The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
A protein that plays a role in GRANULOSA CELLS where it regulates folliculogenesis. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein 15 are linked to reproductive abnormalities such as PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.
A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
Methods used to induce premature oocytes, that are maintained in tissue culture, to progress through developmental stages including to a stage that is competent to undergo FERTILIZATION.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.
The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. In the humans, 6-phosphofructose-1-kinase isozyme C is found in platelets, brain, heart, kidney, colon and testis. This isozyme C can exist as the homotetramer of C subunits (P subunits), or heterotetramer of C type and L type subunits.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A large family of cell regulatory proteins which are structurally related to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. The superfamily is subdivided into at least three related protein families: BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS; GROWTH DIFFERENTIATION FACTORS; and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTORS.
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.
A colorless liquid with a fragrant odor. It is used as an intermediate, solvent and in cosmetics.
A mercaptoethylamine compound that is endogenously derived from the COENZYME A degradative pathway. The fact that cysteamine is readily transported into LYSOSOMES where it reacts with CYSTINE to form cysteine-cysteamine disulfide and CYSTEINE has led to its use in CYSTINE DEPLETING AGENTS for the treatment of CYSTINOSIS.
A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Embryonic and fetal development that takes place in an artificial environment in vitro.
The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
A 38-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase that is abundantly expressed in a broad variety of cell types. It is involved in the regulation of cellular stress responses as well as the control of proliferation and survival of many cell types. The kinase activity of the enzyme is inhibited by the pyridinyl-imidazole compound SB 203580.
A form of creatine kinase found in the BRAIN.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
The transformation of a liquid to a glassy solid i.e., without the formation of crystals during the cooling process.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Formation of CORPUS LUTEUM. This process includes capillary invasion of the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE, hypertrophy of the GRANULOSA CELLS and the THECA CELLS, and the production of PROGESTERONE. Luteinization is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.
Inbred ICR mice are a strain of albino laboratory mice that have been selectively bred for consistent genetic makeup and high reproductive performance, making them widely used in biomedical research for studies involving reproduction, toxicology, pharmacology, and carcinogenesis.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.
The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.
A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Shrews are small, insectivorous mammals belonging to the family Soricidae, characterized by their pointed snouts, tiny eyes, and rapid movements.

Impact of anisosmotic conditions on structural and functional integrity of cumulus-oocyte complexes at the germinal vesicle stage in the domestic cat. (1/273)

During cryopreservation, the immature oocyte is subjected to anisosmotic conditions potentially impairing subsequent nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation in vitro. In preparation for cryopreservation protocols and to characterize osmotic tolerance, cat cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage were exposed for 15 min to sucrose solutions ranging from 100 to 2,000 mOsm and then examined for structural integrity and developmental competence in vitro. Osmolarities > or =200 and < or =750 mOsm had no effect on incidence of oocyte nuclear maturation, fertilization success, and blastocyst formation compared to control COC (exposed to 290 mOsm). This relatively high osmotic tolerance of the immature cat oocyte appeared to arise from a remarkable stability of the GV chromatin structure as well as plasticity in mitochondrial distribution, membrane integrity, and ability to maintain cumulus-oocyte communications. Osmolarities <200 mOsm only damaged cumulus cell membrane integrity, which contributed to poor nuclear maturation but ultimately had no adverse effect on blastocyst formation in vitro. Osmolarities >750 mOsm compromised nuclear maturation and blastocyst formation in vitro via disruption of cumulus-oocyte communications, an effect that could be mitigated through 1,500 mOsm by adding cytochalasin B to the hyperosmotic solutions. These results (1) demonstrate, for the first time, the expansive osmotic tolerance of the immature cat oocyte, (2) characterize the fundamental role of cumulus-oocyte communications when tolerance limits are exceeded, and (3) reveal an interesting hyperosmotic tolerance of the immature oocyte that can be increased two-fold by supplementation with cytochalasin B.  (+info)

Reduction of connexin 43 in human cumulus cells yields good embryo competence during ICSI. (2/273)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to predict developmental competence of human oocytes during ICSI via analysis of connexin 43 (Cx43) in cumulus cells surrounding mature oocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human cumulus cells were manually separated from the oocyte-cumulus complex under a microscope. Cx43 mRNA was expressed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) measurement in cumulus cells. RESULTS: There was no significant relationship between expression of Cx43 and fertilisation or cleavage rate. However, Cx43 expression was lower in the good morphology group (blastomeres>7 cells with fragmentation<10% on day 3) when compared to the other groups (p=0.035). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that full reduction of Cx43 expression on cumulus cells at the time of oocyte collection during ICSI is essential for developmental competence of human oocytes.  (+info)

Altered composition of the cumulus-oocyte complex matrix during in vitro maturation of oocytes. (3/273)

BACKGROUND: In vitro maturation (IVM) of mammalian oocytes has potential health benefits for patients undergoing assisted reproduction as an alternative to gonadotrophin treatment. This procedure is also useful for studying the process of oocyte and early embryo development. However, oocytes undergoing IVM have much lower competence than in vivo matured oocytes. Efforts to optimize IVM success have focused on replicating in vivo timing, hormonal milieu and cumulus cell responses associated with maturing oocytes. We have previously identified two extracellular matrix proteins, the protease Adamts1 and hyaluronan-binding proteoglycan Versican, produced by mural granulosa cells that selectively incorporate into the periovulatory cumulus-oocyte complex (COC). METHODS: Murine COC were cultured in the presence of epidermal growth factor and/or FSH. mRNA and protein were measured by real time PCR and Western blot and compared to in vivo derived COC. RESULTS: COCs from mice that underwent IVM for 6 or 20 h in the presence of epidermal growth factor, FSH or in combination had a > 10-fold reduction in mRNA (P < 0.05) for Adamts1 and Vcan when compared with in vivo matured COCs. Hyaluronan synthase 2 expression was up-regulated up to 8-fold (P < 0.05) over the unstimulated control, demonstrating successful induction of cumulus gene expression by the IVM conditions. While in vivo matured COCs showed abundant levels of these proteins, COCs that underwent IVM had neither detectable Adamts1, nor intact or Adamts1-cleaved Vcan. Human cumulus and granulosa cells matured in vivo contained abundant mRNA for Adamts1 and Vcan, demonstrating the potential relevance to human IVM. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that extensively altered COC matrix composition is present during IVM and may contribute to the observed poorer competence of the derived oocytes.  (+info)

Exogenous growth differentiation factor 9 in oocyte maturation media enhances subsequent embryo development and fetal viability in mice. (4/273)

BACKGROUND: Successful oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) would eliminate the need for hormonal stimulation used in assisted reproduction techniques. Unfortunately, oocytes matured in vitro have compromised developmental competence possibly due to disrupted oocyte-cumulus communication resulting from inappropriate levels of oocyte-secreted factors such as growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9). Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous GDF9 during IVM of mouse oocytes on development and subsequent fetal viability. METHODS: Cumulus-oocyte complexes from pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin primed mice were cultured with or without 200 ng/ml exogenous recombinant GDF9, 50 mIU/ml FSH and 10 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF). After 18 h, cumulus expansion was scored and oocytes were fertilized in vitro. Cleavage, blastocyst development, blastocyst total, inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm cell numbers were assessed. Viability of embryos was assessed by transfer to recipient females and pregnancy outcome determined at day 15. RESULTS: Oocytes matured with exogenous GDF9 in the presence of FSH and EGF had higher rates of development, percentage of hatching blastocyst and blastocyst total and ICM cell numbers (all P < 0.05). Although implantation rate and fetal and placental weights were not affected, the number of viable fetuses at day 15 was increased with exogenous GDF9. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous GDF9 during IVM improved embryo development and fetal viability and provides a promising approach for human IVM.  (+info)

Gene silencing of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA by RNA interference in bovine cumulus-granulosa cells. (5/273)

Inhibition of specific gene expression using RNA interference (RNAi) is a valuable tool for functional analysis of a target gene. However, there is little information available concerning RNAi for analysis of gene function in relation to the reproductive physiology of follicular cells in ruminants. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the interfering effect of small interference RNA (siRNA) on expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) mRNA and prostagrandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) production in bovine cumulus-granulosa (CG) cells. Bovine CG cells were collected from aspirated follicles and cultured. After reaching confluency, two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, to investigate the effective concentration of siRNA, 0, 100, 250 and 500 pM of Cox-2 siRNA was introduced into the CG cells, respectively. After 24 h, the amount of Cox-2 mRNA expression was measured by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. In experiment 2, to investigate the time required for effective interference of siRNA and Cox-2 activity, 250 pM siRNA was introduced for 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h. After culture, the amount of Cox-2 mRNA expression was measured and the culture medium was collected to determine the PGF(2alpha) concentration by enzyme immunoassay. The Cox-2 mRNA expression was not affected by introduction of 100 pM siRNA into CG cells for 24 h, but 250 and 500 pM Cox-2 siRNA significantly reduced the Cox-2 mRNA expression. Moreover, the significant suppressive effect of 250 pM siRNA was observed 6 h after introduction, and the reduction of mRNA expression by RNAi became more obvious over 12 h. On the other hand, the PGF(2alpha) concentration in the culture medium was not significantly different 12 h after siRNA introduction; however, the PGF(2alpha) concentration 24 h after siRNA introduction was significantly decreased compared with the control at the same time point. These results suggest that gene silencing of Cox-2 with siRNA is capable of analyzing the function and expression of specific genes in bovine CG cells.  (+info)

Proteolytic activity of the 26S proteasome is required for the meiotic resumption, germinal vesicle breakdown, and cumulus expansion of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes matured in vitro. (6/273)

The resumption of oocyte meiosis in mammals encompasses the landmark event of oocyte germinal vesicle (GV) breakdown (GVBD), accompanied by the modification of cell-to-cell communication and adhesion between the oocyte and surrounding cumulus cells. The concomitant cumulus expansion relies on microfilament-cytoskeletal remodeling and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. We hypothesized that this multifaceted remodeling event requires substrate-specific proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP). We evaluated meiotic progression, cytoskeletal dynamics, and the production of cumulus ECM in porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) cultured with or without 10-200 microM MG132, a specific proteasomal inhibitor, for the first 22 h of in vitro maturation, followed by 22 h of culture with or without MG132. Treatment with 10 microM MG132 arrested 28.4% of oocytes in GV stage (vs. 1.3% in control), 43.1% in prometaphase I, and 16.2% in metaphase I, whereas 83.7% of control ova reached metaphase II (0% of MG132 reached metaphase II). The proportion of GV-stage ova increased progressively to >90% with increased concentration of MG132 (20-200 microM). Furthermore, MG132 blocked the extrusion of the first polar body and degradation of F-actin-rich transzonal projections (TZP) interconnecting cumulus cells with the oocyte. The microfilament disruptor cytochalasin E (CE) prevented cumulus expansion but accelerated the breakdown of TZPs. Ova treated with a combination of 10 microM MG132 and 10 microM CE underwent GVBD, despite the inhibition of proteasomal activity. However, 90.0% of cumulus-free ova treated with 10 microM MG132 remained in GV stage, compared with 16.7% GV ova in control. Cumulus expansion, retention of hyaluronic acid, and the deposition of cumulus ECM relying on the covalent transfer of heavy chains of inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor (IalphaI) were also inhibited by MG132. Cumulus expansion in control COCs was accompanied by the degradation of ubiquitin-C-terminal hydrolase L3, an important regulator of UPP. RAC1, a UPP-controlled regulator of actin polymerization was maintained at steady levels throughout cumulus expansion. We conclude that proteasomal proteolysis has multiple functions in the progression of oocyte meiosis beyond GV and metaphase I stage, polar body extrusion, and cumulus expansion.  (+info)

Gene expression in human cumulus cells: one approach to oocyte competence. (7/273)

BACKGROUND: Dialogue between the oocyte and cumulus cells is essential for oocyte maturation. A prospective laboratory research project was designed to evaluate transcription of specific genes in cumulus cells harvested before intracytoplasmic sperm injection from pre-ovulatory follicles, according to individual oocyte nuclear maturity and developmental competence. Genes were chosen because their expression was induced by the LH peak [Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein (STAR), Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 or PTGS2), Amphiregulin (AREG)] or because they were involved in oocyte lipidic metabolism [Stearoyl-Coenzyme A Desaturase 1 and 5 (SCD1 and SCD5)] or in gap-junctions [Connexin 43 (CX43 or GJA1)]. METHODS: mRNA levels in cumulus cells were assessed by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Expression levels of all genes investigated, except Cx43, were increased after resumption of meiosis. Nuclear maturation was thus associated with increased expression of STAR, COX2, AREG, SCD1 and SCD5 by cumulus cells. When considering only cumulus associated with metaphase II oocytes, gene expression was independent of morphological status at Day 2. In contrast, transcript levels were lower and distributed over a narrower range in cumulus enclosing oocytes achieving blastocyst development at Day 5/6 than in cumulus enclosing oocytes unable to develop beyond the embryo stage. CONCLUSION: Further developmental potential from embryo to blastocyst stage was associated with lower expression in a narrow range for these genes.  (+info)

The protein profile of mouse mature cumulus-oocyte complex. (8/273)

In mammals, the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) is the main component of ovarian follicles. Bi-directional communication between oocytes and surrounding cumulus granulosa cells is essential for the development of oocytes and ovarian follicles. In this study, we performed proteomic profiling of mouse mature COC, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. A total of 259 protein spots were identified, which correspond to 156 individual proteins. We also discovered some protein families, which may play important roles in ovarian follicular development. Immunostaining was conducted to determine the subcellular localization of specific proteins from selected protein families of interest, and to examine their expression patterns during follicle development. These data provide valuable information for future studies to identify proteins involved in ovarian follicular development and related reproductive abnormalities.  (+info)

Cumulus cells are a type of specialized cell that surround and support the egg (oocyte) in the ovary of female mammals, including humans. These cells are located in the cumulus oophorus, which is a cluster of cells that surrounds and protects the mature egg within the follicle.

