Pest Control, Biological
DNA, Ribosomal Spacer
Lethal Dose 50
Laboratory Animal Science
West Nile Fever
West Nile virus
Electron Transport Complex IV
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Molecular Sequence Data
The role of gene splicing, gene amplification and regulation in mosquito insecticide resistance. (1/1529)The primary routes of insecticide resistance in all insects are alterations in the insecticide target sites or changes in the rate at which the insecticide is detoxified. Three enzyme systems, glutathione S-transferases, esterases and monooxygenases, are involved in the detoxification of the four major insecticide classes. These enzymes act by rapidly metabolizing the insecticide to non-toxic products, or by rapidly binding and very slowly turning over the insecticide (sequestration). In Culex mosquitoes, the most common organophosphate insecticide resistance mechanism is caused by co-amplification of two esterases. The amplified esterases are differentially regulated, with three times more Est beta 2(1) being produced than Est alpha 2(1). Cis-acting regulatory sequences associated with these esterases are under investigation. All the amplified esterases in different Culex species act through sequestration. The rates at which they bind with insecticides are more rapid than those for their non-amplified counterparts in the insecticide-susceptible insects. In contrast, esterase-based organophosphate resistance in Anopheles is invariably based on changes in substrate specificities and increased turnover rates of a small subset of insecticides. The up-regulation of both glutathione S-transferases and monooxygenases in resistant mosquitoes is due to the effects of a single major gene in each case. The products of these major genes up-regulate a broad range of enzymes. The diversity of glutathione S-transferases produced by Anopheles mosquitoes is increased by the splicing of different 5' ends of genes, with a single 3' end, within one class of this enzyme family. The trans-acting regulatory factors responsible for the up-regulation of both the monooxygenase and glutathione S-transferases still need to be identified, but the recent development of molecular tools for positional cloning in Anopheles gambiae now makes this possible. (+info)
Mayaro virus disease: an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis in tropical South America. (2/1529)This report describes the clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological findings on 27 cases of Mayaro virus (MV) disease, an emerging mosquito-borne viral illness that is endemic in rural areas of tropical South America. MV disease is a nonfatal, dengue-like illness characterized by fever, chills, headache, eye pain, generalized myalgia, arthralgia, diarrhea, vomiting, and rash of 3-5 days' duration. Severe joint pain is a prominent feature of this illness; the arthralgia sometimes persists for months and can be quite incapacitating. Cases of two visitors from the United States, who developed MV disease during visits to eastern Peru, are reported. MV disease and dengue are difficult to differentiate clinically. (+info)
Geographic distribution and evolution of Sindbis virus in Australia. (3/1529)The molecular epidemiology and evolution of Sindbis (SIN) virus in Australia was examined. Several SIN virus strains isolated from other countries were also included in the analysis. Two regions of the virus genome were sequenced including a 418 bp region of the E2 gene and a 484 bp region containing part of the junction region and the 5' end of the C gene. Analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence data from 40 SIN virus isolates clearly separated the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian genetic types of SIN virus. Examination of the Australian strains showed a temporal rather than geographic relationship. This is consistent with the virus having migratory birds as the major vertebrate host, as it allows for movement of virus over vast areas of the continent over a relatively short period of time. The results suggest that the virus is being periodically redistributed over the continent from an enzootic focus of evolving SIN virus. However, SIN virus strains isolated from mosquitoes collected in the south-west of Australia appear to represent a new SIN virus lineage, which is distinct from the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages. Given the widespread geographic dispersal of the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages, it is surprising that the South-west genetic type is so restricted in its area of circulation. Nucleotide sequence data from the C gene of the prototype strain of the alphavirus Whataroa were also determined. This virus was found to be genetically distinct from the SIN virus isolates included in the present study; however, it is clearly SIN-like and appears to have evolved from a SIN-like ancestral virus. (+info)
Evaluating the community education programme of an insecticide-treated bed net trial on the Kenyan coast. (4/1529)Increased interest in the potential contribution of insecticide-impregnated bed nets (ITBN) to malaria control has led to research efforts to determine the impact and sustainability of ITBN programmes in differing environments. There is a need to develop effective, feasible educational strategies that will both inform and motivate community members, and thus maximize the correct usage of ITBN. This is especially true in communities where indigenous usage of bed nets is low. This paper describes the educational component of a randomized controlled community intervention trial of ITBN, with childhood malaria morbidity as an outcome. The educational approach and messages for the ITBN trial were developed from anthropological survey data collected 4 years before the trial, and from community surveys conducted by project researchers. Low levels of understanding amongst