The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
A protein that plays a role in GRANULOSA CELLS where it regulates folliculogenesis. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein 15 are linked to reproductive abnormalities such as PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.
A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
Methods used to induce premature oocytes, that are maintained in tissue culture, to progress through developmental stages including to a stage that is competent to undergo FERTILIZATION.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.
The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. In the humans, 6-phosphofructose-1-kinase isozyme C is found in platelets, brain, heart, kidney, colon and testis. This isozyme C can exist as the homotetramer of C subunits (P subunits), or heterotetramer of C type and L type subunits.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A large family of cell regulatory proteins which are structurally related to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. The superfamily is subdivided into at least three related protein families: BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS; GROWTH DIFFERENTIATION FACTORS; and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTORS.
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.
A colorless liquid with a fragrant odor. It is used as an intermediate, solvent and in cosmetics.
A mercaptoethylamine compound that is endogenously derived from the COENZYME A degradative pathway. The fact that cysteamine is readily transported into LYSOSOMES where it reacts with CYSTINE to form cysteine-cysteamine disulfide and CYSTEINE has led to its use in CYSTINE DEPLETING AGENTS for the treatment of CYSTINOSIS.
A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Embryonic and fetal development that takes place in an artificial environment in vitro.
The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
A 38-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase that is abundantly expressed in a broad variety of cell types. It is involved in the regulation of cellular stress responses as well as the control of proliferation and survival of many cell types. The kinase activity of the enzyme is inhibited by the pyridinyl-imidazole compound SB 203580.
A form of creatine kinase found in the BRAIN.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
The transformation of a liquid to a glassy solid i.e., without the formation of crystals during the cooling process.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Formation of CORPUS LUTEUM. This process includes capillary invasion of the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE, hypertrophy of the GRANULOSA CELLS and the THECA CELLS, and the production of PROGESTERONE. Luteinization is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.
The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.
A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.

Impact of anisosmotic conditions on structural and functional integrity of cumulus-oocyte complexes at the germinal vesicle stage in the domestic cat. (1/273)

During cryopreservation, the immature oocyte is subjected to anisosmotic conditions potentially impairing subsequent nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation in vitro. In preparation for cryopreservation protocols and to characterize osmotic tolerance, cat cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage were exposed for 15 min to sucrose solutions ranging from 100 to 2,000 mOsm and then examined for structural integrity and developmental competence in vitro. Osmolarities > or =200 and < or =750 mOsm had no effect on incidence of oocyte nuclear maturation, fertilization success, and blastocyst formation compared to control COC (exposed to 290 mOsm). This relatively high osmotic tolerance of the immature cat oocyte appeared to arise from a remarkable stability of the GV chromatin structure as well as plasticity in mitochondrial distribution, membrane integrity, and ability to maintain cumulus-oocyte communications. Osmolarities <200 mOsm only damaged cumulus cell membrane integrity, which contributed to poor nuclear maturation but ultimately had no adverse effect on blastocyst formation in vitro. Osmolarities >750 mOsm compromised nuclear maturation and blastocyst formation in vitro via disruption of cumulus-oocyte communications, an effect that could be mitigated through 1,500 mOsm by adding cytochalasin B to the hyperosmotic solutions. These results (1) demonstrate, for the first time, the expansive osmotic tolerance of the immature cat oocyte, (2) characterize the fundamental role of cumulus-oocyte communications when tolerance limits are exceeded, and (3) reveal an interesting hyperosmotic tolerance of the immature oocyte that can be increased two-fold by supplementation with cytochalasin B.  (+info)

Reduction of connexin 43 in human cumulus cells yields good embryo competence during ICSI. (2/273)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to predict developmental competence of human oocytes during ICSI via analysis of connexin 43 (Cx43) in cumulus cells surrounding mature oocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human cumulus cells were manually separated from the oocyte-cumulus complex under a microscope. Cx43 mRNA was expressed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) measurement in cumulus cells. RESULTS: There was no significant relationship between expression of Cx43 and fertilisation or cleavage rate. However, Cx43 expression was lower in the good morphology group (blastomeres>7 cells with fragmentation<10% on day 3) when compared to the other groups (p=0.035). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that full reduction of Cx43 expression on cumulus cells at the time of oocyte collection during ICSI is essential for developmental competence of human oocytes.  (+info)

Altered composition of the cumulus-oocyte complex matrix during in vitro maturation of oocytes. (3/273)

BACKGROUND: In vitro maturation (IVM) of mammalian oocytes has potential health benefits for patients undergoing assisted reproduction as an alternative to gonadotrophin treatment. This procedure is also useful for studying the process of oocyte and early embryo development. However, oocytes undergoing IVM have much lower competence than in vivo matured oocytes. Efforts to optimize IVM success have focused on replicating in vivo timing, hormonal milieu and cumulus cell responses associated with maturing oocytes. We have previously identified two extracellular matrix proteins, the protease Adamts1 and hyaluronan-binding proteoglycan Versican, produced by mural granulosa cells that selectively incorporate into the periovulatory cumulus-oocyte complex (COC). METHODS: Murine COC were cultured in the presence of epidermal growth factor and/or FSH. mRNA and protein were measured by real time PCR and Western blot and compared to in vivo derived COC. RESULTS: COCs from mice that underwent IVM for 6 or 20 h in the presence of epidermal growth factor, FSH or in combination had a > 10-fold reduction in mRNA (P < 0.05) for Adamts1 and Vcan when compared with in vivo matured COCs. Hyaluronan synthase 2 expression was up-regulated up to 8-fold (P < 0.05) over the unstimulated control, demonstrating successful induction of cumulus gene expression by the IVM conditions. While in vivo matured COCs showed abundant levels of these proteins, COCs that underwent IVM had neither detectable Adamts1, nor intact or Adamts1-cleaved Vcan. Human cumulus and granulosa cells matured in vivo contained abundant mRNA for Adamts1 and Vcan, demonstrating the potential relevance to human IVM. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that extensively altered COC matrix composition is present during IVM and may contribute to the observed poorer competence of the derived oocytes.  (+info)

Exogenous growth differentiation factor 9 in oocyte maturation media enhances subsequent embryo development and fetal viability in mice. (4/273)

BACKGROUND: Successful oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) would eliminate the need for hormonal stimulation used in assisted reproduction techniques. Unfortunately, oocytes matured in vitro have compromised developmental competence possibly due to disrupted oocyte-cumulus communication resulting from inappropriate levels of oocyte-secreted factors such as growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9). Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous GDF9 during IVM of mouse oocytes on development and subsequent fetal viability. METHODS: Cumulus-oocyte complexes from pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin primed mice were cultured with or without 200 ng/ml exogenous recombinant GDF9, 50 mIU/ml FSH and 10 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF). After 18 h, cumulus expansion was scored and oocytes were fertilized in vitro. Cleavage, blastocyst development, blastocyst total, inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm cell numbers were assessed. Viability of embryos was assessed by transfer to recipient females and pregnancy outcome determined at day 15. RESULTS: Oocytes matured with exogenous GDF9 in the presence of FSH and EGF had higher rates of development, percentage of hatching blastocyst and blastocyst total and ICM cell numbers (all P < 0.05). Although implantation rate and fetal and placental weights were not affected, the number of viable fetuses at day 15 was increased with exogenous GDF9. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous GDF9 during IVM improved embryo development and fetal viability and provides a promising approach for human IVM.  (+info)

Gene silencing of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA by RNA interference in bovine cumulus-granulosa cells. (5/273)

Inhibition of specific gene expression using RNA interference (RNAi) is a valuable tool for functional analysis of a target gene. However, there is little information available concerning RNAi for analysis of gene function in relation to the reproductive physiology of follicular cells in ruminants. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the interfering effect of small interference RNA (siRNA) on expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) mRNA and prostagrandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) production in bovine cumulus-granulosa (CG) cells. Bovine CG cells were collected from aspirated follicles and cultured. After reaching confluency, two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, to investigate the effective concentration of siRNA, 0, 100, 250 and 500 pM of Cox-2 siRNA was introduced into the CG cells, respectively. After 24 h, the amount of Cox-2 mRNA expression was measured by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. In experiment 2, to investigate the time required for effective interference of siRNA and Cox-2 activity, 250 pM siRNA was introduced for 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h. After culture, the amount of Cox-2 mRNA expression was measured and the culture medium was collected to determine the PGF(2alpha) concentration by enzyme immunoassay. The Cox-2 mRNA expression was not affected by introduction of 100 pM siRNA into CG cells for 24 h, but 250 and 500 pM Cox-2 siRNA significantly reduced the Cox-2 mRNA expression. Moreover, the significant suppressive effect of 250 pM siRNA was observed 6 h after introduction, and the reduction of mRNA expression by RNAi became more obvious over 12 h. On the other hand, the PGF(2alpha) concentration in the culture medium was not significantly different 12 h after siRNA introduction; however, the PGF(2alpha) concentration 24 h after siRNA introduction was significantly decreased compared with the control at the same time point. These results suggest that gene silencing of Cox-2 with siRNA is capable of analyzing the function and expression of specific genes in bovine CG cells.  (+info)

Proteolytic activity of the 26S proteasome is required for the meiotic resumption, germinal vesicle breakdown, and cumulus expansion of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes matured in vitro. (6/273)

The resumption of oocyte meiosis in mammals encompasses the landmark event of oocyte germinal vesicle (GV) breakdown (GVBD), accompanied by the modification of cell-to-cell communication and adhesion between the oocyte and surrounding cumulus cells. The concomitant cumulus expansion relies on microfilament-cytoskeletal remodeling and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. We hypothesized that this multifaceted remodeling event requires substrate-specific proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP). We evaluated meiotic progression, cytoskeletal dynamics, and the production of cumulus ECM in porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) cultured with or without 10-200 microM MG132, a specific proteasomal inhibitor, for the first 22 h of in vitro maturation, followed by 22 h of culture with or without MG132. Treatment with 10 microM MG132 arrested 28.4% of oocytes in GV stage (vs. 1.3% in control), 43.1% in prometaphase I, and 16.2% in metaphase I, whereas 83.7% of control ova reached metaphase II (0% of MG132 reached metaphase II). The proportion of GV-stage ova increased progressively to >90% with increased concentration of MG132 (20-200 microM). Furthermore, MG132 blocked the extrusion of the first polar body and degradation of F-actin-rich transzonal projections (TZP) interconnecting cumulus cells with the oocyte. The microfilament disruptor cytochalasin E (CE) prevented cumulus expansion but accelerated the breakdown of TZPs. Ova treated with a combination of 10 microM MG132 and 10 microM CE underwent GVBD, despite the inhibition of proteasomal activity. However, 90.0% of cumulus-free ova treated with 10 microM MG132 remained in GV stage, compared with 16.7% GV ova in control. Cumulus expansion, retention of hyaluronic acid, and the deposition of cumulus ECM relying on the covalent transfer of heavy chains of inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor (IalphaI) were also inhibited by MG132. Cumulus expansion in control COCs was accompanied by the degradation of ubiquitin-C-terminal hydrolase L3, an important regulator of UPP. RAC1, a UPP-controlled regulator of actin polymerization was maintained at steady levels throughout cumulus expansion. We conclude that proteasomal proteolysis has multiple functions in the progression of oocyte meiosis beyond GV and metaphase I stage, polar body extrusion, and cumulus expansion.  (+info)

Gene expression in human cumulus cells: one approach to oocyte competence. (7/273)

BACKGROUND: Dialogue between the oocyte and cumulus cells is essential for oocyte maturation. A prospective laboratory research project was designed to evaluate transcription of specific genes in cumulus cells harvested before intracytoplasmic sperm injection from pre-ovulatory follicles, according to individual oocyte nuclear maturity and developmental competence. Genes were chosen because their expression was induced by the LH peak [Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein (STAR), Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 or PTGS2), Amphiregulin (AREG)] or because they were involved in oocyte lipidic metabolism [Stearoyl-Coenzyme A Desaturase 1 and 5 (SCD1 and SCD5)] or in gap-junctions [Connexin 43 (CX43 or GJA1)]. METHODS: mRNA levels in cumulus cells were assessed by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Expression levels of all genes investigated, except Cx43, were increased after resumption of meiosis. Nuclear maturation was thus associated with increased expression of STAR, COX2, AREG, SCD1 and SCD5 by cumulus cells. When considering only cumulus associated with metaphase II oocytes, gene expression was independent of morphological status at Day 2. In contrast, transcript levels were lower and distributed over a narrower range in cumulus enclosing oocytes achieving blastocyst development at Day 5/6 than in cumulus enclosing oocytes unable to develop beyond the embryo stage. CONCLUSION: Further developmental potential from embryo to blastocyst stage was associated with lower expression in a narrow range for these genes.  (+info)

The protein profile of mouse mature cumulus-oocyte complex. (8/273)

In mammals, the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) is the main component of ovarian follicles. Bi-directional communication between oocytes and surrounding cumulus granulosa cells is essential for the development of oocytes and ovarian follicles. In this study, we performed proteomic profiling of mouse mature COC, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. A total of 259 protein spots were identified, which correspond to 156 individual proteins. We also discovered some protein families, which may play important roles in ovarian follicular development. Immunostaining was conducted to determine the subcellular localization of specific proteins from selected protein families of interest, and to examine their expression patterns during follicle development. These data provide valuable information for future studies to identify proteins involved in ovarian follicular development and related reproductive abnormalities.  (+info)

