A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins that are involved in the peptide chain termination reaction (PEPTIDE CHAIN TERMINATION, TRANSLATIONAL) on RIBOSOMES. They include codon-specific class-I release factors, which recognize stop signals (TERMINATOR CODON) in the MESSENGER RNA; and codon-nonspecific class-II release factors.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.

Alternate choice of initiation codon produces a biologically active product of the von Hippel Lindau gene with tumor suppressor activity. (1/749)

The VHL tumor suppressor gene has previously been reported to encode a protein of 213 amino acid residues. Here we report the identification of a second major VHL gene product with an apparent molecular weight of 18 kD, pVHL18, which appears to arise from alternate translation initiation at a second AUG codon (codon 54) within the VHL open reading frame. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that the internal codon in the VHL mRNA is necessary and sufficient for production of pVHL18. pVHL18 can bind to elongin B, elongin C, and Hs-CUL2. When reintroduced into renal carcinoma cells that lack a wild-type VHL allele, pVHL18 suppresses basal levels of VEGF expression, restores hypoxia-inducibility of VEGF expression, and inhibits tumor formation in nude mice. These data strongly support the existence of two distinct VHL gene products in VHL tumor suppression.  (+info)

Cyclin D1 and D3 associate with the SCF complex and are coordinately elevated in breast cancer. (2/749)

D-type cyclins are important cell cycle regulators that promote cellular proliferation in response to growth factors by inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb). Cyclin D1 has been shown to be overexpressed in several cancer types and to act as an oncogene in breast cancers. As D-type cyclins are rate limiting for progression into S phase, the level at which they accumulate must be carefully regulated. Several mechanisms leading to overexpression of cyclin D1 have been reported including amplification, translocation and stabilization of the mRNA. Here, we present data showing elevated cyclin D1 protein in breast cancer samples in the absence of elevated mRNA level. Further, we found that in these cases, cyclin D3 protein also accumulates and that the coordinate increase in cyclin D1 and D3 occurs in 15% (7/47) of breast cancers. In addition we show that blocking the activity of the 26S proteosome results in the accumulation of cyclin D1 and D3, that both D-type cyclins are ubiquitinated and associate with Cul-1, a component of the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. Finally, we show that the coordinated elevation of cyclin D1 and D3 is also observed in the breast cell line MCF-7 and demonstrate that the degradation of cyclin D1 and D3 is deficient in this cell line. These results indicate that cyclin D1 and cyclin D3 share a common mechanism of degradation and we propose that the coordinate increase of D-type cyclins observed in primary breast cancers reflects a defect in their proteolysis.  (+info)

Rbx1, a component of the VHL tumor suppressor complex and SCF ubiquitin ligase. (3/749)

The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene is mutated in most human kidney cancers. The VHL protein is part of a complex that includes Elongin B, Elongin C, and Cullin-2, proteins associated with transcriptional elongation and ubiquitination. Here it is shown that the endogenous VHL complex in rat liver also includes Rbx1, an evolutionarily conserved protein that contains a RING-H2 fingerlike motif and that interacts with Cullins. The yeast homolog of Rbx1 is a subunit and potent activator of the Cdc53-containing SCFCdc4 ubiquitin ligase required for ubiquitination of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 and for the G1 to S cell cycle transition. These findings provide a further link between VHL and the cellular ubiquitination machinery.  (+info)

Reconstitution of G1 cyclin ubiquitination with complexes containing SCFGrr1 and Rbx1. (4/749)

Control of cyclin levels is critical for proper cell cycle regulation. In yeast, the stability of the G1 cyclin Cln1 is controlled by phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. Here it is shown that this reaction can be reconstituted in vitro with an SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Phosphorylated Cln1 was ubiquitinated by SCF (Skp1-Cdc53-F-box protein) complexes containing the F-box protein Grr1, Rbx1, and the E2 Cdc34. Rbx1 promotes association of Cdc34 with Cdc53 and stimulates Cdc34 auto-ubiquitination in the context of Cdc53 or SCF complexes. Rbx1, which is also a component of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor complex, may define a previously unrecognized class of E3-associated proteins.  (+info)

Recruitment of a ROC1-CUL1 ubiquitin ligase by Skp1 and HOS to catalyze the ubiquitination of I kappa B alpha. (5/749)

Activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B in response to proinflammatory stimuli requires the phosphorylation-triggered and ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the NF-kappa B inhibitor, I kappa B alpha. Here, we show the in vitro reconstitution of the phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination of I kappa B alpha with purified components. ROC1, a novel SCF-associated protein, is recruited by cullin 1 to form a quatemary SCFHOS-ROC1 holenzyme (with Skp1 and the beta-TRCP homolog HOS). SCFHOS-ROC1 binds IKK beta-phosphorylated I kappa B alpha and catalyzes its ubiquitination in the presence of ubiquitin, E1, and Cdc34. ROC1 plays a unique role in the ubiquitination reaction by heterodimerizing with cullin 1 to catalyze ubiquitin polymerization.  (+info)

ROC1, a homolog of APC11, represents a family of cullin partners with an associated ubiquitin ligase activity. (6/749)

We have identified two highly conserved RING finger proteins, ROC1 and ROC2, that are homologous to APC11, a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. ROC1 and ROC2 commonly interact with all cullins while APC11 specifically interacts with APC2, a cullin-related APC subunit. YeastROC1 encodes an essential gene whose reduced expression resulted in multiple, elongated buds and accumulation of Sic1p and Cln2p. ROC1 and APC11 immunocomplexes can catalyze isopeptide ligations to form polyubiquitin chains in an E1- and E2-dependent manner. ROC1 mutations completely abolished their ligase activity without noticeable changes in associated proteins. Ubiquitination of phosphorylated I kappa B alpha can be catalyzed by the ROC1 immunocomplex in vitro. Hence, combinations of ROC/APC11 and cullin proteins proteins potentially constitute a wide variety of ubiquitin ligases.  (+info)

Conjugation of the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 to cullin-2 is linked to von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor function. (7/749)

The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein pVHL assembles with cullin-2 (hCUL-2) and elongin B/C forming a protein complex, CBCVHL, that resembles SKP1-CDC53-F-box protein ubiquitin ligases. Here, we show that hCUL-2 is modified by the conserved ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 and that NEDD8-hCUL-2 conjugates are part of CBCVHL complexes in vivo. Remarkably, the formation of these conjugates is stimulated by the pVHL tumor suppressor. A tumorigenic pVHL variant, however, is essentially deficient in this activity. Thus, ligation of NEDD8 to hCUL-2 is linked to pVHL activity and may be important for pVHL tumor suppressor function.  (+info)

Cdc53/cullin and the essential Hrt1 RING-H2 subunit of SCF define a ubiquitin ligase module that activates the E2 enzyme Cdc34. (8/749)

SCFCdc4 (Skp1, Cdc53/cullin, F-box protein) defines a family of modular ubiquitin ligases (E3s) that regulate diverse processes including cell cycle, immune response, and development. Mass spectrometric analysis of proteins copurifying with Cdc53 identified the RING-H2 finger protein Hrt1 as a subunit of SCF. Hrt1 shows striking similarity to the Apc11 subunit of anaphase-promoting complex. Conditional inactivation of hrt1(ts) results in stabilization of the SCFCdc4 substrates Sic1 and Cln2 and cell cycle arrest at G1/S. Hrt1 assembles into recombinant SCF complexes and individually binds Cdc4, Cdc53 and Cdc34, but not Skp1. Hrt1 stimulates the E3 activity of recombinant SCF potently and enables the reconstitution of Cln2 ubiquitination by recombinant SCFGrr1. Surprisingly, SCF and the Cdc53/Hrt1 subcomplex activate autoubiquitination of Cdc34 E2 enzyme by a mechanism that does not appear to require a reactive thiol. The highly conserved human HRT1 complements the lethality of hrt1Delta, and human HRT2 binds CUL-1. We conclude that Cdc53/Hrt1 comprise a highly conserved module that serves as the functional core of a broad variety of heteromeric ubiquitin ligases.  (+info)

