Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Otitis Media: Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Embryo Culture Techniques: The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Lipoproteins, HDL3: Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Peptones: Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Communications Media: The means of interchanging or transmitting and receiving information. Historically the media were written: books, journals, newspapers, and other publications; in the modern age the media include, in addition, radio, television, computers, and information networks.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Microbial Collagenase: A metalloproteinase which degrades helical regions of native collagen to small fragments. Preferred cleavage is -Gly in the sequence -Pro-Xaa-Gly-Pro-. Six forms (or 2 classes) have been isolated from Clostridium histolyticum that are immunologically cross-reactive but possess different sequences and different specificities. Other variants have been isolated from Bacillus cereus, Empedobacter collagenolyticum, Pseudomonas marinoglutinosa, and species of Vibrio and Streptomyces. EC 3.4.24.3.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Ectogenesis: Embryonic and fetal development that takes place in an artificial environment in vitro.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Otitis Media, Suppurative: Inflammation of the middle ear with purulent discharge.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Chromogenic Compounds: Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.HEPES: A dipolar ionic buffer.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Polyanetholesulfonate: A compound originally developed as an anticoagulant, but possessing anticomplement action and lowering the bactericidal action of blood. It is used in vitro to inhibit blood coagulation and as a diagnostic reagent to encourage the growth of pathogens in the blood. It is also used to stabilize colloidal solutions such as milk and gelatin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.TritiumSulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Menopause, Premature: The premature cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) when the last menstrual period occurs in a woman under the age of 40. It is due to the depletion of OVARIAN FOLLICLES. Premature MENOPAUSE can be caused by diseases; OVARIECTOMY; RADIATION; chemicals; and chromosomal abnormalities.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Morula: An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Pichia: Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).GlucosamineL-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Tissue Preservation: The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Charcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cell SeparationHypertonic Solutions: Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Eye Banks: Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Granulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Therapeutic Equipoise: Expectation of real uncertainty on the part of the investigator regarding the comparative therapeutic merits of each arm in a trial.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Blood Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Incubators: Insulated enclosures in which temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions can be regulated at levels optimal for growth, hatching, reproduction, or metabolic reactions.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Mycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Dactinomycin: A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.ThymidinePolymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Thioglycolates: Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Glycoside HydrolasesChromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Diclofenac: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.

A simple technique for mass cultivation of Campylobacter fetus. (1/23774)

Studies using 86 media for maximum growth of Campylobacter fetus for antigen production showed that a diphasic medium (solid base with liquid overlay) was most suitable. The solid base was double strength cystine heart agar. The liquid overlay was thioglycollate medium of Brewer (135-C) without agar. This medium yielded maximum growth of C. fetus in six days with good motility, less clumping and less filament formation than all other media tried.  (+info)

Stimulation of thymidine uptake and cell proliferation in mouse embryo fibroblasts by conditioned medium from mammary cells in culture. (2/23774)

Undialyzed conditioned medium from several cell culture sources did not stimulate thymidine incorporation or cell overgrowth in quiescent, density-inhibited mouse embryo fibroblast cells. However, dialyzed conditioned medium (DCM) from clonal mouse mammary cell lines MCG-V14, MCG-T14, MCG-T10; HeLa cells; primary mouse adenocarcinoma cells; and BALB/c normal mouse mammary epithelial cells promoted growth in quiescent fibroblasts. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell varied from 24% (HeLa) to 213% (MCG-V14) of the activity produced by primary tumor cells. The production of growth-promoting activity was not unique to tumor-derived cells or cells of high tumorigenicity. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell in the active cultures was not correlated with any of the following: tumorigenicity, growth rat, cell density achieved at saturation, cell type, or species of cell origin. It is concluded that transformed and non-transformed cells of diverse origin, cell type, and tumorigenicity can produce growth factors in culture. The growth-promoting potential of the active media from primary tumor cultures accumulated with time of contact with cells and was too great to be accounted for entirely by the removal of low-molecular-weight inhibitors by dialysis. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that conditioned medium from the active cultures contained a dialyzable, growth-promoting activity. Different cell lines exhibited differential sensitivity to tumor cell DCM and fetal bovine serum. Furthermore, quiescent fibroblasts were stimulated by primary tumor cell DCM in the presence of saturating concentrations of fetal bovine serum. These observations support the notion that the active growth-promoting principle in primary tumor cell DCM may not be a serum factor(s).  (+info)

Improved medium for recovery and enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from water using membrane filters. (3/23774)