This study identified a 12-gene signature in human cumulus cells predictive of pregnancy across multiple clinics. The positive predictive value of our test was 81% with an area under the receiver operating characteristic of 0.763 0.079.
In bovine oocytes, the resumption of meiosis is characterized by the breakdown of the germinal vesicle (GVBD). When cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) are cultured in-vitro in the presence of gonadotropins, GVBD is characterized by an initial inhibitory phase, which is followed by an acceleration in the rate of GVBD. An initial transcriptional event is required for gonadotropin-induced in-vitro maturation. The objectives of this thesis were: 1) to define the time course required for transcriptional initiation in bovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs); 2) to determine the pattern of expression for Nr4A1 and Egr1 mRNAs in bovine COCs; and 3) to reduce the expression of Nr4A1 mRNA expression to determine its effect on oocyte maturation. Bovine COCs were cultured in the presence follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) alone or FSH with the transcriptional inhibitor, 5,6-dichloro-1-B-Dribofuranosylbenzamidazole (DRB), in order to refine the time course required for transcription initiation and to determine ...
Comparison of Gene Expression between Cumulus Oocyte Complexes and Naked Oocytes by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization in Swine - Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH);Gene Expression;Cumulus Cells, Porcine;
Objectives Cumulus cells play a crucial role as essential mediators in the maturation of ova. Ginger contains 10-gingerol, which induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Based on this hypothesis, this study aimed to determine whether 10-gingerol is able to induce apoptosis in normal cells, namely, cumulus cells. Methods This study used an in vitro analysis by culturing Cumulus cells in M199 containing 10-gingerol in various concentrations (12, 16, and 20 μM) and later detected early apoptotic activity using an Annexin V-FITC detection kit. Result The in vitro data revealed that the number of apoptosis cells increased along with the period of incubation as follows: 12 μM (63.71% ± 2.192%); 16 μM (74.51% ± 4.596%); and 20 μM (78.795% ± 1.435%). The substance 10-gingerol induces apoptosis in cumulus cells by inhibiting HTR1A functions and inactivating GSK3B and AKT-1. Conclusions These findings indicate that further examination is warranted for 10-gingerol as a contraception agent.. ...
Oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryo development are controlled by array of genes that are post-transcriptionally regulated by microRNAs. With respect to this, previously, we identified altered expression of microRNA-130b (miR-130b) during oocyte maturation. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-130b in bovine granulosa and cumulus cell function, oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryo development using gain- and loss-of- function approach. For this study, the granulosa cells, cumulus cells and the oocytes were collected from ovaries obtained from slaughterhouse. The genes targeted by miR-130b were identified using dual-luciferase reporter assay. The role of miR-130b in granulosa and cumulus cell function was investigated by increasing and inhibiting its expression in in vitro cultured cells using miR-130b precursor and inhibitor, respectively while the role of miR-130b on oocyte development, immature oocytes were microinjected with miR-130b precursor and inhibitor and the polar
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of cumulus cells on in vitro fertilization of bovine oocytes derived from in vitro maturation. AU - Chian, R. C.. AU - Okuda, K.. AU - Niwa, K.. PY - 1995/3. Y1 - 1995/3. N2 - The effect of the cumulus cells on in vitro fertilization (IVF) in cattle was evaluated. Frozen-thawed bovine spermatozoa were treated with 5 mM caffeine and 10 μg heparin ml-1 for sperm capacitation. Bovine oocytes with or without cumulus cells after maturation in culture were inseminated by different concentrations of spermatozoa. When the concentration of (0.8-1.5) × 106 spermatozoa ml-1 was employed, the penetration rate was significantly (P , 0.001) higher in cumulus-intact (87%, 130/149) than in cumulus-free (57%, 101/178) oocytes. However, such differences were not observed with sperm concentrations of (2.0-3.0) × 106 and (3.5-5.0) × 106 spermatozoa ml-1 (92% (69/75) vs. 86% (68/79) and 93% (67/72) vs. 91% (73/80) respectively). The polyspermy was significantly (P , 0.05) higher in ...
Thousands of circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been recently discovered in cumulus cells and oocytes from several species. However, the expression and function of circRNA during porcine oocyte meiotic maturation have been never examined. Here, we separately identified 7,067 and 637 circRNAs in both cumulus cells and oocytes via deep sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Further analysis revealed that a faction of circRNAs is differentially expressed (DE) in a developmental stage-specific manner. The host genes of DE circRNAs are markedly enriched to multiple signaling pathways associated with cumulus cell function and oocyte maturation. Additionally, most DE circRNAs harbor several miRNA targets, suggesting that these DE circRNAs potentially act as miRNA sponge. Importantly, we found that maternal circARMC4 knockdown by siRNA microinjection caused a severely impaired chromosome alignment, and significantly inhibited first polar body extrusion and early embryo development. Taken together, these
The close relationship between cumulus cell function and oocyte developmental competence indicates that analysis of cumulus gene expression is a potential non-invasive method to aid embryo selection and IVF outcome. Cumulus was isolated from 674 oocytes from 75 women undergoing ICSI and gene expression analysed by quantitative RT-PCR. Cumulus expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2) was higher with mature oocytes, whereas brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was lower when fertilisation was normal. Expression levels of gremlin (GREM1) and BDNF were weak positive and negative predictors of embryo quality respectively. Ranking of GREM1 expression within cohorts of oocytes showed that oocytes associated with the highest GREM1 expression were more likely to be transferred or cryopreserved than discarded (49 vs 33%, P ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exposing bovine oocytes to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in vivo and in vitro on early embryo development. In experiment 1, cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs, n = 700/group) were challenged with 0, 0.1, 1.0 or 5.0 μg/mL of LPS during in vitro maturation (IVM). Later, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) were performed. In experiment 2, COCs (n = 200/group) matured and in vitro fertilized without LPS were subjected to IVC with the same doses of LPS from experiment 1. In experiment 3, heifers received two injections of saline solution (n = 8) or 0.5 μg/kg of LPS (n = 8) 24 h apart, and 3 days later, COCs were recovered and submitted to IVM, IVF, and IVC. In experiments 1 and 3, the expression of TLR4, TNF, AREG and EREG genes in cumulus cells was evaluated. Exposure to 1 and 5 μg/mL of LPS during IVM decreased nuclear maturation (39.4 and 39.6%, respectively) compared with control (63.6%, P , 0.05). Despite that, no effect on ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exposing bovine oocytes to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in vivo and in vitro on early embryo development. In experiment 1, cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs, n = 700/group) were challenged with 0, 0.1, 1.0 or 5.0 μg/mL of LPS during in vitro maturation (IVM). Later, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) were performed. In experiment 2, COCs (n = 200/group) matured and in vitro fertilized without LPS were subjected to IVC with the same doses of LPS from experiment 1. In experiment 3, heifers received two injections of saline solution (n = 8) or 0.5 μg/kg of LPS (n = 8) 24 h apart, and 3 days later, COCs were recovered and submitted to IVM, IVF, and IVC. In experiments 1 and 3, the expression of TLR4, TNF, AREG and EREG genes in cumulus cells was evaluated. Exposure to 1 and 5 μg/mL of LPS during IVM decreased nuclear maturation (39.4 and 39.6%, respectively) compared with control (63.6%, P , 0.05). Despite that, no effect on ...
The objective of the present study was to investigate the cumulus expansions of Nili Ravi buffalo oocytes during cultured in TCM-199 supplemented with 2 μg/ml oestradiol (E(2)), 0.05 IU/ml recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (rhFSH), 2IU/ml human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), and 0.12 IU/ml insulin (I). The cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) were collected from 2-8mm follicles from local abattoir ovaries. Supplementation of medium with single hormones showed significant (P,0.0001) increase in mean diameter of COCs with rhFSH except E(2), hCG and insulin after 24 hours compared to the increase in the mean diameter of COCs matured in TCM-199 without any hormonal supplementation ...
Cumulus Evaluation, Oocyte Competence and MiRNA DR. ALISON BARTOLUCCI Alison is the Director of Laboratory Operations at the Center for Advanced Reproductive Services at the University of Connecticut. Prior to becoming a
ASICS GEL-CUMULUS 19 rouge/noir, GEL CUMULUS 19 HOMME La gel cumulus 19 est la chausse de haute performance idéal pour les coureurs de demi-fond et de fond. Cette nouvelle version de la gel cumulus est faite pour une course sur route quelle que soit la cadence.
Association between the proportion of dominant follicles and oocyte developmental competence. Li, Yi; Li, Rui-Qi; Ou, Song-Bang; Ren, Ling; Zhang, Ning-Feng; Wei, Li-Na; Zhang, Qing-Xue; Yang, Dong-Zi // Journal of Assisted Reproduction & Genetics;Dec2014, Vol. 31 Issue 12, p1599 Purpose: To explore the optimal timing for hCG triggering by investigating the impact of different proportion of dominant follicles on the oocyte developmental competence. Methods: One hundred ninety-eight infertile women were divided into three groups according to the proportion of dominant... ...
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We in this study have been able to locate the cumulus in 94.6% of the cases in conception cycles and in 53% of non-conception cycles by surface rendering [Table
See 5 photos from 433 visitors about man bags, bag shop, and staff. They have a good range of bags that are both functional and fashionable. Ranging...
Pursuant to FCC Amends Section 73.1216 of the Commissions Rules, the following information and rules links pertain to specific Cumulus corporate contesting run on this and other Cumulus stations.. Pick Your Pearl Jam ...
We investigated the effect mouse cumulus cells (mCCs) on the in vitro maturation (IVM) and developmental potential of bovine denuded germinal vesicle oocytes (DOs). Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), DOs and DOs cocultured with either mCCs (DOs + mCCs) or bovine cumulus cells (bCCs; DOs + bCCs) were subjected to IVM. The meiosis II (MII) rates of DOs, glutathione (GSH) contents, zona pellucida (ZP) hardening and parthenogenetic blastocyst rates of MII oocytes were determined. The relative expression levels of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP-15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) in MII oocytes were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). mCCs significantly increased the MII rate of DOs from 53.5 ± 3.58% to 69.67 ± 4.72% (p , 0.05) but had no effect on the GSH content (2.17 ± 0.31 pmol/oocyte with mCCs, 2.14 ± 0.53 pmol/oocyte without mCCs). For the DOs + mCCs group, the BMP-15 and GDF-9 expression levels were significantly higher and the ZP ...
Infertility is a disease that affects the reproductive apparatus making it unable to carry out a successful clinical pregnancy after at least one year of regular and unprotected intercourse [1]. The worldwide prevalence of this disease keeps rising and is estimated to 1 out of 6 couples of reproductive age. Consequently, an increase need for assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to help couples achieving their parenthood project has been recorded. It is important to highlight that regardless of the infertility cause, the oocyte quality is recognized as the main cornerstone amongst others of any successful ART treatment [2]. Consequently, numerous studies focused on the criteria allowing an efficient selection of high-quality oocytes, named also competent oocytes, for assisted reproduction procedure using both human and animal models. Such oocyte competence is defined as its ability to properly achieve full maturation at nuclear, cytoplasmic and molecular levels, to achieve successful steps ...
Structure of the cumulus matrix and zona pellucida in the golden hamster: a new view of sperm interaction with oocyte-associated extracellular matrices.
Complete denudation of oocytes before slush nitrogen vitrification does not influence survival rates but positively affects oocyte meiotic spindle competence. These data support the hypothesis that cumulus cells during vitrification represent an obstacle to cryoprotectant penetration more than having a protective role for the oocyte.. ...
Oocytes are generally recovered as a cumulus-oocyte complex, an oocyte surrounded by the cumulus cells that nourish it, dislodged from the follicle wall. Initially as a follicle grows, the cumulus cells are tightly adhered to the follicle wall and the mass of cells itself is very dense; the cells are very close together. As the follicle grows and becomes a dominant follicle the cumulus mass starts to expand as the cells secrete an extracellular matrix that spreads them apart. Nearing ovulation this expansion makes the attachment to the follicle wall weaker and weaker so that during ovulation the oocyte can be swept from the follicle into the oviduct. The loosening of the attachment makes the oocyte somewhat easier to recover nearing ovulation, although as the follicle enlarges it is more difficult to create the turbulence necessary to dislodge the oocyte. For these reasons, aspiration of the immature follicles with their firmly attached cumulus-oocyte complex, tend to have the highest recovery ...
Oocytes are generally recovered as a cumulus-oocyte complex, an oocyte surrounded by the cumulus cells that nourish it, dislodged from the follicle wall. Initially as a follicle grows, the cumulus cells are tightly adhered to the follicle wall and the mass of cells itself is very dense; the cells are very close together. As the follicle grows and becomes a dominant follicle the cumulus mass starts to expand as the cells secrete an extracellular matrix that spreads them apart. Nearing ovulation this expansion makes the attachment to the follicle wall weaker and weaker so that during ovulation the oocyte can be swept from the follicle into the oviduct. The loosening of the attachment makes the oocyte somewhat easier to recover nearing ovulation, although as the follicle enlarges it is more difficult to create the turbulence necessary to dislodge the oocyte. For these reasons, aspiration of the immature follicles with their firmly attached cumulus-oocyte complex, tend to have the highest recovery ...
