Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Otitis Media: Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Embryo Culture Techniques: The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Peptones: Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Communications Media: The means of interchanging or transmitting and receiving information. Historically the media were written: books, journals, newspapers, and other publications; in the modern age the media include, in addition, radio, television, computers, and information networks.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Microbial Collagenase: A metalloproteinase which degrades helical regions of native collagen to small fragments. Preferred cleavage is -Gly in the sequence -Pro-Xaa-Gly-Pro-. Six forms (or 2 classes) have been isolated from Clostridium histolyticum that are immunologically cross-reactive but possess different sequences and different specificities. Other variants have been isolated from Bacillus cereus, Empedobacter collagenolyticum, Pseudomonas marinoglutinosa, and species of Vibrio and Streptomyces. EC 3.4.24.3.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Ectogenesis: Embryonic and fetal development that takes place in an artificial environment in vitro.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Otitis Media, Suppurative: Inflammation of the middle ear with purulent discharge.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Chromogenic Compounds: Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.HEPES: A dipolar ionic buffer.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Polyanetholesulfonate: A compound originally developed as an anticoagulant, but possessing anticomplement action and lowering the bactericidal action of blood. It is used in vitro to inhibit blood coagulation and as a diagnostic reagent to encourage the growth of pathogens in the blood. It is also used to stabilize colloidal solutions such as milk and gelatin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.TritiumSulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Morula: An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Pichia: Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).GlucosamineL-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Tissue Preservation: The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Charcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cell SeparationHypertonic Solutions: Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Eye Banks: Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Granulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Blood Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Incubators: Insulated enclosures in which temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions can be regulated at levels optimal for growth, hatching, reproduction, or metabolic reactions.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Mycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Dactinomycin: A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Ear, Middle: The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.ThymidinePolymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Thioglycolates: Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.

Axin prevents Wnt-3a-induced accumulation of beta-catenin. (1/4091)

When Axin, a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, was expressed in COS cells, it coeluted with glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), beta-catenin, and adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) in a high molecular weight fraction on gel filtration column chromatography. In this fraction, GSK-3beta, beta-catenin, and APC were co-precipitated with Axin. Although beta-catenin was detected in the high molecular weight fraction in L cells on gel filtration column chromatography, addition of conditioned medium expressing Wnt-3a to the cells increased beta-catenin in the low molecular weight fraction. However, Wnt-3a-dependent accumulation of beta-catenin was greatly inhibited in L cells stably expressing Axin. Axin also suppressed Wnt-3a-dependent activation of Tcf-4 which binds to beta-catenin and acts as a transcription factor. These results suggest that Axin forms a complex with GSK-3beta, beta-catenin, and APC, resulting in the stimulation of the degradation of beta-catenin and that Wnt-3a induces the dissociation of beta-catenin from the Axin complex and accumulates beta-catenin.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel angiopoietin family protein, angiopoietin-3. (2/4091)

Using homology-based PCR, we have isolated cDNA encoding a novel member (491 amino acids) of the angiopoietin (Ang) family from human adult heart cDNA and have designated it angiopoietin-3 (Ang3). The NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal portions of Ang-3 contain the characteristic coiled-coil domain and fibrinogen-like domain that are conserved in other known Angs. Ang3 has a highly hydrophobic region at the N-terminus (approximately 21 amino acids) that is typical of a signal sequence for protein secretion. Ang3 mRNA is most abundant in adrenal gland, placenta, thyroid gland, heart and small intestine in human adult tissues. Additionally, Ang3 is a secretory protein, but is not a mitogen in endothelial cells.  (+info)

Microvessels from Alzheimer's disease brains kill neurons in vitro. (3/4091)

Understanding the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is of widespread interest because it is an increasingly prevalent disorder that is progressive, fatal, and currently untreatable. The dementia of Alzheimer's disease is caused by neuronal cell death. We demonstrate for the first time that blood vessels isolated from the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients can directly kill neurons in vitro. Either direct co-culture of Alzheimer's disease microvessels with neurons or incubation of cultured neurons with conditioned medium from microvessels results in neuronal cell death. In contrast, vessels from elderly nondemented donors are significantly (P<0.001) less lethal and brain vessels from younger donors are not neurotoxic. Neuronal killing by either direct co-culture with Alzheimer's disease microvessels or conditioned medium is dose- and time-dependent. Neuronal death can occur by either apoptotic or necrotic mechanisms. The microvessel factor is neurospecific, killing primary cortical neurons, cerebellar granule neurons, and differentiated PC-12 cells, but not non-neuronal cell types or undifferentiated PC-12 cells. Appearance of the neurotoxic factor is decreased by blocking microvessel protein synthesis with cycloheximide. The neurotoxic factor is soluble and likely a protein, because its activity is heat labile and trypsin sensitive. These findings implicate a novel mechanism of vascular-mediated neuronal cell death in Alzheimer's disease.  (+info)

Interaction of lipopolysaccharide with human small intestinal lamina propria fibroblasts favors neutrophil migration and peripheral blood mononuclear cell adhesion by the production of proinflammatory mediators and adhesion molecules. (4/4091)

Fibroblasts are important effector cells having a potential role in augmenting the inflammatory responses in various diseases. In infantile diarrhea caused by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the mechanism of inflammatory reactions at the mucosal site remains unknown. Although the potential involvement of fibroblasts in the pathogenesis of cryptococcus-induced diarrhea in pigs has been suggested, the precise role of lamina propria fibroblasts in the cellular pathogenesis of intestinal infection and inflammation caused by EPEC requires elucidation. Earlier we reported the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cell proliferation, and collagen synthesis and downregulation of nitric oxide in lamina propria fibroblasts. In this report, we present the profile of cytokines and adhesion molecules in the cultured and characterized human small intestinal lamina propria fibroblasts in relation to neutrophil migration and adhesion in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from EPEC 055:B5. Upon interaction with LPS (1-10 micrograms/ml), lamina propria fibroblasts produced a high level of proinflammatory mediators, interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and cell adhesion molecules (CAM) such as intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM), A-CAM, N-CAM and vitronectin in a time-dependent manner. LPS induced cell-associated IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, and IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha as soluble form in the supernatant. Apart from ICAM, vitronectin, A-CAM, and N-CAM proteins were strongly induced in lamina propria fibroblasts by LPS. Adhesion of PBMC to LPS-treated lamina propria fibroblasts was ICAM-dependent. LPS-induced ICAM expression in lamina propria fibroblasts was modulated by whole blood, PBMC and neutrophils. Conditioned medium of LPS-treated lamina propria fibroblasts remarkably enhanced the neutrophil migration. The migration of neutrophils was inhibited by anti-IL-8 antibody. Co-culture of fibroblasts with neutrophils using polycarbonate membrane filters exhibited time-dependent migration of neutrophils. These findings indicate that the coordinate production of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in lamina propria fibroblasts which do not classically belong to the immune system can influence the local inflammatory reactions at the intestinal mucosal site during bacterial infections and can influence the immune cell population residing in the lamina propria.  (+info)

Generation and characterization of aggrecanase. A soluble, cartilage-derived aggrecan-degrading activity. (5/4091)

A method was developed for generating soluble, active "aggrecanase" in conditioned media from interleukin-1-stimulated bovine nasal cartilage cultures. Using bovine nasal cartilage conditioned media as a source of the aggrecanase enzyme, an enzymatic assay was established employing purified aggrecan monomers as a substrate and monitoring specific aggrecanase-mediated cleavage products by Western analysis using the monoclonal antibody, BC-3 (which recognizes the new N terminus, ARGS, on fragments produced by cleavage between amino acid residues Glu373 and Ala374). Using this assay we have characterized cartilage aggrecanase with respect to assay kinetics, pH and salt optima, heat sensitivity, and stability upon storage. Aggrecanase activity was inhibited by the metalloprotease inhibitor, EDTA, while a panel of inhibitors of serine, cysteine, and aspartic proteinases had no effect, suggesting that aggrecanase is a metalloproteinase. Sensitivity to known matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors as well as to the endogenous tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, TIMP-1, further support the notion that aggrecanase is a metalloproteinase potentially related to the ADAM family or MMP family of proteases previously implicated in the catabolism of the extracellular matrix.  (+info)

Bile duct epithelial cells exposed to alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate produce a factor that causes neutrophil-dependent hepatocellular injury in vitro. (6/4091)

