The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.
Behavioral or attitudinal compliance with recognized social patterns or standards.
A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The circulation or wide dispersal of information.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.
Modulation of human voice to produce sounds augmented by musical tonality and rhythm.
Sounds used in animal communication.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
An approach to nutrition based on whole cereal grains, beans, cooked vegetables and the Chinese YIN-YANG principle. It advocates a diet consisting of organic and locally grown foods, seasonal vegetables, complex carbohydrates, and fewer fats, sugars, and chemically processed foods.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.
Fabric or other material used to cover the body.

The cultural heritage shapes the pattern of tumour profiles in Europe: a correlation study. (1/209)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the spatial pattern of tumours in Europe to check the feasibility of a large scale ecological epidemiology approach to cancer in Europe. SETTING: The tumour types relative frequencies and cancer incidence (for men and women) reported in the European cancer registries were investigated by exploratory data analysis techniques. Socioeconomical descriptors of the female condition were considered as well. MAIN RESULTS: The classification of the European regional areas covered by the cancer registries followed almost exactly the boundaries set by the long and intermingled European history in terms of life styles and cultural heritage. This result supports the notion of a predominant role of environmental factors in cancer induction. Further support to the above result was given by the finding of a correlation between differential male-female cancer incidence, and socioeconomic descriptors of the female condition. CONCLUSIONS: From a methodological point of view, the consistency of these results pointed to the feasibility of an ecological approach to tumour epidemiology.  (+info)

The mimetic transition: a simulation study of the evolution of learning by imitation. (2/209)

Culturally transmitted ideas or memes must have had a large effect on the survival and fecundity of early humans. Those with better techniques of obtaining food and making tools, clothing and shelters would have had a substantial advantage. It has been proposed that memes can explain why our species has an unusually large brain and high cognitive ability: the brain evolved because of selection for the ability to imitate. This article presents an evolutionary model of a population in which culturally transmitted memes can have both positive and negative effects on the fitness of individuals. It is found that genes for increased imitative ability are selectively favoured. The model predicts that imitative ability increases slowly until a mimetic transition occurs where memes become able to spread like an epidemic. At this point there is a dramatic increase in the imitative ability, the number of memes known per individual and the mean fitness of the population. Selection for increased imitative ability is able to overcome substantial selection against increased brain size in some cases.  (+info)

Genetic evidence for different male and female roles during cultural transitions in the British Isles. (3/209)

Human history is punctuated by periods of rapid cultural change. Although archeologists have developed a range of models to describe cultural transitions, in most real examples we do not know whether the processes involved the movement of people or the movement of culture only. With a series of relatively well defined cultural transitions, the British Isles present an ideal opportunity to assess the demographic context of cultural change. Important transitions after the first Paleolithic settlements include the Neolithic, the development of Iron Age cultures, and various historical invasions from continental Europe. Here we show that patterns of Y-chromosome variation indicate that the Neolithic and Iron Age transitions in the British Isles occurred without large-scale male movements. The more recent invasions from Scandinavia, on the other hand, appear to have left a significant paternal genetic legacy. In contrast, patterns of mtDNA and X-chromosome variation indicate that one or more of these pre-Anglo-Saxon cultural revolutions had a major effect on the maternal genetic heritage of the British Isles.  (+info)

Solar forcing of drought frequency in the Maya lowlands. (4/209)

We analyzed lake-sediment cores from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, to reconstruct the climate history of the region over the past 2600 years. Time series analysis of sediment proxies, which are sensitive to the changing ratio of evaporation to precipitation (oxygen isotopes and gypsum precipitation), reveal a recurrent pattern of drought with a dominant periodicity of 208 years. This cycle is similar to the documented 206-year period in records of cosmogenic nuclide production (carbon-14 and beryllium-10) that is thought to reflect variations in solar activity. We conclude that a significant component of century-scale variability in Yucatan droughts is explained by solar forcing. Furthermore, some of the maxima in the 208-year drought cycle correspond with discontinuities in Maya cultural evolution, suggesting that the Maya were affected by these bicentennial oscillations in precipitation.  (+info)

Prehistoric human colonization of India. (5/209)

Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar-Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500-1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide and the Ganga valley. The location of the Mahabharata epic, which is set in the beginning of the first millennium B.C., is the Indo-Gangetic divide and the upper Ganga-Yamuna doab (land between two rivers). Iron technology enabled pioneering farmers to clear the dense and tangled forests of the middle and lower Ganga plains. The focus of development now shifted further eastward to eastern Uttar Pradesh and western Bihar which witnessed the events of the Ramayana epic and rise of the first political entities known as Mahajanapadas as also of Buddhism and Jainism. The second phase of urbanization of India, marked by trade, coinage, script and birth of the first Indian empire, namely Magadha, with its capital at Pataliputra (modern Patna) also took place in this region in the sixth century B.C. The imposition by Brahmin priests of the concepts of racial and ritual purity, pollution, restrictions on sharing of food, endogamy, anuloma (male of upper caste eligible to marry a female of lower caste) and pratiloma (female of upper caste ineligible to marry a male of lower caste) forms of marriage, karma (reaping the fruits of the actions of previous life in the present life), rebirth, varnashrama dharma (four stages of the expected hundred-year life span) and the sixteen sanskaras (ceremonies) on traditional occupational groups led to the birth of the caste system - a unique Indian phenomenon. As a consequence of the expansion of agriculture and loss of forests and wildlife, stone age hunter-gatherers were forced to assimilate themselves into larger agriculture-based rural and urban societies. However, some of them resisted this new economic mode. To this day they have persisted with their atavistic lifestyle, but have had to supplement their resources by producing craft items or providing entertainment to the rural population.  (+info)

Major long-term factors influencing dental education in the twenty-first century. (6/209)

With evolutionary advances in oral science over the long term, clinical reliance on chemotherapeutics, bacterial replacement therapy, and immunization will necessitate a broader background in medicine. The dramatic increase in the old age population will also require a much stronger medical background. By 2050, those over fifty-five years of age will represent 56 percent of the population, and 25 percent of these will be sixty-five years of age and older. The merging of dental and medical education is predicted to occur within the twenty-first century. Other topics addressed include research activities, with recommended strategies to enhance the integration of scientific and clinical dental approaches; the problem of dental faculty isolation; and the implications of financial constraint and accountability.  (+info)

Orangutan cultures and the evolution of material culture. (7/209)

Geographic variation in some aspects of chimpanzee behavior has been interpreted as evidence for culture. Here we document similar geographic variation in orangutan behaviors. Moreover, as expected under a cultural interpretation, we find a correlation between geographic distance and cultural difference, a correlation between the abundance of opportunities for social learning and the size of the local cultural repertoire, and no effect of habitat on the content of culture. Hence, great-ape cultures exist, and may have done so for at least 14 million years.  (+info)

Vocal clans in sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). (8/209)

Cultural transmission may be a significant source of variation in the behaviour of whales and dolphins, especially as regards their vocal signals. We studied variation in the vocal output of 'codas' by sperm whale social groups. Codas are patterns of clicks used by female sperm whales in social circumstances. The coda repertoires of all known social units (n = 18, each consisting of about 11 females and immatures with long-term relationships) and 61 out of 64 groups (about two social units moving together for periods of days) that were recorded in the South Pacific and Caribbean between 1985 and 2000 can be reliably allocated into six acoustic 'clans', five in the Pacific and one in the Caribbean. Clans have ranges that span thousands of kilometres, are sympatric, contain many thousands of whales and most probably result from cultural transmission of vocal patterns. Units seem to form groups preferentially with other units of their own clan. We suggest that this is a rare example of sympatric cultural variation on an oceanic scale. Culture may thus be a more important determinant of sperm whale population structure than genes or geography, a finding that has major implications for our understanding of the species' behavioural and population biology.  (+info)

