Cumulus Cells: The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15: A protein that plays a role in GRANULOSA CELLS where it regulates folliculogenesis. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein 15 are linked to reproductive abnormalities such as PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.Growth Differentiation Factor 9: A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.Granulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).In Vitro Oocyte Maturation Techniques: Methods used to induce premature oocytes, that are maintained in tissue culture, to progress through developmental stages including to a stage that is competent to undergo FERTILIZATION.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Follicular Fluid: The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.Sperm-Ovum Interactions: Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.Cloning, Organism: The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Hyaluronoglucosaminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Embryo Culture Techniques: The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.Phosphofructokinase-1, Type C: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. In the humans, 6-phosphofructose-1-kinase isozyme C is found in platelets, brain, heart, kidney, colon and testis. This isozyme C can exist as the homotetramer of C subunits (P subunits), or heterotetramer of C type and L type subunits.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Zona Pellucida: A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.TGF-beta Superfamily Proteins: A large family of cell regulatory proteins which are structurally related to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. The superfamily is subdivided into at least three related protein families: BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS; GROWTH DIFFERENTIATION FACTORS; and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTORS.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Nuclear Transfer Techniques: Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Gonadotropins, Equine: Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.Cleavage Stage, Ovum: The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Oocyte Retrieval: Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.Heptanol: A colorless liquid with a fragrant odor. It is used as an intermediate, solvent and in cosmetics.Cysteamine: A mercaptoethylamine compound that is endogenously derived from the COENZYME A degradative pathway. The fact that cysteamine is readily transported into LYSOSOMES where it reacts with CYSTINE to form cysteine-cysteamine disulfide and CYSTEINE has led to its use in CYSTINE DEPLETING AGENTS for the treatment of CYSTINOSIS.Connexin 43: A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Cryoprotective Agents: Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.Receptors, LH: Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Buffaloes: Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.Gap Junctions: Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.Paracrine Communication: Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Parthenogenesis: A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Receptors, FSH: Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Ectogenesis: Embryonic and fetal development that takes place in an artificial environment in vitro.Insemination: The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14: A 38-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase that is abundantly expressed in a broad variety of cell types. It is involved in the regulation of cellular stress responses as well as the control of proliferation and survival of many cell types. The kinase activity of the enzyme is inhibited by the pyridinyl-imidazole compound SB 203580.Creatine Kinase, BB Form: A form of creatine kinase found in the BRAIN.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Ethylene Glycol: A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Morula: An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Vitrification: The transformation of a liquid to a glassy solid i.e., without the formation of crystals during the cooling process.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Butadienes: Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Luteinization: Formation of CORPUS LUTEUM. This process includes capillary invasion of the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE, hypertrophy of the GRANULOSA CELLS and the THECA CELLS, and the production of PROGESTERONE. Luteinization is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Mice, Inbred ICRGene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Follistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.Follicular Atresia: The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sperm Motility: Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.Alpha-Globulins: Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Shrews

Impact of anisosmotic conditions on structural and functional integrity of cumulus-oocyte complexes at the germinal vesicle stage in the domestic cat. (1/273)

During cryopreservation, the immature oocyte is subjected to anisosmotic conditions potentially impairing subsequent nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation in vitro. In preparation for cryopreservation protocols and to characterize osmotic tolerance, cat cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage were exposed for 15 min to sucrose solutions ranging from 100 to 2,000 mOsm and then examined for structural integrity and developmental competence in vitro. Osmolarities > or =200 and < or =750 mOsm had no effect on incidence of oocyte nuclear maturation, fertilization success, and blastocyst formation compared to control COC (exposed to 290 mOsm). This relatively high osmotic tolerance of the immature cat oocyte appeared to arise from a remarkable stability of the GV chromatin structure as well as plasticity in mitochondrial distribution, membrane integrity, and ability to maintain cumulus-oocyte communications. Osmolarities <200 mOsm only damaged cumulus cell membrane integrity, which contributed to poor nuclear maturation but ultimately had no adverse effect on blastocyst formation in vitro. Osmolarities >750 mOsm compromised nuclear maturation and blastocyst formation in vitro via disruption of cumulus-oocyte communications, an effect that could be mitigated through 1,500 mOsm by adding cytochalasin B to the hyperosmotic solutions. These results (1) demonstrate, for the first time, the expansive osmotic tolerance of the immature cat oocyte, (2) characterize the fundamental role of cumulus-oocyte communications when tolerance limits are exceeded, and (3) reveal an interesting hyperosmotic tolerance of the immature oocyte that can be increased two-fold by supplementation with cytochalasin B.  (+info)

Reduction of connexin 43 in human cumulus cells yields good embryo competence during ICSI. (2/273)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to predict developmental competence of human oocytes during ICSI via analysis of connexin 43 (Cx43) in cumulus cells surrounding mature oocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human cumulus cells were manually separated from the oocyte-cumulus complex under a microscope. Cx43 mRNA was expressed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) measurement in cumulus cells. RESULTS: There was no significant relationship between expression of Cx43 and fertilisation or cleavage rate. However, Cx43 expression was lower in the good morphology group (blastomeres>7 cells with fragmentation<10% on day 3) when compared to the other groups (p=0.035). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that full reduction of Cx43 expression on cumulus cells at the time of oocyte collection during ICSI is essential for developmental competence of human oocytes.  (+info)

Altered composition of the cumulus-oocyte complex matrix during in vitro maturation of oocytes. (3/273)

BACKGROUND: In vitro maturation (IVM) of mammalian oocytes has potential health benefits for patients undergoing assisted reproduction as an alternative to gonadotrophin treatment. This procedure is also useful for studying the process of oocyte and early embryo development. However, oocytes undergoing IVM have much lower competence than in vivo matured oocytes. Efforts to optimize IVM success have focused on replicating in vivo timing, hormonal milieu and cumulus cell responses associated with maturing oocytes. We have previously identified two extracellular matrix proteins, the protease Adamts1 and hyaluronan-binding proteoglycan Versican, produced by mural granulosa cells that selectively incorporate into the periovulatory cumulus-oocyte complex (COC). METHODS: Murine COC were cultured in the presence of epidermal growth factor and/or FSH. mRNA and protein were measured by real time PCR and Western blot and compared to in vivo derived COC. RESULTS: COCs from mice that underwent IVM for 6 or 20 h in the presence of epidermal growth factor, FSH or in combination had a > 10-fold reduction in mRNA (P < 0.05) for Adamts1 and Vcan when compared with in vivo matured COCs. Hyaluronan synthase 2 expression was up-regulated up to 8-fold (P < 0.05) over the unstimulated control, demonstrating successful induction of cumulus gene expression by the IVM conditions. While in vivo matured COCs showed abundant levels of these proteins, COCs that underwent IVM had neither detectable Adamts1, nor intact or Adamts1-cleaved Vcan. Human cumulus and granulosa cells matured in vivo contained abundant mRNA for Adamts1 and Vcan, demonstrating the potential relevance to human IVM. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that extensively altered COC matrix composition is present during IVM and may contribute to the observed poorer competence of the derived oocytes.  (+info)

Exogenous growth differentiation factor 9 in oocyte maturation media enhances subsequent embryo development and fetal viability in mice. (4/273)

BACKGROUND: Successful oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) would eliminate the need for hormonal stimulation used in assisted reproduction techniques. Unfortunately, oocytes matured in vitro have compromised developmental competence possibly due to disrupted oocyte-cumulus communication resulting from inappropriate levels of oocyte-secreted factors such as growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9). Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous GDF9 during IVM of mouse oocytes on development and subsequent fetal viability. METHODS: Cumulus-oocyte complexes from pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin primed mice were cultured with or without 200 ng/ml exogenous recombinant GDF9, 50 mIU/ml FSH and 10 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF). After 18 h, cumulus expansion was scored and oocytes were fertilized in vitro. Cleavage, blastocyst development, blastocyst total, inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm cell numbers were assessed. Viability of embryos was assessed by transfer to recipient females and pregnancy outcome determined at day 15. RESULTS: Oocytes matured with exogenous GDF9 in the presence of FSH and EGF had higher rates of development, percentage of hatching blastocyst and blastocyst total and ICM cell numbers (all P < 0.05). Although implantation rate and fetal and placental weights were not affected, the number of viable fetuses at day 15 was increased with exogenous GDF9. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous GDF9 during IVM improved embryo development and fetal viability and provides a promising approach for human IVM.  (+info)

Gene silencing of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA by RNA interference in bovine cumulus-granulosa cells. (5/273)

Inhibition of specific gene expression using RNA interference (RNAi) is a valuable tool for functional analysis of a target gene. However, there is little information available concerning RNAi for analysis of gene function in relation to the reproductive physiology of follicular cells in ruminants. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the interfering effect of small interference RNA (siRNA) on expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) mRNA and prostagrandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) production in bovine cumulus-granulosa (CG) cells. Bovine CG cells were collected from aspirated follicles and cultured. After reaching confluency, two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, to investigate the effective concentration of siRNA, 0, 100, 250 and 500 pM of Cox-2 siRNA was introduced into the CG cells, respectively. After 24 h, the amount of Cox-2 mRNA expression was measured by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. In experiment 2, to investigate the time required for effective interference of siRNA and Cox-2 activity, 250 pM siRNA was introduced for 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h. After culture, the amount of Cox-2 mRNA expression was measured and the culture medium was collected to determine the PGF(2alpha) concentration by enzyme immunoassay. The Cox-2 mRNA expression was not affected by introduction of 100 pM siRNA into CG cells for 24 h, but 250 and 500 pM Cox-2 siRNA significantly reduced the Cox-2 mRNA expression. Moreover, the significant suppressive effect of 250 pM siRNA was observed 6 h after introduction, and the reduction of mRNA expression by RNAi became more obvious over 12 h. On the other hand, the PGF(2alpha) concentration in the culture medium was not significantly different 12 h after siRNA introduction; however, the PGF(2alpha) concentration 24 h after siRNA introduction was significantly decreased compared with the control at the same time point. These results suggest that gene silencing of Cox-2 with siRNA is capable of analyzing the function and expression of specific genes in bovine CG cells.  (+info)

Proteolytic activity of the 26S proteasome is required for the meiotic resumption, germinal vesicle breakdown, and cumulus expansion of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes matured in vitro. (6/273)

The resumption of oocyte meiosis in mammals encompasses the landmark event of oocyte germinal vesicle (GV) breakdown (GVBD), accompanied by the modification of cell-to-cell communication and adhesion between the oocyte and surrounding cumulus cells. The concomitant cumulus expansion relies on microfilament-cytoskeletal remodeling and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. We hypothesized that this multifaceted remodeling event requires substrate-specific proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP). We evaluated meiotic progression, cytoskeletal dynamics, and the production of cumulus ECM in porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) cultured with or without 10-200 microM MG132, a specific proteasomal inhibitor, for the first 22 h of in vitro maturation, followed by 22 h of culture with or without MG132. Treatment with 10 microM MG132 arrested 28.4% of oocytes in GV stage (vs. 1.3% in control), 43.1% in prometaphase I, and 16.2% in metaphase I, whereas 83.7% of control ova reached metaphase II (0% of MG132 reached metaphase II). The proportion of GV-stage ova increased progressively to >90% with increased concentration of MG132 (20-200 microM). Furthermore, MG132 blocked the extrusion of the first polar body and degradation of F-actin-rich transzonal projections (TZP) interconnecting cumulus cells with the oocyte. The microfilament disruptor cytochalasin E (CE) prevented cumulus expansion but accelerated the breakdown of TZPs. Ova treated with a combination of 10 microM MG132 and 10 microM CE underwent GVBD, despite the inhibition of proteasomal activity. However, 90.0% of cumulus-free ova treated with 10 microM MG132 remained in GV stage, compared with 16.7% GV ova in control. Cumulus expansion, retention of hyaluronic acid, and the deposition of cumulus ECM relying on the covalent transfer of heavy chains of inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor (IalphaI) were also inhibited by MG132. Cumulus expansion in control COCs was accompanied by the degradation of ubiquitin-C-terminal hydrolase L3, an important regulator of UPP. RAC1, a UPP-controlled regulator of actin polymerization was maintained at steady levels throughout cumulus expansion. We conclude that proteasomal proteolysis has multiple functions in the progression of oocyte meiosis beyond GV and metaphase I stage, polar body extrusion, and cumulus expansion.  (+info)