mothers of the aetiological link between mosquitos and malaria led to the exclusion of the term 'malaria' from the initial educational messages promoting the use of ITBN. Appropriate individuals within the existing district health care structure were trained as community educators in the project. These educators conducted intensive teaching in the community through public meetings and group teaching in the first 6 months of the trial. The impact of these initial activities was assessed through interviews with a random sample of 100 mothers and 50 household heads. This allowed the identification of messages which had not been well understood and further educational methods were chosen to address the areas pinpointed. The community assessment also demonstrated that, in 1994, over 90% of mothers understood a protective role for bed nets against malaria and the ITBN education messages were changed to take account of this. The school programme was evaluated through determining outreach (the number of households accessed), changes in participant children's knowledge, post-teaching assessment of mothers' knowledge and discussions with parent-teacher associations. It was shown that 40% of intervention homes with children in the target group were accessed, participant children learned the educational messages well (scores increased from a pre-teaching mean of 59% to a post-teaching mean of 92%) and a high level of awareness of the ITBN trial was achieved in these homes (75%). However, specific messages of the education programmed were not well transferred to the home (30%). The discussion emphasises the need for allocation of adequate resources for education in programmes dependent on achieving a change in community practices. We also describe the value of ongoing communication between programme planners and a target population in maximizing the effectiveness of messages and methods used. (+info)
Implementing a nationwide insecticide-impregnated bednet programme in The Gambia. (5/1529)Earlier studies in The Gambia suggested that the use of impregnated bednets might prove to be a useful malaria control strategy. Based on the results of these studies, in 1992 the Government of The Gambia was encouraged to initiate a National Impregnated Bednet Programme (NIBP) as part of the National Malaria Control Programme Strategy. This paper describes the implementation process/procedure of the NIBP. Evaluation results showed that, overall, 83% of the bednets surveyed has been impregnated, and 77% of children under the age of five years and 78% of women of childbearing age were reported to be sleeping under impregnated bednets. (+info)
Characterization of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected natural killer (NK) cell proliferation in patients with severe mosquito allergy; establishment of an IL-2-dependent NK-like cell line. (6/1529)The clinical evidence of a relationship between severe hypersensitivity to mosquito bite (HMB) and clonal expansion of EBV-infected NK cells has been accumulated. In order to clarify the mechanism of EBV-induced NK cell proliferation and its relationship with high incidence of leukaemias or lymphomas in HMB patients, we studied clonally expanded NK cells from three HMB patients and succeeded in establishing an EBV-infected NK-like cell line designated KAI3. Immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that KAI3 cells as well as infected NK cells exhibited an EBV latent infection type II, where EBV gene expression was limited to EBNA 1 and LMP1. As KAI3 was established by culture with IL-2, IL-2 responsiveness of peripheral blood NK cells from patients was examined. The results represented markedly augmented IL-2-induced IL-2R alpha expression in NK cells. This characteristic property may contribute to the persistent expansion of infected NK cells. However, KAI3 cells as well as the NK cells from patients were not protected from apoptosis induced by either an anti-Fas antibody or NK-sensitive K562 cells. Preserved sensitivity to apoptosis might explain the relatively regulated NK cell numbers in the peripheral blood of the patients. To our knowledge, KAI3 is the first reported NK-like cell line established from patients of severe chronic active EBV infection (SCAEBV) before the onset of leukaemias or lymphomas. KAI3 cells will contribute to the study of EBV persistency in the NK cell environment and its relationship with high incidence of leukaemias or lymphomas in HMB patients. (+info)
Mosquito cathepsin B-like protease involved in embryonic degradation of vitellin is produced as a latent extraovarian precursor. (7/1529)Here we report identification of a novel member of the thiol protease superfamily in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. It is synthesized and secreted as a latent proenzyme in a sex-, stage-, and tissue-specific manner by the fat body, an insect metabolic tissue, of female mosquitoes during vitellogenesis in response to blood feeding. The secreted, hemolymph form of the enzyme is a large molecule, likely a hexamer, consisting of 44-kDa subunits. The deduced amino acid sequence of this 44-kDa precursor shares high similarity with cathepsin B but not with other mammalian cathepsins. We have named this mosquito enzyme vitellogenic cathepsin B (VCB). VCB decreases to 42 kDa after internalization by oocytes. In mature yolk bodies, VCB is located in the matrix surrounding the crystalline yolk protein, vitellin. At the onset of embryogenesis, VCB is further processed to 33 kDa. The embryo extract containing the 33-kDa VCB is active toward benzoyloxycarbonyl-Arg-Arg-para-nitroanilide, a cathepsin B-specific substrate, and degrades vitellogenin, the vitellin precursor. Both of these enzymatic activities are prevented by trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane (E-64), a thiol protease inhibitor. Furthermore, addition of the anti-VCB antibody to the embryonic extract prevented cleavage of vitellogenin, strongly indicating that the activated VCB is involved in embryonic degradation of vitellin. (+info)