The cold war period was marked by rivalry between two superpowers, both of which considered themselves to be the most highly evolved cultures on the planet. The USSR painted itself as a socialist society which emerged out of class struggle, while sociologists in the United States (such as Talcott Parsons) argued that the freedom and prosperity of the United States represented a high level of cultural evolution. At the same time, decolonization created newly independent countries who sought to become more developed -- a model of progress and industrialization which was itself a form of cultural evolution. There is, however, a tradition in European social theory from Rousseau to Max Weber that argues that this progression coincides with a loss of human freedom and dignity. At the height of the Cold War, this tradition merged with an interest in ecology to influence an activist culture in the 1960s. This movement produced a variety of political and philosophical programs which emphasized the ...
Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction provides a comprehensive overview of comparative Indo-European linguistics and the branches of the Indo-European language family, covering both linguistic and cultural material. Fills a long-present gap in the literature of Indo-European studies. Designed for use in courses, with exercises and suggestions for further reading included in each chapter. Discusses linguistic and cultural developments for each branch of the Indo-European language family. Provides an overview of Proto-Indo-European culture, society, and language.
Today, Indo-European languages are spoken by almost 3 billion native speakers across all inhabited continents,[61] the largest number by far for any recognised language family. Of the 20 languages with the largest numbers of native speakers according to Ethnologue, 10 are Indo-European: Spanish, English, Hindustani, Portuguese, Bengali, Russian, Punjabi, German, French and Marathi, accounting for over 1.7 billion native speakers.[62] Additionally, hundreds of millions of persons worldwide study Indo-European languages as secondary or tertiary languages, including in cultures which have completely different language families and historical backgrounds-there are between 600 million[63] and one billion[64] L2 learners of English alone. The success of the language family, including the large number of speakers and the vast portions of the Earth that they inhabit, is due to several factors. The ancient Indo-European migrations and widespread dissemination of Indo-European culture throughout Eurasia, ...
Today, Indo-European languages are spoken by almost 3 billion native speakers across all inhabited continents,[58] the largest number by far for any recognised language family. Of the 20 languages with the largest numbers of native speakers according to Ethnologue, 11 are Indo-European: Spanish, English, Hindustani, Portuguese, Bengali, Russian, Punjabi, German, French, Marathi, accounting for over 1.7 billion native speakers.[59] Additionally, hundreds of millions of persons worldwide study Indo-European languages as secondary or tertiary languages, including in cultures which have completely different language families and historical backgrounds-there between 600,000,000[60] and one billion[61] L2 learners of English alone.. The success of the language family, including the large number of speakers and the vast portions of the Earth that they inhabit, is due to several factors. The ancient Indo-European migrations and widespread dissemination of Indo-European culture throughout Eurasia, ...
Cultural evolution represents an entire field of study. It has the potential, like biological evolution, to be a mechanism underlying and connecting many fields of study. This short introduction will pull together a few themes and compelling stories from this large field and present some of its concepts, mechanisms, and evidence-hopefully enough to increase the…
Cultural evolution represents an entire field of study. It has the potential, like biological evolution, to be a mechanism underlying and connecting many fields of study. This short introduction will pull together a few themes and compelling stories from this large field and present some of its concepts, mechanisms, and evidence-hopefully enough to increase the…
This article provides new support for the steppe hypothesis or Kurgan hypothesis, which proposes that Indo-European languages first spread with cultural developments in animal husbandry around 4500 - 3500 BCE. (An alternate theory proposes that they spread much earlier, around 7500 - 6000 BCE, in Anatolia in modern-day Turkey.). Chang et al. examined over 200 sets of words from living and historical Indo-European languages; after determining how quickly these words changed over time through statistical modeling, they concluded that the rate of change indicated that the languages which first used these words began to diverge approximately 6,500 years ago, in accordance with the steppe hypothesis.. This is one of the first quantitatively-based academic papers in support of the steppe hypothesis, and the first to use a model with ancestry constraints which more directly incorporate previously discovered relationships between languages. Discussion of prior studies in favor of and against the ...
According to cultural evolutionary theory in the tradition of Boyd and Richerson, cultural evolution is driven by individuals learning biases, natural selection, and random forces. Learning biases lead people to preferentially ...
Nicolas Claidière, Gameli Kodjo-Kuma Amedon, Jean-Baptiste André, Simon Kirby, Kenny Smith, et al.. Convergent transformation and selection in cultural evolution. Evolution and Human Behavior, Elsevier, 2018, 39 (2), pp.191-202. ⟨10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2017.12.007⟩. ⟨ijn_03058337⟩ ...
A two-year post-doctoral position in Cultural Evolution and Social Cognition is currently open at the Département dEtudes Cognitives (DEC) of the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris. This project will be conducted in collaboration with Nicolas Baumard at the Institut Jean Nicod (IJN) and Julie Grèzes at the Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives (LNC). Project summary:. The project aims to document the so-called process of civilization, the set of long-term psychological changes that occurred in Europe from 1300 to 1900. Using large database and online experiments, the project will study the evolution of emotional displays in European paintings from the late Middle Ages to modern times and will test whether economic development can account for the evolution of social features such as trustworthiness, agreeableness or dominance. More generally, the goal of the project is to test whether life history parameters (mortality, affluence, external threat) can account for psychological changes in ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Cultural Evolution. AU - Riede, Felix. AU - Walsh, Matthew. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. M3 - Book chapter. BT - Det biokulturelle menneske (in Danish; trans. The Biocultural Person), edited by T.K. Nielsen, A.R. Kratschmer, C. Andersen and M. Clasen. PB - Aarhus Universitetsforlag. ER - ...
This week I visited Stanford University, California. Jamie Holland Jones invited me to present my research on human evolution, cultural evolution, and social networks at the Stanford Anthropology Colloquium Series. I presented three related projects:. The Cultural Brain Hypothesis (in prep; co-authored with Maciek Chudek and Joe Henrich), describes the evolution of large brains and parsimoniously explains several empirical relationships between brain size, group size, social learning, mating structures, culture, and the juvenile period. The model also describes the selection pressures that may have led humans into the realm of cumulative cultural evolution, further driving up the human brain size.. Sociality Influences Cultural Complexity (2014; co-authored with Ben Shulman, Vlad Vasilescu, and Joe Henrich) on the relationship between sociality and cultural complexity.. Cultural Dispositions, Social Networks, and the Dynamics of Social Influence: Implications for Public Opinion and Cultural ...
Fogarty, L. (2018). Cultural complexity and evolution in fluctuating environments. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 372, 373(1743) Fogarty, L. & Creanza, N. (2017) The niche construction of cultural complexity: interactions between innovations, population size, and the environment, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 372: 20160428 Fogarty, L., Wakano, J.Y., Feldman, M.W. & Aoki, K. (2016a) The driving forces of cultural complexity: Neanderthals, modern humans, and the question of population size. Human Nature, doi:10.1007/s12110-016-9275-6 Creanza, N., Fogarty, L. & Feldman, M.W. (2016b) Cultural niche construction of repertoire size and learning strategies in songbirds. Evolutionary Ecology, vol. 30, pp. 285-305.. Fogarty, L., Wakano, J.Y., Feldman, M.W. & Aoki, K. (2015a) Factors limiting the number of independent cultural traits that can be maintained in a population. Learning Strategies and Cultural Evolution during the Palaeolithic. pp 9-21.. Fogarty, L., Creanza, N. & Feldman, M.W. (2015b) Cultural evolutionary ...
This week I visited the University of St Andrews, Scotland. Kevin Laland invited me to present my paper (in prep) on the Cultural Brain Hypothesis and the Cumulative Cultural Brain Hypothesis. The paper, co-authored with Maciek Chudek and Joe Henrich, describes an evolutionary model of the evolution of brains and parsimoniously explains several empirical relationships between brain size, group size, social learning, mating structures, culture, and the juvenile period. The model also describes the selection pressures that may have led humans into the realm of cumulative cultural evolution, further driving up the human brain size. I presented the research to Kevins lab and to Andy Whitens lab. I will also be presenting the paper early next month at the 26th Annual Meeting of Human Behavior and Evolution Society (HBES) in Natal, Brazil.. While at St Andrews, I met with Andy Whiten, Luke Rendell, Kate Cross, Ana Navarrete, Daniel Cownden, Daniel van der Post, Cara Evans, James Ounsley, Andrew ...
It was a great pleasure having a book club dedicated to Cultural evolution in the digital age. Writing a book feels like a long and solitary experience and it is comforting that, when done, it may result in such productive exchanges. Thus, first of all, I want to thank the organisers, Tiffany Morisseau and Dan Sperber, and all the participants for their commentaries: kind, sometimes even flattering, but always perceptive and stimulating. I organised my reply around three macro-themes that emerged in the book club: the role of producers of cultural traits, the features of specifically digital cultural transmission, and a discussion on some more foundational issues in cultural evolution, namely the importance of faithful transmission for cumulative culture and our reliance on social information.. .... Read More ...
CW2: Writing in the Sciences - Evolutionary Themes. Lesson Objective: To effectively structure a section of a science textbook as a logical and progressive order of topics.. Total Estimated Time: 75 minutes. Additional Outcomes: Applying structuring techniques to writing in other academic fields.. Assignment Underway: Writing Assignment #3: Scientists Writing for Students - A Textbook Passage on Cultural Evolution. Students are writing a chapter section for a college evolution textbook, on the advent of cultural evolution.. Work completed before class: Students have read the chapter on Cultural Evolution in the textbook, Biology, Evolution and Human Nature (Wiley, 2001), and have brought reprints of the chapter to class.. Sequence of classroom activities:. ...
Im constantly amazed by how many people in the US either reject the idea of biological evolution or have serious reservations. By contrast, in Europe and other countries with developed economies, only a relatively small fraction do. And the mainstream Christian denominations that most Americans belong to all explicitly accept the reality of biological evolution. That includes the Catholic, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Methodist, Lutheran, and Anglican churches. The simple fact is that there is overwhelming evidence for biological evolution. As the 20th century biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky said (when the evidence for biological evolution was not even as strong as it is today), Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. If we were compelled to reject the idea of biological evolution, there would be literally thousands of unexplained biological phenomena that currently make perfect sense as consequences of the evolutionary history of life on Earth.. No credible biologist ...
PhD Project - Human Demography and Gene-culture Coevolution: human population dynamics on a (pre)-historical time-scale, and in tandem with microbial evolution at Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, listed on FindAPhD.com
This paper proposes that human culture has evolved from authoritative local premodernity through rational local modernity to the coming rational global postmodernity with diverse cultural types. Premodernity, modernity, and postmodernity are the cultural adaptations to the drastic social changes from the Agricultural, Industrial, and Information Revolutions. The cultural types analogous to biological species are the nine cultural types derived from the instinctive cultural type model based on the instinctive sociality trichotomy (individualistic, collectivistic, and interdependent) and the instinctive worldview trichotomy (territorial, connective, and competitive). Western culture originated from the Middle East and Greece has competitive worldview, while Eastern culture originated from India and China has connective worldview. Different cultural types have different perceptions, moralities, religions, politics, and economies. Currently, the world is the chaotic diverse global society where the cultural
We analysed the emotional content of song lyrics in over 160,000 songs spanning the years 1965-2015. We found that the frequency of negative words increased over time, whilst the frequency of positive words decreased over time, and asked whether these patterns could be attributed to cultural transmission biases such as success bias, prestige bias, content bias or unbiased transmission. In the billboard dataset, containing top-100 songs from 1965 to 2015, we found an effect of unbiased transmission on positive lyrics, and an effect of content bias on negative lyrics. For the larger mxm databases we only found weak effects of unbiased transmission for both negative and positive lyrics.. The effects we found in all models are extremely small. This is partly because we analysed the data on the scale of each word, negating any need for averaging over lyrics and songs. Thus, the relative increase or decrease in the log odds is understandably small. Furthermore, our implementation of transmission ...
When looking at culture-driven population dynamics, a common assumption is that theres a positive feedback between cultural evolution and demographic growth. The general prediction, then, is for unlimited growth in population and culture. Yet models based on these assumptions tend to ignore important aspects of cultural evolution, namely: (1) cultural transmission is not perfect; (2) culture does not always promote population growth. Ghirlanda et al (2010) incorporate these two features into a model, and arrive at some interesting conclusions. In particular, they argue those populations maintaining large amounts of culture may run the risk of extinction rather than stability or growth.. Continue reading Culture-driven population dynamics: sustainable or unsustainable?. ...
De Las Heras, A., Sperber, D., Call, J. Do chimpanzees and orangutans communicate in a cooperative task?. 10:50 - 11:20 Coffee & tea. 11:20 - 12:20 Speed session 6: Social cognition, communication and cultural transmission (Jean Jaurès). Molleman, L., Glowacki, L. Subsistence styles shape human social learning strategies. Mercier, H., Miton, H. Evolutionarily valid cues to informational dependency. Scanlon, L., Kendal, J., Tehrani, J., Lobb, A.The cultural evolution of knot tying: an analysis of the cultural transmission of granny and reef knots. Winters, J., Morin, O. Emergence of optimal codes is contingent on the mode and function of communication. Müller, T., Morisseau, T., Winters, J., Morin, O. The Influence of Common Perceptual Context on the Evolution of Graphic Codes. Lindova, J., Sedlova Malkova, G. What do studies on grey parrots teach us about human verbal communication?. 12:20 - 13:20 Lunch. 13:20 - 14:20 Parallel sessions 7A, 7B, 7C. Session 7A: Mating 2 (Jean Jaurès) Lyons, M., ...
The Culture Change Initiative is an intensive and ongoing effort to examine the current state of the culture of the profession, to define the desired culture, and to accelerate progress in achieving that desired culture.. This multi-year research effort, led by AIA Minnesota and prompted by the #metoo movement, has involved deep engagement with more than 70 demographically diverse architects, architectural designers, and students. The research leveraged insights from the AIA Guides of Equitable Practice, as well as systems thinking, complexity theory, adaptive leadership, and intercultural development.. The outcomes of this research have been shared with dozens of firms, schools of architecture, and architecture organizations since its findings were unveiled in November 2020. To apply the findings in accelerating culture change, AIA Minnesota launched a national community of practice in 2021. Members of the Community of Practice for Culture Change take action based on the research, including ...
The Department of Human Behavior, Ecology and Culture investigates the role of culture in human evolution and adaptation. The evolution of fancy social learning in humans accounts for both the nature of human adaptation and the extraordinary scale and variety of human societies. The integration of ethnographic fieldwork with mathematical models and advanced quantitative methods is the departments methodological focus.
Greek speakers say ουρα, Germans schwanz and the French queue to describe what English speakers call a tail, but all of these languages use a related form of two to describe the number after one. Among more than 100 Indo-European languages and dialects, the words for some meanings (such as tail) evolve rapidly, being expressed across languages by dozens of unrelated words, while others evolve much more slowly-such as the number two, for which all Indo-European language speakers use the same related word-form1. No general linguistic mechanism has been advanced to explain this striking variation in rates of lexical replacement among meanings. Here we use four large and divergent language corpora (English2, Spanish3, Russian4 and Greek5) and a comparative database of 200 fundamental vocabulary meanings in 87 Indo-European languages6 to show that the frequency with which these words are used in modern language predicts their rate of replacement over thousands of years of ...
Greek speakers say ουρα, Germans schwanz and the French queue to describe what English speakers call a tail, but all of these languages use a related form of two to describe the number after one. Among more than 100 Indo-European languages and dialects, the words for some meanings (such as tail) evolve rapidly, being expressed across languages by dozens of unrelated words, while others evolve much more slowly-such as the number two, for which all Indo-European language speakers use the same related word-form1. No general linguistic mechanism has been advanced to explain this striking variation in rates of lexical replacement among meanings. Here we use four large and divergent language corpora (English2, Spanish3, Russian4 and Greek5) and a comparative database of 200 fundamental vocabulary meanings in 87 Indo-European languages6 to show that the frequency with which these words are used in modern language predicts their rate of replacement over thousands of years of ...
Peters research explores a number of concerns, including studying the human occupation of Australia prior to European settlement, characterising patterns of technological evolution and exploring the implications of those patterns for the cultural evolution of hominids, and reading the representations of archaeologists in movies. Reconstructing Australian pre-history through studies of the archaeological record is a pursuit that has led Peter to question simple depictions of directionality in cultural evolution, the use of ethnographic information in interpreting the past, the operation of cultural process at different scales, and the articulation of social systems with ecological contexts. His extended treatment of these themes was published as Archaeology of Ancient Australia (Routledge), a book which won the Mulvaney Book Award in 2008. He continues to pursue these concerns in his fieldwork on the History of Desert Landuse Project in South Australia, his collaborative Lake George project ...
People come together as groups to manage shared environmental resources with varying degrees of success. Elinor Ostrom first identified a set of characteristics, or design principles, common to effective environmental governance. These design principles are products of cultural evolution - they are embodied by behaviors that individuals transmit to each other via social learning. Relatively little research has explicitly examined the cultural evolution of the design principles. This project uses a set of agent-based models to examine:. ...
Catherine Markham, a behavioral ecologist and primatologist and Asst. Prof. of Anthropology at Stony Brook University, gave two presentations, one to our Department and one to our lab in particular. The first was entitled Primate societies: competition within and between social groups. The second was based on her research trajectory, entitled One open door to the next: launching a career with a lot of luck and a little stubbornness. The lab took her to Jade Eatery and Lounge ...
New research at a rock shelter on the edge of the Kalahari desert in South Africa challenges the assumption that modern human origins and complex behaviors were limited to coastal environments. A collection of unusual artifacts that are over 100,000 years old suggests that inland Homo sapiens they were as innovative as their coastal cousins. There is a widespread belief that the origins of modern humans and modern human cognition can be located in southern Africa. Since many of the archaeological sites linked to early human activity are located on the coast, experts assumed that Homo sapiens its technological and symbolic behavior in that region also evolved. But a new study published in the journal Nature paints a very different picture. One of the stone tools excavated from Ga-Mohana Hill North Rockshelter. (Credit: Jayne Wilkins) ...