E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, which catalyzes ubiquitination of target proteins together with ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 UBE2L3. Acts as an atypical E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase by working together with cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL) complexes and initiating ubiquitination of CRL substrates: associates with CRL complexes and specifically mediates addition of the first ubiquitin on CRLs targets. The initial ubiquitin is then elongated by CDC34/UBE2R1 and UBE2R2. E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity is activated upon binding to neddylated cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase complexes. Plays a role in protein translation in response to DNA damage by mediating ubiquitination of EIF4E2, the consequences of EIF4E2 ubiquitination are however unclear. According to a report, EIF4E2 ubiquitination leads to promote EIF4E2 cap-binding and protein translation arrest. According to another report EIF4E2 ubiquitination leads to its subsequent degradation. Acts as the ligase involved in ISGylation of EIF4E2.
The role of cullin E3-ubiquitin ligases for muscle homeostasis is best known during muscle atrophy, as the cullin-1 substrate adaptor atrogin-1 counts among the most well-characterized muscle atrogins. We investigated, whether cullin activity was also crucial during terminal myoblast differentiation and aggregation of acetylcholine receptors for the establishment of neuromuscular junctions in vitro.. The activity of cullin E3-ligases is modulated through posttranslational modification with the small ubiquitin-like modifier nedd8. Using either the Nae1 inhibitor MLN4924 (Pevonedistat) or siRNA against nedd8 in early or late stages of differentiation on C2C12 myoblasts, and primary satellite cells from mouse and human, we show that cullin E3-ligase activity is necessary for each step of the muscle cell differentiation program in vitro. We further investigate known transcriptional repressors for terminal muscle differentiation ZBTB38, Bhlhe41 and Id1. Due to their identified roles for terminal ...
Proteins of the BTB-kelch family are known to be involved in multiple biological processes such as migration, cytoskeleton arrangement, regulation of cell morphology, protein ubiquitination and gene expression. KBTBD8 is a new member of this family. The gene was found in a comparative transcriptome analysis of pluripotent stem cells and was therefore suggested to play a role in the regulation of pluripotency. Comparative analysis of the gene and protein sequences revealed a high conservation throughout evolution especially in the characteristic domains of BTB, BACK and kelch. We identified the Golgi apparatus as the subcellular localization of the KBTBD8 protein in non-dividing cells and could show that KBTBD8 co-localizes with α-tubulin on the spindle apparatus of mitotic cells suggesting a role in cell proliferation. In conclusion, KBTBD8 is a new member of the BTB-kelch superfamily that is located in the Golgi apparatus and translocates to the spindle apparatus during mitosis.
Abstract: Cullin-RING ligases are multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligases that recruit substrate-specific adaptors to catalyze protein ubiquitylation. Cul3-based Cullin-RING ligases are uniquely associated with BTB adaptors that incorporate homodimerization, Cul3 assembly, and substrate recognition into a single multidomain protein, of which the best known are BTB-BACK-Kelch domain proteins, including KEAP1. Cul3 assembly requires a BTB protein 3-box motif, analogous to the F-box and SOCS box motifs of other Cullin-based E3s. To define the molecular basis for this assembly and the overall architecture of the E3, we determined the crystal structures of the BTB-BACK domains of KLHL11 both alone and in complex with Cul3, along with the Kelch domain structures of KLHL2 (Mayven), KLHL7, KLHL12, and KBTBD5. We show that Cul3 interaction is dependent on a unique N-terminal extension sequence that packs against the 3-box in a hydrophobic groove centrally located between the BTB and BACK domains. Deletion of ...
Cul1 and Cul3 mouse knockout experiments have revealed their indispensable roles in cell cycle progression and early embryogenesis (Table 3). The role of CUL1 in cell cycle control is understood in considerable detail. It was the pioneering work using the budding and fission yeast systems that led to the discovery of cullins and other CRL components and their role in cell cycle control (reviewed in [19]). Work in C. elegans and Drosophila has demonstrated the requirement of CUL1 for cell cycle progression (Table 3). Mechanistically, it is believed that the CUL1-based SCF regulates the mammalian cell cycle, at least in part, by using the Skp2 F-box protein, which directs the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of p27 and p21 (inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases), thereby activating cyclin-dependent kinases [20]. SCF malfunction has been linked to malignancy, as mutations in the Fbw7 F-box protein are frequently found in a variety of human cancers [21].. Studies with Cul4 deletion in C. elegans ...
DCUN1D5 (defective in cullin neddylation 1 domain containing 5), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Cullin proteins comprise a distinct family of mediators that participate in the selective targeting of proteins for ubiquitin (Ub)-mediated proteolysis. CUL-1, which is the mammalian homolog of yeast Cdc53, is an integral component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex designated SCF. The SCF (Skp1/CUL-1/F-box protein complex) consists of Skp1 associating with both CUL-1 and an F-box protein, such as Skp2, which determines the substrate specificity of the complex. CUL-1-mediated ubiquitination results in the degradation of cell cycle proteins cyclin D, p21 and cyclin E. Another cullin, CUL-3, facilitates the degradation of cyclin E independent of SCF activity, while CUL-2 associates with the tumor suppressing protein VHL and elongin B to form VBC complexes, which structurally resemble the SCF ligase. Proteolysis also occurs by way of CUL-4 associating with Nedd-8, a ubiquitin-like protein, where it too functions as an active component of a multifunctional E3 complex. CUL-5, also designated ...
Key assembly factor of SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes that promotes the exchange of the substrate-recognition F-box subunit in SCF complexes, thereby playing a key role in the cellular repertoire of SCF complexes. Acts as a F-box protein exchange factor. The exchange activity of CAND1 is coupled with cycles of neddylation conjugation: in the deneddylated state, cullin-binding CAND1 binds CUL1-RBX1, increasing dissociation of the SCF complex and promoting exchange of the F-box protein. Probably plays a similar role in other cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes ...
Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) are the largest known family of ubiquitin ligases. The activity of some CRLs is inhibited by an eight-subunit complex known as the COP9 signalosome, which can act on the cullin subunit of CRLs and thereby influence the ubiquitylation of CRL substrates. On p. 1035, Lionel Pintard and colleagues use mass spectrometry to identify the subset of CRLs that might be regulated by the COP9 signalosome. By determining the adaptor proteins with which six of the COP9-signalosome subunits interact, the authors identify 15 CRLs that associate with the COP9 signalosome. Interestingly, most of these CRLs have a role in DNA metabolism; the authors propose that their coordinated regulation might ensure rapid CRL-mediated responses to specific physiological cues. The authors mass spectrometry analysis also reveals that Dda1, a small protein that is thought to associate with CRL4 complexes, positively regulates their ubiquitin-ligase activity. Interestingly, the expression of Dda1 and ...
In eukaryotes, the conjugation of the ubiquitinlikeprotein NEDD8 onto protein targets is an important post-translational modification. The best understood neddylation targets are the cullins, scaffold subunits of E3 ubiquitin ligases, where neddylation as well as deneddylation, facilitated by the protease activity of the CSN (COP9 signalosome), are required to control ubiquitin ligase assembly, function and ultimately substrate degradation. Little is known about the role of other deneddylating enzymes besides CSN and the role of neddylation and deneddylation of their substrates. We previously characterized Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with defects in the conserved NEDD8-specific protease DEN1 (DENEDDYLASE1). These mutants display only subtle growth phenotypes despite the strong accumulation of a broad range of neddylated proteins. Specifically, we identified AXR1 (AUXIN RESISTANT1), a subunit of the heterodimeric NAE (E1 NEDD8 ACTIVATING ENZYME), as highly neddylated in den1 mutants. Here, we ...
A second member of the E3 ubiquitin ligases, Fbxo7, is also mutated in early-onset Parkisonism [91-97]. In contrast with Parkin, which functions as a single-polypeptide E3 ligase, Fbxo7 is a component of a multisubunit E3 ligase of the Cullin-RING ligase family (CRL). CRLs are a large class of multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligases that feature a scaffolding protein, termed a cullin, and associate with a RING-box protein (reviewed in refs [98,99]). The archetypal CRL is the SCF-type ligase family, which comprises Cullin1, Skp1, the RING protein Rbx1, and an F-box. Skp1 associates with substrate adaptor proteins that contain F-boxes (Skp1-Cullin1-Fbox), which recruits substrates to the CRL for ubiquitylation.. Until recently, Fbxo7 had only four identified substrates. The first of these is HURP (hepatoma up-regulated protein) [100]. HURP is found at high levels in hepatocellular carcinomas and is required during mitotic spindle assembly for correct alignment of chromosomes [101]. As such, it is ...
Several experimental points support the proposal that p45SKP2 is a component of a potential human SCF‐type E3 ligase. First, two yeast F‐box proteins, CDC4 and GRR1, were shown to complex independently with CDC53 and SKP1 and function as specific SIC1 and CLN receptors, respectively (Skowyra et al., 1997). In fact, purified CDC4-CDC53-SKP1 complexes mixed together with CDC34 and an E1 were found to be necessary and sufficient for the multi‐ubiquitination of SIC1 in vitro. We found that p45SKP2 also interacts with a member of the cullin family, CUL‐1, in vivo. Association was established by direct co‐immunoprecipitation in vitro and in vivo (Figures 2 and 3). In addition, p45SKP2 was capable of relocalizing CUL‐1 to the nucleus when both proteins were co‐synthesized (Figure 2F). Although the exact function(s) of cullins remain to be determined, the yeast homolog of CUL‐1, CDC53, has been clearly implicated in the degradation of critical cell cycle regulatory proteins. Genetic ...
Protein neddylation is essential for the viability of most organisms and is widely involved in the regulation of immunity, DNA damage and repair, cell signaling and cell cycle. Unlike RING-type neddylation ligases, HECT-type neddylation ligase remains less defined. Here, we show that Itch is a novel HECT-type neddylation E3 ligase and we identify JunB as a substrate of Nedd8 modification by Itch. JunB neddylation attenuates its transcriptional activity. In addition, JunB neddylation mediated by Itch promotes its ubiquitination-dependent degradation. Therefore, these findings define a new HECT-type neddylation ligase and its neddylation substrate.
The phytohormone JA plays a critical role in wound responses (Wasternack, 2007). It is massively produced within a few minutes after wounding by chloroplast- and peroxisome-localized biosynthetic enzymes and is involved both in local and long-distance signaling (Koo et al., 2009; Wasternack and Hause, 2013). Plants impaired in JA biosynthesis or signaling exhibit weakened responses to wounding and are much more susceptible to chewing insects (Howe and Jander, 2008). The JA core signaling pathway is well described (Chini et al., 2007; Thines et al., 2007): JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins sequester transcription factors, notably basic helix-loop-helix factors such as MYC2 to prevent their activation of JA-responsive genes. The binding of the bioactive form of JA, JA-Ile, to the COI1 receptor, an F-box protein that forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase Skp, Cullin, F-box (SCF) containing complex with Skp and Cullin proteins, increases the affinity of COI1 for JAZ proteins, triggering their ...
The multisubunit cullin RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) target post-translationally modified substrates for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. The suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins play important roles in inflammatory processes, diabetes, and cancer and therefore represent attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. The SOCS proteins, among their other functions, serve as substrate receptors of CRL5 complexes. A member of the CRL family, SOCS2-EloBC-Cul5-Rbx2 (CRL5SOCS2), binds phosphorylated growth hormone receptor as its main substrate. Here, we demonstrate that the components of CRL5SOCS2 can be specifically pulled from K562 human cell lysates using beads decorated with phosphorylated growth hormone receptor peptides. Subsequently, SOCS2-EloBC and full-length Cul5-Rbx2, recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and in Sf21 insect cells, respectively, were used to reconstitute neddylated and unneddylated CRL5SOCS2 complexes in vitro. Finally, diverse ...
DI-591 is a potent, high-affinity and cell-permeable inhibitor of the DCN1-UBC12 interaction. DI-591 binds to DCN1 and DCN2 with Ki values of 12 nM and 10.4 nM, respectively and has no appreciable binding to DCN3, DCN4, and DCN5 proteins. DI-591 selectively inhibits neddylation of cullin 3 but has no or minimal effect on neddylation of other cullin family members. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
A multitude of studies have demonstrated that the early phases of DNA replication are regulated by ubiquitylation. For instance, the E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes cullin-RING ligase-1 (CRL1) and cullin-RING ligase-4 (CRL4) prevent re-replication and the occurrence of genome instability by targeting pre-RC components for proteasomal degradation (reviewed in Truong et al.2). Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) constitute a protein family of ,200 modular E3s and are composed of eight distinct subfamilies containing different cullins, namely CUL1, CUL2, CUL3, CUL4A, CUL4B, CUL5, CUL7 and CUL9.3 Cullins work as molecular scaffolds assembling the different complex subunits, that is, a RING-finger protein (RBX1 or RBX2), which interacts with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, an adaptor protein and one of many substrate-receptor subunits. The activity of CRLs is primarily controlled at the level of substrate recruitment. The direct recognition of the target protein by the substrate-receptor subunit and its ...
Accepts the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8/RUB1 from the UBA3-ULA1 E1 complex and catalyzes its covalent attachment to other proteins. The major substrate is CDC53/Cullin.
The human UV-damaged DNA-binding protein Ddb1 associates with cullin 4 ubiquitin ligases implicated in nucleotide excision repair (NER). These complexes also contain the signalosome (CSN), but NER-relevant ubiquitination targets have not yet been identified. We report that fission yeast Ddb1, Cullin 4 (Pcu4), and CSN subunits Csn1 and Csn2 are required for degradation of the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor protein Spd1. Ddb1-deficient cells have >20-fold increased spontaneous mutation rate. This is partly dependent on the error-prone translesion DNA polymerases. Spd1 deletion substantially reduced the mutation rate, suggesting that insufficient RNR activity accounts for ~50% of observed mutations. Epistasis analysis indicated that Ddb1 contributed to mutation avoidance and tolerance to DNA damage in a pathway distinct from NER. Finally, we show that Ddb1/Csn1/Cullin 4-mediated Spd1 degradation becomes essential when cells differentiate into meiosis. These results suggest that Ddb1, ...
Cullin-based E3 ligases are a major subfamily of ubiquitin ligases and function in many biological processes. CUL4A and CUL4B, two paralogs in mammalian cells, coexpress in many cell types, share high sequence similarity, form separate E3 ligase complexes with the adapter proteins DDB1 and DDB2, and have redundant and distinct functions in promoting efficient NER (OConnell and Harper, 2007; Guerrero-Santoro et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2009). CUL4A-DDB1 also forms an E3 ligase complex with CSA. This complex interacts with CSB and functions in the TCR pathway (Fousteri et al., 2006). DCAF proteins interact directly with DDB1 through the WDxR motif in the WD40 domain in mammalian cells. The Arabidopsis genome encodes 119 putative DCAF proteins with 165 WDxR motifs (Lee et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2008). However, only few of these proteins have been shown functionally to interact with CUL4-DDB1A (Bernhardt et al., 2006; Lee et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2008; Molinier et al., 2008). In this study, we ...
This gene is a member of the cullin family. The encoded protein forms a complex that functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase and catalyzes the polyubiquitination of specific protein substrates in the cell. The protein interacts with a ring finger protein, and is required for the proteolysis of several regulators of DNA replication including chromatin licensing and DNA replication factor 1 and cyclin E. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene ...
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Emerging and preclinical drugs. Because the field of Ub biology is still burgeoning, many of the intermolecular interactions between specific Ub enzymes and their cognate substrates are either newly characterized or unknown. While a few drugs have been developed to specifically antagonize E2-conjugating enzymes, E3 ligases, and DUBs, none of these have yet entered advanced clinical trials (Table 1). The ubiquitination activity of some E3 ligases requires the activity of other proteins. In particular, the cullin-RING E3 ligases require covalent binding of the Ub-like protein NEDD8 to the cullin component of the E3 ligase for proper function. The compound MLN4924 is a potent inhibitor of NEDD8 activation, and the drug has been shown in multiple preclinical models to effectively block neoplastic cell proliferation (32). Phase I trials of this agent have been completed for non-hematologic malignancies, and other trials are underway or planned for the use of this drug in an array of hematologic ...
SARS-CoV-2 includes a novel Orf10 that interacts with muliple members of the Cullin 2 ubiquitin ligase complex as determined by AP-MS (Gordon 2020). The strongest interaction is with ZYG11B, a substrate adaptor for CUL2. By binding this complex, Orf10 might be able to hijack its activity. The hijacking of ubiquitination machinery is a common strategy of viruses to direct the degradation of viral restriction factors, for example. Also depicted here is the required neddylation (N8) of CUL2 by the NAE enzyme complex. The ability of this enzyme to transfer N8 to CUL2 is inhibited by the small molecule Pevonedistat ...
Family commitments were a factor when Larry Cullins resigned his position as Salina Central head volleyball coach back in 2003.Family also played a role when Cullins decided to return to the Mustangs this season.In 13 seasons between his Central head coaching stints, Cullins remained active in the sport, leading club teams, coaching at the junior high level and helping as an assistant at the high school.Cullins replaced Rose Wittman back in 2001 after Wittman spent six years with the Central
