Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Iron Chelating Agents: Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.Iron Overload: An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Iron Isotopes: Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.Iron Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Iron Compounds: Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Iron Regulatory Protein 1: A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Iron Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of iron in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization. (From Mosby's Medical, Nursing, & Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)Iron Regulatory Protein 2: A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its rate of degradation is increased in the presence of IRON.Deferoxamine: Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.Siderophores: Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Iron-Dextran Complex: A complex of ferric oxyhydroxide with dextrans of 5000 to 7000 daltons in a viscous solution containing 50 mg/ml of iron. It is supplied as a parenteral preparation and is used as a hematinic. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1292)Anemia, Hypochromic: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)Hemochromatosis: A disorder of iron metabolism characterized by a triad of HEMOSIDEROSIS; LIVER CIRRHOSIS; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is caused by massive iron deposits in parenchymal cells that may develop after a prolonged increase of iron absorption. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed)Nonheme Iron Proteins: Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Iron-Binding Proteins: Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Iron-Regulatory Proteins: Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.Apoferritins: The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.HemosiderinHeme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Glucaric Acid: A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.Iron Carbonyl Compounds: Complex of iron atoms chelated with carbonyl ions.CeruloplasminFMN Reductase: An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.8.1 and EC 1.5.1.29.Chelation Therapy: Therapy of heavy metal poisoning using agents which sequester the metal from organs or tissues and bind it firmly within the ring structure of a new compound which can be eliminated from the body.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Ferrozine: A ferroin compound that forms a stable magenta-colored solution with the ferrous ion. The complex has an absorption peak at 562 nm and is used as a reagent and indicator for iron.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.beta-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Pyridones: Pyridine derivatives with one or more keto groups on the ring.Magnetite Nanoparticles: Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.Siderosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of iron in the mining dust or welding fumes.Phlebotomy: The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Erythrocyte Indices: ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Nitrilotriacetic Acid: A derivative of acetic acid, N(CH2COOH)3. It is a complexing (sequestering) agent that forms stable complexes with Zn2+. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed.)Ferrosoferric Oxide: Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.Aconitate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.3.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Spectroscopy, Mossbauer: A spectroscopic technique which uses the Mossbauer effect (inelastic scattering of gamma radiation resulting from interaction with heavy nuclei) to monitor the small variations in the interaction between an atomic nucleus and its environment. Such variations may be induced by changes in temperature, pressure, chemical state, molecular conformation, molecular interaction, or physical site. It is particularly useful for studies of structure-activity relationship in metalloproteins, mobility of heavy metals, and the state of whole tissue and cell membranes.Enterobactin: An iron-binding cyclic trimer of 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine. It is produced by E COLI and other enteric bacteria.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Protoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Hemosiderosis: Conditions in which there is a generalized increase in the iron stores of body tissues, particularly of liver and the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM, without demonstrable tissue damage. The name refers to the presence of stainable iron in the tissue in the form of hemosiderin.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Phytic Acid: Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.Lactoferrin: An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.2,2'-Dipyridyl: A reagent used for the determination of iron.Conalbumin: A glycoprotein albumin from hen's egg white with strong iron-binding affinity.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Hematinics: Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.Bloodletting: Puncture of a vein to draw blood for therapeutic purposes. Bloodletting therapy has been used in Talmudic and Indian medicine since the medieval time, and was still practiced widely in the 18th and 19th centuries. Its modern counterpart is PHLEBOTOMY.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Ferrichrome: A cyclic peptide consisting of three residues of delta-N-hydroxy-delta-N-acetylornithine. It acts as an iron transport agent in Ustilago sphaerogena.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Deficiency Diseases: A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Thalassemia: A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Hemin: Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)Ferrocyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Micronutrients: Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Transferrin-Binding Proteins: A class of carrier proteins that bind to TRANSFERRIN. Many strains of pathogenic bacteria utilize transferrin-binding proteins to acquire their supply of iron from serum.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Apoproteins: The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).Mononuclear Phagocyte System: Mononuclear cells with pronounced phagocytic ability that are distributed extensively in lymphoid and other organs. It includes MACROPHAGES and their precursors; PHAGOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS; HISTIOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and MICROGLIA. The term mononuclear phagocyte system has replaced the former reticuloendothelial system, which also included less active phagocytic cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 2d ed.)Hemoglobinometry: Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Flour: Ground up seed of WHEAT.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Metalloproteins: Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
c. 800 BC Celts bring iron working to Britain; Hallstatt Culture. c. 400 BC Parisi tribe from northern France settle in ... c. 1800 BC Wessex culture brings bronze-working to Britain. c. 1600 BC Last construction at Stonehenge. c. 1400 BC Wessex ... culture replaced by more agrarian peoples; stone circles and early hillforts produced. ...