The acute hepatotoxicity induced by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) in rats is manifested as neutrophil-dependent necrosis of bile duct epithelial cells (BDECs) and hepatic parenchymal cells. This hepatotoxicity mirrors that of drug-induced cholangiolitic hepatitis in humans. Since BDECs are primary targets of ANIT-induced toxicity, we hypothesized that after exposure to ANIT, BDECs produce a factor(s) that causes neutrophil chemotaxis and neutrophil-dependent hepatocellular injury. To test this hypothesis BDECs were isolated from male Sprague Dawley rats and incubated with ANIT (6.25, 12.5, 25, or 50 microM) or vehicle for 24 h. The conditioned medium (CM) was collected and placed in the bottom chamber of a two-chambered chemotaxis system, while isolated neutrophils were placed in the top chamber. Chemotaxis was indicated by neutrophil migration through a membrane to the bottom chamber. CM from BDECs exposed to each concentration of ANIT was chemotactic, whereas CM from vehicle-treated BDECs was not. ANIT alone caused a modest degree of chemotaxis at 50 microM. The conditioned media were added to isolated hepatocytes or to hepatocyte-neutrophil cocultures and incubated for 24 h. Hepatocyte toxicity was indicated by alanine aminotransferase release into the culture medium. CM from vehicle-treated BDECs did not cause hepatocyte killing in either hepatocyte-neutrophil cocultures or hepatocyte cultures. In contrast, the addition of CM from ANIT-treated BDECs (CM-BDEC-A) to hepatocyte-neutrophil cocultures resulted in hepatocyte killing. The same CM was not cytotoxic to hepatocyte cultures devoid of neutrophils. The hepatocyte killing could not be explained by residual ANIT in the CM, which was below the limit of detection (< or = 0.5 microM). The addition of antiproteases afforded protection against neutrophil-dependent hepatocellular injury induced by CM-BDEC-A. These results indicate that ANIT causes BDECs to release a factor(s) that attracts neutrophils and stimulates them to injure hepatocytes in vitro.  (+info)

A vascular bed-specific pathway. (7/4091)

The endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene is induced by a variety of extracellular signals under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying environmental regulation of eNos expression, transgenic mice were generated with the 1,600-bp 5' flanking region of the human eNos promoter coupled to the coding region of the LacZ gene. In multiple independent lines of mice, transgene expression was detected within the endothelium of the brain, heart, skeletal muscle, and aorta. beta-galactosidase activity was consistently absent in the vascular beds of the liver, kidney, and spleen. In stable transfection assays of murine endothelial progenitor cells, the 1,600-bp promoter region was selectively induced by conditioned media from cardiac myocytes, skeletal myocytes, and brain astrocytes. Cardiac myocyte-mediated induction was partly abrogated by neutralizing anti-platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) antibodies. In addition, promoter activity was upregulated by PDGF-AB. Analysis of promoter deletions revealed that a PDGF response element lies between -744 and -1,600 relative to the start site of transcription, whereas a PDGF-independent cardiac myocyte response element is present within the first 166 bp of the 5' flanking region. Taken together, these results suggest that the eNos gene is regulated in the cardiac endothelium by both a PDGF-dependent and PDGF-independent microvascular bed-specific signaling pathway.  (+info)

Colonization of in vitro-formed cervical human papillomavirus- associated (pre)neoplastic lesions with dendritic cells: role of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. (8/4091)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of CD1a+ Langerhans/dendritic cells (LCs/DCs) to infiltrate human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated (pre)neoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix. Migration of LCs/DCs in the presence of keratinocytes derived from normal cervix and HPV-transformed cell lines was evaluated in Boyden chambers and in organotypic cultures and correlated with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production by the cells, as determined by ELISA. Conditioned media of HPV-transformed keratinocytes contained lower amounts of GM-CSF and induced a decreased motile response of LCs/DCs in the Boyden chamber assay compared with those of normal cervical keratinocytes. The migration of LCs/DCs in the presence of conditioned media from normal keratinocytes could be blocked by an anti-GM-CSF antibody, and the migration of LCs/DCs in the presence of conditioned media from HPV-transformed keratinocytes could be increased by supplementing the media with recombinant GM-CSF. GM-CSF was also a potent factor in enhancing the colonization of LCs/DCs into organotypic cultures of HPV-transformed keratinocytes, as the infiltration of LCs/DCs in the in vitro-formed (pre)neoplastic epithelium was minimal under basal conditions and dramatically increased after the addition of GM-CSF to the cultures. These results suggest that GM-CSF could play an important role in the recruitment of LCs/DCs into the HPV-transformed (pre)neoplastic cervical epithelium and be useful as a new immunotherapeutic approach for cervical (pre)cancers.  (+info)