CSN is involved in regulating cullin-based E3 ligases and could potentially be altered in tumors. Although few studies documented the role of CSN5 in tumorigenesis (44, 45), the roles of COP9 subunits in tumorigenesis remain to be determined. Here, we discovered that CSN6 was amplified and overexpressed in cancers and was a positive regulator of ubiquitin ligase MDM2 to promote tumorigenesis. Our discovery of CSN6 in stabilizing MDM2 updates the paradigm with evidence that CSN has a versatile role in modulating various types of E3 ligases. The positive correlation between CSN6 and MDM2 in both cancer cell lines and primary tumors is particularly interesting, as MDM2 levels are associated with poor prognosis of many types of human cancer (26, 46). MDM2 is substantially amplified/overexpressed in greater than 40 different types of malignancies, and changes in MDM2 stability could be another possible explanation; however, little is known about this aspect. It is worth noting that in our collection ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Degradation of phosphorylated p53 by viral protein-ECS E3 ligase complex. AU - Sato, Yoshitaka. AU - Kamura, Takumi. AU - Shirata, Noriko. AU - Murata, Takayuki. AU - Kudoh, Ayumi. AU - Iwahori, Satoko. AU - Nakayama, Sanae. AU - Isomura, Hiroki. AU - Nishiyama, Yukihiro. AU - Tsurumi, Tatsuya. PY - 2009/7/1. Y1 - 2009/7/1. N2 - p53-signaling is modulated by viruses to establish a host cellular environment advantageous for their propagation. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic program induces phosphorylation of p53, which prevents interaction with MDM2. Here, we show that induction of EBV lytic program leads to degradation of p53 via an ubiquitin-proteasome pathway independent of MDM2. The BZLF1 protein directly functions as an adaptor component of the ECS (Elongin B/C-Cul2/5-SOCS-box protein) ubiquitin ligase complex targeting p53 for degradation. Intringuingly, C-terminal phosphorylation of p53 resulting from activated DNA damage response by viral lytic replication enhances its ...
SCF and other cullin-ring ligases (CRLs) have been implicated in numerous human developmental and disease pathways. These enzymes function in the ubiquitin prot...
RhoBTB2 is one of the three members of the RhoBTB family. All RhoBTB proteins are characterized by a GTPase domain followed by a proline-rich region, a tandem of two BTB domains and a C-terminal putative RING finger domain. RHOBTB2 is a putative tumour suppressor gene. Expression of RHOBTB2 has been found decreased in breast, lung and bladder tumors, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and osteosarcoma. Decreased expression is often the result of promoter methylation. Mutations are uncommon. The role of RhoBTB2 in tumorigenesis is unknown but may be related to its function as a component of Cullin 3-dependent ubiquitin ligase complexes regulating the cell cycle and apoptosis ...
The Elongin BC complex interacts with the conserved SOCS-box motif present in members of the SOCS, ras, WD-40 repeat, and ankyrin repeat families
Lan L, Nakajima S, Kapetanaki MG, Hsieh CL, Fagerburg M, Thickman K, Rodriguez-Collazo P,Leuba SH, Levine AS, Rapić-Otrin V. Monoubiquitinated histone H2A destabilizes photolesion-containing nucleosomes with concomitant release of UV-damaged DNA-binding protein E3 ligase. J Biol Chem. 2012 Apr 6;287(15):12036- ...
pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:X:38533274:38576196:-1 gene:OTTMUSG00000017236 transcript:OTTMUST00000041721 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Cul4b description:cullin 4B ...
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Cullin-Ring E3 Ligases (CRLs) regulate a multitude of cellular pathways through specific substrate receptors. The COP9 signalosome (CSN) deactivates CRLs by removing NEDD8 from activated Cullins. Here we present structures of the neddylated and deneddylated CSN-CRL2 complexes by combining single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) with chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (XL-MS). These structures suggest a conserved mechanism of CSN activation, consisting of conformational clamping of the CRL2 substrate by CSN2/CSN4, release of the catalytic CSN5/CSN6 heterodimer and finally activation of the CSN5 deneddylation machinery. Using hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX)-MS we show that CRL2 activates CSN5/CSN6 in a neddylation-independent manner. The presence of NEDD8 is required to activate the CSN5 active site. Overall, by synergising cryo-EM with MS, we identify sensory regions of the CSN that mediate its stepwise activation and provide a framework for understanding the regulatory ...
Protein translocation: As a graduate student and postdoctoral fellow working with Dr. Randy Schekman at the University of California, Berkeley, Deshaies discovered Sec61, which comprises the heart of the translocon that mediates insertion of secretory and membrane proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum of all eukaryotic cells.[1][2] He went on to identify a complex of proteins that form the translocon in yeast cells.[3] In addition, Deshaies discovered a role for 70 kilodalton heat shock proteins (Hsp70s) in enabling the post-translational insertion of proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial membranes.[4] This was the first specific, genetically- and biochemically-validated function to be discovered for a member of the Hsp70 family of proteins. SCF and cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases: As a postdoctoral fellow working with Dr. Marc Kirschner at the University of California, San Francisco, Deshaies discovered a biochemical function for the ubiquitin-conjugated enzyme CDC34, which ...
Core component of multiple cullin-RING-based BCR (BTB-CUL3-RBX1) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes which mediate the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of target proteins. BCR complexes and ARIH1 collaborate in tandem to mediate ubiquitination of target proteins (PubMed:27565346). As a scaffold protein may contribute to catalysis through positioning of the substrate and the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of the complex is dependent on the neddylation of the cullin subunit and is inhibited by the association of the deneddylated cullin subunit with TIP120A/CAND1. The functional specificity of the BCR complex depends on the BTB domain-containing protein as the substrate recognition component. BCR(KLHL42) is involved in ubiquitination of KATNA1. BCR(SPOP) is involved in ubiquitination of BMI1/PCGF4, BRMS1, H2AFY and DAXX, GLI2 and GLI3. Can also form a cullin-RING-based BCR (BTB-CUL3-RBX1) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex containing
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a ubiquitin ligase with essential functions in mitosis, meiosis, and G1 phase of the cell cycle. APC/C recognizes substrates via coactivator proteins such as Cdh1, and bound substrates are ubiquitinated by E2 enzymes that interact with a hetero-dimer of the RING subunit Apc11 and the cullin Apc2. We have obtained three-dimensional (3D) models of human and Xenopus APC/C by angular reconstitution and random conical tilt (RCT) analyses of negatively stained cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) preparations, have determined the masses of these particles by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and have mapped the locations of Cdh1 and Apc2. These proteins are located on the same side of the asymmetric APC/C, implying that this is where substrates are ubiquitinated. We have further identified a large flexible domain in APC/C that adopts a different orientation upon Cdh1 binding. Cdh1 may thus activate APC/C both by recruiting substrates ...
F-box proteins are an expanding family of eukaryotic proteins characterized by an approximately 40 aminoacid motif, the F box (so named because cyclin F was one of the first proteins in which this motif was identified) [1]. Some F-box proteins have been shown to be critical for the controlled degradation of cellular regulatory proteins [2] [3]. In fact, F-box proteins are one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligases called SCFs. The other three subunits are the Skp1 protein; one of the cullin proteins (Cul1 in metazoans and Cdc53 or Cul A in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae); and the recently identified Roc1 protein (also called Rbx1 or Hrt1). SCF ligases bring ubiquitin conjugating enzymes (either Ubc3 or Ubc4) to substrates that are specifically recruited by the different F-box proteins. The need for high substrate specificity and the large number of known F-box proteins in yeast and worms [2] [4] suggest the existence of a large family of mammalian F-box proteins. Using Skp1 as a ...
Inhibition of HIV-1 by A3G that escapes Vif mediated degradation. In an HIV-1 producer cell, the HIV-1 virus infectivity factor (Vif) interacts with the cotranscription factor CBF-β and a cellular ubiquitin ligase complex to become the substrate recognition subunit of an E3 ubiquitin ligase. (1) The Vif-E3 complex recruits an E2 enzyme that transfers ubiquitin molecules to A3G, thereby signaling it for degradation through the proteasome pathway. (2) A3G that escapes this fate, either fortuitously or in the presence of a Vif-defective HIV-1 strain, can enter an assembling virus particle through interactions with RNA (host 7SL RNA or HIV-1 genomic RNA) and the nucleocapsid portion of Gag. Then, A3G travels with the HIV-1 particle to a target cell where it waits for reverse transcription of the HIV-1 genomic RNA to (-)DNA to ensue. A3G, a single-stranded DNA deaminase is able to deaminate cytosine (C) to uracil (U) in (-)DNA, which causes the reverse transcriptase to introduce guanine (G) to ...
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In this study, we examined the potential mechanism responsible for COMMD1‐mediated repression of NF‐κB and its ability to accelerate the dissociation of RelA from chromatin (Burstein et al, 2005). Interestingly, others had reported that ubiquitination of RelA also accelerates its release from chromatin (Saccani et al, 2004), suggesting that ubiquitination of RelA might be responsible for the effects of COMMD1. Indeed, we present evidence that COMMD1 promotes the ubiquitination of NF‐κB subunits and our data also indicate that this effect is mediated by the interaction of COMMD1 with ECSSOCS1, a Cullin‐containing ubiquitin ligase complex previously implicated in RelA ubiquitination (Ryo et al, 2003). These events are physiologically important because COMMD1 deficiency results in de‐repression of several endogenous NF‐κB‐responsive genes and enhanced κB‐mediated cellular responses such as the production of chemokines. Finally, our studies indicated that the role of COMMD1 in ...
CUL4A encodes a core component of a cullin-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that regulates many critical processes such as cell cycle progression, DNA replication, DNA repair and chromatin remodeling by targeting a variety of proteins for ubiquitination and degradation. In the research described in this report we aimed to clarify whether CUL4A participates in multiple drug resistance (MDR) in breast cancer cells. We first transfected vectors carrying CUL4A and specific shCUL4A into breast cancer cells and corresponding Adr cells respectively. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions and western blots, we found that overexpression of CUL4A in MCF7 and MDA-MB-468 cells up-regulated MDR1/P-gp expression on both the transcription and protein levels, which conferred multidrug resistance to P-gp substrate drugs, as determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. On the other hand, silencing CUL4A in MCF7/Adr and MDA-MB-468/Adr cells led to the opposite
It has been known for some time that the human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) E4orf6 and Sox18 E1B55K proteins work in concert to degrade p53 and to regulate selective export of late viral mRNAs during productive infection. H1299 human lung carcinoma cells after expression of E1B55K and E4orf6 using adenovirus vectors. Several species were detected and identified by mass spectroscopy and for one of these integrin α3 we went on in a parallel study to confirm it as a substrate of the complex (F. Dallaire et al. J. Virol. 83:5329-5338 2009 Although the system has some limitations it may still be of some general use in identifying candidate substrates of any viral cullin-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and we suggest a series of criteria for substrate validation. During the past decade protein degradation has become increasingly recognized SVT-40776 (Tarafenacin) as a critical mechanism by which cells regulate a number of fundamental processes (reviewed in references 37 57 and 59). Degradation ...
BPM1 belongs to the MATH-BTB family of proteins, which act as substrate-binding adaptors for the Cullin3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase. MATH-BTB proteins associate with Cullin3 via the BTB domain and with the substrate protein via the MATH domain. Few BPM1-interacting proteins with different functions are recognized, however, specific roles of BPM1, depending on its cellular localization have not been studied so far. Here, we found a novel bipartite nuclear localization signal at the C-terminus of the BPM1 protein, responsible for its nuclear and nucleolar localization and sufficient to drive the green fluorescent protein and cytoplasmic BPM4 protein into the nucleus. Co-localization analysis in live Nicotiana tabacum BY2 cells indicates a Cullin3 independent function since BPM1 localization is predominantly nucleolar and thus devoid of Cullin3. Treatment of BY2 cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 blocks BPM1 and Cullin3 degradation, suggesting turnover of both proteins through the ...
Following a map-based approach, we cloned HVE and found it to encode the Arabidopsis ortholog of mammalian CAND1. The important role of the HVE/CAND1 gene in vascular development has remained unnoticed so far, even though its cloning and the characterization of several mutant alleles have been reported by three research groups (Cheng et al., 2004; Chuang et al., 2004; Feng et al., 2004). Human CAND1 regulates the ubiquitination of target proteins by binding to unneddylated CULLIN1 (CUL1). CUL1, SKP1 and F-box proteins form SCF complexes that ligate ubiquitin moieties to proteins that will be degraded by the 26S proteasome. It has been proposed that the binding of CAND1 to unneddylated CUL1 hinders the interaction of SKP1 with CUL1 preventing the assembly of the SCF complex. After neddylation of CUL1, CAND1 is released and the SFC complex is assembled (Liu et al., 2002; Zheng et al., 2002; Hwang et al., 2003; Oshikawa et al., 2003).. Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is essential for auxin ...
Interleukin-6 (IL6) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates immune and inflammatory responses. Multiple transcription factors, including nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), regulate IL6 transcription. Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) is a substrate adaptor protein for the Cullin 3-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which regulates the degradation of many proteins, including Nrf2 and IκB kinase β (IKKβ). Here, we found that stable knockdown of Keap1 (Keap1-KD) in RAW 264.7 (RAW) mouse macrophages and human monocyte THP-1 cells significantly increased expression of Il6, and Nrf2-target genes, under basal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.001-0.1 μg/ml)-challenged conditions. However, Nrf2 activation alone, by tert-butylhydroquinone treatment of RAW cells, did not increase expression of Il6. Compared to cells transduced with scrambled non-target negative control shRNA, Keap1-KD RAW cells showed enhanced protein levels of IKKβ and ...
Cullin-7 is a RING-E3 ligase protein that in humans is encoded by the CUL7 gene. It is associated with 3-M syndrome. CUL7 has been shown to interact with RBX1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000044090 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000038545 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Dias DC, Dolios G, Wang R, Pan ZQ (Dec 2002). CUL7: A DOC domain-containing cullin selectively binds Skp1.Fbx29 to form an SCF-like complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 99 (26): 16601-6. doi:10.1073/pnas.252646399. PMC 139190 . PMID 12481031. Arai T, Kasper JS, Skaar JR, Ali SH, Takahashi C, DeCaprio JA (Aug 2003). Targeted disruption of p185/Cul7 gene results in abnormal vascular morphogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 100 (17): 9855-60. doi:10.1073/pnas.1733908100. PMC 187864 . PMID 12904573. Entrez Gene: CUL7 cullin 7. Kim SS, Shago M, Kaustov L, et al. (2007). CUL7 is a novel antiapoptotic oncogene. Cancer Res. 67 (20): 9616-22. ...
The first three patients enrolled will receive 0.1 mg Cand5 in the study eye, the next three patients enrolled will receive 0.33 mg Cand5 in the study eye, the following three patients enrolled will receive 1.0 mg Cand5 in the study eye, the following three patients enrolled will receive 1.5 mg Cand5 in the study eye, and the remaining three patients enrolled will receive 3.0 mg Cand5 in the study eye. The third patient enrolled at each dose level will complete their two-week visit before the next dose level group may be treated ...
Generation and validation of RhoBTB1IND. Full-length RhoBTB1 was amplified from heart cDNA from C57BL/6J mice using the primers 5′-GCATGAACTAGTATGGACTCTGACATGGACTACGAACGAC-3′ (forward) and 5′-CATGAACTAGTTCAGGCGACAGCTGGGGACGAAT-3′ (reverse), with SpeI restriction enzyme sites inserted. RhoBTB1 cDNA was digested with SpeI and then subcloned into a previously described vector carrying the CAG promoter/enhancer, the loxP-STOP-loxP sequence, and IRES-tdTomato (53, 54). The construct was sequenced to confirm RhoBTB1 insertion and determine its orientation. The function of the RhoBTB1IND construct was tested in HEK293T cell lines. HEK293T cells plated in 6-well dishes were transfected using Lipofectamine LTX (Invitrogen, Thermo Fisher Scientific) according to the manufacturers protocol with either a Myc-RhoBTB1 or RhoBTB1IND construct with or without a plasmid encoding Cre recombinase (p185-Cre). Control transfections contained the inducible construct backbone with or without p185-Cre. The ...
The adhesion scaffolding protein NEDD9 was identified as potential pro-metastatic gene in several cancers. The molecular mechanisms of NEDD9-driven metastasis are still unknown. In this study, we show that expression of NEDD9 positively correlates with the invasive stage of breast cancer. We show that NEDD9 localizes to invadopodia and endosomes. Notably, NEDD9 depleted cells have increased levels of inactive surface receptors due to increase in fast recycling of Rab4 and Rab5 positive vesicles. Mechanistically, we found that NEDD9 binds to and scaffolds the Arf6 specific GAP - ASAP3, decreasing Arf6 activity. Thus, depletion of NEDD9 leads to activation of Arf6. Inhibition of Arf6 or re-expression of NEDD9 in shNEDD9 cells was sufficient to restore recycling rates, decrease the number of Rab4 and 5 positive vesicles and the invasive properties of tumor cells. Thus, in this work, we uncover the mechanistic basis of NEDD9-driven invasion and identify a new role for NEDD9 in Arf6-dependant ...
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Epiteliul simplu pavimentos scuamos este alctuit din celule turtite papilar al dermului, n hipoderm, n corionul mucoaselor, n jurul organelor mobile dup hipertrofia i hiperplazia organului,in lunile la bovine si ecvine,cand splina.
