Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Techniques used in microbiology.
Aerobic bacteria are types of microbes that require oxygen to grow and reproduce, and use it in the process of respiration to break down organic matter and produce energy, often found in environments where oxygen is readily available such as the human body's skin, mouth, and intestines.
Methods for cultivation of cells, usually on a large-scale, in a closed system for the purpose of producing cells or cellular products to harvest.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Cell separation is the process of isolating and distinguishing specific cell types or individual cells from a heterogeneous mixture, often through the use of physical or biological techniques.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.

Studies on the response of ewes to live chlamydiae adapted to chicken embryos or tissue culture. (1/6081)

Ewes infected before gestation with chicken embryo or tissue culture adapted chlamydial strain B-577 were challenge inoculated with the homologous strain at four to 18 weeks of gestation. The ewes responsed with group specific complement fixing antibody titers of 1:8 to 1:256 by the second week after initial infection. A secondary antibody response in the surviving challenge inoculated ewes occurred at the time of lambing and reached titers of 1:32 to 1:256 by the second week after parturition. Group specific complement fixing antibodies did not appear to play a significant role in resistance to chlamydial infection. Ewes infected with the chicken embryo adapted strain B-577 excreted chlamydiae in their feces 60 days after inoculation. However, chlamydiae were not recovered from feces of ewes infected with the tissue culture adapted strain B-577. Placentas of ewes challenge inoculated by the intravenous route were consistently infected. Chlamydiae were recovered from placentas, some fetuses and lambs. In two instances when challenge inoculation was given by the intramuscular route, infection was detected only by the direct fluorescent antibody method.  (+info)

In vitro development of sheep preantral follicles. (2/6081)

Preantral ovarian follicles isolated from prepubertal sheep ovaries were individually cultured for 6 days in the presence of increasing doses of FSH (ranging from 0.01 to 1 microg/ml) and under two different oxygen concentrations, 20% and 5% O2. Follicle development was evaluated on the basis of antral cavity formation as well as the presence of healthy cumulus oocyte complexes. Follicle growth was enhanced by FSH addition to culture medium, while the use of a low oxygen concentration slightly stimulated this process. However, when follicles were cultured in the presence of high doses of FSH (1 microgram/ml) and under low oxygen concentration, a high proportion of them showed the presence of an antral cavity and of a healthy cumulus-oocyte complex. In addition, under this specific culture condition sheep preantral follicles released higher levels of estradiol as compared to those secreted at lower FSH concentrations or under 20% O2. When the meiotic competence of oocytes derived from follicles cultured at 1 microgram/ml FSH was assessed, no significant difference was recorded between the two oxygen groups. These results show that the culture conditions here identified are beneficial to in vitro growth and differentiation of sheep preantral follicles.  (+info)

Ontogeny of expression of a receptor for platelet-activating factor in mouse preimplantation embryos and the effects of fertilization and culture in vitro on its expression. (3/6081)

Platelet-activating factor (PAF; 1-o-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) is a potent ether phospholipid. It is one of the preimplantation embryo's autocrine growth/survival factors. It may act via a G protein-linked receptor on the embryo; however, the evidence for this is conflicting. The recent description of the intracellular form of the PAF:acetlyhydrolase enzyme as having structural homology with G proteins and Ras also suggests this as a potential intracellular receptor/transducer for PAF. This study used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to examine the ontogeny of expression of the genes for these proteins in the oocyte and preimplantation-stage embryo. Transcripts for the G protein-linked PAF receptor were detected in the late 2-cell-stage embryo and in all stages from the 4-cell stage to blastocysts. They were also present in unfertilized oocytes and newly fertilized zygotes but only at relatively low levels. The incidence of expression was generally low and variable in late zygotes and early 2-cell embryos. Expression past the 2-cell stage was alpha-amanitin sensitive. The results indicated that mRNA for this receptor is a maternal transcript that was degraded during the zygote-2-cell stage. New expression of the receptor transcript required activation of the zygotic genome. Fertilization of embryos in vitro caused this transcript not to be expressed in the zygote. Culture of zygotes (irrespective of their method of fertilization) caused expression from the zygotic genome to be retarded by more than 24 h. This retardation did not occur if culture commenced at the 2-cell stage. The transcripts for the subunits of intracellular PAF:acetylhydrolase were not detected in oocytes or at any stage of embryo development examined, despite their being readily detected in control tissue. This study confirms the presence of the G protein-linked PAF receptor in the 2-cell embryo and describes for the first time its normal pattern of expression during early development. The adverse effects of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo culture on the expression of this transcript may be a contributing factor for the poor viability of embryos produced in this manner. The reduced expression of PAF-receptor mRNA following IVF predicts that such embryos may have a deficiency in autocrine stimulation and also suggests that supplementation of growth media with exogenous PAF would be only partially beneficial. The effect of IVF and culture may also explain the conflicting literature.  (+info)

Steroid regulation of retinol-binding protein in the ovine oviduct. (4/6081)

Two studies were conducted to identify retinol-binding protein (RBP) expression in the ovine oviduct and to determine the role of ovarian steroids in its regulation. Ewes were salpingectomized on Days 1, 5, or 10 of their respective estrous cycles, and oviducts were homogenized for RNA analysis, fixed for immunocytochemistry (ICC), or cultured for 24 h for protein analysis. ICC localized RBP to the epithelium of all oviducts. RBP synthesis was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled RBP from the medium of oviductal explant cultures. Explant culture medium from oviducts harvested on Day 1 contained significantly more RBP than medium from oviducts collected on Days 5 or 10. Slot-blot analysis demonstrated that steady-state RBP mRNA levels were significantly higher on Day 1 than Day 5 or 10. In the second experiment, ovariectomized ewes were treated with estradiol-17beta (E2), progesterone (P4), E2+P4 (E2+P4), or vehicle control, and oviducts were analyzed as above. P4 alone or in combination with E2 significantly reduced steady-state RBP mRNA levels compared to those in E2-treated animals. Oviductal explants from E2- and E2+P4-treated animals released 3- to 5-fold more RBP into the medium than control and P4 treatments as determined by ELISA. RBP synthesis of metabolically labeled RBP was increased by E2 and E2+P4 treatments. This study demonstrates that P4 applied on an estradiol background negatively regulates RBP gene expression in the oviduct whereas estradiol appears to stimulate RBP synthesis and secretion.  (+info)

Onset of nucleolar and extranucleolar transcription and expression of fibrillarin in macaque embryos developing in vitro. (5/6081)

Specific aims were to characterize the onset of nucleolar and extranucleolar transcription and expression of the nucleolar protein fibrillarin during preimplantation development in vitro in macaque embryos using autoradiographic and immunocytochemical techniques. Autoradiography was performed on whole embryos cultured with [3H]uridine for assessment of nucleolar (rRNA) and extranucleolar (mRNA) transcription. Expression of fibrillarin was immunocytochemically assessed in whole embryos using a primary antibody against fibrillarin and a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated secondary antibody. Extranucleolar incorporation of [3H]uridine was first detected in 2-cell embryos cultured 6-10 h with [3H]uridine. Culture with alpha-amanitin prevented incorporation of label in 2-cell embryos, and treatment with ribonuclease reduced the signal to background levels, indicating that [3H]uridine was incorporated into mRNA and not rRNA or DNA. Nucleolar incorporation of [3H]uridine was not evident in pronucleate-stage or 2- to 5-cell embryos, but it was detected in one 6-cell embryo and in all 8-cell to blastocyst-stage embryos. Fibrillarin was first expressed in some 6- to 7-cell embryos, but it was consistently expressed in all 8-cell embryos. Fibrillarin was localized to the perimeter of the nucleolar precursor bodies, forming a ring that completely encapsulated these structures. Fibrillarin was not expressed in 8- to 16-cell embryos cultured with alpha-amanitin, indicating that it is transcribed, rather than recruited, at the 8-cell stage. In conclusion, in in vitro-fertilized macaque embryos developing in vitro, extranucleolar synthesis of mRNA is initiated at the 2-cell stage while the onset of nucleolar transcription occurs at the 6- to 8-cell stage, coincident with expression of fibrillarin.  (+info)

Investigation of distal aortic compliance and vasodilator responsiveness in heart failure due to proximal aortic stenosis in the guinea pig. (6/6081)

Hypotension and syncope are recognized features of chronic aortic stenosis. This study examined vasomotor responses and dynamic compliance in isolated abdominal aortae after chronic constriction of the ascending aorta. Guinea pigs underwent constriction of the ascending aorta or sham operation. Sections of descending aorta were removed for studies of contractile performance and compliance. Dynamic compliance was measured using a feedback-controlled pulsatile pressure system at frequencies of 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 Hz and mean pressures from 40 to 100 mmHg. Chronic (149+/-6 days) aortic constriction resulted in significant increases in organ weight/body weight ratios for left ventricle (58%), right ventricle (100%) and lung (61%). The presence of heart failure was indicated by increased lung weights, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and systemic vascular resistance, reduced cardiac output and increased levels of plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (166%), adrenaline (x20), noradrenaline (106%) and dopamine (x3). Aortic rings showed similar constrictor responses to phenylephrine and angiotensin II, but maximal vasodilator responses to acetylcholine and isoprenaline were significantly increased (144% and 48% respectively). Dilator responses to sodium nitroprusside, forskolin and cromokalim were unchanged. Compliance of all vessels decreased with increasing pulsatile frequency and to a lesser extent with increased mean pressure, but were similar in aortic-constricted and control groups. Chronic constriction of the ascending aorta resulted in heart failure and increased vasodilator responses to acetylcholine and isoprenaline in the distal aorta while dynamic compliance was unchanged. We hypothesize that increased endothelium-mediated vasodilatation may contribute to hypotension and syncope in patients with left ventricular outflow obstruction.  (+info)

