Connective Tissue Cells: A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Granulation Tissue: A vascular connective tissue formed on the surface of a healing wound, ulcer, or inflamed tissue. It consists of new capillaries and an infiltrate containing lymphoid cells, macrophages, and plasma cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Cell Membrane Structures: Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Microdissection: The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Mice, Inbred C57BLGolgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Batch Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for cultivation of cells, usually on a large-scale, in a closed system for the purpose of producing cells or cellular products to harvest.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Gingiva: Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Mice, Inbred BALB CCytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte: A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Spectrin: A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Purple Membrane: Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Spirulina: A genus of filamentous CYANOBACTERIA found in most lakes and ponds. It has been used as a nutritional supplement particularly due to its high protein content.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Unilamellar Liposomes: Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Nictitating Membrane: A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.Bruch Membrane: The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
... harvesting of cell tissues from the healthy eye of the patient and cultivation of the cell tissues on amniotic sac membrane ... "Eye of the Stem Cell". India Today. September 10, 2011. Archived from the original on September 11, 2016. "Eye of the Stem Cell ... "Cell-based Therapy for Ocular Reconstruction". Louis J. Fox Center for Vision Restoration. October 15, 2010. Archived from the ... Known for his research on limbal stem cells, Sangwan is the founder secretary and an adviser of the Uveitis Society of India. ...
This leads to a release of peroxides that destroy the cell membranes of the weed plants and lead to tissue death. Bifenox also ... In Germany, Austria and Switzerland bifenox pesticides are approved for use against weeds in the cultivation of cereals and ...
... mammalian cell cultures; vegetables; human nostrils and throats; and human and animal brain, skin, and lung tissues. B. ... brain tissue, skin, cornea) or of corneal scrapings, which may detect trophozoites and cysts. Cultivation of the causal ... The trophozoites replicate by mitosis (nuclear membrane does not remain intact) . The trophozoites are the infective forms and ... and Balamuthia mandrillaris cysts and trophozoites are found in tissue. While infrequent, infections appear to occur worldwide ...
Wilting J, Neeff H, Christ B (July 1999). "Embryonic lymphangiogenesis". Cell Tissue Res. 297 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1007/ ... Fried B, Stableford LT (1991). "Cultivation of helminths in chick embryos". Adv. Parasitol. 30: 108-65. doi:10.1016/s0065-308x( ... Ribatti D (2008). "Chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane as a useful tool to study angiogenesis". Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 270: ... The chorioallantoic membrane - also called the chorioallantois or abbreviated to CAM - is a vascular membrane found in eggs of ...
... which are important to maintain the membrane phospholipids in cells. A549 cell line are widely used as an in vitro model for a ... through the removal and culturing of cancerous lung tissue in the explanted tumor of a 58-year-old caucasian male. In nature, ... Giard, DJ; Aaronson, SA; Todaro, GJ; Arnstein, P; Kersey, JH; Dosik, H; Parks, WP (1973). "In vitro cultivation of human tumors ... A549 cells are adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells. The A549 cell line was first developed in 1972 by D. J. ...
As penetration occurs, Alternaria dauci will produce a chemical known as phytotoxin zinniol, which degrades cell membranes and ... A. dauci may also be spread into fields via contaminated carrot seeds during cultivation. Once introduced, the pathogen can ... Alternaria diseases, in general, tend to infect older, senescing tissues, and on plants developing under stress. A study ... These germination tubes will pierce host cell walls to initiate infection, or if wounds are present the pathogen may enter in ...
RNA1 ORF1: Nucleocapsid (N) protein ORF2: Phosphoprotein (P) ORF3: Proteins involved in viral cell-to-cell movement ORF4: ... Thin tissue samples from plants with visible symptoms of OFV can undergo: Electron microscopy to visualize virions and complete ... These particles often cluster in between the inner and outer nuclear membranes, causing visible projections which often ... Ensure proper environment for cultivation Work towards developing OFV-resistant plants through Genetic Engineering Once a plant ...
"Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture. 72 (1): 95-98. doi:10.1023/A:1021203811457. Retrieved 19 May 2016.. ... Such oxidative modification could rupture animal cell membranes. Plumbagin is known to induce apoptosis, associated with the ... Dionaea muscipula 'Akai Ryu', Japanese for 'Red Dragon', in cultivation. Plants can be propagated by seed, taking around four ... "The Plant Cell. 14 (suppl 1): S153-S164. doi:10.1105/tpc.000679. ISSN 1532-298X. PMC 151253 . PMID 12045275. Retrieved 26 May ...
... which also includes the banking and cultivation of these cells, as well as the therapeutic applications of these cells. The ... In 2004, Phan found two unique kinds of stem cells from the outer lining membrane of the umbilical cord. The umbilical cord ... allowing them to also bank cord tissue from which the cord lining stem cells are derived. Grace Chng (August 13, 2015). "Stem ... It owns 39 patents worldwide with intellectual property for the isolation of stem cells from the umbilical-cord lining membrane ...
... burgdorferi has an axial filament composed of flagella which run lengthways between its cell wall and outer membrane. This ... 1996). "Formation and cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi spheroplast-L-form variants". Infection. 24 (3): 218-226. doi:10.1007 ... 2005). "Invasion of human tissue ex vivo by Borrelia burgdorferi". J Infect Dis. 191 (10): 1747-1754. doi:10.1086/429632. PMID ... burgdorferi cells, sometimes called 'spheroplasts', which either lack a cell wall or have a damaged cell wall, has been ...
The death of such cells creates gaps in the brush border membrane. Bt cotton was first approved for field trials in the United ... ICAR has identified three varieties, namely PAU Bt 1, F1861 and RS 2013, for cultivation in Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan. It is a ... causing it to produce this natural insecticide in its tissues. In many regions, the main pests in commercial cotton are ... The epithelium of the brush border membranes separates the body cavity from the gut while allowing access for nutrients. The ...
... that this interference was mediated by a protein released by cells in the heat-inactivated influenza virus-treated membranes. ... was present in the tissues infected with virus and attempted to isolate and characterize this factor from tissue homogenates.[ ... allowing mass cultivation and purification from bacterial cultures[61] or derived from yeasts. Interferon can also be produced ... A virus-infected cell releases viral particles that can infect nearby cells. However, the infected cell can prepare neighboring ...