Cand Iisus Hristos a fost rastignit pentru noi muritorii vroia ca oameni sa traiasca in pace,sa ierte si sa iubeaca.Fie ca sarbatorile de Paste sa te ajute sa fi mai bun,mai intelegator si mai iubitor. HRISTOS A INVIAT ...
Harpel, D.; Cullen, D. A.; Ott, S. R.; Jiggins, C. D.; Walters, J. R. (2015). "Pollen feeding proteomics: Salivary proteins of ... During this phase, the cuticle, a tough outer layer made of a mixture of chitin and specialized proteins, is released from the ... it begins as a pale yellow granular secretion containing acidophilic proteins. This is viscous and darkens when exposed to air ...
... stabilized by protein-protein interactions with other Rev molecules (in addition to the RNA-protein interactions). Biochemical ... Ahmed, Y F; Hanly, S M; Malim, M H; Cullen, B R; Greene, W C (1990). "Structure-function analyses of the HTLV-I Rex and HIV-1 ... Assembly of this Rev-RRE complex is followed by the recruitment of a human protein complex containing the proteins exportin-1 ( ... In the presence of the HIV-1 accessory protein Rev, HIV-1 mRNAs that contain the RRE can be exported from the nucleus to the ...
Cyclin-T2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... Bieniasz PD, Grdina TA, Bogerd HP, Cullen BR (1999). "Analysis of the effect of natural sequence variation in Tat and in cyclin ... Kwak YT, Ivanov D, Guo J, Nee E, Gaynor RB (1999). "Role of the human and murine cyclin T proteins in regulating HIV-1 tat- ... Jang MK, Mochizuki K, Zhou M, Jeong HS, Brady JN, Ozato K (2005). "The bromodomain protein Brd4 is a positive regulatory ...
... protein exchange catalyst' that equilibrates F-box subunits of SCF ubiquitin ligases with the cullin scaffold subunit.[17] ... CSN plays a key role in regulating SCF and other CRL enzymes by removing the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 from their cullin ... Chimeric molecules that target proteins to the Skp1-Cullin-F box complex for ubiquitination and degradation. Proc. Natl. Acad. ... to tether cellular proteins to a ubiquitin ligase, resulting in ubiquitination and degradation of the tethered protein.[23] ...
SCF complexes, formed by SKP1 (MIM 601434), cullin (see CUL1; MIM 603034), and F-box proteins, act as protein-ubiquitin ligases ... F-box/WD repeat-containing protein 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FBXW10 gene. Members of the F-box protein ... F-box proteins interact with SKP1 through the F box, and they interact with ubiquitination targets through other protein ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ...
SCF complexes, formed by SKP1 (MIM 601434), cullin (see CUL1; MIM 603134), and F-box proteins, act as protein-ubiquitin ligases ... F-box only protein 28 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FBXO28 gene. Members of the F-box protein family, such as ... F-box proteins interact with SKP1 through the F box, and they interact with ubiquitination targets through other protein ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ...
SCF complexes, formed by SKP1 (MIM 601434), cullin (see CUL1; MIM 603134), and F-box proteins, act as protein-ubiquitin ligases ... F-box only protein 31 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FBXO31 gene. Members of the F-box protein family, such as ... F-box proteins interact with SKP1 through the F box, and they interact with ubiquitination targets through other protein ... the F-box protein FBXO31, a candidate tumor suppressor encoded in 16q24.3 for which there is loss of heterozygosity in various ...
2003). "Protein kinase CK2 and protein kinase D are associated with the COP9 signalosome". EMBO J. 22 (6): 1302-12. doi:10.1093 ... an assembly and maintenance platform for cullin ubiquitin ligases?". Nat. Cell Biol. 5 (12): 1029-33. doi:10.1038/ncb1203-1029 ... This gene is known to suppress G-protein and mitogen-activated signal transduction in mammalian cells. The encoded protein ... 1997). "Two human cDNAs, including a homolog of Arabidopsis FUS6 (COP11), suppress G-protein- and mitogen-activated protein ...
Pan ZQ, Kentsis A, Dias DC, Yamoah K, Wu K (March 2004). "Nedd8 on cullin: building an expressway to protein destruction". ... Liakopoulos D, Büsgen T, Brychzy A, Jentsch S, Pause A (May 1999). "Conjugation of the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 to cullin-2 ... Morimoto M, Nishida T, Honda R, Yasuda H (April 2000). "Modification of cullin-1 by ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 enhances the ... NEDD8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NEDD8 gene. (In Saccharomyces cerevisiae this protein is known as Rub1.) ...
Cullin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CUL2 gene. CUL2 has been shown to interact with: CAND1, DCUN1D1, RBX1, ... "Entrez Gene: CUL2 cullin 2". Menon S, Tsuge T, Dohmae N, Takio K, Wei N (2008). "Association of SAP130/SF3b-3 with Cullin-RING ... structural resemblance of the pVHL/elongin BC/hCUL-2 complex with the ubiquitin ligase complex SKP1/cullin/F-box protein". Proc ... "Covalent modification of all members of human cullin family proteins by NEDD8". Oncogene. 18 (48): 6829-34. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ...
Cullin-4B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CUL4B gene which is located on the X chromosome. CUL4B has high ... protein is a CRL4 substrate only when directed by viral proteins §protein is a CRL4 substrate only when directed by IMiDs ... At the C-terminal end, CUL4B interacts with the RBX1/ROC1 protein via its RING domain. RBX1 is a core component of Cullin-RING ... This modification appears to induce conformational changes which promotes flexibility in the RING domain of cullin proteins and ...
Cullin-4A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CUL4A gene. CUL4A belongs to the cullin family of ubiquitin ligase ... protein is a CRL4A substrate only when directed by viral proteins §protein is a CRL4A substrate only when directed by IMiDs ... At the C-terminal end, CUL4A interacts with the RBX1/ROC1 protein via its RING domain. RBX1 is a core component of Cullin-RING ... Shiyanov P, Nag A, Raychaudhuri P (Dec 1999). "Cullin 4A associates with the UV-damaged DNA-binding protein DDB". The Journal ...
"Covalent modification of all members of human cullin family proteins by NEDD8". Oncogene. 18 (48): 6829-34. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ... The protein encoded by this gene binds to the beta-amyloid precursor protein. Beta-amyloid precursor protein is a cell surface ... APPBP1 (Amyloid Precursor Protein-Binding Protein 1) binds to the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) carboxy terminal domain. ... In addition, the encoded protein can form a heterodimer with UBE1C and bind and activate NEDD8, a ubiquitin-like protein. This ...
Cull, M. G.; Schatz, P. J. (2000-01-01). Biotinylation of proteins in vivo and in vitro using small peptide tags. Methods in ... More recently, in vivo protein biotinylation was developed to study protein-protein interactions and proximity in living cells ... the purification of biotinylated proteins has been a widely used approach to identify protein-protein interactions and post- ... If isolation of the tagged protein is needed, it is better to tag the protein with iminobiotin. This biotin analogue gives ...
Chonn A, Semple SC, Cullis PR (15 September 1992). "Association of blood proteins with large unilamellar liposomes in vivo. ... Some of these proteins are linked to the exterior of the cell membrane. An example of this is the CD59 protein, which ... The most common class of this type of protein is the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). GPCRs are responsible for much of the ... The first of these proteins to be studied were the viral fusion proteins, which allow an enveloped virus to insert its genetic ...
... protein. The milk protein is of a type well suited to cheesemaking, and some herds are fed a hay-based diet to produce milk ... Cull cows and bull calves are worth more than Holsteins. The breed has spread to many countries and is becoming popular for ...
Cullin 1, also known as CUL1, is a human protein and gene from cullin family. This protein plays an important role in protein ... Morimoto M, Nishida T, Honda R, Yasuda H (2000). "Modification of cullin-1 by ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 enhances the ... 1998). "Characterization of the cullin and F-box protein partner Skp1". FEBS Lett. 438 (3): 183-9. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(98) ... 2000). "Covalent modification of all members of human cullin family proteins by NEDD8". Oncogene. 18 (48): 6829-34. doi:10.1038 ...
... a BiFC system has been developed to study protein-protein interactions in C. albicans. With this systems protein interactions ... McCall, Andrew D.; Pathirana, Ruvini U.; Prabhakar, Aditi; Cullen, Paul J.; Edgerton, Mira (23 August 2019). "Candida albicans ... However, this different codon usage makes it more difficult to study C. albicans protein-protein interactions in the model ... Schoeters, Floris; Van Dijck, Patrick (2019). "Protein-Protein Interactions in Candida albicans". Frontiers in Microbiology. 10 ...
Cullin-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CUL5 gene. The mammalian gene product was originally discovered by ... Since then, VACM-1 has been shown to be homologous to the Cullin family of proteins, and was subsequently dubbed cul5. Studies ... Feng L, Allen NS, Simo S, Cooper JA (November 2007). "Cullin 5 regulates Dab1 protein levels and neuron positioning during ... 2000). "Covalent modification of all members of human cullin family proteins by NEDD8". Oncogene. 18 (48): 6829-34. doi:10.1038 ...
The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), ... Ng RW, Arooz T, Yam CH, Chan IW, Lau AW, Poon RY (November 1998). "Characterization of the cullin and F-box protein partner ... and Fbxos containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by ... Yam CH, Ng RW, Siu WY, Lau AW, Poon RY (January 1999). "Regulation of cyclin A-Cdk2 by SCF component Skp1 and F-box protein ...
McGough IJ, Cullen PJ (Aug 2011). "Recent advances in retromer biology". Traffic. 12 (8): 963-71. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0854.2011. ... Retromer is a complex of proteins that has been shown to be important in recycling transmembrane receptors from endosomes to ... Burd C, Cullen PJ., Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2014 Feb 1;6(2). pii: a016774. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a016774. "Retromer ... The cargo carrier is transported to the TGN by motor proteins such as dynein. Tethering of the cargo carrier to the recipient ...
Cullen PA, Cordwell SJ, Bulach DM, Haake DA, Adler B (2002). "Global Analysis of Outer Membrane Proteins from Leptospira ... The outer membrane contains a variety of lipoproteins and transmembrane outer membrane proteins. As expected, the protein ... Bulach DM, Zuerner RL, Wilson P, Seemann T, McGrath A, Cullen PA, Davis J, Johnson M, Kuczek E, Alt DP, Peterson-Burch B, ... The HbpA hemin-binding protein, which may be involved in the uptake of hemin, has been identified on the surface of L. ...
But, the armadillo repeat is found in a wide range of proteins with other functions. This type of protein domain is important ... Herold A, Truant R, Wiegand H, Cullen BR (October 1998). "Determination of the functional domain organization of the importin ... Although β-catenin was previously believed to be a protein involved in linking cadherin cell adhesion proteins to the ... repetitive amino acid sequence of about 40 residues in length that is found in many proteins. Proteins that contain armadillo ...
Because NEDD8 conjugation to cullin proteins plays an important role in the regulation of the cell cycle, an upregulation in ... Neddylation is the process by which the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 is conjugated to its target proteins. This process is ... Second, it can cause the target protein to become incompatible with other proteins that it usually binds with. For example, ... Herrmann J, Lerman LO, Lerman A. Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins in protein regulation. Circ Res. 2007;100(9):1276-91. ...
Fridell RA, Bogerd HP, Cullen BR (1996). "Nuclear export of late HIV-1 mRNAs occurs via a cellular protein export pathway". ... Arf-GAP domain and FG repeats-containing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AGFG1 gene. The protein ... Chen D, Li X, Zhai Z, Shu HB (2002). "A novel zinc finger protein interacts with receptor-interacting protein (RIP) and ... a novel protein-protein interaction module". Genes Dev. 11 (17): 2239-49. doi:10.1101/gad.11.17.2239. PMC 275390. PMID 9303539 ...
The Cullin 7 gene contains instructions for making the protein Cullin-7. Cullin-7 acts as scaffold protein in the E3 ubiquitin ... Mutations in the CUL7 gene blocks the ability of the cullin-7 protein to bring together the components of this E3 ubiquitin ... Disruption of the protein degradation process plays a role in the pathogensis of prenatal growth retardation in humans, a key ... However, the implications of 3M syndrome suggest that both these genes encode for proteins that play a role in the CUL7 ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Misra, N.N; Schlüter, Oliver; Cullen, P.J (2016-07-15). Cold plasma in food and ... protein modification and pesticide dissipation are being actively researched. Nonthermal plasma also sees increasing use in the ... Segat, Annalisa; Misra, N.N.; Cullen, P.J.; Innocente, Nadia (2015). "Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (ACP) treatment of whey ... Misra, N N, Schlüter, Oliver,, Cullen, P. J. (Patrick J.). London, United Kingdom. ISBN 9780128014899. OCLC 954222385. Laroussi ...
Feng L, Allen NS, Simo S, Cooper JA (November 2007). "Cullin 5 regulates Dab1 protein levels and neuron positioning during ... "A cdc2-related kinase PSSALRE/cdk5 is homologous with the 30 kDa subunit of tau protein kinase II, a proline-directed protein ... "A protein related to extracellular matrix proteins deleted in the mouse mutant reeler". Nature. 374 (6524): 719-23. Bibcode: ... "Interaction of cytosolic adaptor proteins with neuronal apolipoprotein E receptors and the amyloid precursor protein". The ...
Feng L, Allen NS, Simo S, Cooper JA (2007). "Cullin 5 regulates Dab1 protein levels and neuron positioning during cortical ... 2009). "Activated protein C ligation of ApoER2 (LRP8) causes Dab1-dependent signaling in U937 cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. ... Such an increase in the expression of a protein that virtually functions as a receptor is expected to occur when the specific ... DAB1+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
Cullen, James; Knees, Sabina G.; Cubey, H. Suzanne Cubey, eds. (2011) [1984-2000]. The European Garden Flora, Flowering Plants ... The concentration of photosynthetic structures in leaves requires that they be richer in protein, minerals, and sugars than, ... further processed by chemical synthesis into more complex organic molecules such as proteins or cellulose, the basic structural ... chemicals which hinder the digestion of proteins and have an unpleasant taste. Animals that are specialized to eat leaves are ...
Kearney CJ, Sheridan C, Cullen SP, Tynan GA, Logue SE, Afonina IS, Vucic D, Lavelle EC, Martin SJ (Feb 2013). "Inhibitor of ... "The neuropeptide substance P activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase resulting in IL-6 expression independently from NF- ... "Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate substance P-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation ... apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and their antagonists regulate spontaneous and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced proinflammatory ...
Du J, Cullen JJ, Buettner GR (December 2012). "Ascorbic acid: chemistry, biology and the treatment of cancer". Biochimica et ... Savini I, Rossi A, Pierro C, Avigliano L, Catani MV (April 2008). "SVCT1 and SVCT2: key proteins for vitamin C uptake". Amino ... The HIFalpha prolyl hydroxylases, termed PHDs/EGLNs (prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins/EGL nine homologues), bind to a ... which lose SVCT proteins during maturation.[105] In both vitamin C synthesizers (example: rat) and non-synthesizers (example: ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is highly similar to the gene ... protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/ ... protein binding. • ATP binding. • cyclin binding. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • macromolecular ... Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ...
Authors such as Zora Neale Hurston and Nella Larsen and poets such as Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, and Countee Cullen wrote ... and emphasizing the consumption of more fruits and vegetables than animal protein. There is some resistance to such changes, ...
Parmalee, Cullen W.; Harman, Cameron G. (1973). Ceramic Glazes (3rd ed.). Cahners Bookj. pp. 131-133, 145, 589. ISBN 0-8436- ... 8-5' non cyclic diferulic acid has been identified as covalently linked to carbohydrate moieties of the arabinogalactan-protein ... Continuum of molecular species differing by their protein to sugar ratio, molecular weight, and charges". Biomacromolecules. 7 ...
McClain WH (November 1993). "Rules that govern tRNA identity in protein synthesis". Journal of Molecular Biology. 234 (2): 257- ... For instance, one can start with the gene for a protein that binds a certain sequence of DNA, and, by directing an unnatural ... Both classes of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are multidomain proteins. In a typical scenario, an aaRS consists of a catalytic ... Aminoacyl tRNA therefore plays an important role in RNA translation, the expression of genes to create proteins. ...
Each subunit is composed of a protein chain tightly associated with a non-protein prosthetic heme group. Each protein chain ... Perutz, M.F.; Rossmann, M.G.; Cullis, A.F.; Muirhead, H.; Will, G.; North, A.C.T. (1960). "Structure of haemoglobin: a three- ... In all proteins, it is the amino acid sequence that determines the protein's chemical properties and function. ... Protein alignment of human hemoglobin proteins, alpha, beta, and delta subunits respectively. The alignments were created using ...
protein binding. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. • ... cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • protein kinase inhibitor activity. • protein kinase binding. • ... This article is about the p21Cip1 protein. For the p21/ras protein, see Ras (protein). For other uses, see P21 (disambiguation) ... protein stabilization. • positive regulation of cyclin-dependent protein kinase activity. • regulation of transcription from ...
ribonucleic-protein complexes that catalyse the assembly of amino acids into proteins according to the messenger RNA ... Cullen, Katherine E. (2006). Biology: the people behind the science. New York: Chelsea House. p. 136. ISBN 0-8160-5461-4.. ... Cullen, Katherine E. (2006). Biology: the people behind the science. New York: Chelsea House. p. 140. ISBN 0-8160-5461-4.. ... DNA → RNA → Protein. Some critics thought that by using the word "dogma", Crick was implying that this was a rule that could ...
Motor proteins then push the centrosomes along these microtubules to opposite sides of the cell. Although centrosomes help ... Volume 15 of Protein Reviews. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media. p. 15. ISBN 9781461405146.. ... Prescott DM, Bender MA (March 1962). "Synthesis of RNA and protein during mitosis in mammalian tissue culture cells". ... During all three parts of interphase, the cell grows by producing proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. However, chromosomes are ...