Characterization of beta cells developed in vitro from rat embryonic pancreatic epithelium. (7/6081)

The present study evaluates the development and functional properties of beta cells differentiated in vitro. The authors have previously demonstrated that when E12.5 rat pancreatic rudiments are cultured in vitro in the absence of mesenchyme, the majority of the epithelial cells differentiate into endocrine beta cells. Thus, depletion of the mesenchyme provokes the expansion of endocrine tissue at the expense of exocrine tissue. The potential use of this procedure for the production of beta cells led the authors to characterize the beta cells differentiated in this model and to compare their properties with those of the endocrine cells of the embryonic and adult pancreas. This study shows that the beta cells that differentiate in vitro in the absence of mesenchyme express the homeodomain protein Nkx6.1, a transcription factor that is characteristic of adult mature beta cells. Further, electron microscopy analysis shows that these beta cells are highly granulated, and the ultrastructural analysis of the granules shows that they are characteristic of mature beta cells. The maturity of these granules was confirmed by a double-immunofluorescence study that demonstrated that Rab3A and SNAP-25, two proteins associated with the secretory pathway of insulin, are strongly expressed. Finally, the maturity of the differentiated beta cells in this model was confirmed when the cells responded to stimulation with 16 mM glucose by a 5-fold increase in insulin release. The authors conclude that the beta cells differentiated in vitro from rat embryonic pancreatic rudiments devoid of mesenchyme are mature beta cells.  (+info)

Long-term effects of prior heat shock on neuronal potassium currents recorded in a novel insect ganglion slice preparation. (8/6081)

Brief exposure to high temperatures (heat shock) induces long-lasting adaptive changes in the molecular biology of protein interactions and behavior of poikilotherms. However, little is known about heat shock effects on neuronal properties. To investigate how heat shock affects neuronal properties we developed an insect ganglion slice from locusts. The functional integrity of neuronal circuits in slices was demonstrated by recordings from rhythmically active respiratory neurons and by the ability to induce rhythmic population activity with octopamine. Under these "functional" in vitro conditions we recorded outward potassium currents from neurons of the ventral midline of the A1 metathoracic neuromere. In control neurons, voltage steps to 40 mV from a holding potential of -60 mV evoked in control neurons potassium currents with a peak current of 10.0 +/- 2.5 nA and a large steady state current of 8.5 +/- 2.6 nA, which was still activated from a holding potential of -40 mV. After heat shock most of the outward current inactivated rapidly (peak amplitude: 8.4 +/- 2.4 nA; steady state: 3.6 +/- 2.0 nA). This current was inactivated at a holding potential of -40 mV. The response to temperature changes was also significantly different. After changing the temperature from 38 to 42 degrees C the amplitude of the peak and steady-state current was significantly lower in neurons obtained from heat-shocked animals than those obtained from controls. Our study indicates that not only heat shock can alter neuronal properties, but also that it is possible to investigate ion currents in insect ganglion slices.  (+info)

Cell culture is a technique used in scientific research to grow and maintain cells from plants, animals, or humans in a controlled environment outside of their original organism. This environment typically consists of a sterile container called a cell culture flask or plate, and a nutrient-rich liquid medium that provides the necessary components for the cells' growth and survival, such as amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and hormones.

There are several different types of cell culture techniques used in research, including:

1. Adherent cell culture: In this technique, cells are grown on a flat surface, such as the bottom of a tissue culture dish or flask. The cells attach to the surface and spread out, forming a monolayer that can be observed and manipulated under a microscope.
2. Suspension cell culture: In suspension culture, cells are grown in liquid medium without any attachment to a solid surface. These cells remain suspended in the medium and can be agitated or mixed to ensure even distribution of nutrients.
3. Organoid culture: Organoids are three-dimensional structures that resemble miniature organs and are grown from stem cells or other progenitor cells. They can be used to study organ development, disease processes, and drug responses.
4. Co-culture: In co-culture, two or more different types of cells are grown together in the same culture dish or flask. This technique is used to study cell-cell interactions and communication.
5. Conditioned medium culture: In this technique, cells are grown in a medium that has been conditioned by previous cultures of other cells. The conditioned medium contains factors secreted by the previous cells that can influence the growth and behavior of the new cells.

Cell culture techniques are widely used in biomedical research to study cellular processes, develop drugs, test toxicity, and investigate disease mechanisms. However, it is important to note that cell cultures may not always accurately represent the behavior of cells in a living organism, and results from cell culture experiments should be validated using other methods.

Culture techniques are methods used in microbiology to grow and multiply microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses, in a controlled laboratory environment. These techniques allow for the isolation, identification, and study of specific microorganisms, which is essential for diagnostic purposes, research, and development of medical treatments.

The most common culture technique involves inoculating a sterile growth medium with a sample suspected to contain microorganisms. The growth medium can be solid or liquid and contains nutrients that support the growth of the microorganisms. Common solid growth media include agar plates, while liquid growth media are used for broth cultures.

Once inoculated, the growth medium is incubated at a temperature that favors the growth of the microorganisms being studied. During incubation, the microorganisms multiply and form visible colonies on the solid growth medium or turbid growth in the liquid growth medium. The size, shape, color, and other characteristics of the colonies can provide important clues about the identity of the microorganism.

Other culture techniques include selective and differential media, which are designed to inhibit the growth of certain types of microorganisms while promoting the growth of others, allowing for the isolation and identification of specific pathogens. Enrichment cultures involve adding specific nutrients or factors to a sample to promote the growth of a particular type of microorganism.

Overall, culture techniques are essential tools in microbiology and play a critical role in medical diagnostics, research, and public health.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

Organ culture techniques refer to the methods used to maintain or grow intact organs or pieces of organs under controlled conditions in vitro, while preserving their structural and functional characteristics. These techniques are widely used in biomedical research to study organ physiology, pathophysiology, drug development, and toxicity testing.

Organ culture can be performed using a variety of methods, including:

1. Static organ culture: In this method, the organs or tissue pieces are placed on a porous support in a culture dish and maintained in a nutrient-rich medium. The medium is replaced periodically to ensure adequate nutrition and removal of waste products.
2. Perfusion organ culture: This method involves perfusing the organ with nutrient-rich media, allowing for better distribution of nutrients and oxygen throughout the tissue. This technique is particularly useful for studying larger organs such as the liver or kidney.
3. Microfluidic organ culture: In this approach, microfluidic devices are used to create a controlled microenvironment for organ cultures. These devices allow for precise control over the flow of nutrients and waste products, as well as the application of mechanical forces.

Organ culture techniques can be used to study various aspects of organ function, including metabolism, secretion, and response to drugs or toxins. Additionally, these methods can be used to generate three-dimensional tissue models that better recapitulate the structure and function of intact organs compared to traditional two-dimensional cell cultures.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Tissue culture techniques refer to the methods used to maintain and grow cells, tissues or organs from multicellular organisms in an artificial environment outside of the living body, called an in vitro culture. These techniques are widely used in various fields such as biology, medicine, and agriculture for research, diagnostics, and therapeutic purposes.

The basic components of tissue culture include a sterile growth medium that contains nutrients, growth factors, and other essential components to support the growth of cells or tissues. The growth medium is often supplemented with antibiotics to prevent contamination by microorganisms. The cells or tissues are cultured in specialized containers called culture vessels, which can be plates, flasks, or dishes, depending on the type and scale of the culture.

There are several types of tissue culture techniques, including:

1. Monolayer Culture: In this technique, cells are grown as a single layer on a flat surface, allowing for easy observation and manipulation of individual cells.
2. Organoid Culture: This method involves growing three-dimensional structures that resemble the organization and function of an organ in vivo.
3. Co-culture: In co-culture, two or more cell types are grown together to study their interactions and communication.
4. Explant Culture: In this technique, small pieces of tissue are cultured to maintain the original structure and organization of the cells within the tissue.
5. Primary Culture: This refers to the initial culture of cells directly isolated from a living organism. These cells can be further subcultured to generate immortalized cell lines.

Tissue culture techniques have numerous applications, such as studying cell behavior, drug development and testing, gene therapy, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

"Evaluation studies" is a broad term that refers to the systematic assessment or examination of a program, project, policy, intervention, or product. The goal of an evaluation study is to determine its merits, worth, and value by measuring its effects, efficiency, and impact. There are different types of evaluation studies, including formative evaluations (conducted during the development or implementation of a program to provide feedback for improvement), summative evaluations (conducted at the end of a program to determine its overall effectiveness), process evaluations (focusing on how a program is implemented and delivered), outcome evaluations (assessing the short-term and intermediate effects of a program), and impact evaluations (measuring the long-term and broad consequences of a program).

In medical contexts, evaluation studies are often used to assess the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of new treatments, interventions, or technologies. These studies can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about patient care, guide policymakers in developing evidence-based policies, and promote accountability and transparency in healthcare systems. Examples of evaluation studies in medicine include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compare the outcomes of a new treatment to those of a standard or placebo treatment, observational studies that examine the real-world effectiveness and safety of interventions, and economic evaluations that assess the costs and benefits of different healthcare options.