Cumulus cells play an important role in the process of fertilization by providing nutrients to the developing egg and helping to regulate its growth and development. They also help to facilitate communication between the egg and the surrounding follicular cells, which is necessary for the release of the mature egg from the ovary during ovulation.

In addition to their role in reproduction, cumulus cells have been studied for their potential use in various medical applications, including as a source of stem cells for therapeutic purposes. However, more research is needed to fully understand the properties and potential uses of these cells.

An oocyte, also known as an egg cell or female gamete, is a large specialized cell found in the ovary of female organisms. It contains half the number of chromosomes as a normal diploid cell, as it is the product of meiotic division. Oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and are responsible for the production of female offspring upon fertilization with sperm. The term "oocyte" specifically refers to the immature egg cell before it reaches full maturity and is ready for fertilization, at which point it is referred to as an ovum or egg.

An ovarian follicle is a fluid-filled sac in the ovary that contains an immature egg or ovum (oocyte). It's a part of the female reproductive system and plays a crucial role in the process of ovulation.

Ovarian follicles start developing in the ovaries during fetal development, but only a small number of them will mature and release an egg during a woman's reproductive years. The maturation process is stimulated by hormones like follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

There are different types of ovarian follicles, including primordial, primary, secondary, and tertiary or Graafian follicles. The Graafian follicle is the mature follicle that ruptures during ovulation to release the egg into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm.

It's important to note that abnormal growth or development of ovarian follicles can lead to conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and ovarian cancer.

Oogenesis is the biological process of formation and maturation of female gametes, or ova or egg cells, in the ovary. It begins during fetal development and continues throughout a woman's reproductive years. The process involves the division and differentiation of a germ cell (oogonium) into an immature ovum (oocyte), which then undergoes meiotic division to form a mature ovum capable of being fertilized by sperm.

The main steps in oogenesis include:

1. Multiplication phase: The oogonia divide mitotically to increase their number.
2. Growth phase: One of the oogonia becomes primary oocyte and starts to grow, accumulating nutrients and organelles required for future development.
3. First meiotic division: The primary oocyte undergoes an incomplete first meiotic division, resulting in two haploid cells - a secondary oocyte and a smaller cell called the first polar body. This division is arrested in prophase I until puberty.
4. Second meiotic division: At ovulation or just before fertilization, the secondary oocyte completes the second meiotic division, producing another small cell, the second polar body, and a mature ovum (egg) with 23 chromosomes.
5. Fertilization: The mature ovum can be fertilized by a sperm, restoring the normal diploid number of chromosomes in the resulting zygote.

Oogenesis is a complex and highly regulated process that involves various hormonal signals and cellular interactions to ensure proper development and maturation of female gametes for successful reproduction.

Fertilization in vitro, also known as in-vitro fertilization (IVF), is a medical procedure where an egg (oocyte) and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish to facilitate fertilization. The fertilized egg (embryo) is then transferred to a uterus with the hope of establishing a successful pregnancy. This procedure is often used when other assisted reproductive technologies have been unsuccessful or are not applicable, such as in cases of blocked fallopian tubes, severe male factor infertility, and unexplained infertility. The process involves ovarian stimulation, egg retrieval, fertilization, embryo culture, and embryo transfer. In some cases, additional techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) may be used to increase the chances of success.

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP-15) is a growth factor belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily. It plays crucial roles in the development and function of the reproductive system, particularly in the ovary. BMP-15 is primarily produced by the oocytes (egg cells) and stimulates the growth and differentiation of granulosa cells, which surround and support the oocytes during follicular development.

BMP-15 has been shown to promote follicular development, increase ovulation rate, and improve embryo quality in various animal models. In humans, mutations in the BMP15 gene have been associated with ovarian dysfunction, including premature ovarian failure and primary ovarian insufficiency. However, the role of BMP-15 in human reproductive physiology is not yet fully understood, and further research is needed to clarify its exact functions and potential clinical applications.

Growth Differentiation Factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily, which plays crucial roles in various biological processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Specifically, GDF9 is primarily expressed in oocytes and has essential functions during follicular development and ovulation in the ovary. It regulates granulosa cell proliferation, differentiation, and steroidogenesis, contributing to the maintenance of follicular integrity and promoting follicle growth. Additionally, GDF9 is involved in embryonic development and has been implicated in several reproductive disorders when its expression or function is disrupted.

Granulosa cells are specialized cells that surround and enclose the developing egg cells (oocytes) in the ovaries. They play a crucial role in the growth, development, and maturation of the follicles (the fluid-filled sacs containing the oocytes) by providing essential nutrients and hormones.

Granulosa cells are responsible for producing estrogen, which supports the development of the endometrium during the menstrual cycle in preparation for a potential pregnancy. They also produce inhibin and activin, two hormones that regulate the function of the pituitary gland and its secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

These cells are critical for female reproductive health and fertility. Abnormalities in granulosa cell function can lead to various reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, and infertility.

In vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) techniques refer to the process of stimulating and promoting the development and maturation of immature oocytes (eggs) outside of the human body, in a laboratory setting. This procedure is often used in assisted reproductive technology (ART) for individuals or couples who may have difficulty conceiving due to various reasons such as premature ovarian failure, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), or those undergoing cancer treatment.

The IVM process involves the retrieval of immature oocytes from the ovaries, usually through a minor surgical procedure called transvaginal oocyte retrieval. The immature oocytes are then cultured in a laboratory and exposed to specific hormones and nutrients that stimulate their growth and maturation. Once the oocytes have reached full maturity, they can be fertilized with sperm through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or other methods, and the resulting embryos can be transferred to a woman's uterus in the hope of achieving a successful pregnancy.

IVM techniques offer several advantages over traditional in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures, including reduced medication doses, shorter treatment durations, and lower costs. Additionally, IVM may help minimize the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), a potentially serious complication associated with conventional ART treatments. However, IVM is still considered an experimental procedure in many countries and requires further research to establish its safety and efficacy for widespread clinical use.

Meiosis is a type of cell division that results in the formation of four daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. It is a key process in sexual reproduction, where it generates gametes or sex cells (sperm and eggs).

The process of meiosis involves one round of DNA replication followed by two successive nuclear divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II. In meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair, form chiasma and exchange genetic material through crossing over, then separate from each other. In meiosis II, sister chromatids separate, leading to the formation of four haploid cells. This process ensures genetic diversity in offspring by shuffling and recombining genetic information during the formation of gametes.

Follicular fluid is the fluid that accumulates within the follicle (a small sac or cyst) in the ovary where an egg matures. This fluid contains various chemicals, hormones, and proteins that support the growth and development of the egg cell. It also contains metabolic waste products and other substances from the granulosa cells (the cells that surround the egg cell within the follicle). Follicular fluid is often analyzed in fertility treatments and studies as it can provide valuable information about the health and viability of the egg cell.

Sperm-ovum interactions, also known as sperm-egg interactions, refer to the specific series of events that occur between a spermatozoon (sperm) and an oocyte (egg or ovum) during fertilization in sexual reproduction.

The process begins with the sperm's attachment to the zona pellucida, a glycoprotein layer surrounding the oocyte. This interaction is mediated by specific proteins on the surface of both the sperm and the zona pellucida. Following attachment, the sperm undergoes the acrosome reaction, during which enzymes are released from the sperm's head to help digest and penetrate the zona pellucida.

Once the sperm has successfully traversed the zona pellucida, it makes contact with the oocyte's plasma membrane, triggering the fusion of the sperm and egg membranes. This results in the release of the sperm's genetic material into the oocyte's cytoplasm and the initiation of a series of intracellular signaling events within the oocyte that ultimately lead to its completion of meiosis II and formation of a zygote, marking the beginning of embryonic development.

Proper sperm-ovum interactions are crucial for successful fertilization and subsequent embryonic development, and any disruptions in these processes can result in infertility or early pregnancy loss.

Cloning of an organism is the process of creating a genetically identical copy of an entire living organism, including all of its DNA. This is achieved through a variety of laboratory techniques that can vary depending on the type of organism being cloned. In the case of animals, one common method is called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).

In SCNT, the nucleus of a donor animal's cell (which contains its DNA) is removed and transferred into an egg cell that has had its own nucleus removed. The egg cell is then stimulated to divide and grow, resulting in an embryo that is genetically identical to the donor animal. This embryo can be implanted into a surrogate mother, where it will continue to develop until birth.

Cloning of organisms has raised ethical concerns and debates, particularly in the case of animals, due to questions about the welfare of cloned animals and the potential implications for human cloning. However, cloning is also seen as having potential benefits, such as the ability to produce genetically identical animals for research or agricultural purposes.

It's important to note that while cloning can create genetically identical organisms, it does not necessarily mean that they will be identical in every way, as environmental factors and random genetic mutations can still result in differences between clones.

A blastocyst is a stage in the early development of a fertilized egg, or embryo, in mammals. It occurs about 5-6 days after fertilization and consists of an outer layer of cells called trophoblasts, which will eventually form the placenta, and an inner cell mass, which will give rise to the fetus. The blastocyst is characterized by a fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoel. This stage is critical for the implantation of the embryo into the uterine lining.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hyaluronoglucosaminidase" appears to be a made-up term or a typographical error. The correct term related to hyaluronic acid metabolism is "hyaluronidase," which is an enzyme that degrades hyaluronic acid, a component of the extracellular matrix in various tissues. If you meant to ask about this enzyme or its functions, I'd be happy to provide more information on that. However, if "Hyaluronoglucosaminidase" is intended to represent another medical term, could you please clarify so I can provide an accurate and helpful response?

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

Embryonic development is the series of growth and developmental stages that occur during the formation and early growth of the embryo. In humans, this stage begins at fertilization (when the sperm and egg cell combine) and continues until the end of the 8th week of pregnancy. During this time, the fertilized egg (now called a zygote) divides and forms a blastocyst, which then implants into the uterus. The cells in the blastocyst begin to differentiate and form the three germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. These germ layers will eventually give rise to all of the different tissues and organs in the body.

Embryonic development is a complex and highly regulated process that involves the coordinated interaction of genetic and environmental factors. It is characterized by rapid cell division, migration, and differentiation, as well as programmed cell death (apoptosis) and tissue remodeling. Abnormalities in embryonic development can lead to birth defects or other developmental disorders.

It's important to note that the term "embryo" is used to describe the developing organism from fertilization until the end of the 8th week of pregnancy in humans, after which it is called a fetus.

Embryo culture techniques refer to the methods and procedures used to maintain and support the growth and development of an embryo outside of the womb, typically in a laboratory setting. These techniques are often used in the context of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

The process typically involves fertilizing an egg with sperm in a laboratory dish and then carefully monitoring and maintaining the resulting embryo in a specialized culture medium that provides the necessary nutrients, hormones, and other factors to support its development. The culture medium is usually contained within an incubator that maintains optimal temperature, humidity, and gas concentrations to mimic the environment inside the body.

Embryologists may use various embryo culture techniques depending on the stage of development and the specific needs of the embryo. For example, some techniques involve culturing the embryo in a single layer, while others may use a technique called "co-culture" that involves growing the embryo on a layer of cells to provide additional support and nutrients.

The goal of embryo culture techniques is to promote the healthy growth and development of the embryo, increasing the chances of a successful pregnancy and live birth. However, it's important to note that these techniques are not without risk, and there are potential ethical considerations surrounding the use of ART and embryo culture.

Phosphofructokinase-1, Type C (PFK-1, Type C) is a specific isoform of the enzyme phosphofructokinase-1. Phosphofructokinase-1 is a key regulatory enzyme in glycolysis, the metabolic pathway responsible for the conversion of glucose into energy in the form of ATP.

PFK-1, Type C is primarily found in cardiac and skeletal muscle tissues. It plays a crucial role in controlling the rate of glycolysis by catalyzing the phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, using ATP as a phosphate donor. This reaction is a critical step in glycolysis and is tightly regulated by various factors such as energy charge (ATP/ADP ratio), pH, and the concentration of certain metabolites like citrate and AMP.

Mutations in the gene encoding PFK-1, Type C can lead to a rare inherited muscle disorder called Tarui's disease or glycogen storage disease type VII. This condition is characterized by exercise intolerance, muscle cramps, myoglobinuria (the presence of myoglobin in the urine), and an increased risk of rhabdomyolysis (a serious condition that can result from muscle damage).

Ovulation is the medical term for the release of a mature egg from an ovary during a woman's menstrual cycle. The released egg travels through the fallopian tube where it may be fertilized by sperm if sexual intercourse has occurred recently. If the egg is not fertilized, it will break down and leave the body along with the uterine lining during menstruation. Ovulation typically occurs around day 14 of a 28-day menstrual cycle, but the timing can vary widely from woman to woman and even from cycle to cycle in the same woman.

During ovulation, there are several physical changes that may occur in a woman's body, such as an increase in basal body temperature, changes in cervical mucus, and mild cramping or discomfort on one side of the lower abdomen (known as mittelschmerz). These symptoms can be used to help predict ovulation and improve the chances of conception.

It's worth noting that some medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or premature ovarian failure, may affect ovulation and make it difficult for a woman to become pregnant. In these cases, medical intervention may be necessary to help promote ovulation and increase the chances of conception.

Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone that is produced during pregnancy. It is produced by the placenta after implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus. The main function of hCG is to prevent the disintegration of the corpus luteum, which is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after ovulation and produces progesterone during early pregnancy. Progesterone is essential for maintaining the lining of the uterus and supporting the pregnancy.

hCG can be detected in the blood or urine as early as 10 days after conception, and its levels continue to rise throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. In addition to its role in maintaining pregnancy, hCG is also used as a clinical marker for pregnancy and to monitor certain medical conditions such as gestational trophoblastic diseases.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Zona pellucida is a term used in the field of reproductive biology and it refers to the glycoprotein membrane that surrounds mammalian oocytes (immature egg cells). This membrane plays a crucial role in the fertilization process. It has receptors for sperm, and upon binding with the sperm, it undergoes changes that prevent other sperm from entering, a process known as the zona reaction. This membrane is also involved in the early development of the embryo.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

The TGF-beta (Transforming Growth Factor-beta) superfamily proteins are a group of structurally related signaling molecules that play crucial roles in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix production. This superfamily includes TGF-betas, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), activins, inhibins, and several other members. These proteins bind to and signal through type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors, leading to the activation of intracellular Smad proteins and subsequent regulation of gene expression. Dysregulation of TGF-beta superfamily proteins has been implicated in various human diseases, such as fibrosis, cancer, and autoimmune disorders.

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a specialized form of assisted reproductive technology (ART), specifically used in the context of in vitro fertilization (IVF). It involves the direct injection of a single sperm into the cytoplasm of a mature egg (oocyte) to facilitate fertilization. This technique is often used when there are issues with male infertility, such as low sperm count or poor sperm motility, to increase the chances of successful fertilization. The resulting embryos can then be transferred to the uterus in hopes of achieving a pregnancy.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Fertilization is the process by which a sperm cell (spermatozoon) penetrates and fuses with an egg cell (ovum), resulting in the formation of a zygote. This fusion of genetic material from both the male and female gametes initiates the development of a new organism. In human biology, fertilization typically occurs in the fallopian tube after sexual intercourse, when a single sperm out of millions is able to reach and penetrate the egg released from the ovary during ovulation. The successful fusion of these two gametes marks the beginning of pregnancy.

Nuclear transfer techniques are scientific procedures that involve the transfer of the nucleus of a cell, containing its genetic material, from one cell to another. The most well-known type of nuclear transfer is somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), which is used in therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning.

In SCNT, the nucleus of a somatic cell (a body cell, not an egg or sperm cell) is transferred into an enucleated egg cell (an egg cell from which the nucleus has been removed). The egg cell with the new nucleus is then stimulated to divide and grow, creating an embryo that is genetically identical to the donor of the somatic cell.

Nuclear transfer techniques have various potential applications in medicine, including the creation of patient-specific stem cells for use in regenerative medicine, drug development and testing, and the study of genetic diseases. However, these procedures are also associated with ethical concerns, particularly in relation to reproductive cloning and the creation of human embryos for research purposes.

Embryo transfer is a medical procedure that involves the transfer of an embryo, which is typically created through in vitro fertilization (IVF), into the uterus of a woman with the aim of establishing a pregnancy. The embryo may be created using the intended parent's own sperm and eggs or those from donors. After fertilization and early cell division, the resulting embryo is transferred into the uterus of the recipient mother through a thin catheter that is inserted through the cervix. This procedure is typically performed under ultrasound guidance to ensure proper placement of the embryo. Embryo transfer is a key step in assisted reproductive technology (ART) and is often used as a treatment for infertility.

Superovulation, also known as controlled ovarian stimulation (COS), refers to the process of inducing the development and release of multiple mature ova (eggs) from the ovaries during a single reproductive cycle. This is achieved through the administration of exogenous gonadotropins or other fertility medications, which stimulate the ovarian follicles to grow and mature beyond the normal number. Superovulation is commonly used in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) to increase the chances of successful conception by obtaining a larger number of ova for fertilization and embryo transfer.

Equine Gonadotropins are glycoprotein hormones derived from the pituitary gland of horses. They consist of two subunits: a common alpha subunit and a unique beta subunit that determines the biological activity of each hormone. There are two main types of equine gonadotropins: Equine Follicle Stimulating Hormone (eFSH) and Equine Luteinizing Hormone (eLH).

eFSH plays a crucial role in the growth and development of ovarian follicles in females, while eLH stimulates ovulation and the production of sex steroids in both males and females. These hormones are often used in veterinary medicine to induce ovulation and improve fertility in horses, as well as in research to study the physiology and biochemistry of gonadotropins and reproduction. It's important to note that equine gonadotropins have limited application in human reproductive medicine due to potential immunogenic reactions and other safety concerns.

The cleavage stage of an ovum, also known as a fertilized egg, refers to the series of rapid cell divisions that occur after fertilization. During this stage, the single cell (zygote) divides into multiple cells, forming a blastomere. This process occurs in the fallopian tube and continues until the blastocyst reaches the uterus, typically around 5-6 days after fertilization. The cleavage stage is a critical period in early embryonic development, as any abnormalities during this time can lead to implantation failure or developmental defects.

Spermatozoa are the male reproductive cells, or gametes, that are produced in the testes. They are microscopic, flagellated (tail-equipped) cells that are highly specialized for fertilization. A spermatozoon consists of a head, neck, and tail. The head contains the genetic material within the nucleus, covered by a cap-like structure called the acrosome which contains enzymes to help the sperm penetrate the female's egg (ovum). The long, thin tail propels the sperm forward through fluid, such as semen, enabling its journey towards the egg for fertilization.

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

Hyaluronic acid is a glycosaminoglycan, a type of complex carbohydrate, that is naturally found in the human body. It is most abundant in the extracellular matrix of soft connective tissues, including the skin, eyes, and joints. Hyaluronic acid is known for its remarkable capacity to retain water, which helps maintain tissue hydration, lubrication, and elasticity. Its functions include providing structural support, promoting wound healing, and regulating cell growth and differentiation. In the medical field, hyaluronic acid is often used in various forms as a therapeutic agent for conditions like osteoarthritis, dry eye syndrome, and skin rejuvenation.

Oocyte retrieval is a medical procedure that is performed to obtain mature eggs (oocytes) from the ovaries of a female patient, typically for the purpose of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

During the procedure, which is usually done under sedation or anesthesia, a thin needle is inserted through the vaginal wall and guided into the ovarian follicles using ultrasound imaging. The mature eggs are then gently aspirated from the follicles and collected in a test tube.

Oocyte retrieval is typically performed after several days of hormonal stimulation, which helps to promote the development and maturation of multiple eggs within the ovaries. After the procedure, the eggs are examined for maturity and quality before being fertilized with sperm in the laboratory. The resulting embryos are then transferred to the uterus or frozen for future use.

It's important to note that oocyte retrieval carries some risks, including bleeding, infection, and damage to surrounding organs. However, these complications are generally rare and can be minimized with careful monitoring and skilled medical care.

Heptanol is not a medical term, but a chemical compound. It is more accurately referred to as n-heptanol or normal heptanol in chemistry. It is a primary alcohol with the molecular formula C7H16O. Heptanol is a colorless liquid that is used in the production of perfumes and flavors due to its mild, floral scent.

In medical contexts, heptanol might be encountered as a component of certain laboratory reagents or research tools, but it does not have specific medical applications or implications for human health.

Cysteamine is a medication and a naturally occurring aminothiol compound, which is composed of the amino acid cysteine and a sulfhydryl group. It has various uses in medicine, including as a treatment for cystinosis, a rare genetic disorder that causes an accumulation of cystine crystals in various organs and tissues. Cysteamine works by reacting with cystine to form a compound that can be more easily eliminated from the body. It is available in oral and topical forms and may also be used for other indications, such as treating lung diseases and radiation-induced damage.

Connexin 43 is a protein that forms gap junctions, which are specialized channels that allow for the direct communication and transport of small molecules between adjacent cells. Connexin 43 is widely expressed in many tissues, including the heart, brain, and various types of epithelial and connective tissues. In the heart, connexin 43 plays a crucial role in electrical conduction and coordination of contraction between cardiac muscle cells. Mutations in the gene that encodes connexin 43 have been associated with several human diseases, including certain types of cardiac arrhythmias and skin disorders.

Gonadotropins are hormones that stimulate the gonads (sex glands) to produce sex steroids and gametes (sex cells). In humans, there are two main types of gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which are produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland.

FSH plays a crucial role in the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and sperm production in males. LH triggers ovulation in females, causing the release of a mature egg from the ovary, and stimulates testosterone production in males.

Gonadotropins are often used in medical treatments to stimulate the gonads, such as in infertility therapies where FSH and LH are administered to induce ovulation or increase sperm production.

Cryoprotective agents are substances that are used to protect biological material from damage during freezing and thawing. These agents work by reducing the amount of ice that forms in the cells, which can help to prevent the formation of damaging ice crystals. Commonly used cryoprotective agents include dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), glycerol, and ethylene glycol.

When biological material, such as cells or tissues, is cooled to very low temperatures for storage or transportation, the water in the cells can freeze and form ice crystals. These ice crystals can damage the cell membranes and other structures within the cell, leading to cell death. Cryoprotective agents help to prevent this by lowering the freezing point of the solution that the cells are stored in, which reduces the amount of ice that forms.

Cryoprotective agents are often used in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART) to protect sperm, eggs, and embryos during freezing and thawing. They are also used in research settings to preserve cells and tissues for later use. It is important to note that while cryoprotective agents can help to reduce the amount of damage that occurs during freezing and thawing, they cannot completely prevent it. Therefore, it is important to carefully control the freezing and thawing process to minimize any potential harm to the biological material.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) receptors are specialized protein structures found on the surface of certain cells in the body. They play a crucial role in the endocrine system by binding to specific hormones, such as Luteinizing Hormone, and triggering a series of intracellular events that ultimately lead to changes in cell function.

In particular, LH receptors are found on the cells of the ovaries and testes. In females, when LH binds to its receptor in the ovary, it stimulates ovulation and the development of the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone. In males, LH (also known as Interstitial Cell-Stimulating Hormone in this context) binding to its receptor on testicular Leydig cells triggers the production of testosterone.

Therefore, LH receptors are essential for reproductive processes and the maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics.

Coculture techniques refer to a type of experimental setup in which two or more different types of cells or organisms are grown and studied together in a shared culture medium. This method allows researchers to examine the interactions between different cell types or species under controlled conditions, and to study how these interactions may influence various biological processes such as growth, gene expression, metabolism, and signal transduction.

Coculture techniques can be used to investigate a wide range of biological phenomena, including the effects of host-microbe interactions on human health and disease, the impact of different cell types on tissue development and homeostasis, and the role of microbial communities in shaping ecosystems. These techniques can also be used to test the efficacy and safety of new drugs or therapies by examining their effects on cells grown in coculture with other relevant cell types.

There are several different ways to establish cocultures, depending on the specific research question and experimental goals. Some common methods include:

1. Mixed cultures: In this approach, two or more cell types are simply mixed together in a culture dish or flask and allowed to grow and interact freely.
2. Cell-layer cultures: Here, one cell type is grown on a porous membrane or other support structure, while the second cell type is grown on top of it, forming a layered coculture.
3. Conditioned media cultures: In this case, one cell type is grown to confluence and its culture medium is collected and then used to grow a second cell type. This allows the second cell type to be exposed to any factors secreted by the first cell type into the medium.
4. Microfluidic cocultures: These involve growing cells in microfabricated channels or chambers, which allow for precise control over the spatial arrangement and flow of nutrients, waste products, and signaling molecules between different cell types.

Overall, coculture techniques provide a powerful tool for studying complex biological systems and gaining insights into the mechanisms that underlie various physiological and pathological processes.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Cell communication, also known as cell signaling, is the process by which cells exchange and transmit signals between each other and their environment. This complex system allows cells to coordinate their functions and maintain tissue homeostasis. Cell communication can occur through various mechanisms including:

1. Autocrine signaling: When a cell releases a signal that binds to receptors on the same cell, leading to changes in its behavior or function.
2. Paracrine signaling: When a cell releases a signal that binds to receptors on nearby cells, influencing their behavior or function.
3. Endocrine signaling: When a cell releases a hormone into the bloodstream, which then travels to distant target cells and binds to specific receptors, triggering a response.
4. Synaptic signaling: In neurons, communication occurs through the release of neurotransmitters that cross the synapse and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic cell, transmitting electrical or chemical signals.
5. Contact-dependent signaling: When cells physically interact with each other, allowing for the direct exchange of signals and information.

Cell communication is essential for various physiological processes such as growth, development, differentiation, metabolism, immune response, and tissue repair. Dysregulation in cell communication can contribute to diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "buffaloes." The term generally refers to large, hoofed mammals that are native to Africa and Asia. In English language slang, the term "buffalo" is sometimes used to describe a lie or exaggeration, but this usage is not related to the medical field. If you have more context about where you encountered this term, I may be able to provide a more specific answer.

Gap junctions are specialized intercellular connections that allow for the direct exchange of ions, small molecules, and electrical signals between adjacent cells. They are composed of arrays of channels called connexons, which penetrate the cell membranes of two neighboring cells and create a continuous pathway for the passage of materials from one cytoplasm to the other. Each connexon is formed by the assembly of six proteins called connexins, which are encoded by different genes and vary in their biophysical properties. Gap junctions play crucial roles in many physiological processes, including the coordination of electrical activity in excitable tissues, the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, and the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Mutations or dysfunctions in gap junction channels have been implicated in various human diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, neurological disorders, skin disorders, and cancer.

Paracrine communication is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell releases a signaling molecule, known as a paracrine factor, that acts on nearby cells within the local microenvironment. This type of communication allows for the coordination and regulation of various cellular processes, including growth, differentiation, and survival.

Paracrine factors can be released from a cell through various mechanisms, such as exocytosis or diffusion through the extracellular matrix. Once released, these factors bind to specific receptors on the surface of nearby cells, triggering intracellular signaling pathways that lead to changes in gene expression and cell behavior.

Paracrine communication is an important mechanism for maintaining tissue homeostasis and coordinating responses to injury or disease. For example, during wound healing, paracrine signals released by immune cells can recruit other cells to the site of injury and stimulate their proliferation and differentiation to promote tissue repair.