Cullen CM, Jameson SC, DeLay M, Cottrell C, Becken ET, Choi E, Hirsch R (1999). "A divalent major histocompatibility complex/ ... IgG1 fusion protein induces antigen-specific T cell activation in vitro and in vivo". Cell Immunol 192 (1): 54-62. PMID ...
"Protein Sci. 14 (12): 3039-47. doi:10.1110/ps.051604805. PMC 2253247. PMID 16322581.. ...
... the MDR1 gene mutation affects function of this protein). Crossing may still become significant if ivermectin is given at high ... in reference to Scotch collies that are vulnerable to ivermectin.[47] ... "Pharmacogenetics: it's not just about ivermectin in collies". Can. Vet. J. 47 (12): 1165-8. PMC 1636591. PMID 17217086 ...
protein binding. • protein heterodimerization activity. • acid-amino acid ligase activity. • NEDD8 activating enzyme activity. ... "A new NEDD8-ligating system for cullin-4A". Genes Dev. 12 (15): 2263-8. doi:10.1101/gad.12.15.2263. PMC 317039. PMID 9694792 ... The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins ... Chen, Y; McPhie D L; Hirschberg J; Neve R L (March 2000). "The amyloid precursor protein-binding protein APP-BP1 drives the ...
... to a lysine residue on the target protein. Once a protein has been tagged with one ubiquitin molecule, additional rounds of ... The E3 molecule is responsible for binding the target protein substrate and transferring the ubiquitin from the E2 cysteine to ... Risseeuw EP, Daskalchuk TE, Banks TW, Liu E, Cotelesage J, Hellmann H, Estelle M, Somers DE, Crosby WL (2003). "Protein ... The ubiquitination process covalently attaches ubiquitin, a short protein of 76 amino acids, ...
The thioredoxin system contains the 12-kDa protein thioredoxin and its companion thioredoxin reductase.[149] Proteins related ... Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, Balmes J, Cullen MR, Glass A, Keogh JP, Meyskens FL, Valanis B, Williams JH, Barnhart S, ... while damage to proteins causes enzyme inhibition, denaturation and protein degradation.[60] ... Jönsson TJ, Lowther WT (2007). The peroxiredoxin repair proteins. Sub-Cellular Biochemistry. Subcellular Biochemistry. 44. pp. ...
James Cullen, Sabina G. Knees, H. Suzanne Cubey (Editors) The European Garden Flora Flowering Plants: A Manual for the ...
In fission yeast this complex contains argonaute, a chromodomain protein Chp1, and a protein called Tas3 of unknown function.[ ... Cullen LM, Arndt GM (June 2005). "Genome-wide screening for gene function using RNAi in mammalian cells". Immunology and Cell ... This ancestral RNAi system probably contained at least one dicer-like protein, one argonaute, one PIWI protein, and an RNA- ... Left: A full-length argonaute protein from the archaea species Pyrococcus furiosus. Right: The PIWI domain of an argonaute ...
Cullen M, Steven N, Billingham L, Gaunt C, Hastings M, Simmonds P, Stuart N, Rea D, Bower M, Fernando I, Huddart R, Gollins S, ... O)ncovin (vincristine), which prevents cells from duplicating by binding to the protein tubulin ...
Cullen L, Arndt G (2005). "Genome-wide screening for gene function using RNAi in mammalian cells". Immunol Cell Biol 83 (3): ... Antisense nucleic acids and proteins: fundamentals and applications. pp. 4, 136. ISBN 0824785169.. ... Cullen B (2006). "Is RNA interference involved in intrinsic antiviral immunity in mammals?". Nat Immunol 7 (6): 563-7. PMID ... Nakayashiki H, Kadotani N, Mayama S (2006). "Evolution and diversification of RNA silencing proteins in fungi". J Mol Evol 63 ( ...
In molecular biology, Tat is a protein that is encoded for by the tat gene in HIV-1.[1][2] Tat is a regulatory protein that ... Hauber J, Malim MH, Cullen BR (March 1989). "Mutational analysis of the conserved basic domain of human immunodeficiency virus ... Protein transduction domain[edit]. Tat contains a protein transduction domain, which is therefore known as a cell-penetrating ... The protein is released by infected cells in culture, and is found in the blood of HIV-1 infected patients.[5] ...
William Cullen, "A Treatise of the Materia Medica", 2. köide, lk 177, 1789, vaadatud 26.07.2015) ... Prasanna VK, Venkatesh YP, Characterization of onion lectin (Allium cepa agglutinin) as an immunomodulatory protein inducing ... Cullen uskus aga, et sibulamahla kõrva tilgutamine võib aidata kurtuse korral.[12] ... Prasanna VK, Venkatesh YP, Characterization of onion lectin (Allium cepa agglutinin) as an immunomodulatory protein inducing ...
miR-181 expression has a reverse correlation with Tcl1 protein expression. mir-181 a and b are over-expressed and act as bad ... Cai X, Lu S, Zhang Z, Gonzalez CM, Damania B, Cullen BR (April 2005). "Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus expresses an ... It has been shown that miR-181 targets the homeobox protein Hox-A11 and participates in establishing muscle tissue ... They target and modulate protein expression by inhibiting translation and / or inducing degradation of target messenger RNAs. ...
Binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP or Grp78) is a protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. It is involved in protein ... The 70 kilodalton heat shock proteins (Hsp70s or DnaK) are a family of conserved ubiquitously expressed heat shock proteins. ... The Hsp70 superfamily also includes a family of Hsp110/Grp170 (Sse) proteins, which are larger proteins related to Hsp70.[22] ... Hsp70 proteins can act to protect cells from thermal or oxidative stress. These stresses normally act to damage proteins, ...
Cullen, P. A.; Cameron, C. E. (2006). "Progress towards an effective syphilis vaccine: The past, present and future". Expert ... Alzheimer's disease amyloid protein vaccine[37]. *Breast cancer vaccine[38]. *Ovarian cancer vaccine[39] ...
Fridell RA, Harding LS, Bogerd HP, Cullen BR (1995). "Identification of a novel human zinc finger protein that specifically ... C1QBP has been shown to interact with Protein kinase D1,[10] BAT2,[11] PRKCD,[10] PKC alpha[10] and Protein kinase Mζ.[10] ... a protein co-purified with splicing factor SF2. Hyaluronic acid-binding protein as P-32 protein, co-purified with splicing ... protein binding. • hyaluronic acid binding. • kininogen binding. • mitochondrial ribosome binding. • mRNA binding. • protein ...
... are great sources of protein for vegetarians. Proteins are composed of amino acids, and a common concern with protein acquired ... Protein[edit]. Protein intake in vegetarian diets is lower than in meat diets but can meet the daily requirements for most ... Young VR, Pellett PL (1994). "Plant proteins in relation to human protein and amino acid nutrition". Am. J. Clinical Nutrition ... though protein combining in the same meal is not necessary[citation needed]). A 1994 study found a varied intake of such ...
Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein.[104] Some ... The adenovirus E1B-55K protein and the hepatitis B virus HBx protein are examples of viral proteins that can perform such a ... these inhibitory proteins target retinoblastoma tumor-suppressing proteins.[83] These tumor-suppressing proteins regulate the ... Expression of viral proteins coupled to MHC proteins on the surface of the infected cell, allowing recognition by cells of the ...
All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryAmino Acids, Peptides, and ProteinsProteinsCell Cycle ProteinsCullin Proteins ... EnzymesLigasesUbiquitin-Protein Ligase ComplexesUbiquitin-Protein LigasesSKP Cullin F-Box Protein LigasesCullin Proteins ... Cullin Proteins. A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle ... Cullin Protein. All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryEnzymes and Coenzymes ...
The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of the complex is dependent on the neddylation of the cullin subunit and exchange of ... SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes, which mediate the ubiquitination of proteins involved in cell ... In the SCF complex, serves as a rigid scaffold that organizes the SKP1-F-box protein and RBX1 subunits. May contribute to ... The functional specificity of the SCF complex depends on the F-box protein as substrate recognition component. SCF(BTRC) and ...
Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. F5H6I6. Q86VP6. A7MBJ5. F6XT20. K7DMQ8. H9EMN0. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. F5H6I6. Q86VP6. A7MBJ5. F6XT20. K7DMQ8. H9EMN0. ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. F5H6I6. A0A091D3K4. UPI000523E876. UPI000521C187 ...
Cullin1, is an essential component of multiple cullin-RING-based SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase ... The CUL1 protein solution (1mg/1ml) is formulated in 20mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH8.0) 1mM DTT, 100mM NaCl and 10% glycerol. ... Cullin1 assists in a rigid scaffold which organizes the SKP1-F-box protein and RBX1 subunits. Cullin1 contributes to catalysis ... complexes, that facilitate the ubiquitination of proteins which take part in cell cycle progression, signal transduction and ...
Abstract 1480: A Cullin 4a E3 Ligase Complex Mediates Rapid Degradation of the Calcineurin Regulatory Protein MCIP1.4 In ... Abstract 1480: A Cullin 4a E3 Ligase Complex Mediates Rapid Degradation of the Calcineurin Regulatory Protein MCIP1.4 In ... Abstract 1480: A Cullin 4a E3 Ligase Complex Mediates Rapid Degradation of the Calcineurin Regulatory Protein MCIP1.4 In ... Abstract 1480: A Cullin 4a E3 Ligase Complex Mediates Rapid Degradation of the Calcineurin Regulatory Protein MCIP1.4 In ...
We Found That The E3 Ubiquitination Ligase Subunit Cullin-1 Interacts With Constitutively Active Rac3 But Not With Wild-type ... Animals, CHO Cells, COS Cells, Cell Cycle Proteins, Cell Nucleus, Cercopithecus aethiops, Cricetinae, Cullin Proteins, Humans, ... The small GTPase Rac interacts with ubiquitination complex proteins Cullin-1 and CDC23.. Senadheera D, Haataja L, Groffen J, ... These combined results indicate that the binding of activated Rac to Cullin-1 does not affect Rac protein levels, nor does it ...
Protein alignments.Protein alignments between RSV NS proteins, elongin C-interacting proteins (SOCS1 to -3 and VHL), and Cul2- ... A and B) CLUSTALW protein alignments of RSV NS1 protein and elongin C-interacting proteins (VHL and SOCS1 to -3) (A) and (B) ... tumor suppressor protein (9, 12, 17). These proteins assemble a multisubunit complex consisting of elongin BC, a cullin (Cul) ... including nucleocapsid proteins (N, P, and L), surface proteins (F and G), and a matrix protein (M). In addition, the genome ...
Prototypic CRLs, "SCFs", comprise the scaffold protein CUL1, the RING protein RBX1, the adaptor SKP1, and an F-box protein that ... A RING E3-substrate complex poised for ubiquitin-like protein transfer: structural insights into cullin-RING ligases. Matthew F ... E2 and E3 enzymes covalently link ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) to their protein targets. The largest family of E3s comprises ... We reasoned that cullin-RBX1 complexes likely exist in conformations other than those seen previously, and in efforts to ...
Methods of producing the ROC1 and ROC2 proteins are also disclosed, and methods of detecting the polynucleotides in samples are ... The present invention further includes methods for screening bioactive agents that are capable of binding to a ROC protein, ... the isolated proteins themselves, expression vectors containing at least a fragment of the ROC1 and ROC2 polynucleotide ... protein. Such screening methods are capable of identifying compounds that have pharmacological. Pharmaceutical formulations ...
Cullin protein domain organization in humans. Cullin repeat 1 (CR1) anchors the cognate adaptor proteins, and the cullin ... The mammalian cullin protein family comprises eight members (CUL1 to CUL7 and PARC). In CRL, a cullin protein tethers both a ... Modularity of cullin-RING E3 ligases. Cullin proteins are molecular scaffolds that assemble multi-subunit cullin-RING E3 ... A cullin protein tethers both a substrate-targeting unit, often through an adaptor protein, and the RING finger component in a ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of the complex is dependent on the neddylation of the cullin subunit and is inhibited ... Core component of multiple cullin-RING-based E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes which mediate the ubiquitination and ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q3THM3 - Mus musculus 0 * Q6UP08 - Homo sapiens no matching PDB entries ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q86Y37 - Homo sapiens 0 * Q8N7S4 - Homo sapiens no matching PDB entries ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... Cell cycle associated protein capable of promoting cell proliferation through the activation of CDK2 at the G1/S phase ...
Cullin_Nedd8; Cullin protein neddylation domain. pfam00888. Location:22 → 660. Cullin; Cullin family. ... Cullin_Nedd8; Cullin protein neddylation domain. pfam00888. Location:22 → 660. Cullin; Cullin family. ... Cullin_Nedd8; Cullin protein neddylation domain. pfam00888. Location:22 → 660. Cullin; Cullin family. ... Cullin_Nedd8; Cullin protein neddylation domain. pfam00888. Location:22 → 660. Cullin; Cullin family. ...
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Cullin 1/CUL-1 antibody [EPR3103Y]. Validated in WB, IP, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in ... Protein - Recombinant Human Cullin 1/CUL-1 protein (ab131835) WB, SDS-PAGE, ELISA ... Core component of multiple cullin-RING-based SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes, which mediate ... The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of the complex is dependent on the neddylation of the cullin subunit and is inhibited ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cullin 2/CUL-2 antibody. Validated in IHC and tested in Mouse, Human. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic ... Primary - Rabbit Anti-Cullin 2/CUL-2 antibody (ab226463) IHC-P Protein - Recombinant Human Cullin 2/CUL-2 protein (ab160038) WB ... Core component of multiple cullin-RING-based ECS (ElonginB/C-CUL2/5-SOCS-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes, ... The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of the complex is dependent on the neddylation of the cullin subunit and is inhibited ...
The encoded protein binds to unneddylated cullin-RING box protein complexes and acts as an inhibitor of cullin neddylation and ... COMMD1 (copper metabolism MURR1 domain-containing protein 1) regulates Cullin RING ligases by preventing CAND1 (Cullin- ... The Epstein-Barr virus protein BPLF1, is targeted to cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) via the interaction of the conserved ... neddylated cullin 3 (Cul3) and the BTB protein Keap1.. ... UniProt Keyword for Cullin-associated NEDD8-dissociated protein ...
Silage analysis shows good crops with lower protein. Protein is down on the year slightly, according to the analysis of 6,495 ... "Brian and the likes of Brian May are very supportive of ending the culls. If someone was to ask him his position on badger ...
From cannabis edibles to plant proteins: 2019 food trends. Insects are nutritious and many species contain relatively more ... Cattle herd model reveals best ways to halt spread of TB - and a badger cull isnt one of them ... simulating a substantial badger cull, for example), the rise in cattle infections over six years continues, although at a ... protein than conventional meat sources. CK Bangkok Photography/Shutterstock Fried, steamed or toasted: here are the best ways ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Core component of multiple cullin-RING-based SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes, which mediate ... The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of the complex is dependent on the neddylation of the cullin subunit and exchange of ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q13616 - Homo sapiens 10 * Q9WUI7 - Mus musculus no matching PDB entries ...
Protein Coding), Cullin 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human ... Protein details for CUL5 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. Q93034-CUL5_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Cullin-5. Protein ... Core component of multiple SCF-like ECS (Elongin-Cullin 2/5-SOCS-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes, which ... Core component of multiple SCF-like ECS (Elongin-Cullin 2/5-SOCS-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes, which ...
Protein Coding), Cullin 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human ... Protein details for CUL2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. Q13617-CUL2_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Cullin-2. Protein ... Core component of multiple cullin-RING-based ECS (ElonginB/C-CUL2/5-SOCS-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes, ... Core component of multiple cullin-RING-based ECS (ElonginB/C-CUL2/5-SOCS-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes, ...
Protein Coding), Cullin 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human ... Protein details for CUL3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. Q13618-CUL3_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Cullin-3. Protein ... This gene encodes a member of the cullin protein family. The encoded protein plays a critical role in the polyubiquitination ... This gene encodes a member of the cullin protein family. The encoded protein plays a critical role in the polyubiquitination ...
Long-Read Genome Assemblies Have Many Errors in Protein-Coding Regions, Study Finds ... James Cullen, who has served on Agilents board of directors since 2000, will take over as non-executive chairman upon ... Home » Ned Barnholt, William Sullivan, James Cullen, Jim Richey, Charles Campbell, William Murray, Catherine Burzik, Carl Hull ... Ned Barnholt, William Sullivan, James Cullen, Jim Richey, Charles Campbell, William Murray, Catherine Burzik, Carl Hull, ...
Protein transport/localisation,*,Rapid agonist application,*,Recombinant protein expression,*,Single-channel recording,*, ... Regulation of Neurotransmitter Release by Presynaptic Receptor Signalling Mechanisms and Protein Phosphorylation/ ...
... associate professor of biomedical engineering at the University of Houston Cullen College of Engineering, received a $215,032 ... Blood Clotting Proteins Discovered as Biomarkers of Lupus Nephritis Posted on August 7, 2019 ... 2019 University of Houston Cullen College of Engineering Get Driving Directions. UH Home , Academic Calendar , Campus Maps , UH ... UH Cullen College of Engineering Presents Inaugural Innovator Awards Posted on July 30, 2019 ...
Cullin family proteins bind with the RING-finger protein Roc1 to recruit the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) to the ubiquitin ... Cullin family proteins bind with the RING-finger protein Roc1 to recruit the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) to the ubiquitin ... Cullin family proteins bind with the RING-finger protein Roc1 to recruit the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) to the ubiquitin ... Cullin family proteins bind with the RING-finger protein Roc1 to recruit the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) to the ubiquitin ...
Conjugation of the ubiquitin-like molecule Nedd8 to a conserved lysine residue on the cullin scaffold is essential for the ... Cullin RING ligases (CRLs) constitute the largest family of ubiquitin ligases with diverse cellular functions. ... Carrier Proteins / metabolism* * Cullin Proteins / chemistry * Cullin Proteins / genetics * Cullin Proteins / metabolism* ... Neddylation-induced conformational control regulates cullin RING ligase activity in vivo J Mol Biol. 2011 Jun 3;409(2):136-45. ...
Ubiquitin can be covalently linked to many cellular proteins by the ubiquitition process, which targets proteins for ... Proteins and/or Positive Controls. Proteins for Cullin 1 (7 products). Catalog No.. Species. Pres.. Purity. Source. ... Cullin 1. Not available. Human > 80 % Preparation: Recombint protein was captured through anti-DDK affinity column followed by ... Product Description for Cullin 1. Rabbit anti Human, Mouse, Rat Cullin 1.. Presentation: Purified ...