A modified mPA medium, designated mPA-C, was shown to recover Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a variety of water sources with results comparable to those with mPA-B and within the confidence limits of a most-probable-number technique. Enumeration of P. aeruginosa on mPA-C was possible after only 24 h of incubation at 41.5 degrees C, compared with 72 h of incubation required for mPA-B and 96 h of incubation for a presumptive most probable number.  (+info)

Unsaturated fatty acid requirements for growth and survival of a rat mammary tumor cell line. (4/23774)

A cell line, the growth and survival of which is markedly affected by linoleic acid, has been established from a carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor. The cells have been continuously passaged in 5% rat serum plus 10% fetal calf serum-supplemented medium. The rat serum component was found to be indispensalbe, for when it was omitted the growth rate rapidly declined and the cells died by 5 to 7 days. Removal of the rat serum from the growth medium also resulted in a dramatic loss of Oil Red O-positive droplets in the cells, suggesting that the lipid component of rat serum might be a major growth-promoting principle in rat serum. This is likely since the total lipid fraction, but not the delipidized protein fraction, could largely supplant requirement of the cells for rat serum. Pure linoleic acid was found to be effective in maintaining the cell growth in delipidized serum or in whole fetal calf serum-supplemented medium. Fatty acid analysis revealed a 19-fold higher amount of linoleic acid in rat serum than in fetal calf serum.  (+info)

Nrg1 is a transcriptional repressor for glucose repression of STA1 gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (5/23774)

Expression of genes encoding starch-degrading enzymes is regulated by glucose repression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have identified a transcriptional repressor, Nrg1, in a genetic screen designed to reveal negative factors involved in the expression of STA1, which encodes a glucoamylase. The NRG1 gene encodes a 25-kDa C2H2 zinc finger protein which specifically binds to two regions in the upstream activation sequence of the STA1 gene, as judged by gel retardation and DNase I footprinting analyses. Disruption of the NRG1 gene causes a fivefold increase in the level of the STA1 transcript in the presence of glucose. The expression of NRG1 itself is inhibited in the absence of glucose. DNA-bound LexA-Nrg1 represses transcription of a target gene 10.7-fold in a glucose-dependent manner, and this repression is abolished in both ssn6 and tup1 mutants. Two-hybrid and glutathione S-transferase pull-down experiments show an interaction of Nrg1 with Ssn6 both in vivo and in vitro. These findings indicate that Nrg1 acts as a DNA-binding repressor and mediates glucose repression of the STA1 gene expression by recruiting the Ssn6-Tup1 complex.  (+info)

Interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. II. Modulation of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte hydrolase release by polysaccharides in response to Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis. (6/23774)

The release of lysosomal hydrolases from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) has been postulated in the pathogenesis of tissue injury in periodontal disease. In the present study, lysosomal enzyme release was monitored from rabbit peritoneal exudate PMNs exposed to Streptocccus mutans or Streptococcus sanguis. S. mutans grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth failed to promote significant PMN enzyme release. S. sanguis grown in BHI broth, although more effective than S. mutants, was a weak stimulus for promotion of PMN hydrolase release. Preincubation of washed, viable S. mutans in sucrose or in different-molecular-weight dextrans resulted in the ability of the organisms to provoke PMN release reactions. This effect could bot be demonstrated with boiled or trypsinized S. mutans or with viable S. sanguis. However, when grown in BHI broth supplemented with sucrose, but not with glucose, both S. mutans and S. sanguis triggered discharge of PMN enzymes. The mechanism(s) whereby dextran or sucrose modulates PMN-bacterial interaction may in some manner be related to promotion of microbial adhesiveness or aggregation by dextran and by bacterial synthesis of glucans from sucrose.  (+info)

Downregulation of metallothionein-IIA expression occurs at immortalization. (7/23774)

Metallothioneins (MTs) may modulate a variety of cellular processes by regulating the activity of zinc-binding proteins. These proteins have been implicated in cell growth regulation, and their expression is abnormal in some tumors. In particular, MT-IIA is expressed 27-fold less in human colorectal tumors and tumor cell lines compared with normal tissue (Zhang et al., 1997). Here we demonstrate that MT-IIA downregulation occurs when human cells become immortal, a key event in tumorigenesis. After immortalization MT-IIA expression remains inducible but the basal activity of the MT-IIA promoter is decreased. MT-IIA downregulation at immortalization is one of the most common immortalization-related changes identified to date, suggesting that MT-IIA has a role in this process.  (+info)

Estrogen-dependent and independent activation of the P1 promoter of the p53 gene in transiently transfected breast cancer cells. (8/23774)