Gene expression in human cumulus cells: one approach to oocyte competence. (7/273)

BACKGROUND: Dialogue between the oocyte and cumulus cells is essential for oocyte maturation. A prospective laboratory research project was designed to evaluate transcription of specific genes in cumulus cells harvested before intracytoplasmic sperm injection from pre-ovulatory follicles, according to individual oocyte nuclear maturity and developmental competence. Genes were chosen because their expression was induced by the LH peak [Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein (STAR), Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 or PTGS2), Amphiregulin (AREG)] or because they were involved in oocyte lipidic metabolism [Stearoyl-Coenzyme A Desaturase 1 and 5 (SCD1 and SCD5)] or in gap-junctions [Connexin 43 (CX43 or GJA1)]. METHODS: mRNA levels in cumulus cells were assessed by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Expression levels of all genes investigated, except Cx43, were increased after resumption of meiosis. Nuclear maturation was thus associated with increased expression of STAR, COX2, AREG, SCD1 and SCD5 by cumulus cells. When considering only cumulus associated with metaphase II oocytes, gene expression was independent of morphological status at Day 2. In contrast, transcript levels were lower and distributed over a narrower range in cumulus enclosing oocytes achieving blastocyst development at Day 5/6 than in cumulus enclosing oocytes unable to develop beyond the embryo stage. CONCLUSION: Further developmental potential from embryo to blastocyst stage was associated with lower expression in a narrow range for these genes.  (+info)

The protein profile of mouse mature cumulus-oocyte complex. (8/273)

In mammals, the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) is the main component of ovarian follicles. Bi-directional communication between oocytes and surrounding cumulus granulosa cells is essential for the development of oocytes and ovarian follicles. In this study, we performed proteomic profiling of mouse mature COC, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. A total of 259 protein spots were identified, which correspond to 156 individual proteins. We also discovered some protein families, which may play important roles in ovarian follicular development. Immunostaining was conducted to determine the subcellular localization of specific proteins from selected protein families of interest, and to examine their expression patterns during follicle development. These data provide valuable information for future studies to identify proteins involved in ovarian follicular development and related reproductive abnormalities.  (+info)