Between 1996 and 2000 79 Belgian blue donor cows were submitted to OPU-IVF. They all had a history in classical embryo transfer programs with disappointing results. Two different in vitro embryo production protocols were used. Between 1996 and 1998 (period A), oocytes were matured in M199 and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Foetal Calf Serum (FCS) were added. Subsequently, the oocytes were cultured in a granulosa co-culture system in a Synthetic Oviduct Fluid (SOF) medium. From 1998 until 2000 (Period B), M199, FCS, equine chorionic gonatrophin (eCG) and a granulosa cell co-culture were used for in vitro maturation.Zygotes were subsequently cultured in SOF with a co-culture of bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOEC). During period A, 531 OPU-IVF sessions were performed, collecting 2111 cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs), of which 928 (44 %) were of good morphological quality. The In vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF) and culture (IVC) resulted in 241 transferable embryos. When fresh ...
Involved in sperm-egg adhesion. Upon fertilization sperm must first penetrate a layer of cumulus cells that surrounds the egg before reaching the zona pellucida. The cumulus cells are embedded in a matrix containing hyaluronic acid which is formed prior to ovulation. This protein aids in penetrating the layer of cumulus cells by digesting hyaluronic acid (By similarity).
This observation is routinely performed by the study nurses of the fertility center for every patient undergoing standard ART treatment and is thus available from the fertility center database. This measurement does not include a scale, there is either a child born or not. The date of delivery and the gender of the child are asked together with eventual complications ...
BACKGROUND: Oocytes are the female gametes which establish the program of life after fertilization. Interactions between oocyte and the surrounding cumulus cells at germinal vesicle (GV) stage are considered essential for ...
BACKGROUND: Oocytes are the female gametes which establish the program of life after fertilization. Interactions between oocyte and the surrounding cumulus cells at germinal vesicle (GV) stage are considered essential for ...
Its the kind of conservative media story only conservatives understand. The latest numbers are out for Michael Savages radio show. Recall that Savage was a key player in the battle between Sean Hannity and Cumulus radio. A battle that had an exasperated Hannity finally firing Cumulus, as reported here in NewsBusters at the time. But not before Savage, whom Cumulus had in the
Vettese, S., Thompson, P. & Allan, D. (2017). A study of the multi generational relationship with making through mediated designing in collaborative, digital environments: implications for learning and open access fabrication. In Cumulus Hong Kong 2016, Cumulus Working Papers, Open Design for E-very-thing, 23 - 30. ISBN 9789526000800. ...
Today will be a special one in the desert. Cumulus bases are going to be really LOW for summer, maybe only 3-4 kft above the ground, and likely warmer than 15 C (50 F). Maybe 50 F doesnt sound special, but it is. A base temperature of summer clouds that warm is rarely observed here. And with that, and all the posts here about the temperatures that ice forms (around -10 C, 14 F) are out the window. Ice will form at much higher temperatures than usual.. This is because on a day when the Cumulus bases are that warm, rain forms by collisions between droplets before clouds even reach the -5 C (23 F) level, the highest temperature at which Ma Nature can produce ice. Rain mgiht even form in our clouds today even before the freezing level itself!. This is so exciting for an Arizonan who has studied ice-in-clouds development over the years because today ice will form in clouds around the -5 to -10 C level, and the mechanism of Mssrs Hallett and Mossop will be heavily involved as well as other lesser ...
2. Explain how clouds are made. Describe the different kinds of clouds-stratus, cumulus, cumulonimbus, and cirrus-and what kind of weather can be associated with these cloud types ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene targets. Accurate quantification of miRNA expression using validated internal controls should aid in the understanding of their role in epigenetic modification of genome function. To date, most studies that have examined miRNA expression levels have used the global mean expression of all expressed genes or the expression of reference mRNAs or nuclear RNAs for normalization. We analyzed the suitability of a number of miRNAs as potential expression normalizers in bovine oocytes and early embryos, and porcine oocytes. The stages examined were bovine oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) and metaphase II stages, bovine zygotes, 2, 4 and 8 cell embryos, morulae and blastocysts, as well as porcine cumulus oocyte complexes, GV, metaphase I and II oocytes. qRT-PCR was performed to quantify expression of miR-93, miR-103, miR-26a, miR-191, miR-23b, Let-7a and U6 for bovine samples and miR-21, miR-26a, miR-93, miR-103,
Generation and culture of PSCs. We induced superovulation in 6- to 8-week-old (C57BL/6J × DBA/2J)F1 (B6D2F1) mice by i.p. injection of 7.5 U pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and, 48 hours later, 7.5 U human choriogonadotropin (hCG). We harvested oviducts and collected cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) 16 hours after hCG injection. Cumulus cells were removed with hyaluronidase (1 mg/ml for 10 minutes at room temperature). We subsequently activated oocytes with strontium chloride (10 mmol/l in Ca2+-free CZB medium in mmol/l: NaCl 82.7, KCl 4.68, KH2PO4 1.17, MgSO4 1.18, D-glucose 5.6, Na-lactate 30.1, EDTA2Na 0.1, NaHCO3 25, Na-pyruvate 0.62, glutamine 1; supplemented with 5 mg/ml BSA, and 100 U/ml penicillin and 100 μg/ml streptomycin [100 P/S]) for 6 hours and prevented second polar body extrusion with cytochalasin B (5 μg/ml). Blastocysts formed during culture in mineral oil-covered Ca2+-containing (1.71 mmol/l) CZB medium for 6 days. We transferred blastocysts onto mitomycin C (10 ...
Treatment of in vitro matured bovine oocytes with colcemid results in a membrane protrusion that contains maternal chromosomes, which can be easily removed by aspiration. Four experiments were designed to evaluate the overall and temporal effects of conditioned medium (CM) by bovine cumulus cells on development of nuclear transfer (NT) bovine embryos and to examine the chromosomal composition and allocation of inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) of the subsequent blastocysts. The nuclear transfer embryos were cultured in various CR1aa media conditioned by preculture with bovine cumulus cells. Development to the blastocyst stage in BSA-containing CM (BCM) and serum-containing CM (SCM) were similar to co-culture group (24-30%). The 24 hr-conditioned BCM yielded higher blastocyst development than 48 and 72 hr-conditioned BCM. Temporary exposure of embryos to BCM and SCM followed by CR1aa was also studied. Morula and blastocyst development were not different among the groups cultured in BCM for 72,
Ovarian stimulation plays a pivotal role in assisted reproductive therapies, to increase the number of embryos available for treatment; however, there is no clear consensus from meta-analyses in the literature which, if any, of the preparations in use are superior in terms of clinical outcomes. The aim of this thesis was to examine the effect of common human gonadotrophin preparations with different half lives and LH activity (hMG, rFSH and Pergoveris) on embryo quality and resulting offspring, compared to non- stimulated negative controls and positive PMSG treated controls, using the mouse model. The studies in this thesis indicated that an LH ceiling threshold is evident during folliculogenesis, where the use of long acting LH preparations resulted in higher numbers of fragmented oocytes, absent of cumulus cells (P,0.001), reduced expression of the pro and anti-angiogenic factors, MYHII and PEDF in cumulus cells (P,0.05), increased embryonic developmental arrest (P,0.001) and perturbed IGF2 ...
Bohannon, a Memphis native, joins Cumulus from iHeartMedia-Memphis, where he was most recently Area President. He served iHeartMedia/Clear Channel Radio in various capacities and markets for over 20 years, was previously Market Manager for iHeartMedia-Memphis; Director of Sales for iHeartMedia in Greenville, SC; and Regional Vice President for Clear Channel Radio-Charlotte, NC. Bohannon was also previously Director of Sales for Apex Broadcasting. Bohannon is Board Chair for both The First Tee of Memphis and Junior Achievement of The Mid-South and is a Member of the Board of Directors of The Consortium MMT ...
Dentre os principais desafios que persistem no campo da biologia da reprodução está a compreensão da natureza dos processos celulares e moleculares que determinam a qualidade dos oócitos. Um dos fenômenos a serem melhor compreendidos é a aquisição da competência do oócito, e qual o papel desempenhado pelo ambiente folicular que circunda o gameta no seu potencial de desenvolvimento. As células foliculares, especialmente as células do cumulus, certamente desempenham um papel fundamental na aquisição da competência de oócitos in vivo. Durante a maturação in vitro (MIV) do oócito observa-se expansão e mucificação das células da granulosa que formam o complexo cumulus oophorus-oócito (CCO), em função da intensa síntese de componentes da matriz extracelular. Essas modificações no aspecto do cumulus são utilizadas como indicativo da ocorrência de maturação oocitária e contribuem para que ocorra a fecundação. A expressão de proteínas associadas à matriz ...
Low, mid and high cloud cover: Cloud cover at different altitudes. High clouds (8-15 km) like cirrus are less significant for total cloud cover than low (below 4 km) like stratus, cumulus and fog or mid clouds (4-8 km) like alto cumulus and alto stratus ...
The Gel Kayano, Gel Cumulus, and GT 2000 are few shoe models from Asics that basically made a reputation in the operating trade. The adidas name dates again to 1948, deriving from the primary two syll
In this study, the mechanisms of supposed leptin action on oocyte maturation were examined. Expression of leptin mRNA, as determined with RT-PCR, was present in oocytes but not in cumulus cells. The long isoform of the leptin receptor (ObR-L) was expressed exclusively in cumulus cells after 7 and 23 hr ... read more of maturation. In oocytes the expression of the short receptor isoform (ObR-S) and all the receptor isoforms combined (ObR-T) did not change during maturation, as determined by quantitative RT-PCR, but in cumulus cells there was a significant increase in ObR-S transcripts after 7 hr of maturation. To determine if leptin plays a role in resumption of meiosis, oocytes meiotically arrested by the connection of the cumulus to a piece of granulosa layer were exposed to leptin. After 23 hr of culture, the proportion of oocytes that had resumed meiosis did not differ from the control. Exposure of COCs to leptin (1,000 ng/ml) resulted after 17 hr of maturation in a smaller proportion of ...
Selection of the best oocyte for subsequent steps of fertilization and embryo transfer was shown to be the crucial step in human infertility treatment procedure. Oocyte selection using morphological criteria mainly Zona pellucida (ZP) has been the gold standard method in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) clinics, but this selection approach has limitations in terms of accuracy, objectivity and constancy. Recent studies using OMICs-based approaches have allowed the identification of key molecular markers that quantitatively and non-invasively predict the oocyte quality for higher pregnancy rates and efficient infertility treatment. These biomarkers are a valuable reinforcement of the morphological selection criteria widely used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. In this context, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between transcriptomic predictors of oocyte quality found by our group and the conventional morphological parameters of oocyte quality mainly the ZP
Glutathione (C10H17N3O6S) is a tripeptide (γ-Glu-Cys-Gly) widespread in living organism. Glutathione (GSH) at the 5 mM concentration increased the motility and fertility of frozen-thawed sperm. Intracellulair glutathione improved the cleavage rate and embryo development to the blastocyst rate. Research on in vitro embryos production through the implementation of GSH during IVF (in vitro fertilization) on embryo development has been conducted at the Laboratorium Reproductive of Physiology, Research Institute for Animal Production. Ovaries of beef cattle as source of oocytes were collected from the slaughterhouse in a thermo flask with 350C PBS as medium and transported to the laboratory. The oocytes were fertilized in vitro with selected motile sperm using Percoll gradient (90 and 45%). Ten COCs (cumulus oocytes complexes) were transfered to 44 μl of fertilization medium (mTALP) was performed with either 0; 0.25; 0.50; 0.75 and 1.00 mM of glutathione as treatment A, B, C, D and E respectively, ...
Supplementary MaterialsData_Sheet_1. and KDM5C attenuation affected DNA harm response and improved DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and reduced advancement of UV-irradiated embryos. Results from this research exposed that both KDM5B and KDM5C are essential regulators of early advancement in porcine embryos as their attenuation modified H3K4 and H3K9 methylation patterns, perturbed embryo genome activation, and reduced DNA damage restoration capability. Maturation (IVM) Ovaries of prepubertal gilts had been collected at an area slaughterhouse (Olymel S.E.C./L.P., Saint-Esprit, QC, Canada) and transferred to the lab at 32C in saline option including penicillin (100 UI/ml) and streptomycin (10 mg/ml). Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) had been aspirated from 3 to 6 mm follicles utilizing a 10 mL syringe and 20-measure needle in TMP 269 distributor support of COCs having at the least three cumulus cells levels and a homogeneous granulated cytoplasm had been chosen for IVM. Sets of 30 COCs had been ...
Hotel by the beach and shore: Cumulus Pinja, Tampere, Finland - Reservations online or call toll-free at 877-270-9434 - by Best Lodging - BestLodging.com.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like factors [amphiregulin (AREG), betacellulin, and epiregulin] are induced by LH and activate the EGF receptor (ERBB1)/ERK1/2 pathway in granulosa cells and cumulus cells of preovulatory follicles to impact ovulation.