"History & Culture". Saugus Iron Works. National Park Service. Retrieved July 16, 2014. Cowen, Peter (March 13, 1972). "$190m ... with funding from the American Iron and Steel Institute, reconstructed the Saugus Iron Works. The Saugus Iron Works was opened ... The Iron Works produced over one ton of iron a day, but was not financially successful. It closed around 1670. In September ... In 1646, the Saugus Iron Works, then called Hammersmith, began operations. It was the first integrated iron works in North ...
"Youguo Temple Iron Pagoda in Kaifeng of Henan Province". china.org. Retrieved 2007-09-03. "Iron Pagoda". China Culture. ... Inside the Iron Pagoda are frescos of the Chinese classical novel, the Journey to the West. In 1847 the Yellow River overflowed ... It was built during the Song dynasty (960-1279 CE). The design features the Iron Pagoda towering in the center of the complex, ... The 55 metre high Iron Pagoda, built in 1049, is a solid core, octagonal brick tower with an inner spiral stone staircase and ...
Celtic culture. Retrieved 29 October 2011 pp. 195-196 Armstrong. A History of Sussex. Ch. 3. Cunliffe. Iron Age communities in ... Previously iron cannons had been made by building up bands of iron bound together with iron hoops; such cannons had been used ... Iron Age wrought iron was produced by means of a bloomery followed by reheating and hammering. With the type that was common in ... The iron so retrieved could then be worked by using the heat and beat technique to form wrought iron implements such as weapons ...
"Archaeologists Unearth Iron Age Settlement During Dig In Taunton". Culture 24. Retrieved 9 February 2011. "Excavation (2008-9 ... Finds from the site include a pair of iron shears, iron spear tips, animal bones, flint tools, loom weights, Iron Age and Roman ... "Exciting Iron Age finds at proposed Somerset park-and-ride site". Western Daily Press. This is Bristol. Retrieved 9 February ... It uncovered Bronze Age burnt mounds, Middle Bronze Age and Late Iron Age roundhouses, and a field system established in the ...
"Iron Pagoda". China Culture. Archived from the original on 2007-08-06. Retrieved 2007-09-03. Knapp 2008, p. 214. Twitchett 2009 ... Technology and Culture, 29: 594-605 Luttwak, Edward N. (2009), The Grand Strategy of the Byzantine Empire, The Belknap Press of ... their history and culture, Volumes 1-2, Macmillan Lorge, Peter (2005), War, Politics and Society in Early Modern China, 900- ... Culture, Power, and Connections, 580-800 (Oxford Studies in Early Empires), Oxford University Press Standen, Naomi (2007), ...
An incubator is a device used to grow and maintain microbiological cultures or cell cultures. The incubator maintains optimal ... Cultures were placed near the flame on the underside of the jar's lid, and the entire jar was placed in a dry, heated oven. ... "Improvements in CO2 Incubators for Cell Cultures". www.biocompare.com. Retrieved 2019-12-02.. ... They began to experiment to find the ideal environment for maintaining cell culture stocks. These early incubators were simply ...
Reynolds, Terry S. (January 1989). "Iron in the Wilderness: The Michigan Iron Industry Museum". Technology and Culture. Society ... Forge Road runs north to the Michigan Iron Industry Museum on the site of the Carp River Forge, the original iron ore forge in ... The first roadway along the route of the modern CR 492 was a plank road built by the Cleveland and Sharon Iron Companies in the ... Through this area, the Iron Ore Heritage Trail, a new multi-use trail system, was built to follow CR 492, and opened in 2013. ...