From autologous arterial-derived cells and fibrin scaffold, tissue engineered heart valves are formed, then mechanically ... Additional pre-cultivation in a specialized bioreactor is inevitable to ensure appropriate properties of the graft. Bullous ... Fibrin glue is used as a sutureless method onto the corneal surface to fix amniotic membrane that is cryopreserved. Complete re ... biodegradable cell-adhesive scaffolds since cells can not attach to synthetic polymers and take proper signals for normal cell ...
A cell must have captured a photosynthetic cyanobacterium and failed to digest it. The cyanobacterium thrived in the cell and ... It used to be widely assumed that the inner membrane is the original membrane of the once independent prokaryote, while the ... In vitro cultivation of rickettsia-like-organisms from Glossina spp. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 81, 331-335. The Viruses That ... and intracellularly in various host tissues, including the midgut and hemolymph. Phylogenetic studies have not indicated a ...
Pimanda describe the generation of tissue-regenerative multipotent stem cells (iMS cells) by treating mature bone and fat cells ... which can serve as a simple and highly effective matrix for the cultivation of human pluripotent stem cells. Cell adhesion ... A common feature of pluripotent stem cells is the specific nature of protein glycosylation of their outer membrane. That ... human iPS cell-derived myeloid cell lines as unlimited cell source for dendritic cell-like antigen-presenting cells". Gene ...
A bioreactor may also refer to a device or system meant to grow cells or tissues in the context of cell culture. These devices ... Sparger - In aerobic cultivation process, the purpose of the sparger is to supply adequate oxygen to the growing cells. Jacket ... Vertical up and down motion is achieved by a motor together with an inexpensive membrane perfectly assure sterility and produce ... NASA's tissue bioreactor can grow heart tissue, skeletal tissue, ligaments, cancer tissue for study, and other types of tissue ...
"Membrane Fusion in the Cell" Gerald I. Shulman, M.D., Ph.D., June 2014, "Cellular Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance: ... Barbour AG (1984). "Isolation and cultivation of Lyme disease spirochetes". Yale J Biol Med. 57 (4): 521-525. PMC 2589996 . ... "The presence of somatostatin receptors in malignant neuroendocrine tumor tissue predicts responsiveness to octreotide". Yale J ...
The outer cells of the whole trap excrete mucilage and under the door this is produced in greater quantities and contains ... Temperate perennials can require a winter period in which they die back each year, and they will weaken in cultivation if they ... A soft but substantial membrane called the velum stretches in a curve around the middle of this platform, and helps seal the ... Utricularia have significantly greater respiration rates than most vegetative tissue, primarily due to their complex energy- ...
... they occur intercellularly and stimulate surrounding tissue to proliferate due to cell transformation. Agrobacterium performs ... Products of the other VirB genes are used to transfer the subunits across the plasma membrane. Yeast two-hybrid studies provide ... Avoiding wounding the crowns/roots of the plants during cultivation is important for preventing disease. In horticultural ... These tumors exert significant pressure on the surrounding plant tissue, which causes this tissue to become crushed and/or ...
... due to the lack of a cell wall. The cell wall is important for cell division, which, in most bacteria, occurs by binary fission ... "Identification of spheroplast-like agents isolated from tissues of patients with Crohn's disease and control tissues by ... Allan EJ (April 1991). "Induction and cultivation of a stable L-form of Bacillus subtilis". J. Appl. Bacteriol. 70 (4): 339-43 ... Protoplast Spheroplast Mycoplasmataceae - lack peptidoglycan but supplement their membranes with sterols for stability. ...
Epidermal stem cells reside in the lower part of the epidermis (stratum basale) and are attached to the basement membrane ... Cell and Tissue Kinetics. 20 (5): 461-72. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.1987.tb01355.x. PMID 3450396. Proksch E, Brandner JM, Jensen ... Rheinwald, JG; Green, H (1975). "Serial cultivation of strains of human epidermal keratinocytes: The formation of keratinizing ... Epidermal stem cells divide in a random manner yielding either more stem cells or transit amplifying cells. Some of the transit ...
These spread around the plant cells without invading the membranes. The plant cell membranes invaginate around the main ... Infected tissue is removed from white pines and strict quarantines of Ribes spp. are maintained in high risk areas. Puccinia ... Rust fungi are major concerns and limiting factors for successful cultivation of agricultural and forestry crops. White pine ... An iron and phosphorus rich neck band bridges the plant and fungal membranes in the space between the cells for water flow, ...
... s are Mollicutes, which are bound by a triple-layered membrane, rather than a cell wall. The phytoplasma cell ... phytoplasmas have resisted all attempts at in vitro culture in any cell-free medium; routine cultivation in an artificial ... Tissue culture can be used to produce healthy clones of phytoplasma-infected plants. Cryotherapy (i.e., the freezing of plant ... Phytoplasmas are characterized by the lack of a cell wall, a pleiomorphic or filamentous shape, a diameter normally less than 1 ...
Cell Cultures Animal or plant cells, removed from tissues, will continue to grow if cultivated under the appropriate nutrients ... Cultivation, i.e. reproduction of the cells; (2) Fermentation, i.e. the actual production of the protein, typically in 10,000 ... Modern isolation and membrane technologies, like reverse osmosis, ultra- and nano-filtration, or affinity chromatography can ... Commonly used cell lines are Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells or plant cell cultures. The production volumes are very small. ...
The Cry toxin is then inserted into the insect gut cell membrane, paralyzing the digestive tract and forming a pore. The insect ... Quantitative analysis of Cry1A(b) expression in Bt maize plants, tissues, and silage and stability of expression over ... For current crops and their acreage under cultivation, see genetically modified crops. In 1996, genetically modified maize ... Studies in the cabbage looper have suggested that a mutation in the membrane transporter ABCC2 can confer resistance to ...
... unless the sting is embedded in fleshy tissue. While the sting can also penetrate the membranes between joints in the ... beginning with cleaning out their own cell after eating through their capped brood cell): feed brood, receive nectar, clean ... Eggs are laid singly in a cell in a wax honeycomb, produced and shaped by the worker bees. Using her spermatheca, the queen can ... When their royal jelly-producing glands begin to atrophy, they begin building comb cells. They progress to other within-colony ...
