Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Ochlerotatus: A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Oviparity: The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.BrazilInsecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.ColombiaPest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Gymnema sylvestre: A plant species of the genus GYMNEMA that contains gymnemic acid (triterpene SAPONINS) which affects blood sugar level, and gurmarin protein. The common name of Gurmar should not be confused with Guar (CYAMOPSIS).Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Mortuary Practice: Activities associated with the disposition of the dead. It excludes cultural practices such as funeral rites.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.ArgentinaDecapitation: Traumatic or experimentally induced separation of the head from the body in an animal or human.Bromelia: A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain karatasin and balansain (ENDOPEPTIDASES) and BROMELAINS.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Eclipta: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain wedelolactone.Andrographis: A plant genus of the family ACANTHACEAE. Members contain andrographolide and other DITERPENES and androechin, a CHALCONE.Temefos: An organothiophosphate insecticide.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Insemination: The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Tagetes: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common name of marigold is also used for CALENDULA.Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Piper: A plant genus of the family PIPERACEAE that includes species used for spicy and stimulating qualities.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.Suburban Population: The inhabitants of peripheral or adjacent areas of a city or town.Aglaia: A plant genus of the family MELIACEAE. Members contain lariciresinol, pregnanes, insecticidal rocaglamide derivatives and other compounds.Ecdysteroids: Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.Arboviruses: Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)French Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Yellow Fever: An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Permethrin: A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.Flavivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Dengue Virus: A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.PeruSalivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Ephrin-B3: A transmembrane domain containing ephrin. Although originally found to be specific for the EPHB3 RECEPTOR it has since been shown to bind a variety of EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. During embryogenesis ephrin-B3 is expressed at high levels in the ventral neural tube. In adult tissues, it is found primarily in the BRAIN and HEART.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.IndiaDemography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.CaliforniaPlant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.

The role of gene splicing, gene amplification and regulation in mosquito insecticide resistance. (1/1529)

The primary routes of insecticide resistance in all insects are alterations in the insecticide target sites or changes in the rate at which the insecticide is detoxified. Three enzyme systems, glutathione S-transferases, esterases and monooxygenases, are involved in the detoxification of the four major insecticide classes. These enzymes act by rapidly metabolizing the insecticide to non-toxic products, or by rapidly binding and very slowly turning over the insecticide (sequestration). In Culex mosquitoes, the most common organophosphate insecticide resistance mechanism is caused by co-amplification of two esterases. The amplified esterases are differentially regulated, with three times more Est beta 2(1) being produced than Est alpha 2(1). Cis-acting regulatory sequences associated with these esterases are under investigation. All the amplified esterases in different Culex species act through sequestration. The rates at which they bind with insecticides are more rapid than those for their non-amplified counterparts in the insecticide-susceptible insects. In contrast, esterase-based organophosphate resistance in Anopheles is invariably based on changes in substrate specificities and increased turnover rates of a small subset of insecticides. The up-regulation of both glutathione S-transferases and monooxygenases in resistant mosquitoes is due to the effects of a single major gene in each case. The products of these major genes up-regulate a broad range of enzymes. The diversity of glutathione S-transferases produced by Anopheles mosquitoes is increased by the splicing of different 5' ends of genes, with a single 3' end, within one class of this enzyme family. The trans-acting regulatory factors responsible for the up-regulation of both the monooxygenase and glutathione S-transferases still need to be identified, but the recent development of molecular tools for positional cloning in Anopheles gambiae now makes this possible.  (+info)

Mayaro virus disease: an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis in tropical South America. (2/1529)

This report describes the clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological findings on 27 cases of Mayaro virus (MV) disease, an emerging mosquito-borne viral illness that is endemic in rural areas of tropical South America. MV disease is a nonfatal, dengue-like illness characterized by fever, chills, headache, eye pain, generalized myalgia, arthralgia, diarrhea, vomiting, and rash of 3-5 days' duration. Severe joint pain is a prominent feature of this illness; the arthralgia sometimes persists for months and can be quite incapacitating. Cases of two visitors from the United States, who developed MV disease during visits to eastern Peru, are reported. MV disease and dengue are difficult to differentiate clinically.  (+info)

Geographic distribution and evolution of Sindbis virus in Australia. (3/1529)

The molecular epidemiology and evolution of Sindbis (SIN) virus in Australia was examined. Several SIN virus strains isolated from other countries were also included in the analysis. Two regions of the virus genome were sequenced including a 418 bp region of the E2 gene and a 484 bp region containing part of the junction region and the 5' end of the C gene. Analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence data from 40 SIN virus isolates clearly separated the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian genetic types of SIN virus. Examination of the Australian strains showed a temporal rather than geographic relationship. This is consistent with the virus having migratory birds as the major vertebrate host, as it allows for movement of virus over vast areas of the continent over a relatively short period of time. The results suggest that the virus is being periodically redistributed over the continent from an enzootic focus of evolving SIN virus. However, SIN virus strains isolated from mosquitoes collected in the south-west of Australia appear to represent a new SIN virus lineage, which is distinct from the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages. Given the widespread geographic dispersal of the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages, it is surprising that the South-west genetic type is so restricted in its area of circulation. Nucleotide sequence data from the C gene of the prototype strain of the alphavirus Whataroa were also determined. This virus was found to be genetically distinct from the SIN virus isolates included in the present study; however, it is clearly SIN-like and appears to have evolved from a SIN-like ancestral virus.  (+info)

Evaluating the community education programme of an insecticide-treated bed net trial on the Kenyan coast. (4/1529)

Increased interest in the potential contribution of insecticide-impregnated bed nets (ITBN) to malaria control has led to research efforts to determine the impact and sustainability of ITBN programmes in differing environments. There is a need to develop effective, feasible educational strategies that will both inform and motivate community members, and thus maximize the correct usage of ITBN. This is especially true in communities where indigenous usage of bed nets is low. This paper describes the educational component of a randomized controlled community intervention trial of ITBN, with childhood malaria morbidity as an outcome. The educational approach and messages for the ITBN trial were developed from anthropological survey data collected 4 years before the trial, and from community surveys conducted by project researchers. Low levels of understanding amongst mothers of the aetiological link between mosquitos and malaria led to the exclusion of the term 'malaria' from the initial educational messages promoting the use of ITBN. Appropriate individuals within the existing district health care structure were trained as community educators in the project. These educators conducted intensive teaching in the community through public meetings and group teaching in the first 6 months of the trial. The impact of these initial activities was assessed through interviews with a random sample of 100 mothers and 50 household heads. This allowed the identification of messages which had not been well understood and further educational methods were chosen to address the areas pinpointed. The community assessment also demonstrated that, in 1994, over 90% of mothers understood a protective role for bed nets against malaria and the ITBN education messages were changed to take account of this. The school programme was evaluated through determining outreach (the number of households accessed), changes in participant children's knowledge, post-teaching assessment of mothers' knowledge and discussions with parent-teacher associations. It was shown that 40% of intervention homes with children in the target group were accessed, participant children learned the educational messages well (scores increased from a pre-teaching mean of 59% to a post-teaching mean of 92%) and a high level of awareness of the ITBN trial was achieved in these homes (75%). However, specific messages of the education programmed were not well transferred to the home (30%). The discussion emphasises the need for allocation of adequate resources for education in programmes dependent on achieving a change in community practices. We also describe the value of ongoing communication between programme planners and a target population in maximizing the effectiveness of messages and methods used.  (+info)

Implementing a nationwide insecticide-impregnated bednet programme in The Gambia. (5/1529)

Earlier studies in The Gambia suggested that the use of impregnated bednets might prove to be a useful malaria control strategy. Based on the results of these studies, in 1992 the Government of The Gambia was encouraged to initiate a National Impregnated Bednet Programme (NIBP) as part of the National Malaria Control Programme Strategy. This paper describes the implementation process/procedure of the NIBP. Evaluation results showed that, overall, 83% of the bednets surveyed has been impregnated, and 77% of children under the age of five years and 78% of women of childbearing age were reported to be sleeping under impregnated bednets.  (+info)