"Iron hipposandal". Google Arts & Culture. Retrieved 20 July 2017. Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and ... The earliest clear written record of iron horseshoes is a reference to "crescent figured irons and their nails" in AD 910. ... Because iron was a valuable commodity, and any worn out items were generally reforged and reused, it is difficult to locate ... In that period, due to the value of iron, horseshoes were even accepted in lieu of coin to pay taxes. By the 13th century, ...
Iron Game History. 11. 2010. Heffernan, Conor (2015-04-15). "1977 and the birth of the World's Strongest Man". Physical Culture ...
Cast Iron Aqueduct in Rees's Cyclopædia'". Technology and Culture. 9: 597-600. doi:10.2307/3101903. Cossons, Neil, ed., Rees's ...
Chariot burial Arras culture British Iron Age Carter, S. and F. Hunter (2003). 'An Iron Age chariot burial from Scotland.' ... The chariot was the first of its kind to be found in Scotland and shows Iron Age Scotland in direct contact with the European ... The only other area of Britain where chariot burials have been found is of the Arras Culture in East Yorkshire in which most of ... From the outset it was clear that the iron tyres and other metal fittings around each wheel were well-preserved and it was ...
In The Protestant Ethic, Weber suggested an alternative explanation based on culture. Here, a theoretical model confirms that a ... Arthur Mitzman (1970). The Iron Cage: An Historical Interpretation of Max Weber. Transaction Publishers. p. 218. ISBN 978-1- ... Puritan Capitalism; Puritanism and Culture; Saving and Capital; Paradox of Asceticism and Rich; Serving Both Worlds; Citizenry ... Weber points out that such a spirit is not limited to Western culture if one considers it as the attitude of individuals, but ...
A study of iron-deficiency among early Mongolian nomads showed that although overall rates of cribra orbitalia declined from ... Physical anthropology and bioarchaeology have been criticized for having little to no concern for culture or history. Blakey ... It was long assumed that iron deficiency anemia has marked effects on the flat bones of the cranium of infants and young ... That as the body attempts to compensate for low iron levels by increasing red blood cell production in the young, sieve-like ...
"Hockney's largest painting pulls the crowds in York". York - Arts and Culture. BBC. Retrieved 28 October 2013. "Iron Age gold ... In 2012 the Trust successfully raised enough money to retain one of a pair of Iron Age gold torcs that had been found in Towton ... "Installation: The Temple of a Thousand Bells". Events Arts & Culture. yourlocallink.co.uk. Archived from the original on 31 ...
Iron Maiden'. Retrieved 2012-08-29. 'Judas cradle pop culture'. 'Brazen Bull pop culture' Torture. University of Pennsylvania ... Other objects housed in the museum include the iron maiden, skull crusher, judas chair, Catherine Wheels and Scold's bridle. ... many of which now inspire humor or become part of pop culture. Several books mention the torture museum, including Torture. ...
It should be pointed out that in ancient China, as in most early cultures, medicine has its origin in magic. Medicine men were ... Creighton, John (2000). Coins and Power in Late Iron Age Britain. Cambridge University Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-521-77207-5. ... Cannabis and Culture. Retrieved 19 November 2015. Wissman et al. 1888 Pilcher, Tim (2005). Spliffs 3: The Last Word in Cannabis ... The Celts may have also used cannabis, as evidence of hashish traces were found in Hallstatt, birthplace of Celtic culture. ...
Fascism: Fascism and culture. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2004. p. 207. Stanley G. Payne. A ... The symbol of the Romanian Iron Guard was a triple cross (a variant of the triple parted and fretted) - three parallel ... Iron Fists: Branding the 20th-Century Totalitarian State. Phaidon Press. p. 240. ISBN 0-7148-4846-8. Roger Griffin, Matthew ... swastika was a popular symbol in art prior to the regimental use by Nazi Germany and has a long heritage in many other cultures ...
The production of iron images differ greatly from their bronze counterparts because iron images were cast piece by piece and ... Culture/Period: Goryeo Dynasty. Provenance: Hansongsa Temple site, Namhangjin-dong, Gangneung-si, Gangwon-do. Materials: ... Cast iron, h. 58 cm. Guimet Museum. Seated Sakyamuni Buddha, 10th century. Cast iron, 2.88 m. National Museum of Korea, ... Cast iron, h. 37.4 cm. National Museum of Korea. The Myogilsang Buddhist statue on Mt. Kumgang, the 102nd National treasure of ...