Loss of p53 function by mutational inactivation is the most common marker of the cancerous phenotype. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated 17 beta estradiol (E2) induction of p53 protein expression in breast cancer cells. Although direct effects of E2 on the expression of p53 gene are not known, the steroid is a potent regulator of c-Myc transcription. In the present studies, we have examined the ability of E2 and antiestrogens to regulate the P1 promoter of the p53 gene which contains a c-Myc responsive element. Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive T47D and MCF-7 cells were transiently transfected with the P1CAT reporter plasmid and levels of CAT activity in response to serum, E2 and antiestrogens were monitored. Factors in serum were noted to be the dominant inducers of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) expression in MCF-7 cells. The levels of CAT were drastically reduced when cells were maintained in serum free medium (SFM). However, a subtle ER-mediated induction of CAT expression was detectable when MCF-7 cells, cultured in SFM, were treated with E2. In serum-stimulated T47D cells, the CAT expression was minimal. The full ER antagonist, ICI 182 780 (ICI) had no effect. Treatment with E2 or 4-hydroxy tamoxifen (OHT) resulted in P1CAT induction; OHT was more effective than E2. Consistent with c-Myc regulation of the P1 promoter, E2 stimulated endogenous c-Myc in both cell lines. Two forms of c-Myc were expressed independent of E2 stimuli. The expression of a third more rapidly migrating form was E2-dependent and ER-mediated since it was blocked by the full ER antagonist, ICI, but not by the ER agonist/antagonist OHT. These data demonstrate both ER-mediated and ER-independent regulation of c-Myc and the P1 promoter of the p53 gene, and show differential effects of the two classes of antiestrogens in their ability to induce the P1 promoter of the p53 gene in breast cancer cells.  (+info)