Characterization of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected natural killer (NK) cell proliferation in patients with severe mosquito allergy; establishment of an IL-2-dependent NK-like cell line. (6/1529)

The clinical evidence of a relationship between severe hypersensitivity to mosquito bite (HMB) and clonal expansion of EBV-infected NK cells has been accumulated. In order to clarify the mechanism of EBV-induced NK cell proliferation and its relationship with high incidence of leukaemias or lymphomas in HMB patients, we studied clonally expanded NK cells from three HMB patients and succeeded in establishing an EBV-infected NK-like cell line designated KAI3. Immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that KAI3 cells as well as infected NK cells exhibited an EBV latent infection type II, where EBV gene expression was limited to EBNA 1 and LMP1. As KAI3 was established by culture with IL-2, IL-2 responsiveness of peripheral blood NK cells from patients was examined. The results represented markedly augmented IL-2-induced IL-2R alpha expression in NK cells. This characteristic property may contribute to the persistent expansion of infected NK cells. However, KAI3 cells as well as the NK cells from patients were not protected from apoptosis induced by either an anti-Fas antibody or NK-sensitive K562 cells. Preserved sensitivity to apoptosis might explain the relatively regulated NK cell numbers in the peripheral blood of the patients. To our knowledge, KAI3 is the first reported NK-like cell line established from patients of severe chronic active EBV infection (SCAEBV) before the onset of leukaemias or lymphomas. KAI3 cells will contribute to the study of EBV persistency in the NK cell environment and its relationship with high incidence of leukaemias or lymphomas in HMB patients.  (+info)

Mosquito cathepsin B-like protease involved in embryonic degradation of vitellin is produced as a latent extraovarian precursor. (7/1529)

Here we report identification of a novel member of the thiol protease superfamily in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. It is synthesized and secreted as a latent proenzyme in a sex-, stage-, and tissue-specific manner by the fat body, an insect metabolic tissue, of female mosquitoes during vitellogenesis in response to blood feeding. The secreted, hemolymph form of the enzyme is a large molecule, likely a hexamer, consisting of 44-kDa subunits. The deduced amino acid sequence of this 44-kDa precursor shares high similarity with cathepsin B but not with other mammalian cathepsins. We have named this mosquito enzyme vitellogenic cathepsin B (VCB). VCB decreases to 42 kDa after internalization by oocytes. In mature yolk bodies, VCB is located in the matrix surrounding the crystalline yolk protein, vitellin. At the onset of embryogenesis, VCB is further processed to 33 kDa. The embryo extract containing the 33-kDa VCB is active toward benzoyloxycarbonyl-Arg-Arg-para-nitroanilide, a cathepsin B-specific substrate, and degrades vitellogenin, the vitellin precursor. Both of these enzymatic activities are prevented by trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane (E-64), a thiol protease inhibitor. Furthermore, addition of the anti-VCB antibody to the embryonic extract prevented cleavage of vitellogenin, strongly indicating that the activated VCB is involved in embryonic degradation of vitellin.  (+info)

Phagocytosis does not play a major role in naturally acquired transmission-blocking immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. (8/1529)

Phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum sexual stages in vitro and within the mosquito midgut was assayed in order to assess its role in transmission-blocking immunity to malaria. Both monocytes/macrophages (MM) and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) phagocytosed malarial gametes in vitro, but levels of phagocytosis were low. Intraerythrocytic gametocytes were not susceptible to phagocytosis. In vitro phagocytosis was positively correlated with levels of antibodies against the gamete surface proteins Pfs230 and Pfs48/45. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass analysis revealed that phagocytosis was correlated with levels of antigamete IgG1. In vivo membrane-feeding experiments were performed in the presence of both pooled and individual malaria immune sera. The phagocytic process proceeded less efficiently in vivo than in vitro, which may be related to the lower ambient temperature (26 degrees C, compared with 37 degrees C). Finally, although we found a correlation between the ability of a serum to promote phagocytosis in vitro and the presence of antibodies against transmission-blocking target antigens, we were unable to demonstrate a role for MM- or PMN-mediated phagocytosis in reduction of infectivity of the malarial parasite to mosquitoes.  (+info)

*Chagasia

Family Culicidae. Fascicle 194. Belgium, 258 pp. Harbach, R.E.; Howard, T.M. 2009: Review of the genus Chagasia (Diptera: ... Culicidae: Anophelinae). Zootaxa, 2210: 1-25. Data related to Chagasia at Wikispecies. ...

*Mimomyia hybrida

Culicidae) Notes on the feeding and egg-laying habits of Ficalbia (Mimomyia) chamberlaini, Ludlow 1904. (Diptera, Culicidae.). ... Mimomyia Theobald, 1903 - Mosquito Taxonomic Inventory Pupa of ficalbia (mimomyia) chamberlaini (Ludlow) (Diptera : Culicidae) ...

*Bironella

Family Culicidae. Fascicle 194. Belgium, 258 pp. Evenhuis, N. L. and S. M. Gon III. 1989. Family Culicidae, pp. 191-218. In: N ... A catalogue of the Culicidae in the Hungarian National Museum, with descriptions of new genera and species. Annales Historico- ... Bironella (Brugella) obscura, a new species of mosquito from New Guinea (Diptera: Culicidae). Tenorio JA, J Med Entomol. 1975 ... The Mosquitoes of the South Pacific (Diptera: Culicidae). Volume 1. University of California Press, 608 pp. Bonne-Wepster, J. ...

*Mimomyia luzonensis

Diptera, Culicidae.). PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MOSQUITO BREEDING HABITATS IN AN IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT AREA IN SRI ... "luzonensis (Ludlow)". Systematic Catalog of Culicidae. Retrieved 2 February 2017. Mimomyia Theobald, 1903 - Mosquito Taxonomic ... Culicidae) of Bangladesh. Notes on the feeding and egg-laying habits of Ficalbia (Mimomyia) chamberlaini, Ludlow 1904. ( ... Inventory Pupa of ficalbia (mimomyia) chamberlaini (Ludlow) (Diptera : Culicidae) 1974 A review of the mosquito species ( ...

*Aedes vittatus

mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Zika virus". BMC Infectious Diseases. 15: 492. doi:10.1186/s12879-015-1231-2. PMC ... Diptera: Culicidae)". Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. 14 (1): 1-132. Cheikh Tidiane Diagne; Diawo Diallo ... John F. Reinert (2000). "Description of Fredwardsius, a new subgenus of Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae)" (PDF). European Mosquito ... in Systematic Catalog of Culicidae, Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit, http://www.mosquitocatalog.org/taxon_descr.aspx?ID=17622. ...

*Aedes aegypti

Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)". Journal of Insect Science. 15: 140. doi:10.1093/jisesa/iev125. " ... Family Culicidae". In Neal L. Evenhuis. Catalog of the Diptera of the Australasian and Oceanian Regions (PDF). Bishop Museum. ... The yellow fever mosquito belongs to the tribe Aedini of the dipteran family Culicidae and to the genus Aedes and subgenus ... John F. Reinert; Ralph E. Harbach; Ian J. Kitching (2004). "Phylogeny and classification of Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae), based ...

*Albuginosus capensis

Family Culicidae. In Catalogue of the Diptera of the Afrotropical Region. Ed. Crosskey RW. British Museum (Natural History), ... Spatiotemporal distribution of diurnal yellow fever vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) at two sylvan interfaces in Kenya, East Africa ... Albuginosus, A new subgenus of Aedes Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae) described from the Afrotropical Region. Mosquito Systematics ...

*Aedes pseudomediofasciatus

yerburyi (Diptera: Culicidae). Spread, establishment & prevalence of dengue vector Aedes aegypti (L.) in Konkan region, ...

*Uranotaenia obscura

"obscura Edwards". Systematic Catalog of Culicidae. Retrieved 31 January 2017. Notes on the Genus Uranotaenia. ...

*Culex sinensis

"sinensis Theobald". Systematic Catalog of Culicidae. Retrieved 4 February 2017. Ghosh, SM; Hati, AK. "CULEX SINENSIS THEO. A ...