It was built in the Iron Age. It was discovered in 1906, and fully excavated in 1911. It has been listed as an official ... "Oppidum de Verduron". French Ministry of Culture. Retrieved August 10, 2016. Coordinates: 43°22′17″N 5°20′20″E / 43.3714°N ...
Macfarlane served as superintendent of schools from 1866-68 for Iron County, Utah, and the leader of the choir in Cedar City ... Washburn, Lorraine T. (1961). "Culture in Dixie" (PDF). Utah Historical Quarterly. 29: 257. Retrieved 2009-12-14. Cornwall, J. ... Multiple sources identified him as one of the many Iron County Militia men involved in the 1857 Mountain Meadows Massacre. ... "List of those Accused of Being Present at the Massacre". The 1857 Iron County Militia Project. Retrieved 2009-12-14. ...
Chinadaily.com.cn (2003).Iron Pagoda Archived 2007-08-06 at the Wayback Machine.. Ministry of Culture. Retrieved on 2007-03-29 ... The Iron Pagoda of Youguo Temple in Kaifeng earned it name from the iron-grey color of the glazed bricks forming the tower. ... The period also featured true cast-iron pagodas, such as the Iron Pagoda of Yuquan Temple (Jade Springs Temple), Dangyang, ... Several such cast iron pagodas exist in China today. The Liuhe Pagoda, or Six Harmonies Pagoda, is another example of Song-era ...
"The Iron Amir." History Today, June 2014, 48-53. Surridge, Keith. "The Ambiguous Amir: Britain, Afghanistan and the 1897 North- ... Moulin, Anne-Marie (2011). "Le Medecin du Prince ou La Science de L'Outre-Mer". Mondes Et Cultures. 71: 375-391 - via EBSCOhost ... "Le Medecin du Prince ou la Science de l'outre Mer." Mondes Et Cultures 71, no. 1: 375-391. Historical Abstracts, EBSCOhost ( ... iron rule'. Even with the Amir's protection, her work still posed a threat to her own life, and she knew that a loss of the ...
South Asian History and Culture. Retrieved 17 May 2013. "Iron lady Mahlaqa Bai Chanda's haveli reduced to rubble". The Siasat ... While growing up, she had access to a well-endowed library and was exposed to the vibrant culture of Hyderabad. By the time she ...
"Unknown culture discovered in Peru". Past Horizons. Retrieved 6 June 2014. Ferguson, Kate (2014-07-07). "Iron Age treasure ... July 7 - The discovery of 26 Roman/late Iron Age coins probably of the Corieltauvi in a Dovedale cave in the Peak District of ... "Iron Age skeletons at house building site". Pocklington Post. 2014-12-18. Retrieved 2016-03-17. "Thousands of ancient coins ... December 18 - The discovery of a large British Iron Age and Anglian square barrow cemetery at Pocklington in the East Riding of ...
In popular culture[edit]. *Finnish symphonic metal band Nightwish wrote and performed a song called "Edema Ruh" on their album ... strikes the possessed mercenary with a rod of iron. The first day ends when Kvothe finishes the first chapter of his story and ... is divided into several distinct nations and cultures. Much of the world follows a religion similar, though not identical, to ...
Iron Man and Other Pop Culture Icons as Legos. Art , By Paul Hiebert , May 6, 2010. ... Maclane has transformed squares with circles into some of our favorite pop culture icons, including Iron Man, RoboCop, and ...
Iron chelators induce HIF-1 DNA-binding activity in neurons. The studies described above used primary cultures that are 85-90% ... To determine whether iron chelators can induce enhanced HIF-1 DNA binding in cortical neuronal cultures, we performed EMSAs on ... 1995) Regulation of glucose transport and GLUT-1 expression by iron chelators in muscle cells in culture. Am J Physiol 269: ... Iron chelators induce expression of HIF-regulated genes in cortical neuronal cultures. To determine whether known HIF-1- ...