In bovine oocytes, the resumption of meiosis is characterized by the breakdown of the germinal vesicle (GVBD). When cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) are cultured in-vitro in the presence of gonadotropins, GVBD is characterized by an initial inhibitory phase, which is followed by an acceleration in the rate of GVBD. An initial transcriptional event is required for gonadotropin-induced in-vitro maturation. The objectives of this thesis were: 1) to define the time course required for transcriptional initiation in bovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs); 2) to determine the pattern of expression for Nr4A1 and Egr1 mRNAs in bovine COCs; and 3) to reduce the expression of Nr4A1 mRNA expression to determine its effect on oocyte maturation. Bovine COCs were cultured in the presence follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) alone or FSH with the transcriptional inhibitor, 5,6-dichloro-1-B-Dribofuranosylbenzamidazole (DRB), in order to refine the time course required for transcription initiation and to determine ...
Comparison of Gene Expression between Cumulus Oocyte Complexes and Naked Oocytes by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization in Swine - Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH);Gene Expression;Cumulus Cells, Porcine;
Thousands of circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been recently discovered in cumulus cells and oocytes from several species. However, the expression and function of circRNA during porcine oocyte meiotic maturation have been never examined. Here, we separately identified 7,067 and 637 circRNAs in both cumulus cells and oocytes via deep sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Further analysis revealed that a faction of circRNAs is differentially expressed (DE) in a developmental stage-specific manner. The host genes of DE circRNAs are markedly enriched to multiple signaling pathways associated with cumulus cell function and oocyte maturation. Additionally, most DE circRNAs harbor several miRNA targets, suggesting that these DE circRNAs potentially act as miRNA sponge. Importantly, we found that maternal circARMC4 knockdown by siRNA microinjection caused a severely impaired chromosome alignment, and significantly inhibited first polar body extrusion and early embryo development. Taken together, these
The close relationship between cumulus cell function and oocyte developmental competence indicates that analysis of cumulus gene expression is a potential non-invasive method to aid embryo selection and IVF outcome. Cumulus was isolated from 674 oocytes from 75 women undergoing ICSI and gene expression analysed by quantitative RT-PCR. Cumulus expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2) was higher with mature oocytes, whereas brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was lower when fertilisation was normal. Expression levels of gremlin (GREM1) and BDNF were weak positive and negative predictors of embryo quality respectively. Ranking of GREM1 expression within cohorts of oocytes showed that oocytes associated with the highest GREM1 expression were more likely to be transferred or cryopreserved than discarded (49 vs 33%, P ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exposing bovine oocytes to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in vivo and in vitro on early embryo development. In experiment 1, cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs, n = 700/group) were challenged with 0, 0.1, 1.0 or 5.0 μg/mL of LPS during in vitro maturation (IVM). Later, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) were performed. In experiment 2, COCs (n = 200/group) matured and in vitro fertilized without LPS were subjected to IVC with the same doses of LPS from experiment 1. In experiment 3, heifers received two injections of saline solution (n = 8) or 0.5 μg/kg of LPS (n = 8) 24 h apart, and 3 days later, COCs were recovered and submitted to IVM, IVF, and IVC. In experiments 1 and 3, the expression of TLR4, TNF, AREG and EREG genes in cumulus cells was evaluated. Exposure to 1 and 5 μg/mL of LPS during IVM decreased nuclear maturation (39.4 and 39.6%, respectively) compared with control (63.6%, P , 0.05). Despite that, no effect on ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exposing bovine oocytes to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in vivo and in vitro on early embryo development. In experiment 1, cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs, n = 700/group) were challenged with 0, 0.1, 1.0 or 5.0 μg/mL of LPS during in vitro maturation (IVM). Later, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) were performed. In experiment 2, COCs (n = 200/group) matured and in vitro fertilized without LPS were subjected to IVC with the same doses of LPS from experiment 1. In experiment 3, heifers received two injections of saline solution (n = 8) or 0.5 μg/kg of LPS (n = 8) 24 h apart, and 3 days later, COCs were recovered and submitted to IVM, IVF, and IVC. In experiments 1 and 3, the expression of TLR4, TNF, AREG and EREG genes in cumulus cells was evaluated. Exposure to 1 and 5 μg/mL of LPS during IVM decreased nuclear maturation (39.4 and 39.6%, respectively) compared with control (63.6%, P , 0.05). Despite that, no effect on ...
The objective of the present study was to investigate the cumulus expansions of Nili Ravi buffalo oocytes during cultured in TCM-199 supplemented with 2 μg/ml oestradiol (E(2)), 0.05 IU/ml recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (rhFSH), 2IU/ml human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), and 0.12 IU/ml insulin (I). The cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) were collected from 2-8mm follicles from local abattoir ovaries. Supplementation of medium with single hormones showed significant (P,0.0001) increase in mean diameter of COCs with rhFSH except E(2), hCG and insulin after 24 hours compared to the increase in the mean diameter of COCs matured in TCM-199 without any hormonal supplementation ...
ASICS GEL-CUMULUS 19 rouge/noir, GEL CUMULUS 19 HOMME La gel cumulus 19 est la chausse de haute performance idéal pour les coureurs de demi-fond et de fond. Cette nouvelle version de la gel cumulus est faite pour une course sur route quelle que soit la cadence.
Association between the proportion of dominant follicles and oocyte developmental competence. Li, Yi; Li, Rui-Qi; Ou, Song-Bang; Ren, Ling; Zhang, Ning-Feng; Wei, Li-Na; Zhang, Qing-Xue; Yang, Dong-Zi // Journal of Assisted Reproduction & Genetics;Dec2014, Vol. 31 Issue 12, p1599 Purpose: To explore the optimal timing for hCG triggering by investigating the impact of different proportion of dominant follicles on the oocyte developmental competence. Methods: One hundred ninety-eight infertile women were divided into three groups according to the proportion of dominant... ...
We in this study have been able to locate the cumulus in 94.6% of the cases in conception cycles and in 53% of non-conception cycles by surface rendering [Table
See 5 photos from 433 visitors about man bags, bag shop, and staff. They have a good range of bags that are both functional and fashionable. Ranging...
Pursuant to FCC Amends Section 73.1216 of the Commissions Rules, the following information and rules links pertain to specific Cumulus corporate contesting run on this and other Cumulus stations.. Pick Your Pearl Jam ...
We investigated the effect mouse cumulus cells (mCCs) on the in vitro maturation (IVM) and developmental potential of bovine denuded germinal vesicle oocytes (DOs). Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), DOs and DOs cocultured with either mCCs (DOs + mCCs) or bovine cumulus cells (bCCs; DOs + bCCs) were subjected to IVM. The meiosis II (MII) rates of DOs, glutathione (GSH) contents, zona pellucida (ZP) hardening and parthenogenetic blastocyst rates of MII oocytes were determined. The relative expression levels of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP-15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) in MII oocytes were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). mCCs significantly increased the MII rate of DOs from 53.5 ± 3.58% to 69.67 ± 4.72% (p , 0.05) but had no effect on the GSH content (2.17 ± 0.31 pmol/oocyte with mCCs, 2.14 ± 0.53 pmol/oocyte without mCCs). For the DOs + mCCs group, the BMP-15 and GDF-9 expression levels were significantly higher and the ZP ...
Infertility is "a disease" that affects the reproductive apparatus making it unable to carry out a successful clinical pregnancy after at least one year of regular and unprotected intercourse [1]. The worldwide prevalence of this disease keeps rising and is estimated to 1 out of 6 couples of reproductive age. Consequently, an increase need for assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to help couples achieving their parenthood project has been recorded. It is important to highlight that regardless of the infertility cause, the oocyte quality is recognized as the main cornerstone amongst others of any successful ART treatment [2]. Consequently, numerous studies focused on the criteria allowing an efficient selection of high-quality oocytes, named also competent oocytes, for assisted reproduction procedure using both human and animal models. Such oocyte competence is defined as its ability to properly achieve full maturation at nuclear, cytoplasmic and molecular levels, to achieve successful steps ...
Structure of the cumulus matrix and zona pellucida in the golden hamster: a new view of sperm interaction with oocyte-associated extracellular matrices.
Complete denudation of oocytes before slush nitrogen vitrification does not influence survival rates but positively affects oocyte meiotic spindle competence. These data support the hypothesis that cumulus cells during vitrification represent an obstacle to cryoprotectant penetration more than having a protective role for the oocyte.. ...
Oocytes are generally recovered as a cumulus-oocyte complex, an oocyte surrounded by the cumulus cells that nourish it, dislodged from the follicle wall. Initially as a follicle grows, the cumulus cells are tightly adhered to the follicle wall and the mass of cells itself is very dense; the cells are very close together. As the follicle grows and becomes a dominant follicle the cumulus mass starts to expand as the cells secrete an extracellular matrix that spreads them apart. Nearing ovulation this expansion makes the attachment to the follicle wall weaker and weaker so that during ovulation the oocyte can be swept from the follicle into the oviduct. The loosening of the attachment makes the oocyte somewhat easier to recover nearing ovulation, although as the follicle enlarges it is more difficult to create the turbulence necessary to dislodge the oocyte. For these reasons, aspiration of the immature follicles with their firmly attached cumulus-oocyte complex, tend to have the highest recovery ...
Oocytes are generally recovered as a cumulus-oocyte complex, an oocyte surrounded by the cumulus cells that nourish it, dislodged from the follicle wall. Initially as a follicle grows, the cumulus cells are tightly adhered to the follicle wall and the mass of cells itself is very dense; the cells are very close together. As the follicle grows and becomes a dominant follicle the cumulus mass starts to expand as the cells secrete an extracellular matrix that spreads them apart. Nearing ovulation this expansion makes the attachment to the follicle wall weaker and weaker so that during ovulation the oocyte can be swept from the follicle into the oviduct. The loosening of the attachment makes the oocyte somewhat easier to recover nearing ovulation, although as the follicle enlarges it is more difficult to create the turbulence necessary to dislodge the oocyte. For these reasons, aspiration of the immature follicles with their firmly attached cumulus-oocyte complex, tend to have the highest recovery ...
Between 1996 and 2000 79 Belgian blue donor cows were submitted to OPU-IVF. They all had a history in classical embryo transfer programs with disappointing results. Two different in vitro embryo production protocols were used. Between 1996 and 1998 (period A), oocytes were matured in M199 and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Foetal Calf Serum (FCS) were added. Subsequently, the oocytes were cultured in a granulosa co-culture system in a Synthetic Oviduct Fluid (SOF) medium. From 1998 until 2000 (Period B), M199, FCS, equine chorionic gonatrophin (eCG) and a granulosa cell co-culture were used for in vitro maturation.Zygotes were subsequently cultured in SOF with a co-culture of bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOEC). During period A, 531 OPU-IVF sessions were performed, collecting 2111 cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs), of which 928 (44 %) were of good morphological quality. The In vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF) and culture (IVC) resulted in 241 transferable embryos. When fresh ...
Involved in sperm-egg adhesion. Upon fertilization sperm must first penetrate a layer of cumulus cells that surrounds the egg before reaching the zona pellucida. The cumulus cells are embedded in a matrix containing hyaluronic acid which is formed prior to ovulation. This protein aids in penetrating the layer of cumulus cells by digesting hyaluronic acid (By similarity).
BACKGROUND: Oocytes are the female gametes which establish the program of life after fertilization. Interactions between oocyte and the surrounding cumulus cells at germinal vesicle (GV) stage are considered essential for ...
BACKGROUND: Oocytes are the female gametes which establish the program of life after fertilization. Interactions between oocyte and the surrounding cumulus cells at germinal vesicle (GV) stage are considered essential for ...
Its the kind of conservative media story only conservatives understand. The latest numbers are out for Michael Savages radio show. Recall that Savage was a key player in the battle between Sean Hannity and Cumulus radio. A battle that had an exasperated Hannity finally firing Cumulus, as reported here in NewsBusters at the time. But not before Savage, whom Cumulus had in the
Vettese, S., Thompson, P. & Allan, D. (2017). A study of the multi generational relationship with making through mediated designing in collaborative, digital environments: implications for learning and open access fabrication. In Cumulus Hong Kong 2016, Cumulus Working Papers, Open Design for E-very-thing, 23 - 30. ISBN 9789526000800. ...
Today will be a special one in the desert. Cumulus bases are going to be really LOW for summer, maybe only 3-4 kft above the ground, and likely warmer than 15 C (50 F). Maybe 50 F doesnt sound special, but it is. A base temperature of summer clouds that warm is rarely observed here. And with that, and all the posts here about the temperatures that ice forms (around -10 C, 14 F) are out the window. Ice will form at much higher temperatures than usual.. This is because on a day when the Cumulus bases are that warm, rain forms by collisions between droplets before clouds even reach the -5 C (23 F) level, the highest temperature at which Ma Nature can produce ice. Rain mgiht even form in our clouds today even before the freezing level itself!. This is so exciting for an Arizonan who has studied ice-in-clouds development over the years because today ice will form in clouds around the -5 to -10 C level, and the mechanism of Mssrs Hallett and Mossop will be heavily involved as well as other lesser ...
2. Explain how clouds are made. Describe the different kinds of clouds-stratus, cumulus, cumulonimbus, and cirrus-and what kind of weather can be associated with these cloud types ...