*Culex nigropunctatus

Seasonal Abundance of Larval Stage of Culex Species Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Endemic Area of Japanese Encephalitis ... "nigropunctatus Edwards". Systematic Catalog of Culicidae. Retrieved 4 February 2017. ...

*Mimomyia intermedia

Culicidae) Notes on the feeding and egg-laying habits of Ficalbia (Mimomyia) chamberlaini, Ludlow 1904. (Diptera, Culicidae.). ... "intermedia Barraud". Systematic Catalog of Culicidae. Retrieved 2 February 2017. Mimomyia Theobald, 1903 - Mosquito Taxonomic ... Inventory Pupa of ficalbia (mimomyia) chamberlaini (Ludlow) (Diptera : Culicidae) 1974 Species in tribes Ficalbiini, Hodgesiini ...

*Tripteroides dofleini

"dofleini (Guenther)". Systematic Catalog of Culicidae. Retrieved 3 February 2017. Genus Tripteroides. ...

*Culex rubithoracis

"rubithoracis (Leicester)". Systematic Catalog of Culicidae. Retrieved 4 February 2017. Urbanization and its effects on the ...

*Culex campilunati

"campilunati Carter and Wijesundara". Systematic Catalog of Culicidae. Retrieved 3 February 2017. ...

*Culex malayi

"malayi (Leicester)". Systematic Catalog of Culicidae. Retrieved 4 February 2017. ...

*Aedes gubernatoris

"gubernatoris (Giles)". Systematic Catalog of Culicidae. Retrieved 31 January 2017. "Species Details : Aedes gubernatoris (Giles ...

*Aedes ostentatio

A note on the occurrence of Aedes (Paraedes) ostentatio (Leicester) in Dibrugarh District, Assam, India (Diptera: Culicidae) ... "ostentatio (Leicester)". Systematic Catalog of Culicidae. Retrieved 1 February 2017. ...

*Culex castrensis

"castrensis Edwards". Systematic Catalog of Culicidae. Retrieved 3 February 2017. ...

*Armigeres magnus

"magnus (Theobald)". Systematic Catalog of Culicidae. Retrieved 2 February 2017. "Mosquito Nuisance in Rural Area of Hong Kong ...

*Culex infantulus

A note on Culex (Lophoceraomyia) infantulus Edwards and its occurrence in Malaya (Diptera: Culicidae). Colonization of Culex ( ... "infantulus Edwards". Systematic Catalog of Culicidae. Retrieved 4 February 2017. ...

*Culex minutissimus

"minutissimus Theobald". Systematic Catalog of Culicidae. Retrieved 4 February 2017. ...

*Aedes bahamensis

"Systematic Catalog of Culicidae". Retrieved 18 February 2016. Aedes (Howardina) bahamensis in the United States. Pafume, B A, ... Vol 4 No 3 Pg 380 "Blood Feeding and Autogeny in the Peridomestic Mosquito Aedes bahamensis (Diptera: Culicidae) - Journal of ...

*Culex mimulus

"mimulus Edwards". Systematic Catalog of Culicidae. Retrieved 4 February 2017. Fernando, AW; Jayakody, S; Wijenayake, HK; ...