It's worth noting that paracrine communication should be distinguished from autocrine signaling, where a cell releases a signaling molecule that binds back to its own receptors, and endocrine signaling, where a hormone is released into the bloodstream and travels to distant target cells.

A mammalian embryo is the developing offspring of a mammal, from the time of implantation of the fertilized egg (blastocyst) in the uterus until the end of the eighth week of gestation. During this period, the embryo undergoes rapid cell division and organ differentiation to form a complex structure with all the major organs and systems in place. This stage is followed by fetal development, which continues until birth. The study of mammalian embryos is important for understanding human development, evolution, and reproductive biology.

Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is a small polypeptide that plays a significant role in various biological processes, including cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. It primarily binds to the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) on the surface of target cells, leading to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate these functions.

EGF is naturally produced in various tissues, such as the skin, and is involved in wound healing, tissue regeneration, and maintaining the integrity of epithelial tissues. In addition to its physiological roles, EGF has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including cancer, where it can contribute to tumor growth and progression by promoting cell proliferation and survival.

As a result, EGF and its signaling pathways have become targets for therapeutic interventions in various diseases, particularly cancer. Inhibitors of EGFR or downstream signaling components are used in the treatment of several types of malignancies, such as non-small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and head and neck cancer.

Parthenogenesis is a form of asexual reproduction in which offspring develop from unfertilized eggs or ovums. It occurs naturally in some plant and insect species, as well as a few vertebrates such as reptiles and fish. Parthenogenesis does not involve the fusion of sperm and egg cells; instead, the development of offspring is initiated by some other trigger, such as a chemical or physical stimulus. This type of reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism. In humans and other mammals, parthenogenesis is not a natural occurrence and would require scientific intervention to induce.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Cryopreservation is a medical procedure that involves the preservation of cells, tissues, or organs by cooling them to very low temperatures, typically below -150°C. This is usually achieved using liquid nitrogen. The low temperature slows down or stops biological activity, including chemical reactions and cellular metabolism, which helps to prevent damage and decay.

The cells, tissues, or organs that are being cryopreserved must be treated with a cryoprotectant solution before cooling to prevent the formation of ice crystals, which can cause significant damage. Once cooled, the samples are stored in specialized containers or tanks until they are needed for use.

Cryopreservation is commonly used in assisted reproductive technologies, such as the preservation of sperm, eggs, and embryos for fertility treatments. It is also used in research, including the storage of cell lines and stem cells, and in clinical settings, such as the preservation of skin grafts and corneas for transplantation.

An ovum is the female reproductive cell, or gamete, produced in the ovaries. It is also known as an egg cell and is released from the ovary during ovulation. When fertilized by a sperm, it becomes a zygote, which can develop into a fetus. The ovum contains half the genetic material necessary to create a new individual.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptors are specialized protein structures found on the surface of specific cells in the body. They play a crucial role in the endocrine system, particularly in the regulation of reproduction and development.

FSH receptors are primarily located on the granulosa cells that surround and support the developing eggs (oocytes) within the ovarian follicles in females. In males, these receptors can be found on the Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testes.

When FSH, a glycoprotein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, binds to its specific receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to various physiological responses. In females, FSH receptor activation stimulates follicle growth, estrogen production, and oocyte maturation. In males, FSH receptor signaling supports spermatogenesis, the process of sperm cell development within the testes.

In summary, FSH receptors are essential components in the hormonal regulation of reproduction and development, mediating the actions of follicle-stimulating hormone on target cells in both females and males.

Ectogenesis is a theoretical concept in medical and reproductive biology that refers to the development of an organism outside of the body, typically referring to the growth and development of a fetus or embryo in an artificial environment, such as an external womb or an artificial uterus. This concept is still largely speculative and not currently possible with existing technology. It raises various ethical, legal, and social questions related to pregnancy, reproduction, and the nature of parenthood.

Insemination, in a medical context, refers to the introduction of semen into the reproductive system of a female for the purpose of achieving pregnancy. This can be done through various methods including intracervical insemination (ICI), intrauterine insemination (IUI), and in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Intracervical insemination involves placing the semen at the cervix, the opening to the uterus. Intrauterine insemination involves placing the sperm directly into the uterus using a catheter. In vitro fertilization is a more complex process where the egg and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish and then transferred to the uterus.

Insemination is often used in cases of infertility, either because of male or female factors, or unexplained infertility. It can also be used for those who wish to become pregnant but do not have a partner, such as single women and same-sex female couples.

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14 (MAPK14), also known as p38 MAP kinase, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a crucial role in signal transduction pathways involved in cellular responses to stress, inflammation, and immune responses. It is activated by various stimuli such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, environmental stressors, and growth factors. Once activated, MAPK14 regulates the expression of genes involved in processes like apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and differentiation through phosphorylation of downstream transcription factors and other proteins. Dysregulation of this kinase has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and autoimmune disorders.

Creatine kinase (CK) is an enzyme found in various tissues in the body, including the heart, brain, and skeletal muscles. It plays a crucial role in energy metabolism by catalyzing the conversion of creatine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to phosphocreatine and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). This reaction helps regenerate ATP, which is the primary source of energy for cellular functions.

There are three main isoforms of CK in the human body: CK-MM, CK-MB, and CK-BB. The BB form of creatine kinase (CK-BB) is primarily found in the brain and is present in very low concentrations in other tissues. It is mainly located in the cytosol of neurons and glial cells.

An elevated level of CK-BB in the blood can indicate damage to the central nervous system, particularly in cases of stroke, traumatic brain injury, brain tumors, or neurodegenerative disorders like multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. However, it is essential to note that CK-BB levels alone are not considered a definitive diagnostic marker for these conditions, as other factors can influence its concentration in the bloodstream. Measurement of CK-BB, along with other biomarkers and clinical assessments, contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the patient's condition.

Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that mediate communication and interaction between different cells in living organisms. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). These signals can be released into the extracellular space, where they bind to specific receptors on the target cell's surface, triggering intracellular signaling cascades that ultimately lead to a response.

Peptides are short chains of amino acids, while proteins are larger molecules made up of one or more polypeptide chains. Both can function as intercellular signaling molecules by acting as ligands for cell surface receptors or by being cleaved from larger precursor proteins and released into the extracellular space. Examples of intercellular signaling peptides and proteins include growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, hormones, neurotransmitters, and their respective receptors.

These molecules contribute to maintaining homeostasis within an organism by coordinating cellular activities across tissues and organs. Dysregulation of intercellular signaling pathways has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intercellular signaling is essential for developing targeted therapies to treat these disorders.

Ovulation induction is a medical procedure that involves the stimulation of ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries) in women who have difficulties conceiving due to ovulatory disorders. This is typically achieved through the use of medications such as clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins, which promote the development and maturation of follicles in the ovaries containing eggs. The process is closely monitored through regular ultrasounds and hormone tests to ensure appropriate response and minimize the risk of complications like multiple pregnancies. Ovulation induction may be used as a standalone treatment or in conjunction with other assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF).

A zygote is the initial cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg, also known as an oocyte. This occurs in the process of human reproduction and marks the beginning of a new genetic identity, containing 46 chromosomes - 23 from the sperm and 23 from the egg. The zygote starts the journey of cell division and growth, eventually developing into a blastocyst, then an embryo, and finally a fetus over the course of pregnancy.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Metaphase is a phase in the cell division process (mitosis or meiosis) where the chromosomes align in the middle of the cell, also known as the metaphase plate or equatorial plane. During this stage, each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids attached to each other by a protein complex called the centromere. The spindle fibers from opposite poles of the cell attach to the centromeres of each chromosome, and through a process called congression, they align the chromosomes in the middle of the cell. This alignment allows for accurate segregation of genetic material during the subsequent anaphase stage.

Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, syrupy liquid with a sweet taste, which makes it appealing to animals and children. It is commonly used in the manufacture of antifreeze, coolants, deicers, hydraulic brake fluids, solvents, and other industrial products. Ethylene glycol is also found in some household items such as certain types of wood stains, paints, and cosmetics.

Ingesting even small amounts of ethylene glycol can be harmful or fatal to humans and animals. It is metabolized by the body into toxic substances that can cause damage to the central nervous system, heart, kidneys, and other organs. Symptoms of ethylene glycol poisoning may include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, decreased level of consciousness, seizures, coma, acidosis, increased heart rate, low blood pressure, and kidney failure.

If you suspect that someone has ingested ethylene glycol, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment typically involves administering a medication called fomepizole or ethanol to inhibit the metabolism of ethylene glycol, as well as providing supportive care such as fluid replacement and dialysis to remove the toxic substances from the body.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or oviducts, are a pair of slender tubular structures in the female reproductive system. They play a crucial role in human reproduction by providing a passageway for the egg (ovum) from the ovary to the uterus (womb).

Each Fallopian tube is typically around 7.6 to 10 centimeters long and consists of four parts: the interstitial part, the isthmus, the ampulla, and the infundibulum. The fimbriated end of the infundibulum, which resembles a fringe or frill, surrounds and captures the released egg from the ovary during ovulation.

Fertilization usually occurs in the ampulla when sperm meets the egg after sexual intercourse. Once fertilized, the zygote (fertilized egg) travels through the Fallopian tube toward the uterus for implantation and further development. The cilia lining the inner surface of the Fallopian tubes help propel the egg and the zygote along their journey.

In some cases, abnormalities or blockages in the Fallopian tubes can lead to infertility or ectopic pregnancies, which are pregnancies that develop outside the uterus, typically within the Fallopian tube itself.

A morula is a term used in embryology, which refers to the early stage of development in mammalian embryos. It is formed after fertilization when the zygote (a single cell resulting from the fusion of sperm and egg) undergoes several rounds of mitotic divisions to form a solid mass of 16 or more cells called blastomeres. At this stage, the cells are tightly packed together and have a compact, mulberry-like appearance, hence the name "morula" which is derived from the Latin word for "mulberry."

The morula stage typically occurs about 4-5 days after fertilization in humans and is marked by the beginning of blastulation, where the cells start to differentiate and become organized into an outer layer (trophoblast) and an inner cell mass. The trophoblast will eventually form the placenta, while the inner cell mass will give rise to the embryo proper.

It's important to note that the morula stage is a transient phase in embryonic development, and it represents a critical period of growth and differentiation as the embryo prepares for implantation into the uterine wall.

The follicular phase is a term used in reproductive endocrinology, which refers to the first part of the menstrual cycle. This phase begins on the first day of menstruation and lasts until ovulation. During this phase, several follicles in the ovaries begin to mature under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) released by the pituitary gland.

Typically, one follicle becomes dominant and continues to mature, while the others regress. The dominant follicle produces increasing amounts of estrogen, which causes the lining of the uterus to thicken in preparation for a possible pregnancy. The follicular phase can vary in length, but on average it lasts about 14 days.

It's important to note that the length and characteristics of the follicular phase can provide valuable information in diagnosing various reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or thyroid dysfunction.

Vitrification is a process used in cryopreservation, where a liquid or semi-liquid biological material is transformed into a glass-like solid state by cooling it to extremely low temperatures at a rate that suppresses the formation of ice crystals. This technique is often used in assisted reproductive technology (ART) for preserving oocytes (human eggs), embryos, and ovarian or testicular tissues.

During vitrification, the biological material is exposed to high concentrations of cryoprotectants, which help prevent ice crystal formation and minimize cellular damage during cooling. The sample is then rapidly cooled using liquid nitrogen, achieving temperatures below -150°C (-238°F) in a matter of seconds or minutes.

The primary advantage of vitrification over traditional slow-freezing methods is the elimination of ice crystal formation, which can cause significant damage to cellular structures and organelles. Vitrified samples maintain their structural integrity and have higher survival rates upon thawing, making them more suitable for use in ART procedures.

However, it's important to note that vitrification also has potential risks, such as the toxicity of high cryoprotectant concentrations and the possibility of cracking during cooling or warming due to thermal stress. Proper technique and careful handling are crucial to ensure successful vitrification and subsequent use in clinical applications.

Cell culture is a technique used in scientific research to grow and maintain cells from plants, animals, or humans in a controlled environment outside of their original organism. This environment typically consists of a sterile container called a cell culture flask or plate, and a nutrient-rich liquid medium that provides the necessary components for the cells' growth and survival, such as amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and hormones.

There are several different types of cell culture techniques used in research, including:

1. Adherent cell culture: In this technique, cells are grown on a flat surface, such as the bottom of a tissue culture dish or flask. The cells attach to the surface and spread out, forming a monolayer that can be observed and manipulated under a microscope.
2. Suspension cell culture: In suspension culture, cells are grown in liquid medium without any attachment to a solid surface. These cells remain suspended in the medium and can be agitated or mixed to ensure even distribution of nutrients.
3. Organoid culture: Organoids are three-dimensional structures that resemble miniature organs and are grown from stem cells or other progenitor cells. They can be used to study organ development, disease processes, and drug responses.
4. Co-culture: In co-culture, two or more different types of cells are grown together in the same culture dish or flask. This technique is used to study cell-cell interactions and communication.
5. Conditioned medium culture: In this technique, cells are grown in a medium that has been conditioned by previous cultures of other cells. The conditioned medium contains factors secreted by the previous cells that can influence the growth and behavior of the new cells.

Cell culture techniques are widely used in biomedical research to study cellular processes, develop drugs, test toxicity, and investigate disease mechanisms. However, it is important to note that cell cultures may not always accurately represent the behavior of cells in a living organism, and results from cell culture experiments should be validated using other methods.

Butadienes are a class of organic compounds that contain a chemical structure consisting of two carbon-carbon double bonds arranged in a conjugated system. The most common butadiene is 1,3-butadiene, which is an important industrial chemical used in the production of synthetic rubber and plastics.