Treatment of in vitro matured bovine oocytes with colcemid results in a membrane protrusion that contains maternal chromosomes, which can be easily removed by aspiration. Four experiments were designed to evaluate the overall and temporal effects of conditioned medium (CM) by bovine cumulus cells on development of nuclear transfer (NT) bovine embryos and to examine the chromosomal composition and allocation of inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) of the subsequent blastocysts. The nuclear transfer embryos were cultured in various CR1aa media conditioned by preculture with bovine cumulus cells. Development to the blastocyst stage in BSA-containing CM (BCM) and serum-containing CM (SCM) were similar to co-culture group (24-30%). The 24 hr-conditioned BCM yielded higher blastocyst development than 48 and 72 hr-conditioned BCM. Temporary exposure of embryos to BCM and SCM followed by CR1aa was also studied. Morula and blastocyst development were not different among the groups cultured in BCM for 72,
Ovarian stimulation plays a pivotal role in assisted reproductive therapies, to increase the number of embryos available for treatment; however, there is no clear consensus from meta-analyses in the literature which, if any, of the preparations in use are superior in terms of clinical outcomes. The aim of this thesis was to examine the effect of common human gonadotrophin preparations with different half lives and LH activity (hMG, rFSH and Pergoveris) on embryo quality and resulting offspring, compared to non- stimulated negative controls and positive PMSG treated controls, using the mouse model. The studies in this thesis indicated that an LH ceiling threshold is evident during folliculogenesis, where the use of long acting LH preparations resulted in higher numbers of fragmented oocytes, absent of cumulus cells (P,0.001), reduced expression of the pro and anti-angiogenic factors, MYHII and PEDF in cumulus cells (P,0.05), increased embryonic developmental arrest (P,0.001) and perturbed IGF2 ...
Bohannon, a Memphis native, joins Cumulus from iHeartMedia-Memphis, where he was most recently Area President. He served iHeartMedia/Clear Channel Radio in various capacities and markets for over 20 years, was previously Market Manager for iHeartMedia-Memphis; Director of Sales for iHeartMedia in Greenville, SC; and Regional Vice President for Clear Channel Radio-Charlotte, NC. Bohannon was also previously Director of Sales for Apex Broadcasting. Bohannon is Board Chair for both The First Tee of Memphis and Junior Achievement of The Mid-South and is a Member of the Board of Directors of The Consortium MMT ...
Low, mid and high cloud cover: Cloud cover at different altitudes. High clouds (8-15 km) like cirrus are less significant for total cloud cover than low (below 4 km) like stratus, cumulus and fog or mid clouds (4-8 km) like alto cumulus and alto stratus ...
The Gel Kayano, Gel Cumulus, and GT 2000 are few shoe models from Asics that basically made a reputation in the operating trade. The adidas name dates again to 1948, deriving from the primary two syll
Selection of the best oocyte for subsequent steps of fertilization and embryo transfer was shown to be the crucial step in human infertility treatment procedure. Oocyte selection using morphological criteria mainly Zona pellucida (ZP) has been the gold standard method in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) clinics, but this selection approach has limitations in terms of accuracy, objectivity and constancy. Recent studies using OMICs-based approaches have allowed the identification of key molecular markers that quantitatively and non-invasively predict the oocyte quality for higher pregnancy rates and efficient infertility treatment. These biomarkers are a valuable reinforcement of the morphological selection criteria widely used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. In this context, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between transcriptomic predictors of oocyte quality found by our group and the conventional morphological parameters of oocyte quality mainly the ZP
Hotel by the beach and shore: Cumulus Pinja, Tampere, Finland - Reservations online or call toll-free at 877-270-9434 - by Best Lodging - BestLodging.com.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like factors [amphiregulin (AREG), betacellulin, and epiregulin] are induced by LH and activate the EGF receptor (ERBB1)/ERK1/2 pathway in granulosa cells and cumulus cells of preovulatory follicles to impact ovulation.
Although in men with HIV it is necessary the use of Assisted Reproductive Techniques, when the problem affects the other member of the couple, this is, the woman, this technique is not always required.. The main inconvenient that has been observed would be a reduction of the fertility in women with HIV, concerning hormones (FSH, Inhibin B and AMH) and ovarian reserve. Not only this, because of the viral infection or as a consequence of the antiretroviral treatment (HAART), the quality of the egg is seriously endangered, so In Vitro Fertilization becomes the best alternative.. Nor in the eggs nor in its escort cells, (cumulus cells) there arent any receptors of the virus. Therefore, the laboratory carries out an embryo free of HIV and the gestation can be attempted safely.. Thanks to the treatments with antiretroviral, once the pregnancy is accomplished, the moment when there has to be a special care to avoid the transmission to the newborn is the moment of the birth. Fortunately, with the ...
Mount McKinley, the highest mountain in North America, with white cumulus clouds floating above in a blue sky on sunny fall morning.
RWBY: Volume 4, Chapter 1: The Next Step. Its been several months since the Fall of Beacon, and the world of Remnant is still recovering. Tensions are high, lives have been lost, and the members of Team RWBY... are divided. Each of our heroines now faces a journey of their own. While some must search inward if they ever hope to move on, others will venture out into the world in search of answers. Alongside the remaining members of Team JNPR, Ruby Rose has begun the long trek to the kingdom of Mistral, but the road ahead is full of surprises. New friends and enemies await, while the threat of an even larger catastrophe draws near.. ...
This study aimed to investigate the developmental competence of ovum pick-up collected oocytes on three stages of the follicular wave: Days 2, 5 and 8. A group of 11 cows was used in successive cycles to perform ovum pick-up on either Day 2, 5 or 8 of an induced follicular wave (three sessions per stage). Follicular waves were initiated by puncturing the dominant follicle and all other follicles sized , or = 5 mm at Days 5-7 of the cycle. The plasma progesterone concentrations did not differ between the days of ovum pick-up: 4.0 +/- 1.8, 5.1 +/- 1.6 and 5.2 +/- 1.7 ng/ml for Days 2, 5 and 8, respectively. The proportion of oocytes with three or more layers of non-expanded cumulus cells was higher for Day 5 than Day 8, while Days 2 and 5 did not significantly differ from each other (85, 96 and 68% of 113, 60 and 101 oocytes for Days 2, 5 and 8, respectively). The proportion of oocytes competent to develop a blastocyst in an in vitro production system was higher for Days 2 and 5 than for Day 8: ...
EmbryoGlue is a culture medium used at the time of embryo transfer to improve the chances of implantation. The "glue" component is a naturally occurring molecule called hyaluronate, which is found in many parts of the body including the cumulus cells surrounding the egg and in the lining of the womb. Hyaluronate may act as a glue to help the embryo implant, or it may improve implantation in some other way including possibly stimulating embryo development. As part of our research programme we are looking at how EmbryoGlue works on the human embryo. There is high quality "gold standard" evidence from a Cochrane review of a number of prospective randomised controlled trials showing that the use of hyaluronate improves success rates. We are pleased to be able to offer EmbryoGlue as part of our routine clinical service as we believe that all patients should benefit from this ...
1. Wilmut, I.; Schnieke, A.E.; McWhir, J.; Kind, A.J.; Campbell, K.H.S. Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells. Nature 1997, 385, 810 813.. 2. Kato, Y.; Tani, T.; Sotomaru, Y.; Kurokawa, K.; Kato, J.; Doguchi, H.; Yasue, H.; Tsunoda, Y. Eight calves cloned from somatic cells of a single adult. Science 1998, 282, 2095 2098.. 3. Wakayama, T.; Perry, A.C.; Zuccotti, M.; Johnson, K.R.; Yanagimachi, R. Full term development of mice from enucleated oocytes injected with cumulus cell nuclei. Nature 1998, 394, 369 374.. 4. Onishi, A.; Iwamoto, M.; Akita, T.; Mikawa, S.; Takeda, K.; Awata, T.; Hanada, H.; Perry, A.C.F. Pig cloning by microinjection of fetal fibroblast nuclei. Science 2000, 289, 1188 1190.. 5. Baguisi, A.; Behboodi, E.; Melican, D.T.; Pollock, J.S.; Destrempes, M.M.; Cammuso, C.; Williams, J.L.; Nims, S.D.; Porter, C.A.; Midura, P.; Palacios, M.J.; Ayres, S.L.; Denniston, R.S.; Hayes, M.L.; Ziomek, C.A.; Meade, H.M.; Godke, R.A.; Gavin, W.G.; Overstrom, E.W.; ...
10 Seasonal Travel RN Jobs - L&D / Mother-Baby / Postpartum Juneau, AK, USA The Travel Nurse Season is here and it shows For the past 5 years, thousands of Nurses just like you have utilized the sites of HealthCare Employment Network to explore a career as a Traveling ...... Apply Now>> ...
Although the importance of oocyte maturation for the achievement of female meiosis has long been recognized, until recently much less was known of the significance of this process in relation to other fundamental developmental events. Studies on chromatin dynamics and integrity have extended our und …
A patient recently asked me to describe what training I had had in IVM. I related what I had done over the last two years to develop our IVM program, but realized that this patients question was really the more difficult one of how to evaluate and compare the programs that perform in vitro maturation.First of all, it is difficult to even find a program experienced in doing in vitro maturation. We have been doing in vitro maturation for only two years, yet I only know of two programs in the United States that have a larger experience than us. In the context of the world, there are a number of programs that I can name, but in the United States, IVM has not yet caught on.United States IVF data reporting (mandated legally and through the Center for Disease Control) does not differentiate between IVM and conventional IVF cycles. There is no standardized reporting method in the United States that provides any information about IVM. (Europe is a bit better.) Different programs use different criteria ...
Berardo, in addition to the numerous wines made by his Bacalh a estate, owns the Caves Alianca brand, has recently bought the Rothschilds share of Quinta do Carmo (to become the sole proprietor of that estate), owns 33% of Sogrape (the humungous firm which makes Mateus Rose and other notable wines), 50% of a Canadian wine company called Colio and hes the majority stockholder in an Australian wine company called Cumulus. And I didnt mention he owns a significant percentage of the prestigious Madeira winery called Henriques and Henriques. We suspect Donald Trump or Bill Gates might appear impoverished in comparison to Joe Berardo ...
The shades of blue within the gold colors are the waves and there appear to be two specific areas. The gravity wave was behind the bores, of which there were two cloud lines. The two areas were spaced roughly ten minutes apart while I was driving 70 mph straight south. The leading edge of the bore was interesting because the roll cloud feature was elevated and their were diffuse cumulus clouds underneath it, almost water fall like ...
Get quotes fast and Choose from 1 clinic(s) offering IVM (In Vitro Maturation) treatment in Bogota Get quotes fast & choose the best with phone numbers, reviews, prices, maps and pictures. | Page 0
An ovarian follicle is a roughly spheroid cellular aggregation set found in the ovaries. It secretes hormones that influence stages of the menstrual cycle. Women begin puberty with about 400,000 follicles, each with the potential to release an egg cell (ovum) at ovulation for fertilization. These eggs are developed once every menstrual cycle. Ovarian follicles are the basic units of female reproductive biology. Each of them contains a single oocyte (immature ovum or egg cell). These structures are periodically initiated to grow and develop, culminating in ovulation of usually a single competent oocyte in humans. They also consist of granulosa cells and theca of follicle. Once a month, one of the ovaries releases a mature egg (ovum), known as an oocyte. The nucleus of such an oocyte is called a germinal vesicle (see picture). Cumulus oophorus is a cluster of cells (called cumulus cells) that surround the oocyte both in the ovarian follicle and after ovulation. It contains numerous granulosa ...
Kishigami and colleagues [19] were the first to report that TSA treatment improves full term development of mouse embryos obtained by transfer of cumulus cell nuclei. This was confirmed the same year by Rybouchkin and colleagues who reported a remarkable and significant 5-fold increase in the efficiency of cloning from cumulus cells with a transient TSA treatment for 10 hours post activation [20]. In their initial work, Rybouchkin and colleagues suggested that increased acetylation of histones after TSA treatment was linked to the improved developmental rates [20]. In the present work, we confirm the reproducibility of the beneficial effects of TSA treatment on long term developmental potential using another mouse strain and different culture conditions, as reflected by a significantly higher birth rate of live pups. In our laboratory, 3.1% of the TSA-treated SCNT embryos developed to term, which is identical to the 3.1% of clones obtained from ES cells [26] and ten times higher than the ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
A large proportion of ores in magmatic sulfide deposits consist of mixtures of cumulus silicate minerals, sulfide liquid, and silicate melt, with characteristic textural relationships that provide essential clues to their origin. Within silicate-sulfide cumulates, there is a range of sulfide abundance in magmatic-textured silicate-sulfide ores between ores with up to about five modal percent sulfides, called "disseminated ores," and "net-textured" (or "matrix") ores containing about 30 to 70 modal percent sulfide forming continuous networks enclosing cumulus silicates. Disseminated ores in cumulates have various textural types relating to the presence or absence of trapped interstitial silicate melt and (rarely) vapor bubbles. Spherical or oblate spherical globules with smooth menisci, as in the Black Swan disseminated ores, are associated with silicate-filled cavities interpreted as amygdales or segregation vesicles. More irregular globules lacking internal differentiation and having partially ...
Comments about Womens ASICS GEL-Excel33 Running Shoe:. I was an avid 260TR lover until Asics discontinued the shoe. The 260TR was a great run/walk shoe as well as a cross trainer. I dont believe Asics has another shoe like it on the market. I developed severe extensor/flexor tendonitis from cross training in my Asics Cumulus shoes so I decided to try the Excel 33s to wear when I workout with my trainer and TRX classes. I just purchased the Asics Nimbus 14 for run/walking (the next generation cumulus had horrible reviews). It has been 2 weeks and I like the Excel 33s. I dont think I would even try to run in them, but like them for my intense training sessions and TRX. I wear an 8 1/2 in my running shoes and bought these in an 8. ...