Because excessive iron can induce oxidative stress subsequently causing degradation of nigral dopaminergic neurons in PD, we ... Disrupted iron metabolism and excess iron accumulation has been reported in the brains of Parkinsons disease (PD) patients. ... Neuroprotective effect of the natural iron chelator, phytic acid in a cell culture model of Parkinsons disease Toxicology. ... Disrupted iron metabolism and excess iron accumulation has been reported in the brains of Parkinsons disease (PD) patients. ...
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) are applied as contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ... Biocompatibility of very small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in murine organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and ... Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) are applied as contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ... Thus, we have not only clarified the interaction between VSOP, slice culture, and microglia to a degree but also demonstrated ...
Hyperglycemia Does Not Affect Iron Mediated Toxicity of Cultured Endothelial and Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells: Influence of L ... Iron has been suggested to affect the clinical course of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as accompanying increased intracellular iron ... HUVECs and PTECs, cultured under normal glucose (5 mM, NG) or HG (30 mM), were challenged for 24 h with FeCl3. Cell viability ... We sought to assess if high glucose (HG) exposure makes cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and renal ...
Iron and Steel Landscapes and Cultures. 10-14 July 2013, Ironbridge, UK. For centuries iron and steel have been the fundamental ... Representations of iron and steel cultures in the popular media. The cultural industries (arts, sport, tourism, etc.) in ... This conference seeks to engage in an open multi-disciplinary analysis of iron and steel landscapes and cultures, from the ... From the earliest functional usage of iron in domestic life, to decorative cast iron, from weapons to knives and forks and from ...
After supplementation with a ferric salt, Iron-Supplemented Calf Serum contains up to four times as much available iron and ... Iron-Supplemented Calf Serum supports long-term growth of many cell types such as fibroblast-like, epithelial-like and lymphoid ... Formula fed calf serum has exceptionally high levels of transferrin, and therefore the capacity to bind higher levels of iron. ... Proliferating cells require iron for bioenergetics and oxidation-reduction catalysis, including activation of oxygen, nitrogen ...
Transferrin Synthesized in Cultured Human Fibroblasts is Associated with Tubulins and has Iron Binding Capacity * * Sakaguchi ... Gene expression of iron-related proteins during iron deficiency caused by scurvy in guinea pigs. GOSIEWSKA A. ... Differential Localization of Two Types of Transferrin: Produced by Human Fibroblasts or Incorporated from Culture Medium ... Simple radioimmunoassay for transferrin using insolubilized antitransferrin antibodies : its application to cultured cells. ...
Latvia: My (Weedless) Nightmare Behind The Old Iron Curtain By Oswaldo Pérez Cabrera, Cannabis Culture on July 14, 2010. ... Were any of the authors "informants" educated? Cultured? I would hope that Cannabis Culture would be determined to be part of ... program which wanted Russian culture and language to take over Latvia and drown out Latvian culture and language (cheaper than ... People have always been very discreet when taking drugs behind the iron curtain still are now. There´s always been hard laws ...
... in mouse hepatocyte and HepG2 cell cultures using specific fluorescent techniques. Treatment with GTE (12.5 - 25 mg/dl) and ... Their actions might be related to iron-chelating and free radical-scavenging capacities. Whether the effects can improve iron ... fibrosis and cancer due to their anti-oxidative and iron-chelating activities. We studied the effects of GTE and EGCG on ... suggesting a hepatoprotective effect of green tea extract and EGCG in the hepatocytes with iron overload. ...
... who transports the famous Iron Man into the other cult universes of pop culture through figures ... Pop Culture - The awesome customized figures by Sam Kwok. 2015-07-21 // featured popular geek universe art toy iron man mashup ... who transports the famous Iron Man into the other cult universes of pop culture through figures customized with great skill, ... Posters Pop Culture - The beautiful illustrations by Andy Fairhurst. illustration popular star wars geek universe ...
... the iron-storage protein. 3 A small amount of "protein-free" cytosolic iron is defined as chelatable, redox-active iron bound ... Total uptake of 59Fe from 59Fe-Tf by LECs cultured in N or H conditions. LECs were loaded with iron for 6 hours or 24 hours and ... Total uptake of 59Fe from 59Fe-Tf by LECs cultured in N or H conditions. LECs were loaded with iron for 6 hours or 24 hours and ... LECs cultured under hypoxic conditions retained from 37% (59FeCl3) to 62% (59Fe-Tf) more iron in the cytosolic fraction at 6- ...