Although in men with HIV it is necessary the use of Assisted Reproductive Techniques, when the problem affects the other member of the couple, this is, the woman, this technique is not always required.. The main inconvenient that has been observed would be a reduction of the fertility in women with HIV, concerning hormones (FSH, Inhibin B and AMH) and ovarian reserve. Not only this, because of the viral infection or as a consequence of the antiretroviral treatment (HAART), the quality of the egg is seriously endangered, so In Vitro Fertilization becomes the best alternative.. Nor in the eggs nor in its escort cells, (cumulus cells) there arent any receptors of the virus. Therefore, the laboratory carries out an embryo free of HIV and the gestation can be attempted safely.. Thanks to the treatments with antiretroviral, once the pregnancy is accomplished, the moment when there has to be a special care to avoid the transmission to the newborn is the moment of the birth. Fortunately, with the ...
Mount McKinley, the highest mountain in North America, with white cumulus clouds floating above in a blue sky on sunny fall morning.
RWBY: Volume 4, Chapter 1: The Next Step. Its been several months since the Fall of Beacon, and the world of Remnant is still recovering. Tensions are high, lives have been lost, and the members of Team RWBY... are divided. Each of our heroines now faces a journey of their own. While some must search inward if they ever hope to move on, others will venture out into the world in search of answers. Alongside the remaining members of Team JNPR, Ruby Rose has begun the long trek to the kingdom of Mistral, but the road ahead is full of surprises. New friends and enemies await, while the threat of an even larger catastrophe draws near.. ...
Huang, Zhongwei; Wells, Dagan (2010). "The human oocyte and cumulus cells relationship: New insights from the cumulus cell ... The cumulus-oocyte complex contains layers of tightly packed cumulus cells surrounding the oocyte in the Graafian follicle. The ... Before ovulation, the cumulus complex goes through a structural change known as cumulus expansion. The granulosa cells ... The female germ cells produce a primordial germ cell (PGC), which then undergoes mitosis, forming oogonia. During oogenesis, ...
However, some cells can rise to 70000 feet. Another option would be to navigate around the cells. This is strongly discouraged ... He entered a seemingly innocuous cumulus at 2,000 feet (610 m). This cumulus evolved into a large cumulonimbus. At first, the ... Moreover, even the cumulus congestus associated with a supercell thunderstorm can be very dangerous. Tornadoes can be produced ... In particular, in the forward area of the supercell, one can find a flanking line made of cumulus congestus or small ...
... and finally cumulus cells. Experimental evidence has demonstrated that the released contents of the cortical granules modify ... This space is called the cortical granule free domain (CGFD) and has been observed in both the cell's meiotic spindle regions ... The oocyte has been shown to obtain maximum proficiency for releasing calcium at this same cell stage, between metaphase I and ... Within the oocyte, cortical granules are located along the cortex, the region furthest from the cell's center. Following ...
Conditions evolved from scattered low-top cumulus to an isolated convective cell with estimated tops to above 45000 ft in just ... Data shown from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency showed that at 09:30 and 09:45, there were scattered low top cumulus clouds ... However, the cloud formation suddenly 'exploded' sometime between 09:45 and 11:00 UTC, and became a storm cell. These ' ...
... there are different cumulus species evolving from the cumulus mediocris to the cumulus congestus; Behind, there are ... Since the cells making the flanking line will fuse with the main cell, the soaring conditions will "improve", the updrafts will ... A flanking line is an area of cumulus congestus or small cumulonimbus that mark an area of widespread updrafts in front of ... Eventually, the pilot may inadvertently fly under the main cell. If the pilot ignores these harbingers, he may hit a tornado ...
... and excrete the oocyte with a complement of cumulus cells in a process called ovulation. In natural cycles, ovulation may occur ... Each type of cell behaves differently in response to FSH. Theca interna cells express receptors for luteinizing hormone (LH). ... In addition, as more estrogen is secreted, more LH receptors are made by the theca cells, inciting theca cells to create more ... adjacent to the antrum and cumulus oophorous, which connects the membrana and corona radiata granulosa cells together. ...
... progesterone released by nearby cumulus cells and binding to ZP3 of the zona pellucida. The cumulus cells are embedded in a gel ... Sperm cells come in two types, "female" and "male". Sperm cells that give rise to female (XX) offspring after fertilization ... Mammalian sperm cells become even more active when they approach an egg cell in a process called sperm activation. Sperm ... Sperm cells were first observed in Antonie van Leeuwenhoek's laboratory in 1677. Play media The human sperm cell is the ...
... and produce multiple cloud types including cumulus congenstus, cumulonimbus, and stratocumulus clouds. However, the open cells ... The cloud formations that occur as part of MCC can be placed into two categories: open cells and closed cells. Open cells are ... The closed cell has slow rising motion in the middle and faster descending motion at the edges. Closed cells tend to occur over ... MCC is a form of the Bénard cell where the fluid will rise or fall in hexagonal cells creating hexagonal cloud structure. The ...
It contains numerous granulosa cells. At one part of the mature follicle the cells of the membrana granulosa are collected into ... cumulus oophorus" Histology image: 14808loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University - "Female Reproductive System: ... which consists of several layers of nucleated cells, called the membrana granulosa. ...
The solar cells were 5 cm (2.0 in) round commercial units provided by Heliotech. The actual airframe was constructed by a team ... On its 28th flight the aircraft was destroyed when it was flown too close to a cumulus cloud at about 8,000 ft (2,438 m) and ... The solar cells could be set for either series or parallel operation. The telemetry functions provided gave data on motor ... Due to their roughness the solar cells were only mounted on the aft two-thirds of the wing's upper surface. The wing spars were ...
... and cumulus oophorus that connects the membrana and corona radiata granulosa cells together. Each type of cell behaves ... Theca cells express receptors for luteinizing hormone (LH). LH kicks off the production of androgens by the theca cells, most ... The basic structure of the mature follicle has formed and no novel cells are detectable. Granulosa and theca cells continue to ... 2010). Human physiology : from cells to system. Australia ; United States: Brooks/Cole. ISBN 978-0-495-39184-5. Page 76 in: ...
"Abnormal gene expression in cloned mice derived from embryonic stem cell and cumulus cell nuclei." Proceedings of the National ... Understanding what happens when the cell is reprogrammed is one of the main goals of studying embryonic stem cells. But right ... Eggan's team reported that they had created cells similar to human embryonic stem cells without destroying embryos, a major ... "Approval granted for Harvard Stem Cell Institute researchers to attempt creation of disease-specific embryonic stem cell lines ...
The cumulus oophorus, (discus proligerus), is a cluster of cells that surround the oocyte both in the ovarian follicle and ... This layer of cells must be penetrated by spermatozoa for fertilization to occur. Functions of the cumulus oophorus include ... Cumulus oophorus cells contribute heavily to the maturation and eventual fertilization of an oocyte. As a follicle grows in ... As a part of the process of in vitro fertilization, gene expression profiling of cumulus cells can be performed to estimate ...
... glider US Aviation Cumulus, motorglider Cumulus Media, a radio broadcasting company Cumulus oophorus, cells which surround a ... Cumulus is a type of cloud with the appearance of a lump of cotton wool. Cumulus may also refer to: Cumulus (software), digital ... asset management software developed by Canto Software Cumulus Networks, a computer software company Reinhard Cumulus, ... human egg after fertilisation This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Cumulus. If an internal link ...
... would start airing on 40 Cumulus radio stations the first weekend in May and syndicated by Westwood One, a Cumulus subsidiary. ... "What Happens When People Get A 'Bad Batch' Of Stem Cells? This Is Wondery's New Podcast". Forbes. Retrieved 2019-11-11. ... "Cumulus Signs Content Deal With Wondery". Radio Ink. May 3, 2019. Retrieved July 22, 2019. "Ex-Fox Executives Stay Free on $15M ... In early May 2019, Wondery and Cumulus Media announced a strategic alliance for new advertising opportunities and growing ...
An increase in cumulus cell number causes a concomitant increase in antrum fluid volume that can swell the follicle to over 20 ... For ovulation to be successful, the ovum must be supported by the corona radiata and cumulus oophorous granulosa cells. The ... Mucification is the secretion of a hyaluronic acid-rich cocktail that disperses and gathers the cumulus cell network in a ... Rosenthal, Martha (2012). Human Sexuality: From Cells to Society. Cengage Learning. p. 322. ISBN 9780618755714. Retrieved 2013- ...
... and chemotactic gradients of progesterone have been confirmed as the signal emanating from the cumulus oophorus cells ... contained in the central cell) in the centre of the gametophyte. The resulting cell is triploid (3n). This triploid cell ... In flowering plants a second fertilisation event involves another sperm cell and the central cell which is a second female ... First, the cytoplasms of the two gamete cells fuse (called plasmogamy), producing a dikaryotic or heterokaryotic cell with ...
Only iHeartMedia and Cumulus Media owned more stations prior to Citadel's merger with Cumulus. On March 10, 2011, Cumulus Media ... The maximum rated output of the solar cells installed at the KGO transmitter site is a little over 7 kW, which under ideal ... Some of the Cumulus or Citadel radio stations would, however, have to be transferred into a trust to comply with the FCC's ... "Cumulus will be digesting Citadel fast, once it takes over in late Q3". Radio-Info.com. March 14, 2011. Archived from the ...
Cumulus oophorus is a cluster of cells (called cumulus cells) that surround the oocyte both in the ovarian follicle and after ... It contains numerous granulosa cells. Granulosa cells or follicular cells are cells that surround the oocyte within the ... The granulosa cells, in turn, are enclosed in a thin layer of extracellular matrix - the follicular basement membrane or basal ... They also consist of granulosa cells and theca of follicle. Once a month, one of the ovaries releases a mature egg (ovum), ...
This multifunctional protein is a hyaluronidase that enables sperm to penetrate through the hyaluronic acid-rich cumulus cell ... "A hyaluronidase activity of the sperm plasma membrane protein PH-20 enables sperm to penetrate the cumulus cell layer ... cell membrane. • membrane. Biological process. • fusion of sperm to egg plasma membrane involved in single fertilization. • ... "J. Cell Biol. 111 (6 Pt 2): 2939-49. doi:10.1083/jcb.111.6.2939. PMC 2116349. PMID 2269661.. ...
"Mouse sperm lacking cell surface hyaluronidase PH-20 can pass through the layer of cumulus cells and fertilize the egg". The ... Alberts B (2008). Molecular biology of the cell. New York: Garland Science. p. 1298. ISBN 0-8153-4105-9. .. ... In most mammalian fertilization, hyaluronidase is released by the acrosome of the sperm cell after it has reached the oocyte, ... The majority of mammalian ova are covered in a layer of granulosa cells intertwined in an extracellular matrix that contains a ...
... and chemotactic gradients of progesterone have been confirmed as the signal emanating from the cumulus oophorus cells ... contained in the central cell) in the centre of the gametophyte. The resulting cell is triploid (3n). This triploid cell ... First, the cytoplasms of the two gamete cells fuse (called plasmogamy), producing a dikaryotic or heterokaryotic cell with ... one of the two sperm cells fertilises the egg cell (at the bottom of the gametophyte near the micropyle), forming a diploid (2n ...
... progesterone released by nearby cumulus cells and binding to ZP3 of the zona pellucida. The cumulus cells are embedded in a gel ... Analogy to apoptosis of somatic cells". Exp Cell Res. 207: 202-205. doi:10.1006/excr.1993.1182. PMID 8391465.. ... The human sperm cell is the reproductive cell in males and will only survive in warm environments; once it leaves the male body ... Sperm cells come in two types, "female" and "male". Sperm cells that give rise to female (XX) offspring after fertilization ...
They live on the Planet Cumulus and are led by King Cumulus Regulus (voiced by Allen Swift). When people "interfere with them" ... Eel was then confined in a glass prison cell. In "The Vacuum Gun," Electric Eel and his gang were recruited by Simon Bar ...
According to the Glossary of Meteorology, a funnel cloud is any rotating cloud pendant from a cumulus or cumulonimbus, and thus ... Multiple tornadoes produced by the same storm cell are referred to as a "tornado family".[21] Several tornadoes are sometimes ... Tornadic storms do not contain more lightning than other storms and some tornadic cells never produce lightning at all. More ... They form at the bases of cumulus congestus clouds over tropical and subtropical waters. They have relatively weak winds, ...
... cell and captured in the updraft of a more intense "daughter cell". This however is an exceptional case. A downburst is created ... Mixing of air during the day which expands the height of the planetary boundary layer leads to increased winds, cumulus cloud ... There are four main types of thunderstorms: single-cell, multicell, squall line (also called multicell line) and supercell. ... or a cumulus cloud in rare cases. Tornadoes come in many sizes but typically form a visible condensation funnel whose narrowest ...
ovarian cumulus expansion. • negative regulation of smooth muscle cell differentiation. • positive regulation of cytokine ... positive regulation of cell division. • negative regulation of cell proliferation. • positive regulation of smooth muscle cell ... cell-cell signaling. • anatomical structure morphogenesis. • response to peptide hormone. • التئام الجروح. • mRNA transcription ... regulation of cell motility. • epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. • peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation. • ...
Included in the follicles are the cumulus oophorus, membrana granulosa (and the granulosa cells inside it), corona radiata, ... Germ cell tumor Seen most often in young women or adolescent girls. Other germ cell tumors are: Endodermal sinus tumor and ... Follicular cells flat epithelial cells that originate from surface epithelium covering the ovary, are surrounded by Granulosa ... "Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment". National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 2017-12-01.. ...