1,3-Butadiene is a colorless gas that is highly flammable and has a mild sweet odor. It is produced as a byproduct of petroleum refining and is also released during the combustion of fossil fuels. Exposure to butadienes can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, and prolonged exposure has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly leukemia.

Other forms of butadiene include 1,2-butadiene and 1,4-butadiene, which have different chemical properties and uses. Overall, butadienes are important industrial chemicals with a wide range of applications, but their potential health hazards require careful handling and regulation.

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in the eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as DNA molecules in complex with proteins, RNA molecules, and histones to form chromosomes.

The primary function of the cell nucleus is to regulate and control the activities of the cell, including growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction. It also plays a crucial role in the process of mitosis (cell division) by separating and protecting the genetic material during this process. The nuclear membrane, or nuclear envelope, surrounding the nucleus is composed of two lipid bilayers with numerous pores that allow for the selective transport of molecules between the nucleoplasm (nucleus interior) and the cytoplasm (cell exterior).

The cell nucleus is a vital structure in eukaryotic cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Inbred strains of mice are defined as lines of mice that have been brother-sister mated for at least 20 consecutive generations. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the mice of an inbred strain are genetically identical to one another, with the exception of spontaneous mutations.

Inbred strains of mice are widely used in biomedical research due to their genetic uniformity and stability, which makes them useful for studying the genetic basis of various traits, diseases, and biological processes. They also provide a consistent and reproducible experimental system, as compared to outbred or genetically heterogeneous populations.

Some commonly used inbred strains of mice include C57BL/6J, BALB/cByJ, DBA/2J, and 129SvEv. Each strain has its own unique genetic background and phenotypic characteristics, which can influence the results of experiments. Therefore, it is important to choose the appropriate inbred strain for a given research question.

Glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) is an enzyme belonging to the family of glycosyltransferases. It plays a crucial role in the process of biotransformation and detoxification of various endogenous and exogenous substances, including drugs, hormones, and environmental toxins, in the liver and other organs.

The enzyme functions by transferring a glucuronic acid moiety from a donor molecule, uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA), to an acceptor molecule, which can be a variety of hydrophobic compounds. This reaction results in the formation of a more water-soluble glucuronide conjugate, facilitating the excretion of the substrate through urine or bile.

There are multiple isoforms of glucuronosyltransferase, classified into two main families: UGT1 and UGT2. These isoforms exhibit different substrate specificities and tissue distributions, allowing for a wide range of compounds to be metabolized through the glucuronidation pathway.

In summary, Glucuronosyltransferase is an essential enzyme in the detoxification process, facilitating the elimination of various substances from the body by conjugating them with a glucuronic acid moiety.

The pregnancy rate is a measure used in reproductive medicine to determine the frequency or efficiency of conception following certain treatments, interventions, or under specific conditions. It is typically defined as the number of pregnancies per 100 women exposed to the condition being studied over a specified period of time. A pregnancy is confirmed when a woman has a positive result on a pregnancy test or through the detection of a gestational sac on an ultrasound exam.

In clinical trials and research, the pregnancy rate helps healthcare professionals evaluate the effectiveness of various fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), or ovulation induction medications. The pregnancy rate can also be used to assess the impact of lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, or medical conditions on fertility and conception.

It is important to note that pregnancy rates may vary depending on several factors, including age, the cause of infertility, the type and quality of treatment provided, and individual patient characteristics. Therefore, comparing pregnancy rates between different studies should be done cautiously, considering these potential confounding variables.

Embryonic and fetal development is the process of growth and development that occurs from fertilization of the egg (conception) to birth. The terms "embryo" and "fetus" are used to describe different stages of this development:

* Embryonic development: This stage begins at fertilization and continues until the end of the 8th week of pregnancy. During this time, the fertilized egg (zygote) divides and forms a blastocyst, which implants in the uterus and begins to develop into a complex structure called an embryo. The embryo consists of three layers of cells that will eventually form all of the organs and tissues of the body. During this stage, the basic structures of the body, including the nervous system, heart, and gastrointestinal tract, begin to form.
* Fetal development: This stage begins at the end of the 8th week of pregnancy and continues until birth. During this time, the embryo is called a fetus, and it grows and develops rapidly. The organs and tissues that were formed during the embryonic stage continue to mature and become more complex. The fetus also begins to move and kick, and it can hear and respond to sounds from outside the womb.

Overall, embryonic and fetal development is a complex and highly regulated process that involves the coordinated growth and differentiation of cells and tissues. It is a critical period of development that lays the foundation for the health and well-being of the individual throughout their life.

Conditioned culture media refers to a type of growth medium that has been previously used to culture and maintain the cells of an organism. The conditioned media contains factors secreted by those cells, such as hormones, nutrients, and signaling molecules, which can affect the behavior and growth of other cells that are introduced into the media later on.

When the conditioned media is used for culturing a new set of cells, it can provide a more physiologically relevant environment than traditional culture media, as it contains factors that are specific to the original cell type. This can be particularly useful in studies that aim to understand cell-cell interactions and communication, or to mimic the natural microenvironment of cells in the body.

It's important to note that conditioned media should be handled carefully and used promptly after preparation, as the factors it contains can degrade over time and affect the quality of the results.

Female infertility is a condition characterized by the inability to conceive after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or the inability to carry a pregnancy to a live birth. The causes of female infertility can be multifactorial and may include issues with ovulation, damage to the fallopian tubes or uterus, endometriosis, hormonal imbalances, age-related factors, and other medical conditions.

Some common causes of female infertility include:

1. Ovulation disorders: Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, premature ovarian failure, and hyperprolactinemia can affect ovulation and lead to infertility.
2. Damage to the fallopian tubes: Pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, or previous surgeries can cause scarring and blockages in the fallopian tubes, preventing the egg and sperm from meeting.
3. Uterine abnormalities: Structural issues with the uterus, such as fibroids, polyps, or congenital defects, can interfere with implantation and pregnancy.
4. Age-related factors: As women age, their fertility declines due to a decrease in the number and quality of eggs.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, celiac disease, and autoimmune disorders, can contribute to infertility.

In some cases, female infertility can be treated with medications, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). A thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional is necessary to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "horses" is not a medical term. It is the common name given to the species *Equus ferus caballus*, which are large domesticated mammals used for transportation, work, and recreation. If you have any questions about horses or a related topic that you would like a medical perspective on, please let me know and I'd be happy to help!

Luteinization is the process in which a structure called the granulosa cell in the ovary transforms into a luteal cell after ovulation, or the release of an egg from the ovary. This transformation is triggered by the LH (luteinizing hormone) surge that occurs just before ovulation.

The luteal cells then begin to produce and secrete progesterone and estrogen, which are important hormones for preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining early pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum (the structure formed by the luteinized granulosa cells) will degenerate and progesterone levels will decrease, leading to menstruation.

Luteinization can also refer to a similar process that occurs in the testes, where Sertoli cells transform into Leydig cells in response to LH stimulation, leading to the production of testosterone.

Hypoxanthine is a purine derivative and an intermediate in the metabolic pathways of nucleotide degradation, specifically adenosine to uric acid in humans. It is formed from the oxidation of xanthine by the enzyme xanthine oxidase. In the body, hypoxanthine is converted to xanthine and then to uric acid, which is excreted in the urine. Increased levels of hypoxanthine in the body can be indicative of various pathological conditions, including tissue hypoxia, ischemia, and necrosis.

ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) is a strain of albino Swiss mice that are widely used in scientific research. They are an outbred strain, which means that they have been bred to maintain maximum genetic heterogeneity. However, it is also possible to find inbred strains of ICR mice, which are genetically identical individuals produced by many generations of brother-sister mating.

Inbred ICR mice are a specific type of ICR mouse that has been inbred for at least 20 generations. This means that they have a high degree of genetic uniformity and are essentially genetically identical to one another. Inbred strains of mice are often used in research because their genetic consistency makes them more reliable models for studying biological phenomena and testing new therapies or treatments.

It is important to note that while inbred ICR mice may be useful for certain types of research, they do not necessarily represent the genetic diversity found in human populations. Therefore, it is important to consider the limitations of using any animal model when interpreting research findings and applying them to human health.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Follistatin is a glycoprotein that is naturally produced in various tissues, including the ovaries, pituitary gland, and skeletal muscle. It plays an essential role in regulating the activity of members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, particularly the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and activins.

Follistatin binds to these signaling molecules with high affinity, preventing them from interacting with their receptors and thereby inhibiting their downstream signaling pathways. By doing so, follistatin helps regulate processes such as follicle stimulation in the ovaries, neurogenesis, muscle growth, and inflammation.

Increased levels of follistatin have been associated with muscle hypertrophy, while its deficiency can lead to impaired fertility and developmental abnormalities.

Follicular atresia is a physiological process that occurs in the ovary, where follicles (fluid-filled sacs containing immature eggs or oocytes) undergo degeneration and disappearance. This process begins after the primordial follicle stage and continues throughout a woman's reproductive years. At birth, a female has approximately 1 to 2 million primordial follicles, but only about 400 of these will mature and release an egg during her lifetime. The rest undergo atresia, which is a natural process that helps regulate the number of available eggs and maintain hormonal balance within the body.

The exact mechanisms that trigger follicular atresia are not fully understood, but it is believed to be influenced by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, oxidative stress, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). In some cases, accelerated or excessive follicular atresia can lead to infertility or early menopause.

Pyruvic acid, also known as 2-oxopropanoic acid, is a key metabolic intermediate in both anaerobic and aerobic respiration. It is a carboxylic acid with a ketone functional group, making it a β-ketoacid. In the cytosol, pyruvate is produced from glucose during glycolysis, where it serves as a crucial link between the anaerobic breakdown of glucose and the aerobic process of cellular respiration in the mitochondria.

During low oxygen availability or high energy demands, pyruvate can be converted into lactate through anaerobic glycolysis, allowing for the continued production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) without oxygen. In the presence of adequate oxygen and functional mitochondria, pyruvate is transported into the mitochondrial matrix where it undergoes oxidative decarboxylation to form acetyl-CoA by the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). This reaction also involves the reduction of NAD+ to NADH and the release of CO2. Acetyl-CoA then enters the citric acid cycle, where it is further oxidized to produce energy in the form of ATP, NADH, FADH2, and GTP (guanosine triphosphate) through a series of enzymatic reactions.

In summary, pyruvic acid is a vital metabolic intermediate that plays a significant role in energy production pathways, connecting glycolysis to both anaerobic and aerobic respiration.

Cystine is a naturally occurring amino acid in the body, which is formed from the oxidation of two cysteine molecules. It is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that it can be produced by the body and does not need to be obtained through diet. Cystine plays important roles in various biological processes, including protein structure and antioxidant defense. However, when cystine accumulates in large amounts, it can form crystals or stones, leading to conditions such as cystinuria, a genetic disorder characterized by the formation of cystine kidney stones.

Infertility is a reproductive health disorder defined as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or due to an impairment of a person's capacity to reproduce either as an individual or with their partner. It can be caused by various factors in both men and women, including hormonal imbalances, structural abnormalities, genetic issues, infections, age, lifestyle factors, and others. Infertility can have significant emotional and psychological impacts on individuals and couples experiencing it, and medical intervention may be necessary to help them conceive.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Sperm motility is the ability of sperm to move actively and effectively through the female reproductive tract towards the egg for fertilization. It is typically measured as the percentage of moving sperm in a sample, and their progressiveness or velocity. Normal human sperm motility is generally defined as forward progression of at least 25 micrometers per second, with at least 50% of sperm showing progressive motility. Reduced sperm motility, also known as asthenozoospermia, can negatively impact fertility and reproductive outcomes.

Alpha-globulins are a group of proteins present in blood plasma, which are classified based on their electrophoretic mobility. They migrate between albumin and beta-globulins during electrophoresis. Alpha-globulins include several proteins, such as alpha-1 antitrypsin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, and haptoglobin. These proteins play various roles in the body, including transporting and regulating other molecules, participating in immune responses, and maintaining oncotic pressure in blood vessels.

Tissue culture techniques refer to the methods used to maintain and grow cells, tissues or organs from multicellular organisms in an artificial environment outside of the living body, called an in vitro culture. These techniques are widely used in various fields such as biology, medicine, and agriculture for research, diagnostics, and therapeutic purposes.

The basic components of tissue culture include a sterile growth medium that contains nutrients, growth factors, and other essential components to support the growth of cells or tissues. The growth medium is often supplemented with antibiotics to prevent contamination by microorganisms. The cells or tissues are cultured in specialized containers called culture vessels, which can be plates, flasks, or dishes, depending on the type and scale of the culture.

There are several types of tissue culture techniques, including:

1. Monolayer Culture: In this technique, cells are grown as a single layer on a flat surface, allowing for easy observation and manipulation of individual cells.
2. Organoid Culture: This method involves growing three-dimensional structures that resemble the organization and function of an organ in vivo.
3. Co-culture: In co-culture, two or more cell types are grown together to study their interactions and communication.
4. Explant Culture: In this technique, small pieces of tissue are cultured to maintain the original structure and organization of the cells within the tissue.
5. Primary Culture: This refers to the initial culture of cells directly isolated from a living organism. These cells can be further subcultured to generate immortalized cell lines.

Tissue culture techniques have numerous applications, such as studying cell behavior, drug development and testing, gene therapy, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine.

Developmental gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the activation or repression of specific genes during embryonic and fetal development. These regulatory mechanisms ensure that genes are expressed at the right time, in the right cells, and at appropriate levels to guide proper growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of an organism.

Developmental gene expression regulation is a complex and dynamic process involving various molecular players, such as transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, non-coding RNAs, and signaling molecules. These regulators can interact with cis-regulatory elements, like enhancers and promoters, to fine-tune the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development.