Iron loading of cultured hepatocytes. Effect of iron on 5-aminolaevulinate synthase is independent of lipid peroxidation. S I ... Iron loading of cultured hepatocytes. Effect of iron on 5-aminolaevulinate synthase is independent of lipid peroxidation ... Iron loading of cultured hepatocytes. Effect of iron on 5-aminolaevulinate synthase is independent of lipid peroxidation ... Cultured chick embryo hepatocytes were iron-loaded with ferric nitrilotriacetate. Iron-loading was confirmed by both ...
IRON AGE Hallstatt Culture ANCIENT Celtic Bronze DRIUD Amulet / Talisman Stylized VAGINA Circa 700 - 500 BC Found on the ... IRON AGE HALLSTATT Culture ANCIENT Celtic Bronze DRIUD Amulet , Stylized VAGINA - $5.95. ... Ribbed Spear Blade IRON AGE - Hallstatt Culture , ANCIENT Celtic Iron Weapon. $119.96 Buy It Now 12d 18h ... Curved Knife Blade - IRON AGE Hallstatt Culture , ANCIENT Celtic Iron Weapon. $10.95 Buy It Now 23d 13h ...
Gel Scan of Transferrin, Human Plasma (SIDERO), Partially Iron Saturated, Tissue Culture Grade. This information is ... Iron Content: 300-600 ug Fe/G protein. Prepared from plasma shown to be non reactive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HBc, and ... Note: This product is suitable for cell culture use.. Endotoxin Level: <= 1 EU/mg by LAL testing. Sterile filtered using 0.1 ...
Trumps Economic Iron Curtain Against China. August 23, 2019, 6:03 PM. ... Heres an informed response to my mulling the other day about the central place that SOF has taken in U.S. military culture ... Special Operator: Toms wrong to worry about SOF as the heart of military culture - but the Vietnam parallels are killing me. ... Heres an informed response to my mulling the other day about the central place that SOF has taken in U.S. military culture ...
Monday, July 9 at 11 a.m.: Iron Giant. Programed by Chicago International Childrens Film Festival ... Arts&Culture Politics&City Life Real Estate Style&Shopping Home Design Health&Wellness Travel Video Best of Chicago Marketplace ...
2. MAGICAL IRON TECHNOLOGY IN THE CAMEROON GRASSFIELDS. Download PDF pp. 51-72 ... Dramatic changes in material culture took place in western Kenya before the Second World War, as a direct result of British ... African Material Culture. Edited by Mary Jo Arnoldi, Christraud M. Geary, and Kris L. Hardin ... 1. TECHNOLOGICAL STYLE AND THE MAKING OF CULTURE: Three Kono Contexts of Production. Download PDF pp. 31-50 ...
Andrzej Jan Wróblewski - Iron. Co-designer: Andrzej Latos, for the Predom Research and Development Center, 1975, models in the ... Culture.pl takes a look at some of the most intriguing examples of how the hussars influenced culture, both in Poland and ... Culture.pl takes a look at global trends which will affect the development of Polish cuisine in 2018. Read more » about: A Year ... Culture.pl is here to explain what makes Polands version of Romanticism unique. Read more » about: Polands Unique Take on ...
In Italy the late Bronze Age Canegrate and Proto-Villanovan cultures and the early Iron Age Villanovan culture show ... The widespread use of iron for tools only occurred in the late Iron Age La Tène culture. ... Milavce culture in southeastern Bohemia. *Unstrut culture in Thuringia, a mixture between Knovíz-culture and the South-German ... Over much of Europe, the Urnfield culture followed the Tumulus culture and was succeeded by the Hallstatt culture.[1] ...
Culture. Picture China: Beat the Iron Ball Ceremony in Fujian. *. Mar 3, 2016 7:45 pm HKT. ... Culture. Please Dont Stop the Music: Discord at Voice of China over Sky High Fees. *. Jan 29, 2016 6:55 pm HKT. ... Culture. Puttin on the Hits: Star Wars and Foreign Films in China. *. Dec 17, 2015 12:25 pm HKT. ... Culture. Disneys New Star Wars Movie is an Unfamiliar Force in China. *. Dec 16, 2015 11:00 am HKT. ...