Substantial effort within the field is ongoing to uncover the identities of further host proteins targeted in this fashion and ... Cullin E3 ligases and their rewiring by viral factors Biomolecules. 2014 Oct 13;4(4):897-930. doi: 10.3390/biom4040897. ... In particular, many viruses hijack members of the Cullin-RING E3 Ligase (CRL) family. Viruses interact in many ways with CRLs ... This counteraction is commonly achieved by the expression of viral proteins capable of sequestering host ubiquitin E3 ligases ...
CLONING AN D EXPRESSION OF HVACM, A CULLIN PROTEIN, FROM SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER A Thesis Subm itted to the Faculty in p artial ... CLONING AN D EXPRESSION OF HVACM, A CULLIN PROTEIN, FROM SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER A Thesis Subm itted to the Faculty in p artial ... Cloning and expression of HVACM, a cullin protein, from small cell lung cancer. ... Cloning and expression of HVACM, a cullin protein, from small cell lung cancer.. ...
  • Abstract 1480: A Cullin 4a E3 Ligase Complex Mediates Rapid Degradation of the Calcineurin Regulatory Protein MCIP1.4 In Cardiac Myocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • To this end we have undertaken genetic and biochemical studies to decipher mechanisms that regulate degradation of MCIP1 proteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mutation of a highly conserved serine-proline (SP) repeat common to all MCIP proteins increased the stability of either MCIP1.1 or MCIP1.4 suggesting that it may act as a phosphodegron targeting all MCIP proteins for degradation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Since the proteasome is involved in cell cycle control through the programmed degradation of cell cycle proteins, the possible regulation of Rac levels during the cell cycle was examined. (thebiogrid.org)
  • suggests that proteasomal degradation of STAT2 is dependent on NS2 protein only and that expression of NS2 in airway epithelial cells is sufficient to block type I IFN-dependent gene expression ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • However, these studies cannot formally exclude the involvement of other viral proteins in STAT2 degradation. (asm.org)
  • Cullins, containing an evolutionarily conserved cullin homology domain, are a family of structurally related proteins required for ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation (Box 1). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, cullins are named after their role in 'culling', sorting or 'selecting' cellular proteins for ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation (E Kipreos, personal communication). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Core component of multiple cullin-RING-based E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes which mediate the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of target proteins. (sdsc.edu)
  • Seems to be involved in proteosomal degradation of p53/TP53 stimulated by adenovirus E1B-55 kDa protein. (genecards.org)
  • The encoded protein plays a critical role in the polyubiquitination and subsequent degradation of specific protein substrates as the core component and scaffold protein of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. (genecards.org)
  • In vitro, Cul3 promoted ubiquitination of Caenorhabditis elegans MEI-1, a katanin-like protein whose degradation requires the function of both Cul3 and BTB protein MEL-26. (elsevier.com)
  • Ubiquitin can be covalently linked to many cellular proteins by the ubiquitition process, which targets proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • In vitro , the ciliate proteins protect telomeres from exonucleolytic degradation ( 16 , 18 ) and mediate telomere-telomere interactions ( 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • The unfolded and extended polypeptides are then allowed to enter the rings of the 20S proteasome, the proteolytic core that contains multiple peptidase activities for protein degradation. (genetics.org)
  • It has been suggested that deubiquitination enzymes, like the ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, have diverse roles in regulation of protein degradation or modification. (genetics.org)
  • We find that PARP1 is a new binding protein for Cul4a, and the mechanism that Cul4a can alleviate oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte injury may be associated with the degradation of overactivated PARP1. (hindawi.com)
  • Nrf2 is negatively regulated by Keap1, a substrate adaptor protein for the Cullin3 (Cul3)-containing E3-ligase complex, which targets Nrf2 for ubiquitination and degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The cullin 4-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL4) family employs multiple DDB1-CUL4 associated factors substrate receptors to direct the degradation of proteins involved in a wide spectrum of cellular functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cullin amino terminus binds cullin-specific adaptors, which in turn recruit distinct classes of substrate receptors that target substrates to the E2-CRL complex for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. (frontiersin.org)
  • The F-box protein is one of the four components of the SCF (SKp1, Cullin, F-box protein) complex, which mediates ubiquitination of proteins targeted for degradation by the proteasome, playing an essential role in many cellular processes. (mdpi.com)
  • The SCF E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex participates in the recognition and recruitment of target proteins for ubiquitination and degradation by the ubiquitin 26S proteasome system (UPS). (mdpi.com)
  • Additional chapters are devoted to protein ubiquitination, sumoylation and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), the influence of histone modification on gene expression and DNA repair, and proteolytic processing of intracellular and basal lamina proteins. (springer.com)
  • Here we show that lenalidomide-bound cereblon acquires the ability to target for proteasomal degradation two specific B cell transcription factors, Ikaros family zinc finger proteins 1 and 3 (IKZF1 and IKZF3). (sciencemag.org)
  • Therefore endosomal sorting between degradation and recycling regulates the cell surface protein composition and hence the ability of a cell to sense and respond to external stimuli. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • The UBL protein family derives its name from the first member of the class to be discovered, ubiquitin (Ub), best known for its role in regulating protein degradation through covalent modification of other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the CUL7 gene, including the Gln1553Ter mutation, prevent the cullin-7 protein from bringing together the components of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, interfering with the process of tagging unneeded proteins for degradation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in the OBSL1 gene likely lead to reduced cullin-7 protein levels, preventing cullin-7 from bringing together the components of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and interfering with the process of tagging unneeded proteins for degradation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Nrf2 is repressed by the cysteine-rich Keap1 (kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) protein, which targets Nrf2 for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by a Cul3 (cullin 3)-mediated ubiquitination complex. (biochemj.org)
  • Here, polymeric chains of ubiquitin ( Ub ) are covalently attached to proteins destined for degradation via an ATP-dependent, E1-E2-E3 conjugation cascade. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The NEDD8-Cullin E3 ligase pathway plays an important role in protein homeostasis, in particular the degradation of cell cycle regulators and transcriptional control networks. (mcponline.org)
  • Recently, detailed proteome-wide studies have used pulsed SILAC to calculate the synthesis and degradation rates of human and mouse proteins, which gives insight into protein regulation and dynamics ( 4 , 5 ). (mcponline.org)
  • The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets cell-cycle-related proteins for degradation by the 26 S proteasome. (portlandpress.com)
  • The APC is an ubiquitin ligase (E3) that catalyses the conjugation of Lys-48-linked polyubiquitin chains on to substrate proteins, thereby targeting them for degradation by the 26 S proteasome [ 4 , 5 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES. (nih.gov)
  • How RING E3 ligases mediate E2-to-substrate ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) transfer remains unknown. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Much knowledge of RING E3s derives from studies of the modular multiprotein cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) 1 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CUL1 to CUL7 assemble multi-subunit Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL) complexes, the largest family of E3 ligases with more than 200 members. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This gene encodes an essential regulator of Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases, which are in involved in ubiquitinylation of proteins degraded by the Ub proteasome system. (nih.gov)
  • The Epstein-Barr virus protein BPLF1, is targeted to cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) via the interaction of the conserved helix-2 with helix-23 of cullins, at a site involved in electrostatic interaction with CAND1. (nih.gov)
  • COMMD1 (copper metabolism MURR1 domain-containing protein 1) regulates Cullin RING ligases by preventing CAND1 (Cullin-associated Nedd8-dissociated protein 1) binding. (nih.gov)
  • Cul1 associates with one of many F-box proteins through Skp1 to assemble various SCF-Roc1 E3 ligases that each selectively ubiquitinate one or more specific substrates. (elsevier.com)
  • Cullin RING ligases (CRLs) constitute the largest family of ubiquitin ligases with diverse cellular functions. (nih.gov)
  • This counteraction is commonly achieved by the expression of viral proteins capable of sequestering host ubiquitin E3 ligases and their regulators. (nih.gov)
  • Regulation of Nrf2 by the Cul3-Keap1-E3 ligase provides strong evidence that tight regulation of Cullin-ring ligases (CRLs) is imperative to maintain cellular homeostasis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • As the PER and CRY proteins are progressively phosphorylated during the night, they are targeted for ubiquitination by specific E3 ligases and are eventually degraded by the proteasome. (hhmi.org)
  • Analysis of protein family domain abundance revealed that P. redivivus has experienced a striking expansion of BTB domain-containing proteins and an unprecedented expansion of the cullin scaffold family of proteins involved in multi-subunit ubiquitin ligases, suggesting proteolytic plasticity and/or tighter regulation of protein turnover. (genetics.org)
  • The cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) are the largest E3 ligase family in eukaryotes, and ubiquitinate a wide array of substrates involved in cell cycle, signaling, DNA damage response, gene expression, chromatin remodeling, and embryonic development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Members of the Bric-a-Brac/Tramtrack/Broad Complex ( BTB ) family direct the selective ubiquitylation of proteins following their assembly into Cullin3-based ubiquitin ligases. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The specificity of the UPS resides mainly in the E3 Ub protein ligases that choose appropriate proteins for ubiquitylation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The multisubunit Cullin-RING Ligases ( CRLs ) are a highly polymorphic collection of E3s composed of a Cullin (CUL) backbone subunit onto which assembles the E2- Ub -docking RING Box1 (RBX1) protein and a diverse assortment of adaptors that recruit ubiquitylation substrates ( Hua and Vierstra, 2011 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Enchev RI, Schulman BA, Peter M (2015) Protein neddylation: beyond cullin-RING ligases. (springer.com)
  • Petroski MD, Deshaies RJ (2005) Function and regulation of cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases. (springer.com)
  • The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of the complex is dependent on the neddylation of the cullin subunit and exchange of the substrate recognition component is mediated by TIP120A/CAND1. (uniprot.org)
  • We found that the E3 ubiquitination ligase subunit Cullin-1 interacts with constitutively active Rac3 but not with wild-type Rac3 in yeast. (thebiogrid.org)
  • The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of the complex is dependent on the neddylation of the cullin subunit and is inhibited by the association of the deneddylated cullin subunit with TIP120A/ CAND1 . (sdsc.edu)
  • Key assembly factor of SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes that promotes the exchange of the substrate-recognition F-box subunit in SCF complexes, thereby playing a key role in the cellular repertoire of SCF complexes. (nih.gov)
  • Cullin3-RING E3 ligase (CRL3) complex is a type of multi-subunit E3 ligase, and BTB/POZ protein, a component of CRL3 complex, functions as a receptor to determine a specific substrate. (springer.com)
  • These results suggest that Nmd3p is a cytoplasmic factor required for a late cytoplasmic assembly step of the 60S subunit but is not a ribosomal protein. (asm.org)
  • Dominant mutants of NMD3 (also referred to as SRC5 ) ( 30 ) have also been identified as suppressors of the growth defect of a temperature-sensitive mutation in QSR1/GRC5 ( 31 ), encoding the large ribosomal subunit protein identified as L10 in the current ribosomal protein nomenclature of Mager et al. (asm.org)
  • L10 is thought to be an exchangeable ribosomal protein ( 34 ) that may be added to the large subunit in a late cytoplasmic assembly step ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • The top 10 genes from the 303 aberrantly expressed genes of interest included ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 variant 2, small ubiquitin‑related modifier 1, small RNA binding exonuclease protection factor La, Finkel‑Biskis‑Reilly murine sarcoma virus (FBR‑MuSV) ubiquitously expressed, centrosomal protein 290 kDa, DNA‑directed RNA polymerase II subunit K, cullin‑4B, matrin‑3 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In addition to GA biosynthesis, the disappearance of DELLA proteins also requires the GA receptor GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) and the F-box subunit of an E3 ubiquitin ligase, SLEEPY1 (SLY1). (plantcell.org)
  • In cardiac precursor cells, I Ca was found to be already under control of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation since intracellular infusion of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A resulted in a 1.7-fold stimulation. (rupress.org)
  • Recombinant RSV lacking the NS1 and NS2 genes induced high levels of IFN-α and -β in human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549) as well as in macrophages derived from primary human peripheral blood monocytes, highlighting the importance of these proteins in suppressing an antiviral response ( 29 ). (asm.org)
  • Table 1 presents a list of the cullin family genes from a range of representative species with respect to their gene organization and expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also found that ubp3 Δ produces growth defects in combination with mutations in other genes that decrease protein stability. (genetics.org)
  • At the core, the bHLH-PAS transcriptional activators CLOCK and BMAL1 activate the Period ( Per1, Per2 ) and Cryptochrome ( Cry1, Cry2 ) genes, whose transcripts and proteins slowly accumulate during the daytime. (hhmi.org)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of genes encoding proteins involved in metal reduction. (asm.org)
  • McFadden's team has got around this by deleting six protein-coding genes from the BCG vaccine strain. (newscientist.com)
  • Overexpression of TSPO induced the expression of genes [ PPARA (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor α), NR1H3 (nuclear receptor 1H3/liver X receptor α), ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette A1), ABCG4 (ATP-binding cassette G4) and APOE (apolipoprotein E)] and proteins (ABCA1 and PPARα) involved in cholesterol efflux, reduced macrophage neutral lipid mass and lipogenesis and limited cholesterol esterification following exposure to AcLDL. (portlandpress.com)
  • The identified proteins were analyzed for their association with the Wnt signaling pathway using the international open databases PubMed, Protein Analysis Through Evolutionary Relationships, Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • however, the high expression levels of adenomatous polyposis coli, β‑catenin, C‑terminal binding protein (CtBP) and RuvB‑like AAA ATPase 1 (RUVBL1 or Pontin52) proteins suggest the possibility of alternative activation of specific genes in the nuclei of these cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • A systematic survey has since identified over 10,000 distinct genes for ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like proteins represented in eukaryotic genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trichoderma harzianum was cotransformed with genes encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP), β-glucuronidase (GUS), and hygromycin B ( hygB ) resistance, using polyethylene glycol-mediated transformation. (asm.org)
  • Core component of multiple cullin-RING-based SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes, which mediate the ubiquitination of proteins involved in cell cycle progression, signal transduction and transcription. (uniprot.org)
  • Cullin1, is an essential component of multiple cullin-RING-based SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes, that facilitate the ubiquitination of proteins which take part in cell cycle progression, signal transduction and transcription. (prospecbio.com)
  • The CUL1 protein solution (1mg/1ml) is formulated in 20mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH8.0) 1mM DTT, 100mM NaCl and 10% glycerol. (prospecbio.com)
  • Prototypic CRLs, "SCFs", comprise the scaffold protein CUL1, the RING protein RBX1, the adaptor SKP1, and an F-box protein that both binds SKP1 and recruits substrates for RBX1-mediated ubiquitination 1 , 5 , 6 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The NEDD8-modified CUL1 assembles with SKP1-F-box protein-substrate, RBX1 binds a ubiquitin-charged E2 such as UBCH5 or CDC34, and ubiquitin is ligated to a substrate 15 , 16 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Therefore, we made a model of a CUL1-RBX1-UBC12 complex based on structures of UBC12, cullin-RBX1 complexes, and other E2s bound to other RING domain proteins ( Supplementary Fig. 1 ) 2 - 4 , 7 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The mammalian cullin protein family comprises eight members (CUL1 to CUL7 and PARC), which are characterized by a cullin homology domain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are seven cullins in mammals (CUL1 to CUL3, CUL4a, CUL4b, CUL5, CUL7 and the closely related p53-associated parkin-like cytoplasmic protein (Parc) in Homo sapiens , Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus ), six in C. elegans (cul-1 to cul-6) and five in Drosophila (CUL1 to CUL5). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The exchange activity of CAND1 is coupled with cycles of neddylation conjugation: in the deneddylated state, cullin-binding CAND1 binds CUL1-RBX1, increasing dissociation of the SCF complex and promoting exchange of the F-box protein. (nih.gov)