  • During the 2019 HealthLeaders CNO Exchange in Ojai, California, 30 nurse executives engaged in a discussion of ideas and strategies to develop best practices for improving workplace culture and the art of nursing. (healthleadersmedia.com)
  • Slated to open in the Fall of 2019, The Center for Media, Film and Theater is Purchase College's new state-of-the-art building dedicated to media, film and theater arts. (purchase.edu)
  • Haverford's new Visual Culture, Arts, and Media space in the repurposed Old Gym has been recognized by the American Institute of Architects' 2018 awards program for its innovative and sustainable design. (haverford.edu)
  • On all courses in the department, students explore the history, theory and practice of film, television and communications media, along with the political, social, economic and cultural contexts within which media production and consumption occur. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • We offer an academically rigorous study of media and culture, covering three distinct areas: media, cultural studies and professional practice. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • This book examines recent changes in media education and in young people's lives, and provides an accessible set of principles on which the media curriculum should be based, with a clear rationale for pedagogic practice. (wiley.com)
  • This 16-credit, cross-school undergraduate minor provides exposure to the business, theory, and practice of media and entertainment. (nyu.edu)
  • Television broadcasts, news articles in the media on how the different communities mix and mingle with one another have led to an interesting practice of Malaysians of different backgrounds coming together to celebrate the Yee Sang ceremony as part of the Chinese New Year festivities. (eldis.org)
  • Since the 1950s, television has been the main medium for molding public opinion . (wikipedia.org)
  • Thesis statement: Social media has become a common staple and main way of communication in American culture and this impact has affected not only adults, but children of all ages. (ipl.org)
  • Here's today's dispatch from the crossroads of faith, media and culture. (beliefnet.com)
  • However, despite the importance of these spaces as the hybrid homes of the then emergent and now embedded creative activities that characterise today's rich field of digital and media practices, their history and contribution to current lab environments has been little discussed outside a niche arena. (metamute.org)
  • A hip and caustically humorous McLuhan for the '90s, culture watcher Douglas Rushkoff now offers a fascinating expose of media manipulation in today's age of instant information. (indiebound.org)
  • This can be extended to today's media environment of turbulence and volatility, in which news travels faster and further than ever before. (theguardian.com)
  • the scale of today's online media is truly mind-boggling. (theguardian.com)
  • The Film and Media Culture department is dedicated to the study of film and visual media as a vital aspect of a liberal arts education. (middlebury.edu)
  • Our students study film and a wide range of visual media, including television, digital games, online video, and video art, as aesthetic forms as well as in relation to the cultures that produced them. (middlebury.edu)
  • While we are not a production-centered department or a traditional "film school," we fully integrate the creation and critical study of film and media in a manner appropriate to a liberal arts education. (middlebury.edu)
  • This course gives you the opportunity to study digital media and culture and to be trained in tools to understand and make use of it critically and creatively. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • In 2015, 84% of first-degree graduates in the Department of Culture, Film and Media who were available for employment had secured work or further study within six months of graduation. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The uniqueness of Modern Culture and Media resides in its commitment to situate the study of media in the context of the broader examination of modern cultural and social formations. (brown.edu)
  • We study the products and processes of both "high" and "mass" culture with equal seriousness, and with critical intent. (brown.edu)
  • In addition to uniting the study of cultural theory with the study of the mass media, we are committed to uniting actual work in the production or creation of media texts with our analytical and theoretical consideration of the arts and media. (brown.edu)
  • On this course you will study the forces that shape the media, creative and cultural industries and gain the specialist analytic and creative skills you need to carve out a career in them. (brookes.ac.uk)
  • David Buckingham is a Professor of Education and Director of the Centre for the Study of Children, Youth and Media at the Institute of Education, University of London. (wiley.com)
  • Students will be given the opportunity to study, discuss and close-read seminal readings from the canon of critical literature and apply them to creative, cultural and media artefacts. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • Why Study Media, Culture, and the Arts at Clark? (clarku.edu)
  • Due to an increased ludification of culture, we aim to re-evaluate the manner in which we study media and culture. (uu.nl)
  • The study of digital games and play therefore enables us to address fundamental changes in the way we create and use media. (uu.nl)
  • Numerous study away opportunities allow students to cultivate a deeper knowledge of the global production, circulation, and reception of contemporary media. (nyu.edu)
  • The Media, Culture, and Communication program offers students a theoretical background for entry into a wide range of careers and graduate study. (nyu.edu)
  • In addition, it aims to provide the skills necessary for academic study at an advanced level either for those wishing to go on to further academic research, or as an advanced preparation for those interested in pursuing careers in a range of media and culture industries. (prospects.ac.uk)
  • These courses train students in theories of mass media and communications, combined with strong emphasis on language proficiency. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Modernization theories explain the changing ways of communication and media use in traditional and (post)modern societies. (utwente.nl)