*Hodgesia malayi

"bailyi Barraud". Systematic Catalog of Culicidae. Retrieved 2 February 2017. Hodgesia Theobald, 1904 - Mosquito Taxonomic ...
Coquillettidia is a mosquito genus erected by entomologist Harrison Gray Dyar, Jr. in 1904 based primarily on unique features of its "peculiar" male genitalia. The specific epithet honors Dyars colleague Daniel William Coquillett. The genus comprises three subgenera, Austromansonia, Coquillettidia, and Rhynochotaenia, and 57 species, of which Coquillettidia perturbans is perhaps the best known. Not all species have been well documented, but females of some are known to feed primarily on birds but will also bite cattle. The females bite primarily at night, and are most active during the early part of the night. They occasionally attack humans during daylight hours in shady places when their habitat is entered. Adult females lay their eggs on the surface of water in areas of emergent vegetation to which hatchling larvae attach themselves with a modified siphon, on the roots or submerged stems, and where they remain throughout development; pupae also attach themselves the plants by means of a ...
The study is the first to document the rise of mutations that make mosquitoes resistant to a gene drive, due to natural selection. These findings will allow researchers to make better predictions of how a gene drive will proceed and to improve the design of future gene drives to decrease the likelihood of resistance.. Tony Nolan adds: Reducing the numbers of mosquito vectors has been the most effective tool to date for the control of malaria, so self-sustaining gene drives designed with this purpose have great potential. However gene drives are not a silver bullet and just like antibiotics can select for resistance in bacteria, gene drives can be susceptible to resistance at their target site. The novelty of this study is not that resistance emerges - we have been planning strategies to deal with this from the start - but that it documents the way it emerges and the way it is selected over generations. This work will help a lot in planning for and managing the emergence of ...
Friday June 29, 2012 BOSTON -- State health officials say West Nile virus has been detected in a mosquito sample in Pittsfield. The Department of Public Health said on Friday that the sample was …
One of the main concerns over gene drive is its potential long‐term effects. The designated effects on the targeted populations will be fast-within a few years-while long‐term effects on ecosystems may take decades to appear and are extremely unpredictable. The time frame of gene drive perfectly fits the economic development strategies dominant today in agribusiness, with a focus on short‐term return on investments and disdain for long‐term issues. The current economical system based on productivity, yields, monoculture, and extractivism [7] is a perfect match for the operating mode of gene drive. In addition, agri‐food industry decision centers are rarely located near the production sites. They will be inclined to disregard the ecological long‐term risks as they only concern local human populations in their exploited lands. Gene drive then becomes an issue of environmental justice.. The scarce use of gene drive, if concerted, cautious and controlled, may not cause any ecological ...
One of the main concerns over gene drive is its potential long‐term effects. The designated effects on the targeted populations will be fast-within a few years-while long‐term effects on ecosystems may take decades to appear and are extremely unpredictable. The time frame of gene drive perfectly fits the economic development strategies dominant today in agribusiness, with a focus on short‐term return on investments and disdain for long‐term issues. The current economical system based on productivity, yields, monoculture, and extractivism [7] is a perfect match for the operating mode of gene drive. In addition, agri‐food industry decision centers are rarely located near the production sites. They will be inclined to disregard the ecological long‐term risks as they only concern local human populations in their exploited lands. Gene drive then becomes an issue of environmental justice.. The scarce use of gene drive, if concerted, cautious and controlled, may not cause any ecological ...
This Can you utilize Biology Workbench and GenBank DNA sequences to identify an unknown mosquitos genus and species? Lesson Plan is suitable for 9th - Higher Ed. Student discuss the applications of Bioinformatics tools to their choices of a real life problem solving scenario. They draw conclusions about the methods and tools that a professional would utilize to solve the problem they have identified.
Scientists are close to figuring out how a tiny, pesky mosquito can survive a virus that kills humans millions of times its size. The blood-sucking insect creates an immediate and potent immunity not strong enough to kill the virus but strong enough to save the mosquitos life, according to new research from Colorado State University. The finding could bring scientists closer to eradicating mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue fever, West Nile, yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis. Years from now, scientists might genetically modify mosquitoes that are fully immune to viruses, CSU researchers said. They would release these stronger, more robust mosquitoes into the wild to win the battle of natural selection - the fittest mosquitoes eventually would replace the ones run down by carrying viruses in their bodies. "You cant fight evolution," said Dr. Carol Blair, professor of microbiology, immunology and pathology, and a study author. "Youve got to figure out how to manipulate it." Genetically ...
I bet you would be surprised to learn that since we began to collect "Mosquito Habitat Mapper" data (5/29/2017), we have had over 20,915 observations submitted! Think about how significant that number is for a tool that has only been available for less than three years! As many of us who live in the northern hemisphere begin to see signs of spring arriving- robins, crocuses, leaf buds on the trees, and warmer weather- we know that we will also see adult mosquitoes before too long. While there are over 3,500 species of mosquitoes, only about 100 of those species are actually dangerous to humans. When we are bit by a mosquito, it is the adult female with eggs who bites us. Both male and female mosquitoes get their food from pollen, but the female needs a blood meal to supply her eggs with protein so they will be viable.. When we get bit by mosquitoes, that is when we can contract a disease. With the "Mosquito Habitat Mapper", you are helping to reduce the threat of mosquito-transmitted disease ...
If mosquito bites seem to be associated with more-serious warning signs - such as fever, headache, body aches and signs of infection - contact your doctor.. Mosquito bites are caused by female mosquitoes feeding on your blood. Female mosquitoes have a mouthpart made to pierce skin and siphon off blood. Males lack this blood-sucking ability because they dont produce eggs and so have no need for protein in blood.. As a biting mosquito fills itself with blood, it injects saliva into your skin. Proteins in the saliva trigger a mild immune system reaction that results in the characteristic itching and bump.. Mosquitoes select their victims by evaluating scent, exhaled carbon dioxide and the chemicals in a persons sweat.. Scratching bites can lead to infection.. Mosquitoes can carry certain diseases, such as West Nile virus, malaria, yellow fever and dengue fever. The mosquito obtains a virus or parasite by biting an infected person or animal. Then, when biting you, the mosquito can transfer that ...
Issue 1. Winged victory? Christine Dahl. pp. 1-2.. CABIKEY Mosquito Genera of The World. Ralph Harbach & Graham Sandlant. pp. 3-5.. MOS-KEY-TOS©: an interactive key for the identification of the immature stages of Italian mosquitoes.Guido Sabatinelli & Roberto Romi. pp. 6-8.. Aedes cretinus: Is it a threat to the Mediterranean countries? Anna Samanidou. pp. 8. Distribution of Anopheles mosquitoes in the British Isles. Keith Snow. pp. 9-13.. Culex (Barraudius) pusillus, a new occurrence record outside the Palaearctic Region. Ralph Harbach. pp. 14.. Issue 2. A revised checklist of the French Culicidae. Francis Schaffner. pp. 1-9.. The water mite Thyas barbigera Viets (Hydrachnellae: Thyasidae) parasitizing mosquitoes. Boy Overgaard Nielson. pp. 10-12.. A general characterisation of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) in the epidemic area for West Nile virus in the south of Romania. Gabriela Nicolescu. pp. 13-18.. Anopheles cinereus Theobald 1901 and its synonym hispaniola Theobald 1903. ...
The only connection the article offers to global warming is the assertion that the tiger mosquitos habitat "has expanded steadily northward as temperatures have risen," as though there had been some significant rise in temperatures over the last ten years and that this rise was a prerequisite to the enlargement of the mosquitos habitat, at least in a northerly direction. Yet the facts are that global mean temperature has risen a scant .7◦C (1.26◦F) over the entire period since 1900 and, according to data supplied by The University of East Anglia and The Hadley Centre, global mean temperatures have actually been modestly declining since 1998! (For verification of this last point, see the website http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2007-12/uoea-awy121207.php). Moreover, since temperature lows in the region of Italy where the outbreak occurred are lower than those in most of France and England by 1 or 2 degrees Celsius, temperature conditions in those areas, which are considerably further ...
The importance of working together to prevent mosquito-borne diseases will be highlighted during an upcoming University of Otago-organised event.
The sample that tested positive was collected Aug. 16, the health department said. It was the first positive sample in Suffolk County since 2008.
A mosquito sample collected three decades ago in Israels Negev Desert has yielded an unexpected discovery: a previously unknown virus thats closely related to some of the worlds most dangerous mosquito-borne pathogens ...
Avian testing is done to detect the transmission of the virus in bird populations. Four chicken coops are dispersed throughout the city, and the chickens are bled every two weeks. (See photo of chicken coop above) These blood samples are sent to the State for WNV testing. Dead birds and squirrels are also collected and submitted to the State for WNV testing. Avian testing is a valuable tool for predicting and tracking WNV ...
Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. ADW doesnt cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. ...