Phagocytosis does not play a major role in naturally acquired transmission-blocking immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. (8/1529)Phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum sexual stages in vitro and within the mosquito midgut was assayed in order to assess its role in transmission-blocking immunity to malaria. Both monocytes/macrophages (MM) and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) phagocytosed malarial gametes in vitro, but levels of phagocytosis were low. Intraerythrocytic gametocytes were not susceptible to phagocytosis. In vitro phagocytosis was positively correlated with levels of antibodies against the gamete surface proteins Pfs230 and Pfs48/45. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass analysis revealed that phagocytosis was correlated with levels of antigamete IgG1. In vivo membrane-feeding experiments were performed in the presence of both pooled and individual malaria immune sera. The phagocytic process proceeded less efficiently in vivo than in vitro, which may be related to the lower ambient temperature (26 degrees C, compared with 37 degrees C). Finally, although we found a correlation between the ability of a serum to promote phagocytosis in vitro and the presence of antibodies against transmission-blocking target antigens, we were unable to demonstrate a role for MM- or PMN-mediated phagocytosis in reduction of infectivity of the malarial parasite to mosquitoes. (+info)
Culicidae is a family of insects that includes mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are known for their ability to transmit various diseases to humans and animals, including malaria, dengue fever, Zika virus, and West Nile virus. In the medical field, understanding the biology and behavior of mosquitoes is important for developing strategies to control their populations and prevent the spread of diseases they transmit.
In the medical field, "Aedes" refers to a genus of mosquitoes that are known to transmit several important human diseases, including dengue fever, Zika virus, and chikungunya. These mosquitoes are found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, and are often found near standing water, such as in containers or in areas with poor drainage. The female Aedes mosquito requires a blood meal to lay her eggs, and she is attracted to humans and other animals for this purpose. The bites of Aedes mosquitoes can be painful and itchy, but the real danger comes from the diseases they can transmit.
In the medical field, "Culex" refers to a genus of mosquitoes that are known to transmit various diseases to humans and animals. The most common species of Culex mosquitoes that transmit diseases are Culex pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus. These mosquitoes are found worldwide and are known to transmit diseases such as West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis, and Rift Valley fever. The bite of a Culex mosquito can cause an itchy red bump on the skin, but the real danger comes from the diseases that they can transmit. Therefore, it is important to take precautions to avoid being bitten by Culex mosquitoes, such as wearing protective clothing and using insect repellent.
Anopheles is a genus of mosquitoes that are known to transmit the Plasmodium parasite, which causes malaria. The female Anopheles mosquito bites humans and other animals to obtain blood for egg production. When the mosquito bites an infected person, it ingests Plasmodium parasites that are present in the blood. The parasites then multiply in the mosquito's gut and are transmitted to the next person or animal when the mosquito bites again. Anopheles mosquitoes are found in many parts of the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. There are over 400 species of Anopheles mosquitoes, and some species are more efficient at transmitting Plasmodium parasites than others. Malaria is a major public health problem in many parts of the world, and controlling the Anopheles mosquito population is a key strategy for preventing the spread of the disease.
In the medical field, "Brazil" typically refers to the country located in South America. Brazil is the largest country in both South America and Latin America, and it is known for its diverse population, rich culture, and natural resources. In terms of healthcare, Brazil has a publicly funded healthcare system called the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde, or SUS). The SUS provides free or low-cost healthcare services to all Brazilian citizens and residents, including primary care, hospitalization, and specialized medical care. Brazil has also made significant strides in public health, particularly in the areas of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and dengue fever. The country has implemented widespread vaccination programs and has made efforts to improve access to healthcare services in underserved areas. However, Brazil still faces significant challenges in the healthcare sector, including a shortage of healthcare professionals, inadequate infrastructure, and disparities in access to healthcare services between different regions and socioeconomic groups.
In the medical field, "Colombia" typically refers to the country located in South America. Colombia is known for its rich biodiversity and has a high prevalence of certain diseases, such as malaria, dengue fever, and leishmaniasis. The country also has a significant burden of non-communicable diseases, including diabetes, hypertension, and cancer. Medical professionals working in Colombia may need to be knowledgeable about these and other health issues affecting the population. Additionally, Colombia has a growing pharmaceutical industry and is a major producer of medical devices and equipment.