  • Anamik Saha outlines the theories, concepts and research you need to know in order to make sense of race, culture and media today - challenging you to move beyond simplistic notions of 'diversity' to really engage with issues of both power and participation. (sagepub.com)
  • Media Education offers a comprehension overview of the debates, the theories and the principles that have underprinned the teaching of media, and makes a clear and urgent case for how it should proceed in the future. (wiley.com)
  • Join us and dive into the histories and theories behind various media forms, while creating bold new work that reflects innovative pathways in the medium of your choice. (clarku.edu)
  • As a student in the media, culture and the arts major, you will take courses that familiarize you with a range of cultural theories and historical approaches to media production, which are relevant to the functioning of media in a diverse and globalizing cultural environment. (clarku.edu)
  • Superior capacity for identifying, applying and critiquing a range of theories and methodologies for conceptualising print cultures. (edu.au)
  • The English Culture forum is a resource for you to discuss anything related to English culture - food, history, literature, travel and much more. (bellaonline.com)
  • MCM students are knowledgeable about the theory, history and analysis of media and culture and are able to produce innovative work that interrogates and transforms conventional understandings of these forms. (brown.edu)
  • Understanding Media and Culture: an Introduction to Mass Communication covers all the important topics in mass communication and media history. (merlot.org)
  • This course examines fashion as a form of communication and culture using a diverse range of readings drawn: what fashion means and how it has been valued through history, popular culture and media institutions. (studiesabroad.com)
  • Today, the LAB and NPBA are important components of Special Collections in Mass Media & Culture at the University of Maryland, which holds wide-ranging collections of audio and video recordings, books, pamphlets, periodicals, personal collections, oral histories, photographs, scripts and vertical files devoted exclusively to the history of both public and commercial broadcasting. (umd.edu)
  • Ability to discern longitudinal developments in the history of media and communications and to contextualise contemporary developments accurately. (edu.au)
  • Our high-quality serum products perfectly complement our wide range of sterile-filtered, low-endotoxin, classical cell culture media. (corning.com)
  • That's why we offer you a comprehensive portfolio of vessels, advanced surfaces and cell culture media and work with you one-on-one to help you make the most of Corning products. (corning.com)
  • To provide a systematic overview of major 20th and 21st century critical schools and theoretical approaches, which are key for an advanced understanding of how to read and analyse creative, cultural and media artefacts such as fiction, non-fiction, poetry, drama, film, video games and other new media texts. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • Welcome to VCAM-a material realization of a key feature of the College's vision for a 21st-century liberal arts education: that is, the development of students as interpreters and makers of visual media in spaces made for this work. (haverford.edu)
  • Union Street Media, a leading real estate marketing and technology firm, renews its commitment to its employee-first culture to bolster growth and leadership in its category in 2017. (prweb.com)
  • In particular, you will explore the relationship between Asian media systems and the broader political, economic, and social/cultural institutions of the region. (edu.au)
  • It continues to thrive, constantly adapting to changes in the broader media environment. (edu.au)
  • Here's the latest dispatch from the crossroads of faith and media: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=npYkF0FMWl0 As planned, the controversial pro-life movie Unplanned hit the DVD/Blue Ray/digital market this week. (beliefnet.com)
  • It also provides you with an excellent academic background to pursue issues in digital media at the doctoral level. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • A range of scholarships are available, including two funded bursaries of £4,000 for Home/EU students studying the MA in Digital Media and Culture. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • It gives you the training to understand and make use of digital media critically, creatively and productively. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • You then select two or three option modules in areas that cover the theoretical and socioeconomic aspects of digital culture, urban science, big data and complexity. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • We also offer a range of UK-based internships with leading companies such as digital agency Red Bee Media, marketing and design company The Entertainment Agency and brand consultancy Canopy Insight. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Modern culture is characterized by the development and dissemination of media that can be identified as technical modes of reproduction: print insofar as it is connected to mass dissemination, photography, sound recording, cinema, video, television and most recently digital media. (brown.edu)
  • From the demonisation of Muslims to rampant new forms of racism on digital platforms, media are central to understanding how race is both constructed and experienced in everyday life. (sagepub.com)
  • Covering both analysis and production, including the new digital technologies, this book is a must-have for the serious media teacher. (wiley.com)
  • Founded in 1999 and headquartered in Burlington, VT, Union Street Media specializes in digital marketing and advertising for real estate companies. (prweb.com)
  • Using innovative web based software and a well-rounded digital marketing strategy, Union Street Media works to connect real estate professionals to what matters most: their customers. (prweb.com)
  • Early attendees and co-facilitators of Backspace now list some central figures of the Digital and New Media art fields including: Matt Fuller, Simon Pope, Armin Medosch, Heath Bunting, Ruth Catlow, Pete Gomes, Manu Luksch and Thomson and Craighead - even Turner Prize winner Mark Lecky was a regular for a while. (metamute.org)
  • Highlighting What's Making News: Using local media (print/digital) and popular press to share and highlight innovative approaches for preserving ancient culture. (eldis.org)