She says most of them are aedes sollicitans, a name that doesnt roll off the tongue, but seems to have teeth.. These mosquitoes will fly during the day, they fly really far, Clark said. Theyre strong flyers. They can travel up to 25 miles with the wind, so theyre going to get you anywhere.. Sollicitans, she said have prospered close to the ocean especially since Sunday. Its because the noreaster that hit the First Coast two weekends ago gave mosquitoes a leg up all while leaving spray-and-fog technicians to catch up.. The tides were really high. There were some areas that we really werent able to, to treat, and once they came off, this is what happened.. Clark said salt marshes are perfect for these mosquitoes to breed because the marshes offer relatively still water, plenty of shelter, and lack of predation from fish. Like the psorophora species that hatched post-Irma, they dont carry disease, but their bite is more painful than most.. They are really aggressive and they are a big ...
There are more than 170 known mosquito species in the United States. While most mosquito bites cause nothing more than minor discomfort, mosquitoes can be carriers of dangerous and even deadly diseases. For more information, contact Goshen Health at (574) 364-1000.
FAAH gene variant rs324420 ("Genes may contribute to making some nations happier than others") And so forth. "Fixing" pain-sensitivity, depression-resistance, and default hedonic tone via gene drives will prevent immense suffering throughout the living world. The Cambrian Explosion was an explosion in suffering too; and only now are intelligent moral agents in a position to bring it under control.. Naturally, pitfalls lie ahead. Neither action nor inaction are ethically risk-free. A prudent if informal rule of thumb for policy-makers might be that anything that conceivably can go wrong with germline interventions will go wrong - and more besides. Mankinds dark historical track-record suggests that gene drives are more likely to be used for genetic terrorism, ethnic bioweapons and entomological warfare than harnessed to promote the welfare of other sentient beings. Ideally, artificial gene drives will be used to end the scourge of mosquito-borne diseases. Insect-borne pathogens sicken and kill ...
Not everyone is convinced that this optimistic view is warranted. "Its a false security," said Ethan Bier, a geneticist at the University of California, San Diego. He said that while such a strategy is important to study, he worries that researchers will be fooled into thinking that forms of resistance offer "more of a buffer and safety net than they do.". And while mathematical models are helpful, researchers stress that models cant replace actual experimentation. Ecological systems are just too complicated. "We have no experience engineering systems that are going to evolve outside of our control. We have never done that before," Esvelt said. "So thats why a lot of these modeling studies are important-they can give us a handle on what might happen. But Im also hesitant to rely on modeling and trying to predict in advance when systems are so complicated.". Messer hopes to put his theoretical work into a real-world setting, at least in the lab. He is currently directing a gene drive ...
He has led the movement to shine the spotlight," says Marc Lipsitch, an epidemiologist at Harvard University involved in biosafety issues. "Its not that common to be at the beginning of your career and already be thinking of the moral, ethical, and policy implications.". A gene drive is a genetic addition made to a mosquito or other organism that is able to spread through a population of animals in the wild and potentially act as a doomsday gadget, driving it out of existence. The technology presents challenges not only because it could extinguish a species but because by its very nature it can spread widely, including as the result of a lab accident.. "This is the perfect example of a technology that needs to be community-guided from the beginning," says Esvelt. "Its meaningless to talk about engaging the public in science if science is still going to develop the product and then say, What do you think?". Esvelt says hes started a new project, called Responsive Science, along with MIT ...
Gene drive systems distort the rule that there is a 50:50 chance of a gene copy being passed on. This promotes the inheritance of a particular copy of a gene from the parent to offspring. When coupled to a genetic trait that affects an individuals survival or ability to reproduce, it becomes a powerful tool that can be used for population control or even local elimination.
Read chapter 3 Case Studies to Examine Questions About Gene-Drive Modified Organisms: Research on gene drive systems is rapidly advancing. Many proposed a...
In lab populations of genetically engineered mosquitoes, mutations arose that blocked the gene drive’s spread and restored female fertility.
Most people think summer is the only time to be concerned about mosquitoes. However, in the mid-Atlantic, once temperatures stay consistently warm, mosquitoes start to emerge. We cant pinpoint the exact start of mosquito season, but it is safe to say its right around the corner. Mosquitoes that hibernated need consistent warm temperatures to become active, while mosquitoes that spent the winter as eggs need rainfall in order to hatch. That makes the month of April a perfect time for their emergence. Peak season doesnt occur until July and August, but now is the time to get your yard ready and be aware of how you can prevent mosquitoes from laying eggs in your yard.. Mosquitoes can be an annoyance around your yard. Their bites, while undetected as they occur, leave you with itchy red bumps that can irritate and take days to go away. Why is this? Female mosquitoes are the ones responsible for the "bite." Although technically not a real bite, since they dont have teeth and use their long ...
This is a huge public health emergency and horrible on many levels," says Uriel Kitron, chair of Emorys Department of Environmental Sciences and an expert in vector-borne diseases, which are transmitted by mosquitoes, ticks or other organisms. "The microcephaly cases are a personal tragedy for the families whose babies are affected. They will need much care and support, some of them for decades. The costs to the public health system will be enormous, and Brazil was already experiencing an economic crisis ...
An eletrophoretic analysis of three species of the subgenus Dendromyia (Wyeomyia luteoventralis, Wy. ypsipola and Wy. testei) and three species belonging to different groups in the genus Wyeomyia (Wy. negrensis, Wy. mystes and Wy.confusa) was performed. Eight enzyme loci were analyzed. High values of genetic identity were detected among the species of the subgenus Dendromyia: Wy. luteoventralis, Wy. ypsipola and Wy. testei (mean value 0.63). On the other hand low values of genetic identity were observed among Wy. negrensis, Wy. mystes and Wy. confusa (mean value 0.23), suggesting that they belong, at least, to distinct subgenera within the Genus Wyeomyia. The UPGMA phenogram revealed the grouping of the Dendromyia species, while the others clustered at lower identity levels ...
The song also gives a "shout out to pregnant ladies" to protect themselves. Although Jamaica has so far confirmed only one case of the Zika virus, the government is telling women to delay getting pregnant for the next six to 12 months because of a possible link between Zika infection in pregnant women and microcephaly. ...
Seen from a helicopter zipping along at 500 feet, the water-filled foundations of unfinished homes stuck out like red flags as potential mosquito breeding grounds.So did a dozen murky green or brown
The East Side and Turlock Mosquito Abatement Districts (MADs) have received confirmation that a mosquito sample from Stanislaus County has tested positive for St. Louis ... ...
by Roger Mason. People have been asking me about hepatitis-C because two per cent of the American population is infected with it. This is in ADDITION to all the other types of hepatitis.. Even worse, four per cent- one in twenty five- people in the world have hepatitis-C. Thats right, we have about 250 million people in the world with hepatitis-C, plus all the other six types we know about so far.. There is four times as much hepatitis-C as AIDS, yet AIDS gets all the press, all the attention and most all the research money due to political influence. We cannot even define what a virus is much less treat a virus. Thats right, we have almost no anti-viral drugs and were in the Dark Ages regarding knowledge and treatment of viruses of any type. It was only identified in 1989 and blood transfusions were the main cause as no one could test for the virus.. We just dont know the actual statistics in most countries, but we can estimate the minimum infection rate. It is estimated that ten per cent ...
Most popular mosquitoes (family culicidae). View videos and photos of 50 of the most popular mosquitoes (family culicidae) in nature. Learn more about their biology, threats and conservation.
The Food and Environmental Hygiene Department has urged people to stay alert to the risk of mosquito-transmitted diseases and maintain proper anti-mosquito measures
Gene drive is a mechanism that can promote the preferential inheritance of a beneficial genetic trait, thereby increasing its prevalence in a population. A variety of gene drive mechanisms occur in nature that can cause specific genetic elements to spread throughout populations in varying degrees. Researchers have long sought to harness these naturally occurring gene drive mechanisms to prevent the transmission of mosquito or other insect-borne diseases that pose some of societys most intractable public health problems.. ...
Causative Agent. Virus Infects Humans, Birds, Mosquitoes, Horses and Other Mammals. Transmission. Birds are the reservoir host Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on infected birds Mosquitoes can then transmit the virus to humans and other animals when they bite. Slideshow 6610122 by...
Read about mosquito borne illnesses and learn the health dangers mosquitos can bring. We help you prevent mosquitos from your residential or commercial space.
They will hide in trees and burrows. Some hide in basements and storm sewers. When there is no water around, mosquitoes can go into diapause, read more..
There are a number of different problems that mosquitoes can cause.What you need to have is best mosquito killers. Lets check our review for more details.
Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. ADW doesnt cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. ...
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
Scientists from the University of Pittsburgh Center for Vaccine Research have discovered how a mosquito-borne virus hijacks a cellular regulatory system,
About 400 people were reported to have the mosquito-borne virus up to last week; killing insects and removing standing water are keys to prevention, officials say
One man has died and at least six more are in a serious condition in WA hospitals as mosquito-borne viruses continue to spread across the state.
Engineered synthetic species-like barriers were recently described by Maselko et al (2017) in Nature Communications and the work has interesting implications for genetic control strategies and gene drive containment. There is an ever-increasing interest in manipulating natural populations using genetic […]. Read More ». ...
Define Chaoboridae: a family of gnats related to and often included as a subfamily of Culicidae but distinguished by the short mouth parts, nonbiting…