Blood is the fluid that circulates in the body of living organisms, carrying oxygen and nutrients to the cells and removing carbon dioxide and other waste products. It is composed of red and white blood cells suspended in a liquid called plasma. The main function of blood is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. It also transports nutrients, hormones, and other substances to the cells and removes waste products from them. Additionally, blood plays a crucial role in the body's immune system by helping to fight infection and disease.

Microbiological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and analysis of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. These techniques are essential in fields like medical microbiology, food microbiology, environmental microbiology, and industrial microbiology.

Some common microbiological techniques include:

1. Microbial culturing: This involves growing microorganisms on nutrient-rich media in Petri dishes or test tubes to allow them to multiply. Different types of media are used to culture different types of microorganisms.
2. Staining and microscopy: Various staining techniques, such as Gram stain, acid-fast stain, and methylene blue stain, are used to visualize and identify microorganisms under a microscope.
3. Biochemical testing: These tests involve the use of specific biochemical reactions to identify microorganisms based on their metabolic characteristics. Examples include the catalase test, oxidase test, and sugar fermentation tests.
4. Molecular techniques: These methods are used to identify microorganisms based on their genetic material. Examples include polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, and gene probes.
5. Serological testing: This involves the use of antibodies or antigens to detect the presence of specific microorganisms in a sample. Examples include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting.
6. Immunofluorescence: This technique uses fluorescent dyes to label antibodies or antigens, allowing for the visualization of microorganisms under a fluorescence microscope.
7. Electron microscopy: This method uses high-powered electron beams to produce detailed images of microorganisms, allowing for the identification and analysis of their structures.

These techniques are critical in diagnosing infectious diseases, monitoring food safety, assessing environmental quality, and developing new drugs and vaccines.

Aerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that require oxygen to live and grow. These bacteria use oxygen as the final electron acceptor in their respiratory chain to generate energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Aerobic bacteria can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the air, as well as on the surfaces of living things. Some examples of aerobic bacteria include species of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus.

It's worth noting that some bacteria can switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen. These bacteria are called facultative anaerobes. In contrast, obligate anaerobes are bacteria that cannot tolerate oxygen and will die in its presence.

Batch cell culture techniques refer to a method of growing cells in which all the necessary nutrients are added to the culture medium at the beginning of the growth period. The cells are allowed to grow and multiply until they exhaust the available nutrients, after which the culture is discarded. This technique is relatively simple and inexpensive but lacks the ability to continuously produce cells over an extended period.

In batch cell culture, cells are grown in a closed system with a fixed volume of medium, and no additional nutrients or fresh medium are added during the growth phase. The cells consume the available nutrients as they grow, leading to a decrease in pH, accumulation of waste products, and depletion of essential factors required for cell growth. As a result, the cells eventually stop growing and enter a stationary phase, after which they begin to die due to lack of nutrients and buildup of toxic metabolites.

Batch cell culture techniques are commonly used in research settings where large quantities of cells are needed for experiments or analysis. However, this method is not suitable for the production of therapeutic proteins or other biologics that require continuous cell growth and protein production over an extended period. For these applications, more complex culture methods such as fed-batch or perfusion culture techniques are used.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

The pharynx is a part of the digestive and respiratory systems that serves as a conduit for food and air. It is a musculo-membranous tube extending from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebra where it becomes continuous with the esophagus.

The pharynx has three regions: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is the uppermost region, which lies above the soft palate and is connected to the nasal cavity. The oropharynx is the middle region, which includes the area between the soft palate and the hyoid bone, including the tonsils and base of the tongue. The laryngopharynx is the lowest region, which lies below the hyoid bone and connects to the larynx.

The primary function of the pharynx is to convey food from the oral cavity to the esophagus during swallowing and to allow air to pass from the nasal cavity to the larynx during breathing. It also plays a role in speech, taste, and immune defense.

Agar is a substance derived from red algae, specifically from the genera Gelidium and Gracilaria. It is commonly used in microbiology as a solidifying agent for culture media. Agar forms a gel at relatively low temperatures (around 40-45°C) and remains stable at higher temperatures (up to 100°C), making it ideal for preparing various types of culture media.

In addition to its use in microbiology, agar is also used in other scientific research, food industry, and even in some artistic applications due to its unique gelling properties. It is important to note that although agar is often used in the preparation of food, it is not typically consumed as a standalone ingredient by humans or animals.

Centrifugation is a laboratory technique that involves the use of a machine called a centrifuge to separate mixtures based on their differing densities or sizes. The mixture is placed in a rotor and spun at high speeds, causing the denser components to move away from the center of rotation and the less dense components to remain nearer the center. This separation allows for the recovery and analysis of specific particles, such as cells, viruses, or subcellular organelles, from complex mixtures.

The force exerted on the mixture during centrifugation is described in terms of relative centrifugal force (RCF) or g-force, which represents the number of times greater the acceleration due to centrifugation is than the acceleration due to gravity. The RCF is determined by the speed of rotation (revolutions per minute, or RPM), the radius of rotation, and the duration of centrifugation.

Centrifugation has numerous applications in various fields, including clinical laboratories, biochemistry, molecular biology, and virology. It is a fundamental technique for isolating and concentrating particles from solutions, enabling further analysis and characterization.

Bacteroides are a genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are normally present in the human gastrointestinal tract. They are part of the normal gut microbiota and play an important role in breaking down complex carbohydrates and other substances in the gut. However, some species of Bacteroides can cause opportunistic infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or when they spread to other parts of the body. They are resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, making infections caused by these bacteria difficult to treat.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

Specimen handling is a set of procedures and practices followed in the collection, storage, transportation, and processing of medical samples or specimens (e.g., blood, tissue, urine, etc.) for laboratory analysis. Proper specimen handling ensures accurate test results, patient safety, and data integrity. It includes:

1. Correct labeling of the specimen container with required patient information.
2. Using appropriate containers and materials to collect, store, and transport the specimen.
3. Following proper collection techniques to avoid contamination or damage to the specimen.
4. Adhering to specific storage conditions (temperature, time, etc.) before testing.
5. Ensuring secure and timely transportation of the specimen to the laboratory.
6. Properly documenting all steps in the handling process for traceability and quality assurance.

Reagent kits, diagnostic are prepackaged sets of chemical reagents and other components designed for performing specific diagnostic tests or assays. These kits are often used in clinical laboratories to detect and measure the presence or absence of various biomarkers, such as proteins, antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, or small molecules, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues.

Diagnostic reagent kits typically contain detailed instructions for their use, along with the necessary reagents, controls, and sometimes specialized equipment or supplies. They are designed to simplify the testing process, reduce human error, and increase standardization, ensuring accurate and reliable results. Examples of diagnostic reagent kits include those used for pregnancy tests, infectious disease screening, drug testing, genetic testing, and cancer biomarker detection.

Sputum is defined as a mixture of saliva and phlegm that is expelled from the respiratory tract during coughing, sneezing or deep breathing. It can be clear, mucoid, or purulent (containing pus) depending on the underlying cause of the respiratory issue. Examination of sputum can help diagnose various respiratory conditions such as infections, inflammation, or other lung diseases.

Anaerobiosis is a state in which an organism or a portion of an organism is able to live and grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). In biological contexts, "anaerobe" refers to any organism that does not require oxygen for growth, and "aerobe" refers to an organism that does require oxygen for growth.

There are two types of anaerobes: obligate anaerobes, which cannot tolerate the presence of oxygen and will die if exposed to it; and facultative anaerobes, which can grow with or without oxygen but prefer to grow in its absence. Some organisms are able to switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen, a process known as "facultative anaerobiosis."

Anaerobic respiration is a type of metabolic process that occurs in the absence of molecular oxygen. In this process, organisms use alternative electron acceptors other than oxygen to generate energy through the transfer of electrons during cellular respiration. Examples of alternative electron acceptors include nitrate, sulfate, and carbon dioxide.

Anaerobic metabolism is less efficient than aerobic metabolism in terms of energy production, but it allows organisms to survive in environments where oxygen is not available or is toxic. Anaerobic bacteria are important decomposers in many ecosystems, breaking down organic matter and releasing nutrients back into the environment. In the human body, anaerobic bacteria can cause infections and other health problems if they proliferate in areas with low oxygen levels, such as the mouth, intestines, or deep tissue wounds.

In the context of medical research, "methods" refers to the specific procedures or techniques used in conducting a study or experiment. This includes details on how data was collected, what measurements were taken, and what statistical analyses were performed. The methods section of a medical paper allows other researchers to replicate the study if they choose to do so. It is considered one of the key components of a well-written research article, as it provides transparency and helps establish the validity of the findings.

Cell separation is a process used to separate and isolate specific cell types from a heterogeneous mixture of cells. This can be accomplished through various physical or biological methods, depending on the characteristics of the cells of interest. Some common techniques for cell separation include:

1. Density gradient centrifugation: In this method, a sample containing a mixture of cells is layered onto a density gradient medium and then centrifuged. The cells are separated based on their size, density, and sedimentation rate, with denser cells settling closer to the bottom of the tube and less dense cells remaining near the top.

2. Magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS): This technique uses magnetic beads coated with antibodies that bind to specific cell surface markers. The labeled cells are then passed through a column placed in a magnetic field, which retains the magnetically labeled cells while allowing unlabeled cells to flow through.

3. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS): In this method, cells are stained with fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies that recognize specific cell surface or intracellular markers. The stained cells are then passed through a laser beam, which excites the fluorophores and allows for the detection and sorting of individual cells based on their fluorescence profile.

4. Filtration: This simple method relies on the physical size differences between cells to separate them. Cells can be passed through filters with pore sizes that allow smaller cells to pass through while retaining larger cells.

5. Enzymatic digestion: In some cases, cells can be separated by enzymatically dissociating tissues into single-cell suspensions and then using various separation techniques to isolate specific cell types.

These methods are widely used in research and clinical settings for applications such as isolating immune cells, stem cells, or tumor cells from biological samples.

Bacterial infections are caused by the invasion and multiplication of bacteria in or on tissues of the body. These infections can range from mild, like a common cold, to severe, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. The symptoms of a bacterial infection depend on the type of bacteria invading the body and the area of the body that is affected.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that can live in many different environments, including in the human body. While some bacteria are beneficial to humans and help with digestion or protect against harmful pathogens, others can cause illness and disease. When bacteria invade the body, they can release toxins and other harmful substances that damage tissues and trigger an immune response.

Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, which work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to note that misuse or overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, making treatment more difficult. It is also essential to complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that all bacteria are eliminated and reduce the risk of recurrence or development of antibiotic resistance.

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its own tissues and organs. It is characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state (systemic inflammation) that can lead to blood clotting issues, tissue damage, and multiple organ failure.

Sepsis happens when an infection you already have triggers a chain reaction throughout your body. Infections that lead to sepsis most often start in the lungs, urinary tract, skin, or gastrointestinal tract.

Sepsis is a medical emergency. If you suspect sepsis, seek immediate medical attention. Early recognition and treatment of sepsis are crucial to improve outcomes. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, intravenous fluids, and may require oxygen, medication to raise blood pressure, and corticosteroids. In severe cases, surgery may be required to clear the infection.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Hemolysis is the destruction or breakdown of red blood cells, resulting in the release of hemoglobin into the surrounding fluid (plasma). This process can occur due to various reasons such as chemical agents, infections, autoimmune disorders, mechanical trauma, or genetic abnormalities. Hemolysis may lead to anemia and jaundice, among other complications. It is essential to monitor hemolysis levels in patients undergoing medical treatments that might cause this condition.

Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other animals. Many species of Staphylococcus can cause infections in humans, but the most notable is Staphylococcus aureus, which is responsible for a wide range of illnesses, from minor skin infections to life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia, endocarditis, and sepsis.

Staphylococcus species are non-motile, non-spore forming, and typically occur in grape-like clusters when viewed under a microscope. They can be coagulase-positive or coagulase-negative, with S. aureus being the most well-known coagulase-positive species. Coagulase is an enzyme that causes the clotting of plasma, and its presence is often used to differentiate S. aureus from other Staphylococcus species.

These bacteria are resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, including penicillin, due to the production of beta-lactamases. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a particularly problematic strain that has developed resistance to multiple antibiotics and can cause severe, difficult-to-treat infections.

Proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, and environmental cleaning are crucial measures for preventing the spread of Staphylococcus in healthcare settings and the community.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A Colony-Forming Units (CFU) assay is a type of laboratory test used to measure the number of viable, or living, cells in a sample. It is commonly used to enumerate bacteria, yeast, and other microorganisms. The test involves placing a known volume of the sample onto a nutrient-agar plate, which provides a solid growth surface for the cells. The plate is then incubated under conditions that allow the cells to grow and form colonies. Each colony that forms on the plate represents a single viable cell from the original sample. By counting the number of colonies and multiplying by the known volume of the sample, the total number of viable cells in the sample can be calculated. This information is useful in a variety of applications, including monitoring microbial populations, assessing the effectiveness of disinfection procedures, and studying microbial growth and survival.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

Tissue engineering is a branch of biomedical engineering that combines the principles of engineering, materials science, and biological sciences to develop functional substitutes for damaged or diseased tissues and organs. It involves the creation of living, three-dimensional structures that can restore, maintain, or improve tissue function. This is typically accomplished through the use of cells, scaffolds (biodegradable matrices), and biologically active molecules. The goal of tissue engineering is to develop biological substitutes that can ultimately restore normal function and structure in damaged tissues or organs.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

Coculture techniques refer to a type of experimental setup in which two or more different types of cells or organisms are grown and studied together in a shared culture medium. This method allows researchers to examine the interactions between different cell types or species under controlled conditions, and to study how these interactions may influence various biological processes such as growth, gene expression, metabolism, and signal transduction.

Coculture techniques can be used to investigate a wide range of biological phenomena, including the effects of host-microbe interactions on human health and disease, the impact of different cell types on tissue development and homeostasis, and the role of microbial communities in shaping ecosystems. These techniques can also be used to test the efficacy and safety of new drugs or therapies by examining their effects on cells grown in coculture with other relevant cell types.

There are several different ways to establish cocultures, depending on the specific research question and experimental goals. Some common methods include:

1. Mixed cultures: In this approach, two or more cell types are simply mixed together in a culture dish or flask and allowed to grow and interact freely.
2. Cell-layer cultures: Here, one cell type is grown on a porous membrane or other support structure, while the second cell type is grown on top of it, forming a layered coculture.
3. Conditioned media cultures: In this case, one cell type is grown to confluence and its culture medium is collected and then used to grow a second cell type. This allows the second cell type to be exposed to any factors secreted by the first cell type into the medium.
4. Microfluidic cocultures: These involve growing cells in microfabricated channels or chambers, which allow for precise control over the spatial arrangement and flow of nutrients, waste products, and signaling molecules between different cell types.

Overall, coculture techniques provide a powerful tool for studying complex biological systems and gaining insights into the mechanisms that underlie various physiological and pathological processes.

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), stem cells are "initial cells" or "precursor cells" that have the ability to differentiate into many different cell types in the body. They can also divide without limit to replenish other cells for as long as the person or animal is still alive.

There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which come from human embryos, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues throughout the body. Embryonic stem cells have the ability to differentiate into all cell types in the body, while adult stem cells have more limited differentiation potential.

Stem cells play an essential role in the development and repair of various tissues and organs in the body. They are currently being studied for their potential use in the treatment of a wide range of diseases and conditions, including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and neurological disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the properties and capabilities of these cells before they can be used safely and effectively in clinical settings.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

'Mycobacterium tuberculosis' is a species of slow-growing, aerobic, gram-positive bacteria that demonstrates acid-fastness. It is the primary causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) in humans. This bacterium has a complex cell wall rich in lipids, including mycolic acids, which provides a hydrophobic barrier and makes it resistant to many conventional antibiotics. The ability of M. tuberculosis to survive within host macrophages and resist the immune response contributes to its pathogenicity and the difficulty in treating TB infections.

M. tuberculosis is typically transmitted through inhalation of infectious droplets containing the bacteria, which primarily targets the lungs but can spread to other parts of the body (extrapulmonary TB). The infection may result in a spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from latent TB infection (LTBI) to active disease. LTBI represents a dormant state where individuals are infected with M. tuberculosis but do not show symptoms and cannot transmit the bacteria. However, they remain at risk of developing active TB throughout their lifetime, especially if their immune system becomes compromised.

Effective prevention and control strategies for TB rely on early detection, treatment, and public health interventions to limit transmission. The current first-line treatments for drug-susceptible TB include a combination of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide for at least six months. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of M. tuberculosis present significant challenges in TB control and require more complex treatment regimens.

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Bone marrow cells are the types of cells found within the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside certain bones in the body. The main function of bone marrow is to produce blood cells. There are two types of bone marrow: red and yellow. Red bone marrow is where most blood cell production takes place, while yellow bone marrow serves as a fat storage site.

The three main types of bone marrow cells are:

1. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs): These are immature cells that can differentiate into any type of blood cell, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. They have the ability to self-renew, meaning they can divide and create more hematopoietic stem cells.
2. Red blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into mature red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide back to the lungs.
3. Myeloid and lymphoid white blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into various types of white blood cells, which play a crucial role in the body's immune system by fighting infections and diseases. Myeloid progenitors give rise to granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and megakaryocytes (which eventually become platelets). Lymphoid progenitors differentiate into B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.

Bone marrow cells are essential for maintaining a healthy blood cell count and immune system function. Abnormalities in bone marrow cells can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytosis, depending on the specific type of blood cell affected. Additionally, bone marrow cells are often used in transplantation procedures to treat patients with certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma, or other hematologic disorders.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Embryo culture techniques refer to the methods and procedures used to maintain and support the growth and development of an embryo outside of the womb, typically in a laboratory setting. These techniques are often used in the context of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

The process typically involves fertilizing an egg with sperm in a laboratory dish and then carefully monitoring and maintaining the resulting embryo in a specialized culture medium that provides the necessary nutrients, hormones, and other factors to support its development. The culture medium is usually contained within an incubator that maintains optimal temperature, humidity, and gas concentrations to mimic the environment inside the body.

Embryologists may use various embryo culture techniques depending on the stage of development and the specific needs of the embryo. For example, some techniques involve culturing the embryo in a single layer, while others may use a technique called "co-culture" that involves growing the embryo on a layer of cells to provide additional support and nutrients.