SPACE PHOTOS THIS WEEK: Tiny Galaxy, Suns Iron, More. SPACE PHOTOS THIS WEEK: Tiny Galaxy, Suns Iron, More. ... We were eager to meet the Dogon and share stories of their unique culture: dama mask dances, fox divinations, and other aspects ... Unique Dogon Culture Survives in West Africa. Chris Rainier. for National Geographic News. ... I recently traveled into the region in my capacity as National Geographic Cultures Initiative photographer. I was joined by my ...
The Iron Age in Scandinavia and Northern Europe begins around 500 BC with the Jastorf culture, and is taken to last until c. ... Iron Age Scandinavia (or Nordic Iron Age) refers to the Iron Age, as it unfolded in Scandinavia. ... The Northern European Iron Age is the locus of Proto-Germanic culture, in its later stage differentiating into Proto-Norse (in ... iron production from bog iron (mostly in Denmark) slowly gained ground. Iron is a versatile metal and was suitable for tools ...
Strike while the iron is hot definition, a ductile, malleable, silver-white metallic element, scarcely known in a pure ... Culture definitions for strike while the iron is hot. Strike while the iron is hot. ... irm, irma, irminger current, iro, iroko, iron, iron age, iron blue, iron brick, iron chancellor, iron cross ... from iron (n.). Meaning "press clothes" (with a heated flat-iron) is recorded from 1670s. Related: Ironed; ironing. ...
  • We show that mRNA, protein, and/or activity levels for genes whose expression is known to be regulated by HIF-1, including glycolytic enzymes, p21 waf1/cip1 , and erythropoietin, are increased in cortical neuronal cultures in response to iron chelator treatment. (jneurosci.org)
  • Iron binding was determined by the chelator capacity for restoring the fluorescence of iron-quenched calcein (CA), a dynamic fluorescent metallosensor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The time-dependent recovery of fluorescence in the presence of a given chelator provided a continuous measure for the capacity of the chelator to access the iron/CA-containing compartment. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The speed of iron mobilization by members of the three families of chelators correlated with the lipophilicity of the free ligand or the iron-complexed chelator. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) are applied as contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and treatment of neurologic diseases despite the fact that important information concerning their local interactions is still lacking. (nih.gov)
  • Red emitting europium (III) complexes Eu(TFAAN) 3 (P(Oct) 3 ) 3 (TFAAN = 2-(4,4,4-Trifluoroacetoacetyl)naphthalene, P(Oct) 3 = trioctylphosphine) chelated on carboxymethyl dextran coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (CMD-SPIONs) was synthesized and the step wise synthetic process was reported. (mdpi.com)
  • The mildly inflammogentic cellular doses experienced by mice were similar to those calculated for humans exposed to the same material at the existing permissible exposure limit of 10 mg/m 3 iron oxide (as Fe). (biomedcentral.com)
  • L-Carnosine displayed a strong protective effect, most likely by chelation of iron mediated toxicity. (hindawi.com)
  • The universal importance of iron, its high toxicity, and complex chemistry present a challenge to biological systems in general and to protected compartments in particular. (physiology.org)
  • Iron-Supplemented Calf Serum supports long-term growth of many cell types such as fibroblast-like, epithelial-like and lymphoid cell populations. (rndsystems.com)
  • Cellular and mitochondrial damage can be caused by labile iron pool (LIP) and mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). (scirp.org)
  • 3 A small amount of "protein-free" cytosolic iron is defined as chelatable, redox-active iron bound by low molecular weight ligands and termed the labile iron pool (LIP). (arvojournals.org)
  • It succeeds the Nordic Bronze Age with the introduction of ferrous metallurgy by contact with the Hallstatt D / La Tène cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ferrous iron importers ZIP8 and ZIP14 were localized in the ciPTEC plasma membrane. (springer.com)
  • The kinetics of ferrous iron oxidation by Leptospirillum ferriphilum (L. ferriphilum) dominated culture was studied in the concentration range of 0.1-20 g Fe2+/L and the effect of ferric iron (0-60 g Fe3+/L) on Fe2+ oxidation was investigated at pH below one. (medeniyet.edu.tr)