We evaluated the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (CM-MSC) as an alternative to cell therapy in an antigen-induced model of arthritis (AIA). Disease severity and cartilage loss were evaluated by histopathological analysis of arthritic knee joints and immunostaining of aggrecan neoepitopes. Cell proliferation was assessed for activated and naïve CD4+ T cells from healthy mice following culture with CM-MSC or co-culture with MSCs. T cell polarization was analysed in CD4+ T cells isolated from spleens and lymph nodes of arthritic mice treated with CM-MSC or MSCs. CM-MSC treatment significantly reduced knee-joint swelling, histopathological signs of AIA, cartilage loss and suppressed TNFα induction. Proliferation of CD4+ cells from spleens of healthy mice was not affected by CM-MSC but reduced when cells were co-cultured with MSCs. In the presence of CM-MSC or MSCs, increases in IL-10 concentration were observed in culture medium. Finally, CD4+ T cells from ...
The addition of cardiac fibroblast-conditioned medium to purified cardiomyocyte cultures was associated with 1) cell hypertrophy, 2) vimentin expression in the presence of MyHC, and 3) markedly reduced spontaneous rhythmic contractions intrinsic to untreated cultured cardiomyocytes. These effects on cardiomyocyte structure and chronotropy in fibroblast-conditioned medium differed both in nature and time frame from the dedifferentiation or "fetal" gene program previously delineated in cardiomyocytes cultured under standard conditions (9, 11-14). For example, the progressive emergence of α-smooth muscle actin across all culture conditions was consistent with the dedifferentiation paradigm in contrast to vimentin expression specific to the fibroblast-conditioned medium (9, 14). These data suggest that cardiac fibroblasts introduced a soluble factor or factors into the medium that altered cardiomyocyte function and phenotype by either 1) a direct cell membrane or intracellular interaction or 2) ...
Oncotarget | https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.6210 Teresa Bernadette Steinbichler, Veronika Metzler, Christian Pritz, Herbert Riechelmann, Jozsef Dudas
Despite all kinds of efforts exploited to combat lung cancer, this disease remains the most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths in China. It is now generally accepted that LCSLCs were the determining tumorigenic cells responsible for lung cancer initiation, development, metastasis and relapse after chemotherapy. Therefore, targeted eradication of LCSLCs is extremely vital for improving the prognosis or even recovery of lung cancer.. In the present study, we isolated, enriched and obtained the CD133+ SFCs from human lung cancer NCI-H446 cells, by CD133+ magnetic separation and stem cell-conditioned medium suspension culture method. The following results confirmed that this subpopulation of cells exhibited higher in vitro self renewal, invasion and tumorigenicity capacity over parental cells, accompanied by an upregulated expression level of stem cell markers, self-renewal and invasion related transcription factors. Collectively, these SFCs exerted stem-like cell characteristics and were ...
p,Inhibition of amyloid β (Aβ)-induced mitochondrial damage is considered crucial for reducing the pathological damage in Alzheimers disease (AD). We evaluated the effect of neural stem cell-conditioned medium (NSC-CDM) on Aβ,sub,25-35,/sub,-induced damage in SH-SY5Y cells. An ,em,in,/em,,em, vitro,/em, model of AD was established by treating SH-SY5Y cells with 40 μM Aβ,sub,25-35,/sub, for 24 h. SH-SY5Y cells were divided into control, Aβ,sub,25-35,/sub, (40 μM), Aβ,sub,25-35,/sub, (40 μM) + NSC-CDM, and Aβ,sub,25-35,/sub, (40 μM) + neural stem cell-complete medium (NSC-CPM) groups. Cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were detected by flow cytometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was detected by ELISA assay. Western blot analysis was used to detect cytochrome c release and apoptosis-related proteins. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe mitochondrial ...
The best anti aging product and beauty product reviews on the best anti wrinkle creams, anti aging serums, anti aging lotions, beauty products. Honest reviews and testimonials by our Truth in Aging staff.
In a previous study, we isolated human amniotic fluid (AF)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) and utilized normoxic conditioned medium (AF-MSC-norCM) which has been shown to accelerate cutaneous wound healing. Because hypoxia enhances the wound healing function of mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (MSC-CM), it is interesting to explore the mechanism responsible for the enhancement of wound healing function. In this work, hypoxia not only increased the proliferation of AF-MSCs but also maintained their constitutive characteristics (surface marker expression and differentiation potentials). Notably, more paracrine factors, VEGF and TGF-β1, were secreted into hypoxic conditioned medium from AF-MSCs (AF-MSC-hypoCM) compared to AF-MSC-norCM. Moreover, AF-MSC-hypoCM enhanced the proliferation and migration of human dermal fibroblasts in vitro, and wound closure in a skin injury model, as compared to AF-MSC-norCM. However, the enhancement of migration of fibroblasts accelerated by AF-MSC-hypoCM
The microenvironment that surrounds tumor cells is characterized by hypoxic conditions and extracellular acidity. These hostile conditions induce crucial changes in cell behavior and can promote the secretion of many soluble factors such as growth factors, cytokines and enzymes. The lysosomal aspartyl-endopeptidase cathepsin D (CD) is a marker of poor prognosis in breast cancer and is associated with a metastatic risk. In this study, the transport of CD was investigated in a model of breast cancer cells line (MCF-7) cultivated under hypoxia and acidification of media. CD secretion was assessed using Western blot analysis and protease activity was measured in conditioned culture media. We demonstrate that cultured MCF-7 cells secrete an active 52 kDa pCD precursor and report that under hypoxia there was an increased amount of pCD secreted. More surprisingly, extracellular acidification (pH 6 and 5.6) induced the secretion of the fully-mature and active (34 kDa + 14 kDa) double chain CD. Our findings
BRCA-1 is a nuclear protein involved in DNA repair, transcriptional regulation, and cell cycle control. Its involvement in other cellular processes has been described. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of BRCA-1 in macrophages M(LPS), M(IL-4), and tumor cell-induced differentiation. We used siRNAs to knockdown BRCA-1 in RAW 264.7 macrophages exposed to LPS, IL-4, and C6 glioma cells conditioned medium (CMC6), and evaluated macrophage differentiation markers and functional phagocytic activity as well as DNA damage and cell survival in the presence and absence of BRCA-1. LPS and CMC6, but not by IL-4, increased DNA damage in macrophages, and this effect was more pronounced in BRCA-1-depleted cells, including M(IL-4). BRCA-1 depletion impaired expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, and reduced the phagocytic activity of macrophages in response to LPS. In CMC6-induced differentiation, BRCA-1 knockdown inhibited TNF-α and IL-6 expression which was accompanied by upregulation ...
Epithelial cells of different tissues or species diverge substantially in their culture requirements. Thus, in vivo-like culture of epithelial cells necessitates optimization of the entire culturing process including transport, isolation, medium composition and culture conditions. In the present study we established a new protocol for a differentiated cell culture system of the porcine cervical epithelium, based on easily accessible slaughterhouse material. The morphology and tested functional markers of our culture system are comparable to the native tissue as shown by histology, immunohistochemistry and alcian blue staining. The use of fibroblast-conditioned medium supported proliferation of cervical epithelial monolayers suggesting that stromal growth factors or cytokines released into the medium are required for cell growth in these epithelia. The supplementation of the conditioned medium with EGF further optimized proliferation and mitochondrial activity of the cervical epithelial cells. ...
Cells have an internal "clock." This clock tells them how many times they can divide before they must exit the loop by committing cell suicide. This kind of cell death is called apoptosis (pronounced "apohtosis").. Apoptosis is a natural cell process which affects many things. For example, when a human fetus is developing, many vestigial (ancient but no longer necessary) features begin to develop, but mysteriously stop dividing at some point during development. This is another form of apoptosis in action. External factors can also induce a cell to undergo apoptosis. One example is found in our immune system. Certain cells produce factors that are designed to induce apoptosis in the foreign cells they encounter. Other apoptosis inducers include glucocorticoids and radiation. There are many others. Cancer cells grow out of control. They do not know when to stop dividing. They are resistant to the normal factors which induce apoptosis in healthy cells. If you have a normal liver cell and a ...
floating THP-1 cells - medium change advice - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: Hello, I was adamantly asked to culture THP-1 cells and did so, by thawing a cryovial and seeding the cells in a 25 cm flask. 3 days later 99% of cells are floating, which I reckon is OK. Isnt it? So, do I need to change the medium before they reach ~8x 10^5 cells/ml and are ready to be passed? Since these are floating cells, how do I do that? Also, would a 1/3 split ratio be OK for these cells? Th...
A soluble factor produced by HTU-34 cells is responsible for αvβ3 ligand-binding activity and recruitment to FCs. (A) Adhesion assay. Treatment of HTU-34 cel
Dehydrated Culture Media. There are as many differents requirements for as many differents media.Youll find the peptone that fits your requirement here
LAA047Hu81, FITC-Linked Polyclonal Antibody to Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), 肝细胞生长因子(HGF)多克隆抗体(异硫氰酸荧光素标记), HGF; F-TCF; HGFB; HPTA; SF; Scatter Factor; Hepapoietin A; Fibroblast-Derived Tumor Cytotoxic Factor; Lung Fibroblast-Derived Mitogen | 仅供体外研究使用,不用于临床诊断!请索取进口关税税单及报关单!
ATCC media have been used by ATCC for over 50 years, with formulations that have proven to be reliable for expansion of most cell types.
ATCC media have been used by ATCC for over 50 years, with formulations that have proven to be reliable for expansion of most cell types.
作者:catby1986 來源:遊俠論壇 藥劑-生命恢復藥劑 最終成品 英文 原料1 原料2 作用 微量治療藥劑 Minor Healing Potion 空藥劑瓶 硬幣包蘑菇 恢復30點生命值 中等治療藥劑 Medium Healing Potion 微量治療藥劑 增長劑(任何品質) 恢復140點生命值 中等治療藥劑 Medium Healing Potion 微量治療藥劑 微量治療藥劑 恢復140點生命值 大型治療藥劑 Large Healing Potion 中等治療藥劑 增長劑(任何品質) 恢復330點生命值 大型治療藥劑 Large Healing Potion 中等治療藥劑 中等治療藥劑 恢復330點生命值 巨型治療藥劑
Background The efficient derivation of mature (Hb9+) motor neurons from embryonic stem cells is a sought-after goal in the understanding, and potential treatment, of motor neuron diseases. Conditions that promote the robust generation of motor neuron progenitors from embryonic stem cells and that promote the survival of differentiated motor neurons ex vivo are likely, therefore, to be critical in future biological/therapeutic/screening approaches. Previous studies have shown that astrocytes have a protective effect on differentiated motor neurons (in vivo and ex vivo), but it remains unclear whether astrocytes also play a beneficial role in the support of motor neuron progenitors. Here we explore the effect of murine astrocyte-conditioned medium on monolayer cultures of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived motor neuron progenitors. Results Our data show that wild-type astrocyte-conditioned medium significantly increases the number of Olig2+/Hb9- progenitors, which subsequently differentiate into ...