The goal of embryo culture techniques is to promote the healthy growth and development of the embryo, increasing the chances of a successful pregnancy and live birth. However, it's important to note that these techniques are not without risk, and there are potential ethical considerations surrounding the use of ART and embryo culture.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Hazelwood, Holly (March 6, 2020). "Stephen Malkmus: Traditional Techniques". Spectrum Culture. Archived from the original on ... "BEATINK.COM Traditional Techniques". Retrieved January 11, 2021. "Stephen Malkmus Traditional Techniques". ... Traditional Techniques is a solo album by American musician Stephen Malkmus, the fourth album credited to Malkmus and the ... Traditional Techniques received positive reviews from music critics. Many critics praised Malkmus' foray into folk music. At ...
"Careers and Culture". Netsmart. Retrieved June 7, 2023. Haigh, An Interview with Oscar Schachter, pp. 26-27. Campbell-Kelly, ... Advanced Computer Techniques. 1985. pp. 4-9 (description section). Annual Report 1988. Advanced Computer Techniques. 1989. pp. ... Advanced Computer Techniques. 1989. pp. 1-2 (description section). Annual Report 1987. Advanced Computer Techniques. 1988. p. ... Advanced Computer Techniques. 1986. pp. 5-6, 8, 12 (description section). Annual Report 1983. Advanced Computer Techniques. ...
... whose goal is to create a better culture." Charles H. Lippy writes that earlier spiritual interest in the technique faded in ... Other initiatives to teach the TM technique to war veterans at risk for PTSD, were underway as of 2010. The technique has been ... The Transcendental Meditation technique (abbreviated as TM) is the technique associated with the practice of Transcendental ... According to the Maharishi his technique requires no preparation, is simple to do, and can be learned by anyone. The technique ...
2006). Aspect of Chinese culture. 中国文化导读. 清华大学出版社 publishing Institute of the History of Natural Sciences and Chinese Academy ... The earliest extant lacquer object, a red wooden bowl, was unearthed at a Hemudu culture (c. 5000-4500 BCE) site. By the Han ... when the sophisticated techniques used in the lacquer process were first developed, and it became a highly artistic craft. ...
One of the simplest methods involves using calcium phosphate to bind the DNA and then exposing it to cultured cells. The ... Genetic engineering techniques allow the modification of animal and plant genomes. Techniques have been devised to insert, ... If successful, the technique produces an adult plant that contains the transgene in every cell. In animals it is necessary to ... The DNA band at the correct size should contain the gene, where it can be excised from the gel.: 40-41 Another technique to ...
The Culture of the New Capitalism. Yale University Press. p. 172. A Citizens Guide to Understanding Corporate Media Propaganda ... Many propaganda techniques are based on socio-psychological research. Many of these same techniques can be classified as ... This technique is used to convince the audience that a program is an expression of an irresistible mass movement and that it is ... This technique has also been referred to as the PT Barnum effect. (e.g., the advertising campaign slogan "Ford has a better ...
Roorda, Eric (2020). The Ocean Reader:History,Culture,Politics. Duke University Press. (CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ... The lashed-plank technique can be found worldwide as well. The clinker and reverse-clinker construction techniques involve ... the ancients relied primarily on the other techniques to build their watercraft. In many cases, these techniques were very ... This technique was rarer in the rest of the world until the coming of the modern era. Ancient navies and vessels Boat building ...
ISBN 978-1-134-35821-2. Daly, Ann (2002). Critical Gestures: Writings on Dance and Culture. Wesleyan University Press. p. 158. ... It is widely regarded as the first codified modern dance technique, and strongly influenced the later techniques of Merce ... Modern dance Humphrey-Weidman technique Limón technique Excerpts from Guidelines in Contemporary Dance Training, a DVD set ... her extended collaboration with ballet-trained Erick Hawkins made her technique more balletic over time.: 23 The technique was ...
P.19 Technology and the culture of progress in meiji japan. P.24 Technology and the culture of progress in meiji japan. P.24 ... Technology and the culture of progress in meiji japan. P.25 Technology and evolution: a root and branch view of asian iron from ... However, the best archaeological evidence for early iron-working techniques in Japan dates to the Asuka period, after Buddhism ... Early Japanese iron-working techniques are known primarily from archaeological evidence dating to the Asuka period (538-710 CE ...
D'Lugo, Marvin (1999). "Buñuel in the Cathedral of Culture" in Marsha Kinder (ed.), Luis Buñuel's The Discreet Charm of the ... Buñuel's filmmaking technique was influenced by many aspects of his personality which included sharp contrasts of character and ... Often Buñuel applies the techniques of mise-en-scène to combine multiple single scenes within a film directed by him to ... 4 in E Minor, a practice called by James Clifford "fortuitous or ironic collage." Although Buñuel's use of this technique ...
... has shown that processes signifying the end of the Acheulian culture and the emergence of a Middle Palaeolithic culture ... The Levallois technique (IPA: [lə.va.lwa]) is a name given by archaeologists to a distinctive type of stone knapping developed ... Yubetsu technique Higham, Tom (2021). The World Before Us: How Science is Revealing a New Story of Our Human Origins. Penguin ... The technique was more sophisticated than earlier methods of lithic reduction, involving the striking of lithic flakes from a ...
Hinshiranan, Narumon (2001-01-01). "Kabang: the living boat". Techniques & Culture. 35-36: 499-507. doi:10.4000/tc.310. ISSN ... Furthermore, the Moken language has no native words for individual possession which is reflected in a culture of sharing and ... With Austronesian roots, their languages (Moken, Moklen, Urak Lawoi'), culture, and lifestyle are unique, and they have a ... Paris: UNESCO Office of the Regional Advisor for Culture in Asia and the Pacific. 2001. Retrieved 2023-07-11. ...
Hinshiranan, Narumon (2001-01-01). "Kabang: the living boat". Techniques & Culture. 35-36: 499-507. doi:10.4000/tc.310. ISSN ... The Moken identify in a common culture; there are 1500 men and 1500 women who speak the Moken language, a distinct Austronesian ... Attempts by both Myanmar and Thailand to assimilate the Moken into the wider regional culture have met with very limited ... The Burmese and Thai governments have made attempts at assimilating the people into their own culture, but these efforts have ...
Les outils agricoles à l'épreuve de l'open source". Techniques & Culture. Revue semestrielle d'anthropologie des techniques (in ...
Decker, Kris De (6 June 2017). "Comment bâtir un internet low tech". Techniques & Culture. Revue semestrielle d'anthropologie ... Different versions of Wi-Fi use different techniques, 802.11b uses DSSS on a single carrier, whereas 802.11a, Wi-Fi 4, 5 and 6 ... New techniques for indoor positioning, combining deterministic and estimation methods. ENC-GNSS 2009: European Navigation ... Signal fluctuations can cause errors, which can be reduced with noise-filtering techniques. For low precision, integrating Wi- ...
Artistic techniques, Contemporary art movements, DIY culture, Fluxus, Postmodern art, Cassette culture 1970s-1990s). ... Certain materials and techniques are commonly used and frequently favored by mail artists due to their availability, ... Various printmaking techniques, in addition to rubber stamping, are used to create multiples. Copy art (xerography, photocopy) ... Mail artists often use collage techniques to produce original postcards, envelopes and work that may be transformed using copy ...
The technique nishijin-ori, traditionally produced in the Nishijin area of Kyoto, is intricately woven and can have a three ... ISBN 0-88011-598-X. Dalby, Liza (2001). Kimono, Fashioning Culture. Vintage. ISBN 0-09-942899-7. Fält, Olavi K.; Nieminen, Kai ... Bennett, Gary (1997). Aikido techniques & tactics. Human Kinetics Publisher. ... dye technique. Obidome (帯留, "sash clip") is a small, decorative brooch fastened onto the obijime at the front, commonly made ...
Cut-Up Technique , Open Culture". Retrieved 2021-10-31. Marc Lowenthal, translator's introduction to Francis Picabia's I Am a ... Cut-up technique is an extension of collage to words themselves, Tristan Tzara describes this in the Dada Manifesto: TO MAKE A ... Dada Culture (New York and Amsterdam: Rodopi Verlag, 2006) Lavin, Maud. Cut With the Kitchen Knife: The Weimar Photomontages of ... Europe of Cultures. "Tristan Tzara speaks of the Dada Movement" Archived 2015-07-04 at the Wayback Machine, September 6, 1963. ...
Robert Arthur Andersen (2005). Algal culturing techniques. Elsevier Academic Press. ISBN 9780120884261. Tao, S. H.; Bolger, P. ... For this application, the concentration of germanium dioxide typically used in the culture medium is between 1 and 10 mg/L, ... Germanium dioxide is used in algaculture as an inhibitor of unwanted diatom growth in algal cultures, since contamination with ...
"Historical review of algal culturing techniques". In Anderson, Robert A. (ed.). Algal Culturing Techniques. Elsevier Science & ... Tamiya was able with it to culture algal cell lines that were all in the same developmental stage, a technique used by later ... In 1953 Tamiya, working with other Japanese scientists, developed techniques for the synchronous culture of the green algae ... In 1977 he was given the Japanese Order of Culture for his contributions to science in Japan. The standard author abbreviation ...
ISBN 978-0-02-872100-2. Rubin, Emanuel; Baron, John H. (2006). Music in Jewish History and Culture. Sterling Heights, Michigan ... Boskovich introduced him immediately to twentieth-century techniques and influenced him greatly as a composer and, eventually, ... ISBN 0-674-37471-1. Read, Gardner (1976). Contemporary Instrumental Techniques. New York: Schirmer. ... extended and invented vocal and instrumental techniques, and required virtuosity and perseverance from performers. In fact, ...
Media analysis techniques. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications. (1984). Signs in contemporary culture: An introduction to ... His works cover a wide range of topics, including media theory, popular culture, semiotics, and visual communication. Berger's ... 2011). Ads, Fads, and Consumer Culture: Advertising's Impact on American Character and Society. Boulder, Colo: Rowman & ... Walnut Creek, California: AltaMira Press (1998). Media research techniques. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. (2003). Durkheim ...