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Parallel problems are probably rife in human subsistence systems. The shift to plant-rich diets is complicated because plant foods are typically deficient in essential amino acids, and vitamins, have toxic compounds to protect them from herbivore attack, and are labor intensive to prepare. The diet of Pleistocene hunters and gathers probably focused on high rates of meat intake supplemented by high quality plant foods such as ripe fruit and nuts. High quality plant resources are scarce and the inefficiency of natural herbivore populations means that meat offtake rates are usually quite limited. Intensification requires a focus on seeds low in essential amino acids (maize), tubers with poisonous protection (bitter manioc), and the like. Even the best plant resources like wheat require protein supplementation with animal products or legumes. Skeletal material suggests that early agricultural peoples were often less well nourished than their hunter-gather ancestors (Cohen and Armelagos 1984). ...
We live in a data driven world but data can only be considered the new oil if we extract knowledge from it. Data has no inherent value unless its put to good use. For example self driving is now a data problem. Social media is also facing a big data problem since most of the data generated is contextual.. Democratisation of data will allow us to own the information we produce and choose how it gets used. Companies will be able to bid for your attention and pay you for viewing adverts. Instead of being targeted by data points such as age or location you will be targeted by context. Theres no point showing someone an insurance deal if theyre not looking for one. We take back our sovereignty by choosing what we share and in turn get rewarded for it . By placing data (music, images, supply chain or medical records) on the blockchain we make it immutable and transparent. No more black box algorithms or centralised databases. Blockchain can verify ownership of data and instantly provide a service ...
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2021.02.013 A new study investigates hunters causal understandings of bow design and mechanics among the Hadza, one of the last remaining foraging populations. The results suggest that sophisticated technology can evolve without complete causal understanding.
Professor Dye was the Gresham Professor of Physic between 2005 and 2009. He is based at the World Health Organization, where he evaluates epidemiological and economic trends for tuberculosis, malaria and other infectious diseases, measures the impact of control programmes, and presents the findings to governments, scientists and the media. Professor Dye holds a BA from the University of York, gained his DPhil at the University of Oxford, and has taught at Cambridge University, Imperial College and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. He was elected a Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences in 2008. His work in epidemiology is described in more than 200 scientific papers, and he is currently a member of the editorial board of Science.. All of Professor Dye's lectures may be accessed here.. ...
October 4, 1903 - March 5, 1998. Ruth Young was one of the most accomplished and gracious women of our times. Few people beyond those whose lives she actually touched knew the many facets of her talent, nor the depth of purpose that imbued her activities. Ruth Young avoided celebrity with the same determination others seek it. Modest, playful, soft-spoken, and beautiful even at ninety-four, Ruth possessed a knack for making the right things happen, an ability she purposefully honed in her words by studying what needed to be done and then acting to do it. She never flaunted her background as the eldest great granddaughter of both the transcendentalist philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson and John Muir Forbes, the activist en age in the Boston/China shipping trade. Indeed, it was only in her later years that she began to share stories of her unusual family and the pearls of wisdom she cultivated from experience.. As a woman with no professional history in international affairs, but simply a hunch ...
Bibliographies. NNDB has added thousands of bibliographies for people, organizations, schools, and general topics, listing more than 50,000 books and 120,000 other kinds of references. They may be accessed by the Bibliography tab at the top of most pages, or via the Related Topics box in the sidebar. Please feel free to suggest books that might be critical omissions ...
Cultural evolutionary theory conceptualises culture as an information-transmission system whose dynamics take on evolutionary properties. Within this framework, however, innovation has been likened to random mutations, reducing its occurrence to chance or fortuitous transmission error. In introducing the special collection on children and innovation, we here place object play and play objects - especially functional miniatures - from carefully chosen archaeological contexts in a niche construction perspective. Given that play, including object play, is ubiquitous in human societies, we suggest that plaything construction, provisioning and use have, over evolutionary timescales, paid substantial selective dividends via ontogenetic niche modification. Combining findings from cognitive science, ethology and ethnography with insights into hominin early developmental life-history, we show how play objects and object play probably had decisive roles in the emergence of innovative capabilities. ...
Can Darwinism be applied to technological innovation? John Ziman examines the analogy between biological and cultural evolution. Go to a technology museum, and look at the bicycles. Then go to a museum of archaeology, and look at the prehistoric stone axes. Finally, go to a natural history museum, and look at the fossil horses. In each case, you will see a sequence, ordered in time, of changing but somewhat similar objects. The fossils, we know, are sampled from the history of a family of biological organisms. They are similar because they are related by reproductive descent. They have evolved over time because they have adapted, by genetic variation and natural selection, to their changing environment. Can technological innovation be explained in similar terms? Do all cultural entities evolve by essentially the same mechanism? The analogy between biological and cultural evolution has often been remarked. One need not accept the principle of evolutionary epistemology, which interprets the ...
Every year we also give the course Ethology and Evolution within the course Basic biology, 7.5 hp, on the psychology programme at Karolinska Institute.. ...
Hayeks theory of cultural evolution has always generated controversy. Interest in Hayeks theory, and others analysis and criticism of it, has been rising of late. This volume urges a reconsideration of Hayeks theory of evolution and aims to explore the relevance of Hayeks theory for its own sake and for evolutionary economics more generally ...
This volume has much to recommend it -- providing fascinating and stimulating insights into many arenas of material culture, many of which still remain only superficially explored in the archaeological literature. -- Archaeological Review. ... a vivid introduction to the topic.... A glimpse into the unique and changing identities in an ever-changing world. -- Come-All-Ye. Fourteen interdisciplinary essays open new perspectives for understanding African societies and cultures through the contextualized study of objects, treating everything from the production of material objects to the meaning of sticks, masquerades, household tools, clothing, and the television set in the contemporary repertoire of African material culture.. ...
According to Science Daily recent research (to be published in Proceedings of the Royal Society, Biology) indicates that Toxoplasma gondii may have some interesting effects on human culture: The geographic variation in the latent prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii may explain a substantial proportion of human population differences we see in cultural aspects that relate to…
As has been pointed out to you by other posters, there is currently a debate as to what the best definition of Olmec is. Many archaeologists now think there is an Olmec style found throughout most of Mesoamerica which is an amalgamation of traits from different regions. These archaeologists reserve the term Olmec to refer to a cultural group living in the Gulf Coast of Mexico during the time period 1500-500 B.C. Bernals reference is now woefully dated and more recent work in the Valley of Oaxaca shows that certain Olmec traits actually appear here earlier than they do in the Olmec Gulf Coast heartland. This is true for other regions of Mesoamerica as well. While Coe might still be sticking to the notion of the diffusion of an Olmec style from a single source, many others have abandoned this notion in favor of one that sees the origin of traits in various areas and its diffusion associated with cultural contacts by multiple societies at a roughly equivalent stage of cultural evolution. >: 2. ...
Vlaev, Ivo, Kusev, Petko, Stewart, Neil, Aldrovandi, Silvio and Chater, Nick. (2010) Domain effects and financial risk attitudes. Risk Analysis, Vol.30 (No.9). pp. 1374-1386. ISSN 0272-4332 Chater, Nick and Christiansen, Morten H.. (2010) Language acquisition meets language evolution. Cognitive Science, Vol.34 (No.7). pp. 1131-1157. ISSN 0364-0213 Chater, Nick and Christiansen, Morten H.. (2010) Language evolution as cultural evolution : how language is shaped by the brain. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, Vol.1 (No.5). pp. 623-628. ISSN 1939-5078 Griffiths, Thomas L., Chater, Nick, Kemp, Charles, Perfors, Amy and Tenenbaum, Joshua B.. (2010) Probabilistic models of cognition: exploring representations and inductive biases. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol.14 (No.8). pp. 357-364. ISSN 1364-6613 Hsu, Anne S. and Chater, Nick. (2010) The logical problem of language acquisition : a probabilistic perspective. Cognitive Science, Vol.34 (No.6). pp. 972-1016. ISSN 0364-0213 ...
The human body was sculpted over millions of years of evolution. The best available evidence suggests that our genus, Homo, emerged about 2.8 million years ago, while our species, Homo sapiens sapiens, first came onto the scene 200.000 years ago, in Africa. Some 100.000+ years after that, our ancestors started migrating out of Africa and into new habitats across the world.. A hunter-gatherer lifestyle was the norm for our ancestors throughout the majority of the evolutionary history of our genus. It wasnt until about 10.000 years, as agriculture started sweeping the globe, that the hunter-gatherer lifestyle went out of fashion and humans started to settle down in larger communities. The changes in diet and lifestyle that accompanied this epidemiological transition occurred because our ancestors went in and changed their milieu in unprecedented ways.. In the years that have passed since then, cultural evolution has vastly outpaced biological evolution. Weve built large cities, the food system ...
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURAL CHANGE (UK) i Tidningsarkivet. Ett digitalt arkiv för svenska tidningar och tidskrifter. Här finns bland annat omslag och innehållstexter för ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURAL CHANGE (UK).
Despite a burgeoning science of cultural evolution, relatively little work has focused on the population structure of human cultural variation. By contrast, studies in human population genetics use a suite of tools to quantify and analyse spatial and temporal patterns of genetic variation within and between populations. Human genetic diversity can be explained largely as a result of migration and drift giving rise to gradual genetic clines, together with some discontinuities arising from geographical and cultural barriers to gene flow. Here, we adapt theory and methods from population genetics to quantify the influence of geography and ethnolinguistic boundaries on the distribution of 700 variants of a folktale in 31 European ethnolinguistic populations. We find that geographical distance and ethnolinguistic affiliation exert significant independent effects on folktale diversity and that variation between populations supports a clustering concordant with European geography. This pattern of ...
UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (2 November 2001) defines culture with an emphasis on cultural features: culture should be regarded as the set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group, encompassing, in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs. Cultural traits are also the primitive of mathematical models of cultural transmission inspired by population genetics, imported and refined by economics. Any serious evaluation of (...) the notion of cultural trait, however, requires the interrogation of many disciplines, from cultural anthropology to linguistics, from psychology to archaeology to musicology. The very possibility of assuming the existence of cultural traits is not granted. In order to start a wide interdisciplinary confrontation, we need a sufficiently loose definition of a cultural trait as any trait whose production in individuals ...
The evolution of culture: new perspectives and evidence (coauthored with Charles H. Janson). Evolutionary Anthropology 12(2):57-60 (2003).. Human cooperation: perspectives from behavioral ecology. In Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation, ed. P. Hammerstein, pp. 401-427. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press (2003).. Why do good hunters have higher reproductive success? Human Nature 15(4):342-363 (2004).. Signaling theory, strategic interaction, and symbolic capital (coauthored with Rebecca Bliege Bird). Current Anthropology 46(2):221-248 (2005).. Costly signaling and cooperative behavior. (coauthored with Rebecca Bliege Bird). In Moral Sentiments and Material Interests: The Foundations of Cooperation in Economic Life, ed. H. Gintis, S. Bowles, R. Boyd, and E. Fehr, pp. 115-148. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press (2005).. Anthropological schisms. Anthropology Newsletter, American Anthropological Association. January 2006, pp. 8-11. Reconstructing the evolution of the human mind. In The Evolution of ...
summary of the whole book) This volume provides a comprehensive survey of computational models and methodologies used for studying the origin and evolution of language and communication. With contributions from the most influential figures in the field, Simulating the Evolution of Language presents and summarises current computational approaches to language evolution and highlights new lines of development. Among the main discussion points are: · Analysis of emerging linguistic behaviours and structures · Demonstration of the strict interaction and interdependence between language and other non-linguistic abilities · Direct comparisons between simulation studies and empirical research Essential reading for researchers and students in the areas of evolutionary and adaptive systems, language evolution, modelling and linguistics, it will also be of particular interest to computer scientists working on multi-agent systems, robotics and internet agents. ...
This major new work explores the development of creoles and other new languages, focusing on the conceptual and methodological issues they raise for genetic linguistics. Written by an internationally renowned linguist, the book surveys a wide range of examples of changes in the structure, function and vitality of languages, and suggests that similar ecologies have played the same kinds of roles in all cases of language evolution. The Ecology of Language Evolution will be welcomed by students and researchers in sociolinguistics, creolistics, theoretical linguistics and theories of evolution ...
Dr. in History and Geography by Rovira i Virgili University from Tarragona, Im interested in the cultural evolution of the Pleistocene human groups. Specialized in Zooarchaeology and Taphonomy, Im working in several aspects of the human behaviour from faunal record, which can be grouped into two main categories: subsistence strategies and meat diet. In this respect, Im trying to contribute to evolutionary anthropology from several research lines, such as the identification of the occupational patterns in the sites, hominid-carnivore interactions and the influence of the technological development to the faunal processing patterns, among others. Currently, Im developing my research in several Pleistocene sites from Iberian Peninsula (Atapuerca, Abric Romaní, Gibraltar Caves and Toll Caves) and from Israel (Qesem cave). Im the director of the project of Home sharing: hominid-carnivore interactions at the North-East of Iberian Peninsula, which includes the sites of Teixoneres and Toll Caves ...
Backlash isnt really the right word.. Evolutionary Psychology Bingo.. I fully expect to see this linked-to, emailed, and generally be the object of a bit of discussion online. On the one hand, Im all for the satirisation of poor science (a more biting example appeared last week), especially poor science that uses the tools (evolutionary thinking) that I do. We must, after all, stringently promote the self-correcting aspect of the scientific method. And there is some poor evolutionary psychology research around.. On the other hand: seeing that bingo card just makes my stomach sink into the floor.. There are plenty of people who are attempting to rehabilitate the term evolutionary psychology into an umbrella concept covering all research in the human evolutionary behavioural sciences (EP is much shorter and catchier, for one thing). This encompasses things like evolutionary economics, behavioural ecology, cultural evolution, evolutionary archaeology, etc, i.e. things that I do.. I am not ...
Posted on 11/15/2003 1:08:43 PM PST by Voice in your head. There is a popular disposition to regard ethics as absolute and enduring, yet they are neither. That which is considered ethical alters with time and varies between civilizations and even families. At some impalpable level, the impulse to ethics does appear to arise from within and may be a collective survival strategy conditioned by biological and cultural evolution. Yet the specific content of a civilizations or a societys ethics is generally determined by accumulative tradition, epochal convenience, and local habit. The ethics of war and conflict are especially fluid. We live in a stage of Western civilization in which nameless casualties inflicted by bombing campaigns are acceptable, while the thought of summarily shooting a prisoner of war fills us with revulsion, even if the blood of war crimes drips from every finger of that prisoner. We are allowed to impose embargoes that strike the most powerless members of foreign ...
In section 2 of this article we will attempt to accomplish this depolarization to provide a broader evolutionary foundation for the human behavioral and social sciences. In section 3 we will review examples of scientifically based and validated programs that accomplish change on three scales: individuals, small groups, and large populations. We draw these examples from branches of the applied behavioral sciences that, like diamonds in the sand, have remained largely hidden from evolutionary science and the basic human behavioral sciences. The examples provide a much needed body of empirical information to balance evolutionary theorizing, which is frequently criticized for remaining at the speculative just so storytelling stage. Indeed, the randomized control trials and other high-quality real-world experiments described in section 2 can be regarded as a refined variation-and-selection process with faster and more accurate feedback on effectiveness than other mechanisms of cultural evolution. ...
4-7 pm. Come learn how simple it is to make your own kraut, kimchi and other fermented delicacies. Learn about the healing qualities and nutritional importance of live-culture ferments, as well as their illustrious history and integral role in human cultural evolution. Empower yourself with simple techniques for fermenting these healthful foods in your home. Be part of the fermentation revival!. We will begin by hearing from Sandor about just what is so artful about fermentation. He will then lead a hands-on workshop where you can learn how to ferment your favorite (or winter appropriate) veggie!. This is a group fermentation workshop. You will be working with a handful of other fermentation enthusiasts to create a tasty, microbial rich concoction.. Please bring the following items to this workshop: 1-2 lbs. of veggies to ferment, cutting board, knife, hand grater, hand towel, and a wide-mouth mason jar with a ring. Home Fermenter in Eugene is generously donating lids with grommet holes and ...
Upstate New Yorks Catskill Mountain Range is a bucolic place near and dear to my heart. Its where storybook character Rip Van Winkle enjoyed his legendary slumber, and its scenery hasnt changed much since he was born of Washington Irvings fertile imagination. Yet, like Van Winkle, if Id fallen asleep for 20 years when first arriving in that verdant heaven, I, too, would have noticed some profound changes upon awakening. About two decades ago, many rural Catskill teens - sons of farmers and hunters and fishermen - suddenly started donning baggy pants and reflecting gangsta counter-culture despite living nowhere near any large urban center. The following generation of teens experienced todays recent cultural evolution and often sport multiple tattoos and body piercings despite living nowhere near NYCs grungy East Village. Yet Im wrong in a sense: those places were actually very close - a television set away. My old hinterland haunt was once place where, if you wiggled...(Read Full ...
Theme of the conference: Establishing Cognitive Semiotics. Over the past two decades or so, a number of researchers from semiotics, linguistics, cognitive science and related fields, from several European and North American research centres, have experienced the needs to combine theoretical knowledge and methodological expertise in order to be able to tackle challenging questions concerning the nature of meaning, the role of consciousness, the unique cognitive features of mankind, the interaction of nature and nurture in development, and the interplay of biological and cultural evolution in phylogeny. The product of these collaborations has been the emergence of the field of Cognitive Semiotics, with its own journal (http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/cogsem) and academic association. The conference aims both to celebrate this, and to look forward into possibilities for further development.. We invite the submission of 400 word abstracts (excluding title and references) for one of the three ...
The eighth London LASER hosts Anna Dumitriu on ethical considerations of artists working with bioscience, Nicola Triscott on recent work by Revital Cohen and Tuur Van Balen, and CUBE London resident artists/scientists Ideographic on possible correlations between spikes in cultural evolution and the alliance of art and science.. Book here now to ensure you save a place.. Anna Dumitriu works at the forefront of art and microbiology collaboration, with a strong interest in the ethics of emerging technologies. Her installations, and performances use a range of digital, biological and traditional media including live bacteria. She has a strong international exhibition profile including The Science Gallery (Dublin), The Picasso Museum (Barcelona) and MOCA Taipei, and is Artist in Residence on the Modernising Medical Microbiology Project at The University of Oxford. She will discuss her projects Sequence investigating whole genome sequencing of bacteria and Trust Me Im an Artist which considers ...