Browse Sigma-Aldrichs Media for Food Control to find products in All Food Control Media (alphabetical), Control Media for Fish, Media for Cocoa, Chocolate and Sweets, Media for Corn and Corn Products, Media for Fruits and Vegetable, Media for Meat Control, Media for Products with Sugar, Media for Sour Vegetables, Vinegar, Media for Spices
Inquire for Vero Cell Media Market by Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, Forecast till 2022, with free sample copy of the report.
There are two larger, academic programs of study in Media Studies, which focus on different key aspects of the development and impact of media: Media and Culture and Media and Information.
Biowest is one of the leaders in the collection of animal sera, offering the widest range of sera and media for cell culture available on the market.
Menyediakan informasi pencarian kerja media secara online di internet. Anda bisa mendapatkan informasi lowongan kerja pns, cpns, atau swasta. Ada lowongan di tahun 2017. Cocok buat karir anda selanjutnya.
Objective: To explore the role and mechanism of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) in modulating human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (HPMECs) permeability via hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Methods: The study introduced a co-cultured model between HPMECs and human mesenchymal stem cell conditioned media (MSC-CM) collected from MSCs after 24 h hypoxia culture, and meanwhile HGF was neutralized in MSC-CM by anti-HGF antibody respectively, followed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Finally, the following measurements were performed: the permeability of HPMECs, the protein expression of vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin), Occludin in HPMECs by Western blot, HPMECs apoptosis by Annexin V-FITC/PI and HPMECs proliferation by 3-(4, 5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3, 5-di- phenytetrazoliumromide(MTT ...
Cell culture media, sera, and reagents market will rise at a CAGR of 7.6% from 2015 to 2023, Due to this, the markets valuation of US$3.7 bn in 2014 will reach US$7.1 bn by 2023.
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Whether youre ready to move up a notch from the original smaller Bootie plug, or youre ready to start with a mid-range size, the Bootie Medium is a...
Xinhua is the state-run news agency, and it supplies most of the national print and TV media. All content is Party-controlled and censored, though there is a
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Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered as the origin of tumor relapse. Here, we investigated the effects of Fructus Viticis total flavonoids (FVTF) on the characteristics of lung cancer stem-like cells (LCSLCs) derived from human small cell lung cancer NCI-H446 cell line and its potential mechanism. Human small cell lung cancer NCI-H446 cell line was cultured in vitro. The CD133+ cells were sorted from NCI-H446 cell line by magnetic separation. The suspended culture with stem cell-conditioned medium was used to amplify CD133+ sphere-forming cells (SFCs). The stem cell characteristics of CD133+ SFCs were evaluated using cell self-renewal capacity by tumor sphere formation assay, migration and invasion capacity by Transwell assay, tumorigenicity by xenograft model in nude mouse and cancer stem cell markers expression levels by western blot. The effects of FVTF on the properties of LCSLCs were examined by tumorsphere formation assay and transwell chamber assay. The expression level of p-Akt was determined
Decreased albumin synthesis by hepatocytes in liver injury is thought to occur in response to Kupffer cell-derived acute-phase cytokines. In this study we used hepatocytes maintained in a differentiated phenotype, by culture on a laminin-rich gel substratum (Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm matrix), to investigate the effects of Kupffer cell-conditioned medium and purified cytokines (interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-a) on albumin synthesis. Kupffer cell-conditioned medium caused a reversible decrease in albumin synthesis to 64.7% of control (p , 0.01, Wilcoxons rank sum test, n = 11) on day 2. Repeated doses caused further dose-dependent reversible responses. The same result was obtained when protease inhibitors (α1-antitrypsin and α2-macroglobulin) were added to Kupffer cell-conditioned medium (n = 3), thus eliminating the potential effect of matrix degradation. Pure interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α also inhibited albumin synthesis (p , 0.05, Wilcoxons ...
MSSF - Macrophage Stimulated Soluble Factor. Looking for abbreviations of MSSF? It is Macrophage Stimulated Soluble Factor. Macrophage Stimulated Soluble Factor listed as MSSF
I am going to analyze the cell culture medium for certain soluble proteins secreted by the cells. I would appreciate if anyone who has such experiences can give me any advice. 1) I plan to use Microcon centrifugal filter unit to concentrate the medium, but I am not sure how many fold I should concentrate it. 2) The cell culture medium contains 10% serum. I am not sure to what extent the serum proteins would interfere with the WB. 3) After concentration, do I need to determine the protein concentration with Bradford assay? Or just load as much as I can ...
Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Cornings comprehensive line of standard and custom media helps create an optimal environment for all stages of cell culture growth and scaling.
In addition to customized and proprietary cell culture media, we also provide classical media for vaccines, mAbs and recombinant proteins as well as stem cell applications.
Proximal cells produce and activate more TGF-β than distal cells. (A) Heat-activated conditioned medium from proximal and distal cells (4 × 104 cells/24-well
Impact Diagnostic manufactures culture media. Impact Diagnostic is your economical source for quality microbiological testing materials and health care products.
Video created by University of Pennsylvania for the course English for Media Literacy. In this unit, we will learn about the importance of including people from various races, cultures, and genders in mainstream media.
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NEW YORK - November 29, 2017 - Tribune Media Company (NYSE: TRCO) ("Tribune" or the "Company") today announced an offering of 7,000,000 shares of Trib.... 29 November, ...
There is an ongoing clinical need for tissue-engineered small-diameter (,6 mm) vascular grafts since clinical applications are restricted by the limited availability of autologous living grafts or the lack of suitability of synthetic grafts. The present study uses our self-assembly approach to produce a fibroblast-derived decellularized vascular scaffold that can then be available off-the-shelf. Briefly, scaffolds were produced using human dermal fibroblasts sheets rolled around a mandrel, maintained in culture to allow for the formation of cohesive and three-dimensional tubular constructs, and then decellularized by immersion in deionized water. Constructs were then endothelialized and perfused for 1 week in an appropriate bioreactor. Mechanical testing results showed that the decellularization process did not influence the resistance of the tissue and an increase in ultimate tensile strength was observed following the perfusion of the construct in the bioreactor. These fibroblast-derived ...
Purpose: We have previously shown that delayed injection of bone marrow stem cell conditioned media (BMSC CM), 24 h after ischemia, rescued ischemic retinal functional and histological properties. We hypothesized that preconditioning the BMSC CM by exposure of the BMSCs to hypoxic conditions will increase the efficacy of this protection. In this study we examined the functional and histological outcomes, and the possible mechanisms of this neuroprotection.. Methods: Retinal ischemia was produced in adult Wistar rats by increasing IOP for 55 min. BMSCs which were harvested from male Wistar rat femurs were cultured and characterized. The cultured BMSCs produced hypoxic conditioned media, by exposure to hypoxia (1% O2) for 72 h, which was injected into the vitreous 24 h after the end of ischemia. Recovery was assessed one week later using electroretinography (ERG). Scotopic a- and b waves, oscillatory potentials (OPs) and P2 were measured. We also examined 4 micron thick paraffin-embedded sections ...
Corning Incorporated (NYSE: GLW) today announced it has expanded its portfolio of cell-culture offerings with the addition of Corning cellgro®, a line of high-quality cell culture media and molecular biology reagents for tissue and cell culture applications.
M65 ELISA Prod No 10020 The M65 ELISA is intended for the quantitative detection of Keratin 18 K18 present in cell culture supernatants human serum
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Read writing from Candace Nicolls on Medium. . Every day, Candace Nicolls and thousands of other voices read, write, and share important stories on Medium.
EasyDNA has been featured in media all over the world. Read about interviews, articles and TV programmes that have featured EasyDNA or used its services.
Vamavarti Shankha Medium According to the Vedic scriptures, the Shankha (Shell) is one of the most auspicious objects that emerged from the sea during the Ksheera Sagara samudra manthan. Hence it is regarded as the brother of Goddess Lakshmi, the ruler of
Once a relative rarity, many public figures now employ spokespeople; Bill Toohey shares his thoughts on what has spurred the PR rise
Medium Hairstyles 2013: Rambut alami regrowing, Perangi Rambut Rontok Best Hairstyles Pictures for Short, Medium, Long and all best hairstyles collections.
Purpose: A potential application of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is the generation of corneal epithelial (CEpi) and endothelial (CEndo) cells to be used for corneal disease treatment. In this study, we designed a new method to induce hESC differentiating to CEpi and CEndo like cells for cornea substitute construction.. Methods: Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) were cultured in a transwell coculture system with differentiated human corneal stromal cells to differentiate into periocular mesenchymal precursor (POMPs). Next, the CEndo-like cells expressed N-cadherin/vimention were derived from POMPs with lens epithelial cell-conditioned medium, and isolated by Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). To obtain CEpi-like cells, the hESCs were cultured in the limbal stem cells conditioned medium for directional differentiation. The epithelial markers were detected by immunocytochemistry. And then, the induced CEpi and CEndo like cells were cultured on the acellular porcine cornea matrix ...
Quantitative biosynthetic studies with cultures highly enriched for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP+) cells of neonatal mammalian brain demonstrated production of four proteoglycans: hyaluronate (HA), heparan sulphate (HS), chondroitin sulphate (CS), and dermatan sulphate (DS). The glycosaminoglycans were present in cell conditioned medium and in the cellular compartment. There were qualitative differences in the subcellular disposition of the various proteoglycans. The ratio of HS to CS/DS in cell extracts was 1:1, while in medium this ratio was 1:6. All of the glycosaminoglycans were associated with core proteins that were integral to the cell membrane and associated with the cell surface by non-covalent interactions involving glycosaminoglycans. Less than 20% of the HS was non-covalently associated with the astrocyte cell surface reflecting in part the proportionately smaller amounts of this proteoglycan released to astrocyte conditioned medium. HS released to medium was undersulphated relative
