Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.United StatesHematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.MinnesotaPrognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.WisconsinSwedenJapanPopulation Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.DenmarkBreast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Life Tables: Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.Vidarabine: A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Unrelated Donors: Providers of tissues for transplant to non-related individuals.Busulfan: An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.Myeloablative Agonists: Agents that destroy bone marrow activity. They are used to prepare patients for BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION or STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Siblings: Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.TaiwanAntineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.ItalyMyelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Osteonecrosis: Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.FinlandPeripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Sirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Histocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.ScandinaviaKidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.EuropeInfection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Tacrolimus: A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Cranial Irradiation: The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Leukemia, Myeloid: Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Cytarabine: A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)EnglandCondylomata Acuminata: Sexually transmitted form of anogenital warty growth caused by the human papillomaviruses.Drug-Eluting Stents: Stents that are covered with materials that are embedded with chemicals that are gradually released into the surrounding milieu.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Idarubicin: An orally administered anthracycline antineoplastic. The compound has shown activity against BREAST NEOPLASMS; LYMPHOMA; and LEUKEMIA.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Radiotherapy, Conformal: Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.Coronary Restenosis: Recurrent narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery following surgical procedures performed to alleviate a prior obstruction.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Multicenter Studies as Topic: Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Great BritainWashingtonPercutaneous Coronary Intervention: A family of percutaneous techniques that are used to manage CORONARY OCCLUSION, including standard balloon angioplasty (PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY), the placement of intracoronary STENTS, and atheroablative technologies (e.g., ATHERECTOMY; ENDARTERECTOMY; THROMBECTOMY; PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL LASER ANGIOPLASTY). PTCA was the dominant form of PCI, before the widespread use of stenting.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.IndiaSEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute: An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal PROMYELOCYTES predominate. It is frequently associated with DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Anthracyclines: Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Papanicolaou Test: Cytological preparation of cells collected from a mucosal surface and stained with Papanicolaou stain.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
In epidemiology, the lifetime risk of an effect is the cumulative incidence, also called incidence proportion over an entire ... This gave rise to prospect theory and cumulative prospect theory. Hubbard proposes to instead describe risk as a vector ... Bodemer, N.; Ruggeri, A.; Galesic, M. (2013). "When dread risks are more dreadful than continuous risks: Comparing cumulative ...
Morbidity measures include incidence rate, prevalence, and cumulative incidence, with incidence rate referring to the risk of ... Undernutrition is not to be confused with malnutrition, which refers to poor proportion of food intake and can thus refer to ... morbidity is better expressed as a proportion or a rate. The diseases and health conditions targeted by global health ...
... it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator. Incidence proportion (also known as cumulative incidence) ... In the same example as above, the incidence rate is 14 cases per 1000 person-years, because the incidence proportion (28 per ... the incidence proportion is 28 cases per 1,000 persons per two years, i.e. 2.8% per two years. The incidence rate is the number ... it may be more useful to present incidence data in a plot of cumulative incidence, over time, taking into account loss to ...
... or incidence proportion is a measure of frequency, as in epidemiology, where it is a measure of disease ... It is sometimes also referred to as the incidence proportion. Cumulative incidence is calculated by the number of new cases ... the incidence proportion is called lifetime risk. Cumulative incidence is defined as the probability that a particular event, ... What was the cumulative incidence of ESKD over the 5-year study period? [2 Rychetnik L, Hawe P, Waters E, Barratt A, Frommer M ...
The cumulative incidence is the proportion of a population that became new cases within a specified time period, for example, " ... The incidence and changes in incidence with time are unclear in the United Kingdom. The reported autism incidence in the UK ... A 2005 study of a part of Yokohama with a stable population of about 300,000 reported a cumulative incidence to age 7 years of ... A population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota county found that the cumulative incidence of autism grew eightfold from ...
Incidence Cumulative incidence Prevalence Attributable risk. ... disease-specific variables are expressed as their proportion of ... This name is given because in mathematical models of disease, disease-specific data such as the incidence of disease in a ...
The effect does not appear to be due to a higher incidence of obstetric complications in urban environments. The risk increases ... The authors concluded that the findings make it unlikely that common SNPs in these genes account for a substantial proportion ... cumulative, or repeated exposures during upbringing occurring more frequently in urbanized areas are responsible for the ... Family history of mental illness does not predict the incidence of stimulant toxicosis in ADHD children. High rates of ...
A small proportion of aldophosphamide freely diffuses into cells, where it is decomposed into two compounds, phosphoramide ... For instance, CMF-therapy for breast cancer (where the cumulative dose is typically less than 20 grams of cyclophosphamide) ... Monach PA, Arnold LM, Merkel PA (January 2010). "Incidence and prevention of bladder toxicity from cyclophosphamide in the ... Adverse drug reactions from cyclophosphamide are related to the cumulative medication dose and include chemotherapy-induced ...