Techniques et culture, 1 (67), Éditions de l'EHESS, 288 p., 2017. Vidal, Denis; Meyer, Eric; Tarabout, Gilles, eds. (1994). ... 2017). "67 , 2017 Low Tech ? Wild Tech !". Techniques & Culture (67). doi:10.4000/tc.8260. Grimaud, Emmanuel; Tastevin, Yann ... 2017). "67 , 2017 Low Tech ? Wild Tech !". Techniques & Culture (67). doi:10.4000/tc.8260. "Persona, étrangement humain , Actes ... Techniques et Culture , 2017 Vidal, Denis (2012). "Vers un Nouveau Pacte Anthropomorphique! Les Enjeux Anthropologiques de la ...
... the technique had rare appearances in Africa forming another facing called opus africanum.: 189-90 The technique used vertical ... Van Oyen, Astrid (2017). "Finding the Material in 'Material Culture'. Form and Matter in Roman Concrete.". In Van Oyen, Astrid ... Along with other facings, the technique is also important for dating buildings in modern scholarship where there is an absence ... The chronology of the usage of facings is fluid with techniques being used long after their popularity has waned.: 252 ...
"Luzhou Spirit Brewing Techniques". China Intangible Cultural Heritage. Ministry of Culture, P.R.China. Archived from the ... Bainian (百年;"Century") Nongxiang Baijiu 52% abv Made in tribute to the recognition of Luzhou brewing techniques as a part of ...
Yarns were also dyed in a wide range of hues, used together in loom weaving and many other techniques. This combination of ... While the Paracas culture developed in this region between approximately 1200 BCE and 100 BCE, the Topará culture is thought to ... Nazca Culture and iconography are believed by scholars such as Helaine Silverman to have evolved from Paracas culture. Hendrik ... The two cultures coexisted for one or more generations, both on the Paracas Peninsula and in the nearby Ica Valley. Their ...
Techniques & Culture: 373-400. Nugroho, Irawan Djoko (2011). Majapahit Peradaban Maritim. Suluh Nuswantara Bakti. ISBN 978-602- ...
ISBN 1-61673-171-0. Homéric (2012, p. 319) CNRS (2003). Techniques & culture (in French). Éditions de la Maison des sciences de ... Culture and History of the Ancient Near East. BRILL. p. 614. ISBN 9004312307. Lizet, Bernadette (2004). "Le cheval arabe du ... Kucera, Filip (2013). "Arab Horse in the Culture of Orient". Sensus Historiae. 12: 16. ISSN 2082-0860. Chodźko, Alexander. ...
Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp, vols.1-2. Mauss, Marcel 1934: "Les techniques du corps." - English 1973: "Techniques of the Body." In: ... "Culture" in singular is an abstraction. The study of body culture is always a study of body cultures in plural. Body cultures ... The study of different class habitus (→class culture), youth cultures, gender cultures (→gender identity) etc. opened up for ... As body culture studies analyse culture and society in terms of human bodily practices, they are sometimes viewed as a form of ...
Cell culture techniques, Microfluidics). ... This technique is relatively cheap and can be used to make ... Young EW, Beebe DJ (March 2010). "Fundamentals of microfluidic cell culture in controlled microenvironments". Chem Soc Rev. 39 ... culture cells as well as perform many other important biological studies. One unique feature that results from miniaturization ... can either lend to the advantages of using microfluidics or it can necessitate further refinement of experimental technique. In ...
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... and theoretical knowledge of key techniques to perform cell culture. ... This course provides students with a sound, practical, and theoretical knowledge of key techniques to perform cell culture. Co- ...
Support Open Culture. Were hoping to rely on our loyal readers rather than erratic ads. To support Open Cultures educational ... Colin Marshall hosts and produces Notebook on Cities and Culture and writes essays on literature, film, cities, Asia, and ... Open Culture scours the web for the best educational media. We find the free courses and audio books you need, the language ... Please click the Donate button and support Open Culture. You can use Paypal, Venmo, Patreon, even Crypto! We thank you! ...
Better than tissue culture. The technique of efficient & rapid non-test tube plant cloning (TERNPC) is a completely new system ... Discussion Board > All About Antievolution > Intelligent Design > a new technique better than tissue culture ... Topic: a new technique better than tissue culture. < Next Oldest , Next Newest > ... If you want to know this technique in detail, Please go to the website: Email: [email protected]. I ...
3D models provide a more accurate representation of cells in vivo and are more stable than 2D cultures, making them very ... Culturing cells in three dimensions allows more physiologically relevant observations to be made regarding cellular ... 3D Cell Culture. Culturing cells in three dimensions allows more physiologically relevant observations to be made regarding ... Cell / Tissue Culture *Cell Adhesion Assays *Cell Lines, Stem Cells and Primary Cells *Cell-Based Assays *DNA / RNA Extraction ...
In this article, we will explore the techniques, recipes, and culture of French cuisine. We will delve into the art of French ... One of the key elements of French cuisine is technique. French chefs are renowned for their mastery of culinary techniques such ... These techniques are the foundation for many classic French dishes such as Coq au Vin, Boeuf Bourguignon, and Ratatouille. ...
A Protocol on in Vitro Propagation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi using Root Organ Culture Technique Authors. * Hari Prasad ... In-vitro, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, root culture Abstract. The technique of in vitro propagation of Arbuscular mycorrhizal ... Aryal, H. P. (2017). A Protocol on in Vitro Propagation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi using Root Organ Culture Technique. ... This could form an economically viable technique for root organ culture of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. ...
The Role of Culture in Adventure Travel: Strategies and Techniques for Immersive Experiences. August 15, 2023. by admin ... Culture plays a vital role in creating immersive experiences during adventure travel. By engaging with the local culture, ... Culture encompasses the customs, traditions, beliefs, and way of life of a particular group of people, and immersing oneself in ... Culture plays a significant role in adventure travel by adding depth and authenticity to the experience. Immersing oneself in ...
Das Centre de Culture Scientifique, Technique et Industrielle de Grenoble (CCSTI Grenoble) - gegründet im Jahre 1979 - ist eine ...
Techniques to Promote Positive Culture Change within Organizations. * Post author By admin ... This is starting to affect the culture of your office, as there is a lot of negativity and hurt feelings._x000D_. After some ... Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to summarize techniques used to promote positive relationships in the ... This week you will be required to write an essay by analyzing different techniques that promote effective communication, ...
In an effort to circumvent the problem of low biomass, a new large batch culturing technique was developed. Protein ... Interactions of proteins with biogenic iron oxyhydroxides and a new culturing technique to increase biomass yields of ...
The 6 Technique About Best Forex Expert Advisor Website Only A Variety Of People.... - 0 ... Founded in 2011 as a meeting place for the local arts community, Culture Café brings together people who work in the arts who ... Home Science 10 Medical Technique that Doctors and Nurses Wish You Recognize ...
Reliable techniques for the living cell culture and correlative light and electron microscopy (EM) of meiotic pollen mother ... The Culture and Correlative Electron Microscopy of Pollen Mother Cells in Meiosis: Development of Techniques and Some ... The Culture and Correlative Electron Microscopy of Pollen Mother Cells in Meiosis: Development of Techniques and Some ... Cells were covered with an inert oil to prevent their dehydration, and some cells were cultured from metaphase I to tetrad cell ...
... Export citation. *Global styles ... Xan, L. (2004). Verification of semi-intensive shrimp culture techniques: Vietnam. In: Promotion of mangrove-friendly shrimp ... However, due to lack of technology in shrimp culture especially the semi-intensive pond culture, production ranged from 200 to ... Vietnam has about 260,000 ha devoted for shrimp culture in early 1999. The total production was estimated at about 80,000 tons ...
Get tips for photographing with special techniques in this how-to gallery from National Geographic. ... History & Culture. Why your cat is a pickier eater than your dog ... History & Culture. Sequoyah, the U.S. state that almost existed ... Using Special Techniques. Get tips for photographing with special techniques in this how-to gallery from National Geographic. ... In this gallery, see how technique and imagination can be combined to create striking images.,/p, ,p,Cars pass a cowboy on ...
spheroid culture technique involves continuous stirring of the cell suspension in spinner flask bioreactor container. The ... Spheroid culture techniques. This article briefly describes the modern spheroid culturing techniques available. ... Spinner Culture. This spheroid culture technique involves continuous stirring of the cell suspension in spinner flask ... Static suspension culture. In this technique, spheroids are formed by disrupting cell-cell adhesion on non-adherent flat bottom ...
"Culture Techniques" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "Culture Techniques" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Culture Techniques" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Culture Techniques" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. ... These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a ...
EVENTS AND ACTIONS (en) > activity (en) > methodology (en) > సంవిధానాలు > biological techniques (en) > culture techniques (en) ...
Traditional technique of making Airag in Khokhuur and its associated customs includes the traditional method of making airag - ... The basic airag-making technique consists of milking the mares, cooling the fresh milk, and repeatedly churning it inside the ... Traditional technique of making Airag in Khokhuur and its associated customs. Mongolia ...
DK is a top publisher of Art Techniques books. Shop from a range of bestselling titles to improve your knowledge at ... Watercolor Techniques For Artists and Illustrators. The only instructional book on watercolor you will ever... ...
techniques, types, Media composition, application, advanatges, media preparation of Plant Tissue Culture ... There are many types of plant tissue culture techniques such as Pollen Culture, Anther Culture, Single Cell Culture, Suspension ... The plant tissue culture technique is accomplished in the following steps;. Plant tissue culture technique , Image Author: ... explant culture.. *Example: Some examples of tissue culture media are the root culture medium of White and the callus culture ...