... in particular adherent cells, and to methods of using such membrane for cultivating cells, in particular adherent cells. ... in particular adherent cells, wherein said membrane allows for the adhesion and proliferation of the cells based on its ... The invention further relates to a method for preparing a membrane which can be used for cultivating cells, ... specific composition comprising polyurethane and the resulting surface characteristics further allow the membrane to be used ...
Cultivation of limbal, conjunctival, and oral mucosal epithelial cells. Tissue culture media, growth factors, and fine ... Electron microscopy was used to check the presence of cell-cell junctions and cell-basement membrane junctions. As shown in ... The cells were free of goblet cells as shown by PAS staining as well as electron microscopy, although the native tissue had ... We report here the successful cultivation of oral mucosal epithelial cells by using deepithelialized amniotic membrane without ...
... standard cell culture or tissue culture products. Bioreactors utilize innovative membrane technology to separate the cell ... Bioreactors utilize innovative membrane technology to separate the cell cultivation area…. Compare this item. ... Viable in vitro alternative to using, standard cell culture or tissue culture products or mouse ascites. ...
PRF membranes are suitable for in vitro cultivation of periosteal cells for bone tissue engineering. ... Human periosteal cells were seeded on membrane pieces (collagen [Bio-Gide®] and PRF) at a density of 104 cells/well. Cell ... Few in vitro studies on PRF and no studies using human periosteal cells for tissue engineering have been published. The aim is ... a comparison of PRF with the commonly used collagen membrane Bio-Gide® as scaffolds for periosteal tissue engineering.Material ...
The distribution of DC subtypes in whole corneal tissue and during limbal tissue cultivation is still not well determined. Thus ... Characterization of dendritic cell subtypes in native and cultured cadaveric human limbal tissue on amniotic membrane ... Characterization of dendritic cell subtypes in native and cultured cadaveric human limbal tissue on amniotic membrane ... Characterization of dendritic cell subtypes in native and cultured cadaveric human limbal tissue on amniotic membrane. Invest. ...
ILMs were obtained from uneventful vitrectomies from cases with idiopathic epiretinal membrane. Ex vivo cultivation under ... Methods: All tissue collection complied with the Guidelines of the Helsinki Declaration and was approved by the National ... The cells growing out of the ILM spheres had a mainly glial- and some neuronal- like morphology. Stimulation of these cells ... Functional and molecular characterization of ex vivo cultured neuronal- and glial- like cells from internal limiting membrane ...
The invention method comprises contacting cells with an effective amount of a composition comprising a polycationic species ... In accordance with the present invention, there are provided methods to render cells non-adhesive and/or non-immunogenic with ... Tissues; Cultivation or maintenance thereof; Culture media therefor * C12N5/0006-Modification of the membrane of cells, e.g. ... Tissues; Cultivation or maintenance thereof; Culture media therefor * C12N5/06-Animal cells or tissues; Human cells or tissues ...
... the low-dust granule mixtures guarantee that the correct enrichment will be present for optimal cell viability and growth. The ... implemented through the proteolytic enzymes present in yeast cells. The cell membranes are discarded, enabling completely ... Sodium Chloride concentration of our Yeast Extract is low therefore, it is well suited for cultivation of yeast cells. Due to ... The tissues are hydrolyzed to produce straw colored peptones which are highly nutritious and clearly soluble in water. Peptones ...
2) Separation and Cultivation Yellow tissue is picked from the ripe tip of the Ganoderma fruiting body, sterilely cut to a size ... A brown cell of a thick club type membrane is arranged on said shell. A varnish-like material is secreted thereon. ... Each cell would be able to produce other inerspecific cells. A chimera is a group of cells, some cells within the group are ... If a single cell mutates in a fungi, that cell could lead to a new substrain colony growing entirely from that single cell. ...
... such as protein adsorption and cell adhesion are covered. Finally, the applications of these MEMS materials in Tissue ... Biocompatible materials such as PMMA or PLGA can be used directly for cell culture. However, for bioincompatible materials such ... as silicon or PDMS, additional steps need to be taken to render these materials more suitable for cell adhesion and maintenance ... Microfabricated systems provide an excellent platform for the culture of cells, and are an extremely useful tool for the ...
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells derived from the multi-directional differentiation potential of tissues and ... Cultivation of primary MSCs. The present study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University ... Secondly, cells were identified as MSCs by cell morphology. Further cell type identification assays would have been beneficial. ... Hypertrophy in mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis: Effect of TGF-beta isoforms and chondrogenic conditioning. Cells Tissues ...
Transmigration across endothelial and blood-brain barriers allows for the invasion of tissues and elicits localized immune ... Additionally, B. burgdorferi may use invasion of eukaryotic cells for immune evasion and protection against environmental ... burgdorferi strains with particular genotypes being associated with the ability to disseminate to specific tissues and the ... burgdorferi strains with particular genotypes being associated with the ability to disseminate to specific tissues and the ...
... harvesting of cell tissues from the healthy eye of the patient and cultivation of the cell tissues on amniotic sac membrane ... "Eye of the Stem Cell". India Today. September 10, 2011. Archived from the original on September 11, 2016. "Eye of the Stem Cell ... "Cell-based Therapy for Ocular Reconstruction". Louis J. Fox Center for Vision Restoration. October 15, 2010. Archived from the ... Known for his research on limbal stem cells, Sangwan is the founder secretary and an adviser of the Uveitis Society of India. ...
Leadbetter, J.R. Cultivation of recalcitrant microbes: Cells are alive, well and revealing their secrets in the 21st century ... Tissue samples were equilibrated in a 30% sucrose solution overnight at 4 °C before being embedded in Tissue-Tek O.C.T. ... Although qualitative, the highest densities of microorganisms could be observed in the mucus membrane; however, bacteria could ... Tissues were serially sectioned at 10 µm at −25 °C using a Sakura Tissue-Tek Cryo3 (Torrance, CA, USA). Sections were ...
This leads to a release of peroxides that destroy the cell membranes of the weed plants and lead to tissue death. Bifenox also ... In Germany, Austria and Switzerland bifenox pesticides are approved for use against weeds in the cultivation of cereals and ...
... and is present in the cytoplasm and membranes of all mammalian tissue culture cells so far examined. It is absent from lines ... It is also absent from foetal liver of both rat and mouse, but subsequently appears after cultivation in vitro. Similarly, it ... The splicing co-factor Barricade/Tat-SF1 is required for cell cycle and lineage progression in Drosophila neural stem cells. ... on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at ...