2009). "Cumulative incidence of false-positive results in repeated, multimodal cancer screening". Annals of Family Medicine. 7 ... The program has increased the proportion of all eligible members screened by 25 percent. DNA testing with Cologuard test has ...
Recognizing that these men differ from those diagnosed today with PSA screening, the cumulative incidence of death from ... An unmet need is to identify the relatively small proportion of men with a lethal phenotype in whom death can be prevented by ... similar to the cumulative incidence of death from prostate cancer of 12.3% at 30 years for men with Gleason score 6 cancers ... A range of estimates of over diagnosis between 23% and 42% have been reported based on U.S. incidence. Depending upon the age ...
... to cumulant Cumulative accuracy profile Cumulative distribution function Cumulative frequency analysis Cumulative incidence ... prob/stats related court case Lukacs's proportion-sum independence theorem Łukaszyk-Karmowski metric Lumpability Lusser's law ... Incidence (epidemiology) Increasing process Indecomposable distribution Independence of irrelevant alternatives Independent ... Bills of Mortality Bimodal distribution Binary classification Bingham distribution Binomial distribution Binomial proportion ...
A small proportion of aldophosphamide freely diffuses into cells, where it is decomposed into two compounds, phosphoramide ... For instance, CMF-therapy for breast cancer (where the cumulative dose is typically less than 20 grams of cyclophosphamide) ... Monach PA, Arnold LM, Merkel PA (January 2010). "Incidence and prevention of bladder toxicity from cyclophosphamide in the ... Cyclophosphamide-induced AML, when it happens, typically presents some years after treatment, with incidence peaking around 3-9 ...
Change of incidence of stroke after a community-based intervention for nine years in three cities in China. Chin J Chron Non- ... The cumulative loss over the period 2005-2015 would be about $556 billion. The establishment of Chinese cancer registries began ... From 1990 to 2000, the proportion of people living in urban settings in China increased from 26% to 36%, the number of cities ... The most notable outcomes were that the incidence of stroke decreased by 52% in men and 53% in women, and the mortality rate of ...
Mesothelioma incidence rates increase exponentially with time since first exposure and also increase with intensity of exposure ... A survey of dustiness in the industry conducted in 1966 has provided a basis for estimates of cumulative crocidolite exposure ... unlikely the town could be satisfactorily cleaned up and the benefits of attempting to clean up the town were not in proportion ... Mathematical modelling of the relationship between mesothelioma incidence and intensity of exposure, duration of exposure and ...
Clicking alone is not diagnostic of TMD since it is present in high proportion of the general population, mostly in people who ... The research that suggests a link appears to demonstrate a low to moderate incidence of TMD following whiplash injury, and that ... the cumulative evidence has been described as conflicting, with moderate evidence that TMD can occasionally follow whiplash ... There is some evidence that anterior disc displacement is present in proportion of TMD cases. Anterior disc displacement with ...
... the proportion of individuals who reach the clinical endpoint after an intervention is compared with the proportion of ... For example, the heart attack study above may report the incidence of the combined endpoint of chest pain, myocardial ... Regarding humane endpoints, a combined endpoint may constitute a threshold where there is enough cumulative degree of disease, ... Some studies will examine the incidence of a combined endpoint, which can merge a variety of outcomes into one group. ...
The incidence of endocarditis, in western countries, ranges from 1.5 to 6.2 cases per 100,000 people per annum. The cumulative ... This proportion varies considerably and could be seen reversed in some series of patients. The causes for pericardial tears ... 1986) Irvine, California, pages 87-95 Keon W J, Brais M, Walley V, et al 'Incidence of valve failure with the Ionescu-Shiley ... This advantage was not fully exploited because these valves were used only in a small proportion in young patients who would ...
The incidence of TBI varies by age, gender, region and other factors. Findings of incidence and prevalence in epidemiological ... Multiple TBIs may have a cumulative effect. A young person who receives a second concussion before symptoms from another one ... Community-based rehabilitation will be required for a high proportion of people, including vocational rehabilitation; this ... The annual incidence of mild TBI is difficult to determine but may be 100-600 people per 100,000. In the US, the case fatality ...
This assumes an incidence-to-mortality ratio of 4.7 for women and 3.7 for men. IARC (2009): "The use of UV-emitting tanning ... Prevalence increases with age, cumulative exposure to UV, and proximity to the equator. It is most prevalent in Australia, ... there was a higher density in colder areas with a lower median income and higher proportion of whites. A study in 1997 found an ... "Vital Signs: Melanoma Incidence and Mortality Trends and Projections - United States, 1982-2030", Centers for Disease Control ...