Anopheles gambiae is a species of mosquito that is known to be a major vector of the Plasmodium parasite, which causes malaria. In the medical field, Anopheles gambiae is studied and monitored closely because of its role in transmitting the disease to humans. Researchers and public health officials work to understand the biology and behavior of this mosquito in order to develop strategies for controlling its populations and reducing the spread of malaria. This can include the use of insecticides, the elimination of breeding sites, and the development of vaccines and other preventative measures.
DNA, ribosomal spacer refers to a region of non-coding DNA that is located between the 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA genes in the bacterial genome. This region is also known as the intergenic spacer (IGS) region. The length and sequence of the ribosomal spacer can vary among different bacterial species and strains, and it has been used as a molecular marker for bacterial identification and classification. In addition, the ribosomal spacer region can also contain genes that are involved in bacterial metabolism and pathogenesis.
I'm sorry, but I'm not aware of any specific medical term or concept related to "Argentina." Argentina is a country located in South America, and it is known for its diverse geography, culture, and history. In the medical field, Argentina has a well-developed healthcare system, with a mix of public and private hospitals and clinics. The country has a relatively low infant mortality rate and a high life expectancy, but it also faces challenges related to access to healthcare and health disparities. If you have a specific medical question related to Argentina, I would be happy to try to help you.
In the medical field, decapitation refers to the complete separation of the head from the body. This can occur as a result of trauma, such as a car accident or a fall from a great height, or it can be intentionally inflicted as a form of punishment or execution. Decapitation can result in immediate death due to the loss of blood flow to the brain and the vital organs. It can also cause severe trauma to the surrounding tissues and organs, leading to secondary injuries and complications. In medical settings, decapitation is typically associated with forensic pathology and is studied in the context of death investigations. Medical professionals who work with decapitated bodies are trained to carefully document the injuries and the cause of death, as well as to preserve any evidence that may be relevant to the investigation.
Bromelia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bromeliaceae, which includes around 350 species. In the medical field, Bromelia is known for its potential medicinal properties and is used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions. Some species of Bromelia are used to make tea, which is believed to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and diuretic properties. The leaves and stems of certain Bromelia species are also used to make poultices, which are applied to the skin to treat wounds, burns, and other skin conditions. In addition to its medicinal uses, Bromelia is also used in the production of ornamental plants and as a source of fiber for making textiles. It is important to note that while Bromelia has been used in traditional medicine for centuries, there is limited scientific evidence to support its effectiveness for treating specific medical conditions. As with any natural remedy, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using Bromelia or any other herbal remedy.
Pyrethrins are a group of natural insecticides derived from the flowers of the Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium plant. They are commonly used in household and agricultural insecticides due to their effectiveness against a wide range of insects, including mosquitoes, flies, ants, and spiders. Pyrethrins work by disrupting the nervous system of insects, causing paralysis and death. They are non-toxic to humans and most mammals, but can be harmful to fish and other aquatic organisms if they enter waterways. Pyrethrins are often combined with other chemicals, such as piperonyl butoxide, to increase their effectiveness and prolong their duration of action. However, prolonged exposure to pyrethrins can cause skin irritation and respiratory problems in some individuals.
Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal plant that has been used in traditional medicine for centuries. It is commonly known as "king of bitters" or "Indian bitters" and is native to India and Southeast Asia. In the medical field, Andrographis is used to treat a variety of conditions, including respiratory infections, fever, sore throat, and upper respiratory tract infections. It is also used as an anti-inflammatory and to boost the immune system. Andrographis extract is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and teas. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using Andrographis in the medical field.
Temefos is an organophosphate insecticide that is commonly used in agriculture to control a wide range of pests, including mosquitoes, flies, and cockroaches. It works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system in insects. This leads to overstimulation of the nervous system and ultimately death. In the medical field, temefos is not typically used as a treatment for humans. However, it has been used in some cases as a pesticide to control insect vectors of diseases such as dengue fever and malaria. It is also used in veterinary medicine to control internal and external parasites in livestock and pets. It is important to note that temefos is a highly toxic chemical and can be harmful to humans if ingested or inhaled in large quantities. Proper safety precautions and handling procedures should be followed when using temefos or any other pesticide.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. It is characterized by fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, it can lead to anemia, respiratory distress, organ failure, and death. Malaria is primarily found in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. There are four main species of Plasmodium that can cause malaria in humans: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae. Malaria is preventable and treatable, but，。
Dengue is a viral infection caused by the dengue virus, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. It is a common disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and is estimated to affect between 300 million and 500 million people each year. Dengue fever is the most common form of the disease, and is characterized by fever, headache, joint and muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, and a rash. In some cases, the disease can progress to more severe forms, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, which can be life-threatening. There is no specific treatment for dengue fever, but supportive care such as hydration and pain management can help alleviate symptoms. Prevention measures include eliminating mosquito breeding sites, using insect repellent, and wearing protective clothing. Vaccines are currently being developed for dengue fever, but are not yet widely available.