... demanded to serve as temporary substitutes of basal membrane either for cell cultivations or for cell transfer into a tissue ... Polymer membranes and membrane contactors. Supervisor: Zbyněk Pientka. *Analysis of Cell Adhesion by Quartz Crystal ... nanofibrous membranes will be modified with components of extracellular matrix and synthetic peptides to enhance membrane-cells ... Nanofibrous biodegradable membranes as tissue engineering substrates. Supervisor: Hana Studenovská. In specific branches of ...
... a tissue rich in basement membrane components, can be fabricated by electrospinning and used to support cell culture. We ... suggesting that electrospun At-ECM scaffolds support ASC cultivation. These studies show that At-ECM can be isolated and ... Electrospinning Adipose Tissue-derived Extracellular Matrix for Adipose Stem Cell Culture Journal of Biomedical Materials ... electrospun as a basement membrane-rich tissue engineering matrix capable of supporting stem cells, providing the groundwork ...
Centrifugation chamber with gas permeable membrane layers for cell cultivation. The invention is directed to a centrifuge ... Multilayer tissue culture vessel. The present invention discloses a vessel for culturing cells which includes: a bottom, a top ... A cell magnetic sorting system comprises a continuous magnetic cell sorting apparatus. The continuous magnetic cell sorting ... Medium for preparing a neural cell and usage thereof. Usage of a protein kinase inhibitor in preparing a neural cell from a ...
Fisherbrand™ Surface Treated Sterile Tissue Culture Flasks, Vented Cap. Perfect for cell growth, cell yields aim on little or ... Cultivation flask for secreted product, recombinant protein expression and high-yield monoclonal antibody (MAb) production ... Membranes for Filtration * Syringe and Syringeless Filters * Water Testing and Environmental Analysis ... Cell Culture & Analysis Cell Culture & Analysis * Cell Culture Dishes, Plates and Flasks ...
1990, Serial Cultivation of Suspended BHK21/13 Cells in Serum Reduced and Serum-Free Medium Supplemented with Various Membrane ... Differentiation of rat bone marrow and adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells to neuronal cell lines on electrospun PCL ... 1990, Serial cultivation of suspended BHK21/13 cells in serum reduced and serum-free medium supplemented with various membrane ... Biomodification of non-woven polyester fabrics by insulin and RGD for use in serum-free cultivation of tissue cells. ...
Cell-free medium was collected every 24 hrs thereafter for 1 week. The membrane components were removed from the collected ... Cysts were suspended in normal saline and homogenized at 4°C in a tissue grinder to form a pulp. The pulp was sonicated and ... T. solium cysticerci separated from pork muscle were subjected to in vitro cultivation as detailedout earlier [28, 30]. Briefly ... smooth translucent bladder wall and containing fluid were washed extensively for 2-3 hours in PBS and distributed into tissue ...
Effects of shear stress cultivation on cell membrane disruption and intracellular calcium concentration in sonoporation of ... Huls M, Russel FGM, Masereeuw R. The role of ATP binding cassette transporters in tissue defense and organ regeneration. J ... Tachibana K, Uchida T, Ogawa K, Yamashita N, Tamura K. Induction of cell-membrane porosity by ultrasound. Lancet [Internet]. ... MCT1 Modulates Cancer Cell Pyruvate Export and Growth of Tumors that Co-express MCT1 and MCT4 MCT1 inhibition of cancer cells ...
In fact, imitating the in vivo structure of tissues enable 3D cell cultivation to induce cell proliferation and provide an ... Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cultivating on Human Amniotic Membrane. Authors: Fereshteh Dorazehi, Mohammad Nabiuni, Hanieh ... Stem cells are classified as embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and adult stem cells. ... adipose tissue derived Mesenchymal stem cells (ATMSC) and a mixture of MSCs (Mixed MSCs) derived from perinatal tissues namely ...
In most cases, it is possible to harvest a small piece of tissue from the patient s own eyes for further cultivation as, in ... ocular surface stem cell deficiency by cultivating autologous and allogenic SCs using different kind of culture membranes. The ... Conjunctival tissue holds particular promise as it can be used both for treating corneal and conjunctival stem cell disorders. ... The growing field of tissue engineering and advances in stem cell research offer promising new alternatives for these disorders ...
  • Objectives: Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF)-based membranes have been used for covering alveolar ridge augmentation side in several in vivo studies. (
  • The DC content was significantly lower after ex vivo limbal explant cultivation, which is consistent with our hypothesis. (
  • To test the proliferating potential and characterize structurally and functionally ex vivo cultured cells growing out of human internal limiting membranes (ILMs). (
  • Ex vivo cultivation under adherent conditions in DMEM supplemented with FBS was performed and followed up to 6 days. (
  • The cells from the ILMs formed sphere-like structures when cultured ex vivo. (
  • However, it is found on both hepatoma and lymphoma cells in vitro, and on in vivo tumours from murine sources. (
  • Viruses for in vivo applications show a limited affinity for their target cells, they are generally unstable and large doses of infective virus particles (up to 10 12 active virus particles per dose) are needed to achieve a therapeutic effect. (
  • Previous studies and in vivo experiments with animal infection models also suggested that the capsular polysaccharide might influence the proportion of bacteria attaching to and entering the cells ( 44 ). (
  • cells activate Toll-like receptor 2 signaling and possess mitogenic activity, and A. phagocytophilum infection in vivo activates NKT cells unrelated to major surface protein 2 (Msp2) hypervariable region expression. (
  • In conclusion, we describe a particular form of F-actin assembly with relevance for cytoskeletal organization in response to biomaterials, for endothelial-specific cell behavior in vitro and in vivo, and for tissue engineering. (
  • As the CCC is self-supporting, the intact cell-scaffold complex can be transferred from the culture dish for in vitro or in vivo applications. (
  • Engineering skeletal muscle tissue--new perspectives in vitro and in vivo. (
  • For engineering transplantable muscle tissue in vitro and for in vivo application of skeletal muscle TE a 3D approach is necessary. (
  • Most plant myco plasmas cannot yet be cultured in vitro, and their natural plant habitat, the phloem, is one of the most difficult plant tissues for the experi menter to handle, placing severe restrictions on the type of experiments which can be performed in vivo. (
  • Buccal and gingival epithelia cultured on AM formed well stratified and differentiated cell sheets which closely resembled in vivo corneal epithelium and were found to be useful in the treatment of bilateral limbal stem cell deficiencies. (
  • However, human corneal endothelial cells are notorious for their limited proliferative capability in vivo and are therefore prone to corneal endothelial dysfunction that eventually may lead to blindness. (
  • Although HCECs may proliferate in vitro , unfortunately, HCECs do not normally proliferate in vivo [ 12 ] due to arrest at the G1 phase in the cell cycle [ 13 ]. (