  • MCA defines media as artworks and forms of mass communication, including pre-electronic analog through digital forms. (clarku.edu)
  • Within our department, there are several active research groups dealing with new media and digital culture related themes and topics which welcome participating MA students. (uu.nl)
  • Here, we examine digital games as well as the role of play in our contemporary culture. (uu.nl)
  • TviT poses that television is a medium that never just is, but constantly is in the state of transition, especially in relation to new media and the digital environment. (uu.nl)
  • As a student of the MA New Media and Digital Culture you can opt to do a research internship with UDS. (uu.nl)
  • Book Futures focuses on the book's increasing convergence with digital media. (edu.au)
  • Skill in critically analysing the many interfaces of the book with digital media technologies and accounting for the symbiotic relationship between the two platforms. (edu.au)
  • The building will house the new home of the Media Arts and Culture program, as well as a new fabrication lab, a new and expanded digital print lab, new high end computer labs, a a sound stage, performance spaces, a screening room and more. (purchase.edu)
  • Students on the programme benefit from access to a broad range of expertise and research in digital media and culture. (prospects.ac.uk)
  • and production and critical skills in digital media. (newschool.edu)
  • If you've gone through The Truth Project curriculum, then you may have noticed the insightful comments Gordon Pennington made about postmodernism and the effects of ubiquitous media messages. (boundless.org)
  • This programme lets you explore the space of contemporary philosophies as they influence and are impacted by computers, networked communications and ubiquitous media. (prospects.ac.uk)
  • When you support your favorite media outlets and cultural institutions, you help to ensure that we all enjoy access to culture and the arts. (thepetitionsite.com)
  • On Tuesday 1/24/12, the Arts & Democracy Project hosted a conference call on Arts, Culture, Media and Environmental Justice Organizing . (constantcontact.com)
  • The call focused on how people across the country are bringing the power of arts and culture to bear on the environmental devastation that is disproportionately affecting poor communities and communities of color. (constantcontact.com)
  • In this e-newsletter, you will find the conference call recording as well as other resources related to arts, culture, media and environmental justice organizing. (constantcontact.com)
  • NAMAC facilitates collaboration, strategic growth, innovation and cultural impact for the media arts field. (idealist.org)
  • NAMAC was founded in 1980 by a diverse group of media arts organization leaders who realized they could strengthen their social and cultural impact by working as a united force. (idealist.org)
  • Since its founding, NAMAC has worked to raise the profile and influence of the media arts on behalf of its growing and changing membership. (idealist.org)
  • As a media student at Newcastle, you will join a vibrant community in the School of Arts and Cultures . (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Haverford's Visual Culture, Arts, and Media (VCAM) facility is a 24/7 creative hub for students, faculty, staff, and the wider community. (haverford.edu)
  • The Media, Arts, + Culture program's suite of activities engages more than 500 youth in approximately 60 projects and 40 events each year, reaches more than 2,000 audience members annually, and is deeply integrated into RYSE's model to promote personal healing, social justice, and community transformation. (hewlett.org)
  • The majority of its youth is engaged in the organization's Media, Arts, and Culture programs, and often report that the arts offerings are what drew them to RYSE. (hewlett.org)
  • With a share of 40 perce nt ( 5.1 bil lion euros), the highest spending on cultural and media products is found in the audiovisual domain, followed by literature (books, newspapers, magazines, etc.) at 20 per cent, performing arts at 16 per cent and heritage, including museums, at 12 per cent. (cbs.nl)
  • As part of the School of Arts and Humanities Communication, Culture and Media Research Seminar series, Anna Dawson, NTU, presents: Post Feminism and Contemporary Melodrama. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • Clark's major in media, culture, and the arts has allowed her to combine her interests as both a visual artist and a creative writer. (clarku.edu)
  • I'm watching my skills grow and develop, as well, in the media, culture and the arts program. (clarku.edu)
  • Focusing on mobile and situated media, arts, and performances, the platform brings together and initiates critical reflections on, and actual interventions in, these socio-spatial activities and their shaping and staging of urban culture. (uu.nl)
  • The MFA in Media Arts and Culture provides students with ample spaces to work, regardless of their working style. (purchase.edu)
  • The Department of Media, Culture, and Communication's academically rigorous Bachelor of Science degree is grounded in the liberal arts, providing students with the necessary tools to understand the sociological, political, and cultural aspects of media and technology. (nyu.edu)
  • MCM faculty and students attempt to unite aspects of modern culture that are normally separated by university departmental structures (such as fine art, literature, and philosophy). (brown.edu)
  • Our goal is to help our students become active participants in contemporary American culture, both as thoughtful critics and as creative workers. (brown.edu)
  • Students must receive a grade of C or better in all courses taken in order to fulfill minor requirements in Culture and Media. (newschool.edu)
  • The way that media reports the news and the topics that they cover color the lens through which we see the world, for better or worse. (thepetitionsite.com)
  • Faith, Media, & Culture will offer daily observations and opinions regarding the relationship between Catholicism and the news and entertainment media. (beliefnet.com)
  • News and articles about work, policy and workers' struggles in the media and culture industries around the world, and analysis and reviews of art, culture and the media. (libcom.org)
  • A culture in which the weapon of choice for the liberal media is simply shutting down reporting of news they don't like - refusing to publish it. (newsbusters.org)