A recent analysis by Alarcon-Villaverde indicated MSM account for a large proportion of HIV incidence (55 percent) in Peru ( ... As of July 2010, the cumulative reported number of persons infected with HIV was 41,638, and there were 26,566 cases of AIDS, ... the annual HIV incidence was 5.1% among men who have sex with men, while an incidence of 3.5% has been found among men who have ... The activities supported by the Global Fund represent a large proportion of the investment in HIV/AIDS in the country, though ...
The incidence of central nervous system toxicity among divers has decreased since the Second World War, as protocols have ... Increasing the proportion of nitrogen is not viable, since it would produce a strongly narcotic mixture. However, helium is not ... defined as five contiguous or eight cumulative hours of stage 3 retinopathy of prematurity), both cryosurgery and laser surgery ... Yildiz, S; Aktas, S; Cimsit, M; Ay, H; Togrol, E (2004). "Seizure incidence in 80,000 patient treatments with hyperbaric oxygen ...
The proportion with access to professional help for mental disorders is far lower, however, even among those assessed as having ... Cuijpers, P. (2003). "Examining the Effects of Prevention Programs on the Incidence of New Cases of Mental Disorders: The Lack ... use cumulative meta-analyses of many trials, and (4) run very large trials.[94][95] ... a proportion eleven times higher than the inner-city average, and higher in every category of crime including violent assaults ...
However, adequate individual counseling can be difficult to employ to the potentially large proportion of the population likely ... cumulative risk of breast cancer. Additionally, new tests from Genetic Technologies LTD and Phenogen Sciences Inc. comparing ... reactive to being proactive and has the potential to significantly extend the duration of health and to decrease the incidence ...
The proportion with access to professional help for mental disorders is far lower, however, even among those assessed as having ... Cuijpers, P. (2003). "Examining the Effects of Prevention Programs on the Incidence of New Cases of Mental Disorders: The Lack ... use cumulative meta-analyses of many trials, and (4) run very large trials. Treatment and support for mental disorders is ... Waraich, Paul; Goldner, Elliot M; Somers, Julian M; Hsu, Lorena (2004). "Prevalence and Incidence Studies of Mood Disorders: A ...
The incidence of central nervous system toxicity among divers has decreased since the Second World War, as protocols have ... Increasing the proportion of nitrogen is not viable, since it would produce a strongly narcotic mixture. However, helium is not ... defined as five contiguous or eight cumulative hours of stage 3 retinopathy of prematurity), both cryosurgery and laser surgery ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is among the most common complications of prematurely born infants and its incidence has grown as ...
The North East England devolution referendum was an all postal ballot referendum that took place on 4 November 2004 throughout North East England on whether or not to establish an elected assembly for the region. Devolution referendums in the regions of Northern England were initially proposed under provisions of the Regional Assemblies (Preparations) Act 2003. Initially, three referendums were planned, but only one took place. The votes concerned the question of devolving limited political powers from the UK Parliament to elected regional assemblies in North East England, North West England and Yorkshire and the Humber respectively. Each were initially planned to be held on 4 November 2004, but on 22 July 2004 the planned referendums in North West England and in Yorkshire and the Humber were postponed, due to concerns raised about the use of postal ballots, but the referendum in North East England was allowed to continue, particularly as it was assumed that the region held the most support for ...
Jump up to: a b c d e f Mandell, Bennett, and Dolan (2010). Chapter 121. Jump up ^ "HIV Classification: CDC and WHO Staging Systems". Guide for HIV/AIDS Clinical Care. AIDS Education and Training Center Program. Retrieved November 21, 2015. Jump up ^ "World AIDS Day". World Health Organization. Retrieved June 16, 2015. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l "HIV/AIDS Fact sheet N°360". WHO. November 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2016. ^ Jump up to: a b GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.". Lancet (London, England). 388 (10053): 1545-1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC 5055577 Freely accessible. PMID 27733282. ^ Jump up to: a b GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators. (8 October ...
Numerous studies over a long period of time clearly indicate that male circumcision contributes to the development of urethral stricture. Among circumcised males, reported incidence of meatal stricture varies. Griffiths et al. (1985) reported an incidence of 2.8 percent.[8] Sörensen & Sörensen (1988) reported 0 percent.[9] Cathcart et al. (2006) reported an incidence of 0.55 percent.[10] Yegane et al. (2006) reported an incidence of 0.9 percent.[11] Van Howe (2006) reported an incidence of 7.29 percent.[2] In Van Howe's study, all cases of meatal stenosis were among circumcised boys. Simforoosh et al. (2010) reported an incidence of 0.55 percent. [12] According to Emedicine (2016), the incidence of meatal stenosis runs from 9 to 20 percent.[6] Frisch & Simonsen (2016) placed ...