  • Fibroblast-secreted HGF was shown to promote ESCC invasion through the c-MET receptor in an in vivo -like organotypic 3-dimensional cell culture ( 15 ). (
  • With respect to the generation of ex vivo vascular perfusion systems this will enable new types of products that will embed complex 3D structures possibly coupled with cell loaded scaffolds closely reflecting the in-vivo environment. (
  • Nevertheless, there is an unmet need in science and industries for more powerful lab ware to close the gap between poorly predictive in-vitro models and real 3D in-vivo models without the use of laboratory animals or animal derived perfused organ models or cells. (
  • The major problem of these tissue models is the difficulty to apply well defined biologically relevant ( in-vivo like) conditions such as shear stress in printed tubules or on-demand supply with nutrients or oxygen in hydrogel blocks. (
  • This study aimed to investigate whether plasma membrane vesicles (PMVs) from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) could be exploited as a novel stem cell therapy for APAP-induced liver injury. (
  • Exchanging the catalytic domain of NtMMP1 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) facilitated subcellular localization by confocal laser scanning microscopy, showing the protein is normally inserted into the plasma membrane. (
  • Given its induction in response to bacterial pathogens and its localization in the plasma membrane, we propose a role in pathogen defense at the cell periphery. (
  • Four of the Arabidopsis MMPs are predicted to integrate into the plasma membrane via a C-terminal hydrophobic helix, while the presence of an uncleavable signal peptide suggests the remaining family member resides in the ER lumen. (
  • PM-ANT1 joins the mitochondrial carrier family, lacks an N-terminal amino acid extension required for organelle localization, and locates to the plasma membrane. (
  • The latter effects are in line with transport properties of recombinant PM-ANT1, supporting in planta that functional PM-ANT1 resides in the plasma membrane and concur with the PM-ANT1 expression pattern. (
  • There is evidence that in animals, cellular ATP export occurs by vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane ( Bodin and Burnstock, 2001a ). (
  • The contact areas between the plasma membrane and the ECM are called focal adhesions. (
  • The spirochetal bacterium transmits through the Ixodes vector colonizing the dermis of a mammalian host prior to hematogenous dissemination and invasion of distal tissues all the while combating the immune response as it traverses through its pathogenic lifecycle. (
  • Dissemination in the mammalian host requires temporal regulation of virulence determinants to allow for vascular interactions, invasion, and colonization of distal tissues. (
  • In reducing conditions it has an apparent mass of 178K (K = 10(3) Mr) and is present in the cytoplasm and membranes of all mammalian tissue culture cells so far examined. (
  • Since Toxoplasma can thrive in almost any mammalian cell or any cell in tissue culture, the factors which are provided by the cell must be simple and nearly universal. (
  • IVT, is a minimal nutrient mixture for the protein and peptide-free selection, routine maintenance and cryopreservation of mammalian kidney cell lines, including the BHK21-InVitrus (ECACC accession no. 05062302), COS-1-InVitrus (ECACC accession no. 04092902), and COS-7-InVitrus (ECACC accession no. 05063001) cell lines. (
  • During embryonic development of birds, the chorioallantoic membrane also plays an essential role in bone formation by transporting calcium into the embryo from the eggshell. (
  • A variety of chick embryo tissues infected with exoerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium fallax were grown under sheets of cellophane dialysis membranes in Rose multipurpose chambers. (
  • The parasites thus cultivated lived for extended periods of time in an environment so favorable to the chick embryo tissues that many of the cells retained some of their characteristic morphology and function. (
  • The frequency of neural induction was inversely correlated with the age of the donor and directly correlated with the quantity of graft endodermal cells contributed to the ectopic embryo, supporting a previous assertion that in avian embryos, the earliest and principal source of neural inducer lies within the endoderm rather than mesoderm. (
  • To demonstrate this, Spemann and Mangold (1924) transplanted tissue from the dorsal blastoporal lip to the ventral region of a host embryo, which would not ordinarily become neurepithelium. (
  • Cultivation of viruses in organized tissues like chick embryo necessitates a different type of approach. (
  • Resident dendritic cell (DC) maturation plays a critical role in the initiation of host allosensitization and graft rejection. (
  • By using autologous tissue, there is possible to avoid issues related to allografts, such as transmission of microorganisms, graft rejection, and long-term use of immune suppression. (
  • However, the major drawbacks such as requirement of large free grafts and possible induction of iatrogenic donor-site deficiency in the healthy eye for autograft procedure, and limited availability of qualified donor graft material and possible tissue rejection for allograft procedure cause the development of novel treatment strategies. (
  • The tissue engineering brings new approaches to solve this problem.Case Report: Method of graft utilisation from buccal mucosa of a patient with plastic reconstruction of the oral vestibule is described. (
  • The plastic reconstruction was performed using the technique of in vitro preparation of an autologous graft from the buccal mucosa on Coladerm membrane produced on the basis of chemically modified complex of atelocollagen and hyaluronan. (
  • Conclusions: In the presented clinical case it is shown that the use of an autologous graft prepared in vitro resulted in shorter epithelisation time of the defect for almost 7 days as perceived subjectively by the patient in comparison to the Coladerm membrane without cells using the same technique under comparable conditions. (
  • All these studies have suffered from one or more major shortcomings, the most significant of which has been the lack of a reliable cell marker to determine the contributions of graft cells to ectopic embryos. (
  • We have transplanted quail Hensen's nodes to chick host blastoderms and have subsequently used the quail nucleolar heterochromatin marker to identify graft cells unequivocally. (
  • HAM is extensively used in the reconstruction of ocular surface, skin reconstruction, endothelial cell cultivation, local drug delivery as well as graft material after vestibuloblasty . (
  • Microfabricated systems provide an excellent platform for the culture of cells, and are an extremely useful tool for the investigation of cellular responses to various stimuli. (
  • Ultrasound causes microbubble cavitation, i.e., periodical pulsation of the microbubble, and destruction which results in formation of temporary pores in the cellular membrane and increased permeabilization to drug molecules. (
  • incubation time and the need to sterilizeGE's Whatman cell culture membrane filters are made with PVP-free polycarbonate for enhanced cellular adhesion in biological applications such as neutrophil chemotaxis. (