  • What all three of these incidents have in common is liberal media outlets -- be they cable news, major newspapers, Big Tech or a big publishing company -- using one or another form of the cancel culture to silence views they do not like. (newsbusters.org)
  • The news media in the Western world remain dominated by newspapers, magazines and broadcasters still known as the mainstream. (reuters.com)
  • I say "revealed" because it was revealed to me, and no doubt to others in the mainstream media and their (often declining) audiences, while they are already part of the news and opinion ecology of many of the young. (reuters.com)
  • The news media mines the work of scientists and scholars and conveys it to the general public , often emphasizing elements that have inherent appeal or the power to amaze. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some critics argue that popular culture is "dumbing down": "newspapers that once ran foreign news now feature celebrity gossip, pictures of scantily dressed young ladies. (wikipedia.org)
  • A lot of people do not have televisions so they rely on social or information media to get their news. (ipl.org)
  • From the offices of News Corp to the boardrooms of the BBC, the age of top-down, elite-controlled media is passing, replaced by a decentralised global infosphere of unprecedented accessibility and diversity. (theguardian.com)
  • As part of Corning's comprehensive portfolio of life science products, Corning's extensive line of Media , Sera , Water , and Reagents provides the vital support your research, development, and production efforts need to continue making life changing discoveries. (corning.com)
  • From cell culture and antibody production to vaccine development and drug discovery, our high-quality custom media development and manufacturing services can produce customized, tailored media and reagents to meet your unique research needs. (corning.com)
  • The Adipocyte Differentiation Toolkit for Adipose-derived MSCs and Preadipocytes contains medium and reagents designed to induce adipogenesis in actively proliferating Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Preadipocytes with high efficiency, and to support maturation of derived adipocytes during lipid accumulation. (atcc.org)
  • The Adipocyte Differentiation Toolkit for Adipose-derived MSCs and Preadipocytes provides enough medium and reagents for differentiation of ~6.8 x 10 5 cells when plated at a recommended density of 18,000 viable cells/cm 2 in 4 wells of a 6 well tissue culture format. (atcc.org)
  • You'll develop journalistic writing skills and learn to communicate across a wide range of platforms and media. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Perhaps most importantly, the new platforms bring voices which claim to have been suppressed in the traditional media because they are too far-right, too incorrect, too inappropriate, but which flourish online. (reuters.com)
  • On this course, you will build a portfolio of skills to keep up with the rapidly-evolving nature of these connections, learning how to exchange information, understand audience needs and create personal and business relationships over a variety of communication technologies and media platforms. (brookes.ac.uk)
  • Not only was the story blacked out in major media outlets, Twitter shut down The Post 's account to shut down the story. (newsbusters.org)
  • television has replaced high-quality drama with gardening, cookery, and other "lifestyle" programmes [and] reality TV and asinine soaps," to the point that people are constantly immersed in trivia about celebrity culture . (wikipedia.org)
  • And to my surprise, when I preach to communities that are heavily youth- and young adult-oriented, I find that I often do not want to do popular culture exegesis. (americamagazine.org)
  • The various contributors provide an in-depth analysis of the ways in which media representations of prison influence perceptions of prison and punishment in popular culture. (google.com)
  • In Rosenberg and White's book Mass Culture , Dwight Macdonald argues that "Popular culture is a debased, trivial culture that voids both the deep realities ( sex , death , failure , tragedy ) and also the simple spontaneous pleasures. (wikipedia.org)
  • For as long as mass media has existed in the United States, it's helped to create and fuel mass crazes, skyrocketing celebrities, and pop culture manias of all kinds. (merlot.org)
  • In the chapters to come, we'll look at different kinds of mass media and how they have been changed by-and are changing-the world we live in. (merlot.org)
  • demonstrate an appreciation of the ways that the mass media contributes to understandings of the world. (edu.au)
  • Economic development: mass media promote the global diffusion of many technical and social innovations that are essential to modernization (Rogers, 1962). (utwente.nl)
  • National identity development: mass media could support national identities in new nations (colonies) and support attention to democratic policies (elections). (utwente.nl)
  • Peripheral (developing) countries are assumed to be dependant on mass media in the core (the Western world). (utwente.nl)
  • Modern societies stretch further and further across space and time using mass media and interactive media. (utwente.nl)
  • Attention to the role of mass media and new media in world affairs. (utwente.nl)
  • This understanding of the complexity of Asia then contextualises the key concepts of Mass Media in Asia and allows the student to investigate the specifics of mass media within the region, and its effects globally. (edu.au)
  • You will examine mass media systems and industries in the Asian region. (edu.au)
  • The alternative term mass culture conveys the idea that such culture emerges spontaneously from the masses themselves, like popular art did before the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression media culture, on the other hand, conveys the idea that such culture is the product of the mass media. (wikipedia.org)
  • Van den Haag argues that "all mass media in the end alienate people from personal experience and though appearing to offset it, intensify their moral isolation from each other, from the reality and from themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Critics have lamented the "replacement of high art and authentic folk culture by tasteless industrialised artefacts produced on a mass scale in order to satisfy the lowest common denominator . (wikipedia.org)