Spinal cord cultures. Mixed spinal cord cultures were prepared, largely as described previously (Regan and Choi, 1991), from 13-d-old mouse embryos, except that the cultures were plated on a preestablished monolayer of cortical astrocytes. Recent studies have indicated that astrocytes (Eagleson et al., 1985; Schaffner et al., 1987; Martinou et al., 1989a; Ang et al., 1992) or mixed spinal cell conditioned media (Calof and Reichardt, 1984; Dohrmann et al., 1987) provide trophic support for and markedly enhance the survival of motor neurons in culture.. Both meninges and dorsal root ganglia were removed from spinal cords before the cords were plated in media consisting of Eagles minimal essential medium (MEM) (Earles salts, supplied glutamine-free serum; Gibco, Grand Island, NY) supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated horse serum (Gibco), 10% fetal bovine serum (Gibco), glutamine (2 mm) (Gibco), and glucose (total 25 mm) on an astrocyte monolayer in 15 mm Primaria-coated culture plates (Falcon, ...
Researchers at Loyola University in Chicago have shown that exsomes isolated from invasive bladder cancer cell-conditioned media, or from patient urine or bladder barbotage samples, play a role in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a biological process in which epithelial cells lose their epithelial
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a five-year survival rate of only 9%. Acquired drug resistance is a major factor that limits the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Exosomes, secreted
Get Remote Air Pilot Valves Control Media Separated Solvents product details and parts from New Equipment Digest. View descriptions, specs, and get a quote from the supplier.
Segmented media content rights management is described. A media device can receive segments of protected media content from media content streams that each include a different version of the protected media content. A media content file can be generated to include the segments of the protected media content that are sequenced to render the protected media content for viewing. A file header object can be instantiated in a file header of the media content file, where the file header object includes DRM-associated features, such as one or more DRM licenses, properties, and/or attributes that correspond to the media content file to provision all of the segments of the protected media content together.
Figure 4. Flux of tracers across RPE monolayers.. The flux of HRP, mannitol and inulin across the RPE monolayer was linear for 90 min. (A) Each solute diffused rapidly across control filters that lacked cells. The rate of diffusion decreased with increased size of the tracer. A lag was noted for the diffusion of HRP that was minimized by preincubating the filters in HRP, as described in Methods (B,C,D). Three to four cultures were established from E10 embryos, and maintained in SF2 (open symbols) or stimulated with E14 retinal conditioned medium (closed symbols). After 9 days in culture, the flux of HRP (B), [3H]inulin (C) and [3H]mannitol (D) was measured in the apical to basal direction. Standard error bars were sometimes smaller than the symbol, and linear regression lines are included in panels B, C and D. RPE monolayers retarded the diffusion into the basal chamber. Cultures stimulated with E14 retinal conditioned medium had lower permeability. Similar results were obtained with E7 and E14 ...
Personally, I have moved away from using a WYSIWYG solution for media insertion. Partly because its never worked very well, but I have also come to believe it may not be the best solution for a robust content strategy. That said, I understand we do need a solid WYSIWYG media solution to remain competitive.. Generally, what I need are media fields that I can attach to entities (be they nodes, or field collections, or whatever) and configure for specific uses. As an example, lets take a hypothetical "Movie" content type. I might have a media field as part of a field collection used to define my body copy, and I might have a separate media field on the node to define a hero image for the content, and I might have yet another media field used to specify a preview video for the movie. Each of these fields need to access my media library, but each should only have access to a specific segment of the library. Perhaps I want broad freedom to insert just about any media into the body copy, but the hero ...
Medium development beyond production media: Chemically defined media for transfection and single cell cultivation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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Get Free Gelatin-Based Coating Solution per primary cell order, which can be used for most primary cell culture from Cell Biologics through 2018. ...
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Detect and quantitate rat IGF-1 in serum, buffered solution, and cell culture supernatants using a homogeneous AlphaLISA no-wash assay.
An index page listing German Media content. An index with media from Germany. Dont include media from Austria or Switzerland here, even if they use the …
So many of the defining moments in our lives are accompanied by an experience with the media or have grown out of our relationship with the media. The media ...
Read writing from Dave DeCaprio on Medium. Transforming healthcare through AI & ML |CTO @ ClosedLoop.ai | MIT Alum. Every day, Dave DeCaprio and thousands of other voices read, write, and share important stories on Medium.
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Agar-LCM is a source of colony-stimulating factors for hematopoietic progenitor assays of human bone marrow and peripheral blood.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Qiang Li, Xianghua Liu, Yanhua Wu, Jian An, Saiyin Hexige, Yichen Ling, Mingjun Zhang, Xianmei Yang, Long Yu].
Biowest is one of the leaders in the collection of animal sera, offering the widest range of sera and media for cell culture available on the market.
Detect and quantitate BMP-9 in serum, buffered solution, and cell culture supernatants using a homogeneous AlphaLISA no-wash assay.
Culture media is a liquid or gel designed to support the growth of a variety of different types of organisms or cells. In this interactive eLearning tool, well practice preparing culture media by examining which area of the bathroom has the most germs.
What makes Spiral Media happy is seeing our clients succeed and so were so pleased to congratulate Alterego on their recent award win!
Sonys VGX-XL71S - is the latest media center PC - features, 430 x 400 x 129mm and 27.5-pounds, it offers 250GB - 1.5TB of storage space for all your favorite media (movies, TV shows, etc.).
A Media Card has been inserted that contains errors. To correct the errors please use a disk error-checking utility on a computer. I am getting this error each time i turn on or hard reset my device. Have tried formatting the media card but the problem persists even after formating. I wanna knoe how to perform disk error checking utility on a computer???
what does medium mean? i mean like, journalism is a great medium....what does that mean? its something like a wide range? thanks guys! Suggestion by
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Real Psychic Experiences by alphabetical order: T - Page 1 - Your online source for psychic and medium information. Are you clairvoyant?
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Ademloos is opgericht in 2008. Ondertussen is er enorm veel media materiaal gemaakt door leden en sympathisanten. Hier vind je al een deel van dat materiaal terug. We proberen op termijn werkelijk alle bijdragen online te zetten. Wie een beetje graaft, zal nu al pareltjes terugvinden, bijvoorbeeld een flink aantal zalige poesjenellen!. ...
Postexercise heart-rate (HR) recovery (HRR) indices have been associated with running and cycling endurance-exercise performance. The current study was designed (1) to test whether such a relationship also exists in the case of cross-country skiing (XCS) and (2) to determine whether the magnitude of any such relationship is related to the intensity of exercise before obtaining HRR indices. Ten elite male cross-country skiers (mean ± SD; 28.2 ± 5.4 y, 181 ± 8 cm, 77.9 ± 9.4 kg, 69.5 ± 4.3 mL · min−1 · kg−1 maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max]) performed 2 sessions of roller-skiing on a treadmill: a 2 × 3-km time trial and the same 6-km at an imposed submaximal speed followed by a final 800-m time trial. VO2 and HR were monitored continuously, while HRR and blood lactate (BLa) were assessed during 2 min immediately after each 6-km and the 800-m time trial. The 6-km time-trial time was largely negatively correlated with VO2max and BLa. On the contrary, there was no clear correlation between ...
Culture-media conditioned by macrophages can be used. Production in cell culture is usually preferred as the ascites technique ... The selective culture medium is called HAT medium because it contains hypoxanthine, aminopterin and thymidine. This medium is ... Cell culture sample contaminants consist primarily of media components such as growth factors, hormones and transferrins. In ... Depending on the complexity of the media required in cell culture and thus the contaminants, one or the other method (in vivo ...
Three colony morphologies can be observed when the bacteria is cultured on solid media. Younger colonies tend to form a flat ... mirabilis is capable of growing in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions; however it grows best under aerobic conditions. ... Furthermore, when L. mirabilis is inoculated onto selective media, no growth can be observed. When grown in a broth culture, ... It is typically found on the edge of a colony after one day of culture. Between three to nine flagella project out from the ...
... culture conditions (e.g., HAM F10 nutrient medium: 16.55 g/L; DMEM/ F12 medium: 16.78 g/L; DMEM high glucose and L-glutamine ... presented as spherical objects of variable diameter in the culture media will facilitate amplified production of ECM-rich ... The study of biochemical processes under realistically crowded conditions is very important, since these conditions are a ... Such conditions occur routinely in living cells; for instance, the cytosol of Escherichia coli contains about 300- ...
The resulting shapes depend on the growth conditions. In particular, stresses (hardness of the culture medium, lack of ... Play media The science of pattern formation deals with the visible, (statistically) orderly outcomes of self-organization and ...
it responds to cycloheximide, so, it should be cultured in a medium free of cycloheximide. Cycloheximide is a highly effective ... Because cycloheximide is degraded by alkaline conditions (pH > 7), decontamination of work surfaces and containers can be ... Its effects are rapidly reversed by simply removing it from the culture medium. Due to significant toxic side effects, ... It is also used in media to detect unwanted bacteria in beer fermentation by suppressing yeasts and molds growth in test medium ...
C. canimorsus requires very specific culture media and conditions; enriched media is necessary. C. canimorsus displays enhanced ... C. canimorsus requires the right medium for growth. The bacteria cultures well on blood agar plates (heart infusion agar with 5 ... Common practice for culturing isolates is to keep agar plates for one week; sometimes cultures of C. canimorsus are not visible ... C. canimorsus requires large amounts of iron to grow, so these conditions are optimal for the bacillus. Of the cases presented ...
Improving the culture conditions may increase the maturation rates and the potential of IVM oocytes. Besides that, in mouse ... The oocytes are then cultured in media containing nutrients important for oocyte survival, such as gonadotrophins, growth ... Barakat, I. a. H.; Kandeal, S. A.; El-Ashmaoui, H. M.; Barkawi, A.; El-Nahass, E. (2012-01-01). "Effect of medium type and ... Oocytes are classified depending on their condition, such as number of cumulus cells. The best oocytes are chosen to be matured ...