  • Nucleotides represent the universal cellular energy currency in all living cells and act as core components for all forms of viral, bacterial, and eukaryotic genetic information building our nucleic acid world. (
  • By this mechanism, alterations of cell type-specific ATP/AMP ratios are received and induce metabolic adaptation balancing cellular energy provision. (
  • Oxidative mitochondrial metabolism and associated nucleotide transport processes have been deciphered in considerable detail ( Klingenberg, 2008 ), but our understanding of nucleotide transport across other cellular membranes is merely emerging. (
  • UV causes the paired strands of genetic material in the DNA double helix to become cross-linked, preventing cell division and other vital cellular processes like protein production). (
  • These signal transduction mechanisms are tightly interconnected with each other through a complex network and their modulation allows to shifting the cellular state either towards survival or cell death [ 11 , 12 ]. (
  • This book will serve as a standard reference work for mycoplasmologists, as well as for other interested microbiologists, cellular and molecular biologists, membrane biochemists, clinicians, veterinarians, plant pathologists, and entomologists. (
  • The objectives of the present study are (1) to fabricate hydrogels comprising pure ventricular ECM (vECM), (2) to make the gels possess mechanical properties similar to those of the decellularized ventricular tissue, and (3) to evaluate the cellular compatibility of the hydrogels. (
  • Cell culture confirmed the cellular compatibility of the gels. (
  • As explained previously, the structure and function of ECM components create intricate networks of cells and the ECM, leading to constant cross talk between the inner and outer cellular environment. (
  • IdoA-deficient cells exhibited decreased migration and invasion capabilities in vitro , which was associated with reduced cellular binding of hepatocyte growth factor, inhibition of pERK-1/2 signaling, and deregulated actin cytoskeleton dynamics and focal adhesion formation. (
  • Heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediates the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cell receptor. (
  • Therefore, sources of autologous tissue that can functionally replace the corneal epithelium have been considered as an alternative to allogenous limbal transplants. (
  • Since the corneal epithelium is of the stratified squamous type, autologous epithelial cells such as oral, conjunctival, nasal, esophageal, rectal, and vaginal epithelia, which all have a similar morphology, could be considered as an alternative to allogenous limbal transplants. (
  • Conclusion: Although several methods have proved useful for the regeneration of the ocular surface, strategies that include autologous tissue currently hold the greatest promise as these avoid the need for potentially lifelong immune suppression. (
  • Preparing a cell product from autologous material takes about 3-4 weeks, although the presence of the patient in the clinic during this period is not required. (
  • However, for bio-incompatible materials such as silicon or PDMS, additional steps need to be taken to render these materials more suitable for cell adhesion and maintenance. (
  • Black Cyclopore membranes are highly suitable for epifluorescence and other microscopy applications requiring a contrasting background. (
  • The cell-populated carrier can be treated directly with standard fixing reagents and is suitable for embedding in paraffin or preparation for cryostat microtomy to produce histological sections of the cell-matrix complex. (
  • At this stage, the decision on the most suitable type of cell product for the patient is made. (
  • The cells also expressed stem cell markers of epithelial cells such as ΔN isoforms of p63 as well as p75, a marker for stem cells of oral epithelium. (
  • Chemical or thermal injuries, ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiations, severe microbial infection, surgeries and cryotherapy of the limbal region, or conditions like Stevens-Johnson syndrome and aniridia can lead to limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). (
  • Additionally, the expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD80, CD86, and activation markers HLA-DR, CD83 was investigated, as well as the expression of corneal epithelium marker CK12 and ABCB5, a new epithelial stem cell marker. (
  • This was subsequently put on clinical trial in 2011, reported to be the largest successful trial of stem cell therapy on humans, till then. (
  • Later, with the assistance of two philanthropists, they established Sudhakar and Sreekanth Ravi Stem Cell Biology Laboratory where he furthered his work. (
  • He has also served as an investigator in a number of clinical projects undertaken by Sudhakar and Sreekanth Ravi Stem Cell Biology Laboratory. (
  • The authors wish to thank the Stem Cell Research Institute, the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level Personnel (CAPES), and the Study and Project Financer (FINEP) for financial support. (
  • The growing field of tissue engineering and advances in stem cell research offer promising new alternatives for these disorders. (
  • This student thesis will provide an overview of the human ocular surface (cornea, limbus, and conjunctiva), ocular surface stem cell deficiency, and treatment possibilities. (
  • Methods: This student thesis is based on a number of review articles and original articles on PubMed using the search words limbal, limbal stem cell deficiency, conjunctival and/or ocular surface reconstruction. (
  • Conjunctival tissue holds particular promise as it can be used both for treating corneal and conjunctival stem cell disorders. (
  • There are still many challenges associated with cultured stem cell therapy, and many questions remain to be answered including how this therapy works and how the outcome can be best assessed clinically. (
  • The results suggest that PMVs from hUCMSCs could be used as a novel stem cell therapy for the treatment of APAP-induced liver injury. (
  • If this ready source of stem cells is damaged or destroyed the natural repair is not possible and such a condition is known as corneal limbal stem cell deficiency (CLSCD) disease. (
  • Stem cell transplant helps such persons to regenerate the corneal surface. (
  • Depending on the source of the aspirate it may need to pass several steps, including filtration to separate the desired cells from other cells, short-term incubation, and сentrifugation in a high-speed stem cell centrifuge machine. (
  • Various ocular or systemic disorders can disturb limbal area and cause decrease or loss of LESCs which is so-called Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency (LSCD). (
  • The Baden-Württemberg Foundation is providing a total of 1.3 million euros in funding to two stem cell research projects from Ulm. (
  • 4. Schwach V, Passier R (2016) Generation and purification of human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. (
  • 5. Kempf H, Andree B, Zweigerdt R (2016) Large-scale production of human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes. (
  • 2006) Matrix elasticity directs stem cell lineage specification. (
  • There is a need to store very large numbers of conventional human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines for their off-the-shelf usage in stem cell therapy. (