Dysregulation of developmental gene expression can lead to various congenital disorders and developmental abnormalities. Therefore, understanding the principles and mechanisms governing developmental gene expression regulation is crucial for uncovering the etiology of developmental diseases and devising potential therapeutic strategies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "shrews" is not a medical term. It is a common name used in zoology to refer to small mammals that are part of the family Soricidae and the suborder Soricomorpha. Shrews are insectivores, distantly related to moles and hedgehogs. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

The cumulus oophorus, (discus proligerus), is a cluster of cells that surround the oocyte both in the ovarian follicle and ... This layer of cells must be penetrated by spermatozoa for fertilization to occur. Functions of the cumulus oophorus include ... Cumulus oophorus cells contribute heavily to the maturation and eventual fertilization of an oocyte. As a follicle grows in ... As a part of the process of in vitro fertilization, gene expression profiling of cumulus cells can be performed to estimate ...
"Intensification of single cell storms prior to lightning onset". Atmos Sci Lett. 20 (e873): e873. doi:10.1002/asl.873. "What is ... Cumulus congestus clouds, also known as towering cumulus, are a form of cumulus that can be based in the low or middle height ... Cumulus congestus clouds are formed by the development of cumulus mediocris generally, though they can also be formed from ... The congestus species of cloud can only be found in the genus cumulus and is designated as towering cumulus (TCu) by the ...
Cumulus Cells (CC) vs Mural Granulosa Cells (MGC) Cumulus cells surround the oocyte. They provide nutrients to the oocyte and ... Journal of cell science, 120(8), 1330-1340. Khamsi, F., & Roberge, S. (2001). Granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus are ... Following the LH surge, cumulus cells undergo cumulus expansion, in which they proliferate at a ten-fold higher rate than MGCs ... A granulosa cell or follicular cell is a somatic cell of the sex cord that is closely associated with the developing female ...
Capacitated sperm are attracted to progesterone, which is secreted from the cumulus cells surrounding the oocyte. Progesterone ... Some sperm cells consume their acrosome prematurely on the surface of the egg cell, facilitating the penetration by other sperm ... "The sperm chemoattractant secreted from human cumulus cells is progesterone". Human Reproduction. 23 (10): 2339-2345. doi: ... Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th Edition. Angier N (2007-06-12). "Sleek, Fast and Focused: The Cells That Make Dad Dad". The ...
ZIP12 mRNA is more abundant in mouse oocytes compared to cumulus cells, which indicates that ZIP12 may play a role in ... Lisle RS, Anthony K, Randall MA, Diaz FJ (April 2013). "Oocyte-cumulus cell interactions regulate free intracellular zinc in ... In Neuro-2a cells and primary mouse neurons transfected with shRNA specifically targeting ZIP12, the neural cells have shorter ... To study how ZIP12 is important for a neural cell to extend neurites out from the cell body, researchers used short hairpin RNA ...
2009). "MATER protein as substrate of PKCepsilon in human cumulus cells". Mol. Hum. Reprod. 15 (8): 499-506. doi:10.1093/molehr ... 2009). "Human MATER localization in specific cell domains of oocytes and follicular cells". Reprod. Biomed. Online. 18 (2): 226 ... Cell Biol. 4 (2): 95-104. doi:10.1038/nrm1019. PMID 12563287. S2CID 31417018. Maraldi T, Riccio M, Sena P, et al. ( ... gene and protein in pig somatic tissues and germ cells". J. Reprod. Dev. 56 (1): 41-8. doi:10.1262/jrd.09-098a. PMID 19815987 ...
Wang HX, Tekpetey FR, Kidder GM (2009). "Identification of WNT/beta-CATENIN signaling pathway components in human cumulus cells ... 2008). "Relation between cell-to-cell adhesion and angiogenesis and clinico-morphological prognostic factors in patients with ... "Ph+/VE-cadherin+ identifies a stem cell like population of acute lymphoblastic leukemia sustained by bone marrow niche cells". ... Cell. Biol. 28 (24): 7368-79. doi:10.1128/MCB.00744-08. PMC 2593444. PMID 18852287. Sharma M, Henderson BR (2007). "IQ-domain ...
... glycoprotein composition and cell-to-cell interactions in the cumulus-oocyte complex. Fowler continued to work and publish into ... Steroid production from 17α-hydoxypregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone by human granulosa cells in vitro. Reproduction, 54(1 ... steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells and follicular growth; ...
Wang HX, Tekpetey FR, Kidder GM (2009). "Identification of WNT/beta-CATENIN signaling pathway components in human cumulus cells ... 2007). "Regulation of norrin receptor frizzled-4 by Wnt2 in colon-derived cells". BMC Cell Biol. 8: 12. doi:10.1186/1471-2121-8 ... 2009). "Downregulation of Wnt2 and beta-catenin by siRNA suppresses malignant glioma cell growth". Cancer Gene Ther. 16 (4): ... These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate ...
Pangas SA, Li X, Robertson EJ, Matzuk MM (June 2006). "Premature luteinization and cumulus cell defects in ovarian-specific ... If the SMAD 4 mutation is acquired, it will only exist in certain somatic cells. Indeed, SMAD 4 is not synthesized by all cells ... If inherited, the mutation affects both somatic cells and cells of the reproductive organs. ... expression of the genes involved in cell growth is no longer regulated and cell proliferation can go on without any inhibition ...
Oocytes are classified depending on their condition, such as number of cumulus cells. The best oocytes are chosen to be matured ... Ouandaogo ZG, Assou S, Haouzi D, Anahory T, Dechaud H, Hamamah S (2010). "Gene expression profile in human cumulus cells of ... This results in an expanding or dispersed pattern of the cumulus oophorus around the egg cell, facilitating its identification ... develop into primary follicle containing cuboidal granulosa cells. A secondary follicle is formed with a few granulosa cell ...
Microarray data for cumulus cells during natural and stimulated in vitro fertilization show relatively high levels of ... "Modified natural and stimulated in vitro fertilization cycles: cumulus cells - - GEO DataSets - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. ...
Found in Cumulus Oophorus, stimulates binding of the spermatozoa to the zona pellucida. First, cumulus cells reduce the ... cumulus cell, immune cell and clinical associations". Human Reproduction Update. 13 (3): 275-87. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmm004. ... inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in monocytic cells". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 41 ... The de-glycosilation takes place during the passage of the sperm through the corona cell layer. Glycodelin F is thereby ...
For ovulation to be successful, the ovum must be supported by the corona radiata and cumulus oophorous granulosa cells. The ... Mucification is the secretion of a hyaluronic acid-rich cocktail that disperses and gathers the cumulus cell network in a ... By this time, the oocyte has completed meiosis I, yielding two cells: the larger secondary oocyte that contains all of the ... "Cumulus Oophorus - an overview". sciencedirect.com. 2012. Retrieved 2023-05-22. "Can You Get Pregnant after Ovulation?". ...
However, some cells can rise to 70,000 feet. Another option would be to navigate around the cells. This is strongly discouraged ... He entered a seemingly innocuous cumulus at 2,000 feet (610 m). This cumulus evolved into a large cumulonimbus. At first, the ... Moreover, even the cumulus congestus associated with a supercell thunderstorm can be very dangerous. Tornadoes can be produced ... In particular, in the forward area of the supercell, one can find a flanking line made of cumulus congestus or small ...
Huang Z, Wells D (October 2010). "The human oocyte and cumulus cells relationship: new insights from the cumulus cell ... The cumulus-oocyte complex contains layers of tightly packed cumulus cells surrounding the oocyte in the Graafian follicle. The ... Before ovulation, the cumulus complex goes through a structural change known as cumulus expansion. The granulosa cells ... The female germ cells produce a primordial germ cell (PGC), which then undergoes mitosis, forming oogonia. During oogenesis, ...
Most follicular granulosa cells stay around the oocyte and so form the cumulus layer. Large non-mammalian oocytes accumulate ... These researchers produced primordial germ cell-like cells (PGLCs) from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and skin cells in vitro. ... A germ cell is any cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually. In many animals, the germ cells ... Germ cells produce gametes and are the only cells that can undergo meiosis as well as mitosis. Somatic cells are all the other ...
Typical of later stages of follicle development is the appearance of cumulus cells. GDF9 causes the expansion of cumulus cells ... allowing the expansion of cumulus cells. Silencing of GDF9 expression results in the absence of cumulus cell expansion, this ... Single-cell expression analysis of BMP15 and GDF9 in mature oocytes and BMPR2 in cumulus cells of women with polycystic ovary ... cumulus and theca cells. Paracrine interactions between the developing oocyte and its surrounding follicular cells is essential ...
Progesterone from the cumulus cells is the sperm chemoattractant secreted by the rabbit oocyte cumulus complex. PLOS One 3, ... One is the cumulus cells that surround the oocyte, and the other is the mature oocyte itself. The chemoattractant secreted from ... The subsequent findings that cumulus cells of both human and rabbit (and, probably, of other mammals as well) secrete the ... Cell Biol. 7, 276-285. Alvarez, L., Friedrich, B.M., Gompper, G., Kaupp. U.B. (2013). "The computational sperm cell". Trends in ...
... cells into egg cells which had their nuclei removed. They used human egg cells and cumulus cells, which are found in ovaries ... After emptying an egg of its nuclues, they transfer the nucleus of the cumulus cell into it. The new egg cell divided normally ... embryonic stem cells derived from skin cells. Their study claimed the creation of 11 different stem cell lines that were the ... cells from a somatic cell isolated from a living person." It was the first instance of cloning of adult human cells and human ...
One is the cumulus cells that surround the oocyte, and the other is the mature oocyte itself. The chemoattractant secreted from ... The subsequent findings that cumulus cells of both human and rabbit (and, probably, of other mammals as well) secrete the ... A key feature of sperm chemotaxis in humans is that this process is restricted to capacitated cells - the only cells that ... and sperm chemoattractants secreted from the oocyte and its surrounding cumulus cells, respectively - strongly suggest the ...
She was named after the cumulus cells surrounding the developing oocyte in the ovarian follicle in mice. Nuclei from these ... cells were put into egg cell devoid of their original nuclei in the Honolulu cloning technique. All other mice produced by the ... Cumulina (October 3, 1997 - May 5, 2000), a mouse, was the first animal cloned from adult cells that survived to adulthood. She ...
Cumulus oophorus are the cells surrounding corona radiata, and are the cells between corona radiata and follicular antrum. Its ... The corona radiata is the innermost layer of the cells of the cumulus oophorus and is directly adjacent to the zona pellucida, ... These cuboidal granulosa cells, also known as the granulosa radiata, form more layers throughout the maturation process, and ... The corona radiata is formed when the granulosa cells enlarge and become cuboidal, which occurs during the transition from the ...
... after the cumulus cells whose nuclei were used to clone her. At the time of the publication of this work, over fifty mice ... cell nuclei as well as the production of pluripotent stem cells from adult cells for therapeutic purposes. He retired in 2005, ... The first male animal cloned from adult cells was announced in 1999. In 2004 the laboratory participated in the cloning of an ... The so-called "testis" in an adult animal is a receptacle of cells from larval males. This discovery revolutionized biological ...
... and excrete the oocyte with a complement of cumulus cells in a process called ovulation. In natural cycles, ovulation may occur ... Each type of cell behaves differently in response to FSH. Theca interna cells express receptors for luteinizing hormone (LH). ... In addition, as more estrogen is secreted, more LH receptors are made by the theca cells, inciting theca cells to create more ... adjacent to the antrum and cumulus oophorus, which connects the membrana and corona radiata granulosa cells together. ...
In the laboratory, for ICSI treatments, the identified eggs are stripped of surrounding cells (also known as cumulus cells) and ... Characteristics of cells from the cumulus oophorus and the membrana granulosa, which are easily aspirated during oocyte ... Before the transfer of a pre-embryo back to a woman's uterus, one or two cells are removed from the pre-embryos (8-cell stage ... In both PGS and PGD, individual cells from a pre-embryo, or preferably trophectoderm cells biopsied from a blastocyst, are ...
... s are often indicated by the presence of visible isolated cumulus clouds at the top of the thermal. Cumulus clouds are ... Thermals are also seen on the sun, typically forming hexagonal convective prisms (Bénard cells). Air current Atmospheric ... When a steady wind is present, thermals and their respective cumulus clouds can align in rows oriented with wind direction, ... thermodynamics Cumulus cloud Gliding Hang gliding Thermal energy "Glider Flying Handbook, FAA-H-8083-13A" (PDF). FAA government ...
Because of the molecular interactions between cumulus cells and the oocyte, gene expression profiling of cumulus cells can be ... Sampling of cumulus cells can be performed in addition to a sampling of polar bodies or cells from the embryo. ... Oocytes are carefully denudated from the cumulus cells, as these cells can be a source of contamination during the PGD if PCR- ... By relying on the result of one cell from the multi-cell embryo, PGD operates under the assumption that this cell is ...
... and finally cumulus cells. Experimental evidence has demonstrated that the released contents of the cortical granules modify ... This space is called the cortical granule free domain (CGFD) and has been observed in both the cell's meiotic spindle regions ... The oocyte has been shown to obtain maximum proficiency for releasing calcium at this same cell stage, between metaphase I and ... Within the oocyte, cortical granules are located along the cortex, the region furthest from the cell's center. Following ...
... glider US Aviation Cumulus, motorglider Cumulus Media, a radio broadcasting company Cumulus oophorus, cells which surround a ... Cumulus is a type of cloud with the appearance of a lump of cotton wool. Cumulus may also refer to: Cumulus (software), digital ... a defunct computer hardware company Cumulus Networks, a computer software company Reinhard Cumulus, ... Look up cumulus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... page lists articles associated with the title Cumulus. If an ...