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This is often rooted in a culture where the CI mindset can be nurtured and can grow. A Scrum team inherently has the CI mindset ... The interesting thing is the team was unaware of Lean or the complementary nature of its tools and techniques; such is the ... Lean provides a lot of tools and techniques that focus on waste reduction, which never translated over into Scrum. My personal ... Griffin gave a talk about using Lean tools and techniques to add additional tools to a ScrumMasters arsenal to help with ...
Using Large Culture Packs. Large packets of starter culture offer a broader choice in cultures, than small culture packs, but ... Learn About Cultures for Cheese Making. Some of the top questions we receive about cheese making have to do with cheese making ... When converting the lactose in milk to lactic acid, using starter cultures, there is no visible way to determine the rate of ... Why are there so many cheese making cultures to choose from? Where do... ...
4.Relations between technique, material and tool - its evolution and manufacturing techniques. 5.The value of techniques and ... Material Culture and Techniques << back to Curriculum Plan Publication in the Diário da República: Despacho n.º 10852/2016 - 05 ... Be able to investigate the syncretic relation between the evolution and history of techniques with that of material culture. ... 1.The concept of technique and its evolution.. 2.The concept of material culture, its genesis and contemporary interpretation. ...
Culture Technique Isolation of the etiologic agent, Chlamydia psittaci, from the birds spleen, liver, air sacs, pericardium, ... Additional diagnostic techniques are in use or under development. Readers are encouraged to research peer-reviewed reports on ... The proper handling of samples is critical for maintaining the viability of organisms for culture, and a special transport ... Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular bacteria that must be isolated in tissue culture, mice, or chick embryos. ...
Institute of Languages, Cultures and Societies. School of Advanced Study. University of London. Senate House. Malet Street. ... Higgler Tactics: Techniques of Intermediary Market Traders in Jamaica - open source article now available. * Email page ... Congratulations to ILAS academic, William Tantam, whose new article Higgler Tactics: Techniques of Intermediary Market Traders ...
Developing a culture of collaboration between departments is vital, but breaking down barriers and fostering synergy can be ... Home » Blog » Creating a Culture of Collaboration: Effective Techniques for Interdepartmental Communication. Creating a Culture ... and an unwavering commitment to nurturing a culture of open communication and collaboration. By conducting regular cross- ... of Collaboration: Effective Techniques for Interdepartmental Communication. *by The Daedalus Group ...
Minimum Essential Medium Eagle has been used in murine fibroblast culture for in vitro cytocompatibility testing. ... technique(s). cell culture , mammalian: suitable. technique(s). cell culture , hybridoma: suitable, cell culture , mammalian: ... This provides a more stable form of glutamine for cell culture. Free amino acid L-glutamine is known to be unstable in cell ... Minimum Essential Medium (MEM), developed by Harry Eagle, is one of the most widely used of all synthetic cell culture media. ...
  • MEM, which incorporates these modifications, includes higher concentrations of amino acids so the medium more closely approximates the protein composition of cultured mammalian cells. (
  • FBS derived from clotted blood is the most widely used undefined supplement in eukaryotic, especially mammalian, cell culture. (
  • The technique of in vitro propagation of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi has been developed over the past few decades and opens up areas of studying plant-fungi interactions. (
  • The objective of this paper is to find out the in vitro culture of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi using Root Organ Culture technique. (
  • Ascertain of root colonization of these fungi could be affected in vitro without undertaking complex and complicated culture conditions. (
  • In contemporary usage, "tissue culture" usually relates to the extension of cells from a tissue of a multicellular organism in vitro. (
  • Minimum Essential Medium Eagle has been used in murine fibroblast culture for in vitro cytocompatibility testing. (
  • Assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) involve manipulation of sperm and ova or embryos in vitro with the goal of producing a pregnancy. (
  • For assisted reproductive techniques, oocytes and sperm are collected from the intended parents or donors, and an embryo or the gametes are transferred to the woman's reproductive tract after culture in vitro. (
  • Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. (
  • Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types. (
  • The technique in which the tissues or cells are grown on an artificial medium separate from the parent organism is known as tissue culture. (
  • For the animals, this technique is also known as the culture of animal cells and tissues and for the plants, it is known as plant tissue culture. (
  • Plant tissue culture is a technique that is utilized to sustain or grow plant cells, tissues, or organs in a sterile condition on a nutrient culture medium of known composition. (
  • This medium was developed by Murashige and Skoog to induce organogenesis, and regeneration of plants in cultured tissues. (
  • In modern-day it is used for protoplast culture. (
  • This paper reports an efficient protoplast culture technique, the "extra thin alginate film'' technique. (
  • The development of this improved method of protoplast culture was an outcome of an assessment of the efficiency and shortcomings of various protoplast culture techniques. (
  • Nicotiana tabacum and Lotus corniculatus, and a comparison was made with the "thin alginate layer'' technique, another efficient protoplast culture system. (
  • The present innovation overcomes most of the limitations of protoplast culture techniques described so far and can now be applied to a wide variety of crops to check its general applicability. (
  • Studies on embryo toxic effects of thallium using the whole embryo culture technique. (
  • Laboratory techniques and procedures are performed on patient specimens to detect biomarkers and diagnose diseases. (
  • DeepColony is a multi-level AI solution for the interpretation of bacterial culturing images in clinical microbiology laboratory automations. (
  • Conclusive diagnosis of these viruses requires electron microscopic examination of stool specimens, a laboratory technique that is available only at a few large centers, including CDC. (
  • Upon completion of this course students should be able to demonstrate the knowledge and skills required to initiate, maintain, and manipulate cells in culture. (
  • Culturing cells in three dimensions allows more physiologically relevant observations to be made regarding cellular interactions and gene expression. (
  • 3D models provide a more accurate representation of cells in vivo and are more stable than 2D cultures, making them very useful for long-term studies. (
  • Reliable techniques for the living cell culture and correlative light and electron microscopy (EM) of meiotic pollen mother cells (PMCs) of Iris spuria, Allium triquetrum and Tradescantia flumenensis are described in detail. (
  • Cells were covered with an inert oil to prevent their dehydration, and some cells were cultured from metaphase I to tetrad cell formation over a 20 hour period. (
  • In pellet culture systems, cells are forced to the bottom of the tube via centrifugation. (
  • Magnetic levitation system involves mixing the cells with magnetic particles and subjecting them to a magnetic force during culturing process. (
  • The cells are immersed in a culture medium, which includes vital nutrients and energy reservoirs essential for the cells' survival. (
  • Many plant cells possess the capability to reconstruct a whole plant (totipotency), this is the main fact on which the Plant tissue culture technique relies. (
  • In-Plant tissue culture technique a whole plant or new plant can be generated from plant cells without cell walls (protoplasts), Single cells, stems, or roots, pieces of leaves by providing the required nutrients and plant hormones. (
  • Subsequent studies using these and other cells in culture indicated additions to BME could be made to aid growth of a wider variety of fastidious cells. (
  • In order to reduce the costs associated with the maintenance regime of cultures, efforts were initiated on the establishment of a cryopreserved biobank for long term maintenance of cultures, thus minimizing the efforts associated with handling of material, as successfully frozen cultures, in theory, could be maintained effectively indefinitely, with the advantage of the stability of cells characteristics. (
  • Culturing was done within 1 hour showed predominantly white blood cells using standard bacteriological inoculation and no organisms [ 6,7 ]. (
  • This can be done with a simple swab (bacterial culture), a needle or syringe, or with a biopsy. (
  • Living PMCs were successfully cultured in a slide chamber on agar/sucrose medium. (
  • One drawback of the technique is the reproduction-called regeneration of its plant material. (
  • Cell cultures can provide a nutritious environment to unwanted biological microorganisms. (
  • Other PMCs were fixed with glutaraldehyde and flat embedded using a modification of the agar sandwich technique of Mole-Bajer and Bajer (1968). (
  • These culture layers consist of agar or agarose gel. (
  • Liquid, semi-solid, or solid growth medium, such as broth or agar are used to facilitate the tissue culture technique. (
  • Clinicians have learned that current microbial analysis (culture) often does not provide a clear picture of the clinically significant offending organisms. (
  • Effect of oenological practices on microbial populations using culture-independent techniques. (
  • The effect of these oenological practices on wine microbial populations has been evaluated using culture -independent methods . (
  • ABSTRACT To determine the microbiology of wound infection following caesarean section and to evaluate the use of Gram stain for the predicton of subsequent microbiological culture results, 1319 surgical wounds were followed up. (
  • This spheroid culture technique involves continuous stirring of the cell suspension in spinner flask bioreactor container. (
  • Gamborg developed this medium for cell suspension and callus cultures. (
  • The Gram stain method is one of the most commonly used techniques to quickly diagnose bacterial infections. (
  • In the second step of Plant tissue culture, the sterilized explant is included within a tissue culture medium which is constituted of growth regulators and suitable nutrients. (
  • The semen sample is typically washed several times with tissue culture medium and is concentrated for motile sperm, which are then added to the medium containing the oocytes. (
  • Alternative non-adherent biomaterial can be used such as hyaluronic acid, which incidentally is more suitable for use in tumor spheroid cultures (3). (