In geometry, an incidence relation is a heterogeneous relation that captures the idea being expressed when phrases such as "a point lies on a line" or "a line is contained in a plane" are used. The most basic incidence relation is that between a point, P, and a line, l, sometimes denoted P I l. If P I l the pair (P, l) is called a flag. There are many expressions used in common language to describe incidence (for example, a line passes through a point, a point lies in a plane, etc.) but the term "incidence" is preferred because it does not have the additional connotations that these other terms have, and it can be used in a symmetric manner. Statements such as "line l1 intersects line l2" are also statements about incidence relations, but in this case, it is because this is a shorthand way of saying that "there exists a point P that is ...
... or cercarial dermatitis, is a short-term immune reaction occurring in the skin of humans that have been infected by water-borne schistosomatidae. Symptoms, which include itchy, raised papules, commonly occur within hours of infection and do not generally last more than a week. It is common in freshwater, brackish and marine habitats worldwide. Incidence may be on the rise, although this may also be attributed to better monitoring. Nevertheless, the condition has been regarded as emerging infectious disease. There are no permanent effects to people from this condition. Orally administered hydroxyzine, an antihistamine, is sometimes prescribed to treat swimmer's itch and similar dermal allergic reactions. In addition, bathing in oatmeal, baking soda, or Epsom salts can also provide relief of symptoms. Swimmer's itch probably has been around as long as humans. The condition was known to exist as early as the 1800s, but it was not until 1928 that a biologist found that the ...
In the UK and the USA, an increase in lung cancer rates, formerly "among the rarest forms of disease", was noted by the 1930s, but its cause remained unknown and even the credibility of this increase was sometimes disputed as late as 1950. For example, in Connecticut, reported age-adjusted incidence rates of lung cancer among males increased 220% between 1935-39 and 1950-54. In the UK, the share of lung cancer among all cancer deaths in men increased from 1.5% in 1920 to 19.7% in 1947. Nevertheless, these increases were questioned as potentially caused by increased reporting and improved methods of diagnosis. Although several carcinogens were already known at the time (for example, benzo[a]pyrene was isolated from coal tar and demonstrated to be a potent carcinogen in 1933), none were known to be contained in adequate quantities in tobacco smoke.[26] Richard Doll in 1950 published research in the British Medical Journal showing a close link between smoking and lung ...
Prisoners are sometimes intentionally housed with inmates known to have raped other prisoners, or protection from known rapists may be purposely withheld from the prisoners. These practices create a very high incidence of rape in US prisons, which was the topic of the 2001 report No Escape from Human Rights Watch.[2][3]. ...
HIV tests are used to detect the presence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), in serum, saliva, or urine. Such tests may detect antibodies, antigens, or RNA. AIDS is diagnosed separately from HIV. The window period is the time from infection until a test can detect any change. The average window period with HIV-1 antibody tests is 25 days for subtype B. Antigen testing cuts the window period to approximately 16 days and nucleic acid testing (NAT) further reduces this period to 12 days. Performance of medical tests is often described in terms of: sensitivity: The percentage of the results that will be positive when HIV is present specificity: The percentage of the results that will be negative when HIV is not present. All diagnostic tests have limitations, and sometimes their use may produce erroneous or questionable results. False positive: The test incorrectly indicates that HIV is present in a non-infected person. False ...
... - Below is a list of urban areas in the California as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau, ordered according to their 2010 estimated Census populations. In the table, UA refers to "urbanized area" (urban areas with population over 50,000) and UC refers to "urban cluster" (urban areas with population less than 50,000). The list includes urban areas with a population of at least 10,000. Rows in green indicate that part of the area lies outside of California. Rows without a rank indicate that the center of the area is outside of California. ...
An infection rate (or incident rate) is the probability or risk of an infection in a population. It is used to measure the frequency of occurrence of new instances of infection within a population during a specific time period. The number of infections equals the cases identified in the study or observed. An example might by HIV infection during a specific time period in the defined population. The population at risk are the cases appearing in the population during the same time period. An example would be all the people in a city during a specific time period. The constant, or K is assigned a value of 100 to represent a percentage. An example would be to find the percentage of people in a city who are infected with HIV: 6,000 cases in March divided by the population of a city (one million) multiplied by the constant (K) would give an infection rate of 0.6%. . Calculating the infection rate is used to analyze trends for the purpose of infection and disease control. An online infection rate ...