A fuel cell issue found before launch was analyzed, though the cell continued to function as expected with no impact to the ... NASA scrubbed Endeavour' 12 July 2009 launch attempt at T-minus 9 minutes and holding due to Cumulus clouds and lightning near ... "Shuttle Endeavour refueled for sixth launch try; fuel cell issue resolved". CBS News. 15 July 2009. Retrieved 29 August 2009. ... Chris Gebhardt (18 July 2009). "STS-127 completes EVA-1 - Fuel Cell issue monitored by MMT". NASAspaceflight.com. Retrieved 19 ...
Included in the follicles are the cumulus oophorus, membrana granulosa (and the granulosa cells inside it), corona radiata, ... Primitive ova are seen in their cell-nests. The Genital cord or genital ridge is still discernible in this young child. A blood ...
According to the Glossary of Meteorology, a funnel cloud is any rotating cloud pendant from a cumulus or cumulonimbus, and thus ... Multiple tornadoes produced by the same storm cell are referred to as a "tornado family".[21] Several tornadoes are sometimes ... Tornadic storms do not contain more lightning than other storms and some tornadic cells never produce lightning at all. More ... They form at the bases of cumulus congestus clouds over tropical and subtropical waters. They have relatively weak winds, ...
The Met Office, with cumulus humilis cloud; the Met Office Cray XC40 (previously a Power 775) computer takes 4.8m weather ... Nearby on Lydiard Fields in Lydiard Tregoze is Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells, which in 2002 was the world's first production site ...
PGD is a process in which one or two cells from an embryo on Day 3 or Day 5 are extracted and the cells genetically analyzed. ... cumulus oophorus) surrounding the oocyte. The device provides microscopic droplets of hyaluronan hydrogel attached to the ... This is due to the fact that in IVF acrosome reaction has to take place and thousands of sperm cells have to be involved. Once ... After the procedure, the oocyte will be placed into cell culture and checked on the following day for signs of fertilization. ...
為了排卵成功,需要大腦中的辐射冠(英语:corona radiata)及卵丘(英语:cumulus oophorus)颗粒细胞的配合。後者會有一段增殖及粘液化的過程,稱為卵丘擴展。粘液化是分泌含有豐富透明质酸的混合物,可以分散及聚集附近的卵丘細胞,在卵子 ... Human Sexuality: From Cells to Society. Cengage Learning. 2012: 322 [2013-11
Convective rain, or showery precipitation, occurs from convective clouds, e.g. cumulonimbus or cumulus congestus. It falls as ... Owen E. Thompson (1996). Hadley Circulation Cell. Archived 2009-03-05 at the Wayback Machine Channel Video Productions. ... itself the ascending branch of the Hadley cell. Mountainous locales near the equator in Colombia are amongst the wettest places ...
Basic cells in this grid are triangles instead of the four corner cells in a traditional latitude-longitude grid. The advantage ... A typical cumulus cloud has a scale of less than 1 kilometer (0.6 mi), and would require a grid even finer than this to be ... phase changes of water and surface hydrology are calculated within each grid cell, and the interactions with neighboring cells ... Field of cumulus clouds, which are parameterized since they are too small to be explicitly included within numerical weather ...
... and chemotactic gradients of progesterone have been confirmed as the signal emanating from the cumulus oophorus cells ... contained in the central cell) in the centre of the gametophyte. The resulting cell is triploid (3n). This triploid cell ... In flowering plants a second fertilisation event involves another sperm cell and the central cell which is a second female ... First, the cytoplasms of the two gamete cells fuse (called plasmogamy), producing a dikaryotic or heterokaryotic cell with ...
Cumulus clouds look white because the water droplets reflect and scatter the sunlight without absorbing other colors. ... by the human visual system as white when the incoming light to the eye stimulates all three types of color sensitive cone cells ...
Characteristics of cells from the cumulus oophorus and the membrana granulosa, which are easily aspirated during oocyte ... Before the transfer of a pre-embryo back to a woman's uterus, one or two cells are removed from the pre-embryos (8-cell stage ... In both PGS and PGD, individual cells from a pre-embryo, or preferably trophectoderm cells biopsied from a blastocyst, are ... where a sperm cell is injected directly into the egg cell. This is used when sperm has difficulty penetrating the egg. In these ...
Theca cells. Theca lutein cells. androgens,[10] progesterone[10] Granulosa cells. Granulosa lutein cells. progesterone,[5] ... thecal-lutein cells) and follicular granulosa cells luteinize into large luteal cells (granulosal-lutein cells) forming the ... Its cells develop from the follicular cells surrounding the ovarian follicle.[5] The follicular theca cells luteinize into ... activity within the cell. Small luteal cells have LH receptors that regulate PKA activity within the cell. PKA actively ...
The storm is really a multi-cell storm with new, more vigorous cells that form on the upwind side, replacing older cells that ... The first stage of a thunderstorm is the cumulus stage or developing stage. During this stage, masses of moisture are lifted ... There are four main types of thunderstorms: single-cell, multi-cell, squall line (also called multi-cell line) and supercell. ... There are four types of thunderstorms: single-cell, multi-cell cluster, multi-cell lines and supercells. Supercell ...
Holes in the internal ribs allow a free flow of air from the open cells to these closed cells to inflate them, and also to the ... Potential thermals can be identified by land features that typically generate thermals or by cumulus clouds, which mark the top ... In 1966 Canadian Domina Jalbert was granted a patent for a multi-cell wing type aerial device - "a wing having a flexible ... Static line towing with stretchy rope and a load cell as a tension meter has been used in Poland, Ukraine, Russia, and other ...
... in mammals also facilitates the passage of the sperm through the cumulus oophorus (a layer of cells) and the ... As a result, sperm movement is activated.[3] The change in cell volume which alters intracellular ion concentration can also ...
Micrograph of a small-cell carcinoma showing cells with nuclear moulding, minimal amount of cytoplasm and stippled chromatin. ... Micrograph showing the yolk sac component of a mixed germ cell tumour. H&E stain. ... a solid or fluid-filled cystic lesion that may or may not be formed by an abnormal growth of neoplastic cells) that appears ... Spindle cell nodule Vaginal Solitary Fibrous Tumor [9][16][17][18][34] ...
Shallower Cumulus and Stratocumulus can be seen off the Eastern Seaboard.. Weather satellites equipped with scanning ... Infrared solar cells. *Infrared thermometer. *Infrared window. *List of infrared articles. *People counter ...
Acidophil cell (Somatotropic cell, Prolactin cell) · Basophil cell (Corticotropic cell, Gonadotropic cell, Thyrotropic cell) · ... Thyroid isthmus · Lobes of thyroid gland · Pyramidal lobe of thyroid gland Follicular cell · Parafollicular cell ... Ang produktong gameto ay mga selulang lithayop o binhi (germ cell) na haploid. Halimbawa, ang ispermatosoon at obum (itlog) ay ...
A half-rack Blue Gene/Q system, with about 100 TFLOPS (peak), called Cumulus was installed at A*STAR Computational Resource ... until in June 2008 it was overtaken by IBM's Cell-based Roadrunner system at Los Alamos National Laboratory, which was the ...
The host genes of DE circRNAs are markedly enriched to multiple signaling pathways associated with cumulus cell function and ... Here, we separately identified 7,067 and 637 circRNAs in both cumulus cells and oocytes via deep sequencing and bioinformatic ... have been recently discovered in cumulus cells and oocytes from several species. However, the expression and function of ... the first time that circRNAs are abundantly and dynamically expressed in a developmental stage-specific manner in cumulus cells ...
For this study, the granulosa cells, cumulus cells and the oocytes were collected from ovaries obtained from slaughterhouse. ... The role of miR-130b in granulosa and cumulus cell function was investigated by increasing and inhibiting its expression in in ... Here, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-130b in bovine granulosa and cumulus cell function, oocyte maturation and ... This study demonstrated that in vitro functional modulation of miR-130b affected granulosa and cumulus cell proliferation and ...
20 and 24 h after insemination in both cumulus-intact and cumulus-free oocytes. These results indicate that the cumulus cells ... 20 and 24 h after insemination in both cumulus-intact and cumulus-free oocytes. These results indicate that the cumulus cells ... 20 and 24 h after insemination in both cumulus-intact and cumulus-free oocytes. These results indicate that the cumulus cells ... 20 and 24 h after insemination in both cumulus-intact and cumulus-free oocytes. These results indicate that the cumulus cells ...
... cumulus cells. Methods This study used an in vitro analysis by culturing Cumulus cells in M199 containing 10-gingerol in ... cell culture; computer model; concentration response; cumulus cell; drug effect; female; human; human cell; in vitro study; ... Objectives Cumulus cells play a crucial role as essential mediators in the maturation of ova. Ginger contains 10-gingerol, ... 10-Gingerol; Apoptosis; Cumulus cells; HTR1A; In silico; In vitro; (10) gingerol; aphios; fluorescein isothiocyanate; glucose; ...
Subjects/Keywords: ovulation; cumulus oocyte complex (COC); cell migration; cell adhesion; cell invasion; CD44 ... HOCl as judged by changes in the organized compact cumulus cell mass into a dispersed mass of cells with decreased cumulus cell ... or cumulus cells, through loss of cumulus cells, or the lack of scavengers for specific ROS. This mechanism of damage may be ... I developed a novel hypothesis whereby the cumulus cells transition to an adhesive, motile and invasive cell phenotype in ...
de LoosFKastropPVan MaurikPVan BenedenTHKruipTA 1991 Heterologous cell contacts and metabolic coupling in bovine cumulus oocyte ... In experiments 1 and 3, the expression of TLR4, TNF, AREG and EREG genes in cumulus cells was evaluated. Exposure to 1 and 5 μg ... Heterologous cell contacts and metabolic coupling in bovine cumulus oocyte complexes. . Molecular Reproduction and Development ... HerathSWilliamsEJLillySTGilbertRODobsonHBryantCESheldonIM 2007 Ovarian follicular cells have innate immune capabilities that ...
Cumulus Evaluation, Oocyte Competence and MiRNA DR. ALISON BARTOLUCCI Alison is the Director of Laboratory Operations at the ... predictors of embryo potential and most recently published work performed for her thesis on microRNA-21 in human cumulus cells ... Alison has acquired a distinct interest for oocyte and somatic cell communication, embryo morphology, and optimizing quality in ...
The close relationship between cumulus cell function and oocyte developmental competence indicates that analysis of cumulus ... Cumulus Cells, Embryonic Development, Female, Fertilization in Vitro, Gene Expression, Humans, Infertility, Female, Male, ... Cumulus was isolated from 674 oocytes from 75 women undergoing ICSI and gene expression analysed by quantitative RT-PCR. ... Cumulus gene expression as a predictor of human oocyte fertilisation, embryo development and competence to establish a ...
The mtDNA number and viability of cumulus cells and oocytes remained unchanged. When the oocytes were denuded from the cumulus ... apoptosis of cumulus cells, and lactate dehydrogenase levels. Thus, cf-mtDNA was present in FF in a wide range of length, and ... and explored whether the cfDNA level in the culture medium could reflect mitochondrial dysfunction in cumulus cell-oocyte ... In contrast, CCCP treatment of granulosa cells significantly increased the amount of cf-mtDNA in the spent culture medium, ...
... Tamadir Al-Edani,1,2 Said ... Q. Li, D.-Q. Miao, P. Zhou et al., "Glucose metabolism in mouse cumulus cells prevents oocyte aging by maintaining both energy ... S. Assou, D. Haouzi, J. de Vos, and S. Hamamah, "Human cumulus cells as biomarkers for embryo and pregnancy outcomes," ... R. B. Gilchrist, M. Lane, and J. G. Thompson, "Oocyte-secreted factors: regulators of cumulus cell function and oocyte quality ...
Single-center Prospective Cumulus Cell Test Study in rFSH Patients. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Cumulus Cell mRNA Analysis as Oocyte Quality Marker in the Fertility Lab in a Prospective Single-center Study for rFSH ... Performing an additional non-invasive oocyte diagnostic test based on cumulus cell gene expression could improve the outcome of ... Classification of the oocyte/embryo based on the gene expression pattern observed in the cumulus cells ...
Ovulated oocyte-cumulus cell masses were well preserved histologically and many but not all gave strong evidence of HSDH when ... The HSDH reaction observed near the basement membrane was more pronounced than in cells nearer the antrum. Cumulus masses were ... Heterogeneity of intrafollicular somatic cells and ovulated cumulus masses as evidenced by delta5-3beta-HSDH activity.. ... observed in PMSG treated mice that resembled the cells surrounding ovulated oocytes. ...
The cumulus granulosa cells detached from the zona pellucida after fertilization were allowed to spontaneously adhere to the ... We investigated the possibility that human granulosa cells from the cumulus mass obtained during human in vitro fertilization/ ... the cells respond predictably like other comparable granulosa cell systems. We conclude that human cumulus cells are a readily ... human cumulus granulosa cells are readily available from IVF/ET programs, (2) the techniques for maintaining the cells in ...
A statistically significant association was found between the degree of apoptosis in cumulus cells and the type of gonadotropin ... and the apoptosis rate in cumulus cells.. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective and observational study into an university-affiliated ... during controlled ovarian stimulation affects the endocrine profile in follicular fluid and apoptosis rate in cumulus cells.. ... ovarian stimulation significantly affects endocrine profiles in follicular fluid and the apoptosis rate in cumulus cells. ...
Human Empty zona-cumulus-corona cell complex. * For permission to use this image or to obtain a higher quality please contact: ...
... pertinent to cell-cell contacts and because gap junctions play a critical role in cell-cell contacts of mammalian cumulus cells ... IMD/ADM2 signaling is important for cumulus cell survival and normal cell-cell contacts in COCs. A, treatments of FSH or IMD ... Intact COCs with at least three layers of cumulus cells were collected for the separation of cumulus cells and denuded oocytes ... Second, our in vitro data implied that FSH promotes oocyte-cumulus cell interactions indirectly by stimulating cumulus cells, ...
... in cumulus cell-enclosed mouse oocytes was examined when meiotic arrest was maintained in vitro with purines, dibutyryl cAMP ( ... solely by oocyte-cumulus cell uncoupling and termination of the transfer of an inhibitory meiotic signal from cumulus cells to ... The data suggest the generation of a positive signal within cumulus cells in response to hormone treatment that acts upon the ... The frequency of FSH- and EGF-induced GVBD in cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes was significantly higher than the frequency of GVBD ...