  • Transcriptional analysis of the genes encoding the root ferrous ion transporter and ferric chelate reductase, and determination of the activity of this enzyme in response to CB or deferrioxamine, showed that these compounds induce a leaf-to-root iron deficiency signal. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In its ferrous form, iron is more soluble and catalyzes the Fenton reaction in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which leads to the formation of hydroxyl radicals, resulting in protein denaturation, DNA breaks, and lipid peroxidation ( Pierre and Fontecave, 1999 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • The link between iron and the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative conditions provides a firm rationale for the therapeutic use of small molecules, such as deferoxamine (DFO), which chelate iron and prevent it from participating in deleterious redox reactions. (jneurosci.org)
  • 2016 ). In contrast to iron bound to transferrin, iron in NTBI is only loosely bound to molecules such as citrate, available for redox cycling and, therefore, considered a toxic iron species (Brissot et al. (springer.com)
  • EPR spin-trapping demonstrated that iron-rich (but not iron-deplete) SWCNT were redox-active and converted superoxide radicals produced by zymosan-stimulated marophages into hydroxyl radicals. (cdc.gov)
  • The most commonly used technology in the manufacturing of SWCNT is catalytic disproportionation of gaseous CO on catalytic iron particles. (cdc.gov)
  • Their manufacturing includes catalysis on iron particles. (cdc.gov)
  • Archaeologists note that Corded Ware was not a "unified culture," as Corded Ware groups inhabiting a vast geographical area from the Rhine to Volga seem to have regionally specific subsistence strategies and economies. (rug.nl)
  • In some protozoans, such as Tritrichomonas foetus , Trichomonas vaginalis , Toxoplasma gondii, and Entamoeba histolytica , the expression of lactoferrin-binding proteins has been described, and these parasites use hololactoferrin as an iron source for in vitro growth [ 18 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cell death was induced with MPP(+) in normal and iron-excess conditions and cytotoxicity was measured by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay) and trypan blue staining. (nih.gov)
  • 0.001) with 30 and 100 micromol/L of IP6, respectively in iron-excess conditions. (nih.gov)
  • 0.001) protection was observed in caspase-3 activity with 30 and 100 micromol/L IP6, respectively in iron-excess condition. (nih.gov)
  • We previously determined that the lens removes excess iron from fluids of inflamed eyes. (arvojournals.org)
  • iron is an essential nutrient that is toxic in excess ( 18 ). (physiology.org)
  • Slipper boots from Iron Fist with a black and white Fiend Skull print, bow accent and faux fur lining. (hottopic.com)
  • Collectively, our results demonstrate a significant neuroprotective effect of phytate in a cell culture model of PD. (nih.gov)
  • It can produce growth curves comparable to that of FBS in many cell culture systems. (rndsystems.com)
  • Note: This product is suitable for cell culture use. (athensresearch.com)
  • The above photograph, from 2007, shows a high-throughput cell culture robot. (stanford.edu)
  • Sainz, B., TenCate, V., and Uprichard, S. L. (2009) Three-dimensional Huh7 cell culture system for the study of Hepatitis C virus infection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The neolithic Cucuteni-Trypillia culture of modern-day northeastern Romania and Ukraine were also practicing cremation rituals as early as approximately 5500 BC. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are also closely connected to Final Neolithic cultures, which later spread throughout Europe and Central Asia , especially the Corded Ware people and the Bell Beaker culture , as well as the peoples of the Sintashta , Andronovo , and Srubnaya cultures . (wikipedia.org)
  • Those protected areas might eventually become part of a much larger effort - proposed by The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) - to create a continuous, pan-European nature reserve stretching from northern Finland to the Black Sea along the route of the former Iron Curtain. (yale.edu)
  • To extend our knowledge of VSOP interactions on the three-dimensional multicellular level, we further examined the influence of two types of coated VSOP (R1 and R2) on murine organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. (nih.gov)
  • These metals and the technologies, societies and cultures surrounding them have revolutionised the lives of billions of people. (archaeologyfieldwork.com)
  • Fourteen interdisciplinary essays open new perspectives for understanding African societies and cultures through the contextualized study of objects, treating everything from the production of material objects to the meaning of sticks, masquerades, household tools, clothing, and the television set in the contemporary repertoire of African material culture. (jhu.edu)