Ecdysteroids are a class of hormones that are produced by insects and some other arthropods. They play a role in regulating growth, molting, and reproduction in these organisms. In the medical field, ecdysteroids have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications, particularly in the treatment of certain types of cancer. Some ecdysteroids have been shown to have anti-tumor properties and may be useful in combination with other cancer treatments. They have also been studied for their potential use in treating other conditions, such as inflammation and autoimmune diseases.
Arboviruses are a group of viruses that are transmitted to humans and animals by arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas. These viruses can cause a wide range of diseases, including mild fevers, encephalitis, meningitis, and hemorrhagic fever. Arboviruses are classified into several different families, including Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, and Reoviridae. Some well-known examples of arboviruses include West Nile virus, dengue virus, Zika virus, chikungunya virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. In the medical field, arboviruses are a significant public health concern, as they can cause widespread outbreaks and epidemics, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Diagnosis and treatment of arboviral infections often involve supportive care, such as hydration and pain management, as well as antiviral medications in some cases. Prevention measures include avoiding exposure to arthropod vectors through the use of insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating breeding sites for mosquitoes and ticks.
Insect bites and stings refer to the injuries caused by the bites or stings of insects, such as mosquitoes, bees, wasps, ants, ticks, and fleas. These bites and stings can cause a range of symptoms, from mild itching and redness to severe allergic reactions that can be life-threatening. Insect bites and stings can be painful and uncomfortable, and may lead to skin infections if left untreated. Some insects, such as mosquitoes and ticks, can transmit diseases to humans, such as malaria, dengue fever, and Lyme disease. In the medical field, the treatment of insect bites and stings typically involves cleaning the affected area with soap and water, applying ice or a cold compress to reduce swelling and pain, and taking over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen. In some cases, antihistamines may be prescribed to reduce itching and swelling. For severe allergic reactions, such as anaphylaxis, emergency medical treatment is necessary, including the administration of epinephrine and other medications to counteract the symptoms of the allergic reaction.
Yellow Fever is a viral disease caused by the yellow fever virus (YFV) and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. The disease is characterized by fever, chills, headache, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In severe cases, yellow fever can lead to hemorrhage, shock, and multi-organ failure, with a high mortality rate. Yellow fever is primarily found in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America, but it can also occur in travelers who visit these areas. The disease is preventable through vaccination, and early diagnosis and treatment can significantly reduce the risk of complications and death.
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium that is commonly used in the medical field as a biological control agent against various insect pests. The bacterium produces a protein called delta-endotoxin, which is toxic to certain insects but harmless to humans and other animals. In the medical field, Bt is used to develop insecticidal biopesticides that are applied to crops to control insect pests such as caterpillars, beetles, and flies. These biopesticides are considered to be safer and more environmentally friendly than chemical insecticides, as they target specific pests and do not harm non-target organisms. Bt has also been used in medical research to study the mechanisms of insecticide resistance and to develop new insecticides. Additionally, Bt has been genetically modified to produce therapeutic proteins for medical use, such as vaccines and cancer treatments.
West Nile fever is a viral infection caused by the West Nile virus (WNV). It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. The virus can also be transmitted through blood transfusions, organ transplants, and from mother to fetus during pregnancy. Symptoms of West Nile fever can range from mild to severe and may include fever, headache, body aches, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue. In more severe cases, the virus can cause encephalitis, which is inflammation of the brain, or meningitis, which is inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. These severe cases can be life-threatening and may result in long-term neurological problems. West Nile fever is most common in warmer months, particularly in areas where mosquitoes are prevalent. The risk of infection is highest for people who spend a lot of time outdoors, especially during dawn and dusk when mosquitoes are most active. Treatment for West Nile fever typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. There is no specific antiviral medication available to treat the virus.
Permethrin is an insecticide that is commonly used in the medical field to treat and prevent insect bites and skin infections caused by parasites such as lice, scabies, and ticks. It is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide that works by disrupting the nervous system of insects, causing paralysis and death. Permethrin is available in various forms, including lotions, creams, sprays, and shampoos. It is typically applied to the skin or clothing, and the amount and frequency of application depend on the specific condition being treated and the age and weight of the patient. Permethrin is generally considered safe for use in humans, but it can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people. It is also toxic to fish and other aquatic life, so it should not be used near water sources.