The New York State Department of Health informed Suffolk County health officials that two additional mosquito sample have tested positive for Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus, also referred to as EEE. The mosquito samples, of Culiseta melanura species, were collected in the Manorville area on October 1, 2019. No new mosquito samples have tested positive for West Nile virus. To date this season, Suffolk County has reported 77 mosquito samples that have tested...
Update: Investigation of Bioterrorism-Related Anthrax and Interim Guidelines for Exposure Management and Antimicrobial Therapy, October 2001 -- Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin or Soft Tissue Infections in a State Prison--Mississippi, 2000 -- Shigella sonnei Outbreak Among Men Who Have Sex with Men--San Francisco, California, 2000-2001 -- Weekly Update: West Nile Virus Activity--United States, October 17-23, 2001 -- Notice to Readers: National Lead Poisoning Prevention Week--October 21-27, 2001 -- Notice to Readers: Availability of Final Recommendations on Reducing the Risk for Transmission of Enteric Pathogens at Petting Zoos, Open Farms, Animal Exhibits, and Other Venues -- Notifiable Diseases/Deaths in Selected Cities Weekly Information ...
The mosquito sample was collected on July 19 in Bridgewater. There have been no human cases of reported West Nile virus infection or EEE so far this year in Massachusetts. Both diseases are carried by infected mosquitoes.
Using murine peritoneal macrophages and lymphocytes, and human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs), this study shows that saliva of the female Ar. subalbatus induces apoptosis via interaction with the Fas receptor within a few hours but without activating caspase-8. The process further activates downstream p38 MAPK signaling, a cascade that leads to the induction of apoptosis in capase-3 dependent manner. We further illustrate that Ar. subalbatus saliva suppresses proinflammatory cytokines without changing IL-10 levels, which might happen as a result of apoptosis ...
Suffolk County Health Services (SCDHS) Commissioner James L. Tomarken announced today that nineteen mosquito samples have tested positive for West Nile virus.
GLOBE Mosquito Larvae Protocol is a project for students, that may expand to adults and other volunteers, to learn how to identify mosquito larvae in their community or at a study site. Students will collect, sort, identify, and count the number of mosquito larvae they find in a sample of water. They can learn how to use a variety of sampling strategies depending on the types of mosquito larval habitats found in their particular study area. Through sampling, student volunteers can learn to identify mosquito larvae to either the genus or species level. By performing this kind of citizen science, young people can begin to understand the importance of representative sampling in scientific procedures, along with the relationship between species, climate, and mosquito-borne diseases. By collaborating with GLOBE through school, students can report their data online and share their observations and findings with real scientists ...
CRISPR gene drive has recently been proposed as a promising technology for population management, including in conservation genetics. The technique would consist in releasing genetically engineered individuals that are designed to rapidly propagate a desired mutation or transgene into wild populations. Potential applications in conservation biology include the control of invasive pest populations that threaten biodiversity (eradication and suppression drives), or the introduction of beneficial mutations in endangered populations (rescue drives). The propagation of a gene drive is affected by different factors that depend on the drive construct (e.g. its fitness effect and timing of expression) or on the target species (e.g. its mating system and population structure). We review potential applications of the different types of gene drives for conservation. We examine the challenges posed by the evolution of resistance to gene drives and review the various molecular and environmental risks associated with
Some diseases are transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. These disease often cycle back and forth from mosquito to human and back so that if an uninfected mosquito bites a human who is infected with one of these particular diseases, the mosquito can become infected themselves. After a certain period of time (e.g., a week), these […]
Support your local community mosquito control programs. Mosquito control activities are most often handled at the local level, such as through county or city government. The type of mosquito control methods used by a program depends on the time of year, the type of mosquitoes to be controlled and the habitat structure. Methods can include elimination of mosquito larval habitats, application of insecticides to kill mosquito larvae or spraying insecticides from trucks or aircraft to kill adult mosquitoes. Your local mosquito control program can provide information about the type of products being used in your area. Check with your local health department for more information ...
Missouri health officials have reported the states first case of a mosquito-borne virus that has been spreading to the U.S. from the Caribbean.
This book discusses in depth the transmission pathways, prevention methods, and the significance for public health of various mosquito-borne diseases. International specialists highlight well-known and neglected pathogens including Zika, dengue, and chikungunya viruses, filariasis, and malaria
Home » Wyeomyia (Nunezia) paucartamboensis, a new species of Sabethini (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Peruvian Andes with a diagnosis of the subgenus Nunezia ...
Two general strategies can be considered for introducing transgenic mosquitoes in the field: population replacement or a genetic drive mechanism. Population replacement, or inundatory release, requires a significant reduction of the resident mosquito population (for instance, with insecticides), followed by the release of large numbers of refractory mosquitoes to fill the vacated biological niche. This strategy is promising as a research tool and as a field test to assess the effectiveness of the transgenic mosquito approach for interrupting malaria transmission. However, this strategy cannot be considered for large-scale control purposes, because it is not possible to produce sufficient numbers of mosquitoes to achieve population replacement on a country- or continent-wide level.. An efficient genetic drive mechanism is helpful because a manageable number of genetically modified mosquitoes can replace the wild population, even if the effector gene(s) imposes some fitness cost. A crucial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of the expression pattern of Mysidium columbiae wingless provides evidence for conserved mesodermal and retinal patterning processes among insects and crustaceans. AU - Duman-Scheel, Molly. AU - Pirkl, Nicole. AU - Patel, Nipam H.. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - The Wnt family includes a number of genes, such as wingless (wg), which encode secreted glycoproteins that function in numerous developmental patterning processes. In order to gain a better understanding of crustacean pattern formation, a wg orthologue was cloned from the malacostracan crustacean Mysidium columbiae (mysid), and the expression pattern of this gene was compared with that of Drosophila wg. Although Drosophila wg is expressed in many developing tissues, such as the ventral neuroectoderm, M. columbiae wg (mcowg) expression is detected within only a subset of these tissues. mcowg is expressed in the dorsal part of each developing segment and within the developing eye, but not within the ventral ...
COLUMBIA, S.C. - In observance of National Mosquito Control Awareness Week, the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control is reminding South Carolinians how to reduce their risk from the serious diseases mosquitoes can carry.. The week of June 24 is an opportunity for us to share valuable information with the public about the significance of mosquitoes in their daily lives and the important service provided by mosquito control workers throughout our state, said Sue Ferguson, an environmental health manager with DHECs Bureau of Environmental Health. Everyone can take part in local mosquito prevention and control efforts by doing some basic cleaning activities around their home.. Removing items from your yard that collect water, cleaning roof gutters and filling in low-lying areas will help prevent mosquitoes from breeding and allow outdoor activities such as gardening, barbecues and outdoor sports to be safer and more enjoyable, she said.. According to Ferguson, mosquito ...
Spring is in full swing and that means the Fort Wayne-Allen County Department of Health has begun its annual mosquito control program. For humans and domestic animals, mosquitos are a nuisance as well as a serious health hazard. Mosquitoes are capable of transmitting various diseases, including We
From start to finish, theres no better pet store experience than when you stop into Bayou Mosquito Control in Rayville.Pick up some of their great feeding supplies, such as bowls and other feeders, to keep your pet well-fed and strong. Looking to give your pet an awesome new toy? Bayou Mosquito Control has you covered with pet apparel and pet toys. If you just added a new addition to your family, you can pick some basic pet supplies such as carriers here. Bayou Mosquito Control has everything you need to give your pet all the comforts and safety of a home. Check out their wide selection of pet apparel and pet toys. Think your pet needs a health check? There are plenty of medical services available, including healthcare.You can find parking easily in the surrounding area. There is truly no better place to bring your pet than Bayou Mosquito Control in Rayville. Stop by today and pick up some basic necessities.
101 - 1,000 = High, 1,001 - 10,000 = Very High, ,10,000 = Extreme.. 1/5/2002: Mosquito collections were low. 24/4/2002: Mosquito numbers have stayed up and were high (106), with 73 Aedes notoscriptus. 15/4/2002: Collections were up this week and medium (96) in number, dominated by 73 Aedes notoscriptus. 10/4/2002: Mosquito collections continue to be low. 3/4/2002: Mosquito collections were again low. 27/3/2002: Mosquito collections were low. 19/3/2002: Numbers were medium this week (98), with 74 Aedes notoscriptus. An extra trap set at Umina yielded a low collection. 12/3/2002: Mosquito numbers declined with a medium collection of 58 this week. Aedes notoscriptus (264) dominated the trap. An extra trap set at Umina yielded a low collection. 5/3/2002: Big numbers continue with another high collection of 272 mosquitoes which again is well above average. The collection was dominated by Aedes notoscriptus (191) 26/2/2002: One of the biggest collections ever from Gosford ...
Efforts underway to destroy potential mosquito breeding sites as the Cook Islands seeks to stay free of diseases such as dengue and zika