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) efficiently stimulates expansion of mouse and rat oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCC). Contradictory data have been published by several laboratories about the ability of EGF to stimulate expansion of porcine OCC. We assumed that these contradictions may have resulted from heterogeneous conditions used for isolation, culture, and assessment of OCC. The present experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that porcine OCC acquire the ability to synthesize hyaluronic acid (HA) and undergo expansion following EGF-stimulation gradually during the growth of follicles. For this reason, we isolated OCC from follicles of different sizes and assessed quantity of produced HA and proportions of expanding OCC after stimulation by EGF. In addition, we assessed in those OCC changes in morphology of cumulus cells and assembly of F-actin microfilaments, which are necessary for expansion to occur. Finally, nuclear maturation of EGF-stimulated OCC was assessed and its relationship with
Prophase I arrest, referred to as the germinal vesicle (GV) stage, is a conserved feature of oocytes across species (Whitaker, 1996; Mehlmann, 2005; Jones, 2008). In mice, as in all mammals, GV arrest begins shortly after meiotic recombination in fetal life. Periodic, non-hormonal recruitment of a small number of quiescent follicles into the growing pool after birth leads to follicle growth and eventual ovulation, both of which are hormone dependent. It is only near the time of ovulation in the fully grown oocytes of mature follicles that a rise in luteinizing hormone (LH) breaks this arrest, causing GV breakdown (GVB).. A high level of cAMP, generated from a Gs-coupled oocyte receptor, is needed to maintain arrest in fully grown oocytes (Cho et al., 1974; Magnusson and Hillensjo, 1977; Bornslaeger et al., 1986; Mehlmann et al., 2002; Freudzon et al., 2005). This is enhanced by cGMP from the surrounding cumulus cells, which inhibits phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A) activity, preventing cAMP ...
Ovulation, fertilization, and early embryonic development in the menstruating fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata[2] "Graafian follicles developed large antra and exhibited preovulatory expansion of the cumulus oophorus. Ovulation had occurred in some on the morning, and in most by the evening, of day 1. The single ovum was released as a secondary oocyte and fertilized in the oviductal ampulla. Ovulated secondary oocytes were loosely associated with their cumulus cells, which were lost around the initiation of fertilization. Supernumerary spermatozoa were occasionally noted attached to the zonae pellucidae of oviductal ova, but never within the perivitelline space. By day 2, most ova had reached the pronuclear stage and by day 3, early cleavage stages. Several lines of evidence indicate that C. perspicillata is a spontaneous ovulator with a functional luteal phase ...
Nppc - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN311169G1|/strong|, Nppc gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
Traditionally, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE, plasmapheresis) was performed with centrifugation devices used in blood blanking procedures. (See.)These devices permit selective cell removal (cytapheresis) but have been associated with posttreatment
Arent you sick of being tempted by an alternative lifestyle, but bound by chains of your own choosing? Of the gnawing doubt that the college graduate, path of least resistance is the right way for you - for ever? Each weekend you prepare for the two weeks each summer when you wake up each day and really ride, or climb; the only imperative being to go to bed tired. When booming thermals shoot you full of juice and your Vario shrieks 7m/sec, you wonder if the lines will pop. The risk pares away lifes trivia. Up there, sucking down the thin cumulus, the earth looks small, the boss even smaller, and you wish it could go on forever. But a wish is all it will ever be ...
Serpine is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Serpine is available on the Drugs.com website.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Microtubular spindle dynamics and chromosome complements from somatic cell nuclei haploidization in mature mouse oocytes and developmental potential of the derived embryos. AU - Chen, Shee Uan. AU - Chang, Chia Yi. AU - Lu, Chien Cheng. AU - Hsieh, Fon Jou. AU - Ho, Hong Nerng. AU - Yang, Yu Shih. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - Background: The aim of this study was to investigate haploidization of somatic cell nuclei in non-enucleated mature oocytes regarding spindle formation, chromosomes and developmental potential. Methods: Mouse cumulus cells were injected into metaphase II oocytes. Some injected oocytes were examined for morphological changes of chromosomes and the spindle immediately, and at 30 min, 1 h or 2 h after the injections. The remaining oocytes were activated by Sr 2+ after various incubation periods and observed for formation of a second polar body and pseudo-polar body. Cytogenetic analysis was performed for some of the resulting zygotes. The progress to ...
Experimental study of nuclear maturation in swine oocytes. The objectives of this project were to study: a) the timing of nuclear maturation in the swine in vitro and b) to compare the maturation rate of swine oocytes when cultured in the presence of porcine or ovine FSH. ...
I did not receive an absentee ballot for the recent revote of the school vote. Apparently none were sent? Or did you receive one and mine was omitted? I prefer to vote at home. I signed the paper for absentee ballots. The Secretary of state said it is up to me to enforce the election rules. It is up to me to ask the town clerk to explain, go to court if need be. No, my body cannot take any more of that. My vote was not counted. If you like that policy, carry on. Just dont presume to know all the reasons I do not want to vote out in public. I thought that is what absentee ballots were all about.. update 5.19.15 follow up post to front porch forum. Several issues back I inquired if others in Monkton did not receive absentee ballots for the town school budget re-vote. I got no response. I do not interpret that as apathy or a conspiracy against me, although I am sorely tempted to take the easy way out. It is stuck in my craw, the assistant town clerk (why did we need an assistant?) said we talked ...
brakes to three successive March through June decreases that accounted for an overall -2.4 (6.8 - 5.5 - 5.2 - 4.4, 6+). Immediately before that streak, the Cumulus Media news/talk outlet amassed three straight "Holiday" 2018 through March 2019 improvements for a collective +2.5 (4.3 - 5.7 - 6.6 - 6.8, 6+). Marchs 6.8 was WMALs best 6+-stat in the PPM-era. After posting a .2 (6+) in August 2018, Radio Ones WOL "News Talk - Where Information Is Power" is unlisted for the 12th sweep in succession.. Entercom sports talk WJFK-FM "106.7 The Fan" repeats Junes 6+ AQH share (3.4) and market rank (#13). In June, the Nationals flagship recaptured nearly half (three-tenths) of the eight-tenths dissipated in May. After nearly doubling (+.4) its 6+ AQH share via four straight sweeps without a loss (.5 - .7 - .8 - .8 - .9, 6+), Radio Ones similarly-formatted WTEM "980 The Team" surrenders two-tenths to .7 and departs the top twenty (#20 to #21, 6+). Roughly halfway through the July 2019 sweep (7/1), ...
Comments about Mens ASICS GEL-Cumulus 15 Running Shoe:. The Gel Cumulus 15 is a one of a kind shoe. Its cushioning and mild stability supply everything that I need in order to sustain my hefty routine. Per week, I run between 40-70 miles. If theres one thing that I hate most, its having to spend hundreds to constantly replace footwear. These shoes eliminate that problem because of how pristine they are. On top of that, they make an incredibly comfortable casual shoe once they cant be run in anymore. Unlike previous models, the mesh on top is softer, breathable, and more durable than ever before. I never thought that Id be able to keep a running shoe for longer than a year because of the upper. As other reviewers said, the rubber on the bottom does peel and break off after a while, but the shoe itself still retains its intended fuction as a high-quality neutral shoe. It doesnt matter if Im on my 1st mile in these or my 500th, the quality of these shoes meets my demands and gives me much ...
Precipitation is usually classified as convective or stratiform. Convective precipitation is normally associated with cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds within which a significant vertical velocity keeps the cloud droplets inside the cloud, enhancing their growth until the vertical currents are not able to counteract the force of gravity any longer and precipitation is produced. Stratiform precipitation is produced mainly by nimbostratus and sometimes by stratocumulus/altocumulus. In these clouds the vertical velocity is lower than inside the convective clouds, and it cannot prevent cloud droplets from falling earlier. The result is a smaller raindrop in these clouds (Houze, 1993).. Drop Size Distribution (DSD) at ground level will depend, among other parameters, on the type of precipitation. It is known that DSD varies both spatially and temporally (Ulbrich, 1983), not only within a specific storm type but also across differing storm types and climatic regimes. It can be characterized by three ...
1. Daneva T, Zierhut B, Gartner W, & Wagner L. Fine tuning of insulin transcription by secretagogin variants. Comp. Rend. Bulg. Acad. Sci. 8: 983-988 (2005). ISSN: 1310-1331, IF-0.204 2. Vangelov I, Dineva J, Nikolov G, Genov M, Ivanova M. Anti-granulosa antibodies (AGA) in follicular fluids and their impact to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and on the fertilization rate. Comp. Rend. Bulg. Acad. Sci. 59: 1191-96 (2006). ISSN: 1310-1331, IF-0.204. 3. Dineva J, Vangelov I, Nikolov G, Gulenova D, Ivanova M. Apoptosis of human Granulosaluteinized (GLCs) and Cumulus cells(CCs) as a possible indicator for IVF outcome. Comp. Rend. Bulg. Acad., 59: 781-784 (2006) ISSN: 1310-1331, IF-0.204. 4. Mollova M, Martinova Y. Immunocytochemical localization of antigen involved in sperm-zona pellucida interaction. Acta Morphol. et Antropol., 13, 98-101 (2006). ISSN 0861-0509. 5. Martinova Y, Mollova M, Petrov M, Rashev P, Ivanova M. TEM and SEM characteristics and lectin binding distribution of cat zona ...
The research was carried out at the Animal Breeding and Genetics Laboratory under the Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. It was conducted with a view to establish some relationship between ovarian condition in terms of the presence or absence of corpus luteum and morphological quality of the COCs as well as the relationship between follicular diameter and quality of COCs. Significantly highest (p,0.01) number of follicles was found in type III ovaries. The number of follicles measuring 2-6 mm diameter was observed to be significantly higher (p,0.01) in type III than type II and type I ovaries. Moreover, grade A and grade B COCs were significantly highest (p,0.01) in number in 2-6 mm diameter follicles. It was established that cumulus cells surrounding the oocytes favour to a less or greater extent the IVM (In vitro maturation), IVF (In vitro fertilization) of oocytes and subsequent IVC (In vitro culture) of zygotes. On the ...
Google Scholar Crossref, Medline77. Rossi M, Serraino GF, Jiritano F, Renzulli A. What s the helpful download in vitro maturation of human oocytes: basic in states with a Italian free orav item? Google Scholar Crossref, Medline78. Berkhemer OA, Fransen PS, Beumer D,. Italian download in vitro maturation of human oocytes: basic; straight Intelligent Design bust and the Temptation of ScientismBy Erkki Vesa Rope KojonenThe were over Intelligent Design( lt) requires here meant for over two relationships, with no units of learning. For its Flags, far the press assures customized widespread ridiculus, and its city provides Very Free. For its &, download in vitro maturation of human oocytes: basic science to clinical follows both own accordance and clinical Trail. Resources This force the amp therapy to teaching topic jet suggestions to subject much is a eclectic medicine of the brain of several performance in early-twentieth-century Southern Europe. Travis WD, Linnoila RI, Tsokos MG, et al. ...
Obese women have a well-known risk for anovulation and reduced pregnancy rates (Gesink Law et al., 2007; Rittenberg et al., 2011); our data now shows that concerted ER stress responses in both granulosa and cumulus cells, impaired matrix protein production and high levels of spindle abnormalities are likely to be responsible for reduced ovulation and poor fertilization rates in obese animals. Most alarmingly, however, following conception, maternal obesity is also associated with adiposity in offspring (Ruager-Martin et al., 2010), suggesting that metabolic change can be transmitted through the generations in a self-perpetuating cycle that is set by maternal over-nutrition. Our findings confirm that fetal growth is altered in obese mothers and further demonstrate that this developmental trajectory is established during oocyte development and maturation. We show the existence of a mechanism whereby nutrition in mothers, in this case obesity, can alter the embryo and fetal mitochondrial ...
Cocaine-and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) is an endogenous neuropeptide, which is widespread in animals, plays a key role in regulation of follicular atresia in cattle and sheep. Among animal ovaries, CART mRNA was firstly found in the cattle ovaries. CART was localized in the antral follicles oocytes, granulosa and cumulus cells by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Further research found that secretion of E2 was inhibited in granulosa cells with a certain dose of CART, the effect depends on the stage of cell differentiation, suggesting that CART could play a crucial role in regulating follicle atresia. The objective of this study was to characterize the CART expression model and hormones secretion in vivo and vitro in pig follicle granulosa cells, preliminarily studied whether CART have an effect on granulosa cells proliferation and hormones secretion in multiparous animals such as pigs. The expression levels of CART mRNA in granulosa cells of different follicles were analyzed
Cocaine-and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) is an endogenous neuropeptide, which is widespread in animals, plays a key role in regulation of follicular atresia in cattle and sheep. Among animal ovaries, CART mRNA was firstly found in the cattle ovaries. CART was localized in the antral follicles oocytes, granulosa and cumulus cells by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Further research found that secretion of E2 was inhibited in granulosa cells with a certain dose of CART, the effect depends on the stage of cell differentiation, suggesting that CART could play a crucial role in regulating follicle atresia. The objective of this study was to characterize the CART expression model and hormones secretion in vivo and vitro in pig follicle granulosa cells, preliminarily studied whether CART have an effect on granulosa cells proliferation and hormones secretion in multiparous animals such as pigs. The expression levels of CART mRNA in granulosa cells of different follicles were analyzed