Diseminirani plazmacitom se v zahodnem svetu uvršča na drugo mesto med najpogostejšimi hematološkimi malignimi obolenji, takoj za ne-Hodgkinovim limfomom,[9] vendar sodi v primerjavi z drugimi malignimi obolenji med razmeroma redka obolenja.[10][11] Ocenjujejo, da se po celem svetu letno pojavi okoli 86.000 novih primerov bolezni (tj. 0,8 % vseh novih primerov rakov), okoli 63.000 ljudi pa umre (tj. 0,9 % vseh smrti zaradi raka). Najpogosteje se pojavlja v razvitih industrializiranih območjih Avstralije, Evrope, Severne Amerike in Nove Zelandije.[10] V zahodnih državah naj bi se pojavnost (incidenca) skozi desetletja višala, medtem ko je v azijskih državah stabilna.[10] Petletna razširjenost oz. prevalenca na Kitajskem je zelo nizka, tj. 1,3 na 100.000 prebivalcev.[12] Nekatere študije sicer kažejo naraščanje incidence v azijskih državah; na Japonskem je od leta 1975 do 2010 starostno standardizirana incidenca pri moških porasla od 0,92 do 5,2, pri ženskah pa od 0,81 do 4,8 ...
Grŵp mawr o blanhigion blodeuol yw'r rosidau (Saesneg: rosids). Maent yn amrywio yn fawr o ran golwg ond mae ganddynt ddail cyfansawdd fel rheol. Maent yn cynnwys blodau addurnol megis rhosod, ffrwythau megis afalau, ceirios a mefus a chodlysiau megis pys a ffa. ...
The population estimate includes people whose usual residence is in the fifty states and the District of Columbia, including noncitizens. It does not include either those residing in the territories, amounting to more than four million U.S. citizens (most of whom reside in Puerto Rico), or U.S. citizens residing outside the United States ...
The proportion of the entire population infected ranged from 11%-18%. We re-estimated the cumulative incidence to account for ... Around the world, the cumulative incidence of infection (which is higher than the cumulative incidence of clinical disease) was ... The age-specific cumulative incidence of infection with pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 was similar in various countries prior to ... The Age-Specific Cumulative Incidence of Infection with Pandemic Influenza H1N1 2009 Was Similar in Various Countries Prior to ...
the cumulative incidence, thats the proportion.. So, 9 divided by 237 is 3.8%. Thats ... year, it would be 10% incidence, and that would be an annual incidence. ... And so incidence is used for ideologic studies, and trying to. understand the causes of disorders so we have to define the ... incidence per thousand there is averaging about three,. but for females that are age 30 its nearly eight, its seven and a ...
Cumulative incidence is a proportion. - No units. - Range is 0 to 1. - Denominator is all at-risk in population. The cumulative ... Incidence rate applies to a broader range of questions. • Kaplan-Meier provides a means to estimate cumulative incidence - ... incidence increases each year as the cases continue to accumulate, but the denominator for cumulative incidence - the initial ... Incidence is the number of new cases of a disease over time.. - Units include time. - Range is 0 to infinity. - Denominator is ...
Assessed with the use of cumulative incidence plots.. *Non-relapse mortality [ Time Frame: Up to 1 year ]. Defined as death in ... Proportion of patients who develop grade 3-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after transplant [ Time Frame: Up to day ... The cumulative incidence of this endpoint in patients prepared with nonmyeloablative conditioning regimens after hematopoietic ... Assessed with the use of cumulative incidence plots. Patients will be evaluated for chronic GVHD as described in the National ...
Cumulative incidence. * Incidence proportion. *Attack rate (outbreak). * Incidence density. end offollow-up ... Ratio of the proportion of cases in exposed group compare to proportion in unexposed group ... An epidemiologic design in which the incidence of a disease (or condition) is estimated and compared among exposed and ... Only cohort studies (including clinical trials) can yield incidence and relative risk. ...
The cumulative incidence of side effects was comparable in both arms of the single dose studies whereas a higher cumulative ... The proportion of "slow" metabolisers of codeine in these studies was unknown. Their presence would have reduced any ... The cumulative incidence of side effects with each treatment was comparable in the single dose trials. In the multidose studies ... We could not assess the proportion of patients with moderate or good pain relief in these studies, as these data were not ...
Cumulative incidence of relapse [ Time Frame: through study completion, an average of 1 year ]. Calculated using the competing ... The proportion of subjects with complete response plus complete remission with incomplete blood count recovery plus partial ... Incidence of Treatment-Emergent Adverse Events (Safety and Tolerability) [ Time Frame: through study completion (an average of ... The proportion of subjects with complete response plus complete remission with incomplete blood count recovery ...
Cumulative cancer incidence (overall cancer risk) according to quarters of proportion of ultra-processed food in diet ... Figure 2 shows the corresponding cumulative incidence curves. In model 1, ultra-processed food intake was associated with ... Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer2015;136:E359-86. ... We determined the proportion of ultra-processed foods in the diet by calculating a weight ratio rather than an energy ratio to ...