Scientists cloned a mouse using live body cells in Hungary for the first time after three years of research, the professor ... The group of 20 scientists at the Agricultural Biotechnology Center in Gödöllő, northeast of Budapest, used cumulus cells, ... In cloning, researchers take a cell from the body of the mammal and inject its nucleus into an egg cell whose own nucleus has ... A study of about 1,800 cloning efforts published in the journal Nature Genetics last month found that mature blood cells may ...
Higher level of AMH mRNA expression in cumulus cells was observed in the older age group compared to the younger (P <0.01). ... This remarkable correlation between AMH mRNA levels in cumulus cells in respect to age suggests that AMH may be involved in ... We obtained FF, mural and cumulus granulosa cells from large preovulatory follicles (17-20 mm) of 21-35 years old women (n ... This study investigates AMH level in the follicular fluid (FF) and mRNA expression pattern in cumulus and mural granulosa cells ...
Granulosa cells. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. SMAD2/3. Cumulus cells. Rous sarcoma oncogene family kinases. ... Growth differentiation factor 9 signaling requires ERK1/2 activity in mouse granulosa and cumulus cells. ... However, induction of the SMAD3-specific CAGA reporter by GDF9 in granulosa cells required active EGFR, SFKs and ERK1/2 as did ... Together our results suggest that receptivity of granulosa cells to oocyte-secreted factors, including GDF9, is regulated by ...
Oocytes matured in COCs and Cumulus cell monolayer co-culture (59% ± 4*) showed significantly more even growth and extrusion ... cumulus cells co-culture, which later further developed using parthenogenetic activation after IVM. Female Sprague Dawley ... we concluded that COCs and cumulus monolayer co-culture is better than COCs only culture. Cumulus monolayer provides extra ... While oocytes activated using Ionomycin showed more promising development until 8 cells/blastocyst level compared to ethanol 7 ...
The cumulus oophorus, (discus proligerus), is a cluster of cells that surround the oocyte both in the ovarian follicle and ... This layer of cells must be penetrated by spermatozoa for fertilization to occur. Functions of the cumulus oophorus include ... Cumulus oophorus cells contribute heavily to the maturation and eventual fertilization of an oocyte. As a follicle grows in ... As a part of the process of in vitro fertilization, gene expression profiling of cumulus cells can be performed to estimate ...
Application of an optimised two tailed comet assay on human cumulus cells ... Application of an optimised two tailed comet assay on human cumulus cells ...
R Oren-Benaroya, R Orvieto, A Gakamsky, M Pinchasov, M Eisenbach, The sperm chemoattractant secreted from human cumulus cells ... AW Schuetz, NH Dubin, Progesterone and prostaglandin secretion by ovulated rat cumulus cell-oocyte complexes. Endocrinology 108 ... H Qi, et al., All four CatSper ion channel proteins are required for male fertility and sperm cell hyperactivated motility. ... Y Kirichok, B Navarro, DE Clapham, Whole-cell patch-clamp measurements of spermatozoa reveal an alkaline-activated Ca2+ channel ...
This was using a cumulus cell, a type which surrounds the ovary, and a slightly different technique. These clones have also ... As a fertilized egg cell progressively splits, its millions of offspring cells specialize into muscle cells, skin cells or ... From the very first division of the fertilized egg, the nucleus of each cell formed by successive cell divisions stores the ... At a very early stage of embryonic development, the cells specialize (or differentiate) so that some become nerve cells, some ...
Cumulus cells surrounding the egg secrete (3) P4 and AEA. P4 releases CatSper inhibition and high P4 concentrations block KSper ... The highly motile sperm fraction was separated from other somatic cells (mainly white blood cells, immature germ cells, and ... thus any remaining baseline current represented the cells leak current. During whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments, the cells ... 1981) Progesterone and prostaglandin secretion by ovulated rat cumulus cell-oocyte complexes Endocrinology 108:457-463. ...
In somatic cells, aneuploidy is associated with cancer but in gametes,... ... Mistakes in chromosome segregation lead to aneuploid cells. ... pipette up and down the complexes to detach the cumulus cells. ... Mouse Oocyte Microinjection Maturation Ploidy Assessment Mistakes In Chromosome Segregation Aneuploid Cells Somatic Cells ... Mistakes in chromosome segregation lead to aneuploid cells. In somatic cells, aneuploidy is associated with cancer but in ...
The surrounding cumulus cells were removed in MEM/BSA medium supplemented with hyaluronidase (Sigma-Aldrich). Surface spread ... G.Cell, granulosa cells. (C) Percentage (mean±s.e.m.) of total WT (n=79) and Tg (n=61) ovulated MII oocytes that show positive ... G.Cell, granulosa cells. (C) Percentage (mean±s.e.m.) of total WT (n=79) and Tg (n=61) ovulated MII oocytes that show positive ... Live-cell imaging. Live-cell imaging was used to compare meiotic spindle assembly during meiotic division in real time between ...
Every now and then we get a little bit of internet access as we pass an island with a cell tower. Right now we are looking at ... huge billowing cumulus clouds--the kind that develop thunderstorms and lightning like we saw last night. Lots of lightning in ...
somatic cells include a dermal cell, a nerve cell, a cumulus cell, an oviduct. epithelial cell, and the like.. In case of ... cumulus. cells.. The oocytes were obtained by separating such cumulus cells from the COCs.. The separated cumulus cells were ... Especially, in case of using a cumulus cell as a nuclear donor cell, the. cumulus cell can be prepared by treating a cumulus- ... to differentiate into hematopoietic cells, nerve cells, beta cells, muscle cells, liver. cells, cartilage cells, epithelial ...
Eventually, the follicle ruptures and releases the oocyte along with surrounding cumulus cells into the fallopian tube. ... Each primordial follicle consists of an oocyte surrounded by a layer of cells called granulosa cells. ... The granulosa cells surrounding the oocyte multiply and start to form multiple layers. A fluid-filled space called the antrum ... This is a crucial stage in the development of the oocyte, or egg cell, and occurs during fetal development. Lets take a closer ...
Age-related expression of TGF beta family receptors in human cumulus oophorus cells. Journal of Assisted Reproduction and ... instituto de biologia molecular e celular , institute for molecular and cell biology ...
... cumulus oophorus or egg cloud). The combination of the egg and the cumulus cells is refered to as the oocyte-cumulus complex ... 4 cell grade 3- 1 cell MNB blebs +fragments 3 cells intact ++ frags. 6 cell grade 3- 1 cell MNB blebs or cells Uneven cells, ... 4 cell grade 2- cluster of frags (quite large) (this one was also trasfered). 4 cell grade 2- 1 cell MNB slightly uneven cells ... the cell is genetically abnormal). Blebs are irregularities on the surface of the cell and suggest the cell will form fragments ...
The ovum is much larger than the sperm and is surrounded by protective cumulus cells around the outside surface (yellow). The ... male germ cell nucleus Transmission electron micrograph of unstained cryo-section of a sperm cell of the starfish Patiria ... regulation of cell shape Cellular Component. microtubule Figure 426 (A-D) from Chapter 16 (Cytoplasmic matrix and cytoskeleton ... Figures 347 (upper) and 348 (lower) from Chapter 14 (Sperm Flagellum) of The Cell, 2nd Ed. by Don W. Fawcett M.D. Sperm tail ...
6 Collection of Zygotes and Removal of Cumulus Cells with Hyaluronidase. 7 Collection of Two-Cell- to Morula-Stage Embryos. 8 ... 2 Preparation of Feeder Cell Layers from STO or MEF Cells. 3 Passage of ES Cells. 4 Cryopreservation of ES Cells. 5 Testing ... Spermatogonial Stem Cells. Culture of Spermatogonial Stem Cells. Transplantation of Spermatogonial Stem Cells. Induced ... 2 Isolating Individual ES Cell Colonies by Picking. 3 Passaging and Freezing ES Cells in 96-Well Plates. 4 Thawing ES Cells ...
... and that all the cumulus cells have been removed (maternal contamination). ... Only one cell should be amplified; however, if another cell or piece of DNA enters the tube, it is also amplified. ICSI must be ... Blastocyst formation begins on day 5 post-egg retrieval and is defined by the presence of an inner cell mass and the outer cell ... Before extracting the single cell from a 6-10 cell embryo, the embryo is incubated in calcium- and magnesium-free medium for ...
Exosomes are nanosized membranous vesicles secreted by various types of cells, which facilitate intercellular communication by ... protein TEX101 acts on cumulus cells after removal from sperm, causing cumulus cells to elicit Ca-dependent progesterone ... A sperm GPI-anchored protein elicits sperm-cumulus cross-talk leading to the acrosome reaction. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009;66(5): ... Proteomics-based systems biology modeling of bovine germinal vesicle stage oocyte and cumulus cell interaction. PLoS One. 2010; ...
The same cell (observed from radar) eventually interacted (collided) with another cell near Putty and intensified in one of the ... in the afternoon signs of the approaching mid level disturbance could be seen with middle layer cloud and the benign cumulus ... I was in Canberra yesterday arvo for lunch and afterwards observed some of the cells developing north of the city. The cell ... During this time I observed an outflow boundary from the earlier cell moving south towards the newer cell I was observing.. ...
cumulus cell differentiation + endothelial cell differentiation + epidermal cell differentiation + epithelial cell development ... negative regulation of epithelial cell differentiation + polarized epithelial cell differentiation + The process in which a ... epithelial cell differentiation involved in kidney development + epithelial cell differentiation involved in prostate gland ... The polarized epithelial cell can be any of the cells within an epithelium where the epithelial sheet is oriented with respect ...
Captivate Bio and EverCell Bio partner on Human Cell Modeling Services for Cell and Gene Therapy Markets Applied StemCell ... Cumulus Neuroscience Appoints Digital Health and Pharmaceutical Executive Aman Bhatti, MD as Chief Executive Officer. Cumulus ... makes him the ideal match to lead Cumulus in its next chapter. With Dr. Bhatti at the helm, Cumulus is poised to accelerate our ... grant to Cumulus and its academic research partners, using the Cumulus platform to improve early dementia diagnosis. ...
The correct option is B Cumulus. ,!--td {border: 1px solid #ccc;}br {mso-data-placement:same-cell;}--, Cumulus clouds looks ... Q. ,!--td {border: 1px solid #ccc;}br {mso-data-placement:same-cell;}--, Which of the following type of clouds is also called ... Q. ,!--td {border: 1px solid #ccc;}br {mso-data-placement:same-cell;}--, Which of the following are different types of clouds? ... Q. ,!--td {border: 1px solid #ccc;}br {mso-data-placement:same-cell;}--, Which of the following types of clouds are multi- ...
She also pioneered xenotransplantation of testis tissue and cells as a bioassay to study germ cells and testis function in non- ... "The Hippo Pathway Plays a Role in Oocyte Maturation and Differentiation of the Cumulus-Oocyte Complex During Ovulation." ... "Filling the Spermatogonial Stem Cell Pool One Cell at a Time.". *Short Oral Presentation: Xin Wu, M.D., Ph.D. (State Key ... "Androgen Regulates Phagocytic Clearance of Apoptotic Germ Cells by Sertoli Cells via miR-471-5p-DOCK1-RAC1 GTPase Signaling and ...
The effects of LH inhibition with cetrorelix on cumulus cell gene expression during the luteal phase under ovarian coasting ... The categories of cell cycle control, cell division, chromosome partitioning and cell wall, membrane and envelope biogenesis ... 3E), the DEG number in the terms of cell part and cell were the largest, occupying 34.89% of total annotated DEGs. Like DEG, ... Unlike DEGs, 25.64% of DEPs were distributed in the terms of cell and cell part which included 10 DEGs. Notably, most GO terms ...
A line of agitated cumulus develops around 20Z, 4 May 2020 just north of Oklahoma City, OK. moving east. The RGB observes ... The rapid vertical development indicates strong updrafts within the embedded line of storm cells, where mid-to-high level ice ...
Cumulus Clouds: Formation, Characteristics, and Role in Weather Patterns May 24, 2023. , DE, No Comment ... How many cells are produced in meiosis? 4 for each parent cell. There are a total of 4 new cells produced by a cell at the end ... Facts About Sickle Cell Anemia March 10, 2013. , Nathan , No Comment Sickle cell disease refers to the red blood cells ... What is a goblet cell? May 29, 2013. , madhu , No Comment All living things are made up of cells. These cells are the smallest ...
Germ Cell. In the male the testicular cell that divides to produce the immature sperm cells in the woman the ovarian cell that ... Germ Cell Aplasia Sertoli Cell Only. An inherited condition in which the testicles have no germ cells. Since men with this ... Leydig Cell. The testicular cell that produces the male hormone testosterone. LH stimulates the Leydig cell from the pituitary ... The cell division, peculiar to reproductive cells, which allows genetic material to divide in half. Each new cell will contain ...
Mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in cumulus cells of type I diabetic mice. Wang, Q., Frolova, A. I., Purcell, S., ... Origin and formation of the first two distinct cell types of the inner cell mass in the mouse embryo. Morris, S. A., Teo, R. T ... Cyclin e and CDK-2 regulate proliferative cell fate and cell cycle progression in the C. elegans germline. Fox, P. M., Vought, ... Grimm, A. A., Brace, C. S., Wang, T., Stormo, G. D. & Imai, S. I., Apr 2011, In: Aging Cell. 10, 2, p. 305-317 13 p.. Research ...
  • Cumulus oophorus cells contribute heavily to the maturation and eventual fertilization of an oocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a follicle grows in size and the antrum develops, more layers of cumulus oophorus cells accumulate around the oocyte to aid in the acrosome reaction and sperm penetration into the oocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proximity between the cumulus oophorus cells and the oocyte favors bidirectional communication, which is vital for oocyte development. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017). Age-related expression of TGF beta family receptors in human cumulus oophorus cells . (up.pt)
  • This study investigates AMH level in the follicular fluid (FF) and mRNA expression pattern in cumulus and mural granulosa cells of human ovarian follicles in relation to age. (springer.com)
  • We obtained FF, mural and cumulus granulosa cells from large preovulatory follicles (17-20 mm) of 21-35 years old women (n = 40) and 40-45 years old women (n = 28) during oocyte pickup. (springer.com)
  • It is widely accepted that apoptosis is the driving force behind follicle loss with ageing [ 11 ] a condition suggesting the occurrence of specific age-related alterations in the oocyte and granulosa cells. (springer.com)
  • also known as MAPK3/1) signaling pathway on GDF9 action on granulosa cells. (edu.au)
  • Importantly, EGFR-ERK1/2 activity as well as rous sarcoma oncogene family kinases (SFK) are required for signaling through SMADs, mediating GDF9, activin A and TGFβ1 mitogenic action in granulosa cells. (edu.au)
  • GDF9 could not activate ERK1/2 or affect EGF-stimulated ERK1/2 in granulosa cells. (edu.au)
  • However, induction of the SMAD3-specific CAGA reporter by GDF9 in granulosa cells required active EGFR, SFKs and ERK1/2 as did GDF9-responsive gene expression. (edu.au)
