)
  • In the house spider Achaearanea tepidariorum , which is emerging as a model organism ( Oda and Akiyama-Oda, 2008 ), a cluster of endoderm cells, termed the cumulus mesenchymal (CM) cells, is internalized from the blastopore and migrates on the basal surface of the static germ disc epithelium (see Fig. 1A ) ( Akiyama-Oda and Oda, 2003 ). (biologists.org)
  • In spiders, a group of BMP secreting mesenchymal cells (the cumulus) functions as an organizer of the dorsoventral axis. (elifesciences.org)
  • The mesenchymal cumulus cells are the source of the BMP receptor ligand Decapentaplegic ( Akiyama-Oda and Oda, 2006 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Cells of metazoa display two main phenotypes, the ancestral epithelial state and the recent mesenchymal derivative. (biomedsearch.com)