The interests of Research Area 4 revolve around means of production, construction, appropriation, and (re)signification related to visual and material cultural practices. We jointly investigate the constantly changing positions of objects and visual material in cultural and social processes, practices and discourses by taking always into account multiple viewpoints and disciplines and diverse cultural-medial contexts. The particular thematic and theoretical foci of the regular meetings of Research Area 4 are established on the basis of the current research interests and perspectives of the groups members. Hence, our work is not predicated on a static definition of objects and images, but seeks to develop different conceptions of images/ objects in the process of engaging with case studies or broader interdisciplinary theoretical debates. Aspects of authenticity and the (trans-)cultural appropriation of visual and material culture are taken into account within our discussions as well as notions ...
Spanning six centuries of global design, this far-reaching survey History of Design. Decorative Arts and Material Culture, 1400-2000 is the first to offer an account of the vast history of decorative arts and design produced from 1400 to the present.
This is the place to share your research into the material culture of our ancestors, and/or just show off your latest craft project.
Modern Standard Hindi is an official language of India along with English, and Hindi and English function as lingua franca in most parts of the country. Hindi is an Indo-Aryan language, part of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is spoken by approximately 50% of the Indian population in India (which includes first- and second-generation Hindi speakers). In the United States, Hindi has historically been taught formally in colleges and universities and informally in Indian cultural centers, temples, and community-based schools. With recent U.S. government initiatives promoting the learning of Hindi, and growing interest in the Indo-American community in preserving their language and culture, the number of community-based Hindi schools has increased, particularly in New Jersey, New York, Texas, and California. Hindi is also taught in some public schools in the United States, and the U.S. Department of Education plans to introduce Hindi in more schools in the coming ...
Content aligned with middle school LS4. Content aligned with high school LS4. In middle school, students develop an understanding of the disciplinary core ideas in the life science domain. The middle school performance expectations build on the elementary performance expectations, as well as on students prior knowledge of physical and Earth sciences. In LS4: Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity, performance expectations are designed for students to demonstrate an understanding of how organisms change over time in response to changes in the environment. Students should use scientific evidence to support their understanding of natural selection and evolution.. High school performance expectations in the life sciences expand on middle school performance expectations, allowing students to develop and refine their understanding of life science concepts. The high school performance expectations emphasize students proficiency in engaging in practices and using crosscutting concepts to organize ...
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Theoretical issues of various kinds The most concrete aim of this seminar is to explore language change through the prism of constructions. The ultimate aim is to understand how the idea of constructional syntax can be united with grammaticalization theory and a usage-based model of linguistic knowledge to form a more comprehensive theory of morphosyntactic change. The course is a graduate seminar, meaning that the focus will be on creating new knowledge. We will explore how previously published work might be viewed in the context of newer ideas, and how cutting edge work is shaping the issues to be studied. The format is intended to be discussion-based and not lecture format. Students will lead discussions for particular readings by arrangement in class. Readings include works by Greenberg, Traugott, Denison, Kemmer, and whatever others we pick, including unpublished work. Publications or research work by seminar participants can also be used as readings, by agreement of participants. (Further ...
Background: Advanced cognitive abilities are widely thought to underpin cultural traditions and cumulative cultural change. In contrast, recent simulation models have found that basic social influences on learning suffice to support both cultural phenomena. In the present study we test the predictions of these models in the context of skill learning, in a model with stochastic demographics, variable group sizes, and evolved parameter values, exploring the cultural ramifications of three different social learning mechanisms. Results: Our results show that that simple forms of social learning such as local enhancement, can generate traditional differences in the context of skill learning. In contrast, we find cumulative cultural change is supported by observational learning, but not local or stimulus enhancement, which supports the idea that advanced cognitive abilities are important for generating this cultural phenomenon in the context of skill learning. Conclusions: Our results help to explain ...
What is clear is that Dravidian or proto-Dravidian speakers were in India before the arrival of proto-Sanskrit speakers. Linguists like Colin Renfrew suggest that it is likely that the entry and spread of Dravidian languages in India coincided with the farming dispersal and agricultural expansion that began in the Middle East and which expanded into north western parts of the Indian subcontinent around 8,000 years ago. Dravidian languages entered India through demic diffusion of agriculturists and Dravidian speaking people were the first Neolithic farmers of India. This extended history of Dravidian language origin and dispersal was given no attention in the show. These people are the likely candidates who built the Indus valley civilization and Wood missed out on exploring this thesis further. Ive noticed this in many documentaries about India. The attention is always on the arrival of the Aryans a term used to describe people speaking Indo-European languages. They in fact arrived much later ...
Roma, an ethnic group of traditionally itinerant people who originated in northern India but live in modern times worldwide, principally in Europe. Most Roma speak some form of Romany, a language closely related to the modern Indo-European languages of northern India, as well as the major language of the country in which they live.
Summary The Metaphysical Unity of Science project will pursue the question of what, if anything, unifies the natural sciences. The project studies the question from the perspective of metaphysics and philosophy of science by way of employing case studies from biology, chemistry, and physics. What does it mean for one scientific phenomenon to be explained in terms of another? Under what conditions does scientific unification take place? In philosophy these questions are often discussed under the rubric of reduction. Typically, in asking whether one phenomenon reduces to another, we aim to understand what the ultimate or fundamental basis of the first phenomenon is. In the mid to late 20th century, there was a hope to reduce all higher level phenomena to fundamental physics. Yet, it was soon discovered that there are phenomena that cannot be easily reduced, so unification may not be available via this route. The projects ambitious goal is to produce a novel account of unification. This is made ...
What did our ancestors sound like in the 50th century B.C.? University of Kentucky linguistics lecturer Andrew M. Byrd examines ancient Indo-European languages (such as Latin, Greek, Sanskrit and Old English) and the language from which they derive, Proto-Indo-European, or PIE.
Latvian is the official language in the Republic of Latvia, spoken natively by approximately 60% of the residents of Latvia, approximately 1,250,000 people. Worldwide it is estimated to be spoken by 1,504,880 people, a 2009 estimate from Ethnologue. It is an Indo-European language that shares its own Baltic language group with Lithuanian, New Curonian, Old Prussian, and Semigallian. The Baltic languages show closest relationship with the Slavic languages, and are commonly reconstructed to have passed through common Proto-Balto-Slavic stage, during which numerous Common Balto-Slavic lexical, phonological, morphological and accentological isoglosses developed. It is a relatively new language, its first written accounts date to 1530 A.D.
These fifteen chapters explore the ways in which recent developments in imaging, image analysis, and image display and diffusion can be applied to objects of material culture in order to enhance ... More. These fifteen chapters explore the ways in which recent developments in imaging, image analysis, and image display and diffusion can be applied to objects of material culture in order to enhance historians understanding of the period from which the objects came (in this case, the remote past). In interpreting artefacts, the historian acts out a perceptual-cognitive task of transforming often noisy and impoverished signals into semantically rich symbols that have to be set within a cultural and historical context. Engineering scientists, equipped with a range of sophisticated techniques, equipment and highly specialised knowledge, are not always as aware as they might be of the range and the exact nature of problems faced by historians in interpreting objects of material culture. By providing ...
STANFORD UNIVERSITY-Something odd happened in the transition from the Middle to the Upper Paleolithic, around 50,000 years ago. Modern humans and their immediate ancestors had been using tools for a few million years prior, but the repertoire was limited. Then, all of sudden, there was an explosion of new tools, art and other cultural artifacts.. What caused that change has been the subject of much debate. Maybe brainpower reached a critical threshold. Maybe climate change forced our prehistoric kin to innovate or die. Maybe it was aliens.. Or maybe it was the result of populations growing and spreading throughout the land, Stanford researchers write in Royal Society Interface. That certainly could explain some other curious features of Paleolithic culture-and it could mean that a number of paleontologists inferences about our genetic and environmental past are, if not wrong, not as well supported as they had thought.. Cultural bursts. One captivating observation is if you look at the ...
Isaac Bashevis Singer. natural - 1) (the conventional evolutionary perspective): This is something that evolutionary science easily and straightforwardly defines: what is natural is simply what we are adapted to by evolution, and a central axiom of evolution is that what we are adapted to is the behavior our species engaged in over a long enough period of evolutionary time for it to have become selected for in the species collective gene pool. - Ward Nicholson. 2) The natural world as invoked by yage legend Ino Moxo is a living memory of creation. - Luna & White. Natural World People - Around ten thousand years ago, peoples who spoke Indo-European languages lived in the area which today we know as the Steppes of Russia. At that time, they were a Natural World people who lived off the land. They developed agriculture, and its said that they had begun the practice of animal domestication. Hunters and gatherers who roamed the area probably acquired animals from agricultural people, and ...
I had some preconceptions regarding the question of the great antiquity of humanity that was much earlier than general scientific wisdom had it and I knew that one archaeological find could blow them out of the water so the best approach in relation to the origins of human culture is the marxist method: firstly whats the definition of human and whats the definition of culture and how do the two relate to each other? And you cant talk about humanity and culture without involving society, which leads to organisation, purposeful struggle, production, solidarity, cooperation, mother-right, sexual selection, morality and the interaction of all these elements, and others, coming from and developing along increasing levels of cognition and understanding: consciousness in a word. All these elements are there in the beginning of humanity; they are the expressions of the beginning of humanity, they are the beginning of humanity, its society and its culture. The beginning of human culture comes with ...
The data presented here provide valuable insights into potentially novel phloem-mobile mRNAs and phloem-associated RNA-binding proteins. Lithuanian, an Indo-European language, closely resembles ancient Sanskrit, and is written using the Latin alphabet.It is considered by scholars that the Lithuanian language retained, with the fewest changes, most of the elements of Proto-Indo-European language. Find architects, interior designers and home improvement contractors. The largest collection of interior design and decorating ideas on the Internet, including kitchens and bathrooms. Remodeling and decorating ideas and inspiration for designing your kitchen, bath, patio and more. Steven Holls Luminous Kinder Building at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. As the connection between leaves and other organs, the petiole and stem are especially important in their transport function, which is carried out by the phloem and xylem, especially by the sieve elements in the phloem system. Be inspired and provoked ...
Current and former affiliations Department of Linguistics, University of Vienna Department of Classics, Modern Languages and Linguistics, Concordia University Department of Linguistics, Harvard University Also: the fantastic Word Structure Research Group (McGill/UQÁM, Montréal) Texts, resources ... absolutely not exhaustive. Suggestions? (P)IE general: TITUS Frankfurt: Thesaurus of texts in ancient Indo-European languages (and more!) Ancient Indo-European grammars online: a…
Probably the first thing to discuss is why Welsh? Well the simple answer to that is, why not Welsh? The thing is that though I love English and its evolution, Ive never branched out into multi-languages. Decisions, decisions! Its not like Ive not wanted to, but then the question becomes which one? French is beautiful, Spanish is somewhat necessary in certain parts of the US (only certain parts, despite what some say), Italian is fun, German is helpful as is a variety of other so-called Indo-European languages. The problem is that theyre all so common ...
Map of India showing approximate locations of sampling of the populations included in this study. Populations shown in grey are populations from the Andaman and Nicober archipelago. Populations shown in red are Dravidian speaking tribal populations from the Nilgiri Hills in Southern India. Populations shown in cyan are Austro-Asiatic speaking tribal populations from the East and Central India. Populations shown in green are caste populations primarily speaking the Indo-European language. Populations shown in blue are Tibeto-Burman speaking populations of North-East India and are predominantly tribes, except the Manipuri Brahmins ...
William Smith (1769-1839), an English canal engineer, observed that rocks of different ages (based on the law of superposition) preserved different assemblages of fossils, and that these assemblages succeeded one another in a regular and determinable order. He observed that rocks from distant locations could be correlated based on the fossils they contained. He termed this the principle of faunal succession. Smith, who preceded Charles Darwin, was unaware of biological evolution and did not know why faunal succession occurred. Biological evolution explains why faunal succession exists: as different organisms evolve, change and go extinct, they leave behind fossils. Faunal succession was one of the chief pieces of evidence cited by Darwin that biological evolution had occurred. Early naturalists well understood the similarities and differences of living species leading Linnaeus to develop a hierarchical classification system still in use today. It was Darwin and his contemporaries who first ...
William Smith (1769-1839), an English canal engineer, observed that rocks of different ages (based on the law of superposition) preserved different assemblages of fossils, and that these assemblages succeeded one another in a regular and determinable order. He observed that rocks from distant locations could be correlated based on the fossils they contained. He termed this the principle of faunal succession. Smith, who preceded Charles Darwin, was unaware of biological evolution and did not know why faunal succession occurred. Biological evolution explains why faunal succession exists: as different organisms evolve, change and go extinct, they leave behind fossils. Faunal succession was one of the chief pieces of evidence cited by Darwin that biological evolution had occurred. Early naturalists well understood the similarities and differences of living species leading Linnaeus to develop a hierarchical classification system still in use today. It was Darwin and his contemporaries who first ...
American Studies , Art History , Historic Preservation , History , Literary Studies , Philosophy , Visual & Material Culture. To study the humanities is to study the human condition across time and space; it is to grasp both the diversity-and the unity-of human cultures. The advancement of technology and global communication at different moments in our history has revolutionized the humanistic endeavor, and yet our need to understand, relate to, and explain our role as individuals in relationship with the natural world and the cosmos remains the same. Students of the humanities explore multiple perspectives and interpretations of the human experience and the human spirit over time. They learn to identify, discuss, and evaluate different ways of explaining our place in the universe, as expressed through ideas, visual culture, and historical and literary narratives. The humanities at Goucher includes five programs-American studies (a major, only), history, literary studies in English, philosophy, ...
Persuasive Games: The Expressive Power of Videogames (MIT Press 2007) is a book written by Ian Bogost. Bogost discusses the importance of videogames in influencing players and making arguments. He focuses on the history of rhetoric, arguing that games represent a new form of it. He calls this new form Procedural Rhetoric. Persuasive Games is also the name of an independent videogame company which focuses on social and political issues, trying to broaden the uses that games currently have. The company was funded by Ian Bogost and Gerard LaFond. ...
My passions in work are Knowledge Sharing, Change Management, Administrative Management, Knowledge Management, Organisational Management, Communities of Practice, and Enterprise Social media. I love to go home at the end of the day and think I made a difference to somebodies life. Also a man of values and a person who loves working on new ideas and bringing them to fruition. ...
Socio-cultural evolution[edit]. As colonialism often played out in pre-populated areas, sociocultural evolution included the ... Colonialism: An International Social, Cultural, and Political Encyclopedia (3 vol 2003). *Petringa, Maria, Brazza, A Life for ... Cultural and religious conflict have often erupted in France in recent decades, between immigrants from the Maghreb countries ... Alfred W. Crosby, Jr., The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 (1974) ...
Impact on human evolution[edit]. Cultural innovations[edit]. Uses of fire by early humans[edit]. The discovery of fire came to ... The control of fire by early humans was a turning point in the cultural aspect of human evolution. Fire provided a source of ... 4 Impact on human evolution *4.1 Cultural innovations *4.1.1 Uses of fire by early humans ... These cultural advancements allowed for human geographic dispersal, cultural innovations, and changes to diet and behavior. ...
Inglehart, Ronald F. (2018). "Chapter 3. Global Cultural Patterns". Cultural Evolution. Cambridge University Press. p. 40. doi: ... Cultural differences between individualism and collectivism are differences in degrees, not in kind. Cultural individualism is ... 2 a Renaissance cultural movement that turned away from medieval scholasticism and revived interest in ancient Greek and Roman ... Takano, Yohtaro; Sogon, Shunya (2008). "Are Japanese More Collectivistic Than Americans?". Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology ...
Inglehart, Ronald F. (2018). "Chapter 3. Global Cultural Patterns". Cultural Evolution. Cambridge University Press. p. 47. doi: ... The global cultural map shows how scores of societies are located on these two dimensions. Moving upward on this map reflects ... "The WVS Cultural Map of the World". WVS. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2014. ... As the cultural component of human empowerment, emancipative values are highly consequential in manifold ways. For one, ...
Note: Scots here means "Scots" not "Gaelic" Counting-out game Distin, Kate (2010). Cultural Evolution. Cambridge University ...
"Cultural Evolution". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2007. Montagu, MF Ashley. "Introduction" to Marriage Past and Present ... "Cultural anthropology has given the world a priceless treasure ... the ethnographic descriptions of many hundreds-or thousands ... social behavior drives evolution rather than the other way around: "Contrary to Goldberg, I do not believe that a genetic or ... cultural expectation of male leadership and control). The hypothetical psychophysiological phenomenon he proposes to explain ...
Cultural Evolution. Cambridge University Press. Conway, Lucian; Houck, Shannon; Gornick, Laura; Repke, Meredith (December 2017 ... However, a 2003 cross-cultural study examined the relation between authoritarianism and individualism-collectivism in samples ( ... this finding must be considered in a historical and cultural context. During the Cold War, authoritarians in the United States ... Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 34 (3): 304-322. doi:10.1177/0022022103034003005. Rubinstein, G (1996). "Two peoples in ...
9. Mesoudi, Alex (2011). Cultural Evolution. Chicago University Press. Richerson, Peter J.; Boyd, Robert (2005). Not By Genes ... in the humanities coincided with the emergence in the 1990s and 2000s of the new research domain called cultural evolution. ... According to Martindale, the principles of the evolution of art are based on statistic regularities rather than meaning, data ... In their wake, Moretti used the techniques of "distant reading": statistics and computation to study literary evolution. The ...
Distin, Kate (2010). Cultural Evolution. Cambridge University Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-521-18971-2. Hickey 2015, pp. 459-469. " ... Sport has been both one of the most unifying cultural forces in Northern England and, thanks to local rivalries such as the ... Northumbria then saw a Golden Age in cultural, scholarly and monastic activity, centred on Lindisfarne and aided by Irish monks ... The press frequently frames music stories and reviews in terms of cultural and class differences between North and South, ...
Cultural Evolution. Retrieved June 5, 2012.. ...