The cumulative incidence of loss to follow-up and ART eligibility was estimated using competing-risk analysis (stcompet command ... The proportion of semesters with a CD4 cell count determination by duration of follow-up is presented in Figure 1. While the ... Figure 2: Cumulative incidence of loss to follow-up and antiretroviral therapy eligibility of patients ineligible for ... Figure 2 shows the cumulative incidence of ART eligibility and loss to follow-up over time. It was estimated that after 4.5 ...
Cumulative incidence or incidence proportion is a measure of frequency, as in epidemiology, where it is a measure of disease ... It is sometimes also referred to as the incidence proportion. Cumulative incidence is calculated by the number of new cases ... the incidence proportion is called lifetime risk. Cumulative incidence is defined as the probability that a particular event, ... What was the cumulative incidence of ESKD over the 5-year study period? [2 Rychetnik L, Hawe P, Waters E, Barratt A, Frommer M ...
Cumulative incidence of CD per birth cohort was calculated as the total number of cases per year divided by the number of ... Probable contributing factors should have affected a large proportion of the pediatric population, changed over time, and had ... A difference in cumulative incidence of CD between birth cohorts was evaluated by using the χ2 test. In the infant case- ... The cumulative incidence of childhood diabetes mellitus in Sweden unaffected by BCG-vaccination. Diabetologia. 1995;38(7):873- ...
Cumulative incidence of AD; in mixture models assuming susceptible and nonsusceptible individuals, the proportion of ... The incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) increases strongly with age, but little is known about the cumulative incidence of AD ... Cumulative incidence of AD; in mixture models assuming susceptible and nonsusceptible individuals, the proportion of ... but little is known about the cumulative incidence of AD over a lifetime of 100 years, or its relationship to the polymorphic ...
Cumulative Incidence (CI) proportion (per 100 000 population). CI = total number of cases up to certain date/ population at ... The incidence proportions, growth rates, doubling times and CFR were calculated on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 from February till May ... Methods: The incidence proportions, case fatality rates (CFR), growth rates, doubling time (Td), basic reproductive number (R0 ... The averages of the incidence proportion, growth rate, doubling time, R0 and HIT over the period from the first week of March ...
Cumulative incidence plot of proportion with CFRD relative to age among individuals with LR or HR haplotypes. LR/LR homozygotes ... Using this subset of individuals, we show that the cumulative incidence of CFRD differed significantly between individuals ... illustrated the strength of the clinical association in the data set by performing a log-rank test for difference in proportion ...
Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to calculate the probability of cumulative incidence of diabetes in the groups. Log- ... RESULTS Group 2 had a higher proportion developing diabetes in 3 years (56.2 vs. 33.6% in group 1, P = 0.000) and a lower rate ... In the Asian Indian subjects, the prevention strategies significantly decreased the cumulative incidence of diabetes in ... the cumulative incidences of diabetes at 36 months were similar in the intervention (29.8%) and placebo groups (31.6%) (14). ...
The cumulative proportion of overall aneurysm-related late events and the cumulative proportion of the mortality of late events ... Cumulative Incidence of Late Adverse Events. During a mean follow-up of 40.6 months (median, 30 months; range, 1-150 months; ... The aim of this study was to assess the cumulative incidence of all aneurysm-related adverse events in patients with coiled ... Cumulative incidence of late adverse events in incompletely occluded aneurysms at 6-month follow-up. ...
Among community-dwelling older people, the cumulative incidence of falls ranges from 25 to 40%.3 Falls have been correlated ... In a review, Meschial et al.4 found contradictory results in several databases concerning the proportion of falls with regard ... Incidence, risk factors and consequences of falls among elderly subjects living in the community: a criteria-based analysis. ... the proportion of older citizens will increase to 32% in developed countries and 19% in developing countries.1 ...
The 20-yr cumulative PC incidence and PC mortality were 40.0% and 1.4%, respectively. The corresponding figures were 38.8% and ... The proportion of men untreated at final follow-up was similar in the two PSA groups (22% vs 23%). The use of sextant biopsy ... The 20-yr cumulative PC incidence and PC mortality were calculated using the 1 minus Kaplan-Meier method. ...
In fact, the incidence of ICU-associated weakness increased along with the cumulative dose of norepinephrine, but not with ... The proportion of patients with ICU-acquired weakness significantly increases with increasing cumulative dose of norepinephrine ...
Cumulative incidence of treatment failure; Phase II: Prevalence of active symptomatic chronic GVHD; Phase II: Incidence of ... Phase II: Proportion of subjects with CR/PR; Phase III: Proportion of subjects with CR; resolution of GVHD manifestations; ... Cumulative incidence of treatment failure; Phase III: Prevalence of active symptomatic chronic GVHD; Phase III: Incidence of ... proportion of patients with exacerbations in each study group from week 0 to week 32.; the magnitude of the reduction in the ...