Mosquitoes can be carriers of pathogens dangerous to humans, pets, and wildlife. It may be against local regulations to cultivate mosquitoes, and please be responsible by draining any collection containers you will not be able to check regularly. To protect yourself against being bitten during collection wear clothing that covers as much bare skin as possible. Also note that mosquito pupae hatch into adult mosquitoes in about 2 days, it is therefore imperative that you make the collection of these a priority. Your fish will happily eat them ...
Because of the occurrence of mosquito-borne diseases and the widespread distribution of mosquitoes as pests to humans, professionals must know how to identify them. With its wealth of information, this book is the only one of its kind available for specialists working on mosquito-borne diseases and in mosquito control units, and for introductory and advanced students who study entomology.. ...
Parents, keep your kids safe from mosquito bites.. Thats always been the message in humid South Florida summers. But with a mosquito species prevalent in South Florida primarily responsible for the spread of the Zika virus, officials are emphasizing protection against insects more than ever.. "I think people need to be cautious because mosquitoes can transmit not only Zika but other viruses," said Dr. Lilian Abbo, chief of infection control and antimicrobial stewardship for Jackson Health System. "I think people should not be in panic, but in alert.". ...
While historical evidence clearly suggests that vector control can be highly effective against mosquito-borne diseases [30-32], actual implementation of the strategy has not been optimal. Since a few years ago, there have been calls to restore the role of vector control by considering local evidence on disease ecology but also by developing new effective tools [7, 33]; as existing methods may not be adequate to achieve relevant targets [9-11].. It has previously been suggested that synthetic odor cues that attract or repel mosquitoes could form the basis of new technologies for future control of mosquito-borne diseases [10, 34], since these cues mediate important human-vector interactions that are associated with disease transmission [35]. For a long time, no chemical lure was known that could match or exceed attractiveness of natural human hosts, but recent research has led to one that is more attractive at long range than individual humans [19]. In their publication, the authors suggested a ...
Infectious Diseases in Children | Brazilian officials estimate that there have been at least 1.5 million cases of Zika virus infection since the current outbreak began in May 2015, according to WHO.This dramatic increase in Brazil — and throughout the Americas — coupled with the now-confirmed association between the virus and microcephaly forced the CDC to issue a travel warning advising pregnant women to avoid travel
The disease causes severe flu-like symptoms including joint pain and typically incapacitates people for a week or sometimes months. Some sufferers report symptoms up to two years later, according to experts. The name comes from a Makonde word for "that which bends up," a description for people with arthritis.. ...
Pediatrician Jennifer Halverson will never forget her 36th birthday. The St. Paul native was volunteering at a maternity clinic in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.
The Zika virus is is now spreading explosively in the Americas, the head of the World Health Organization said Thursday, with another official estimating between 3 million and 4 million Zika infections in the region over a 12-month period.
Researchers Andrea Crisanti and Tony Nolan from the Imperial College London want to use the method to help control populations of mosquitos that spread dangerous diseases like malaria and dengue fever. In order to achieve this goal, they will need to successfully wipe out a population with a single gene, a method known as a crash drive.. The biologists are currently working on a gene crash drive that would destroy the X chromosome in mosquitos sperm cells, which would all but ensure than subsequent populations of mosquitos were nearly 100 percent male. This would result in the crash of an entire population within one generation, effectively eliminating mosquitos as vectors for disease.. Female mosquitos become infertile when a copy of the crash drive is inherited from both of its parents. The crash drives would be able to "suppress mosquito populations to levels that do not support malaria transmission," according to the study. ...
LIFE CYCLE Female mosquitoes lay eggs every 3rd day during their lifespan, usually in clumps of 100-300 eggs. The eggs are deposited in standing water. Mosquitoes can lay eggs in as little as I inch of water. When the eggs hatch the larvae emerge. It takes about a week for them to develop into…
Jurisdictional suggestions may perhaps consider the epidemiology of Zika virus transmission as well as other epidemiologic criteria (e.g., seasonality and mosquito surveillance and Manage things) in parts with chance for Zika virus transmission and, therefore, could possibly include things like a regimen advice to check asymptomatic Expecting Ladies possibly for medical care or as part of click here Zika virus an infection surveillance ...
dear William; i have worked with house screening since 2004 and we have tested what we call eve nets with curtians that are insecticide treated to not only prevent mosquito entrance but also kill those that try to enter. Tested in parallel with LLIN, the provided 75 % more control.. Before we tested this, we tested more solid screens without insecticiee. Our expeieince was that unless these covered every hole where a mosquito can enter, they did not prevent mosquitoes for entering.. My american collagues let people fill mud into every corrugated roof opening (about 50 per meter) around the house and it helped a few days till the mud fell out. When i replaced that with the insecticide treated net, we did not need to be so thorough, and it worked fine. We then ran a 2 years study of effect (published, Ojera Odhiambo as first author) that proved the superior effect and i returned 4 years after the start to the villages and found that 50 % of these even nets were still in place, the deltamethrin had ...
The authors demonstrate the feasibility of this system in yeast using actin as the target gene for over/mis-expression.. What is this synthetic incompatibility good for, potentially a number of things.. The synthetic incompatibility system behaves like an underdominance system and might be used to replace populations. Developing strong synthetic gene drive systems in the laboratory has led to some concerns about the effects of their unintentional release. Various forms of physical or environmental containment could go a long way to mitigating risks but where this is less feasible genetic incompatability could be an excellent additional measure.. A laboratory population with a synthetic incompatibility system would be a good host for an experimental gene drive system because if physical containment measures fail, the escaped insects would be unable to hybridize with wild-type insects. This would prevent the unwanted release of experimental gene drives prior to their planned release.. ...
LONDON (Reuters) - Rodents have joined mosquitoes in the cross-hairs of scientists working on a next-generation genetic technology known as "gene drive" to control pests.. Researchers in Scotland said on Tuesday they had developed two different ways to disrupt female fertility in rats and mice, building on a similar approach that has already been tested in the lab to eliminate malaria-carrying mosquitoes.. So-called gene drives push engineered genes through multiple generations by over-riding normal biological processes, so that all offspring carry two copies. Usually, animals would receive one copy of a gene from the mother and one from the father.. The technique is extremely powerful but also controversial, since such genetically engineered organisms could have an irreversible impact on the ecosystem.. Concerns about the proliferation of mutant species have led some to call for a gene drive ban, but Bruce Whitelaw of the University of Edinburghs Roslin Institute believes that would be short ...
A recent spate of unexpected mosquito-borne disease outbreaks - including the Zika virus - have highlighted the need to better understand the development and spread of little-known diseases and for new strategies to control them.
A new study found that the main chemical ingredient in the bug spray used to ward off Zika-carrying mosquitoes can have harmful side-effects for children.
Microbe-Lift® Biological Mosquito Control (16oz. - treats up to 10,000 gallons)Specially formulated for decorative water gardens, fountains, birdbath
We do landscape maint and some fert apps etc. to our weekly clients. Just bought a fogger and want to do mosquito control. Anyone care to share any...
At Naperville Mosquito Control, we build our business by word of mouth. When you are 100% satisfied with your experience with our company and share it with your family, friends and neighbors, we want to reward your loyalty. Call or email one of our customer referral forms, and if your referral signs up as a new customer for 4 or more treatments, you will receive $25 towards your next treatment. Sign up 20 friends for a Full Seasonal Protection Plan and your year will be FREE ...
Nowadays, mosquito-borne illnesses continue to emerge and take millions of lives across the globe. There are harmless mosquito species; however, most of the species feed on humans, pets and live stock and transmit life-threatening parasitic or viral diseases, […]. Read More ...
RedEaredSlider writes Millions of people in the tropics suffer from malaria, a mosquito-borne disease that has been difficult to treat and which costs many developing countries millions of dollars per year in lost productivity. Up to now, efforts at controlling it have focused on attacking the para...
A monthly pill appears to protect infants against malaria in regions where the mosquito-borne disease is transmitted year round, researchers reported.
Scientists say a mutant form of a deadly mosquito-borne virus that kills about half of the people it infects shows promise as a potential vaccine.
A new mosquito-borne virus is spreading across Brazil that is supposed to be the reason behind babies being born with brain abnormalities.
Weizmann. Alexander Mildner,. Alpari uk opções gularArticle PHAGOCYTES. Weizmann Forex Ltd, India., Mumbai A. Join LinkedIn today for free. Log-likelihood table of single. The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot,. Chromatin state dynamics during blood formation. A mosquito-borne virus that kills about half.]
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are granting a team of Florida researchers $10 million to research Zika and other mosquito-borne diseases.
The Zika virus is spreading rapidly in Latin America, and Asian governments have issued advisories in a bid to contain the mosquito-borne disease, which could be linked to birth defects and can cause temporary paralysis. Epidemiologist Jussi Sane at the National Institute for Health and Welfare says it was a minor infection and the man was well and had been allowed home soon after being treated by doctors in June 2015. (more...) ...