Lewens, Tim (2020). "Cultural Evolution". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. ... Approaches to language as part of cultural evolution can be roughly divided into two main groups: genetic determinism which ... William James selects "zoölogical evolution", William Croft prefers botanical evolution, but most theorists zoom in to more ... Behavioural ecology and dual inheritance theory, the study of gene-culture co-evolution, emphasise the role of culture as a ...
The conclusion considers the implications of their findings for cultural policies. The book Cultural Evolution: People's ... On December 16, 2018, Fareed Zakaria chose Cultural Evolution as his book of the week, describing it as "really brilliant work ... Cultural Evolution: People's Motivations are Changing, and Reshaping the World, Cambridge University Press, 2018, ISBN ... ISBN 978-1-60692-731-1. Inglehart, Ronald (March 2018). "Cultural Evolution". [Cambridge University Press]. Retrieved 12 April ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Patel, Mary F. (May 30, 2007). "Cultural Evolution". Philadelphia City Paper. Archived ...
... sociocultural evolution; cultural materialism; Piaget, developmental psychology and primitive thought; the evolution of ... "Book Review: The Evolution of Moral Understanding" Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt; McManus, Fabrizzio Guerrero. Evolution, Volume 68 ... The Co-Evolution of Religious Thought and Science: The Co-Evolution of Religious Thought and Science. Oxford University Press. ... The Principles of Social Evolution (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986) The Evolution of Moral Understanding (Prometheus Research ...
Smith, Bruce D. (2000). "Guilá Naquitz Revisited". Cultural Evolution. New York: Kluwer Academic. pp. 15-60. doi:10.1007/978-1- ... Feinman, Gary M.; Manzanilla, Linda (2000). Cultural Evolution: Contemporary Viewpoints. New York: Kluwer Academic. pp. 20-25, ...
"The Spirit of Evolution". Cognitive Cultural Studies. Review. UCLA.. *. Puhakka, Kaisa (1995). "Restoring Connectedness in the ... Sex, Ecology, Spirituality: The Spirit of Evolution is integral philosopher Ken Wilber's 1995 magnum opus. Wilber intended it ... Thompson, William Irwin (1996). Coming into Being: Artifacts and Texts in the Evolution of Consciousness. New York: St. ... In his 1997 book Coming into Being, cultural historian William Irwin Thompson harshly criticized the entire project of SES, ...
... cultural transmission theory or dual inheritance theory. The publication Cultural Transmission and Evolution: A Quantitative ... Cultural Transmission and Evolution. Princeton University Press, Princeton.. *Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., P. Menozzi, A. Piazza. ... Analysis of human evolution. pp. 923-933 in Genetics Today. Proceedings of the XI International Congress of Genetics, The Hague ... Stone, Linda; Lurquin, Paul F. (2005). A Genetic and Cultural Odyssey: The Life and Work of L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza. New York: ...
Cultural evolution affected physical evolution; "it is behavior that orients selective pressure" (Monod, 162). The author then ... And lastly the evolution of a teleonomic apparatus around the "replicative structures" would lead to the primitive cell. The ... says that due to the accelerating pace of cultural evolution, it no longer affects the genome and that selection does not favor ... Monod hypothesizes that language was not merely the product but one of the driving forces for the evolution of our central ...
"Cultural Evolution of Behaviour". Netherlands Journal of Zoology. 40 (4): 745-62. doi:10.1163/156854290X00190. "Animism Profile ... Goodman, Felicitas D., Speaking in Tongues: A Cross-Cultural Study in Glossolalia. University of Chicago Press, 1972. Hine, ... Greek cultural, philosophical, mystical, and prophetic. Some forms of prayer require a prior ritualistic form of cleansing or ... prayer has been argued as representing a human cultural universal, which would have been present since the emergence of ...
Peregrine, Peter N. (2003). "Atlas of Cultural Evolution". World Cultures: Journal of Comparative and Cross-Cultural Research. ... The Atlas of Cultural Evolution, an archaeological database created by Peter N. Peregrine. CHIA (Collaborative Information for ... Cliodynamics: The Journal of Quantitative History and Cultural Evolution "The University of Hertfordshire's Cliodynamics Lab". ... Cliodynamics: The Journal of Quantitative History and Cultural Evolution Seshat: Global History Databank Peter Turchin's ...
"Cultural Evolution of Behaviour". Netherlands Journal of Zoology. 40 (4): 745-62. doi:10.1163/156854290X00190 Matthew 6: 5. ( ... Since then, it has now become the traditional way of sitting down within the household and for certain cultural events. Many of ...
Post-colonial studies incorporate subaltern studies of "history from below"; post-colonial cultural evolution; the ... While the lasting effects of cultural colonialism are of central interest, the intellectual antecedents in cultural critiques ... Academic imperialism Americanization Colonialism Cultural hegemony Cultural imperialism Dependency theory Ecological ... Post-colonial importation or continuation of cultural mores or elements may be regarded as a form of neocolonialism.[citation ...
ISBN 978-3-540-73999-9. Russell, Claire; Russell, W.M.S. (1989). "Cultural Evolution of Behaviour". Netherlands Journal of ... In Japan and other countries in the far-east cultural area, the palm faces the recipient with the hand at head's height. If ... Gestures are culture-specific and may convey very different meanings in different social or cultural settings. Gesture is ... A single emblematic gesture may have very different significance in different cultural contexts, ranging from complimentary to ...
"John C. Lilly Outline". Association for Cultural Evolution. Retrieved 2007-12-21. "Edward Lorenz". The National Severe Storms ...
Feinman, Gary M.; Manzanilla, Linda (2000). Cultural Evolution: Contemporary Viewpoints. New York: Kluwer Academic. p. 31. ISBN ... Whitaker, Thomas W.; Bemis, W. P. (1964). "Evolution in the Genus Cucurbita". Evolution. 18 (4): 553-559. doi:10.2307/2406209. ... Evolution. St. Louis, MO: Society for the Study of Evolution. 25 (1): 218-234. doi:10.2307/2406514. JSTOR 2406514. PMID ... Whitaker, T.W.; Bemis, W.P. (1975). "Origin and Evolution of the Cultivated Cucurbita". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. ...
Institute for Human Evolution (IHE). University of the Witwatersrand. Amos, Jonathan (13 October 2011). "A Cultural Leap at the ... Human evolution: Cultural roots. Nature: News Feature. Voght, Henrik 2012. Her så vi lyset. Aftenposten A-magasinet. 2013 - CNN ... Journal of Human Evolution 59: 425-443. Marean, C.W. 2011. Coastal South Africa and the co-evolution of the modern human ... Journal of Human Evolution 56: 139-151. Armitage, S. J., Jasim, S. A., Marks, A. E., Parker, A. G., Usik, V. I., & Uerpmann, H ...
"Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-08326-3. Retrieved 2008-02-28.. ... "Evolution and Human Behavior. 20 (5): 325-359. doi:10.1016/S1090-5138(99)00016-1. Retrieved 2008-02-28.. ... "Evolution and Human Behavior. 23 (5): 323-336. doi:10.1016/S1090-5138(01)00102-7. Retrieved 2008-02-28.. ... Thornhill, R.; Thornhill, N.W. (1989). "The evolution of psychological pain". Sociobiology and the Social Sciences: 73-103.. ...
Shennan, Stephan (2009). Pattern and Process in Cultural Evolution. University of California Press. p. 115. ISBN 0520255992.. ... When the scientific community accepted the synthetic theory of evolution, taxonomies became phylogenetic.[3] As a result, ... the unit of heredity with the mechanism of evolution, natural selection.[citation needed] For example, researchers utilized ... it can become clear how genetic mechanisms underlie major events in things such as primate evolution.[10] ...
Computer Models of Cultural Evolution. Nicholas Gessler. In EVOLUTION IN THE COMPUTER AGE - Proceedings of the Center for the ... According to N. Gessler, the personoids study can be a base for the research on artificial culture and culture evolution. Welt ... Study of Evolution and the Origin of Life, edited by David B. and Gary B. Fogel. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, ...
Teachers, nurses, social workers, professors and cultural workers (those employed in museums, orchestras and art galleries) all ... inspiring evolutions and advances in thinking which eventually gave workers their necessary rights. As collective bargaining ...
The diversity of Indian cultural groups and moderate positions of Hindu nationalism have sometimes made it regarded as cultural ... Evolution of ideological terminologyEdit. In first half of 20th century, factions of Indian National Congress continued to ... The cultural nationality of India, in the conviction of the RSS, is Hindu and it was inclusive of all who are born and who have ... Intersections: Socio-cultural Trends in Maharashtra. Orient Blackswan. p. 59. ISBN 9788125018780. .. ...
Different evolution of the group /ste/ led to different desinences for the past tense formation along Galician geography. ... Swiss German), shifts cultural influence from the Spanish domain to the Portuguese. Although it is difficult to clarify the ... evolution, lexicon, etymology, onomastics). His Elementos etimológicos segun el método de Euclides (1766), written in Spanish ... as an acknowledgement of the cultural and linguistic unity of Galicia and Portugal during the Middle Ages, as the two ...
Ferri, Enrico, "Socialism and Modern Science", in Evolution and Socialism (1912), p. 79:. Upon what point are orthodox ... The IAF - IFA fights for : the abolition of all forms of authority whether economical, political, social, religious, cultural ... An approach to socialism that incorporates cultural revolution, women's and children's liberation, and the critique and ...
See also: Cultural effects of the Ebola crisis. Weaponisation. Ebolavirus is classified as a biosafety level 4 agent, as well ... and rapid evolution death after a mean of three days."[163] ...
The third chimpanzee: the evolution and future of the human animal.. *^ a b Sharman Apt Russell (2006). Hunger an unnatural ... In Ungar, Peter S.; Teaford, Mark F. Human Diet: Its Origins and Evolution. Westport, Connecticut: Bergin and Garvey. pp. 111- ... "Human Evolution," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007 Archived 2009-11-01 at WebCite Contributed by Richard B. Potts, B. ... "Human Evolution," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007 Archived 2008-04-08 at the Wayback Machine. Contributed by Richard ...
In his monograph, The Origins Of The Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 - March 1942, ... Browning i, Christopher (2007). The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 - March ... 2004). The Origins of the Final Solution : The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 - March 1942. Comprehensive ... The two operations constitute an evolution not only chronologically, but also in complexity."[9] Massacres of about one million ...
Gunda, M. R. (2010). The Bible and Homosexuality in Zimbabwe : A Socio-historical Analysis of the Political, Cultural and ... Taxonomy and evolutionEdit. The scientific name of the black wildebeest is Connochaetes gnou. The animal is placed in the genus ... This evolution is quite recent on a geologic time scale.[9] ... evolution (doctoral dissertation)".. *^ a b c d e f g h i ...
Klein, Richard G. (1999). The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago ... Findings Challenge Conventional Ideas on Evolution of Human Diet, Natural Selection Newswise, Retrieved on June 26, 2008. ...
"Human Evolution". History Channel. Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2008.. ... Ferraro, Gary P. (2006). Cultural Anthropology: An Applied Perspective. The Thomson Corporation. ISBN 0495030392. Retrieved 17 ... The use of tools by early humans was partly a process of discovery and of evolution. Early humans evolved from a species of ... "Evolution of Modern Humans: Archaic Homo sapiens Culture". Palomar College. Retrieved 31 March 2007.. ...
Evolution. Further information: Evolution of cephalopods. Fossil history and phylogeny. Cephalopods have existed for 500 ... Cultural references. Ancient seafaring people were aware of the octopus, as evidenced by certain artworks and designs. For ... Hence, greater transcriptome plasticity has come as the cost of slower genome evolution. High levels of RNA editing do not ... and implications for the evolution of Octopoda". 51 (5). Palaeontology: 1129-1139. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2008.00797.x.. ...
Genomics and knowledge of human genetics and human evolution is having increasingly significant influence on medicine, as the ... cultural studies, psychology, sociology), and the arts (literature, theater, film, and visual arts) and their application to ... evolution, and genetics are influencing medical technology, practice and decision-making. ...
Utz, Axel (2011). Cultural exchange, imperialist violence, and pious missions: Local perspectives from Tanjavur and Lenape ... Evolution Publications and Manufacturing, 2011. ISBN 978-1-935228-06-6. ... One big cultural change occurred during the Beaver Wars-instead of honor raids for bragging rights by stealing cattle, food ... His new colony effectively displaced many Lenape and forced others to adapt to new cultural demands. Penn gained a reputation ...
Like Edmund Burke, Niebuhr endorsed natural evolution over imposed change and emphasized experience over theory. Niebuhr's ... "cultural annihilation of the Jews".[62] Eventually, his theology evolved to the point where he was the first prominent ...
For species such as marlin, muskellunge, and bass, there is a cultural taboo among anglers against taking them for food. In ... A Critique of the paper: "Do fish have nociceptors: Evidence for the evolution of a vertebrate sensory system" Archived March ... "Do fish have nociceptors: Evidence for the evolution of a vertebrate sensory system", 2003 by Sneddon, Braithwaite and Gentle. ...
Villanueva-Russell Y (June 2011). "Caught in the crosshairs: identity and cultural authority within chiropractic". Soc Sci Med ... Phillips RB (2005). "The evolution of vitalism and materialism and its impact on philosophy". In Haldeman S, Dagenais S, ...
Wayne, R. (1993). "Molecular evolution of the dog family". Trends in Genetics. 9 (6): 218-24. doi:10.1016/0168-9525(93)90122-X ... Likhachev Scientific Research Institute for Cultural Heritage and Environmental Protection in Russia. Male jackal pups had to ...
1997). The Evolution of the Soul. Oxford: Oxford University Press.. *Leibowitz, Aryeh. (2018). The Neshama: A Study of the ... The Philosophy of Person: Solidarity and Cultural Creativity, Jozef Tischner and George McClean, 1994, p. 32 ... Bahá'u'lláh taught that individuals have no existence prior to their life here on earth and the soul's evolution is always ...
Margo DeMello (2009). Feet and Footwear: A Cultural Encyclopedia. Greenwood Press/ABC-CLIO. p. 311. ISBN 978-0-313-35714-5. .. ... "Evolution and Human Behavior. 34 (3): 176-181. doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2012.11.006.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font- ... Margo DeMello (10 September 2009). Feet and Footwear: A Cultural Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 323. ISBN 978-0-313-35715-2. .. ... It has not been popular for men to wear high heels since the late 18th century.[3] Some men see the cultural norm, which often ...
While Darwinian evolution never became an issue for northern Presbyterians as most accommodated themselves to some form of ... and resistance to secularism and cultural accommodation within the church.[94] By the 1940s, neo-orthodoxy and the closely ... Near-Eastern people whose world view and manner of thought was formulated in language structures and cultural contexts very ... theistic evolution, the new discipline of biblical interpretation known as higher criticism would become highly controversial. ...
Cultural references. In Undead Science, sociologist Bart Simon gives some examples of cold fusion in popular culture, saying ... There are also "heat-after-death" experiments, where the evolution of heat is monitored after the electric current is turned ...
... especially during times of quick cultural and social changes.[21][22] During this period the temple made changes to the ...
Gulisija D, Crow JF (May 2007). "Inferring purging from pedigree data". Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. ... Along with cultural taboos, parental education and awareness of inbreeding consequences have played large roles in minimizing ... Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 59 (2): 317-23. doi:10.1554/04-128. PMID 15807418. S2CID 198156378.. ... International Journal of Organic Evolution. Oregon: Society for the Study of Evolution. 45 (3): 622-629. doi:10.1111/j.1558- ...
Molecular Biology and Evolution. 14 (5): 537-543. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025790. PMID 9159931.. ... Mack, John (2013). The Sea: a cultural history. Reaktion Books. pp. 205-206. ISBN 978-1-78023-184-6.. ... Whitehead, H. (2003). Sperm Whales: Social Evolution in the Ocean. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-226- ... Main article: Evolution of cetaceans. Whales are descendants of land-dwelling mammals of the artiodactyl order (even-toed ...
a b Colbert, E.H. & Morales, M. (2001): Colbert's Evolution of the Vertebrates: A History of the Backboned Animals Through Time ... "de beste bron van informatie over cultural institution. Deze website is te koop!". Curator.org. Archived from the original on ... Evolution No. 4, vol 5: pp. 1098-1115 PDF *^ Huey, R.B. (1982): Temperature, physiology, and the ecology of reptiles. Side 25- ... Pianka, Eric R.; Vitt, Laurie J. (2003). Lizards: Windows to the Evolution of Diversity (Organisms and Environments, 5). 5 (1 ...
2012). The beginnings of ancient Kurdistan (c. 2500-1500 BC) : a historical and cultural synthesis. Leiden University, pp. 502- ... There is no unambiguous evolution of Kurdish from Middle Iranian, as "from Old and Middle Iranian times, no predecessors of the ... Kurds in Iraq and Syria have autonomous regions, while Kurdish movements continue to pursue greater cultural rights, autonomy, ... Unlike in other Kurdish-populated countries, there are strong ethnolinguistical and cultural ties between Kurds, Persians and ...
McKewan, Jaclyn (2009). "Evolution, Chemical". In H. James Birx". Predeterminism. Encyclopedia of Time: Science, Philosophy, ... "Is Belief in Free Will a Cultural Universal?". Mind & Language. 25 (3): 346-58. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0017.2010.01393.x. ISSN 1468 ... Steven Pinker's view is that fear of determinism in the context of "genetics" and "evolution" is a mistake, that it is "a ... Gregory W. Graffin and William B. Provine, "Evolution, Religion, and Free Will," American Scientist 95 (July-August 2007), 294- ...
Evolution * sw:Evolution. Explosive material * sw:Explosive material. Eye * sw:Eye. Family * sw:Family. Fascism * sw:Fascism. ... Cultural Revolution * sw:Cultural Revolution. Culture * sw:Culture. Currency * sw:Currency. Cyrillic script * sw:Cyrillic ...
Roughgarden, Joan (2004). Evolution's Rainbow: Diversity, Gender, and Sexuality in Nature and People. University of California ... Social and cultural aspects. Toilet training. Babies have little socialized control over urination within traditions or ... Serpell, James (21 September 1995). The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behaviour and Interactions with People. Cambridge ... "Intersex Surgery, Female Genital Cutting, and the Selective Condemnation of "Cultural Practices"" (PDF). Retrieved 10 February ...
Cultural Halls[edit]. *Cultural exhibitions include sections on Tibet and China, where visitors can view traditional clothing.[ ... Evolving Planet follows the evolution of life on Earth over 4 billion years. The exhibit showcases fossils of single-celled ... The Field Museum academic faculty and scientific staff engage in field expeditions, in biodiversity and cultural research on ... as well as rich anthropological collections and cultural artifacts from around the globe.[7][13][14][15] The Field Museum ...
"Cultural Evolution Culture is information capable of affecting individuals behaviour that they acquire from other members of ... Just as biological evolution is characterised by changing frequencies of genes in populations through time so cultural ... The study of cultural evolution involves characterising those forces and modelling their consequences. ... It is increasingly recognised that cultural evolution can influence gene distributions in populations, as in the well-known ...
But mathematician and Social Dimension blogger Samuel Arbesman explains how the rule does describe the evolution of human ... Figure from Variable Cultural Acquisition Costs Constrain Cumulative Cultural Evolution. Figure from Variable Cultural ... Figure from Variable Cultural Acquisition Costs Constrain Cumulative Cultural Evolution. Figure from Variable Cultural ... In other words, cultural ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny.. Mesoudi demonstrated this in an elegant way, at least when it comes ...
Biological Evolution Cultural Evolution Biological Theory Niche Construction Cultural Transmission These keywords were added by ... Henrich J, McElreath R (2003) The evolution of cultural evolution. Evolutionary Anthropology 12: 123-135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Is human cultural evolution Darwinian? Evidence reviewed from the perspective of The Origin of Species. Evolution 58: 1-11. ... Comparative methods for studying cultural trait evolution: A simulation study. Cross-Cultural Research 40: 177-209.CrossRef ...
Cross-cultural comparison of evolution & God. Posted by Razib Khan on December 14, 2008 ... Acceptance of Evolution & belief in God, over at Secular Right. Heres my conclusion:. … In any case, I think the two ... I doubt that the rejection of evolution has as much to do with Lysenkoism as it does with overall underdevelopment…. ... observations I would make is that Roman Catholicisms acceptance of evolution shows, as those nations tend to be above the ...
... and pure cultural theories, which describe the mechanism of cultural evolution without referring to sports biological bases. ... and sports have evolved new cultural functions more-or-less unrelated to mate choice as cultural evolution itself became ... Several biological and cultural factors may moderate the direct effect that signaling value has on a sports viability or ... This article outlines a Darwinian approach to sports that takes into account its profoundly cultural character and thereby ...
2008) Cumulative cultural evolution in the laboratory: An experimental approach to the origins of structure in human language. ... Effect of psychological bias separates cultural from biological evolution Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Effect of psychological bias separates cultural from biological evolution. Nicolas Claidière, Simon Kirby and Dan Sperber ... 2007) The role of attraction in cultural evolution. J Cogn Cult 7(1):89-111. ...
Mechanisms of cultural evolution. Mechanisms of cultural evolution (Something like a Developmental Evolutionary take on culture ... The Central Role of Development in Cultural Evolution. In R. Sansom & R. N. Brandon (Eds.), Integrating Evolution and ... Mechanisms of cultural evolution (Something like a Developmental Evolutionary take on culture) Claes Andersson Chalmers ... Andersson, C., Törnberg, A., & Törnberg, P. (2014). An Evolutionary Developmental Approach to Cultural Evolution. Current ...