  • Study shows that Cand1 can unambiguously stimulate SCF activity in vitro by enabling an F box protein-Skp1 complex to access Cul1 that was previously occupied by a different F box protein-Skp1 complex, and that Cand1 promotes assembly in vivo of new F box proteins with pre-existing Cul1 molecules. (nih.gov)
  • Cullin homolog 1 (CUL1), the mammalian homolog of Cdc53 from yeast, is a molecular scaffold of the SCF (Skp1/CUL1/F-box) E3 ubiquitin ligase protein complex. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Recombinant human CUL1 protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E.coli and purified by using conventional chromatography techniques. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Calcyclin‑binding protein, casein kinase II α, casein kinase II β, CtBP1, CtBP2, CUL1 and RUVBL1 proteins may be used as targets for the pharmaceutical regulation of CSCs in complex GBM treatment. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Substrate-recognition component of the SCF ( SKP1 - CUL1 -F-box protein)-type E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. (rcsb.org)
  • SCF complexes and ARIH1 collaborate in tandem to mediate ubiquitination of target proteins. (uniprot.org)
  • Core component of multiple cullin-RING-based ECS (ElonginB/C-CUL2/5-SOCS-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes, which mediate the ubiquitination of target proteins. (genecards.org)
  • Ubiquitin is covalently ligated to target proteins by a multienzymatic system consisting of ubiquitin-activating (E1), ubiquitin-conjugating (E2), and ubiquitin-ligating (E3) enzymes. (genetics.org)
  • To characterize NEDD8-cullin target proteins, we performed a quantitative proteomic analysis of cells treated with MLN4924, a small molecule inhibitor of the NEDD8 conjugation pathway. (mcponline.org)
  • For example, the 26 S proteasome must be regulated so that only target proteins are recognized and degraded. (portlandpress.com)
  • Ubiquitin is attached to target proteins by a three-step mechanism involving the E1 (ubiquitin-activating enzyme), E2 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme) and E3 (Figure 1 ). (portlandpress.com)
  • Data show that the differentiation of LiSa-2 preadipocytes is associated with an increase of cullin-associated and neddylation-dissociated 1 (CAND1), COP9 signalosome (CSN), neddylated cullin 3 (Cul3) and the BTB protein Keap1. (nih.gov)
  • CUL3 (Cullin 3) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The elongated cullin scaffold binds cullin-specific adaptors (CA) at the N-terminus to recruit substrates (S). All cullins except CUL3 require separate substrate receptors (SR) to bridge the adaptor-substrate interaction. (frontiersin.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • Results with NS1 and NS2 single- and double-gene deletion viruses indicated that the two proteins function independently as well as coordinately to achieve the full inhibitory effect, with NS1 having a greater independent role ( 11 , 29 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • The cullin gene family is evolutionarily conserved. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CUL5 (Cullin 5) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein heterodimerization activity and ubiquitin protein ligase binding . (genecards.org)
  • CUL2 (Cullin 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the cullin protein family. (genecards.org)
  • Cullin 4a (Cul4a) is a 87 kDa protein with a gene located at 13q34 in the high expression region of the oncogene. (hindawi.com)
  • Aberrant expression of the cullin 4A ( CUL4A ) gene is found in many tumor types, while mutations of the cullin 4B ( CUL4B ) gene are causally associated with human X-linked mental retardation. (frontiersin.org)
  • We then isolated an ABA-inducible gene encoding a potential CRL3 substrate receptor in Arabidopsis, BPH1 ( BTB/POZ protein hypersensitive to ABA 1 ). (springer.com)
  • An increased expression of 12 proteins associated with the Wnt signaling pathway were identified in GBM CD133+ CSCs, which included catenin β‑1, disheveled associated activator of morphogenesis 1, RAC family small GTPase 2 and RAS homolog gene family member A, a number of which are also associated with adherens junctions. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • One additional protein, known as FUBI, is encoded as a fusion protein in the FAU gene, and is proteolytically processed to generate a free glycine C-terminus, but has not been experimentally demonstrated to form covalent protein modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CUL7 gene provides instructions for making a protein called cullin-7. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The OBSL1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is thought to help maintain normal levels of another protein called cullin-7, which is produced from the CUL7 gene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In humans, this protein is encoded by the gene CAND2. (biocompare.com)
  • 1994 ). Large-scale characterization of gene expression, protein localization and gene disruption in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (biologists.org)
  • Forkhead proteins comprise a highly conserved family of transcription factors, named after the original forkhead gene in Drosophila . (biochemj.org)
  • To identify the cardiac precursor cells, we have generated stably transfected ES cells with a vector containing the gene of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of the cardiac α-actin promoter. (rupress.org)
  • Genetic studies in several model organisms have helped to unravel a multitude of physiological functions associated with cullin proteins and their respective CRLs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conjugation of the ubiquitin-like molecule Nedd8 to a conserved lysine residue on the cullin scaffold is essential for the activity of CRLs. (nih.gov)
  • In the SCF complex, serves as a rigid scaffold that organizes the SKP1-F-box protein and RBX1 subunits. (uniprot.org)
  • Cullin1 assists in a rigid scaffold which organizes the SKP1-F-box protein and RBX1 subunits. (prospecbio.com)
  • The encoded protein binds to unneddylated cullin-RING box protein complexes and acts as an inhibitor of cullin neddylation and of Skp1, cullin, and F box ubiquitin ligase complex assembly and activity. (nih.gov)
  • Most of the characterized FBPs are components of the SCF (SKp1, Cullin, F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex. (mdpi.com)
  • Part of a SCF ( SKP1 -cullin-F-box) protein ligase complex. (rcsb.org)
  • The F-box proteins were originally identified as the key component of SKP1-Cullin1-F-box E3 ligase complexes that control the stability of their specific downstream substrates essential for cell growth and survival. (jimmunol.org)
  • During studies of cell cycle regulators, the F-box motif was first found in cyclin F and was shown to interact with S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1) ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The family of F-box proteins, which is characterized by this novel motif, was identified through screening proteins that bind SKP1 ( 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Traditionally, F-box proteins function as a component of the SKP1-Cullin1-F-box (SCF) E3 ligase complex to initiate ubiquitin-mediated targeted substrate destruction ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, short ss TG 1-3 tails, potential substrates for a ss G tail binding protein, should occur at both telomeres of an individual chromosome. (pnas.org)
  • Ubp3 is a deubiquitination enzyme and a member of a large family of cysteine proteases that cleave ubiquitin moieties from protein substrates. (genetics.org)
  • Within the E2-E3 complex, the RING domain-containing Rbx1/ROC1/Hrt1 or Rbx2/SAG adaptor bridges E2 binding to the cullin carboxyl terminus, which is necessary for transfer of ubiquitin to all cullin substrates. (frontiersin.org)
  • Previous studies have reported that F-box proteins regulate specific substrates in diverse biological processes, including cell growth and division, cell development and differentiation, and cell survival and death ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Cullin-1 regulates MG63 cell proliferation and metastasis and is a novel prognostic marker of osteosarcoma. (nih.gov)
  • The cysteine-rich domain of synaptosomal-associated protein of 23 kDa (SNAP-23) regulates its membrane association and regulated exocytosis from mast cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This system also regulates the level of proteins involved in several critical cell activities such as the timing of cell division and growth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In this study we report that the F-box protein FBXO17 negatively regulates IFN-I signaling triggered by double-strand DNA, RNA, or viral infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • Using glutathione S-transferase (GST)-pulldown assays and proteomic analyses, cullin-associated NEDD8-dissociated protein 1 (CAND1) was identified as a rabphilin-3A-binding protein in the posterior pituitary. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • CRL activity is regulated by the Nedd8 post-translational modification: the ubiquitin-like Nedd8 protein is conjugated to cullins in a manner highly analogous to ubiquitination. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nedd8 post-translational modification (N) promotes cullin activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • The switch is a small protein called NEDD8. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers showed how part of the machinery for accessorizing proteins, a component called cullin-RING, is first modified by NEDD8. (eurekalert.org)
  • The addition of NEDD8 transforms the ability of cullin-RING to accessorize other proteins. (eurekalert.org)
  • Schulman and her colleagues study the machinery that manages the accessorizing process, whether the accessory is NEDD8 or a different small protein called ubiquitin. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cullin-RING, which NEDD8 accessorizes, is a major command center of ubiquitination. (eurekalert.org)
  • Scott, an HHMI research specialist III, showed that while ubiquitin could be coaxed into binding to and accessorizing cullin-RING, NEDD8 was the preferred partner. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the process, investigators determined for the first time that different components of the ubiquitination machinery work cooperatively to align NEDD8 and cullin-RING. (eurekalert.org)
  • That alignment promotes the transfer of NEDD8 rather than ubiquitin to the proper site on cullin-RING. (eurekalert.org)
  • The transfer of NEDD8 allows other proteins to be accessorized with ubiquitin. (eurekalert.org)
  • The protein may also be known as TIP120B, Tp120b, cullin-associated NEDD8-dissociated protein 2, and TBP interacting protein. (biocompare.com)
  • MRFAP1 and its interaction partner, MORF4L1, were among the most up-regulated proteins after NEDD8 inhibition in multiple human cell lines. (mcponline.org)
  • These data highlight an important new arm of the NEDD8-cullin pathway. (mcponline.org)
  • The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Hog1 mediates the response of yeast cells to various stressors, including osmotic shock, heat shock, and arsenic. (sciencemag.org)
  • The yeast stress-activated protein kinase Hog1 is best known for its role in mediating the response to osmotic stress, but it is also activated by various mechanistically distinct environmental stressors, including heat shock, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and arsenic. (sciencemag.org)
  • The related human kinases ERK1 and ERK2 also bound to arsenic in vitro, suggesting that this may be a conserved feature of some members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. (sciencemag.org)
  • Hog1 is an evolutionarily conserved stress-activated protein kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is best known for its role in the osmotic stress response, wherein it orchestrates a complex program of cellular remodeling ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • 2. The method of claim 1, wherein the protein kinase C activator is selected from the group consisting of bradykinin, bryostatin, bombesin, cholecystokinin, thrombin, prostaglandin F2-alpha or vasopressin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Sph1p interacts in the two-hybrid system with three mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinases (MAPKKs): Mkk1p and Mkk2p, which function in the cell wall integrity/cell polarization MAP kinase pathway, and Ste7p, which operates in the pheromone and pseudohyphal signaling response pathways. (biologists.org)
  • Moreover, two-hybrid interactions between SPH1 and STE7 and STE11 occur independently of STE5, a proposed scaffolding protein which interacts with several members of this MAP kinase module. (biologists.org)
  • involvement of the novel protein kinase homolog Elm1p and protein phosphatase 2A. (biologists.org)
  • 1994 ). Ste5 tethers multiple protein kinases in the MAP kinase cascade required for mating in S. cerevisiae . (biologists.org)
  • In mammalian cell culture, this protein predominantly localizes to the cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • As a scaffold protein may contribute to catalysis through positioning of the substrate and the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. (sdsc.edu)
  • It is a scaffold protein of the modular, multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which dynamically combines and degrades protein in a periodic manner [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that BPH1 physically interacted with cullin3a, a scaffold protein of CRL3, suggesting that it functions as an Arabidopsis CRL3 substrate receptor. (springer.com)
  • A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. (nih.gov)
  • These combined results indicate that the binding of activated Rac to Cullin-1 does not affect Rac protein levels, nor does it mediate the regulation of mitogenesis by Rac. (thebiogrid.org)
  • Sequence analysis identified somatic mutations, with many of these mutations disrupting the Keap1(Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1)-mediated negative regulation of Nrf2 ( 66 , 80 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Hog1 also has important nontranscriptional functions, including regulation of key membrane proteins ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The mechanism outlined in this research establishes a paradigm for understanding protein regulation in cells, Schulman said. (eurekalert.org)
  • This research sets the stage for broadly understanding this key aspect of protein regulation in cells," Scott said. (eurekalert.org)
  • This article investigates the proteolysis-independent regulation of DELLA proteins, negative regulators of plant growth. (plantcell.org)
  • These five proteins share the N-terminal DELLA motif required for GA regulation as well as the C-terminal GRAS functional domain ( Sun and Gubler, 2004 ). (plantcell.org)
  • ROC1, a homolog of APC11, represents a family of cullin partners with an associated ubiquitin ligase activity, Molecular Cell. (patentgenius.com)
  • E2 and E3 enzymes covalently link ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) to their protein targets. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The possibility to covalently bind proteins to this surface was examined, using beta-galactosidase and Fab'-fragments of IgG. (diva-portal.org)
  • SAG, a Novel Zinc RING Finger Protein that Protects Cells from Apoptosis Induced by Redox Reagents", Molecular and Cellular Biology 19: 3145-3155 (Apr. (patentgenius.com)
  • SAG, a novel zinc RING finger protein that protects cells from apoptosis induced by redox agents, Molecular and Cellular Biology. (patentgenius.com)
  • Cullin proteins are molecular scaffolds that have crucial roles in the post-translational modification of cellular proteins involving ubiquitin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The concentrations and functions of many cellular proteins are regulated by the ubiquitin pathway. (elsevier.com)
  • Currently, the Cullen Lab is applying these 3-D neural cellular constructs as powerful investigational platforms for the study of basic neurobiology, network neurophysiology, injury/disease mechanisms, pharmacological screening, or test-beds for cell replacement therapies. (upenn.edu)
  • The intrinsic apoptotic pathway engages caspases via members of the BCL-2 protein family and the mitochondria in reaction to severe cellular damage or stress. (jci.org)
  • Only a certain subset of cellular proteins undergo the folding process accompanied by the chaperonins, which are large protein constructs which directly facilitate the protein folding process with participation of ATP molecules. (mdpi.com)
  • Post-translational modifications serve many different purposes in a wide variety of cellular processes,such as protein synthesis, folding, stability, the housing of prosthetic groups, vesicular trafficking,protein targeting to particular cell stores, exocytosis and endocytosis, the biogenesis of cell organelles and basal lamina. (springer.com)
  • We propose that small rubber particle protein-like proteins are involved in the general process of binding and perhaps the stabilization of lipid-rich particles in the cytosol of plant cells and that the avocado and Arabidopsis protein members reveal a new aspect of the cellular machinery that is involved in the packaging of triacylglycerols in plant tissues. (plantphysiol.org)
  • UBLs are involved in a widely varying array of cellular functions including autophagy, protein trafficking, inflammation and immune responses, transcription, DNA repair, RNA splicing, and cellular differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantitative proteomic analysis has become the gold standard in recent years for unbiased analysis of cellular responses to drug treatment and the analysis of protein-protein interactions. (mcponline.org)
  • SILAC has been used to study a wide range of cellular protein responses, including the reliable detection of specific protein interaction partners, subcellular protein localization, and changes in protein levels resulting from viral infection, drug treatments, and stress responses ( 2 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Most cellular proteins form a complex network of interactions with other proteins and many are components of large multiprotein complexes [ 1 - 3 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • It is an enveloped, nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus encoding 11 proteins, including nucleocapsid proteins (N, P, and L), surface proteins (F and G), and a matrix protein (M). In addition, the genome encodes two nonstructural proteins (NS1 and NS2), the functions of which are less clearly defined. (asm.org)
  • encodes a protein of 679 amino acids and contains a signal sequence characteristic of secreted proteins. (asm.org)
  • One of these small, 2kb messages encodes the HIV-1 Rev protein which is imported into the nucleus via its nuclear localization sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2 ] isolated Cdc53 (cell division control protein 53), a cullin homolog in budding yeast, and elucidated its role in ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of cell-cycle regulators. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, because both proteins contain this motif, some other pathway must be responsible for the rapid turnover of MCIP1.4. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recent publications in renal cancers point to a deregulated COP9 signalosome (CSN)-Cullin-RING Ubiquitin Ligase (CRL) pathway, a segment of the UPS. (hu-berlin.de)