  • The Culture Collection of Freshwater Microalgae (CCMA-UFSCar, Coleção de Culturas de Microalgas de Água-Doce), based at the Universidade Federal de São Carlos, plays an important role in underpinning Brazilian microalgal research, providing biological materials, substrates and training personnel for a large proportion of the past and current projects in this area. (
  • We did Gram stains and cultures on exudates from open wounds and on aspirates if the wounds had demonstrable fluid collection. (
  • Organisms seen by Gram stain yielded a sensitivity of 96.6%, specificity of 88.9%, positive predictive value of 97.7% and negative predictive value of 84.2% when used to predict positive culture results for bacterial wound infection. (
  • RESUME Afin de déterminer la microbiologie de l'infection de la plaie après une césarienne et d'évaluer l'utilisation de la coloration de Gram pour prévoir les résultats des cultures microbiologiques ultérieures, 1319 plaies chirurgicales ont fait l'objet d'un suivi. (
  • Nous avons procédé à une coloration de Gram et à des cultures sur des exsudats de plaies ouvertes et des échantillons prélevés par aspiration si la plaie avait une accumulation de fluides manifeste. (
  • Les micro-organismes mis en évidence par coloration de Gram ont donné une sensibilité de 96,6 %, une spécificité de 88,9 %, une valeur prédictive positive de 97,7 % et une valeur prédictive négative de 84,2 % lorsqu'ils étaient utilisés pour prévoir les résultats de culture positifs pour les infections bactériennes des plaies. (
  • A new technique developed by scientists in the Physical Sciences for Health Centre at the University of Birmingham can identify the resistance profile of bacteria in a much shorter time than traditional diagnostic methods. (
  • The technique can be used to identify whether the bacteria causing an infection such as MRSA is resistant to certain drugs and antibiotics, and therefore identify treatments most likely to be effective. (
  • Until the 1970s, diagnostic techniques for infectious diarrhea were limited to bacteria and protozoa, and an etiologic agent could be identified in a limited proportion of cases. (
  • The purpose of this study was to compare three different analysis techniques used to characterize and identify bacteria and fungi. (
  • Develop the ability to associate material culture, together with data collection, as the scientific basis for the interpretation of artefacts and objects. (
  • 2.The concept of material culture, its genesis and contemporary interpretation. (
  • Industrial architecture and techniques: interpretation and current context. (
  • Breathing Technique by Marija Knežević (Zephyr Press, 2021). (
  • In a selection of excerpts from "The River's Name," the standout poem of Breathing Technique (Zephyr Press, 2021), Serbian writer Marija Knežević explores the protean nature of borders, agency and identity, longing and isolation-"the anguish of cartography. (
  • This could form an economically viable technique for root organ culture of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. (
  • This course provides students with a sound, practical, and theoretical knowledge of key techniques to perform cell culture. (
  • Additionally this system can also facilitate multi-cellular co-culturing with different cell types (9-11). (
  • We'll provide you with an accessible, but challenging environment in which you can cultivate your study skills, gaining essential knowledge of many of the concepts, methods and techniques you will need in order to succeed on your future degree pathway, whether that includes in film, television, media or a wider humanities discipline. (
  • Correia, I.J. Spheroids formation on non-adhesive surfaces by liquid overlay technique: Considerations and practical approaches. (
  • Supernatants are then removed, and the cell pellet resuspended in culture medium appropriate for spheroid formation. (
  • The general mechanics of hanging drop method comprises of a monolayer cell culture, which is prepared as a suspension and diluted with appropriate culture medium to attain the desired cell density. (
  • Instead of uploading word docs that can become outdated very quickly, we use as a public medium to share our protocols and techniques. (
  • Example: Some examples of tissue culture media are the root culture medium of White and the callus culture medium of Gautheret. (
  • White's medium was for the root culture. (
  • the medium was developed by Chu for the cereal anther culture, besides other tissue cultures. (
  • Nitsch formulated this medium to frequently be used for other cultures. (
  • Among the media mentioned above, MS medium is widely employed in plant tissue culture work due to its success with several plant species and culture systems. (
  • Minimum Essential Medium (MEM), developed by Harry Eagle, is one of the most widely used of all synthetic cell culture media. (
  • Lab on a chip is a microfluidic culture technique commonly used for single cell analysis, and drug toxicity screens. (
  • The technique of efficient & rapid non-test tube plant cloning (TERNPC) is a completely new system for rapid plant propagation, first invented by Professor Li Changxiao. (
  • Through a long-time practice, it has been proved to be an important breakthrough both in the tube rapid plant propagation of modern biotechnology and in the conventional seedling-breeding technique. (
  • The seed banks managed by governments are stored in specific conditions by following techniques developed by the organizations like Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) and the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). (
  • Instead, organizations can provide data analytics tools and techniques within existing business workflows and tools. (
  • Comparative analysis of bacterial and fungal communities in two dairy parlors through the use of pyrosequencing, riboprinting, culture techniques, and microscopic analysis. (
  • The tissue culture is performed within aseptic conditions under the HEPA filtered air provided by a laminar flow cabinet. (
  • Traditionally, strains at CCMA-UFSCar were maintained in replicate as metabolically active cultures under suboptimal growth conditions, which must be sub-cultured every 2-3 months (Vieira, pers. (
  • The techniques of administering regional anesthetics for hand surgery, the pharmacology of local anesthetics , and special conditions associated with hand surgery are discussed. (
  • Stericup Quick Release-GP Sterile Vacuum Filtration System, Stericup Quick Release-GP sterile vacuum filtration system combines a 500 mL Steritop bottle top filter unit, which uses a 0.22 µm pore size fast flow PES Express PLUS membrane, with a 500 mL receiver flask for sterilizing tissue culture media, protein & DNA. (
  • They basically train the body to be able to conform to the choreographic limitations of the technique they have developed for the purpose of their personal choreographic vision. (
  • Furthermore, it has also been responsible for the specialized training of personnel, including researchers which went to initiate other algae culture collections in Brazil. (
  • Traditional technique of making Airag in Khokhuur and its associated customs includes the traditional method of making airag - a fermented beverage made from mare's milk - and the related equipment, such as the khokhuur (cowhide vessel), buluur (paddle) and khovoo (kibble), associated with the social customs and rituals. (
  • The basic airag-making technique consists of milking the mares, cooling the fresh milk, and repeatedly churning it inside the khokhuur - over 500 times - with starter left inside to assist fermentation. (
  • When converting the lactose in milk to lactic acid, using starter cultures, there is no visible way to determine the rate of culture activity within the milk. (
  • This article reviews the mechanics of breastfeeding, correct breastfeeding techniques, and sufficient versus insufficient milk supplies. (
  • This provides a more stable form of glutamine for cell culture. (
  • Before learning about plant tissue culture, first you have to learn about tissue culture and its importance. (
  • The efficiency of this technique was evaluated with two model plant systems, viz. (
  • The remaining modules offer you a range of subject-specific options including History, Literature, Visual Cultures, Politics, and Media, or you can select to continue further with a language. (
  • By participating in such festivals, travelers not only gain a deeper appreciation for the local culture but also support the preservation of traditional practices. (
  • The technique minimizes generic erosion and allows the preservation of a large population. (
  • It necessitates conscious effort, the implementation of robust strategies, and an unwavering commitment to nurturing a culture of open communication and collaboration. (
  • By engaging with the local culture, travelers gain a deeper understanding of the destination and its people. (
  • You'll learn eight techniques in Learn and Master Sign Language, from reiteration to scaffolding to faceting and several more. (
  • Not only will you learn ASL as a language, you are also going to learn about the dynamic culture of Deaf People. (
  • As you learn more about Deaf People and Deaf Culture, you will feel a deep sense of camaraderie among a very rich community. (
  • Open Culture scours the web for the best educational media. (
  • It is a common supplement for cell culture media. (
  • FBS remains a popular media supplement because it provides a wide array of functions in cell culture. (
  • General guidelines, for large culture packs, provide. (
  • There is a clear need for techniques that are able to provide the same information in a shorter time period. (
  • Work conducted by PhD student Nathaniel Wand has proven that the DNA barcoding technique is able to identify DNA fragments in a mixed sample, containing segments such as those which provide a marker of resistance in MRSA, which would be very beneficial to identify in a healthcare setting. (
  • This technique was developed to permit the preselection of PMCs at known meiotic stages, for subsequent EM examination. (
  • 5.The value of techniques and their application, technique as a transformation factor. (
  • Hiring local guides or experts can greatly enhance the adventure travel experience by providing valuable insights into the destination's culture, history, and natural surroundings. (
  • Be able to investigate the syncretic relation between the evolution and history of techniques with that of material culture. (
  • Lean provides a lot of tools and techniques that focus on waste reduction, which never translated over into Scrum. (
  • Explore the tools and techniques you can use to change an organisation's culture with this free online course. (
  • This technique helps to culture the whole plants and were first created from nutrient solutions. (
  • Therefore, efficient conservation techniques are required to preserve the plants' genetic resources. (
  • Results indicate that the culture technique with extra thin alginate film is as efficient as the technique with thin alginate layer, with many additional advantages. (