  • Transmigration across endothelial and blood-brain barriers allows for the invasion of tissues and elicits localized immune responses. (
  • Additionally, B. burgdorferi may use invasion of eukaryotic cells for immune evasion and protection against environmental stresses. (
  • In autoimmune diseases, an abnormal response of the immune system attacks the body's own cells causing malfunction or injury. (
  • Thus, we hypothesized that lipoprotein or glycolipid components of A. phagocytophilum membranes could be important triggers of the innate immune response and immunopathology. (
  • Owing to these data, the innate immune responses in mice infected with A. phagocytophilum , and our prior data implicating Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) but not TLR4 inflammatory signaling in human and murine macrophages exposed to A. phagocytophilum ( 8 , 9 , 26 ), we hypothesized that a lipoprotein or glycolipid component of A. phagocytophilum membranes is an important trigger of the innate immune response and immunopathology. (
  • The invention relates to a method for immune capture of specific microorganisms for their subsequent cultivation. (
  • The present invention relates to novel antigens associated with Borrelia burgdorferi, antibodies that are raised against the antigens and the use of the antibodies to diagnose Lyme disease and for immune capture and cultivation of microorganisms. (
  • The barrier function of the TJs can be subject to modulation and thereby regulates the entry of physiologically important substances as well as immune modulatory components and cells during inflammatory events [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Subsequently, injury of the CP due to inflammatory responses may cause further impairment of the blood-CSF barrier and allow enhanced entry of immune system cells into the CNS [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • TNFR1 is expressed on all cells, whereas TNFR2 is found on endothelial cells and cells of the immune system [ 8 - 10 ]. (
  • This functional variability from mediation of immune tolerance to facilitation of tumor immune evasion strategies might translate to a differential NK cell inhibition between immune-privileged organs and tumor cells. (
  • 2000 ). HLA-G interacts with different subsets of immune effector cells (NK, T, B, macrophages), usually resulting in inhibition of these cells (Bainbridge et al. (
  • Solid tissue fibronectin allows immune cell migration and plasma fibronectin participates in clotting by association with fibrin and integrins on activated platelet cell-surfaces. (
  • INTRODUCTION: It is important to prepare 'hypoimmunogenic' or 'universal' human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) with gene-editing technology by knocking out or in immune-related genes, because only a few hypoimmunogenic or universal hPSC lines would be sufficient to store for their off-the-shelf use. (
  • Basic concepts of cell-biomaterial interactions, such as protein adsorption and cell adhesion are covered. (
  • Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinson's disease, on cell motility. (
  • Wang, Yichao et al: 'Preparation and character of microspheres of Helicobacter pylori whole cell protein encapsulated by chitosan-alginate', West China Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2005, 20(5), 375-377, only abstract, sect. (
  • T-cell responses to the immunodominant major surface protein 2 (Msp2) hypervariable regions that vary with in vitro propagation do not occur to any substantial degree, diminishing their importance as inflammatory stimuli ( 7 ). (
  • Immunostaining showed cell condensation and nuclear binding of high-mobility group box 1 protein as a sign of apoptosis after TNF stimulation. (
  • Signalling through TNFR ligation can initiate (i) programmed cell death (apoptosis), (ii) antiapoptotic and proinflammatory responses through NF- κ B, and (iii) activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) JNK signalling pathway [ 11 ]. (
  • Murer H., Biber J., Malmström K., Mohrmann I., Coady M. (1986) Regulation of Na-Phosphate Cotransport in Cultured Renal Epithelial Cells: Protein-Synthesis-Dependent and Protein-Synthesis-Independent Pathways. (
  • However, while it is possible to detect these mRNA variants, the protein expression and biological function of these truncated forms remain elusive, while the HLA-G1, soluble HLA-G1, and HLA-G5 isoforms appear to be the most expressed forms in healthy tissue (Dahl et al. (
  • Both are variable heterodimers sometimes found as a protein network, binding collagen and other ECM components, along with cell-surface integrins. (
  • Patogenesis and immunity OMP - outer membrane protein - adherence, hyaluronidase - only virulent - perivascular infiltration. (
  • Three-Dimensional Human Cardiac Tissue Engineered by Centrifugation of Stacked Cell Sheets and Cross-Sectional Observation of Its Synchronous Beatings by Optical Coherence Tomography. (
  • Additionally, the observation system of an in vitro 3D-human cardiac tissue model is important in the fields of cardiac physiology and the safety testing of candidate chemicals. (
  • In this report, a rapid fabrication technique of 3D tissue with a noninvasive observation technology was applied to the fabrication of a human cardiac tissue for aiming the clinical application. (
  • then the structure and function of the cell-layered cardiac tissues were observed by two OCT systems. (
  • In recent decades, scientists have exerted great effort and energy into the use of stem cells to repair damaged myocardium and restore cardiac function. (
  • Degeneration of cardiac tissues, a major cause of mortality in the western world, is likely to become a greater problem in the forthcoming decades. (
  • The main reasons for the increased incidence of heart failure and mortality after MI are the local reduction in the number of cardiocytes in the infarcted area caused by high oxidative stress in the inflammatory microenvironment, as well as tissue fibrosis, formation of scar tissue, and cardiac remodeling. (
  • However, the field of skeletal muscle TE has been developing tremendously and new approaches and techniques have emerged.This review will highlight recent developments in the field of nanotechnology, especially electrospun nanofibre matrices, as well as potential cell sources for muscle TE.Important developments in cardiac muscle TE and clinical studies on Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) will be included to show their implications on skeletal muscle TE. (
  • 2009) Challenges in cardiac tissue engineering. (
  • As Director of the Strangeways Research Laboratory in Cambridge, England at the age of 27, she at once became a leader in the cultivation of embryonic organs (limb buds, knee joints, mandibular skeletal tissue). (
  • Material and methods: Human periosteal cells were seeded on membrane pieces (collagen [Bio-Gide®] and PRF) at a density of 104 cells/well. (
  • Materials and methods: Human periosteum cells were cultured using an osteogenic medium consisting of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with fetal calf serum, penicillin, streptomycin and ascorbic acid at 37àwith 5% CO2. (
  • Our Fermented Chlorella is highly-digestible and bioavailable due to its soft, thin cell membranes created by unique fermentation and advanced closed tank cultivation methods. (