Hyaluronidase PH-20 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SPAM1 gene.[5][6][7] Hyaluronidase degrades hyaluronic acid, a major structural proteoglycan found in extracellular matrices and basement membranes. Six members of the hyaluronidase family are clustered into two tightly linked groups on chromosome 3p21.3 and 7q31.3. This gene was previously referred to as HYAL1 and HYA1 and has since been assigned the official symbol SPAM1; another family member on chromosome 3p21.3 has been assigned HYAL1. This gene encodes a GPI-anchored enzyme located on the human sperm surface and inner acrosomal membrane. This multifunctional protein is a hyaluronidase that enables sperm to penetrate through the hyaluronic acid-rich cumulus cell layer surrounding the oocyte, a receptor that plays a role in hyaluronic acid induced cell signaling, and a receptor that is involved in sperm-zona pellucida adhesion. Abnormal expression of this gene in tumors has implicated this protein in degradation of basement ...
Family Health International has recently initiated a USAID funded study to investigate the pregnancy rates, continuation rates, and acceptability of COCs in women taking COCs by the 21/7 cyclic regimen compared with the continuous use of COCs with bleeding-signaled hormone-free intervals. The primary objective is to determine whether continuous COC use leads to higher 12-month continuation rates than use of the standard 28-day COC regimen. Secondary objectives are to 1) compare pregnancy probabilities through 6 and 12 months between the continuous use group and the 28-day group 2) compare COC continuation rates through 6 months between the continuous use group and the 28-day group 3) compare acceptability of the two COC regimens 4) to compare bleeding and other side effects between the continuous use group and the 28-day group 5) to compare hemoglobin/hematocrit between the continuous use group and the 28-day ...
Oocyte development and maturity classification of boarfish (Capros aper) in the Northeast Atlantic. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 498-507. This study presents the first detailed investigation of the oocyte development and maturity classification of boarfish, Capros aper, which has recently become the target of an industrial fishery in the Northeast Atlantic. A total of 2014 boarfish were collected from January to December 2010. Mature male and female boarfish were sexually dimorphic and could be readily identified based on external characteristics. A comprehensive maturity scale was developed, which indicated that the length at 50% maturity for males and females was 9.7 cm total length. Female boarfish were observed to spawn in Irish waters in June and July. Once spawning ceased the remaining mature oocytes were resorbed. Preliminary analysis of reproductive strategy indicates that the boarfish is likely an asynchronous batch spawner with indeterminate fecundity ...
Transcriptomic features of Pecten maximus oocyte quality and maturation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Bjorn Heindryckx, a PhD student at the Infertility Centre at Ghent University Hospital, Belgium, and his colleagues, matured GV oocytes in culture in the laboratory for 44 hours, after which time 85% of the GV oocytes had developed into MII oocytes. From each of these, they removed the nuclear apparatus, which contained the chromosomes that held all the genetic information. Using conventional ICSI techniques, they injected into the empty oocytes the nuclei taken from somatic cumulus1 cells (i.e. non-germ cells) of another person - a process known as non-autologous nuclear transfer. After time for nuclear re-programming the oocytes were artificially activated by incubation in a medium containing calcium ionophore, which enabled the injected nucleus to prepare for the first embryonic division ...
This query allows all the entries in EpoDB to be accessed by a Boolean text search. DNA searches look at the GenBank definition line, species name, reference gene status (ref or 0), and molecule type (dna or rna) and EPoDB and GenBank IDs. Protein searches look at taxonomy, name, and IDs for EpoDB, Swiss-Prot, EMBL and Medline ...
Dos Equis - MedHelps Dos Equis Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Dos Equis. Find Dos Equis information, treatments for Dos Equis and Dos Equis symptoms.
Spammers have clearly rallied following the McColo takedown, and overall spam volume growth during Q1 2009 was the strongest its been since early 2008, increasing an average of 1.2% per day. To put that number into
The objectives of this study were: 1) To determine the effect of oocyte retrieval techniques (slicing and aspiration) on the quality and quantity of cattle oocytes, 2) To evaluate the effect of different concentrations of hormones on the maturational rate of cattle oocytes selected by brilliant cresyl blue staining, 3) To evaluate fertilization rate and cleavage/embryonic development of oocytes with or without cumulus cells, and 4) To compare the effect of fresh and frozen thawed semen on the fertilization rate of cattle oocytes. In Experiment 1: oocytes were recovered from abattoir derived ovaries using slicing and aspiration. The recovered oocytes were exposed for 90 minutes to 26μM of brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) stain and classified according to the colour of their cytoplasm: BCB+ (oocytes with blue cytoplasm) and BCB- (unstained oocytes). There was no difference (P,0.05) in the quality of oocytes recovered using slicing (60.7 %) or aspiration (53.7 %) techniques. In experiment 2: The BCB ...
Protein kinase A (PKA) play a critical role in maintaining the meiotic arrest. However, the steps downstream of PKA remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the regulation of meiotic resumption by PKA/Cdc25B pathway in mouse oocytes. Injection of mRNA coding for Cdc25b-S321A had a more potent maturation-inducing ability than Cdc25b-WT. When co-injected with PKA inhibitor, Cdc25B-WT had similar activities with Cdc25B-S321A. Meanwhile, the phosphorylation of Cdc25B-S321 was detected in germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes by Western blotting with a phospho-Ser321-specific antibody and the band disappeared when oocytes reenter into the meiotic cell cycle. Furthermore, Cdc25B-WT translocated to the nucleus shortly before GV breakdown (GVBD), whereas phosphorylated Cdc25B-S321 expressed exclusively in the cytoplasm and the signal could not be detected in GVBD oocytes. Taken together, these data indicate that Cdc25B-Serine321 is the potential PKA target and Cdc25B subcellular localization determines
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular mechanisms responsible for increased vulnerability of the ageing oocyte to oxidative damage. AU - Mihalas, Bettina P.. AU - Redgrove, Kate A.. AU - McLaughlin, Eileen A.. AU - Nixon, Brett. PY - 2017/10/18. Y1 - 2017/10/18. N2 - In their midthirties, women experience a decline in fertility, coupled to a pronounced increase in the risk of aneuploidy, miscarriage, and birth defects. Although the aetiology of such pathologies are complex, a causative relationship between the age-related decline in oocyte quality and oxidative stress (OS) is now well established. What remains less certain are the molecular mechanisms governing the increased vulnerability of the aged oocyte to oxidative damage. In this review, we explore the reduced capacity of the ageing oocyte to mitigate macromolecular damage arising from oxidative insults and highlight the dramatic consequences for oocyte quality and female fertility. Indeed, while oocytes are typically endowed with a comprehensive suite ...
We examine four AM3 simulations that consist of a control model and three versions with different modifications to the deep convective scheme. The control AM3 using convective closure based on CAPE relaxation lacks sufficient MJO and Kelvin waves. By modifying the convective closure and trigger assumptions to inhibit deep cumuli, AM3 produces reasonable intraseasonal variability but a degraded mean state. MJO-like disturbances in the modified AM3 propagate eastward at roughly the observed speed in the Indian Ocean but up to twice the observed speed in the West Pacific. Distinct differences in intraseasonal convective organization and signal coherence exist among the modified AM3 versions. Differences in the vertical profiles of diabatic heating associated with the MJO are also found. The two AM3 versions with the strongest intraseasonal signals have a more prominent "bottom-heavy" heating profile leading the disturbance center and "top-heavy" heating profile following the disturbance center. The ...
Tully is the wettest town in Australia - one year almost eight metres of falling water splashed onto its streets and shops and residents, twelve times the annual average of London. As we cycled through the town the air was so muggy it weighed upon us like gravity. We stopped under trees, cowering in their nets of shade, wiping off old, hot sweat that refused to join the sodden, cloying air, and swiping away the harassing marsh flies - harbingers of rain. Its a predictable pattern : the wind quickens from a murky horizon and the fuzzy hills, a drop or two splash us though overhead the sky is a broad, unbroken desert of blue - the drops have been wrenched by gusts from the maw of a traveling storm, still kilometres away. We make eyes at each other now. The sky is soon mussed, building clouds are scattered among leaden fractures which in turn wrestle with half a rainbow and become lost in a clump of pale and distant cumulus. Then its on us, and the rain falls in sheets. The patter eclipses the ...
Washington State Magazine , by Nichoas Deshais. A slight breeze comes from the north, but its not enough to stir the sun-faded windsock above the tarmac near Mann Lake in Lewiston, Idaho. The sudden and unexpected gusts of wind, however, do. Its a brisk 48 degrees, but of more concern is the smeared cloud taking up the southwestern horizon, out of place among its more defined, cumulus neighbors mottling the blue canvas above.. "We have about ten minutes," says Chris Chaney, who earned a doctorate in mechanical engineering from WSU this year. "Were going to have to time this right. This is probably one of the most dangerous flights weve done.". [full article]. ...
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2009). "MATER protein as substrate of PKCepsilon in human cumulus cells". Mol. Hum. Reprod. 15 (8): 499-506. doi:10.1093/molehr ... 2009). "Human MATER localization in specific cell domains of oocytes and follicular cells". Reprod. Biomed. Online. 18 (2): 226 ... Cell Biol. 4 (2): 95-104. doi:10.1038/nrm1019. PMID 12563287. Maraldi T, Riccio M, Sena P, et al. ( ... gene and protein in pig somatic tissues and germ cells". J. Reprod. Dev. 56 (1): 41-8. doi:10.1262/jrd.09-098a. PMID 19815987 ...
Wang HX, Tekpetey FR, Kidder GM (2009). "Identification of WNT/beta-CATENIN signaling pathway components in human cumulus cells ... 2008). "Relation between cell-to-cell adhesion and angiogenesis and clinico-morphological prognostic factors in patients with ... "Ph+/VE-cadherin+ identifies a stem cell like population of acute lymphoblastic leukemia sustained by bone marrow niche cells". ... Cell. Biol. 28 (24): 7368-79. doi:10.1128/MCB.00744-08. PMC 2593444 . PMID 18852287. Sharma M, Henderson BR (2007). "IQ-domain ...
... glycoprotein composition and cell-to-cell interactions in the cumulus-oocyte complex. Her scientific career spans over four ... steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells and follicular growth; ...
Wang HX, Tekpetey FR, Kidder GM (2009). "Identification of WNT/beta-CATENIN signaling pathway components in human cumulus cells ... 2007). "Regulation of norrin receptor frizzled-4 by Wnt2 in colon-derived cells". BMC Cell Biol. 8: 12. doi:10.1186/1471-2121-8 ... 2009). "Downregulation of Wnt2 and beta-catenin by siRNA suppresses malignant glioma cell growth". Cancer Gene Ther. 16 (4): ... These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate ...
Oocytes are classified depending on their condition, such as number of cumulus cells. The best oocytes are chosen to be matured ... Ouandaogo, Z.G.; Assou, S.; Haouzi, D.; Anahory, T.; Dechaud, H.; Hamamah, S. "Gene expression profile in human cumulus cells ... This results in an expanding or dispersed pattern of the cumulus oophorus around the egg cell, facilitating its identification ... develop into primary follicle containing cuboidal granulosa cells. A secondary follicle is formed with a few granulosa cell ...
Cumulus clouds are formed by the rising air in a thermal as it ascends and cools, until the water vapor in the air begins to ... Thermals are also seen on the solar surface, typically forming hexagonal prisms (Bénard cells). Air current Atmospheric ... Thermals are often indicated by the presence of visible cumulus clouds at the apex of the thermal. When a steady wind is ... thermodynamics Cumulus Cloud Thermal Energy Gliding Hang gliding Bradbury, Tom (2000). Meteorology and Flight: Pilot's Guide to ...
That tower now is used as a cell site tower. The transmitter was moved to its current South Vidor location (where its former FM ... It broadcasts on AM frequency 1510 kHz and is under ownership of Cumulus Media. It is simulcast with sister station KIKR AM ...
Pangas SA, Li X, Robertson EJ, Matzuk MM (Jun 2006). "Premature luteinization and cumulus cell defects in ovarian-specific ... If the SMAD 4 mutation is acquired, it will only exist in certain somatic cells. Indeed, SMAD 4 is not synthesized by all cells ... expression of the genes involved in cell growth is no longer regulated and cell proliferation can go on without any inhibition ... PP2A-dependent apoptotic effect of exogenous transforming growth factor beta 1 in lymphoma cells". Experimental Cell Research. ...
Typical of later stages of follicle development is the appearance of cumulus cells. GDF9 causes the expansion of cumulus cells ... allowing the expansion of cumulus cells. Silencing of GDF9 expression results in the absence of cumulus cell expansion, this ... Single-cell expression analysis of BMP15 and GDF9 in mature oocytes and BMPR2 in cumulus cells of women with polycystic ovary ... cumulus and theca cells. Paracrine interactions between the developing oocyte and its surrounding follicular cells is essential ...
... cumulus cell, immune cell and clinical associations". Human Reproduction Update. 13 (3): 275-87. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmm004. ... DNA and Cell Biology. 9 (6): 401-13. doi:10.1089/dna.1990.9.401. PMID 2206398. Check JH, Nowroozi K, Chase JS, Vaze M, Joshi S ... a major lipocalin protein of the reproductive axis with diverse actions in cell recognition and differentiation". Endocrine ...
Progesterone from the cumulus cells is the sperm chemoattractant secreted by the rabbit oocyte cumulus complex. PLoS ONE 3, ... One is the cumulus cells that surround the oocyte, and the other is the mature oocyte itself. The chemoattractant secreted from ... The subsequent findings that cumulus cells of both human and rabbit (and, probably, of other mammals as well) secrete the ... Cell Biol. 7, 276-285. Alvarez, L., Friedrich, B.M., Gompper, G., Kaupp. U.B. (2013). "The computational sperm cell". Trends in ...
One is the cumulus cells that surround the oocyte, and the other is the mature oocyte itself. The chemoattractant secreted from ... The subsequent findings that cumulus cells of both human and rabbit (and, probably, of other mammals as well) secrete the ... A key feature of sperm chemotaxis in humans is that this process is restricted to capacitated cells - the only cells that ... and sperm chemoattractants secreted from the oocyte and its surrounding cumulus cells, respectively - strongly suggest the ...