Plant extracts refer to the active compounds or bioactive molecules that are extracted from plants and used in the medical field for various therapeutic purposes. These extracts are obtained through various extraction methods, such as solvent extraction, steam distillation, and cold pressing, and can be used in the form of powders, liquids, or capsules. Plant extracts have been used for centuries in traditional medicine and are now widely used in modern medicine as well. They are used to treat a wide range of conditions, including inflammation, pain, anxiety, depression, and cancer. Some examples of plant extracts used in medicine include aspirin (extracted from willow bark), quinine (extracted from cinchona bark), and morphine (extracted from opium poppy). Plant extracts are also used in the development of new drugs and therapies. Researchers extract compounds from plants and test them for their potential therapeutic effects. If a compound shows promise, it can be further developed into a drug that can be used to treat a specific condition. It is important to note that while plant extracts can be effective in treating certain conditions, they can also have side effects and may interact with other medications. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using plant extracts as a form of treatment.
In the medical field, the term "cities" typically refers to urban areas or densely populated regions that have a high concentration of people, buildings, and infrastructure. These areas can be characterized by a variety of factors, including high levels of pollution, traffic congestion, and social and economic inequality. In the context of public health, cities are often studied as they can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of their residents. For example, researchers may investigate the relationship between urbanization and the incidence of certain diseases, such as heart disease or respiratory illness, or they may study the impact of urban planning and design on physical activity levels and access to healthy food options. Overall, the term "cities" in the medical field is used to describe the complex and dynamic environments in which many people live and work, and to highlight the importance of considering the social, economic, and environmental factors that can influence health outcomes in urban areas.
In the medical field, competitive behavior refers to the actions or behaviors that healthcare providers engage in to attract and retain patients, gain market share, and increase revenue. This can include offering discounts or promotions, advertising services or specialties, or competing on the basis of price or quality. Competitive behavior can also refer to the actions or behaviors that healthcare providers engage in to compete with other healthcare providers for resources, such as funding, equipment, or personnel. This can include lobbying for government funding or advocating for policies that benefit their organization. While competitive behavior can be beneficial in promoting innovation and improving the quality of care, it can also lead to negative consequences, such as over-treatment, medical errors, and a focus on profit over patient well-being. As such, healthcare providers must balance the need to compete with the ethical and moral obligations to provide high-quality, patient-centered care.
In the medical field, the term "birds" typically refers to a class of warm-blooded vertebrates characterized by feathers, wings, and beaks. There are over 10,000 species of birds, and they can be found in a wide range of habitats, from forests and grasslands to deserts and oceans. In medicine, birds are sometimes studied as models for human diseases, particularly those related to infectious diseases. For example, some bird species, such as chickens and ducks, can carry and transmit viruses that are similar to those that affect humans, such as avian influenza. Birds are also used in medical research to study the effects of environmental pollutants on wildlife. For example, studies have shown that exposure to certain chemicals, such as pesticides and heavy metals, can have negative effects on bird populations. In addition, birds are sometimes used in medical treatments, such as in the field of avian therapy. Avian therapy involves the use of trained birds, such as parrots, to provide emotional support and companionship to people with a variety of conditions, including depression, anxiety, and dementia.
Insect proteins refer to the proteins obtained from insects that have potential medical applications. These proteins can be used as a source of nutrition, as a therapeutic agent, or as a component in medical devices. Insects are a rich source of proteins, and some species are being explored as a potential alternative to traditional animal protein sources. Insect proteins have been shown to have a number of potential health benefits, including improved immune function, reduced inflammation, and improved gut health. They are also being studied for their potential use in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. In addition, insect proteins are being investigated as a potential source of biodegradable materials for use in medical devices.
DNA, Mitochondrial refers to the genetic material found within the mitochondria, which are small organelles found in the cells of most eukaryotic organisms. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a small circular molecule that is separate from the nuclear DNA found in the cell nucleus. Mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited, meaning that a person inherits their mtDNA from their mother. Unlike nuclear DNA, which is diploid (contains two copies of each gene), mtDNA is haploid (contains only one copy of each gene). Mutations in mitochondrial DNA can lead to a variety of inherited disorders, including mitochondrial disorders, which are a group of conditions that affect the mitochondria and can cause a range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, fatigue, and neurological problems.