Posted in Cultural EvolutionTagged cultural evolution32 Comments on Rice culture reduces individualism Learning from cultural ... Posted in Cultural EvolutionTagged cultural evolution6 Comments on Learning from cultural anthropology as opposed to unlearning ... Posted in Cultural EvolutionTagged cultural evolution1 Comment on Why Darwinian metaphors work for start-ups Pick the right ... Posted in Cultural EvolutionTagged cultural evolution9 Comments on Why our society might go "splat!" on the windshield sooner ...
Caldwell, CA and Millen, AE (2008) Experimental models for testing hypotheses about cumulative cultural evolution. Evolution ... to test whether cultural transmission biases derived from the cultural evolution literature can explain this trend towards ... Fessler, DMT, Pisor, AC and Navarrete, CD (2014) Negatively-biased credulity and the cultural evolution of beliefs. PLoS One 9( ... Acerbi, A and Bentley, RA (2014) Biases in cultural transmission shape the turnover of popular traits. Evolution and Human ...
TRACE Transmission in Rhetorics, Arts and Cultural Evolution. A Series by the Zurich University of Arts (ZHdK). ... The terms used in evolution and cognition theories, and in brain research, as well as those used in old rule books are used to ... TRACE wants to link what is repeated, what functions in cultural descriptions with those fields which have only been present in ...
2007) Homophily, cultural drift, and the co-evolution of cultural groups. J Conflict Resolut 51(6):905-929. ... The spontaneous emergence of conventions: An experimental study of cultural evolution Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you ... The spontaneous emergence of conventions: An experimental study of cultural evolution. Damon Centola and Andrea Baronchelli ... The evolution of social conventions across network topologies (n = 24). Panels indicate spatially embedded networks (A and D, ...
The cultural evolution of prosocial religions - Volume 39 - Ara Norenzayan, Azim F. Shariff, Will M. Gervais, Aiyana K. Willard ... Slingerland E., Henrich J. & Norenzayan A. (2013) The evolution of prosocial religions. In: Cultural evolution: Society, ... The cultural evolution of prosocial religions. * Ara Norenzayan (a1), Azim F. Shariff (a2), Will M. Gervais (a3), Aiyana K. ... Evolution and Human Behavior 32:41-49. Atkinson Q. D. & Whitehouse H. (2011) The cultural morphospace of ritual form: Examining ...
... evolution and complexity. [R V S Wright; Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.;] ... Stone tools as cultural markers : change, evolution and complexity. Author:. R V S Wright; Australian Institute of Aboriginal ... Stone tools as cultural markers : change, evolution and complexity/R V S Wright; Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.;; ... schema:name "Stone tools as cultural markers : change, evolution and complexity"@en ;. schema:productID "4287495" ;. schema: ...
Cultural evolution is cultural change viewed from an evolutionary perspective. It may also refer to: Behavioral ecology, the ... a specific framework for studying cultural evolution Memetics, neo-Darwinist view of the transmission of cultural traits ... over time as studied in anthropology This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Cultural evolution. If ... study of the evolutionary basis for animal behavior due to ecological pressures Cultural selection theory, studies of cultural ...
the cultural evolution of early Christianity is analyzed through certain key research topics, studied by the members of the ... is to break new ground in cultural evolutionary studies by combining up-to-date cultural evolutionary theorizing with detailed ... textual and cultural analyses of key topics, in order to analyze the possible selective advantage of early Christian groups and ... texts in their Jewish and Greco-Roman cultural context.. There are two main hypotheses to be tested. 1) Early Christian groups ...
The Evolution of the Grand Tour: Anglo-Italian Cultural Relations since the .... Edward Chaney. No preview available - 2000. ... The Evolution of the Grand Tour: Anglo-Italian Cultural Relations since the .... Edward Chaney. Limited preview - 2014. ... The Evolution of the Grand Tour: Anglo-Italian Cultural Relations since the .... Edward Chaney. Limited preview - 2014. ... The Evolution of the Grand Tour: Anglo-Italian Cultural Relations Since the Renaissance. ...
... it is assumed that cultural/social norms are transmitted from one generation to the next one via two venues: (i) direct ... by the community and cultural environment. This paper focuses on the transmission of religious norms and in particular on the ... "The Evolution of Secularization: Cultural Transmission, Religion and Fertility. Theory, Simulations and Evidence," Papers on ... "The evolution of secularization: cultural transmission, religion and fertility-theory, simulations and evidence," Journal of ...
... has been subject to several casting controversies over the years that ultimately led to an evolution in the way the piece is ... News A History of Casting King and I - Cultural Evolution and Community Action By Logan Culwell-Block ... A History of Casting King and I - Cultural Evolution and Community Action. .bsp-site-header-wrapper.bsp-site-customcolors- ... The mainstream theatre industrys evolution in the casting of Asian roles began to affect The King and I with the 1996 Broadway ...
I will first give a general presentation of the cultural evolution framework, and I will then introduce this more specific ... I will first give a general presentation of the cultural evolution framework, and I will then introduce this more specific ... In this review I propose that cultural evolution theory, including both a sophisticated view of human behaviour and a ... contextualised in cognitive science and cultural evolution theory, and I discuss how this perspective could help us to ...
The evolution of fancy social learning in humans accounts for both the nature of human adaptation and the extraordinary scale ... Ecology and Culture investigates the role of culture in human evolution and adaptation. ... and statisticians contributing to a general theory of cultural evolution.. Cultural evolution aims in part to explain the ... Thus, we aim to place the study of cultural evolution on a firm theoretical footing, and provide a bridge between that theory ...
... organizing and conducting cultural events, providing displays and exhibits, conducting educational programs, seminars, lectures ... INNOVATIONIST is a trademark and brand of The Institute for Cultural Evolution. Filed to USPTO On Monday, August 15, 2016, The ... The Institute for Cultural Evolution. Educational and conference services, namely, organizing and conducting cultural events, ... This is a brand page for the INNOVATIONIST trademark by The Institute for Cultural Evolution in Boulder, CO, 80302. ...
Home / Shop / Series / Human Evolution, Biological and Cultural Domains - New in 2019. Human Evolution, Biological and Cultural ... Human Evolution, Biological and Cultural Domains - New in 2019 (3). *Caucasus and Central Asia Political, Social and Economic ... Nova, 2020, Human Evolution, Biological and Cultural Domains - New in 2019, Upcoming Publications, Biology, Life Sciences ... Nova, 2018, Human Evolution, Biological and Cultural Domains - New in 2019, World Philosophy, Editors Picks, Genetics ...
... then the rate of cultural evolution itself will never be rate limiting and cultural evolution will lack the Darwinian element. ... Of the greatest significance is that cultural evolution is more rapid than genetic evolution. When the results of individual ... Such enigmatic, long time scale patterns are evident in both organic and cultural evolution. For example, in organic evolution ... now counting cultural evolution as a type of Darwinian evolution). First, rates of long-term change may be regulated by factors ...
The Role of Cooperation and Cultural Evolution," Papers on Economics and Evolution 2006-06, Philipps University Marburg, ... "A naturalistic approach to the theory of the firm: The role of cooperation and cultural evolution," Journal of Economic ... "Emergent Cultural Phenomena and their Cognitive Foundations," Papers on Economics and Evolution 2007-22, Philipps University ... "Emergent Cultural Phenomena and their Cognitive Foundations," Chapters,in: Evolution, Organization and Economic Behavior, ...
Cultural Evolution at the Santa Fe Institute. Olivier Morin3 September 20140 ... These is the beginning of Robert Boyds thoughts on the workshop on cultural evolution convened by Dan Dennett in Santa Fe in ... These are Susan Blackmores thoughts on the workshop on cultural evolution convened by Dan Dennett in Santa Fe in May 2014. ... These are Nicolas Claidières thoughts on the workshop on cultural evolution convened by Dan Dennett in Santa Fe in May 2014. ...
Biological, cultural and technological evolution?. Discussion of everything related to the Theory of Evolution. ... The subject of cultural evolution is a wasteland in the social sciences because it would explain progress without religions ... A meme propagates itself as a unit of cultural evolution and diffusion - analogous in many ways to the behavior of the gene ( ... Would someone be able to explain to me the interrelationships between biological, cultural and technological evolution? Thanks ...
Call for papers: Cultural Evolution. Palgrave Communications, the open access journal from Palgrave Macmillan (part of Springer ... Cultural evolution describes how socially learned ideas, rules, and skills are transmitted and change over time, giving rise to ... Evolution of religious practices and beliefs;. *Real-world applications of cultural evolutionary knowledge, e.g. to grand ... Conference on "Cultural Evolution: Arts, Languages, Technologies" in Tartu, June 6-8, 2018 ...
2014 The cultural evolution of technology. In Cultural evolution (eds PJ Richerson, MH Christiansen), pp. 119-142. Cambridge, ... 2011 Variable cultural acquisition costs constrain cumulative cultural evolution. PLoS ONE 6, e18239. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone ... 2004 Is human cultural evolution Darwinian? Evidence reviewed from the perspective of The Origin of Species. Evolution 58, 1-11 ... 2008 The multiple roles of cultural transmission experiments in understanding human cultural evolution. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B ...
... or the developmental pathways that such collective cultural and social evolution might take. As always, the particular cultural ... to deny evolution in the human and cultural domain is to deny that learning occurs or can occur in collective consciousness ... FIGURE 2: Cultural development and the Integral principle of universal evolution. Referring to this concept of a tree of ... Evolution, above all, means complexity and this pertains more to the cultural domain than to perhaps any other quadrant of ...
  • What I hope to show in the following is that the basic principles of Integral philosophy itself, when applied consistently to the issue of sociocultural evolution, raise some serious concerns regarding the assessment and ranking of cultures on global unidimensional scales of development, irrespective of how universal or cross-culturally valid those scales may be. (integralworld.net)
  • Evolutionary studies of the society have been called a variety of names: Sociocultural Evolution, Social Evolution, Sociobiology, Evolutionary Psychology, and even Social Darwinism (the last one is now a thoroughly discredited theory, which was used especially in the late nineteenth century to justify racism, imperialism, Nazism, and a number of other unpleasant ideologies). (peterturchin.com)
  • To many social scientists (including, most notably, social anthropologists), sociocultural evolution implies some kind of a theory of social progress, which often assumes that human societies pass through a set of well-defined stages. (peterturchin.com)
  • For example, one of the earliest proponents of sociocultural evolution, the American anthropologist Lewis H. Morgan (1818-1881), proposed that societies develop through three stages: from 'savagery' to 'barbarism' and finally to 'civilization. (peterturchin.com)
  • This view of sociocultural evolution divides all societies into four stages: savage, barbarous, half-civilized, and civilized. (peterturchin.com)
  • The terms used in evolution and cognition theories, and in brain research, as well as those used in old rule books are used to create a vocabulary that was not available in this form until now. (springer.com)
  • Cultural evolution aims in part to explain the dynamics of cultural change, defined as changes in the frequency and diversity of cultural traits over time. (mpg.de)
  • Culture area , also called cultural area, culture province , or ethno-geographic area , in anthropology , geography , and other social sciences, a contiguous geographic area within which most societies share many traits in common. (britannica.com)
  • [3] [4] These cultural groups can be divided based on seemingly trivial observable traits, but with time, populations grow to associate certain traits with certain behaviour, increasing covariation. (wikipedia.org)
  • we distinguish the notions of "musicality"-a set of traits which evolve as constrained by our cognitive and biological system that shape musical behaviors across cultures - and "music"-a socio-cultural artifact building on the biological inclination for musicality. (frontiersin.org)
  • Similarly, nothing prevents us from defining cultural evolution as the study of how and why the frequencies of cultural traits change with time. (peterturchin.com)
  • Cultural traits, however, are a more general category than memes, because they also include quantitative traits that cannot be easily represented as discrete alternatives (for example, an inclination to trust strangers, which I will discuss in tomorrow's blog). (peterturchin.com)
  • The process of transmitting cultural traits is also quite different from that of gene replication. (peterturchin.com)
  • We explored the concept of "regulatory traits", that is, cultural traits that are both socially transmitted (they are "cultural"), and influence directly ("regulate") cultural dynamics. (acerbialberto.com)
  • Even though the outcomes described above are the product of extreme, and scarcely realistic, conditions, regulatory traits-driven dynamics can interact with other aspects involved in cultural transmission, generating more complex, and - hopefully - interesting, outcomes (we explore, among others, in-group biases and fashion-like dynamics). (acerbialberto.com)
  • Conservatism itself is, in my opinion, an underestimated force with regard to the spreading of cultural traits. (acerbialberto.com)
  • Moreover, a part from having effects in cultural dynamics, regulatory traits represent a difference between cultural and biological evolution. (acerbialberto.com)
  • However, the fact that cultural information can be transmitted in many different ways creates the opportunity to regulate the flow of information in a fine-grained and context-dependent way, and regulatory traits can have a role in this process. (acerbialberto.com)
  • As Spencer put it: "there are not several kinds of Evolution having certain traits in common, but one Evolution going on everywhere after the same manner. (acerbialberto.com)
  • Traits arising through convergent evolution are termed analogous structures, in contrast to homologous structures, which have a common origin. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The opposite of convergent evolution is divergent evolution , whereby related species evolve different traits. (thefullwiki.org)
  • To do this, we focus on developing analytical and simulation models of various cultural phenomena. (mpg.de)
  • Further, I propose a unifying framework that countenances group decision-making as an iterative learning process, and thus emphasises the role of collective intelligence in the emergence of cultural phenomena hitherto considered uniquely human, but arguably found even in non-humans. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, recent simulation models have found that basic social influences on learning suffice to support both cultural phenomena. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • This research demonstrates the potential of combining different methodologies-review of anthropological data, experiments, and modeling-to investigate cultural phenomena. (claidiere.fr)
  • The study of cultural evolution has taken on an increasingly interdisciplinary and diverse approach in explicating phenomena of cultural transmission and adoptions. (philarchive.org)
  • The editors provide an extensive introductory essay to contextualize the volume, and Wimsatt contributes a separate chapter that systematically organizes the conceptual geography of cultural processes and phenomena. (umn.edu)
  • Convergent evolution is similar to, but distinguishable from, the phenomena of evolutionary relay and parallel evolution . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Boyd R, Richerson PJ (2005) The Origin and Evolution of Cultures. (springer.com)
  • This results in Integral philosophy's tendency to uncritically rank the developmental attainment of various cultures and societies while remaining largely silent on matters of social and cultural justice for indigenous populations. (integralworld.net)
  • It demonstrates how identifying cultures as shared resources is useful in eliciting the main factors and social dilemmas affecting the production and evolution of cultural expression. (elgaronline.com)
  • After all, how our cultures evolve (including how information is transmitted, how people make decisions, and the interaction with our biology) is a pressing issue in a world in which our cultural activities are causing rapid, and drastic, social and physical changes. (culturalevolutionsociety.org)
  • Conclusions: Our results help to explain the observation that animal cultures are widespread, but cumulative cultural change might be rare. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Multilineal evolution is a 20th-century social theory about the evolution of societies and cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • By mid-twentieth century, anthropologists started to criticize the generalization of culture and the hypothetical stages of cultural evolution, and instead, started a new trend of viewing all cultures as unique according to time and place. (wikipedia.org)
  • While each anthropologist's theory regarding multilineal evolution has varied slightly, most agreed that no specific evolutionary changes are experienced by all cultures universally, but that all human societies do generally evolve or progress. (wikipedia.org)
  • But most modern cultural anthropologists have adopted a general systems approach, examining cultures as emergent systems and argue that one must consider the whole social environment, which includes political and economic relations among cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are still others who continue to reject the entirety of the evolutionary thinking and look instead at historical contingencies, contacts with other cultures, and the operation of cultural symbol systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to cultural evolutionary theory in the tradition of Boyd and Richerson, cultural evolution is driven by individuals' learning biases, natural selection, and random forces. (philarchive.org)
  • Boyd, R. & Richerson, P. J. The evolution of reciprocity in sizable groups. (nature.com)
  • Boyd, R. & Richerson, P. J. Why culture is common but cultural evolution is rare. (nature.com)
  • It seems that Gray did not, in the four years between the two essays, find time to learn more about cultural evolution, such as by reading the paper Matt Ridley linked in his reply to Gray's review, Five misunderstandings about cultural evolution by Henrich, Boyd, and Richerson. (carcinisation.com)
  • 2005) The Evolution of Cultural Diversity: A Phylogenetic Approach. (springer.com)
  • This article outlines a Darwinian approach to sports that takes into account its profoundly cultural character and thereby overcomes the traditional nature-culture dichotomies in the sociology of sport. (jhu.edu)
  • Our approach combines the insights of evolutionary psychology, which states that biological adaptations determine the boundaries for the types of sport that are possible, and pure cultural theories, which describe the mechanism of cultural evolution without referring to sport's biological bases. (jhu.edu)
  • An Evolutionary Developmental Approach to Cultural Evolution. (speakerdeck.com)
  • A compelling alternative approach comes from theories of social evolution ( 2 , 18 ⇓ - 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • A Naturalistic Approach to the Theory of the Firm: The Role of Cooperation and Cultural Evolution ," Papers on Economics and Evolution 2006-06, Philipps University Marburg, Department of Geography. (repec.org)
  • A naturalistic approach to the theory of the firm: The role of cooperation and cultural evolution ," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization , Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 125-139, October. (repec.org)
  • The meme reproduces through its psychological appeal and the logic of itself, and the article uses an established approach to reveal cultural rather than rational explanations for TM. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Inspired by this computational movement, this study uses Bayesian networks analysis, combining both the frequentist and the Hamiltonian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach, to investigate the highly representative elements in the cultural evolution of a Vietnamese city's architecture in the early 20th century. (philarchive.org)
  • Equating evolutionism with fixed stages is a very puzzling approach for evolutionary scientists, like me, whose training was in biological evolution. (peterturchin.com)
  • A cultural evolutionary approach seats corruption as a special case of cooperation, offering new means to understand and combat it (Muthukrishna, et al. (35.161.114)
  • A cultural evolutionary approach reveals the relationship between economic growth, inequality, tolerance for inequality, and widespread beliefs-like "evil eye" and witchcraft-that have economic implications (Li & Muthukrishna, 2017, "The coevolution of Economic Growth, Inequality, Tolerance for Inequality, and Belief in Evil Eye", Working Paper). (35.161.114)
  • 4. Kirby S, Cornish H, Smith K (2008) Cumulative cultural evolution in the laboratory: An experimental approach to the origins of structure in human language. (claidiere.fr)
  • We develop a cultural evolutionary theory of the origins of prosocial religions and apply it to resolve two puzzles in human psychology and cultural history: (1) the rise of large-scale cooperation among strangers and, simultaneously, (2) the spread of prosocial religions in the last 10-12 millennia. (cambridge.org)
  • According to their synthesis, the process of cultural group selection driven by group competition has recruited our proclivity to adopt and spread religious beliefs and engage in religious practices to increase within group solidarity, harmony and cooperation. (philarchive.org)