  • At present, drugs, intervention, and coronary artery bypass grafting treatment are used to partially improve myocardial ischemia, but these methods cannot rescue tissue damaged by MI. (
  • inspired investigators to explore different cell sources and cultivation methods to regenerate corneal surface . (
  • Methods for producing antibodies are provided and include transforming a plant cell with a nucleic acid encoding a heavy chain of an antibody, a light chain of. (
  • Here we describe the cloning of a tobacco MMP gene from tobacco BY-2 suspension cells and functional analysis of the encoded product, NtMMP1 using zymographic assays on artificial substrates. (
  • Sera and CSF of 320 patients suspected of suffering from an autoimmune neurological syndrome were comprehensively investigated for the presence of anti-neural IgG autoantibodies by IFA using mosaics of biochips with brain tissue cryosections and established cell-based recombinant antigen substrates as well as immunoblots. (
  • Recombinant cell substrates containing the newly identified antigens can be used in serology and the clinical relevance of the autoantibodies can be rapidly evaluated in cohort studies. (
  • The source-sink model, first proposed by biologist Francis Crick in 1970, is a theoretical system for how morphogens distribute themselves across small fields of early embryonic cells. (
  • For both ECC-1 and Ishikawa cells treatment with buformin led to induction of apoptosis decrease in PNU 200577 adhesion and invasion activation of AMPK and inhibition of phosphorylated-S6. (
  • The dimensions and uniformity of the membrane pores can be configurable, which confers more control over the mass transport. (
  • Blood capillaries and sinuses are found between epithelial cells of the chorionic layer, allowing close contact (within 0.2 μm) with air found in pores of the shell membrane of the egg. (
  • If they consist of a porous or resorbable material, tissue grows into the pores or in the place of the implant during the healing process and thus forms a new tissue structure. (
  • For example, rapidly-growing cell units can quickly advance from one side of the implant into a layer with large pores, while on the other side a layer of insignificant porosity, e.g. a film, can completely prevent a penetration by cells. (
  • The cornea is a transparent tissue with a diffractive capacity of about 43 diopters that allows light to enter the eye and evoke a visual sensation in the retina. (
  • This membrane is penetrated by sensitive nerve fibers that form a subepithelial plexus in the central cornea [ 8 , 9 ]. (
  • Cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye and when damage due to burns or injury and several other diseases, stem cells residing in its rim called 'limbus' are stimulated to multiply to support growth of new epithelial cells over its surface. (
  • In Acanthamoeba infections, the diagnosis can be made from microscopic examination of stained smears of biopsy specimens (brain tissue, skin, cornea) or of corneal scrapings, which may detect trophozoites and cysts. (
  • Clinically, it is diagnosed by the presence of conjunctival cells and vessels on the cornea. (
  • Because of the demolition of the LESC's barrier function in the limbal region, conjunctival cells can easily migrate through corneal surface and distort the optical clarity of the cornea. (
  • This thesis is primarily a microscope-based study and documents the findings of several investigations designed to refine tissue engineering of the cornea. (
  • Morphological and quantitative analyses confirmed that the cells produced using human serum closely resembled those of control cornea. (
  • In contrast, the endothelial cells form a single hexagonal monolayer located at the Descemet's membrane in the posterior cornea [ 2 ], and play a significant role in maintaining visual function [ 3 ]. (
  • Identifications were confirmed by IFA with recombinant HEK293 cells and by neutralizing the patients' autoantibodies with the respective recombinantly expressed antigens in the tissue-based immunofluorescence test. (
  • They are generally considered to be epiphenomena of a T-cell-driven reaction against tumor cells expressing neuronal antigens. (
  • The airway antigen sampling system: respiratory M cells as an alternative gateway for inhaled antigens. (
  • It is clear from these descriptions why alterations of the ECM can result in changes in pathological states, such as enhancement of tumor cell metastatic ability. (
  • Here, we report that CS/DS is increased five-fold in human biopsies of esophagus squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), an aggressive tumor with poor prognosis, as compared with normal tissue. (
  • To further understand the roles of IdoA in tumor development, DS-epi1 expression, and consequently IdoA content, was downregulated in ESCC cells. (
  • endometrial tumor cell lines. (
  • Summary: Buformin offers significant anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic results in endometrial tumor cells through modulation from the AMPK/mTOR pathway. (
  • Considering that (1) biguanides possess demonstrated helpful chemopreventive and chemotherapeautic results in several malignancies and (2) buformin could be stronger than metformin in inhibition of energy rate of metabolism in tumor cells [10 15 21 buformin warrants additional evaluation like a potential medication for tumor therapy. (
  • Thus the purpose of this research was to research the anti-tumorigenic and anti-metastatic ramifications of buformin in endometrial tumor cell lines. (
  • Components and strategies Cell tradition and PNU 200577 reagents Two endometrial tumor cell lines ECC-1 and Ishikawa had been useful for all tests. (
  • Background: Damage or loss of oral cavity tissues as a result of injuries or tumour surgeries results in decreasing of life quality of the patients. (
  • Virulence determinants and/or adhesins are highly heterogenetic among environmental B. burgdorferi strains with particular genotypes being associated with the ability to disseminate to specific tissues and the severity of disease, but fail to generate cross-protective immunity between borrelial strains. (
  • After infection of the cells, invasive pneumococci of different strains and serotypes were recovered. (
  • The characteristic alterations of the latter included margination of the chromatin, fragmentation of the nuclear envelope, beaded opaque material in the mitochondria, and, with one of the cell strains (EB1), sheaves of altered spindle tubules. (
  • The comparative photo-optical documentations and histological examinations (hematoxylin-eosin staining, connective tissue colouring according to Goldner, resorcinfuchsin stain according to Weigert) of the wounds occurred in accurately defined times. (
  • Whatman Nuclepore hydrophilic membrane filter range is manufactured from high-quality polycarbonate film, track-etched for high pore size precision. (
  • She developed a theory for the origin of eukaryotic cells, that proposed two kinds of structures found in eukaryotic cells mitochondria in animals, and plastids in plantsÑwere once free-living bacteria that lived harmoniously and in close proximity to larger cells, a scenario called symbiosis. (
  • These approaches range from the use of natural membranes, biological polymers and biosynthetic material compositions, to completely synthetic materials as matrices for corneal endothelial cell sheet generation. (