Dengue virus is a mosquito-borne virus that belongs to the Flavivirus genus. It is one of the most common viral infections in the world, with an estimated 390 million infections occurring annually, primarily in tropical and subtropical regions. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected female Aedes mosquito, which feeds on the blood of humans and other animals. There are four different serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4), and each serotype can cause dengue fever, a viral illness characterized by fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, nausea, vomiting, and a rash. In some cases, dengue fever can progress to more severe forms of the disease, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, which can be life-threatening. Dengue virus is a significant public health concern, as it can cause significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in children and pregnant women. There is currently no vaccine available for dengue virus, and treatment is primarily supportive, focusing on managing symptoms and preventing complications. Prevention efforts include vector control measures to reduce mosquito populations and public education campaigns to promote personal protection measures, such as the use of insect repellent and bed nets.
Electron Transport Complex IV, also known as cytochrome c oxidase, is a protein complex located in the inner mitochondrial membrane that plays a crucial role in cellular respiration. It is the final enzyme in the electron transport chain, which is responsible for generating ATP, the energy currency of the cell. During cellular respiration, electrons are passed through a series of protein complexes in the electron transport chain, releasing energy that is used to pump protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This creates a proton gradient that is used to drive the synthesis of ATP by ATP synthase. Electron Transport Complex IV is unique among the other electron transport chain complexes in that it not only pumps protons but also accepts electrons from cytochrome c and transfers them to molecular oxygen, which is reduced to water. This process is the final step in the electron transport chain and is essential for the production of ATP. Disruptions in the function of Electron Transport Complex IV can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including mitochondrial disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and certain types of cancer.
A biological assay is a laboratory technique used to measure the biological activity of a substance, such as a drug or a protein. It involves exposing a biological system, such as cells or tissues, to the substance and measuring the resulting response. The response can be anything from a change in cell growth or survival to a change in gene expression or protein activity. Biological assays are used in a variety of fields, including pharmacology, toxicology, and biotechnology, to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of drugs, to study the function of genes and proteins, and to develop new therapeutic agents.
In the medical field, blood refers to the liquid component of the circulatory system that carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body. It is composed of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma. Red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. White blood cells, also known as leukocytes, are part of the immune system and help protect the body against infections and diseases. Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are involved in blood clotting and help prevent excessive bleeding. Plasma is the liquid portion of blood that contains water, proteins, electrolytes, and other substances. Blood is collected through a process called phlebotomy, which involves drawing blood from a vein using a needle. Blood can be used for a variety of medical tests and procedures, including blood typing, blood transfusions, and the diagnosis of various medical conditions.
Demography is the study of human populations, including their size, growth, structure, distribution, and changes over time. In the medical field, demography is used to understand the health and healthcare needs of different populations, including age, gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Demographic data can be used to identify trends and patterns in health outcomes, such as disease incidence and mortality rates, and to inform public health policies and interventions. For example, demographers may analyze data on the aging population to identify the healthcare needs of older adults, or they may study the distribution of certain diseases in different racial and ethnic groups to inform targeted prevention and treatment efforts.
In the medical field, biodiversity refers to the variety of living organisms, including microorganisms, plants, and animals, that exist in a particular ecosystem or region. This diversity of life is important for maintaining the health and resilience of ecosystems, as different species play different roles in maintaining ecological balance and providing resources for human use. Biodiversity is also important in the development of new medicines and medical treatments. Many drugs are derived from natural sources, such as plants and animals, and the loss of biodiversity can reduce the availability of these resources. Additionally, biodiversity can help to protect against the spread of infectious diseases, as diverse ecosystems tend to be more resilient to disease outbreaks. Overall, biodiversity is a critical component of the health and well-being of both human and natural systems, and efforts to conserve and protect biodiversity are essential for maintaining the health of our planet.
Bacillus is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that are commonly found in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals. Some species of Bacillus are pathogenic and can cause infections in humans and other animals, while others are used as probiotics or in the production of various industrial products. In the medical field, Bacillus species are often studied for their potential as therapeutic agents. For example, some species of Bacillus produce antibiotics that can be used to treat bacterial infections. Bacillus subtilis, a common soil bacterium, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, and is being investigated as a potential treatment for various diseases, including cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Bacillus also plays a role in the development of vaccines. The Bacillus anthracis bacterium, which causes anthrax, has been used as a model organism for studying the immune response to bacterial infections. Vaccines against anthrax have been developed using live attenuated strains of B. anthracis, as well as subunit vaccines that contain purified antigens from the bacterium. Overall, Bacillus is an important genus of bacteria that has both beneficial and pathogenic properties, and is the subject of ongoing research in the medical field.