  • They argue that the effects of cultural forces are far greater than genetic predisposition or geographic proximity in promoting cooperation with nonkin. (evolution-institute.org)
  • An initial survey identified variations on norms regarding cattle-raiding, cultural markers, cooperation, family dynamics, and crime and punishment. (evolution-institute.org)
  • Bowles, S. & Gintis, H. The evolution of strong reciprocity: cooperation in heterogeneous populations. (nature.com)
  • Popular music offers a rich source of data that provides insights into long-term cultural evolutionary dynamics. (cambridge.org)
  • Against a baseline that communication variants spread in a population following neutral evolutionary dynamics (also known as drift models), we tested the role of two cultural selection models: coordination- and content-biased. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Their cultural evolutionary account of religion only looks at the cultural dynamics arising from competition between groups, not at the dynamics arising from within the group. (philarchive.org)
  • Drawing from game-theoretic analyses of the emergence and cultural evolution of social institutions, I outline two sets of important 'within-group' dynamics that shape institutional religions. (philarchive.org)
  • Bringing these dynamics into account enables us to explain prominent features of institutional religions that cannot be satisfactorily explained by the current model of the cultural evolution of religions. (philarchive.org)
  • This is both socially transmitted (parents do an effort to convince their children that learning from teachers at school is good) and influences directly - at least this is what parents aim for - cultural dynamics (children will listen to what teachers say at school). (acerbialberto.com)
  • The Language Evolution LAB is oriented to the analysis of the Origin of Evolution of Language studying the cognitive mechanisms, interaction patterns, and collective dynamics that could explain how grammatical structures arise in human language by building agent-based models and using the hypothesis that self-organization and (linguistic) selection are the primary driving forces. (upf.edu)
  • Cultural evolutionary theory conceptualises culture as an information-transmission system whose dynamics take on evolutionary properties. (edu.au)
  • This talk was the first event presented by The Association for Cultural Evolution at the Institute for the Study of Consciousness. (photosynthesis.com)
  • In this review I propose that cultural evolution theory, including both a sophisticated view of human behavior and a methodological attitude to modeling and quantitative analysis, provides a useful framework to study the effects and the developments of media in the digital age. (frontiersin.org)
  • I will first give a general presentation of the cultural evolution framework, and I will then introduce this more specific research program with two illustrative topics. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, I will not attempt a review of the existing literature, but I will propose that a specific scientific field, cultural evolution, could provide a suitable framework to analyse how the massive diffusion of digital media influences human cultural behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • Then there is the question of whether evolution is the right framework for all the forms of cultural transmission? (blogspot.com)
  • Although theories of unilinear evolution has fallen out of favor, some cultural anthropologists and many archeologists still work within the framework of multilineal evolution. (academickids.com)
  • The aim of this initiative is to develop a unified framework capable of understanding cultural change beyond the knowledge of any single discipline. (bsc.es)
  • Right now I am struggling with trying to explain why this question is best answered within the framework of Cultural Evolution. (peterturchin.com)
  • Despite the appeal of meme theory, its simplification of complex interactions and other inadequacies as an explanatory framework raise more questions about cultural evolution than it answers. (umn.edu)
  • Integrating Evolution and Development: From Theory to Practice (pp. 227-323). (speakerdeck.com)
  • The evolution of secularization: cultural transmission, religion and fertility-theory, simulations and evidence ," Journal of Population Economics , Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 26(3), pages 1129-1174, July. (repec.org)
  • The Evolution of Secularization: Cultural Transmission, Religion and Fertility Theory, Simulations and Evidence ," Working Papers 2010-10, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics. (repec.org)
  • The Evolution of Secularization: Cultural Transmission, Religion and Fertility Theory, Simulations and Evidence ," IZA Discussion Papers 4980, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA). (repec.org)
  • Overall, I suggest the usefulness of a "long view" to our contemporary digital environment, contextualized in cognitive science and cultural evolution theory, and I discuss how this perspective could help us to understand what is genuinely new and what is not. (frontiersin.org)
  • The multidisciplinary Theory in Cultural Evolution Lab (TICE Lab) brings together a unique group of mathematicians, physicists, theoretical biologists, and statisticians contributing to a general theory of cultural evolution. (mpg.de)
  • Thus, we aim to place the study of cultural evolution on a firm theoretical footing, and provide a bridge between that theory and the cultural data collected by anthropologists and archaeologists. (mpg.de)
  • Discussion of everything related to the Theory of Evolution. (biology-online.org)
  • Whether one believes in the theory of dynamic biological change and evolution or a more static creationist model of biology, one cannot deny we are biological beings with certain characteristics that largely distinguish us from other animals. (flowofhistory.com)
  • The combination of cultural and technological change along with the Rubber Band Theory helps explain the overall flow of history. (flowofhistory.com)
  • This novel pattern of results suggests that (i) a theory of the cultural evolution of human communication systems must integrate selectionist models and (ii) human communication systems are functionally adaptive complex systems. (gla.ac.uk)
  • I think it's fair to say this issue has been widely discussed - with some folks promoting "viruses of the mind" and "cultural virus theory" for example, and other folk criticizing them. (blogspot.com)
  • The Cultural Evolution Society is committed to a broad, pluralistic and interdisciplinary perspective, which brings together all researchers applying evolutionary theory to the understanding of cultural inheritance and evolution. (culturalevolutionsociety.org)
  • Unfortunately, certain kinds of cultural evolutionary theory (mainly unilineal) have also been used in the past to justify forms of Scientific racism , including policies of Colonialism , Slavery , and Eugenics . (academickids.com)
  • Evolution , theory in biology postulating that the various types of plants, animals, and other living things on Earth have their origin in other preexisting types and that the distinguishable differences are due to modifications in successive generations. (britannica.com)
  • The theory of evolution is one of the fundamental keystones of modern biological theory. (britannica.com)
  • Genetics , a science born in the 20th century, reveals in detail how natural selection works and led to the development of the modern theory of evolution. (britannica.com)
  • centre of the theory of evolution as proposed by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace were the concepts of variation and natural selection. (britannica.com)
  • I have simply assigned an existing theoretical entity to a role in a different theory, that of cultural evolution. (replicatedtypo.com)
  • This is a "hot" topic in modern cultural evolutionary theory so I do not want to go in depth here (let me just say at least that I think it is interesting to study also the differences between the two evolutionary processes). (acerbialberto.com)
  • I'll discuss collaborations at the London School of Economics that are attempting to build that better model by integrating cultural evolutionary theory into economics. (35.161.114)
  • In this brand new LSE Philosophy Video, Professor J. McKenzie Alexander discusses game theory, evolutionary game theory and the evolution of morality. (lse.ac.uk)
  • To find out more about his views on evolutionary game theory and morality see his book The Structural Evolution of Morality . (lse.ac.uk)
  • This hypothesis termed the Neutral Theory of Evolution, at first questioned, has allowed significant advances in our understanding in the impacts of selection, genetic variance, and analysis of species history. (bartleby.com)
  • This theory has replaced the older 19th century set of theories of unilineal evolution, where evolutionists were deeply interested in making generalizations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The multilineal evolutionary theory views the process of cultural development as an adaption to nature's resources through technological breakthroughs, as well as coping with outside cultural influence. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the late 1950s, students of Steward such as Eric Wolf and Sidney Mintz turned away from cultural ecology to Marxism, World Systems Theory, Dependency theory and Marvin Harris's cultural materialism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Social transmission is the inheritance mechanism in the case of culture and culture evolves through a process of descent with modification, affected by forces such as natural selection operating on its bearers and by a variety of other forces that have no analogue in genetic evolution. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Their experimental design, however, emphasizes the role of selection at the expense of other fundamental features of human cultural evolution that need to be taken into account to study the evolution of real musical culture. (pnas.org)
  • Theoretical and empirical results show that individuals actively transform and recombine information according to psychological biases and that these biases drive the evolution of culture ( 2 ), both in humans and nonhuman animals ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • both factors need to be taken into account when trying to understand the evolution of real music, real language, and, more broadly, real culture ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Reproducing Entrenchments to Scaffold Culture: The Central Role of Development in Cultural Evolution. (speakerdeck.com)
  • Biology makes culture possible and culture influences the direction of evolution. (biology-online.org)
  • Today, a leading front-runner for the key to human success is cumulative culture, or cumulative cultural evolution (CCE). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Redefining Translation and Interpretation in Cultural Evolution is a pivotal reference source for the latest scholarly research on culture-oriented translation and interpretation studies in the contemporary globalized society. (iatis.org)
  • After serving during the war in China, he began a lifelong integration of cultural patterns and psychology, ranging from classical antiquity to Asian culture. (photosynthesis.com)
  • I have regarded for quite some time that ever since culture expanded with the aid of language, or rather the development of language along with its structural physical changes to the brain, there has been little biological evolution in the homo genus. (ning.com)
  • There are a few assumptions in the idea that 1) there has been little biological development since the development of language/culture and 2) Cultural re/production replaced biological evolution. (ning.com)
  • There is a lot of literature out there now that takes apart the biology/culture distinction -- and I think any discussion of evolution has to question this. (ning.com)
  • I would argue that in order to discuss evolution it is necessary to question the categories we consider basic, which themselves are rooted in a certain history, culture, and language. (ning.com)
  • The Cultural Evolution Society supports evolutionary approaches to culture in humans and other animals. (mpg.de)
  • You can read a description here in which Director Russell Gray and Olivier Morin of the Department of Liguistic and Cultural Evolution discuss the significance of this event for the study of human language and culture. (mpg.de)
  • This paper proposes that human culture has evolved from authoritative local premodernity through rational local modernity to the coming rational global postmodernity with diverse cultural types. (scirp.org)
  • Cultural evolution is the change of culture over time. (culturalevolutionsociety.org)
  • Australia, home of the Australian Aborigines , is often treated as a single culture area despite its considerable cultural and geographic diversity . (britannica.com)
  • Europe: culture areas Map showing the distribution of various culture areas, each inhabited by groups exhibiting linguistic and other cultural similarity, in Europe. (britannica.com)
  • Aleem, Hadiyah Saeed and Jannat Asif Submitted To: Ms. Amna Waheeda Major: Media Studies Course Title: Media culture and society Semester: 3rd Final Project Report Topic: Cultural Globalization Cultural Globalization: Cultural globalization refers to the process of international integration resulting from the interchange of ideas and other cultural aspects. (ipl.org)
  • Then and finally- came cultural insights and so-called cultural brand strategy in the US market with some early guerrilla marketing tactics and risk-takers like Crispin Porter or W&K which brought "Culture" out of the strategic planning closet, albeit what amounts to a teenage boy version of it. (esomar.org)
  • Role of psychological bias in evolution depends on the kind of culture. (claidiere.fr)
  • This hypothesis builds on a long tradition suggesting that social learning, and thus culture, may affect evolution (e.g. [ 13 ]), and can also be linked to Reader & Laland's [ 14 ] hypothesis that general behavioural flexibility, which includes social learning, may have favoured the evolution of intelligence. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The volume demonstrates how a thick understanding of change in culture emerges from multiple disciplinary vantage points, each of which is required to understand cultural evolution in all its complexity. (umn.edu)
  • In recent decades, the concept of the meme, posited as a basic unit of culture analogous to the gene, has been central to debates about cultural transformation. (umn.edu)
  • By focusing on the full range of evolutionary processes across distinct contexts, from rice farming to scientific reasoning, this volume demonstrates how a thick understanding of change in culture emerges from multiple disciplinary vantage points, each of which is required to understand cultural evolution in all its complexity. (umn.edu)
  • Any adequate account of the transmission, elaboration, and evolution of culture must, this volume argues, recognize the central roles that cognitive and social development play in cultural change and the complex interplay of technological, organizational, and institutional structures needed to enable and coordinate these processes. (umn.edu)
  • Introduction to Cultural Anthropology" will explain the concept of culture-as a set of meanings, values, and practices-and put it into useful perspective. (buffalo.edu)
  • These conditions provided the context for new theories such as cultural relativism and multilinear evolution, which criticizes the generalization of culture and hypothetical stages of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthropologists Marshall Sahlins and Elman Service wrote a book, Evolution and Culture, in which they attempted to synthesize White's and Steward's approaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • This research article collection will showcase cutting-edge research into cultural evolution, bringing together contributions that reflect the interdisciplinary scope of this rapidly growing field, as well as the diversity of topics and approaches within it. (cognitionandculture.net)
  • Some months ago I wrote a post mentioning the difficulties that, at times, people working in the interdisciplinary field of "cultural evolution" may face in order to find an appropriate scientific journal to submit their research. (acerbialberto.com)
  • Beyond the Meme assembles interdisciplinary perspectives on cultural evolution, providing a nuanced understanding of it as a process in which dynamic structures interact on different scales of size and time. (umn.edu)
  • Using the concept of memes as cultural transmitters and replicators, this article explores the origins of a talent meme and the subsequent evolution of talent management (TM). (hud.ac.uk)
  • Genes are the carriers of biological information, while memes transmit cultural information. (johnholland.ws)
  • Memes survive, reproduce, and evolve in accordance with principles that share similarities with those of biological evolution. (johnholland.ws)
  • Dawkins proposed that memes are cultural equivalents of genes-self-replicating units of cultural transmission. (peterturchin.com)
  • The question of the cultural phenotype] is as difficult, obscure, and contentious as the nature of memes. (replicatedtypo.com)
  • Whatever political goals it is used to promote, the idea of cultural evolution is not much more than a misleading metaphor….Memes are just a pseudo-scientific way of talking about ideas, not actually existing physical entities. (carcinisation.com)
  • UCL has one of the one of the largest number of researchers actively involved in human evolution research of any university in the world. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • However, human evolution research is necessarily cross-disciplinary and these researchers are dispersed across a number of different departments and institutes. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Human Evolution @ UCL provides information on these researchers and their various research themes, as well as on human evolution teaching and seminars, and serves as a focal point for the initiation of collaborative research and teaching. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Ecology of human evolution: biological, social and cultural approaches to hominin adaptations. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • This module explores human evolution in terms of physiological, social and cultural adaptations. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • For a discussion of human evolution, see the article human evolution . (britannica.com)
  • This scenario provides the backdrop behind a perplexing question about human evolution: the advent of female reproductive senescence. (scientificamerican.com)
  • But as knowledge of human evolution, our closeness to other primates, and our adaptations to specific environments emerged, we have taken our place in the animal kingdom. (buffalo.edu)
  • However, our sudden access to the storable, portable, and concentrated energy of fossil fuels, starting roughly in the 19th century, sped up cultural evolution to the point where disruptive cultural innovations began to be separated by mere decades, sometimes just years. (thestandard.org.nz)
  • The 19th-century English naturalist Charles Darwin argued that organisms come about by evolution, and he provided a scientific explanation , essentially correct but incomplete, of how evolution occurs and why it is that organisms have features-such as wings, eyes, and kidneys-clearly structured to serve specific functions. (britannica.com)
  • Darwin and other 19th-century biologists found compelling evidence for biological evolution in the comparative study of living organisms, in their geographic distribution, and in the fossil remains of extinct organisms. (britannica.com)
  • Today most anthropologists continue to reject 19th century notions of progress and the three original assumptions of unilineal evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are excited to announce the opening of abstract submission for the Cultural Evolution Society Conference 2021, held as a full virtual online meeting on June 9-11, 2021. (culturalevolutionsociety.org)
  • At a more abstract level, the same propensity to engage in cultural learning can be subjected to cultural influence and hence be a regulatory trait (you learn from others whether - or how much - to learn from others). (acerbialberto.com)
  • These results show that frequent, nonrandom transformative processes, resulting from psychological biases, are crucial in models of cultural evolution, requiring a difference in emphasis from models inspired by biology, such as genetic algorithms. (pnas.org)
  • Here we use two large datasets containing lyrics from n = 4913 and n = 159,015 pop songs respectively and spanning 1965-2015, to test whether cultural transmission biases derived from the cultural evolution literature can explain this trend towards emotional negativity. (cambridge.org)
  • The first topic concerns how cultural transmission biases, that is, simple heuristics such as "copy prestigious individuals" or "copy the majority," operate in the novel context of digital media. (frontiersin.org)
  • Learning biases lead people to preferentially acquire cultural variants with certain contents or in certain contexts. (philarchive.org)
  • Cultural anthropologists and sociologists assume that human beings have natural social tendencies and naturally form shifting groups. (academickids.com)
  • Cultural evolution also refers to different theories that describe and explain such changes - theories have been both promoted and criticized by anthropologists . (academickids.com)
  • Today anthropologists distinguish between "unilinear cultural evolution" (or " social evolutionism ") and "multilinear cultural evolution. (academickids.com)
  • Others proposed more sophisticated schemes, but the majority of anthropologists today are united in their rejection of such 'stadial' theories of social evolution (and rightly so). (peterturchin.com)
  • Cultural evolution had previously been treated much like biological evolution, but many anthropologists were quick to dismiss this comparison. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other anthropologists, such as Peter Vayda and Roy Rappaport, have gone on to build or respond to work done by White and Steward, such as developing theories of cultural ecology and ecological anthropology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alex Mesoudi, a scholar in the field of cultural evolution, is publishing book chapters as preprints. (gnxp.com)
  • Human communication systems evolve culturally, but the evolutionary mechanisms that drive this evolution are not well understood. (gla.ac.uk)
  • In the present study we test the predictions of these models in the context of skill learning, in a model with stochastic demographics, variable group sizes, and evolved parameter values, exploring the cultural ramifications of three different social learning mechanisms. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • We lay out three potential explanations for bloodletting's cultural success: that it was efficient, that it was defended by prestigious sources-in particular ancient physicians-, and that cognitive mechanisms made it a particularly attractive practice. (claidiere.fr)