  • Together our results suggest that receptivity of granulosa cells to oocyte-secreted factors, including GDF9, is regulated by the level of activation of the EGFR and resulting ERK1/2 activity, through the requisite permissive phosphorylation of SMAD3 in the linker region. (edu.au)
  • Each primordial follicle consists of an oocyte surrounded by a layer of cells called granulosa cells. (reproduction-online.org)
  • The granulosa cells surrounding the oocyte multiply and start to form multiple layers. (reproduction-online.org)
  • At this stage, the antrum increases in size, and the oocyte is surrounded by multiple layers of granulosa cells. (reproduction-online.org)
  • Our results indicate that oocyte-secreted TGFβ-like ligands and EGFR-ERK1/2 signaling are cooperatively required for the unique granulosa cell response to the signal from oocytes mediating granulosa cell survival and proliferation and hence the promotion of follicle growth and ovulation. (edu.au)
  • So, we tried to figure out rat oocytes in vitro maturation and their developmental potential by performing 3 experiments i.e. superovulation, in vitro Maturation as simple culture (COC's only), and COC's & cumulus cells co-culture, which later further developed using parthenogenetic activation after IVM. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cumulus monolayer provides extra aid in the absorption of nutrients and supplements thus providing a better environment for oocytes growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Once meiosis resumes, oocytes complete MI and undergo an asymmetric cell division, arresting again at metaphase of MII. (jove.com)
  • GH receptor is expressed in human oocytes and cumulus cells, [ 12 , 13 ] and GH has been shown to promote in vitro nuclear maturation of denuded human oocytes. (medscape.com)
  • [ 14 ] In addition to its direct effect on the oocytes and/or cumulus cells, GH may also influence oocyte quality indirectly, through activation of insulin-like growth factor-I synthesis or promotion of follicle-stimulating hormone-induced ovarian steroidogenesis (reviewed in [ 15 ] ). (medscape.com)
  • Functions of the cumulus oophorus include coordination of follicular development and oocyte maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Considering that spermatozoa are transcriptionally silent cells, the acquisition of secretory products of SP is an intrinsic way to complete post-testicular maturation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since the possible relationship between intrafollicular AMH within an individual preovulatory follicle and patient age has not been determined, in the present study we aim to investigate AMH level in the follicular fluid (FF) and mRNA expression pattern in cumulus and mural GCs of human ovarian follicles in relation to age. (springer.com)
  • This was using a cumulus cell, a type which surrounds the ovary, and a slightly different technique. (creation.com)
  • As a part of the process of in vitro fertilization, gene expression profiling of cumulus cells can be performed to estimate oocyte quality and the efficiency of an ovarian hyperstimulation protocol, and may indirectly predict oocyte aneuploidy, embryo development and pregnancy outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cumulus oophorus, (discus proligerus), is a cluster of cells that surround the oocyte both in the ovarian follicle and after ovulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eventually, the follicle ruptures and releases the oocyte along with surrounding cumulus cells into the fallopian tube. (reproduction-online.org)
  • This remarkable correlation between AMH mRNA levels in cumulus cells in respect to age suggests that AMH may be involved in follicular aging process. (springer.com)
  • A confocal micrograph of a human embryo, with some remaining sperm cells, about five days after fertilization. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • The nuclei of both the sperm and cells of the embryo are stained purple, the tails of the. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Understanding the association between Cell-free DNA levels in embryo CM and the quality of embryo cleavage could help improve the quality of IVF techniques. (who.int)
  • This prospective study was conducted with 96 spent CM from patients undergoing IVF cycle, in order to determine relationships of Cell-free DNA levels in embryo CM with embryo cleavage quality on day 3. (who.int)
  • Embryo morphology al ows options, the discovery of cell-free DNA in the evaluation of its growth, viability, and biological fluids has led to major advances in implantation capacity. (who.int)
  • A line of agitated cumulus develops around 20Z, 4 May 2020 just north of Oklahoma City, OK. (colostate.edu)
  • Figure 421 from Chapter 16 (Cytoplasmic matrix and cytoskeleton) of 'The Cell, 2nd Ed.' by Don W. Fawcett M.D. Horizontal section through the apical cytoplasm of a Sertoli cell in the testis of the t. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Exogenous testosterone decreases intratesticular testosterone production, thus inhibiting Sertoli cell function and spermatogenesis. (medscape.com)
  • By mediating unidirectional flow of protons to the extracellular environment, Hv1 represents an important component in the CatSper activation cascade, but it also induces membrane hyperpolarization by exporting positive charges out of the cell. (elifesciences.org)
  • Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are biological phospholipid bilayer vesicles secreted into the extracellular space by various cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An embryonic stem cell line derived from a nucleus-transferred oocyte prepared by transferring a nucleus of a human somatic cell into an enucleated human oocyte may differentiate into various desired cell types. (gc.ca)
  • 1. An embryonic stem cell line derived from a nucleus-transferred oocyte prepared by transferring a nucleus of a human somatic cell into an enucleated human oocyte, which is a cell line deposited under the accession number of KCLRF-BP-00092. (gc.ca)
  • Regulation of Human Fetal Ovarian Germ Cell Development. (ssr.org)
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a luteinizing hormone (LH) analogue that may be used alone or in combination with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) for Leydig cell stimulation. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] This technique has evolved throughout the years and is now largely performed by biopsy of the blastocyst trophectoderm cells with analysis using techniques such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to test for aneuploidy. (medscape.com)
  • In cloning, researchers take a cell from the body of the mammal and inject its nucleus into an egg cell whose own nucleus has been removed. (bbj.hu)
  • From the very first division of the fertilized egg, the nucleus of each cell formed by successive cell divisions stores the complete genetic information. (creation.com)
  • In 1996, Ian Wilmut succeeded in awakening the hidden information of the nucleus of such a cell from its slumber. (creation.com)
  • He then fused the genetic information in its nucleus with an egg cell from sheep B, from which the nucleus had been removed. (creation.com)
  • MNB stands for multinucleated blastomere and refers to the presence of more than one nucleus in one or more of the embryonic cells (i.e. the cell is genetically abnormal). (sharedjourney.com)
  • Later in the afternoon signs of the approaching mid level disturbance could be seen with middle layer cloud and the benign cumulus junk further W and SW glaciating at almost winter time levels - not active in any shape or form. (australiasevereweather.com)
  • The group of 20 scientists at the Agricultural Biotechnology Center in Gödöllő, northeast of Budapest, used cumulus cells, which surround the developing eggs in the ovaries of female mice, as the donor to clone the mouse named Klonilla. (bbj.hu)
  • This layer of cells must be penetrated by spermatozoa for fertilization to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • In somatic cells, aneuploidy is associated with cancer but in gametes, aneuploidy leads to infertility, miscarriages or developmental disorders like Down syndrome. (jove.com)
  • As a fertilized egg cell progressively splits, its millions of offspring cells specialize into muscle cells, skin cells or secretory cells, for example. (creation.com)
  • This is a crucial stage in the development of the oocyte, or egg cell, and occurs during fetal development. (reproduction-online.org)
  • 2. Chromosome Segregation: Meiosis I, which occurs after the prophase I stage, involves the separation of homologous chromosomes into different daughter cells. (reproduction-online.org)
  • citation needed] In gene expression profiling of cumulus cells, genes where increased expression is correlated with higher oocyte competence or better pregnancy outcomes, include: HAS2, GREM1 and PTGS2. (wikipedia.org)
  • New approaches, such as the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells and new targeted gene manipulation techniques that enable direct injection of RNA/DNA constructs into zygotes to achieve gene targeting, require new explanations and protocols. (cshlpress.com)
  • Growth hormone (GH) is a peptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland in pulsatile manner, and it has important roles in cell growth and metabolism throughout the body. (medscape.com)
  • The oocyte secretes powerful mitogens, such as growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), that regulate granulosa cell proliferation, metabolism, steroidogenesis and differentiation. (edu.au)
  • Figure 426 (A-D) from Chapter 16 (Cytoplasmic matrix and cytoskeleton) of 'The Cell, 2nd Ed.' by Don W. Fawcett M.D. Stages of differentiation of the finch spermatozoon. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • At a very early stage of embryonic development, the cells specialize (or differentiate) so that some become nerve cells, some skin cells etc. (creation.com)
  • Low-quality embryos, on the other cells, thereby maintaining a relatively low basal hand, frequently display morphological level [16-18]. (who.int)
  • Mistakes in chromosome segregation lead to aneuploid cells. (jove.com)
  • During prophase I, the oocyte goes through a process called meiosis I, which is a special type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half. (reproduction-online.org)
  • Exosomes can deliver bioactive substances and easily degradable compounds to target cells to elicit physiological and pathological processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first cycle in Nov 04 sounded better- with one comment reading 2PN good clearing evident, nuclei alligned and with a 4 cell grade 1- and a 4-6 cell grade 2- for transfer. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Scientists cloned a mouse using live body cells in Hungary for the first time after three years of research, the professor leading the team said on Friday. (bbj.hu)
  • The results revealed a significant increase in Cell-free DNA levels on day 2 CM corresponding to 4 to 6 cell embryos compared to those corresponding to 7 to 8 cel embryos (p=0.04). (who.int)
  • As for day 3 CM, the results showed no significant difference between the Cell-Free DNA levels in CM of 7-8 and those of 4-6 cell embryos (p=0.4). (who.int)
  • Dr. Bhatti, a noted digital health executive with experience launching and scaling world-renowned consumer healthcare brands, joins Cumulus as the Company shifts toward healthcare and expands biopharma partnerships in its next growth phase. (medtechalert.com)
  • If replicated in other labs, the discovery might make it easier for researchers to clone new cell lines that genetically match an individual person. (bbj.hu)
  • Dolly is a copy, a clone of the sheep whose udder cell was used. (creation.com)
  • Individuals could derive from the same cell (identical twins), or the clone could originate from the cell of another individual. (creation.com)
  • AMH is highly expressed and secreted from cumulus GCs of advanced age patients. (springer.com)
  • I look forward to expanding those opportunities for our biopharma partners and patients, and to building toward the launch of our Cumulus platform to clinicians in the US. (medtechalert.com)
  • Dr. Bhatti's proven track record of implementing strategies that achieve significant revenue growth in both the biopharma and healthcare industries, combined with his unique understanding of healthcare system priorities and patient, physician, biopharma and payer needs, makes him the ideal match to lead Cumulus in its next chapter. (medtechalert.com)
  • The rapid vertical development indicates strong updrafts within the embedded line of storm cells, where mid-to-high level ice clouds are depicted in yellows, oranges and reds within the RGB. (colostate.edu)
  • After intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), 48 embryos were evaluated on day 3 of their development, according to their cell number. (who.int)
  • In vivo and in organized cells, and proper symmetry are healthy individuals, macrophages can characteristics of higher-quality embryos, which phagocytize DNA that has been passively point to healthy development and higher rates of released into the blood from apoptotic or necrotic implantation. (who.int)
  • we concluded that COC's and cumulus monolayer co-culture is better than COC's only culture. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The new technologies regarding induced pluripotent stem cells and RNA injection and CRISPR technology are changing the field and opening up new avenues of investigation. (cshlpress.com)
  • Two mice were born from the mature cells, according to the study conducted at the University of Connecticut . (bbj.hu)
  • Day 2 and day 3 CM corresponding to each one of the embryos was analyzed, by quantitative PCR, for estimation of Cell-free DNA levels. (who.int)
  • A study of about 1,800 cloning efforts published in the journal Nature Genetics last month found that mature blood cells may work about 10 times better than stem cells. (bbj.hu)
  • Dr. Bhatti's appointment follows the recent award of a £1.5M UK National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) grant to Cumulus and its academic research partners, using the Cumulus platform to improve early dementia diagnosis. (medtechalert.com)
  • The combination of the egg and the cumulus cells is refered to as the 'oocyte-cumulus complex', or OCC for short. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Figure 337 from Chapter 14 (Sperm Flagellum) of 'The Cell, 2nd Ed.' by Don W. Fawcett M.D. A transverse section through a portion of a sperm bundle of the newt, Notophthalmos viridescens at the level. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Blebs are irregularities on the surface of the cell and suggest the cell will form fragments in th near future. (sharedjourney.com)
  • The ovum is much larger than the sperm and is surrounded by protective cumulus cells around the outside surface (yellow). (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Tiny electric shocks were used to stimulate this new 'combination' egg cell to divide. (creation.com)
  • It was thought that a specialized cell could never revert to become a non-differentiated cell, with all the genetic instructions to form the entire creature 'unmasked. (creation.com)
  • Exosomes are nanosized membranous vesicles secreted by various types of cells, which facilitate intercellular communication by transporting bioactive compounds. (biomedcentral.com)