... after the cumulus cells whose nuclei were used to clone her. At the time of the publication of this work over fifty mice ... the genomic reprogramming of somatic cell nuclei as well as the production of pluripotent stem cells from adult somatic cells ... The first male animal cloned from adult cells was announced in 1999. In 2004 the laboratory participated in the cloning of an ... The first one was a female named Cumulina from the cells that surround the developing ovarian follicle in mice. Yanagimachi was ...
The zona pellucida is surrounded by the cumulus oophorus. The cumulus is composed of cells that care for the egg when it is ... Cell. 143 (3): 404-15. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.09.041. PMID 20970175. Histology image: 18404loa - Histology Learning System at ... to be replaced by the underlying layer of trophoblastic cells. The zona pellucida is essential for oocyte growth and ... Boston University - "Female Reproductive System: ovary, cumulus oophorus " Histology image: 14805loa - Histology Learning ...
An increase in cumulus cell number causes a concomitant increase in antrum fluid volume that can swell the follicle to over 20 ... For ovulation to be successful, the ovum must be supported by the corona radiata and cumulus oophorous granulosa cells. The ... Mucification is the secretion of a hyaluronic acid-rich cocktail that disperses and gathers the cumulus cell network in a ... By this time, the oocyte has completed meiosis I, yielding two cells: the larger secondary oocyte that contains all of the ...
... and finally cumulus cells. Experimental evidence has demonstrated that the released contents of the cortical granules modify ... This space is called the cortical granule free domain (CGFD) and has been observed in both the cell's meiotic spindle regions ... The oocyte has been shown to obtain maximum proficiency for releasing calcium at this same cell stage, between metaphase I and ... Within the oocyte, cortical granules are located along the cortex, the region furthest from the cell's center. Following ...
This effect of vortex formation at the vertices of hexagonal cells is an example of vertex vortices. The layer of cumulus seen ... In some cases the steam devils may rise directly into the cumulus, in these cases the cumulus may actually be caused by the ... The resulting large scale view is a layer of arctic steam fog close to the water surface, a layer of cumulus just above the ... The steam fog tends to form irregular hexagonal cells in the horizontal plane which are elongated in the direction of the wind ...
Cumulus oophorus is a cluster of cells (called cumulus cells) that surround the oocyte both in the ovarian follicle and after ... It contains numerous granulosa cells. Granulosa cells or follicular cells are cells that surround the oocyte within the ... The granulosa cells, in turn, are enclosed in a thin layer of extracellular matrix - the follicular basement membrane or basal ... They also consist of granulosa cells and theca of follicle. Once a month, one of the ovaries releases a mature egg (ovum), ...
... and excrete the oocyte with a complement of cumulus cells in a process called ovulation. The oocyte is technically still a ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.06.031. PMID 16051153. Johnson J, Canning J, Kaneko T, Pru J, Tilly J (2004). "Germline stem cells and ... Each type of cell behaves differently in response to FSH. Theca interna cells express receptors for luteinizing hormone (LH). ... In addition, as more estrogen is secreted, more LH receptors are made by the theca cells, inciting theca cells to create more ...
Conditions evolved from scatteredlow-top cumulus to an isolated convective cell with estimated tops to above 45000 ft in just ... Data shown from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency showed that at 09:30 and 09:45, there were scattered low top cumulus clouds ... However, the cloud formation suddenly 'exploded' sometime between 09:45 and 11:00 UTC, and became a storm cell. These ' ...
This multifunctional protein is a hyaluronidase that enables sperm to penetrate through the hyaluronic acid-rich cumulus cell ... "A hyaluronidase activity of the sperm plasma membrane protein PH-20 enables sperm to penetrate the cumulus cell layer ... cell membrane. • membrane. Biological process. • fusion of sperm to egg plasma membrane involved in single fertilization. • ... "J. Cell Biol. 111 (6 Pt 2): 2939-49. doi:10.1083/jcb.111.6.2939. PMC 2116349. PMID 2269661.. ...
Included in the follicles are the cumulus oophorus, membrana granulosa (and the granulosa cells inside it), corona radiata, ... Follicular cells flat epithelial cells that originate from surface epithelium covering the ovary, are surrounded by Granulosa ... The ovaries are the site of production and periodical release of egg cells, the female gametes. In the ovaries, the developing ... Follicles are composed of different types and number of cells according to the stage of their maturation, and their size is ...
The majority of mammalian ova are covered in a layer of granulosa cells intertwined in an ECM that contains a high ... although exogenous hyaluronidases can disrupt the cumulus matrix. ... In most mammalian fertilization, hyaluronidase is released by the acrosome of the sperm cell after it has reached the oocyte, ... It has been hypothesized that, by helping degrade the ECM surrounding the tumor, hyaluronidases help cancer cells escape from ...
... nuclear receptor cofactor receptor-interacting protein 140 is a positive regulator of amphiregulin expression and cumulus cell- ... Cell. Biol. 18 (11): 6745-55. doi:10.1128/mcb.18.11.6745. PMC 109258 . PMID 9774688. Miyata KS, McCaw SE, Meertens LM, et al. ( ... Cell. 29 (6): 755-66. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2008.01.020. PMC 2364611 . PMID 18374649. Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane- ... Cell. Biol. 16 (11): 6029-36. PMC 231605 . PMID 8887632. Yan ZH, Karam WG, Staudinger JL, et al. (1998). "Regulation of ...
Through early mouse development, cytocortical cingulin in present from oogenesis (cumulus-oocyte contact sites) until 16-cells ... maternal cingulin is recruited to apical cell-cell junctions from 2-cells stage. In 2004, a protein homologous to cingulin was ... Sandra Citi, as a protein present in chicken intestinal epithelial cells, that co-purified with non-muscle myosin II and was ... Regarding the zygotic cingulin, it accumulates at the tight junctions from 16-cells stage, 10 hours after ZO-1 assembly. ...
The secondary oocyte needs to be captured by the fallopian tube where it could be fertilized by a sperm cell. The stigma will ... from the region of the cumulus oophorus, and follicular fluid. ... oocyte is released along with surrounding granulosa cells, ...
Included in the follicles are the cumulus oophorus, membrana granulosa (and the granulosa cells inside it), corona radiata, ... Primitive ova are seen in their cell-nests. The Genital cord or genital ridge is still discernible in this young child. A blood ...
... polymerase chain reaction shows expression of basic fibroblast growth factor transcripts in human granulosa and cumulus cells ... It is necessary in mouse-feeder cell dependent culture systems, as well as in feeder and serum-free culture systems. FGF2, in ... Additionally, bFGF is a critical component of human embryonic stem cell culture medium; the growth factor is necessary for the ... After differentiation, BMP4 and FGF2 treated cells generally produces higher amounts of osteogenic and chondrogenic ...
Expression of cumulus-specific genes in SCNT-derived embryos at 2-cell, 4-cell and day 4.5 blastocyst stages was compared with ... Cumulus cells of C57xCBA F1 female mouse were injected into enucleated oocytes, followed by activation in 10 micromol/L ... Cumulus-specific genes are transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer in a mouse model. ... Tong, G.Q.,Heng, B.C.,Ng, S.C. (2007). Cumulus-specific genes are transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear ...
Adult and fetal fibroblasts, and cumulus and oviduct cells were used as donor cells, and in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes ... Adult and fetal fibroblasts, and cumulus and oviduct cells were used as donor cells, and in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes ... Adult and fetal fibroblasts, and cumulus and oviduct cells were used as donor cells, and in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes ... Adult and fetal fibroblasts, and cumulus and oviduct cells were used as donor cells, and in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes ...
The mtDNA number and viability of cumulus cells and oocytes remained unchanged. When the oocytes were denuded from the cumulus ... apoptosis of cumulus cells, and lactate dehydrogenase levels. Thus, cf-mtDNA was present in FF in a wide range of length, and ... and explored whether the cfDNA level in the culture medium could reflect mitochondrial dysfunction in cumulus cell-oocyte ... In contrast, CCCP treatment of granulosa cells significantly increased the amount of cf-mtDNA in the spent culture medium, ...
... Tamadir Al-Edani,1,2 Said ... Q. Li, D.-Q. Miao, P. Zhou et al., "Glucose metabolism in mouse cumulus cells prevents oocyte aging by maintaining both energy ... S. Assou, D. Haouzi, J. de Vos, and S. Hamamah, "Human cumulus cells as biomarkers for embryo and pregnancy outcomes," ... R. B. Gilchrist, M. Lane, and J. G. Thompson, "Oocyte-secreted factors: regulators of cumulus cell function and oocyte quality ...
Ovulated oocyte-cumulus cell masses were well preserved histologically and many but not all gave strong evidence of HSDH when ... The HSDH reaction observed near the basement membrane was more pronounced than in cells nearer the antrum. Cumulus masses were ... Heterogeneity of intrafollicular somatic cells and ovulated cumulus masses as evidenced by delta5-3beta-HSDH activity.. ... observed in PMSG treated mice that resembled the cells surrounding ovulated oocytes. ...
The cumulus granulosa cells detached from the zona pellucida after fertilization were allowed to spontaneously adhere to the ... We investigated the possibility that human granulosa cells from the cumulus mass obtained during human in vitro fertilization/ ... the cells respond predictably like other comparable granulosa cell systems. We conclude that human cumulus cells are a readily ... human cumulus granulosa cells are readily available from IVF/ET programs, (2) the techniques for maintaining the cells in ...
A statistically significant association was found between the degree of apoptosis in cumulus cells and the type of gonadotropin ... and the apoptosis rate in cumulus cells.. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective and observational study into an university-affiliated ... during controlled ovarian stimulation affects the endocrine profile in follicular fluid and apoptosis rate in cumulus cells.. ... ovarian stimulation significantly affects endocrine profiles in follicular fluid and the apoptosis rate in cumulus cells. ...
Human Empty zona-cumulus-corona cell complex. * For permission to use this image or to obtain a higher quality please contact: ...
... pertinent to cell-cell contacts and because gap junctions play a critical role in cell-cell contacts of mammalian cumulus cells ... IMD/ADM2 signaling is important for cumulus cell survival and normal cell-cell contacts in COCs. A, treatments of FSH or IMD ... Intact COCs with at least three layers of cumulus cells were collected for the separation of cumulus cells and denuded oocytes ... Second, our in vitro data implied that FSH promotes oocyte-cumulus cell interactions indirectly by stimulating cumulus cells, ...
Oocyte-secreted BMP-15 and BMP-6 signal through the cumulus cell receptor BMPR-II to actively prevent cumulus cell death. ... Determination of DNA damage by TUNEL (assessment of cumulus cell apoptosis). Cumulus cell apoptotic DNA was detected using ... Paracrine factors secreted by the oocyte regulate a broad range of cumulus cell functions. Characteristically, cumulus cells ... cumulus cell apoptosis significantly decreased (P,0.001), whether in the presence or absence of FSH (Fig. 4C,D). Cumulus cell ...
"Influence of follicular fluid and cumulus cells on oocyte quality: clinical implications, Journal of Assisted Reproduction and ... Coculture with cumulus cells improves maturation of mouse oocytes denuded of the cumulus oophorus: observations of nuclear and ... Hyaluronic acid synthesis by mural granulosa cells and cumulus cells in vitro is selectively stimulated by a factor produced by ... mRNA expression pattern of insulin-like growth factor components of granulosa cells and cumulus cells in women with and without ...
BMP15 prevents cumulus cell apoptosis through CCL2 and FBN1 in porcine ovaries. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2009;32:264-78. CrossRef ... Cumulus cells (CC) play important roles in oocyte development and cumulus expressed genes can be used as markers for oocyte ... Gene expression profile of cumulus cells derived from cumulus-oocyte complexes matured either in vivo or in vitro. Reprod ... Temporal expression of cumulus cell marker genes during in vitro maturation and oocyte developmental competence. Zeitschrift:. ...
... role of cumulus cells and epidermal growth factor in the culture medium.. PT GOUD, AP GOUD, Chen Qian (UGent), H LAVERGE, ... "In-vitro Maturation of Human Germinal Vesicle Stage Oocytes: Role of Cumulus Cells and Epidermal Growth Factor in the Culture ... In-vitro maturation of human germinal vesicle stage oocytes: role of cumulus cells and epidermal growth factor in the culture ... "In-vitro Maturation of Human Germinal Vesicle Stage Oocytes: Role of Cumulus Cells and Epidermal Growth Factor in the Culture ...
When compared with results obtained using a traditional cumulus cell removal protocol, early cumulus cell removal has both ... cumulus cells removed at 3 h or 20 h after insemination, respectively). Same origin embryos (either 3 h or 20 h) were ... To investigate whether cumulus cell removal after a 3 h co-incubation of gametes can affect the outcomes of in vitro ... Cumulus cell removal. The cumulus cells and oocytes in the 3 h group were incubated with sperm for 3 h. Following incubation, ...
Microarray data revealed that 48 and 27 differentially expressed candidate genes in cumulus cells (CCs) were respectively ... From: Use of Both Cumulus Cells Transcriptomic Markers and Zona Pellucida Birefringence to Select Developmentally Competent ...
... Adamiak, S; Ewen, M; ... 100 Diet and fatty acid composition of bovine plasma, granulosa cells, and cumulus-oocyte complexes.. Livestock Library/Manakin ... granulosa cells (GCs), and cumulus?oocyte complexes (COCs) from the 32 heifers used in that study. Blood samples were collected ...
Gene expression profiles of cumulus cell oocyte complexes during ovulation reveal cumulus cells express neuronal and immune- ... Shimada M, Richards JS: Cumulus Cells are an Essential Mediator of Ovulation Stimuli from Granulosa Cells to Oocyte. Journal of ... cell cycle under-regulation and cell differentiation (FOSB, CCAR1, CCNA2, CDKNA1, HDAC2, PRDX2, PANX1) as well as cell death- ... Lee KS, Joo BS, Na YJ, Yoon MS, Choi OH, Kim WW: Cumulus cells apoptosis as an indicator to predict the quality of oocytes and ...
Exposure of mouse cumulus cell nuclei to porcine ooplasmic extract eliminates TATA box protein binding to chromatin, but has no ... Tong, G.Q., Heng, B.C., Ng, S.C. (2006). Exposure of mouse cumulus cell nuclei to porcine ooplasmic extract eliminates TATA box ...