In the medical field, "California" typically refers to the state of California in the United States, which is known for its diverse population, large number of healthcare facilities, and cutting-edge medical research and technology. California is home to some of the top medical schools and research institutions in the country, and is a major center for medical innovation and development. Medical professionals and researchers in California are often at the forefront of new medical discoveries and treatments, and the state is known for its high standards of medical care and attention to patient needs.
In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.
DNA, ribosomal, refers to the specific type of DNA found within ribosomes, which are the cellular structures responsible for protein synthesis. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is transcribed into ribosomal RNA (rRNA), which then forms the core of the ribosome. The rRNA molecules are essential for the assembly and function of the ribosome, and the rDNA sequences that code for these molecules are highly conserved across different species. Mutations in rDNA can lead to defects in ribosome function and can be associated with various medical conditions, including some forms of cancer and inherited disorders.
In the medical field, a base sequence refers to the specific order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism. The base sequence determines the genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule and ultimately determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. The base sequence can be analyzed using various techniques, such as DNA sequencing, to identify genetic variations or mutations that may be associated with certain diseases or conditions.
In the medical field, "Behavior, Animal" refers to the study of the actions, responses, and interactions of animals, including humans, with their environment. This field encompasses a wide range of topics, including animal behavior in the wild, animal behavior in captivity, animal behavior in domestic settings, and animal behavior in laboratory settings. Animal behaviorists study a variety of behaviors, including social behavior, mating behavior, feeding behavior, communication behavior, and aggression. They use a variety of research methods, including observational studies, experiments, and surveys, to understand the underlying mechanisms that drive animal behavior. Animal behavior research has important applications in fields such as conservation biology, animal welfare, and veterinary medicine. For example, understanding animal behavior can help conservationists develop effective strategies for protecting endangered species, and it can help veterinarians develop more effective treatments for behavioral disorders in animals.
Bacterial pathogens of Culicidae (mosquitos).
Family Culicidae - Mosquitoes - BugGuide.Net
Usutu Virus Sequences in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Spain - Volume 14, Number 5-May 2008 - Emerging Infectious...
Invasion biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) - PubMed
A novel method of controlling a dengue mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) using an aquatic mosquito predator...
Culicidae | DrawWing
teaching music - Culicidae Press
"Effects of Water Parameters on Container Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae)" by Stephanie Sue Schelble
Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus Say. (Culicidae, Diptera)
Subjects: Culicidae - Digital Collections - National Library of Medicine Search Results
Comparative study of Culicidae biodiversity of Manoka island and Youpwe mainland area, Littoral, Cameroon
ArboCat Virus: Cuiaba (CUIV)
Usutu Virus Sequences in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Spain - Volume 14, Number 5-May 2008 - Emerging Infectious...
Native fungi from Amazon with potential for control of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae). | Braz J Biol;83: e274954, 2023....
The Complex Epidemiological Relationship between Flooding Events and Human Outbreaks of Mosquito-Borne Diseases: A Scoping...
PUPAL HABITAT PRODUCTIVITY OF ANOPHELES GAMBIAE COMPLEX MOSQUITOES IN A RURAL VILLAGE IN WESTERN KENYA in: The American Journal...
NIH VideoCast - Bitten: Why Are Some People More Attractive to Mosquitoes Than Others?
Record List | Public Data Portal | BOLDSYSTEMS
Companion Animal Parasite Council | Mosquitoes
Clavo: MedlinePlus suplementos
Mosquito Prevention and Property Management | MeCDC | Maine DHHS
Viruses | Free Full-Text | Forced Zika Virus Infection of Culex pipiens Leads to Limited Virus Accumulation in Mosquito Saliva
Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)
- Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. (nih.gov)
- Schelble, Stephanie Sue, "Effects of Water Parameters on Container Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition and Performance" (2014). (usm.edu)
- Native fungi from Amazon with potential for control of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae). (bvsalud.org)
- Aedes aegypti L. ( Diptera Culicidae ) is the main transmitter of pathogens that cause human diseases , including dengue , chikungunya, zika and yellow fever . (bvsalud.org)
- Characterization of malaria transmission by Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in western Kenya in preparation for malaria vaccine trials. (ajtmh.org)
- Diptera: Culicidae) in Banambani Village, Mali. (ajtmh.org)
- Mosquitoes are arthropods of the class Insecta, order Diptera and family Culicidae. (capcvet.org)
- Shedding light on toxicity of SARS-CoV-2 peptides in aquatic biota: A study involving neotropical mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). (nih.gov)
- Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are the most important group of blood-sucking insects that are vectors of human diseases. (cabdirect.org)
- Podría interferir con el control del azúcar en sangre o causar sangrado durante o después de la cirugía. (medlineplus.gov)