Oocyte-secreted BMP-15 and BMP-6 signal through the cumulus cell receptor BMPR-II to actively prevent cumulus cell death. ... Determination of DNA damage by TUNEL (assessment of cumulus cell apoptosis). Cumulus cell apoptotic DNA was detected using ... Paracrine factors secreted by the oocyte regulate a broad range of cumulus cell functions. Characteristically, cumulus cells ... cumulus cell apoptosis significantly decreased (P,0.001), whether in the presence or absence of FSH (Fig. 4C,D). Cumulus cell ...
... p-EIF4EBP1 and ACTB in cumulus cells of COCs, oocytectomized cumulus cells (OOX) and oocytectomized cumulus cells co-cultured ... In order to gain further insights into the roles that MTOR plays in cumulus cells, particularly those specific to cumulus cells ... To compare global changes of gene expression in cumulus cells after hCG administration in vivo, cumulus cells were isolated ... 2B). Interestingly, Ddit4 mRNA was unchanged in oocytectomized cumulus cells (Fig. S1A). Treating oocytectomized cumulus cells ...
"Influence of follicular fluid and cumulus cells on oocyte quality: clinical implications, Journal of Assisted Reproduction and ... Coculture with cumulus cells improves maturation of mouse oocytes denuded of the cumulus oophorus: observations of nuclear and ... Hyaluronic acid synthesis by mural granulosa cells and cumulus cells in vitro is selectively stimulated by a factor produced by ... mRNA expression pattern of insulin-like growth factor components of granulosa cells and cumulus cells in women with and without ...
BMP15 prevents cumulus cell apoptosis through CCL2 and FBN1 in porcine ovaries. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2009;32:264-78. CrossRef ... Cumulus cells (CC) play important roles in oocyte development and cumulus expressed genes can be used as markers for oocyte ... Gene expression profile of cumulus cells derived from cumulus-oocyte complexes matured either in vivo or in vitro. Reprod ... Temporal expression of cumulus cell marker genes during in vitro maturation and oocyte developmental competence. Zeitschrift:. ...
... role of cumulus cells and epidermal growth factor in the culture medium.. PT GOUD, AP GOUD, Chen Qian (UGent), H LAVERGE, ... "In-vitro Maturation of Human Germinal Vesicle Stage Oocytes: Role of Cumulus Cells and Epidermal Growth Factor in the Culture ... In-vitro maturation of human germinal vesicle stage oocytes: role of cumulus cells and epidermal growth factor in the culture ... "In-vitro Maturation of Human Germinal Vesicle Stage Oocytes: Role of Cumulus Cells and Epidermal Growth Factor in the Culture ...
When compared with results obtained using a traditional cumulus cell removal protocol, early cumulus cell removal has both ... cumulus cells removed at 3 h or 20 h after insemination, respectively). Same origin embryos (either 3 h or 20 h) were ... To investigate whether cumulus cell removal after a 3 h co-incubation of gametes can affect the outcomes of in vitro ... Cumulus cell removal. The cumulus cells and oocytes in the 3 h group were incubated with sperm for 3 h. Following incubation, ...
Microarray data revealed that 48 and 27 differentially expressed candidate genes in cumulus cells (CCs) were respectively ... From: Use of Both Cumulus Cells Transcriptomic Markers and Zona Pellucida Birefringence to Select Developmentally Competent ...
... Adamiak, S; Ewen, M; ... 100 Diet and fatty acid composition of bovine plasma, granulosa cells, and cumulus-oocyte complexes.. Livestock Library/Manakin ... granulosa cells (GCs), and cumulus?oocyte complexes (COCs) from the 32 heifers used in that study. Blood samples were collected ...
Gene expression profiles of cumulus cell oocyte complexes during ovulation reveal cumulus cells express neuronal and immune- ... Shimada M, Richards JS: Cumulus Cells are an Essential Mediator of Ovulation Stimuli from Granulosa Cells to Oocyte. Journal of ... cell cycle under-regulation and cell differentiation (FOSB, CCAR1, CCNA2, CDKNA1, HDAC2, PRDX2, PANX1) as well as cell death- ... Lee KS, Joo BS, Na YJ, Yoon MS, Choi OH, Kim WW: Cumulus cells apoptosis as an indicator to predict the quality of oocytes and ...
Expression of cumulus-specific genes in SCNT-derived embryos at 2-cell, 4-cell and day 4.5 blastocyst stages was compared with ... Cumulus cells of C57xCBA F1 female mouse were injected into enucleated oocytes, followed by activation in 10 micromol/L ... Cumulus-specific genes are transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer in a mouse model. ... Tong, G.Q.,Heng, B.C.,Ng, S.C. (2007). Cumulus-specific genes are transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear ...
Exposure of mouse cumulus cell nuclei to porcine ooplasmic extract eliminates TATA box protein binding to chromatin, but has no ... Tong, G.Q., Heng, B.C., Ng, S.C. (2006). Exposure of mouse cumulus cell nuclei to porcine ooplasmic extract eliminates TATA box ...
The cumulus oophorus, (discus proligerus), is a cluster of cells that surround the oocyte both in the ovarian follicle and ... This layer of cells must be penetrated by spermatozoa for fertilization to occur. Functions of the cumulus oophorus include ... Cumulus oophorus cells contribute heavily to the maturation and eventual fertilization of an oocyte. As a follicle grows in ... As a part of the process of in vitro fertilization, gene expression profiling of cumulus cells can be performed to estimate ...
Mammalian cumulus cells have important functions during oocyte maturation process such as: reduction in steroidogenesis and ... 2006). Then, the cumulus cells were removed by vortexing and oocytes were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde during 15 min and ... Considering that Grb10 mRNA was expressed in oocyte and cumulus cells, COCs from different follicle sizes were used in ... Grb10 protein is clearly reduced in cumulus cells of follicle larger than 6mm compared with those of smaller follicles. ...
... or cumulus cells restored partially the developmental potential of cumulus-denuded oocytes (DOs). Therefore, cumulus cells are ... cumulus cells were collected and vigorously pipetted to allow separation of the cells. Then, the cells were counted in a ... LanGCChangZLLuoMJJiangYLHanDWuYGHanZBMaSFTanJH2006Production of cloned goats by nuclear transfer of cumulus cells and long-term ... LanGCChangZLLuoMJJiangYLHanDWuYGHanZBMaSFTanJH2006Production of cloned goats by nuclear transfer of cumulus cells and long-term ...
Jindal S, Greenseid K, Berger D, Santoro N, Pal L. Impaired Gremlin 1 (GREM1) expression in cumulus cells in young women with ... Jindal, S, Greenseid, K, Berger, D, Santoro, N & Pal, L 2012, Impaired Gremlin 1 (GREM1) expression in cumulus cells in young ... Impaired Gremlin 1 (GREM1) expression in cumulus cells in young women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). In: Journal of ... Jindal, S., Greenseid, K., Berger, D., Santoro, N., & Pal, L. (2012). Impaired Gremlin 1 (GREM1) expression in cumulus cells in ...
Huang, Zhongwei; Wells, Dagan (2010). "The human oocyte and cumulus cells relationship: New insights from the cumulus cell ... The cumulus-oocyte complex contains layers of tightly packed cumulus cells surrounding the oocyte in the Graafian follicle. The ... Before ovulation, the cumulus complex goes through a structural change known as cumulus expansion. The granulosa cells ... The female germ cells produce a primordial germ cell (PGC), which then undergoes mitosis, forming oogonia. During oogenesis, ...
The expression of transcripts related to cumulus expansion was analyzed in equine cumulus cells before maturation, and after in ... Connexin 43, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and FSH receptor (FSHr) mRNA were detected in equine cumulus cells before and after ... Equine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) were cultured in a control defined medium supplemented with eFSH (0 to 5 micrograms/ml), ... After in vitro maturation, the cumulus expansion rate was increased with 1 microgram/ml eFSH, and was the highest with 20% FCS ...
The COCs were obtained from bovine ovaries and classified according to the morphology of their cumulus cell layers, as follows ... No entanto, a razão entre as proteínas BCL-2/BAX foi maior nos grupos com o cumulus completo e no grupo com o cumulus expandido ... Essas alterações ocorrem tanto nos oócitos como nas células do cumulus. O presente trabalho estudou a interação cumulus e ... The present work aimed to study the cumulus-oocyte interaction on the process of programmed cell death in bovine COCs of ...
This is because the Grell-Freitas scheme in WRF uses a maximum threshold of 0.9 for the convective coverage of a grid cell. ... The best performing cumulus scheme overall for the two cases studies here was the scale-aware Grell-Freitas cumulus scheme. It ... The gray zone for cumulus clouds (convective or cumulus schemes), for example, is reached at a coarser resolution than the gray ... Evaluation of Cumulus and Microphysics Parameterizations in WRF across the Convective Gray Zone Julia Jeworrek; Julia Jeworrek ...
... cumulus explanation free. What is cumulus? Meaning of cumulus medical term. What does cumulus mean? ... Looking for online definition of cumulus in the Medical Dictionary? ... cumulus. [ku´mu-lus] (pl. cu´muli) (L.) a small elevation.. cumulus oo´phorus a mass of follicular cells surrounding the ovum ... cumulus. /cu·mu·lus/ (-lus) pl. cu´muli [L.] a small elevation.. cumulus oo´phorus a mass of follicular cells surrounding the ...
  • Identification and validation of differentially expressed circRNAs (DECs) in both cumulus cells and oocytes during meiotic maturation. (aging-us.com)
  • A ) Venn diagram of circRNAs identified in cumulus cells or oocytes. (aging-us.com)
  • Cumulus cells and oocytes before and after meiotic maturation were pooled for RNA-seq. (aging-us.com)
  • Expression levels of circRNAs in cumulus cells (left panel) and oocytes (right panel) were analyzed by means of a binominal statistical test. (aging-us.com)
  • Overlapping circles present circRNAs that are common for cumulus cells or oocytes between two different stages. (aging-us.com)
  • Non-overlapping circles indicate circRNAs that are specific for cumulus cells or oocytes before (pink) and after (blue) meiotic maturation. (aging-us.com)
  • B ) The number of differentially expressed circRNAs in cumulus cells or oocytes before and after meiotic maturation. (aging-us.com)
  • C ) Heatmap illustrating the expression patterns of differentially expressed circRNAs in cumulus cells (left panel) or oocytes (right panel) before and after meiotic maturation. (aging-us.com)
  • D ) Validation of the selected differentially expressed circRNAs identified in both cumulus cells and oocytes. (aging-us.com)
  • The several selected circRNAs were chosen from top up and top down-regulated circRNAs in cumulus cells or oocytes. (aging-us.com)
  • Relative abundance of circRNAs in cumulus cells (upper panel) and oocytes (bottom panel) was determined by qPCR. (aging-us.com)
  • The data were normalized against endogenous housekeeping gene EF1α1, and the value for cumulus cells or oocytes at GV stage was set as one. (aging-us.com)
  • For this study, the granulosa cells, cumulus cells and the oocytes were collected from ovaries obtained from slaughterhouse. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bovine oocytes with or without cumulus cells after maturation in culture were inseminated by different concentrations of spermatozoa. (elsevier.com)
  • 0.001) higher in cumulus-intact (87%, 130/149) than in cumulus-free (57%, 101/178) oocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • 0.05) higher in cumulus-intact than in cumulus-free oocytes in all sperm concentrations (25% (17/68) vs. 10% (4/41), 29% (20/69) vs. 16% (11/68) and 31% (21/67) vs. 19% (14/73) respectively). (elsevier.com)
  • When oocytes with or without cumulus cells were inseminated by a concentration of (2.0-3.0) × 10 6 spermatozoa ml -1 , the penetration rate was almost completed at 12 h after insemination in cumulus-intact oocytes (83%, 80/96), whereas the sperm penentration was delayed in cumulus-free oocytes (64%, 42/66). (elsevier.com)
  • There was a tendency to decrease the polyspermy when spermatozoa were removed from the oocyte surface at 8 and 12 h compared with at 16, 20 and 24 h after insemination in both cumulus-intact and cumulus-free oocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • Chian, RC, Okuda, K & Niwa, K 1995, ' Influence of cumulus cells on in vitro fertilization of bovine oocytes derived from in vitro maturation ', Animal Reproduction Science , vol. 38, no. 1-2, pp. 37-48. (elsevier.com)
  • This study demonstrated that in vitro functional modulation of miR-130b affected granulosa and cumulus cell proliferation and survival, oocyte maturation, morula and blastocyst formation suggesting that miR-130b is involved in bovine oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryo development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The effect of the cumulus cells on in vitro fertilization (IVF) in cattle was evaluated. (elsevier.com)
  • The objectives of this study were to: (1) -develop a reliable in vitro measure of gap junction activity for bovine cumulus- oocyte -complexes (COC) using a fluorescent (calcein) dye technique, and (2)- assess the effects of different amino acid compositions, cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations on gap junction activity in COC. (oatd.org)
  • In experiment 1, cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs, n = 700/group) were challenged with 0, 0.1, 1.0 or 5.0 μg/mL of LPS during in vitro maturation (IVM). (bioscientifica.com)
  • These results suggest that the preferential sperm concentration was (0.8-1.5) × 10 6 spermatozoa ml -1 in the present IVF system, and that removal of sperm-cumulus complexes from the oocyte surface at 12 h after insemination may prevent the increase of polyspermy, especially by use of higher sperm concentrations. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-130b in bovine granulosa and cumulus cell function, oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryo development using gain- and loss-of- function approach. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For mammalian oocyte maturation it is important for the oocyte to communicate with the surrounding somatic cells in a bidirectional manner. (oatd.org)
  • The growth and development of the oocyte is influenced by the functional activities of the surrounding somatic cells (cumulus or granulosa and theca cells). (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results indicate that the cumulus cells participated in the mechanisms of bovine sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction and that the polyspermy was directly affected by the number of capacitated and acrosome reacting sperm on the oocyte surface. (elsevier.com)
  • Under the mentorship of some of the "greats" in our field, Alison has acquired a distinct interest for oocyte and somatic cell communication, embryo morphology, and optimizing quality in the clinical IVF lab. (ivfmeeting.com)