  • This "mass culture emerged after the Second World War and have led to the concentration of mass-culture power in ever larger global media conglomerates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus 'positive government-press-community interaction' is a culture of mass communication that fits the nation 's constitution and philosophy of life. (ipl.org)
  • If you know the author of Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass ... , please help us out by filling out the form below and clicking Send. (merlot.org)
  • All types of communication, including the mediated as in mass communication, transmits human values and culture. (ipl.org)
  • Major developments in the evolution of mass media during the last century It has come to our attention that media is changing since its origin. (ipl.org)
  • The series encourages the development of work on disabled people in the media, within the media industries and in the wider cultural sphere. (peterlang.com)
  • If you're pursuing a professional career in knowledge-based industries, whether in museums, marketing agencies, businesses, charities, new-media production companies, public relations or think-tanks, this course is for you. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • There is an emerging, vibrant media industry in the city and we have good links with the local media and cultural industries. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • How does racism structure the media industries? (sagepub.com)
  • As the former Director of Marketing for Tommy Hilfiger, he is known for his broad understanding of the growing power and influence of technology and the nexus of global media and entertainment industries. (boundless.org)
  • Ability to assess the book's continuing place in the contemporary global media environment, and to account for national and regional variations in creative industries and cultural policy. (edu.au)
  • To the impact of technology we can add that of increased competition in the media industries, and the emergence of a counter-cultural marketplace where the books and films of commentators such as Michael Moore, Naomi Klein and Noam Chomsky can bestride the global best-seller lists alongside Dan Brown and JK Rowling. (theguardian.com)
  • With many practitioners coming from the spaces, practices and communities forged by the independent film and video movement, the phenomenon of the UK media lab was born. (metamute.org)
  • An example of this is the media in Malaysia and Singapore which reports extensively on the festivals of the different communities, their religious practices and so on. (eldis.org)
  • This means that it is always practiced (explicitly and implicitly) in relation to the signs of the timesthe symbols of the cultures in which liturgy takes place, whether local, national or global. (americamagazine.org)
  • It introduces the media as a key aspect of that development in relation to politics and ideology. (edu.au)
  • To examine creativity theory and knowledge-generating activities in relation to media, culture, and creative artefacts. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • Drawing on the internationally recognised and pioneering expertise of staff in the Department of Sociology and Department of Media and Communications , as well as the Centre for Feminist Research (CFR) , the programme offers you the opportunity to develop cutting-edge critical skills in relation to cultural approaches to gender formation and gender theory. (gold.ac.uk)
  • It may also creatively make use of contemporary media technology like video cameras, sophisticated sound systems, clothing fashions, computers or electric instruments. (americamagazine.org)
  • One made the attempt to explain the diffusion of Western styles of living, technological innovations and individualist types of communication (highly selective, addressing only particular persons) as the superiority of secular, materialist, Western, individualist culture and of individual motivation and achievement (Lerner, 1958), Schramm, 1964). (utwente.nl)
  • Using a wide array of archival sources, Brian Dolber demonstrates the importance of cultural activity in movement politics, and the need for thoughtful debate about how to structure alternative media in moments of political, economic, and technological change. (springer.com)
  • These commercials denote the fact that you can learn something about different cultures that can directly or indirectly benefit a business endeavor you may have or be involved in. (bartleby.com)
  • Alongside chapters addressing the construction of popular images of prison and the death penalty in television and film, Captured by the Media also has contributions from prison reform groups and prison practitioners which discuss forms of media intervention in penal debate. (google.com)
  • In June I was invited to film a video workshop with San Francisco-based MentorBox on the methodologies of Cultivating a Creative Culture. (medium.com)
  • The course will encourage you to reflect on the diversity of Asian cultures. (edu.au)
  • T he vast diversity of cultures along the routes of the Belt and Road Initiative poses challenges to media as they report on the huge project, making appreciation of and respect for differences vital to the coverage, media leaders from China and overseas said on 26 September. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • It places media discourse in prisons firmly within the arena of penal policy and public opinion, suggesting that while Bad Girls, The Shawshank Redemption, internet jail cams, advertising and debates about televising executions continue to ebb and flow in contemporary culture, the persistence of this spectacle of punishment - its contested meaning and its politics of representation - demands investigation. (google.com)
  • Gibco™ DMEM, Powder, High Glucose, No Sodium Bicarbonate Buffer is used in cell culture processing applications. (fishersci.com)
  • DMEM: F-12 Medium contains 2.5 mM L-glutamine, 15 mM HEPES, 0.5 mM sodium pyruvate, and 1200 mg/L sodium bicarbonate. (atcc.org)
  • Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) modified to contain 4 mM L-glutamine, 4500 mg/L glucose, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, and 1500 mg/L sodium bicarbonate. (atcc.org)
  • A just culture also recognizes that many individual or active errors represent predictable interactions between human operators and the system in which they work. (healthleadersmedia.com)
  • As long as there is someone willing to pay for it, just about anything can be said about any government or leader, no matter how critical, and find its place in mainstream media. (theguardian.com)