Proportion of patients who successfully tapered off all steroids at Cycle 7 Day 1 ● Cumulative incidence of Malignancy Relapse/ ... Proportion of patients who achieved OR (CR+PR) at any time point (up Cycle 7 day 1 or the start of additional systemic therapy ... To estimate ORR at end of Cycle 3 Proportion of patients who achieved OR (CR+PR) at Cycle 4 Day 1. - Duration of Response ... Proportion of patients with ≥50% reduction in the daily steroid dose at Cycle 7 Day 1 ● ...
Panel A shows the cumulative incidence of neutrophil recovery. At 26 days, the cumulative incidence was 88% among recipients of ... decreased proportions of T lymphocytes (P,0.001) and B lymphocytes (P,0.001), and similar proportions of CD34+ cells (P = 0.99 ... Panel B shows the cumulative incidence of platelet recovery. At 60 days, the cumulative incidence was 71% among recipients of ... the cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment was 88% with expansion versus 53% without expansion (P,0.001); on day 60, ...
Non-parametric inference for cumulative incidence functions in competing risks studies. Stat Med 1997;16(8):901-910. ... 16 Simple proportions were used to describe in vivo donor NK-cell expansion and CR. Associations between NK-cell expansion and ... Disease-free survival (DFS) was estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves through 6 months after therapy.15 Cumulative incidence was ... there was no correlation between the incidence of NK-cell expansion and the method of NK-cell product manufacture (CD3-depleted ...
  • COVID-19 transmissibility has declined but the incidence rate has increased, underscoring that any lockdown-exit strategy should include measures to strengthen physical distancing, and case-based interventions to prevent an uncontrolled upsurge of COVID-19 cases. (who.int)
  • Hospitalization and lab confirmed cases of H1N1 have been reported during the first wave of the 2009 pandemic but these are not accurate measures of influenza incidence in the population. (cmaj.ca)
  • Incidence measures refer to the occurrence of newly diagnosed cases over a specified time period. (wikibooks.org)
  • The effect of cumulative social risk on CVD may not be fully mediated by and improved disease diagnosis, and a large proportion of the as- poor health behaviors (eg, smoking) and cardiometabolic profile (eg, blood pressure, diabetes, cholesterol). (cdc.gov)
  • A large proportion of men in the control arm had undergone a prostate-specific antigen test during the 15-year follow-up," the authors write. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Recently, there has been an increasing focus on the health of children and adolescents, mainly because lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes that affect a large proportion of the population in industrialized countries have been shown to begin early in life. (chiro.org)
  • Incidence is the rate at which new cases form in the population. (coursera.org)
  • It may also be calculated by the incidence rate multiplied by duration: C I ( t ) = 1 − e − I R ( t ) ⋅ D . {\displaystyle CI(t)=1-e^{-IR(t)\cdot D}\,.} In order to examine progression from less severe chronic kidney disease to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), in 2010, researchers recruited a group of 8,808 Indigenous Australians, aged between 45 to 64, who currently have chronic kidney disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • To investigate if changes in the national Swedish vaccination program coincided with changes in the celiac disease (CD) incidence rate in infants (ie, the Swedish CD Epidemic), and to assess the potential association between these vaccinations and CD risk. (aappublications.org)
  • Using an ecological approach, we plotted changes over time in the national vaccination program in the graph displaying CD incidence rate. (aappublications.org)
  • 9 , 10 The epidemic pattern, a rapid fourfold increase in incidence rate, followed by an equally abrupt decline 1 decade later, is unique for an immunologic and autoimmune disease, indicating that not only genetics but also environmental and lifestyle factors have a causal role in disease development. (aappublications.org)
  • RESULTS Group 2 had a higher proportion developing diabetes in 3 years (56.2 vs. 33.6% in group 1, P = 0.000) and a lower rate of reversal to NGT (18 vs. 32.1%, P = 0.000). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Illustrate the difference between the prevalence, cumulative incidence, and incidence rate using an example or scholarly references. (coursehero.com)
  • What are some problems with estimating the cumulative incidence rate? (coursehero.com)
  • The prevalence rate peaked at age two for boys and at age 2.5 for girls, although there were no other sex differences in the proportion of children who developed atopic dermatitis, the researchers reported. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Two more recent prospective studies estimating the incidence rate of new HCV cases have also been published, suggesting ongoing transmission in their respective communities ( 21 , 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • For the pre-STCS case series, it was not possible to estimate the incidence rate of PTLD. (smw.ch)
  • The package enables to compute event-specific incidence rates for competing risks data, to compute rate ratios, event-specific incidence proportions and cumulative incidence functions from these, and to plot these in a comprehensive multi-state type graphic. (r-project.org)