Also, he has studied culture/ethnicity, media influences, interpersonal processes, self/identity, self-affirmation theory and ... In a third condition, the soundbites were left in, but the audience reaction was edited out. In the unedited condition, the ... In one condition, there was no manipulation of the tape. In another condition, two brief, amusing "soundbites" by Reagan that ... In the condition in which the soundbites were cut out, the preference for Reagan was completely eliminated, showing how strong ...
Several studies have optimized the growing conditions of Bartonella spp. cultures in these liquid media, with no change in ... Riess, T (2008). "Analysis of a novel insect cell culture medium-based growth medium for Bartonella species". Appl Environ ... Insect-based liquid media supports the growth and co-culturing of at least seven Bartonella species, reduces bacterial ... Bartonella growth rates improve when cultured in an enrichment inoculation step in a liquid insect-based medium such as ...
Enhanced somatic embryo production by conditioned media in cell suspension cultures of Daucus carota. Biotechnol Lett 14:837- ... Certain compounds excreted by plant tissue cultures and found in culture media have been shown necessary to coordinate cell ... After callus formation, culturing on a low auxin or hormone free media will promote somatic embryo growth and root formation. ... Plant growth regulators in the tissue culture medium can be manipulated to induce callus formation and subsequently changed to ...
Increasing success rate of crystallisation projects Production of digested protein used in growth media to culture bacteria and ... The half life of a peptide bond under normal conditions can range from 7 years to 350 years, even higher for peptides protected ... Analysis of the stability of folded domain under a wide range of conditions. ... points may be degraded much faster than those enzymes whose activity is largely constant under all physiological conditions. ...
Under anoxic conditions, the bacteria inhabiting algae cultures break down the organic material and produce hydrogen sulfide ... Effects of medium salinity" (PDF). Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd, England. Retrieved 2006-08-28. [permanent dead link] ... Algal culture is the culturing of algae in ponds or other resources. Maximum productivity occurs when the "exchange rate" (time ... Individual species cultures are also much needed for research purposes. A common method of obtaining pure cultures is serial ...
Shi Xiujuan (2009). "Screening of Pleurotus cornucopiae varieties and culture media suitable to Baoshan local conditions". Acta ... cornucopiae and reported that it in the Shanghai area an appropriate growth medium is cotton-seed hulls and wood-chips, with 65 ...
Robertson School of Media and Culture. "About". Virginia Commonwealth University. Retrieved March 23, 2017. S. N. D. North; ... History and Present Condition of the Newspaper and Periodical Press of the United States. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing ... 31, 1800+ Virginia media List of radio stations in Virginia List of television stations in Virginia Media of cities in Virginia ... Journalists from Virginia Virginia Commonwealth University Robertson School of Media and Culture (est. 1978), in Richmond ...
Media and Sport". 22 July 2005. ,access-date= requires ,url= (help) "Letter to the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and ... access-date= requires ,url= (help) Ove Arup and Partners (30 June 2004). "Commonwealth Institute Building Condition Summary". , ... On 22 July 2005 the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, Tessa Jowell, rejected a proposal to remove the building's ... Application by the Commonwealth Institute to the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport for a Review of the Statutory ...
... and by its growth and color reaction on certain types of culture media. When cultured on an eosin methylene blue (EMB) plate, a ... Coliform procedures are performed in aerobic respiration,aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Typical genera include: Citrobacter ... While coliforms themselves are not normally causes of serious illness, they are easy to culture, and their presence is used to ... positive result for E. coli is metallic green colonies on a dark purple media. Escherichia coli have an incubation period of 12 ...
Martin G.R. (1981). "Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by ... "Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by teratocarcinoma stem cells". ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Evans, M.J; Kaufman M. (9 July 1981). "Establishment in culture of ...
Martin, GR (1981). "Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by ... Differentiated macrophages can self-renew in tissues and expand long-term in culture. Under certain conditions macrophages can ... Consistent with the transwell experiments, conditioned medium induces and maintains CRCs, which is accompanied by a concomitant ... The activity of the conditioned medium correlates directly with radiation-induced feeder cell apoptosis. Thus, conditional ...
The extracted inner cell mass was cultured on fibroblasts treated with mitomycin-c in a medium containing serum and conditioned ... Martin G (1981). "Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by ... After 4-6 days of this intrauterine culture, the embryos are harvested and grown in in vitro culture until the inner cell mass ... This would provide a radical new treatment approach to a wide variety of conditions where age, disease, or trauma has led to ...
Martin G (1981). "Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by ... Evans M, Kaufman M (1981). "Establishment in culture of pluripotential cells from mouse embryos". Nature. 292 (5819): 154-6. ...
"Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by teratocarcinoma stem cells". ... the formation of hanging drops is labor-intensive and not easily amenable to scalable cultures. Additionally, the media can not ... rather than to the culture substrate. As hESC undergo apoptosis when cultured as single cells, EB formation often necessitates ... When cultured as single cells in the absence of anti-differentiation factors, ESCs spontaneously aggregate to form EBs. Such ...
Martin G (December 1981). "Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by ... Eventually, Evans was able to isolate the embryonic stem cell of the early mouse embryo and establish it in a cell culture. He ... Evans and his collaborators showed that they could introduce a new gene into cultured embryonic stem cells and then use such ... The availability of these cultured stem cells eventually made possible the introduction of specific gene alterations into the ...
Martin G (December 1981). "Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by ... mit media lab, 2014, "Media Lab Conversations Series: George Church," in "Joi Ito, Neil Gershenfeld, and Joe Jacobson in ... www.media.mit.edu/events/2014/05/02/media-lab-conversations-series-george-church], accessed 6 March 2014. NHGRI, 2015, Active ... Other media such as The Daily Mail fabricated a "Want-Ad" and quote for Church as having said: "Now I need an adventurous ...
A neglected concept and its impact on Media, Art and Art Education. In: Interface Cultures. Eds. Christa Sommerer, Laurent ... Bielefeld: transcript 2008, ISBN 978-3-89942-884-1 Art School without Condition: Art Education in Postindustrial Society. Notes ... Shanghai: Look Print 2009 (also in German and Chinese) Media Authorship. In: Visual Arts. Indian and Swiss Authors on Media Art ... of media and of subjects / epistemology / aesthetics, art research / democracy, public spheres, every day culture. Author ( ...
This CPO was confirmed in March 2008 by the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, with plans for the council to take ... The tower's condition then worsened rapidly. The cost of repairs was estimated at £4 million. In July 2006, Tonbridge and ...
In old cultures, dark pigmented sporangia are observed. Everything depends on the species and the media used. In liquid culture ... When incubated in liquid culture under semi-anaerobic conditions, several species grow in yeast like state. Zygospore formation ... They can also grow on both selective and non-selective media. Minimal media, supplementary media and induction media can also ... Most zygomycetes are sensitive to cycloheximide (actidione) and this agent should not be used in culture media. A common ...
The issue of healthy eating has long been an important concern to individuals and cultures. Among other practices, fasting, ... Physiologically, eating is generally triggered by hunger, but there are numerous physical and psychological conditions that can ... Media related to Eating at Wikimedia Commons. *Ingestion at Encyclopædia Britannica. *Health-EU Portal - Nutrition ... Eating positions vary according to the different regions of the world, as culture influences the way people eat their meals. ...
A callus also can refer to an undifferentiated plant cell mass grown on a culture medium, which can be put into a bioreactor to ... There is a benign condition called keratosis palmaris et plantaris, which produces corns in the creases of the fingers and non- ... This is a type of tissue culture, and can be started from almost any part of the plant, although tissues taken from the ... In botany, the term is also used to describe a condition of thickened surfaces of leaves or other plant parts. ...
... as Co2 interacts with the buffering system of the cell culture media. Cell Culture Incubator comes with various kinds of ... A geographic condition regarding for Cell Culture Incubator market, it has been segmented into seven key regions: North America ... Cell Culture Incubator is a device used to maintain and allow the growth of cell culture and microbiological culture inside the ... Cell Culture incubators are basic gear for research and clinical labs leading cell culture and tissue culture work. Cell ...
Disconnected keeps constant cell culturing conditions for many hours ► Can be connected to external power sources (220V AC and ... Inter-laboratory transport of live cell cultures ► Transport of live cell cultures towards specialized non-portable machines ( ... Disconnected it can keep constant conditions for many hours (depending on environmental conditions and frequency of doors ... It can be used as a standard cell culture incubator connected to the external 220 V power and CO2 source. In case it is needed ...
Conditioned Media from Microvascular Endothelial Cells Cultured in Simulated Microgravity Inhibit Osteoblast Activity. ... Conditioned media collected from microvascular endothelial cells in simulated microgravity were used to culture human ... We cultured human microvascular endothelial cells in simulated microgravity using the rotating wall vessel device developed by ... Accordingly, weightlessness conditions during space flight accelerate bone loss and experimental models in real and simulated ...
Conditioned Media from Microvascular Endothelial Cells Cultured in Simulated Microgravity Inhibit Osteoblast Activity. ... P. Dowling and M. Clynes, "Conditioned media from cell lines: a complementary model to clinical specimens for the discovery of ... "Changes of cell-vascular complex in zones of adaptive remodeling of the bone tissue under microgravity conditions," Advances in ... and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. ...
Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by teratocarcinoma stem cells. G R ... Such embryonic stem cells were isolated from inner cell masses of late blastocysts cultured in medium conditioned by an ... Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by teratocarcinoma stem cells ... Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by teratocarcinoma stem cells ...
The Effect of Tissue Culture Conditions on Auxin Stability In Culture Media ...