  • These gap junctions permit the transfer of essential metabolites, nucleotides, amino acids and ions from the cumulus cells to the oocyte in order for growth and development to occur. (oatd.org)
  • Overexpression of miR-130b increased the granulosa and cumulus cell proliferation, while inhibition showed the opposite phenotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • She has first and co-authored multiple peer reviewed articles on embryo morphology predictors of embryo potential and most recently published work performed for her thesis on microRNA-21 in human cumulus cells. (ivfmeeting.com)
  • Based on genomic screening and studies of COCs cultured in vitro , we showed that intermedin (IMD)/adrenomedullin 2 (ADM2) is a novel oocyte-derived ligand important for the regulation of cell interactions in COCs that functions, in part, by suppressing cumulus cell apoptosis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Knockdown of Ddit4l activated MTOR signaling in cumulus cells, whereas inhibition of MTOR in COCs compromised oocyte developmental competence and cumulus cell survival, with the latter likely to be attributable to specific changes in a subset of transcripts in the transcriptome of COCs. (biologists.org)
  • Therefore, oocyte suppression of Ddit4l expression allows for MTOR activation in cumulus cells, and this oocyte-dependent activation of MTOR signaling in cumulus cells controls the development and survival of COCs. (biologists.org)
  • O presente trabalho estudou a interação cumulus e oócito no processo de morte celular programada nos complexos de cumulus oophoros (COCs) de diferentes classes morfológicas em bovinos. (usp.br)
  • Os COCs foram utilizados para avaliação da maturação nuclear em 0 e em 24h de cultivo do grau de fragmentação do DNA das células do cumulus (CC) antes e após a maturação in vitro , avaliação da competência do desenvolvimento embrionário partenogenético até o 9º dia pós-ativação, avaliação da qualidade dos blastocistos e estimativa dos transcritos e proteínas BCL-2 e BAX em CC maturados por 24h. (usp.br)
  • The present work aimed to study the cumulus -oocyte interaction on the process of programmed cell death in bovine COCs of different morphological classes. (usp.br)
  • Before in vitro maturation (IVM), the nuclear maturation in COCs and DNA fragmentation in cumulus cells (CC) were evaluated. (usp.br)
  • We also examined the effects of PLAT and SERPINE1 on germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and oocyte cyclic 3' 5' adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, cumulus expansion index, and expansion-related gene expression in oocytes derived from bovine COCs cultured for 4, 8, and 12 h and in COCs cultured for 16 h. (bioportfolio.com)
  • suppression of PLAT activity via accumulation of SERPINE1 in COCs results in cumulus expansion from 8 to 16 h of IVM. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Notably, Etv4 is highly expressed in the cumulus cells of ovulated COCs at 16-h post-human chorionic gonadotropin. (wustl.edu)
  • Introduction of estrogenic agents previously shown to suppress P production in porcine or human culture systems using mural granulosa cells showed comparable effects in this human cumulus cell system. (rti.org)
  • In addition, earlier work on cultured follicles has established that oocytes actively participate in the regulation of the surrounding cumulus cells, which are distinguished from steroid-producing mural granulosa cells in gene expression, protein synthesis, and physical interactions ( 16 , 18 - 28 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cumulus cells expressed less Ddit4l mRNA and protein than mural granulosa cells, which is in striking contrast to the expression of phosphorylated RPS6 (a major downstream effector of MTOR). (biologists.org)
  • Fzd1 encodes a WNT receptor whose expression is markedly induced in both mural granulosa cells and cumulus cells during the preovulatory period, in a manner similar to Wnt4 . (bioone.org)
  • Additionally, PLAT delayed GVBD, increased oocyte cAMP levels, and blocked cumulus expansion and associated gene expression, which was reversed by SERPINE1 supplemented. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Molecular mechanisms of ovulation: co-ordination through the cumulus complex. (springermedizin.de)
  • The cumulus oophorus, (discus proligerus), is a cluster of cells that surround the oocyte both in the ovarian follicle and after ovulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before ovulation, the cumulus complex goes through a structural change known as cumulus expansion. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, ovulation triggering with GnRHa may improve the oocyte microenvironment and cumulus cell genes expression in Let-COH, suggesting a positive impact on oocyte quality in breast cancer patients. (springer.com)
  • Collectively, the results show that Etv4 and Etv5 are expressed in granulosa and cumulus cells during folliculogenesis and ovulation, suggesting that they influence cellular events in the ovary by regulating downstream genes such as Ptgs2. (wustl.edu)
  • The cumulus cells are embedded in a matrix containing hyaluronic acid which is formed prior to ovulation. (uniprot.org)
  • after ovulation, the cumulus oophorus becomes what? (studystack.com)
  • For ovulation to be successful, the ovum must be supported by the corona radiata and cumulus oophorous granulosa cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like factors [amphiregulin (AREG), betacellulin, and epiregulin] are induced by LH and activate the EGF receptor (ERBB1)/ERK1/2 pathway in granulosa cells and cumulus cells of preovulatory follicles to impact ovulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Herein, we document that two transcripts of the neuregulin (Nrg1) gene are expressed in granulosa cells, and that the type III Nrg1 is induced during ovulation in an ERK1/2 and C/EBPβ-dependent manner. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Collectively, these results document that the expression of type III NRG1 is induced in granulosa cells during ovulation and that NRG1 enhances AREG-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in both granulosa cells and cumulus cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • At ovulation, the cumulus cells produce a protein matrix, release from the oocyte, and become trapped in this matrix. (eurekalert.org)
  • LH-induced cumulus mucification/expansion, a necessary requirement for ovulation, was prevented by antioxidants both in vivo and in an ex vivo system of isolated intact ovarian follicles. (pnas.org)
  • Before ovulation, the cumulus cells produce an extracellular, hyaluronan-rich matrix that brings about cumulus mucification and its expansion. (pnas.org)
  • ROS originate from inflammatory cells, such as macrophages and neutrophils, which are massively recruited after the LH surge to the ovary ( 15 ), and their depletion impairs ovulation ( 16 , 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • H 2 O 2 , which is constantly produced in cells, has been implicated in several ovulation-related events such as steroid hormone production ( 20 , 21 ) and EGF receptor (EGFR) activation ( 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cumulus cells (CC) play important roles in oocyte development and cumulus expressed genes can be used as markers for oocyte quality. (springermedizin.de)
  • Microarray data revealed that 48 and 27 differentially expressed candidate genes in cumulus cells (CCs) were respectively overexpressed and underexpressed in the ZGP (Zona Good Pregnant) versus ZBNP (Zona Bad Non Pregnant) groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cumulus-specific genes are transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer in a mouse model. (nus.edu.sg)
  • This study investigated whether four cumulus-specific genes: follicular stimulating hormone receptor (FSHr), hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2), prostaglandin synthase 2 (Ptgs2) and steroidogenic acute regulator protein (Star), were correctly reprogrammed to be transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a murine model. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Expression of cumulus-specific genes in SCNT-derived embryos at 2-cell, 4-cell and day 4.5 blastocyst stages was compared with corresponding in vivo fertilized embryos by real-time PCR. (nus.edu.sg)
  • It was demonstrated that immediately after the first cell cycle, SCNT-derived 2-cell stage embryos did not express all four cumulus-specific genes, which continually remained silent at the 4-cell and blastocyst stages. (nus.edu.sg)
  • It is therefore concluded that all four cumulus-specific genes were correctly reprogrammed to be silent following nuclear transfer with cumulus donor cells in the mouse model. (nus.edu.sg)
  • This would imply that the poor preimplantation developmental competence of SCNT embryos derived from cumulus cells is due to incomplete reprogramming of other embryonic genes, rather than cumulus-specific genes. (nus.edu.sg)
  • In gene expression profiling of cumulus cells, genes where increased expression is correlated with higher oocyte competence or better pregnancy outcomes, include: HAS2, GREM1 and PTGS2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of genetically modified animals is essential for elucidating the roles of genes, but the traditional method, which involves homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells and the production of chimeric mice, is costly and time-consuming. (nature.com)
  • Genetic mutations in germline or somatic cells lead to expression alteration of the cognate or downstream genes. (hindawi.com)
  • In a paired study comparing the cumulus cell transcriptome of euploid sibling blastocysts, no differentially ex- pressed genes predictive of live birth were identified. (fertstertdialog.com)
  • In order to form and maintain the cumulus, various genes must be turned on in a carefully controlled order in exactly the right cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • This gene is required for cumulus maintenance and it also helps to activate a number of other cumulus-specific genes. (elifesciences.org)
  • In years to come, the unraveling of these gene pathways, where genes sequentially turn other genes on and off, will allow us to more fully understand how a single cell can grow into a complete adult animal. (elifesciences.org)
  • Cloning an adult animal involves reprogramming the genes from one of its cells. (newscientist.com)
  • The transcript levels of specific genes were determined by reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of cumulus cells and single oocytes. (las.ac.cn)
  • The actions of FSH and EGF required the presence of cumulus cells. (nih.gov)
  • At the end of IVM, apoptotic status and meiotic progression of the oocytes were compared with oocytes matured in the presence of cumulus cells (CCs) by Annexin-V/PI assay and 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. (elsevier.com)
  • Glucose metabolism in mouse cumulus cells prevents oocyte aging by maintaining both energy supply and the intracellular redox potential," Biology of Reproduction , vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 1111-1118, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Estrogen promotes the development of mouse cumulus cells in coordination with oocyte-derived GDF9 an. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The differential transcriptome and ontology profiles of floating and cumulus granulosa cells in stimulated human antral follicles," Molecular Human Reproduction , vol. 16, no. 4, Article ID gap103, pp. 229-240, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Together, our studies indicated that mammalian oocytes deploy a G protein-coupled receptor ligand to coordinate normal interactions of oocytes and cumulus cells and provided a better understanding of how the tertiary structure of a COC is maintained as follicles undergo exponential growth during the late stages of folliculogenesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Communication between oocytes and their companion somatic cells promotes the healthy development of ovarian follicles, which is crucial for producing oocytes that can be fertilized and are competent to support embryogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • once primordial follicles become primary follicles, the squamous follicular cells become what? (studystack.com)
  • In humans, this event occurs when the ovarian follicles rupture and release the secondary oocyte ovarian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These primordial follicles contain immature oocytes surrounded by flat, squamous granulosa cells (the support cells) that are segregated from the oocyte's environment by the basal lamina. (bionity.com)
  • Granulosa cell (GC) number in follicles is a simple characteristic of follicles. (springermedizin.de)
  • GC number may be a useful marker for "good" follicles and oocytes, and the characteristics of the FFs determine granulosa cell number and oocyte developmental ability. (springermedizin.de)
  • However, as the oogonia embark on this process, they become surrounded by a layer of ovarian cells, forming 'primordial follicles', and the meiosis is arrested: the oogonia do not actually divide, and are now called primary oocytes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The efficacy of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and dibutyryl cGMP (dbcGMP) as inducers of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) in cumulus cell-enclosed mouse oocytes was examined when meiotic arrest was maintained in vitro with purines, dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP), or the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). (nih.gov)
  • Folliculogenesis results from a complex balance between proliferation, differentiation and cell death, of both the somatic and germ cell compartments of the follicle. (biologists.org)
  • As a follicle grows in size and the antrum develops, more layers of cumulus oophorus cells accumulate around the oocyte to aid in the acrosome reaction and sperm penetration into the oocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cumulus-oocyte complex contains layers of tightly packed cumulus cells surrounding the oocyte in the Graafian follicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mare, cumulus expansion in oocytes retrieved from excised ovaries of slaughtered mares has been related to granulosa cell apoptosis with no relation to follicle size. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cumulus oo´phorus a mass of follicular cells surrounding the ovum in the vesicular ovarian follicle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The extracellular matrix [ECM] of the cumulus oocyte complex [COC] is composed of several molecules that have different roles during follicle development. (bvsalud.org)
  • Gene expression profiles of cumulus cells obtained from women treated with recombinant human luteinizing hormone plus recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone or highly purified human. (fertstertforum.com)
  • We first discuss how meiotic prophase arrest is maintained in mammalian oocytes, and how luteinizing hormone (LH) action on receptors in the cells of the surrounding follicle causes meiosis to resume. (springer.com)