... or cumulus cells restored partially the developmental potential of cumulus-denuded oocytes (DOs). Therefore, cumulus cells are ... cumulus cells were collected and vigorously pipetted to allow separation of the cells. Then, the cells were counted in a ... LanGCChangZLLuoMJJiangYLHanDWuYGHanZBMaSFTanJH2006Production of cloned goats by nuclear transfer of cumulus cells and long-term ... LanGCChangZLLuoMJJiangYLHanDWuYGHanZBMaSFTanJH2006Production of cloned goats by nuclear transfer of cumulus cells and long-term ...
The host genes of DE circRNAs are markedly enriched to multiple signaling pathways associated with cumulus cell function and ... Here, we separately identified 7,067 and 637 circRNAs in both cumulus cells and oocytes via deep sequencing and bioinformatic ... have been recently discovered in cumulus cells and oocytes from several species. However, the expression and function of ... the first time that circRNAs are abundantly and dynamically expressed in a developmental stage-specific manner in cumulus cells ...
Transcriptomic and proteomic approaches on somatic cells surrounding the oocyte (granulosa cells, cumulus cells [CCs]) have ... The knockdown efficiency of VCL, RGS2 and SRC were measured in HEK293 cells by WB and by RPPA and were acceptable for VCL and ... of interest were validated for their utilisation in RPPA by measuring siRNA-mediated knockdown efficiency in HEK293 cells in ... The number of cells composing a cumulus was estimated to be more than 17 individual cumulus cells with a Tomas chamber. ...
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressing EF showed high self-renewal capacity and maintained an undifferentiated state despite ... Genetically defined ES models are needed to understand how EF expression changes bone precursor cell differentiation, how ES ... Combinatorial targeting of survival and cell cycle progression pathways could counteract this aggressive childhood cancer. ... or Cdk4 or their combined pharmacologic inhibition resulted in growth arrest and apoptosis in both established human ES cell ...
Blood leukocyte telomere DNA con- tent does not predict telomere length in follicular cells in this population. ... Cumulus cells in healthy reproductive-age women have significantly longer telomeres than leukocytes in peripheral blood. ... Cumulus cells have longer telomeres than leukocytes in reproductive-age women. Cumulus cells in healthy reproductive-age women ... To investigate whether telomere length (TL) in granulosa cells (GC) or cumulus cells (CC) correlates with TL in leukocytes (L). ...
The present work was aimed to study the effect of vitrification on immature bovine oocytes freed of cumulus cell investment ... However, the composition of the manipulation medium used to remove cumulus cells plays a crucial role in reducing the injuries ... The results indicate that mechanical removal of cumulus cells from immature bovine oocytes does not affect their maturation ... In conclusion, we demonstrate that denuded immature oocytes can be vitrified after cumulus cells removal and successfully ...
Effects of Mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 2 Inhibition by Genipin in Human Cumulus Cells. Hongshan Ge , Fan Zhang , ... , ... Paracrine Regulation of Steroidogenesis in Theca Cells by Granulosa Cells Derived from Mouse Preantral Follicles. Xiaoqiang Liu ... Genetic mutations in germline or somatic cells lead to expression alteration of the cognate or downstream genes. Nutrition and ... Decorin-Mediated Inhibition of Human Trophoblast Cells Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion and Promotion of Apoptosis In ...
  • The percentages of fusion and development to the blastocyst stage, the ratio of blastocysts to 2-cell embryos, and cell number of blastocysts were monitored as experimental parameters. (elsevier.com)
  • Based on genomic screening and studies of COCs cultured in vitro , we showed that intermedin (IMD)/adrenomedullin 2 (ADM2) is a novel oocyte-derived ligand important for the regulation of cell interactions in COCs that functions, in part, by suppressing cumulus cell apoptosis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • O presente trabalho estudou a interação cumulus e oócito no processo de morte celular programada nos complexos de cumulus oophoros (COCs) de diferentes classes morfológicas em bovinos. (usp.br)
  • Os COCs foram utilizados para avaliação da maturação nuclear em 0 e em 24h de cultivo do grau de fragmentação do DNA das células do cumulus (CC) antes e após a maturação in vitro , avaliação da competência do desenvolvimento embrionário partenogenético até o 9º dia pós-ativação, avaliação da qualidade dos blastocistos e estimativa dos transcritos e proteínas BCL-2 e BAX em CC maturados por 24h. (usp.br)
  • The present work aimed to study the cumulus -oocyte interaction on the process of programmed cell death in bovine COCs of different morphological classes. (usp.br)
  • Before in vitro maturation (IVM), the nuclear maturation in COCs and DNA fragmentation in cumulus cells (CC) were evaluated. (usp.br)
  • We also examined the effects of PLAT and SERPINE1 on germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and oocyte cyclic 3' 5' adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, cumulus expansion index, and expansion-related gene expression in oocytes derived from bovine COCs cultured for 4, 8, and 12 h and in COCs cultured for 16 h. (bioportfolio.com)
  • suppression of PLAT activity via accumulation of SERPINE1 in COCs results in cumulus expansion from 8 to 16 h of IVM. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Cumulus-specific genes are transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer in a mouse model. (nus.edu.sg)
  • This study investigated whether four cumulus-specific genes: follicular stimulating hormone receptor (FSHr), hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2), prostaglandin synthase 2 (Ptgs2) and steroidogenic acute regulator protein (Star), were correctly reprogrammed to be transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a murine model. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Compelling evidence suggests that histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) influences the development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. (rroij.com)
  • Scriptaid can be used to improve the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer in ovine. (rroij.com)
  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in mammals is an assisted reproductive technique that can produce a large number of genetically identical valuable offspring. (rroij.com)
  • Another option relies on somatic-cell nuclear transfer ( SCNT ) which creates a cloned animal by replacing an oocyte's nucleus with an adult somatic cell. (redorbit.com)
  • We make specific reference to two assisted reproductive technologies, namely mitochondrial supplementation and somatic cell nuclear transfer, and how modulating the mitochondrial content in the oocyte influences embryo viability and the potential to generate enhanced offspring for livestock production purposes. (publish.csiro.au)
  • Two biallelic knockout cell lines were selected as the donor cell line for somatic cell nuclear transfer for the generation of GHRKO pigs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It's the first time the technology, called somatic cell nuclear transfer, has been used to clone any close relative of humans. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • In this study, we have successfully cloned cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). (nextbigfuture.com)
  • Ovulated oocyte-cumulus cell masses were well preserved histologically and many but not all gave strong evidence of HSDH when ETCH was used as the substrate, while DHAS elicited a much weaker reaction. (cdc.gov)
  • The original oocyte cumulus cell-based approach is still the most effective method of producing viable cloned offspring. (redorbit.com)
  • Furthermore, early cumulus cell removal can also reduce the required co-incubation time between sperm and oocytes, and help eliminate degradation products from granulosa cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Upon fertilization sperm must first penetrate a layer of cumulus cells that surrounds the egg before reaching the zona pellucida. (uniprot.org)
  • Fertilization in flowering plants involves two sperm cells and two female gametes, the egg cell and the central cell, progenitors of the embryo and the endosperm, respectively. (biomedsearch.com)
  • About 2 per cent of cumulus cells yielded clones, while the researchers were unable to produce full-term embryos from Sertoli cells, which nourish developing sperm, and neurons. (newscientist.com)
  • Animal oocytes and sperm cells are provided for ICSI practice. (ivf.net)
  • In normal circumstances, the egg is surrounded by a cluster of cells known as the cumulus-corona cells, all of which must be removed before the sperm injection takes place. (inciid.org)
  • 2000) activation has been more actively studied, since the transferred nucleus or injected sperm cell are not able to induce activation. (scielo.br)
  • 1999). These techniques aim to mimic the sperm cell, which induces oscillations in intracellular calcium concentrations (Fissore et al. (scielo.br)
  • Its main function is to nurture the developing sperm cells through the stages of spermatogenesis. (wikibooks.org)
  • 1998). GAGs are secreted by the cumulus and granulosa cells and the addition of GAGs to medium containing bovine sperm has the effect of stimulating the motility and capacitation of the sperm through direct changes in the intracellular environment of the sperm (Bergqvist et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Despite EF-induced toxicity, murine or human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) tolerate expression, but only murine EF-transduced MSC displayed sarcoma formation upon transplantation in immunocompromised mice. (nature.com)
  • In the house spider Achaearanea tepidariorum , which is emerging as a model organism ( Oda and Akiyama-Oda, 2008 ), a cluster of endoderm cells, termed the cumulus mesenchymal (CM) cells, is internalized from the blastopore and migrates on the basal surface of the static germ disc epithelium (see Fig. 1A ) ( Akiyama-Oda and Oda, 2003 ). (biologists.org)
  • In spiders, a group of BMP secreting mesenchymal cells (the cumulus) functions as an organizer of the dorsoventral axis. (elifesciences.org)
  • The mesenchymal cumulus cells are the source of the BMP receptor ligand Decapentaplegic ( Akiyama-Oda and Oda, 2006 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Cells of metazoa display two main phenotypes, the ancestral epithelial state and the recent mesenchymal derivative. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Fgf10 is usually secreted by mesenchymal cells and displays a short range of action on adjacent epithelial cells as the result of its strong interaction with heparin sulfate. (frontiersin.org)
  • SOD3 protects mesenchymal stem cells against the negative effects of serum deprivation via modulation of AMP-activated protein kinase/sirtulin 1, extracellular signalregulated kinase activation, and promoted Forkhead box O3a trafficking to the nucleus. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Somatic nuclei can be reprogrammed into a pluripotent state by nuclear transfer, cell fusion and expression of transcription factors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • So rather than fusing donor cells with eggs stripped of their chromosomes, like other groups, he injected only the nuclei of the donor cells. (newscientist.com)
  • What the researchers have demonstrated for the first time is that the effective cloning of mice can be achieved using the nuclei of peripheral blood cells. (redorbit.com)
  • For example, Dr J. Gurdon and his colleagues showed that frog somatic cell nuclei can be reprogrammed after transfer into enucleated oocytes, and they develop into feeding tadpoles [ 1 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The present study was conducted to characterize further the mechanisms of leptin action on oocytes and the role of cumulus cells (CCs) in this context. (las.ac.cn)
  • Transcriptomic and proteomic approaches on somatic cells surrounding the oocyte (granulosa cells, cumulus cells [CCs]) have been proposed for the identification of biomarkers of oocyte competence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After IVM, cumulus cells were removed from oocytes using 3 mg/mL hyaluronidase, fixed in 3% glutaraldehyde, stained with DAPI and evaluated for meiotic competence. (bvsalud.org)
  • Glucose metabolism in mouse cumulus cells prevents oocyte aging by maintaining both energy supply and the intracellular redox potential," Biology of Reproduction , vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 1111-1118, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Estrogen promotes the development of mouse cumulus cells in coordination with oocyte-derived GDF9 an. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Association of creatin kinase B and peroxiredoxin 2 expression with age and embryo quality in cumulus cells," Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics , vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 629-639, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Cumulus cells of C57xCBA F1 female mouse were injected into enucleated oocytes, followed by activation in 10 micromol/L strontium chloride for 5 h and subsequent in vitro culture up to the blastocyst stage. (nus.edu.sg)
  • We found that injection of H3K9me3 demethylase Kdm4d mRNA and treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A at one-cell stage following SCNT greatly improved blastocyst development and pregnancy rate of transplanted SCNT embryos in surrogate monkeys. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • For his donor cells, he used the cumulus cells which coat the surface of the egg. (newscientist.com)
  • However, researchers Satoshi Kamimura, Atsuo Ogura and colleagues at the RIKEN BioResource Center in Tsukuba, Japan wanted to explore the efficacy of white blood cells, or leukocytes, as donor cells. (redorbit.com)
  • They have, however, mentioned that their future studies will focus not on the cause but rather on improving the future performance of granulocyte donor cells. (redorbit.com)
  • from the putative active X chromosome in donor cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Two types of GHR allelic single-cell colonies ( GHR − 47/ − 1 , GHR − 47/ − 46 ) were selected as donor cells for the generation of GHRKO pigs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Then, we quantitatively assessed the alterations of acetylation levels in histone H3 lysine 9 (acH3K9) and histone H4 lysine 12 (acH4K12) of cumulus cells and SCNT embryos by immunofluorescence staining. (rroij.com)
  • In conclusion, donor cumulus cells treated with Scriptaid is beneficial to early development of SCNT embryos, ascending acH3K9/ acH4K12 and G0/G1 phase cells proportion of cumulus cell. (rroij.com)
  • For SCNT using adult monkey cumulus cells, 22 pregnancies were confirmed in 42 surrogates and yielded 2 babies that were short-lived. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • If you love value you'll love the updates to the men's ASICS® GEL-Cumulus® 9 running shoe, packed with features like light construction, plush cushioning, durability and a breathable mesh upper. (roadrunnersports.com)
  • The HSDH reaction observed near the basement membrane was more pronounced than in cells nearer the antrum. (cdc.gov)
  • Different gonadotropin stimulation regimens and LH source modulate cumulus cell transcriptomes, probably by influencing gonadotropin receptor activity and downstream signaling. (fertstertforum.com)