Trophoblast Cell Line Conditioned Medium for in Vitro Culture and Antigenic Characterization of Acute Myeloid Leukemia ... Trophoblast Cell Line Conditioned Medium for in Vitro Culture and Antigenic Characterization of Acute Myeloid Leukemia ... Trophoblast Cell Line Conditioned Medium for in Vitro Culture and Antigenic Characterization of Acute Myeloid Leukemia ... Trophoblast Cell Line Conditioned Medium for in Vitro Culture and Antigenic Characterization of Acute Myeloid Leukemia ...
Effect of Culture Conditions on the Survival of Mammalian Cells without Medium Change. MARTIN M. CLYNES ... Effect of Culture Conditions on the Survival of Mammalian Cells without Medium Change ... Effect of Culture Conditions on the Survival of Mammalian Cells without Medium Change ... Effect of Culture Conditions on the Survival of Mammalian Cells without Medium Change ...
The effect of conditioned media on LEC Fas sensitivity was determined by incubating HLE-B3 cells cultured on either TC plastic ... Lens epithelial cells cultured on plastic are protected from Fas mediated apoptosis by conditioned media from lens epithelial ... Lens epithelial cells cultured on plastic are protected from Fas mediated apoptosis by conditioned media from lens epithelial ... cells cultured on plastic are protected from Fas mediated apoptosis by conditioned media from lens epithelial cells cultured on ...
Human monocytes were isolated from PBMCs by Ficoll gradient media. The co-culture of monocytes and Caco-2 conditioned media was ... The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of conditioned media from CRC cells (Caco-2) on immune responses produced by ... Human monocytes were isolated from PBMCs by Ficoll gradient media. The co-culture of monocytes and Caco-2 conditioned media was ... "Conditioned Medium from Cultured Colorectal Cancer Cells Affects Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Inflammatory Phenotype in ...
Chao, P.Y., Boon, C.H., Liu, H., Wei, S.T., Cao, T. (2007-05). Culture media conditioned by heat-shocked osteoblasts enhances ... Culture media conditioned by heat-shocked osteoblasts enhances the osteogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal ... Among all experimental groups, the combination of culture medium conditioned by heat shocked hFOB cells together with chemical ... and culture media conditioned by a human foetal osteoblast cell line (hFOB) had any synergistic effect on the osteogenesis of ...
... study was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of ST and LT toxin production and release under laboratory conditions. ... Media, Culture Conditions and Treatments for Toxin Release. Production of ST and LT toxins by the prototype strain (H10407) was ... Alternatively, these compounds were added directly to the growth medium and cultures maintained under stirring conditions (250 ... Under the same culture conditions, a smaller difference was observed in isolates producing only ST. In fact, according to the ...
Aesthetics and Affect in Ubiquitous Media (The Prosaic Image) by Grace Helen (ISBN: 978-0-415-83063-8); Published by ... This book argues that ubiquitous media and user-created content establish a new perception of the world that can be called ... This book argues that ubiquitous media and user-created content establish a new perception of the world that can be called ... developing a model for making sense of the huge proliferation of images in contemporary culture, discovering rhythms and tempo ...
Strains, media, and culture conditions. A complete list of the bacterial strains used in this study is shown in Supplementary ... During the first hours after being spotted onto the culture medium, wild-type 3610 cells started growing with a spatial ... and cultures adjusted to a cell density of 108 cfu ml−1. In the case of Bacillus and Pseudomonas co-inoculation, cultures were ... a medium optimum for the growth and production of secondary metabolites of Pseudomonas strains; Msgg a medium optimum for the ...
Media and Culture Conditions.. DM0 is identical to DM25 except that it contains no glucose. MC plates have the same formulation ... five 10-ml DM0 cultures were inoculated with 100 μl of 100-fold dilutions of each LB culture. The DM0 cultures were incubated ... These contaminated cultures reach much higher turbidity owing to the high concentration of citrate in the medium, which allows ... Owing to the low concentration of glucose in DM25 medium, the cultures are only slightly turbid when transferred. Occasional ...
... and maintained in primary culture in a growth medium based upon Leibovitzs L‐15. Experimental growth medium (VCM) conditioned ... and maintained in primary culture in a growth medium based upon Leibovitzs L‐15. Experimental growth medium (VCM) conditioned ... and maintained in primary culture in a growth medium based upon Leibovitzs L‐15. Experimental growth medium (VCM) conditioned ... and maintained in primary culture in a growth medium based upon Leibovitzs L‐15. Experimental growth medium (VCM) conditioned ...
Media and Culture Conditions. MOPS minimal medium was used for solid growth test and small scale culture. For solid growth test ... For large scale culture, fermentations were carried out in a 5 L laboratory fermenter. M9 minimal medium (3 L), containing 10 g ... Each of cxylB expressing strain was cultured in MOPS minimal medium containing 4 g/L D-glucose and 10 g/L D-xylose. ... Inoculants were prepared by culturing strains in 150 mL LB medium at 37° C. agitated at 180 rpm for 12 hours, and then ...
10(6) CFU/cm2) were recovered when the organisms were grown in the low nutrient media. Regardless of the carbon source, ... Influence of culture conditions on biofilm formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7.. Dewanti R1, Wong AC. ... ECM is probably important for the stability of biofilms; however, at 10 degrees C and under anaerobic conditions, ECM seems to ... and a minimal salts medium (MSM) supplemented with 0.04% of one of the following carbon sources: glucose, glycerol, lactose, ...
Media & Culture. Marshala Perkins Marijuana Arrest Mugshot Goes Viral. Marshala Perkins of Dallas, Texas, said she received ... Aretha Franklin Still In Serious Condition. Gina Loudon Faces Backlash For Slavery Comments. ...
Strains, media, and culture conditions. All strains are isogenic to 779-6A (MATα, kar1-1, SUQ5, ade2-1, his3Δ202, leu2Δ1, trp1Δ ... Cells were diluted into similar medium containing excess adenine and 100 μM CuSO4 and all cultures were grown for 4-5 ... Rich media used were YPAD (excess adenine) and 1/2YPD (limiting adenine). These and synthetic dextrose (SD) media, which ... Cultures were grown at 30° except where indicated. Liquid cultures were shaken at 200 rpm. ...
Culture media and growth conditions:. Strains were grown in LB liquid medium or on LB agar plates. LB medium was supplemented ... and resuspended in LB medium. The culture was then diluted to an OD600 of 0.05 and split in half. One culture received 0.2% ... The cells were then washed with and suspended in medium lacking arabinose. This culture was then divided into halves. One-half ... The cultures were then grown overnight at 30°. The washed cells of both cultures were recovered as before and resuspended at an ...
Learn how communication, media and culture affects our lives and develop the analytical and creative skills you need to get ... Terms and Conditions of Enrolment. When you accept our offer, you agree to the Terms and Conditions of Enrolment. You should ... Understanding Media (compulsory for single honours). *Investigating Communication, Media, and Culture (compulsory for single ... Media and Culture BA (Hons) - single BA (Hons) / BSc (Hons) - combined. School of History, Philosophy and Culture. ...
Finally, SFN inhibits microglia-mediated neurotoxicity as demonstrated by conditioned medium and co-culture experiments. In ... Finally, SFN inhibits microglia-mediated neurotoxicity as demonstrated by conditioned medium and co-culture experiments. In ... treatment for 24 h and culture media were taken as conditioned media. After culturing SH-SY5Y cells with conditioned media (A) ... Nitrite in the culture medium was measured to assess NO production in microglial cells. Briefly, 50 µl culture medium were ...
Instead, we discovered that the addition of 1,25(OH)2D3 to BMDC cultures resulted in a significant reduction in the proportion ... Instead, we discovered that the addition of 1,25(OH)2D3 to BMDC cultures resulted in a significant reduction in the proportion ... In this study we examined whether 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 conditioned bone marrow derived DC (VitD-BMDC) were able to limit ... In this study we examined whether 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 conditioned bone marrow derived DC (VitD-BMDC) were able to limit ...
... a primary culture of mouse mammary adenocarcinoma and from conditioned media of HEp2 and cultured mammary adenocarcinoma cells ... Isolation & characterization of angiogenic factors from cultured cells & conditioned media.. Authors: Kulkarni, S. Shethna, Y I ... Isolation & characterization of angiogenic factors from cultured cells & conditioned media. Indian Journal of Medical Research ...
  • However some experimental procedures demand a transport of live cell cultures leading to an exposition of the cells to the environmental conditions for pro-longed time period. (imtm.cz)
  • Inter-laboratory transport of live cell cultures ► Transport of live cell cultures towards specialized non-portable machines (ionizing radiation sources, accelerators, NMR etc. (imtm.cz)
  • HLE-B3 cells were cultured on 1.0µm pore transparent tissue culture inserts (Falcon) and either treated with soluble anti-Fas IgM (Upstate), control IgM (500ng/ml), test (PEG-FasL) or control (PEG) surfaces gently lowered onto the apical cell surface. (arvojournals.org)
  • Single-cell suspensions prepared from 7-day-old rat testes and containing all the different types of testicular cells were cultured for as long as 31 days, with or without stimulation by gonadotropins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using this bioassay, we have found an inducer substance in the conditioned culture broths of P. chrysogenum and Acremonium chrysogenum. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Therefore the test solutions were prepared following general guidance provided in OECD 23 in order to generate a saturated solution of the test substance in test medium. (europa.eu)
  • The test solution was prepared by directly adding test substance to test medium according to the loading concentration described below. (europa.eu)
  • The required volume (2-L) of test media was placed into a beaker (3-L nominal volume) and the test substance was weighed in. (europa.eu)
  • Biofilms of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were developed on stainless steel chips in trypticase soy broth (TSB), 1/5 dilution of TSB, 0.1% Bacto peptone (BP) and a minimal salts medium (MSM) supplemented with 0.04% of one of the following carbon sources: glucose, glycerol, lactose, mannose, succinic acid, sodium pyruvate or lactic acid. (nih.gov)
  • The conditioned broth induced penicillin biosynthesis and transcription of the pcbAB, pcbC, and penDE genes when added at inoculation time, but its effect was smaller if added at 12 h and it had no effect when added at 24 h, as shown by Northern analysis and lacZ reporter studies. (biomedsearch.com)
  • When grown in a broth culture, granules are typically observed loosely adhering to the side of the tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • This suggests that such conditioned medium might contain a growth factor that stimulates the proliferation or inhibits the differentiation of normal pluripotent embryonic cells, or both. (pnas.org)
  • The book analyses the specific features of these new developments - the components of what can be called a 'general aesthesia' - and it focuses on the originality and innovation of amateur practices, developing a model for making sense of the huge proliferation of images in contemporary culture, discovering rhythms and tempo in this work and showing why it matters. (bookwire.com)