  • The overall cumulative rate of CIN3+ was 1.3% (95% CI 1.1% to 1.5%) through 72 months of follow-up, 2.3% for women aged 25-33 years (n=3277) and 0.9% for women aged 34-69 years (n=7943). (bmj.com)
  • Design and Methods We investigated the effect of pretransplant anti-donor isoagglutinin reduction by in vivo absorption and/or plasmapheresis on the incidence of pure red cell aplasia and the time to red blood cell engraftment in 153 hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with major ABO incompatibility. (haematologica.org)
  • Cumulative incidence or incidence proportion is a measure of frequency, as in epidemiology, where it is a measure of disease frequency during a period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest sign of dermatitis leading to atopic dermatitis was recorded at one month, with the highest incidence occurring during the second half-year of life, according to the researchers. (medpagetoday.com)
  • PTLD development after solid organ transplantation is estimated to be from 1 to 20%, with the highest incidence for intestinal and multivisceral transplants (up to 20%), followed by lung and heart transplants (up to 10%), and the lowest incidence for renal and liver transplants (up to 5%) [ 4 ]. (smw.ch)
  • Safety will be assessed through 30 days of follow-up after the last dose of study treatment and assessed by the cumulative incidence, severity and seriousness of treatment-emergent AEs, drug discontinuations, laboratory values, and clinical assessments. (yahoo.com)
  • Where the period of time considered is an entire lifetime, the incidence proportion is called lifetime risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • The incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) increases strongly with age, but little is known about the cumulative incidence of AD over a lifetime of 100 years, or its relationship to the polymorphic APOE locus that encodes apolipoprotein E. APOE is a strong genetic risk factor for AD. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • These models estimated the 100-year lifetime incidence of AD at 72%, implying that 28% of individuals would not develop AD over any reasonable life expectancy. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We confirmed the acceleration of AD onset in individuals with 1 or, especially, 2 APOE, epsilon4 alleles but observed no meaningful difference in 100-year lifetime incidence related to number of epsilon4 alleles. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • 9 11 ] This pattern is, however, also seen in musculoskeletal conditions such as back pain where the cumulative lifetime incidence is already at the adult level in late adolescence3 and significant back pain in childhood is a strong predictor of back pain later in life for the individual. (chiro.org)
  • We hypothesized that pretransplant removal of anti-donor isoagglutinins by plasmapheresis or transfusion of donor-type ABO incompatible RBC ( in vivo adsorption) may facilitate RBC engraftment and consequently reduce the incidence of PRCA. (haematologica.org)
  • The cumulative incidence of non-engraftment after UCB transplantation varies from 10 to 20% and the median time to neutrophil recovery varies from 22 to 27 days. (hindawi.com)
  • The crude proportions developing cancer were 5/152 (3%) in the group who took long-term sulphasalazine but 5/16 (31%) in the those who had had their treatment stopped or who did not comply with therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Assess the proportion of treated participants with sub-clinical levels of AML (i.e., minimal residual disease, MRD) as measured by flow cytometry and/or next generation sequencing of known mutations (e.g. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Large clinical trials demonstrating that lifestyle interventions (diet and exercise) reduce incidence of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We calculated incidence risk ratios for demographic characteristics by using a negative binomial regression ( Technical Appendix ). (cdc.gov)
  • For each of the two panels of serum specimens, we calculated the point seroprevalence of pandemic (H1N1) influenza as the proportion of specimens with an antibody titre of 1:40 or greater in the hemagglutination inhibition assay. (cmaj.ca)
  • Incidence of diabetes and reversal to normoglycemia (normal glucose tolerance [NGT]) were assessed in group 1 with baseline isolated IGT (iIGT) ( n = 667) and in group 2 with IGT + IFG ( n = 178). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The proportion developing diabetes in the groups were analyzed in the control arm with standard advice (IDPP-1) ( n = 125), lifestyle modification (LSM) (297 from both), metformin ( n = 125, IDPP-1), and LSM + metformin ( n = 121, IDPP-1) and LSM + pioglitazone ( n = 298, IDPP-2). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • MENA has also the highest levels of all regions in the proportions of incident hepatitis B virus (58.3%), HCV (81.7%), and HIV (7.2%) infections attributable to contaminated injections ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Epidemiological and biomedical research has made progress in association between the FRS and CVD incidence to assess the util- understanding CVD etiology and the mechanisms through which ity of the FRS among adults in South Korea. (cdc.gov)
  • The disease-specific incidence of HCC was calculated according to etiology of cirrhosis. (eur.nl)
  • The proportion increases to 30% when considering CVID cases with criteria of monogenic form suspicion including early onset, autoimmune/inflammatory manifestations, low B lymphocytes, and/or familial history of hypogammaglobulinemia ( 7 ). (frontiersin.org)