  • To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to examine the expression levels of proteins associated with the Wnt signaling pathway in СD133+ CSCs of human GBM. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This study aimed to analyze the crucial role that proteins of the Wnt signaling pathway play in stem cell proliferation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • the activated ubiquitin is subsequently transferred to the ubiquitin-carrier protein E2, then from E2 to ubiquitin ligase E3 for fil delivery to the epsilon-NH2 of the target protein lysine residue. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • These thiol proteases hydrolyze the amide bond between Gly76 of ubiquitin and a Lys residue of the substrate protein or preceding ubiquitin. (genetics.org)
  • A series of 12 mutant Keap1 proteins, each containing a different residue at position 151, was constructed to explore the chemistry required for this effect. (biochemj.org)
  • Importantly, the E3 helps to transfer ubiquitin from an E2 on to a lysine residue of the substrate protein to form mono- or polyubiquitin chains. (portlandpress.com)
  • The functional specificity of the SCF complex depends on the F-box protein as substrate recognition component. (uniprot.org)
  • The functional specificity of the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex depends on the variable substrate recognition component. (sdsc.edu)
  • The functional specificity of the BCR complex depends on the BTB domain-containing protein as the substrate recognition component. (genecards.org)
  • In this regard, thalidomide was recently shown to bind to cereblon, which is the substrate-recognition component of a cullin-dependent ubiquitin ligase, and to inhibit its autoubiquitination activity ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Hog1 promoted arsenic detoxification by stimulating phosphorylation of the transcription factor Yap8, promoting Yap8 nuclear localization, and stimulating the transcription of the only known Yap8 targets, ARR2 and ARR3 , both of which encode proteins that promote arsenic efflux. (sciencemag.org)
  • The HIV-1 genome contains a single promoter and uses multiple reading frames and alternative splicing to encode 15 proteins from a single pre-mRNA species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The small GTPase Rac interacts with ubiquitination complex proteins Cullin-1 and CDC23. (thebiogrid.org)
  • Cullin-1 also formed a clearly detectable complex with other activated Rac3-related proteins including Rac1, Rac2, Cdc42 and RhoA but not with the distantly related small GTPase Rap1. (thebiogrid.org)
  • Cullin family proteins bind with the RING-finger protein Roc1 to recruit the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) to the ubiquitin ligase complex (E3). (elsevier.com)
  • The PER and CRY proteins associate and translocate into the nucleus during the evening and physically interact with the CLOCK:BMAL1 complex to repress their own transcription. (hhmi.org)
  • Converging lines of evidence support the concept that diffusible oligomers of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) are the principal cytotoxic agents that induce a complex array of downstream effects on neurons, microglia, astrocytes, and cerebral microvessels in Alzheimer's disease (AD) ( Walsh and Selkoe, 2007 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • FBPs are structurally and functionally diverse, and their activity is crucial for selecting proteins that will be targeted by the SCF complex. (mdpi.com)
  • Eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis is a complex process occurring largely in the nucleolus, where rRNA is transcribed, modified, and processed during assembly with approximately 80 ribosomal proteins into mature ribosomal subunits. (asm.org)
  • Displacement of Lhp1p by binding of the snoRNP proteins allows final maturation, which involves the exosome complex of 3′→5′ exonucleases. (asm.org)
  • This thesis describes the discovery of an ancient and evolutionary conserved multi-protein complex required for the recycling of over 200 cargo. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Cullin-7 helps assemble a complex known as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This complex tags damaged and excess proteins with molecules called ubiquitin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury are complex pathological processes that involve inflammation, apoptosis and neuronal stress that rely on progressive changes in protein expression ( 3 , 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Characterization of the binding partners of both MRFAP1 and MORF4L1 revealed a complex protein-protein interaction network. (mcponline.org)
  • Assembly of this Rev-RRE complex is followed by the recruitment of a human protein complex containing the proteins exportin-1 (XPO1/CRM1) and Ran-GTP. (wikipedia.org)
  • The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) or cyclosome is a large multisubunit protein complex. (portlandpress.com)
  • For example, mutations in the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) or in the presenilins, proteases that mediate the production of Aβ from APP, have been shown to cause familial forms of AD ( Selkoe, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Point mutations in protein coding sequences lead to numerous unfolded proteins in cancer cells, requiring effective protein quality control. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Most of these mutations substitute one protein building block (amino acid) for another amino acid in the cullin-7 protein or result in a cullin-7 protein that is abnormally short and nonfunctional. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, Rac-Cullin-1 interactions may serve to regulate other E3 ligase functions such as subcellular localization. (thebiogrid.org)
  • In particular, cullin-7 is thought to help regulate proteins involved in the body's response to growth hormones, although its specific role in this process is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This discovery is a major advance in understanding the machinery cells use to regulate an astonishingly vast number of proteins they depend on as well as the diseases that arise when the system malfunctions," said corresponding author Brenda Schulman, Ph.D., a member of the St. Jude Department of Structural Biology and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) investigator. (eurekalert.org)
  • Whereas other red light-hypersensitive mutants accumulate phyA protein similar to or higher than the wild type in light, the lrb1 lrb2 mutants accumulate less, suggesting that LRB1/2 also positively regulate phyA levels in a phyB/D-dependent manner. (plantphysiol.org)
  • CUL4A E3 ligase complexes control the proteolysis of proteins involved in DNA-damage and cell cycle control including DDB2, CDTD1, p27, cyclin E, and c-jun. (ahajournals.org)
  • Probably plays a similar role in other cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. (nih.gov)
  • Complexes including the encoded protein may also play a role in late endosome maturation. (genecards.org)
  • By measuring the increase in protein volume of the formed protein-ligand complexes with AFM, the amount of protein having an orientation that allows binding can be estimated. (diva-portal.org)
  • There are seven known Cullin proteins that form various CRL complexes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, Rac was expressed at constant levels throughout the cell cycle, and a specific proteasome inhibitor had no effect on Rac protein levels. (thebiogrid.org)
  • Here we investigate whether RSV NS proteins can assemble ubiquitin ligase (E3) enzymes to target STAT2 to the proteasome. (asm.org)
  • Recently, it has been reported that loss of STAT2 expression occurs via the 26S proteasome, since the addition of MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, can rescue STAT2 protein following RSV infection ( 19 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • Ubiquitinated proteins are targeted to the 26S proteasome, which consists of the 19S particle and the 20S proteasome (reviewed in G lickman 2000 ). (genetics.org)
  • A proteasomal mutation was found to suppress the faf mutant phenotype, suggesting that FAF protein has activity that antagonizes proteasome function. (genetics.org)
  • This review describes the role of F-box proteins and the use of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in virus-host interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • This protein plays a role in the ubiquitin-proteasome system, which is the cell machinery that breaks down (degrades) unwanted proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The ubiquitin-proteasome system acts as the cell's quality control system by disposing of damaged, misshapen, and excess proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • GA stimulates these processes by targeting the proteins of the DELLA family of negative regulators for destruction by the 26S proteasome. (plantcell.org)
  • Anti-Cullin associated and neddylation dissociated 2 (putative) antibodies are available from several suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • My team developed a recombinant soluble version of the human ligand comprising the extracellular domain of the endogenous protein and possessing a homotrimeric structure. (jci.org)
  • Although CUL7 and PARC are present only in chordates, other members of the cullin protein family are found in Drosophila melanogaster , Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidopsis thaliana and yeast. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The major telosomal protein in yeast is Rap1p ( 10 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Genetic ( 20 ) and biochemical ( 21 ) data suggest that other organisms, including yeast, also have telomere-limited binding proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Rather, they terminate at poly(U) tracts, suggesting that they might be bound by Lhp1p (the yeast homologue of La). Immunoprecipitation of Lhp1p fused to Staphylococcus aureus protein A resulted in coprecipitation of both U3-3′I and -II. (asm.org)
  • Our results indicate that Spa2p and Sph1p comprise two related proteins important for the control of cell morphogenesis in yeast. (biologists.org)
  • 1997 ). Aip3p/Bud6p, a yeast actin-interacting protein that is involved in morphogenesis and the selection of bipolar budding sites. (biologists.org)
  • In fact, it is estimated that every yeast protein has an average of nine interacting partners, whereas higher eukaryotes may have significantly more [ 3 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • For simplicity, I concentrate on proteins from the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae , although equivalent proteins exist in most eukaryotes. (portlandpress.com)
  • The largest family of E3s comprises the RING cohort, which bind both a UBL-loaded E2 and a protein substrate targeted for UBL transfer 1 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Two groups have made important contributions to the discovery of this protein family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In particular, many viruses hijack members of the Cullin-RING E3 Ligase (CRL) family. (nih.gov)
  • The eukaryotic release factor protein family has also been dramatically expanded and suggests an ongoing evolutionary arms race with viruses and transposons. (genetics.org)
  • F-box proteins (FBPs) are a large and diverse family of proteins present in all eukaryotes that are characterized by presence of the F-box domain [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) are a family of small proteins involved in post-translational modification of other proteins in a cell, usually with a regulatory function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the UBL family are small, non-enzymatic proteins that share a common structure exemplified by ubiquitin, which has 76 amino acid residues arranged into a "beta-grasp" protein fold consisting of a five-strand antiparallel beta sheet surrounding an alpha helix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among this group are two known interaction partners, i.e. a chromatin regulatory protein called mortality factor 4-like protein 1 (MORF4L1 or MRG15) and MORF4 family-associated protein 1 (MRFAP1). (mcponline.org)
  • With the help of donors including the Byrne Family, the Judith and Jean Pape Adams Charitable Foundation and the Cullen Education and Research Fund, these new young investigators will have the opportunity to play a central role in breaking down current barriers, accelerating the translation of research findings into care, and expanding treatment access to innovative and personalized therapeutic trials. (massgeneral.org)
  • Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, type II diabetes, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob's diseases are part of a wider family encompassing more than 50 human pathologies related to aggregation of proteins. (deepdyve.com)
  • DELLA proteins are a subfamily of the GRAS family of putative transcription factors that act as repressors of GA responses. (plantcell.org)
  • Proteins associated with ubiquitin and SUMO signaling are highly enriched in the genomes of embryophytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cytoplasm, these messages are translated to produce all the remaining viral proteins or packaged as genomes for newly budding virions (see Figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • Combitorial interactions of different E2 and E3 proteins result in substrate specificity. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The F-box domain is a protein structural motif of about 50 amino acids that mediates protein-protein interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • Besides the F-box domain, other domains and motifs related to protein-protein interactions are usually present in the C -terminal region of FBPs, such as leucine rich repeats (LRR), WD40 repeats (WD), Kelch repeats, proline-rich and others. (mdpi.com)
  • It is believed that IIB acts as an "anchor point", with the Rev molecules bound at secondary sites (such as IA) stabilized by protein-protein interactions with other Rev molecules (in addition to the RNA-protein interactions). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some protein-protein interactions are dynamic and transient. (portlandpress.com)
  • However, many other proteins form stable interactions with their binding partners and probably never exist as monomers. (portlandpress.com)
  • Recent work has provided novel insights into the mechanisms that contribute to their functional diversity, including functional protein domains and interactions of forkheads with other transcription factors. (biochemj.org)
  • Your search returned 32 cullin associated and neddylation dissociated 2 (putative) Antibodies across 17 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Auger, Michèle 2018-05-31 00:00:00 It is well established that amyloid proteins play a primary role in neurodegenerative diseases. (deepdyve.com)
  • A cullin protein tethers both a substrate-targeting unit, often through an adaptor protein, and the RING finger component in a CRL. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using structural studies and in vitro assays, it has been demonstrated that neddylation stimulates CRL activity through conformational rearrangement of the cullin C-terminal winged-helix B domain and Rbx1 RING subdomain from a closed architecture to an open and dynamic structure, thus promoting ubiquitin transfer onto the substrate. (nih.gov)
  • Pulsed incorporation of amino acids containing stable isotopes was also used to measure protein turnover in nucleoli ( 3 ). (mcponline.org)
  • The modulatory calcineurin-interacting protein 1 (MCIP1) is an endogenous feedback inhibitor of calcineurin. (ahajournals.org)
  • Nucleotide mimicry in the crystal structure of the uracil-DNA glycosylase-uracil glycosylase inhibitor protein comlex", Nature Structural Biology, vol. 2: p. 752-757, (1995). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Here, we describe a subfamily of nucleus-localized BTB proteins encoded by the LIGHT-RESPONSE BTB1 ( LRB1 ) and LRB2 loci in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) that strongly influences photomorphogenesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Sph1p is both structurally and functionally related to the polarity protein, Spa2p. (biologists.org)
  • This detailed motif has been used to map potential epitopes from SIVmac239 regulatory proteins and to engineer peptides with increased binding capacity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, our analysis reveals a significantly lower than expected frequency of epitopes in early regulatory proteins, suggesting a possible evolutionary- and/or immunoselection directed against variants of viral products that contain CTL epitopes. (jimmunol.org)
  • The selective breakdown of short-lived regulatory proteins is a key feature of many signal transduction pathways, thus providing a mechanism to enhance or quench output when repressors or activators are the respective targets. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Molecular chaperones are the proteins which bind and stabilize unfolded or partially folded proteins, thereby preventing them from being degraded [ 1 - 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • RING protein adaptors (R) bind the ubiquitin (Ub)-charged E2 conjugating enzyme at the cullin C-terminus. (frontiersin.org)
  • The major 3′-extended forms of U3 (U3-3′I and -II) lack the cap trimethylation present in mature U3 and are not associated with small nucleolar RNP (snoRNP) proteins that bind mature U3, i.e. (asm.org)
  • Ubiquitin serves as a signal to specialized cell structures known as proteasomes, which attach (bind) to the tagged proteins and degrade them. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Microbial infection) Interacts with vaccinia virus protein C9L. (rcsb.org)
  • It also interacts with tumour suppressor protein Rb and is involved in its phosphorylation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Post-translational Modifications in Health and Disease provides the reader with nineteen reviews that stimulate further investigations in the proteomic field - focusing on functional and pathological aspects of protein prenylation, the incorporation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moieties, oxidation, nitrosylation, glycosylation, and phosphorylation and dephosphorylation - with emphasis on their outcome for protein-protein interaction phenomena and down-stream effects. (springer.com)
  • Here, we have combined lipidomic, proteomic, and transcriptomic studies of avocado ( Persea americana ) mesocarp to identify two new lipid droplet-associated proteins, which we named LDAP1 and LDAP2. (plantphysiol.org)
  • More than 60% of intracellular proteins from GBM CD133 + CSCs are identical to proteins present in normal neural stem cells of a human brain ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Subsequently, other proteins with sequence similarity to ubiquitin were occasionally reported in the literature, but the first shown to share the key feature of covalent protein modification was ISG15, discovered in 1987. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results indicate that the primary effect of the stu1-5 mutation is to make the protein less stable. (genetics.org)
  • This mutation replaces the amino acid glutamine with a premature stop signal in the instructions for making the cullin-7 protein (written as Gln1553Ter or Q1553X), leading to production of an abnormally short protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The bar plot below shows the proportion of tumor samples that have any kind of altering mutation(s) in the given protein. (phosphosite.org)