  • That the ventral integument of adult frogs (Rana pipiens) contains factor(s) that stimulate iridophore expression (adhesion, morphologic appearance, proliferation) was demonstrated on iridophores derived from tadpoles of R. pipiens and Pachymedusa dacnicolor, and maintained in primary culture in a growth medium based upon Leibovitz's L‐15. (elsevier.com)
  • Iridophores in control medium assumed long thin profiles, detached easily, and exhibited no signs of proliferation. (elsevier.com)
  • Monitoring cell culture media conditions is highly important for pharma industries in order to improve cell proliferation for applications such as protein synthesis. (horiba.com)
  • The result shows that the NAD(P)H is a key fluorescence indicator of the culture medium condition and cell proliferation. (horiba.com)
  • It was found that biofilms developed faster and a higher number of adherent cells (ca. 10(6) CFU/cm2) were recovered when the organisms were grown in the low nutrient media. (nih.gov)
  • Many phenotypes that evolve in these nonnative environments do so repeatedly and become common features of human-cultured, -raised, or -cultivated organisms ( 2 ), providing evidence of positive selection. (asm.org)
  • The test was performed with Daphnia magna (water fleas), of which a continuous culture is maintained at Akzo Nobel Chemicals Research, Arnhem, Dept. CGS-ENV. (europa.eu)
  • Age of parental stock (mean and range, SD): Daphnia brood stocks are kept in mass cultures consisting of approx. (europa.eu)
  • Acclimation period: The Daphnia are cultured under the identical conditions as the test including test media (Elendt M4), water quality, temperature (20 ±1°C), and diet. (europa.eu)
  • Experimental growth medium (VCM) conditioned by a one‐hour exposure to pieces of ventral skin of adult R. pipiens induced iridophores to assume a broad and stellate appearance, to form confluent sheets, and to proliferate over a nine‐day period. (elsevier.com)
  • Fungi trigger Streptomyces exploratory growth in part by altering the composition of the growth medium, and Streptomyces explorer cells can communicate this exploratory behaviour to other physically separated streptomycetes using an airborne volatile organic compound (VOC). (elifesciences.org)
  • Resuspend the cell pellet in fresh growth medium. (atcc.org)
  • The results showed conclusively that conditioned media promoted osteogenesis of MSC, which was further enhanced by prior heat shock-treatment of the hFOB cells, as well as by the presence of chemical stimuli. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Thus, the present study was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of ST and LT toxin production and release under laboratory conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • To maintain sterile culture conditions, all of the procedures in this protocol are carried out using sterile laboratory practices and conducted under a laminar flow hood. (thermofisher.com)
  • The dimorphic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus has evolved marked phenotypic changes during its 50-year history of culture in the laboratory environment, providing an excellent system for the study of natural selection and phenotypic microevolution in prokaryotes. (asm.org)
  • Likewise, the aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus has evolved marked phenotypic changes during the 50 years it has been cultured in the laboratory environment. (asm.org)
  • From this date on this clone was cultured and bred continuously in the Ecotoxicology Laboratory of Experimental Toxicology and Ecology, BASF SE, Ludwigshafen Germany. (europa.eu)
  • From the patient to the clinical mycology laboratory: how can we optimise microscopy and culture methods for mould identification? (bmj.com)
  • Extension of the culture for antigenic characterization of acute myeloid leukemia clonogenic cells to more patients than in a previous study confirmed the existence of a subgroup (39%) of patients whose acute myeloid leukemia clonogenic cells constantly expressed late myeloid differentiation antigens recognized by the monoclonal antibody S4-7. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Media and prospects for the cultivation of marine algae. (nbrp.jp)
  • NDVN01 was obtained at 28°C, with the initial medium pH of 7 and within 120 hours of cultivation in the optimum medium containing 80% (v/v) of potato infusion, 0.6% (w/v) straw rice as additional carbon source and 0.2% (w/v) ammonium hydrogen phosphate as an additional nitrogen source, and 0.5% (w/v) pulp as inducer. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Accordingly, weightlessness conditions during space flight accelerate bone loss and experimental models in real and simulated microgravity show decreased osteoblastic and increased osteoclastic activities. (hindawi.com)
  • IOL materials covalently modified with FasL kill some but not all contacting LECs after 48 hours in experimental conditions. (arvojournals.org)
  • Among all experimental groups, the combination of culture medium conditioned by heat shocked hFOB cells together with chemical stimuli, exhibited the highest level of calcium mineralization, as assessed by Von Kossa staining. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Monoclonal antibodies are typically made by cell culture that involves fusing myeloma cells with mouse spleen cells immunized with the desired antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • For 1x medium without carbon source, pool 10 ml of each 100x stock solution and fill up to 1000 ml with sterile, deionized water and store at 4°C. (igem.org)
  • Remove medium, and rinse with 0.25% trypsin, 0.03% EDTA solution. (atcc.org)
  • Remove medium, rinse with fresh 0.25% trypsin solution, remove trypsin and let the culture sit at room temperature (or at 37°C) until the cells detach (about 10 minutes). (atcc.org)
  • Remove medium, add dissociation solution (0.02% EDTA and 5% dialized fetal bovine serum in Ca-Mg free Hanks' BSS) and allow the flask to sit at 37C for 12 minutes or until the cells detach. (atcc.org)
  • proportionally reduce or increase amount of dissociation medium for culture vessels of other sizes. (atcc.org)
  • Add appropriate aliquots of the cell suspension to new culture vessels. (atcc.org)
  • Sampling method: An aliquot of freshly prepared test medium was taken from each test concentration before filling the test vessels. (europa.eu)
  • The cardiac progenitor cell population used in the present study is isolated from explant cultures of adult human endomyocardial biopsies using an intermediate cardiosphere (CSp) step. (ahajournals.org)
  • The launch of KnockOut™ SR XenoFree, based on the formulation of KnockOut™ SR but using human-derived or human recombinant proteins under cGMP conditions, allows the transition of pluripotent stem cell research to the clinic. (thermofisher.com)
  • The following protocols provide instructions for adapting human induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cells to feeder-free culture using complete KnockOut™ Serum Replacement XenoFree Feeder-Free medium (KSR XenoFree FF). (thermofisher.com)
  • We show here that human peritoneal mesothelial cells constitutively produce LPA, which accounts for a significant portion of the chemotactic activity of the conditioned medium from peritoneal mesothelial cells to ovarian cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • the recommended method(s) and a list of test strains suitable for assessing the quality (productivity and selectivity) of the medium and a description of the typical appearance of the target organism. (abebooks.com)
  • The hybridomas can be grown indefinitely in a suitable cell culture medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results We provide evidence by flow cytometry that monolayer culture is not favorable for NC culture with respect to maintaining NC phenotype. (ethz.ch)
  • Conclusions Our results confirm the requirement to culture NC in 3D to best maintain their phenotype, preferentially in hypoxia and with the supplementation of FCS in the culture media. (ethz.ch)
  • We find that soluble Aβ from Tg2576 conditioned medium (CM) induces CaN activation and subsequent nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc4) nuclear translocation, which leads to dendritic spine loss, dendritic simplification, and neuritic dystrophies. (jneurosci.org)
  • Various chemical components of the medium have fluorescence characteristics, and thus EEMs measurement is well suited to measure several components simultaneously (see attached app note for more info) . (horiba.com)
  • To prepare 100 mL of complete KnockOut™ SR XenoFree Feeder-Free (KSR XenoFree FF) medium asceptically combine the components listed in the table below. (thermofisher.com)
  • Just before pre-equilibrating the complete medium to temperature and gases, aseptically add the required volume of 2-mercaptoethanol (55 mM stock concentration) for a 0.1 mM final concentration. (thermofisher.com)
  • In conclusion, the observations reported here show that in three-dimensional cultures, containing all types of rat testicular cells, the nature of the medium per se exerts a direct influence on the functionality of the rat Leydig cells, but not on germ cell differentiation, due to the lack of proper organization of the Sertoli cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • On this course you will study the forces that shape the media, creative and cultural industries and gain the specialist analytic and creative skills you need to carve out a career in them. (brookes.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, utilizing an established three-dimensional cell culture system that promotes differentiation of pre-meiotic murine male germ cells as far as elongated spermatids, the present study was designed to test the influence of different culture media on germ cell differentiation, Leydig cell functionality, and overall cell survival. (frontiersin.org)
  • inhibition of Escherichia coli in media supplemented with 5 mM cAMP, and in a study by Chen & Brown (1985), the addition of cAMP at levels ranging from 0.01 to 100 μM showed no consistent influence on the growth rates of Legionella pneumophila. (hifsignaling.com)
  • The aim of this study was to determine NC culture conditions (2D/3D, fetal calf serum, oxygen level) that lead to significant IVD cell activation in an indirect co-culture system under normoxia and hypoxia (2% oxygen). (ethz.ch)
  • This is complemented with study of issues and current debates in media and cultural studies, as well as a thorough grounding in media law, public affairs, and political communication. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • We offer an academically rigorous study of media and culture, covering three distinct areas: media, cultural studies and professional practice. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Of the various media examined, the most pronounced expression of Star and Tspo , genes related to steroidogenesis, as well as the greatest production of testosterone was attained with Dulbecco's modified eagle medium + glutamine. (frontiersin.org)
  • It has twice been voted Guardian Media Student Publication of the Year. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • This gold standard media system can now be used for feeder-free culture with the addition of KnockOut™ SR Growth Factor Cocktail. (thermofisher.com)
  • Invitrogen has developed Knockout™ SR Growth Factor Cocktail to allow you to allow you to easily transition your hiPS cell cultures to feeder-free while still maintaining your use of Knockout™ SR XenoFree. (thermofisher.com)
  • This can be achieved by the use of a layer of feeder fibrocyte cells or supplement medium such as briclone. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the resulting tumors was dissociated, placed in culture and designated NL20-TA. (atcc.org)