  • The LH receptors are located exclusively in the outer granulosa cells of the follicle and signal through a G s -linked receptor to cause a decrease in cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). (springer.com)
  • Browne CL, Wiley HS, Dumont JN (1979) Oocyte-follicle cell gap junctions in Xenopus laevis and the effects of gonadotropin on their permeability. (springer.com)
  • Clarke HJ (2018) Regulation of germ cell development by intercellular signaling in the mammalian ovarian follicle. (springer.com)
  • after meiotic prophase I, and with the addition of follicle cells (stroma cells), oocytes are called what? (studystack.com)
  • what are the granulosa cells of the secondary follicle that remain around the oocyte? (studystack.com)
  • [8] In the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle , the ovarian follicle will undergo a series of transformations called cumulus expansion, which is stimulated by FSH. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increase in cumulus cell number causes a concomitant increase in antrum fluid volume that can swell the follicle to over 20 mm in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cumulus cells found around oocytes in the ovarian follicle are generally the preferred cell type for cloning efforts. (redorbit.com)
  • The follicle ruptures and the secondary oocyte, surrounded by cumulus cells, bursts from the follicle. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The proximity between the cumulus oophorus cells and the oocyte favors bidirectional communication, which is vital for oocyte development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The secondary oocyte and the polar body remain surrounded by the zona pellucida and the cumulus oophorus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We investigated the possibility that human granulosa cells from the cumulus mass obtained during human in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF/ET) might be useful for screening of potential reproductive toxicants in vitro. (rti.org)
  • The cumulus granulosa cells detached from the zona pellucida after fertilization were allowed to spontaneously adhere to the incubation dish following transfer (removal) of the embryo. (rti.org)
  • Human cumulus granulosa cell gene expression: a predictor of fertilization and embryo selection in women undergoing IVF. (springermedizin.de)
  • To investigate whether cumulus cell removal after a 3 h co-incubation of gametes can affect the outcomes of in vitro fertilization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This layer of cells must be penetrated by spermatozoa for fertilization to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a part of the process of in vitro fertilization, gene expression profiling of cumulus cells can be performed to estimate oocyte quality and the efficiency of an ovarian hyperstimulation protocol, and may indirectly predict oocyte aneuploidy, embryo development and pregnancy outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • from regulation of cellular "house-keeping" such as cell cycle progression and cellular metabolism, to regulation of developmental processes such as fertilization, activation of zygotic transcription, and formation of body axes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of the cumulus cells on in vitro fertilization (IVF) in cattle was evaluated. (elsevier.com)
  • This includes progression of the meiotic cell cycle and development of the ability to undergo the release of calcium that activates development at fertilization. (springer.com)
  • MMP9 is specifically expressed only in granulosa, whereas MMP2 is more expressed in cumulus and granulosa cells in cases of reduced ovarian response and decreased fertilization rate. (mendeley.com)
  • Upon fertilization sperm must first penetrate a layer of cumulus cells that surrounds the egg before reaching the zona pellucida. (uniprot.org)
  • Fertilization in flowering plants involves two sperm cells and two female gametes, the egg cell and the central cell, progenitors of the embryo and the endosperm, respectively. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Previous studies demonstrated that TLRs may be important for the cumulus-oocyte complex expansion and fertilization. (medworm.com)
  • In vitro fertilization was a propagative option if the germ cells of the male were healthy and there was an eligible female. (redorbit.com)
  • Thus females have a different approach to processing germ cells for fertilization - a process known as oogenesis (see figure). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Type of gonadotropin during controlled ovarian stimulation affects the endocrine profile in follicular fluid and apoptosis rate in cumulus cells. (nih.gov)
  • To determine whether the type of gonadotropin affects the secretion of oocyte-specific factors, the endocrine pattern in follicular fluid, and the apoptosis rate in cumulus cells. (nih.gov)
  • Influence of follicular fluid and cumulus cells on oocyte quality: clinical implications Da Broi, M. (deepdyve.com)
  • Both cumulus cells (CCs) and follicular fluid (FF) are critical determinants for oocyte quality. (deepdyve.com)
  • In this prospective study, follicular fluid (FF) steroid levels (estradiol, testosterone, progesterone) and cumulus cell (CC) gene expression related to oocyte quality ( HAS2, PTGS2, GREM1 ) were compared between 23 BC patients undergoing Let-COH for FP and 24 infertile patients undergoing conventional COH without letrozole. (springer.com)
  • To investigate the effect of human cumulus cell condition medium (hCCCM) on the IVM of immature mouse oocytes and morphology. (who.int)
  • In addition, we assessed in those OCC changes in morphology of cumulus cells and assembly of F-actin microfilaments, which are necessary for expansion to occur. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cumulus cells of the large OCC underwent essential changes of their morphology and extensive rearrangement of F-actin microfilaments following stimulation with EGF. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Differential gene expression in cumulus cells associated with a euploid embryo resulting in live birth and its sibling euploid embryo without sustained implantation using next-generation RNA sequencing (RNAseq). (fertstertdialog.com)
  • The latter undergo a period of proliferation and mucification known as cumulus expansion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the ovary, gonadotrophins and local growth factors have been shown to be regulators of granulosa cell apoptosis. (biologists.org)
  • In the ovary, the paracrine interactions between the oocyte and surrounded granulosa cells are critical for optimal oocyte quality and embryonic development. (mdpi.com)
  • So blocking cumulus expansion and trapping the oocyte in the ovary could be an attractive and novel target for contraceptive development. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated the effects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on the expression of TLRs in cumulus cells by using western-blot and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses. (medworm.com)
  • In a female fetus, in the absence of male sex hormones, the 'indifferent' gonad develops into an ovary and the primordial germ cells begin to divide by a process of mitosis giving rise to oogonia (compare spermatogonia in the testes). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The present study was conducted to characterize further the mechanisms of leptin action on oocytes and the role of cumulus cells (CCs) in this context. (las.ac.cn)
  • However, the removal of cumulus cells from oocytes or zygotes at various stages of development is inevitable for some embryo manipulation techniques. (bioscientifica.com)
  • A statistically significant association was found between the degree of apoptosis in cumulus cells and the type of gonadotropin. (nih.gov)
  • The substance 10-gingerol induces apoptosis in cumulus cells by inhibiting HTR1A functions and inactivating GSK3B and AKT-1. (uin-malang.ac.id)
  • 9. Doetschman, T., Gene transfer in embryonic stem cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • One exciting area would be to combine cloning with another of the big biological announcements of 1998, the isolation of human embryonic stem cells. (newscientist.com)
  • MicroRNAs: new candidates for the regulation of the human cumulus-oocyte complex," Human Reproduction , vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 3038-3049, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Ovarian folliculogenesis has been studied as a model of hormonal regulation of development and differentiation, cell death, and cell-cell communication. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In addition to gonadotropins from the pituitary and follicular paracrine factors, oocyte secreted factors have been shown to play critical roles in the regulation of follicular cell functions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. (genecards.org)
  • Plays an important role in the regulation of cell survival, cell division, angiogenesis, cell differentiation and cell migration. (abcam.com)
  • This study evaluated the meiotic competence of buffalo oocytes with different layers of cumulus cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • After IVM, cumulus cells were removed from oocytes using 3 mg/mL hyaluronidase, fixed in 3% glutaraldehyde, stained with DAPI and evaluated for meiotic competence. (bvsalud.org)
  • These results suggest that buffalo oocytes with intact layers of cumulus cells show better IVM rates than oocytes without cumulus cells and the co-culture of poor quality oocytes with cumulus cells improves their meiotic competence. (bvsalud.org)
  • or == 3 layers of cumulus cells, b) 1-2 layers of cumulus cells and oocytes with partial remnants or no cumulus cells to be cocultured c) with or d) without cumulus cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Scriptaid can be used to improve the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer in ovine. (rroij.com)
  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in mammals is an assisted reproductive technique that can produce a large number of genetically identical valuable offspring. (rroij.com)
  • Another option relies on somatic-cell nuclear transfer ( SCNT ) which creates a cloned animal by replacing an oocyte's nucleus with an adult somatic cell. (redorbit.com)
  • Cumulus migration is dependent on the Hh-signaling pathway ( Akiyama-Oda and Oda, 2010 ) and it was shown that the knockdown of components of this signaling pathway results in cumulus migration defects and in the ectopic opening of the germ-disc ( Akiyama-Oda and Oda, 2010 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Furthermore, early cumulus cell removal can also reduce the required co-incubation time between sperm and oocytes, and help eliminate degradation products from granulosa cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 0.05) higher in cumulus-intact than in cumulus-free oocytes in all sperm concentrations (25% (17/68) vs. 10% (4/41), 29% (20/69) vs. 16% (11/68) and 31% (21/67) vs. 19% (14/73) respectively). (elsevier.com)
  • When oocytes with or without cumulus cells were inseminated by a concentration of (2.0-3.0) × 10 6 spermatozoa ml -1 , the penetration rate was almost completed at 12 h after insemination in cumulus-intact oocytes (83%, 80/96), whereas the sperm penentration was delayed in cumulus-free oocytes (64%, 42/66). (elsevier.com)
  • These results indicate that the cumulus cells participated in the mechanisms of bovine sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction and that the polyspermy was directly affected by the number of capacitated and acrosome reacting sperm on the oocyte surface. (elsevier.com)
  • Following a surge of luteinizing hormone (LH), an oocyte (immature egg cell) will be released into the uterine tube, where it will then be available to be fertilized by a male's sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Locating and identifying sperm cell(s) in human testicular biopsy samples is labor intensive and time consuming. (stanford.edu)
  • Animal oocytes and sperm cells are provided for ICSI practice. (ivf.net)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressing EF showed high self-renewal capacity and maintained an undifferentiated state despite high apoptosis. (nature.com)
  • Despite EF-induced toxicity, murine or human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) tolerate expression, but only murine EF-transduced MSC displayed sarcoma formation upon transplantation in immunocompromised mice. (nature.com)
  • In the house spider Achaearanea tepidariorum , which is emerging as a model organism ( Oda and Akiyama-Oda, 2008 ), a cluster of endoderm cells, termed the cumulus mesenchymal (CM) cells, is internalized from the blastopore and migrates on the basal surface of the static germ disc epithelium (see Fig. 1A ) ( Akiyama-Oda and Oda, 2003 ). (biologists.org)
  • In spiders, a group of BMP secreting mesenchymal cells (the cumulus) functions as an organizer of the dorsoventral axis. (elifesciences.org)
  • The mesenchymal cumulus cells are the source of the BMP receptor ligand Decapentaplegic ( Akiyama-Oda and Oda, 2006 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Cells of metazoa display two main phenotypes, the ancestral epithelial state and the recent mesenchymal derivative. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cumulus cells of C57xCBA F1 female mouse were injected into enucleated oocytes, followed by activation in 10 micromol/L strontium chloride for 5 h and subsequent in vitro culture up to the blastocyst stage. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Transcriptome profiling of cumulus cells from sibling oocytes for correlation with live birth after euploid blastocyst transfer. (fertstertdialog.com)
  • The innermost layer of these cells is the corona radiata. (wikipedia.org)
  • By this time, the oocyte has completed meiosis I , yielding two cells: the larger secondary oocyte that contains all of the cytoplasmic material and a smaller, inactive first polar body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Half of the chromosomes but almost all of the cellular substance (cytoplasm) goes to one cell, which becomes the secondary oocyte. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Consistently, we showed that suppression of IMD/ADM2 signaling in growing rat ovaries in vivo leads to oocyte atresia and aberrant cell cycle progression in follicular cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For this study, the granulosa cells, cumulus cells and the oocytes were collected from ovaries obtained from slaughterhouse. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we show that Etv5 and Etv4 are expressed in mouse ovaries in granulosa and cumulus cells during folliculogenesis. (wustl.edu)
  • Association of creatin kinase B and peroxiredoxin 2 expression with age and embryo quality in cumulus cells," Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics , vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 629-639, 2010. (hindawi.com)