  • In this sense, it is the cultural equivalent of biological evolution , though the causal mechanisms can be different. (academickids.com)
  • This short introduction will pull together a few themes and compelling stories from this large field and present some of its concepts, mechanisms, and evidence-hopefully enough to increase the reader's suspicion of the claim that cultural evolution is a "myth. (carcinisation.com)
  • The cultural intelligence hypothesis can also account for the unusual cognitive abilities of humans, as well as our unique mechanisms of skill transfer. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Campbell DT (1975) On the conflicts between biological and social evolution and between psychology and moral tradition. (springer.com)
  • McElreath R, Boyd R (2007) Mathematical Models of Social Evolution. (springer.com)
  • The French sociologist Gabriel Tarde wrote in 1888: "We may call it social evolution when an invention quietly spreads through imitation. (changelog.ca)
  • Emerging theories of social evolution allowed Europeans to organize their new knowledge in a way that reflected and justified their increasing political and economic domination of others: colonized people were less-evolved, colonizing people were more evolved. (academickids.com)
  • Emerging theories of social evolution reflected a belief that the changes in Europe wrought by the Industrial Revolution and capitalism were improvements. (academickids.com)
  • Social evolution is just a modern myth. (carcinisation.com)
  • Bad ideas like racism seem to hang around forever, while the silly idea of social evolution has shown an awesome power to mutate and survive. (carcinisation.com)
  • The idea of social evolution is rubbish of this kind, a virulent meme that continues to reproduce and spread despite having been refuted time and time again. (carcinisation.com)
  • The Philosophy of Social Evolution Part 5: Cultural inclusive fitness? (lse.ac.uk)
  • Steward wrote that unlike biological evolution, in cultural evolution it is assumed that cultural patterns in different parts of the world are genetically unrelated, and yet they were said in unilinear evolution to pass through parallel sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesoudi reviews the history of the field, from the rise and fall of human sociobiology in the 1970s to the birth of evolutionary psychology in the 1980s, and the gradual but consistent waxing of lesser-known disciplines such as cognitive anthropology and human behavioral ecology (out of which comes cultural evolution). (gnxp.com)
  • This is in contrast to the shift away from analysis to interpretation and description in much of cultural anthropology across the same time period, with the ultimate secession of much of the field from "science. (gnxp.com)
  • In recent years, the phenomenon of cumulative cultural evolution (CCE) has become the focus of major research interest in biology, psychology and anthropology. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This course will take a look at our four major subfields - archaeology, linguistic anthropology, physical anthropology, and cultural anthropology - and include discussions on our "youngest" subfield, applied anthropology. (buffalo.edu)
  • Evolution and Human Behavior 28: 151-158. (springer.com)
  • Evolution and Human Behavior 27: 169-184. (springer.com)
  • To illustrate these processes, we will present a model that depicts how the biased transmission of cultural contents via social learning processes within the firm influence employees’ behavior and the performance of the firm. (repec.org)
  • A meme propagates itself as a unit of cultural evolution and diffusion - analogous in many ways to the behavior of the gene (the unit of genetic information). (biology-online.org)
  • i can mail it to you, no charge hehehe) The base idea is that human behavior, even though pre-determined like the the behavior of complex systems, cannot be predicted due to the amount of variables that have to be taken into account in its construction, whether these be biological, cultural or environmental variables! (ning.com)
  • Furthermore, there is a great deal of nonhuman animal behavior that suggests that various types of communication -- linguistic or pre-linguistic and otherwise -- and empathic relationships (and is emotion cultural or biological? (ning.com)
  • One can see cultural evolution as how people adapt their behavior to the environment. (flowofhistory.com)
  • The instinctive cultural type model is the group social behavior model for advanced social animals. (scirp.org)
  • Evolution and Human Behavior. (claidiere.fr)
  • Many forms of cultural and social behavior, including music and art, follow these same selective paths. (johnholland.ws)
  • Therefore, with Fiona Jordan , we are organising a meeting at EHBEA 2014 (the European Human Behavior and Evolution Association Conference, which will be held in Bristol from 6 to 9 April, and which is with no doubts a cultural evolution-friendly conference) to discuss about this project, and possibly to start to do something concrete in this direction. (acerbialberto.com)
  • Many different kinds of research - neuroscience, perception, and cross cultural evidence - show that Darwin's conceptualization of emotions as separate discrete entities has proven to be very useful. (psychologicalscience.org)
  • The cultural types analogous to biological species are the nine cultural types derived from the instinctive cultural type model based on the instinctive sociality trichotomy (individualistic, collectivistic, and interdependent) and the instinctive worldview trichotomy (territorial, connective, and competitive). (scirp.org)
  • Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: 27-32. (springer.com)
  • Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11: 453-457. (springer.com)
  • It explores human ecology in the broad sense, combining not just cultural and social variability, but also physiological adaptations in past and present-day hunter-gatherers and great apes. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • An overview of the evolution of life as a major characteristic of Earth's history is given in community ecology: Evolution of the biosphere . (britannica.com)
  • Currently we are 23 researchers working on a broad range of topics including natural history, urban ecology, bird nest evolution, bird egg color, bird hyoid (tongue bone) evolution, African ethnobotany, social learning, public understanding of evolution, and cultural evolution in bird song and human music. (cuny.edu)
  • Each will be working on either the Bronx River Urban Ecology Project or the House Finch Cultural Evolution Project. (cuny.edu)
  • Bobby continued under his NSF postdoctoral grant, and conducted a field research expedition to Awash National Park in Ethiopia, where he surveyed the weaverbirds and studied their nest ecology and evolution. (cuny.edu)
  • Read the stories behind the papers in Nature Ecology & Evolution and other journals on the Nature Research Ecology & Evolution Community. (nature.com)
  • Julian Steward thus linked multilinear evolution with the idea of cultural ecology. (wikipedia.org)
  • This synthesis is grounded in the idea that although religious beliefs and practices originally arose as nonadaptive by-products of innate cognitive functions, particular cultural variants were then selected for their prosocial effects in a long-term, cultural evolutionary process. (cambridge.org)
  • Maturing chimpanzees and orang-utans would not have acquired these cultural variants, which are complex learned skills, on their own, if it were not for social learning [ 15 - 18 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The distribution of genetic and cultural variation in human populations is shaped by demographic history, natural selection, mutation (or innovation) and random factors (drift). (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We work on the premise that a mechanistic understanding of the processes underlying cultural change can help us to explain something about the human species beyond what can be gleaned from genetic or even cultural data alone. (mpg.de)
  • Genetic evolution tends to create smoothly integrated organisms, and cultural evolution tends to create smoothly integrated groups of organisms. (johnholland.ws)
  • Rules" of genetic transmission tend to not be under genetic control, and models of cultural evolution inspired by evolutionary biology tend to consider the rules of cultural transmission (for example the propensity to learn from others) in the same way not under "cultural control" (they are usually considered under genetic control). (acerbialberto.com)
  • My PhD student, Ryutaro Uchiyama presented some new analyses on the Cultural Brain Hypothesis in a parallel session. (35.161.114)
  • He cautioned that this is just a hypothesis, but "recent cultural evolution and biological evolution may be linked. (blogspot.com)
  • These findings shaped the cultural intelligence hypothesis, which complements the traditional benefit hypotheses for the evolution of intelligence by specifying the conditions in which these benefits can be reaped. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The hypothesis also predicts that more heavily cultural species should be more intelligent. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The 'Vygotskian intelligence hypothesis' [ 3 ] considers cultural effects on cognitive development, and assumes them to be unique to humans [ 4 , 5 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Here we examine both the developmental and evolutionary aspects of the cultural intelligence hypothesis. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The coming postmodernity as rational global diversity will bring rational order and peace among global diverse cultural types. (scirp.org)
  • 2. Sperber D, Hirschfeld LA (2004) The cognitive foundations of cultural stability and diversity. (claidiere.fr)
  • It's called biocultural evolution. (biology-online.org)
  • Importantly, we argue that closer attention to play objects can go some way towards addressing changes in innovation rates that occurred throughout human biocultural evolution and why innovations are observable within certain technological domains but not others. (edu.au)
  • We hope you will join us in Jena, Germany at the inaugural meeting of the Cultural Evolution Society in September 2017. (mpg.de)
  • While the pace of cultural evolution was much faster than that of biological evolution, major cultural innovations like the domestication of plants and animals, the creation of the first states, and the emergence of the earliest empires were still spaced thousands of years apart. (thestandard.org.nz)
  • Cultural emergence of recursive phrase structure. (upf.edu)
  • Just as biological evolution is characterised by changing frequencies of genes in populations through time so cultural evolution refers to the changing distributions of cultural attributes in populations. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • It is increasingly recognised that cultural evolution can influence gene distributions in populations, as in the well-known case of the selective effect of dairying on the incidence of adult lactose tolerance. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Collard M, Shennan S, Tehrani JJ (2006) Branching, blending, and the evolution of cultural similarities and differences among human populations. (springer.com)
  • For instance, populations are able to produce linguistic conventions on accepted names for children and pets ( 11 ), on common names for colors ( 12 ), and on popular terms for novel cultural artifacts, such as referring to junk email as "SPAM" ( 13 , 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • A story online from Wired magazine, "Getting Evolution Up to Speed," by Annalee Newitz talks about these notions, especially a study that demonstrates that two key genes connected to brain size are currently under rapid selection in populations throughout the globe. (blogspot.com)
  • Theories of cultural evolution have been used to explain or justify a variety of social movements and political ideologies as diverse as Marxism , Gaians , Ecoregional Democracy and new tribalists . (academickids.com)
  • Cultural Evolution is one of the most recent and interesting approaches to the crucial task of understanding how society works. (bsc.es)
  • These related studies reveal how cultural evolution may offer new approaches to age old problems, but also how the economic toolkit may be deployed to understand culturally evolved beliefs and behaviors. (35.161.114)
  • Even though American corporations have been the engine of globalism that has necessitated more "cultural" approaches to global mega-branding in order to contextualise American multinational brands in new regions, numbers-first thinking and geographic isolation made most American clients slow to comprehend the power and importance of cultural literacy for brands. (esomar.org)
  • 2020. Rapid evolution by sexual selection in an invasive mammal. (cuny.edu)
  • Evolution has found many ways of preventing power from overrunning environmental limits, and human societies have evolved ways of reining in bullies and limiting extreme economic and social inequality. (thestandard.org.nz)
  • There are three types of evolution that have driven the development of human societies. (flowofhistory.com)
  • Certain forms of expression are adopted by different societies based on their mythologies and cultural values. (johnholland.ws)
  • While earlier authors such as Montaigne discussed how societies change through time, it was truly the Scottish Enlightenment which proved key in the development of cultural evolution. (academickids.com)
  • As the readers of this blog know, one of the central directions in my research has been understanding the evolution of large-scale, complex societies. (peterturchin.com)
  • Sahlins and Service argue that societies develop through a process of specialized adaptions to their habitat and neighbouring societies, and that variations in environments and historical contacts are what leads to cultural diversification. (wikipedia.org)
  • INNOVATIONIST Trademark of The Institute for Cultural Evolution. (trademarkia.com)
  • Or, contact the owner The Institute for Cultural Evolution of the INNOVATIONIST trademark by filing a request to communicate with the Legal Correspondent for licensing, use, and/or questions related to the INNOVATIONIST trademark. (trademarkia.com)
  • 1 ) essentially implemented a search algorithm to find pleasing tunes, albeit one with key similarities to biological evolution. (pnas.org)
  • The Cultural Evolution Lab also constitutes a centre of expertise on workflow and data quality issues for humanities and social science projects. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It sums up pretty well part of the research I was carrying with the Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution in Stockholm. (acerbialberto.com)
  • Assuming that changes during reproduction are few and undirected offers a much better approximation in genetics than in the cultural domain. (pnas.org)
  • For a more complete treatment of a discipline that has proved essential to the study of evolution, see the articles genetics, human and heredity . (britannica.com)
  • The study of cultural evolution involves characterising those forces and modelling their consequences. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Finally, this study suggests integrating Bayesian statistics in the social sciences in general and for the study of cultural evolution and architectural transformation in particular. (philarchive.org)
  • Jablonka E, Lamb M (1995) Epigenetic Inheritance and Evolution: The Lamarckian Dimension. (springer.com)
  • The three principles of biological evolution are variation, selection, and inheritance. (scirp.org)
  • Our studies explore various media and genres to gauge the impact of our evolutionary inheritance, in interdependence with the respective cultural environments, on our aesthetic appreciation. (brill.com)
  • We focus on the value of coupled empirical and formal methodologies, and on the futility of mysterianism , the declining view that the nature, origins and evolution of language cannot be addressed empirically. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we argue that anti-empiricist views on language have detrimental effects on understanding its origins and evolution. (frontiersin.org)
  • This research has been implemented in fluid construction grammar (FCG), a formalism for construction grammars that has been specially designed for the origins and evolution of language. (upf.edu)
  • Gerard RW, Kluckhohn C, Rapoport A (1956) Biological and cultural evolution: Some analogies and explorations. (springer.com)
  • Several biological and cultural factors may moderate the direct effect that signaling value has on a sport's viability or popularity. (jhu.edu)
  • Biological, cultural and technological evolution? (biology-online.org)
  • Would someone be able to explain to me the interrelationships between biological, cultural and technological evolution? (biology-online.org)
  • Technological evolution enables people to adapt or change their environment to meet their needs. (flowofhistory.com)
  • Cavalli-Sforza LL, Feldman MW (1981) Cultural Transmission and Evolution. (springer.com)
  • What is cumulative cultural evolution? (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Here, we investigated the effect of multilevel sociality on cumulative cultural evolution by using wireless sensing technology to map inter- and intraband social networks among Agta hunter-gatherers. (sciencemag.org)
  • By simulating the accumulation of cultural innovations over the real Agta multicamp networks, we demonstrate that multilevel sociality accelerates cultural differentiation and cumulative cultural evolution. (sciencemag.org)
  • We undertake research into the evolutionary processes that shape patterns of modern and ancient human molecular and cultural variation. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Premodernity, modernity, and postmodernity are the cultural adaptations to the drastic social changes from the Agricultural, Industrial, and Information Revolutions. (scirp.org)
  • Since then evolutionary biology and historical linguistics have used trees to conceptualise evolution. (blogspot.com)
  • An evolutionary continuum which can be traced from at least as far back as the formation of the chemical elements in stars and supernovae, right through such phases as the evolution of minerals, biology and the evolution of technology that has occurred over the last 2.5 million years within the collective imagination of our species. (blogspot.com)
  • Beginning in the 1960s, a related scientific discipline , molecular biology , enormously advanced knowledge of biological evolution and made it possible to investigate detailed problems that had seemed completely out of reach only a short time previously-for example, how similar the gene s of humans and chimpanzees might be (they differ in about 1-2 percent of the units that make up the genes). (britannica.com)
  • Mason was interviewed for a New York Times article on bird song cultural evolution that has recently come out in Current Biology . (cuny.edu)
  • Cultural evolution describes how socially learned ideas, rules, and skills are transmitted and change over time, giving rise to diverse forms of social organization, belief systems, languages, technologies and artistic traditions. (cognitionandculture.net)
  • These problems range from testing population dispersal hypotheses, to investigating the shape of cultural evolution, to inferring the rates at which languages change. (blogspot.com)
  • This is because people through most of history have barely survived with little or no surplus, giving them little or no margin for error if the new change does not work, and making them reluctant to change cultural norms very rapidly. (flowofhistory.com)
  • Therefore, it tends to happen at a much faster rate than cultural change. (flowofhistory.com)
  • Each participant described experiencing: a life change through a major event or crisis, an increase in cultural consciousness, an increase in spiritual evolution, and a stronger sense of purpose in life due to their community college learning. (uncg.edu)
  • Cultural evolution is cultural change viewed from an evolutionary perspective. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, neither the cubes nor the children are doing much change or evolution. (blogspot.com)
  • Background: Advanced cognitive abilities are widely thought to underpin cultural traditions and cumulative cultural change. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, we find cumulative cultural change is supported by observational learning, but not local or stimulus enhancement, which supports the idea that advanced cognitive abilities are important for generating this cultural phenomenon in the context of skill learning. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Cultural evolution is the structural change of a society and its values over time. (academickids.com)
  • Even then there was evidence for both social learning and cultural traditions in non-human species, and this evidence has amassed in the years since. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Charles Darwin famously noted that there were many curious parallels between the evolution of species and languages. (blogspot.com)
  • Biological species in biological evolution correspond to cultural types in cultural evolution. (scirp.org)
  • For example, a new medical discovery, such as immunization, may emerge suddenly at a strategic moment in the cultural evolution of the species. (johnholland.ws)
  • Bridging the gap between the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities, archaeologists integrate many types of evidence in order to shed light on the origins of our species, Homo sapiens sapiens and development through time of so many different cultural manifestations. (buffalo.edu)
  • Similarity in species of different ancestry which is the result of convergent evolution, is called homoplasy . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Evolutionary relay describes how independent species acquire similar characteristics through their evolution in similar ecosystems at different times-for example the dorsal fins of extinct ichthyosaurs and sharks . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Parallel evolution occurs when two independent species evolve together at the same time in the same ecospace and acquire similar characteristics-for instance extinct browsing-horses and paleotheres . (thefullwiki.org)
  • coined in 1976 by Richard Dawkins, refers to a unit of cultural information transferable from one mind to another. (biology-online.org)
  • 1 ) opens up a wide range of possible developments that invites further studies on the relative strength of transformative processes and Darwinian selection and on their role in shaping cultural evolution. (pnas.org)
  • Several processes appear to retard rates of cultural evolution below the maxima we observe in the most favorable cases. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The researchers hypothesized that specific psychological processes - such as our preference for things that seem familiar - might explain large-scale cultural trends. (healthcanal.com)