Articles and information on Pets from Pet Information Mosquitoes Are a Hazard to Your Pets Health Too plus articles and information on Pets
A mosquito-borne illness advisory has been issued to residents and visitors from the Florida Department of Health in Walton County.
Tidal prediction (tables and graphs) for Puraran Majestic, including sunrise and sunset times. Available for anytime past and present.
Central Garden & Pet and its professional products mosquito control group have purchased New York-based FourStar Microbial Products to complement its mosquito control business.
The immune system protects the body from illness and infection. When germs enter the body, the immune system attacks them to stop them causing a serious infection.. But very rarely something goes wrong with the immune system and it mistakenly attacks the brain, causing encephalitis.. This can be triggered by:. ...
Author Summary Wolbachia are symbiotic bacteria that are found in many insect species. Recent laboratory studies show that certain strains of Wolbachia can reduce the capacity of mosquito species to transmit diseases such as dengue fever and malaria, either by directly inhibiting the pathogen or by shortening lifespan. However, little is known about how easily these bacteria will spread in natural mosquito populations or the impact of deliberate Wolbachia introduction on disease transmission. We use a simple model of Wolbachia-mosquito interactions to explore the design of field releases of infected mosquitoes to initiate symbiont spread. A particular concern is how Wolbachia can be introduced while releasing only small numbers of female mosquitoes which may bite humans and transmit disease. The models include explicit mosquito population dynamics including seasonal fluctuations in population size and different forms of population regulation. We find that rapid Wolbachia establishment is possible by
The Owens Valley Mosquito Abatement Program (OVMAP) confirmed today that mosquito samples trapped last week again tested positive for West Nile virus (WNV). These samples were collected near Bishop, but in a different location than previous positive samples. Following swift and decisive action from OVMAP, mosquito populations in the area where positive samples were previously collected were too small to find the minimum sample size of 25 mosquitos required for testing.. New WNV positive samples being found in a different location from previous samples highlights the importance of protecting yourself from mosquito bites. With WNV positive mosquito samples being collected in 17 counties in California so far this year, totaling 230 WNV positive mosquito pool samples throughout California, no one should assume that mosquitos in their area are not carrying any disease just because testing has not discovered disease presence in your area. All residents should exercise caution when outdoors. Rob ...
The Bucks County West Nile Virus Prevention Program will conduct an ultra-low volume (ULV) mosquito control operation Thursday, August 18, 2016 in Bensalem Township to reduce high populations of mosquitoes capable of transmitting West Nile Virus.. The treatments will be administered via truck-mounted equipment, spraying mosquito habitats in residential and park locations. The equipment dispenses Duet Dual-Action Adulticide at a rate of 0.75 ounces per acre. The product is designed to provide quick, effective control of adult mosquito populations. The application material has a very low toxicity profile to mammals and will have negligible impact to non-target insects and the environment.. The areas to receive the treatment will be the Bensalem Municipal Building, including the amphitheater area and wood line, and the Bensalem Country Club.. Certain mosquito species carry the West Nile virus, which can cause humans to contract West Nile encephalitis, an infection that can result in an inflammation ...
During an investigation of arboviruses in China, a novel dsRNA virus was isolated from adult female Armigeres subalbatus. Full genome sequence analysis showed the virus to be related to members of the family Totiviridae, and was therefore named Armigeres subalbatus totivirus (AsTV). Transmission electron microscopy identified icosahedral, non-enveloped virus particles with a mean diameter of 40 nm. The AsTV genome is 7510 bp in length, with two ORFs. ORF1 (4443 nt) encodes the coat-protein and a dsRNA-binding domain (which may be involved in the evasion of gene silencing), while ORF2 (2286 nt) encodes the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The AsTV coat protein shows a higher level of amino acid identity with Drosophila totivirus (DTV, 52 %) than with infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV, 29 %). Similarly, the RdRp shows higher identity levels with DTV (51 %) than with IMNV (44 %). Identity levels to other members of the family Totiviridae, in either the coat protein or the RdRp, ranged from 6
SPRINGFIELD - The Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) has confirmed the first West Nile virus positive mosquito batches reported in southern Illinois for 2013. IDPH collected a positive mosquito sample on June 24, 2013 from Tamaroa in Perry County and the East Side Health District collected a positive mosquito sample on June 24, 2013 from East St. Louis in St. Clair County. "As temperatures rise we are starting to see West Nile virus in mosquitoes," said Illinois Department of Public Health Director Dr. LaMar Hasbrouck. "Remember to protect yourself by wearing insect repellent and getting rid of any standing water around your home." A mosquito sample collected in Cook County in May was the first West Nile virus positive result this year. Cook, DuPage, McHenry and now Perry and St. Clair counties are reporting West Nile virus positive mosquitoes so far this season. The first West Nile virus positive result in 2012 was a crow collected by the Chicago Department of Public Health on May 16, ...
Abstract. Entomologic investigations were conducted during an intense outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in Maricopa County, Arizona during July 31-August 9, 2010. The investigations compared the East Valley outbreak area, and a demographically similar control area in northwestern metropolitan Phoenix where no human cases were reported. Five mosquito species were identified in each area, and species composition was similar in both areas. Significantly more Culex quinquefasciatus females were collected by gravid traps at Outbreak sites (22.2 per trap night) than at control sites (8.9 per trap night), indicating higher Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance in the outbreak area. Twenty-eight WNV TaqMan reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-positive mosquito pools were identified, including 24 of Cx. quinquefasciatus, 3 of Psorophora columbiae, and 1 of Culex sp. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus WNV infection rates did not differ between outbreak and control sites. At outbreak sites, 30 of 39
For the first time since 1986, Saint Louis encephalitis virus has been found in adult mosquito samples in Orange County. The mosquito samples were collected in Garden Grove on August 9, 2016 and tested positive for St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLE) on August 17, 2016. SLE is a native arbovirus in the same virus family as West Nile virus (Flaviviridae). SLE is similar to West Nile virus in that both viruses require a bird reservoir to maintain the virus in nature. In 2016, SLE has been found in Los Angeles, Riverside, Kern, San Bernardino, and now Orange County.. The last recorded human infections of SLE in Orange County occurred in 1984. SLE was occasionally found in mosquitoes across the United States until the year 2000. Detections of SLE were reduced significantly after the introduction of West Nile virus around that time. SLE infection results in an immune response and antibody development in birds that is very similar to the immunity resulting from West Nile virus infection. This ...
This report summarizes West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance data reported to CDC through ArboNET as of 3 a.m. Mountain Daylight Time, October 18, 2005. Forty-two states have reported 2,316 cases of human WNV illness in 2005 (Figure and Table 1). By comparison, in 2004, a total of 2,151 WNV cases had been reported as of October 19, 2004 (Table 2). A total of 1,227 (57%) of the 2,163 cases for which such data were available in 2005 occurred in males; the median age of patients was 51 years (range: 3 months--98 years). Date of illness onset ranged from January 2 to October 11; a total of 66 cases were fatal. A total of 364 presumptive West Nile viremic blood donors (PVDs) have been reported to ArboNET during 2005. Of these, 85 were reported from California; 54 from Texas; 52 from Nebraska; 22 from Louisiana; 20 from Arizona; 19 from Kansas; 17 from Iowa; 16 from South Dakota; 11 from Oklahoma; 10 from Minnesota; nine from Illinois; five each from Michigan, New Mexico, and North Dakota; four each from ...
The West Nile virus belongs to a group of viruses known as flaviviruses, commonly found in Africa, West Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. Flaviviruses are spread by insects, most often mosquitoes. Other examples of flaviviruses include yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, dengue virus, and St. Louis encephalitis virus (West Nile virus is closely related to the St. Louis encephalitis virus).. The West Nile virus can infect humans, birds, mosquitoes, horses, and some other mammals. In 1999, the virus occurred in the Western hemisphere for the first time, with the first cases reported in New York City. Since then, West Nile virus is considered an emerging infectious disease in the U.S., as it has spread down the East Coast and to many Southern and Midwestern states.. West Nile virus occurs in late summer and early fall in temperate zones, but can occur year-round in southern climates. Usually, the West Nile virus causes mild, flu-like symptoms. However, the virus can cause life-threatening ...
Mosquito-borne diseases or mosquito-borne illnesses are diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites transmitted by mosquitoes. They can transmit disease without being affected themselves. Nearly 700 million people get a mosquito borne illness each year resulting in greater than one million deaths. Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes include: malaria, dengue, West Nile virus, chikungunya, yellow fever, filariasis, tularemia, dirofilariasis, Japanese encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ross River fever, Barmah Forest fever, La Crosse encephalitis, and Zika fever.[better source needed] The female mosquito of the genus Anopheles carries the malaria parasite (see Plasmodium). Worldwide, malaria is a leading cause of premature mortality, particularly in children under the age of five, with an estimated 207 million cases and more than half a million deaths in 2012, according to the World Malaria Report ...

Female of the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus biting on human skin and bloodfeeding to..., Stock Photo, Picture And...Female of the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus biting on human skin and bloodfeeding to..., Stock Photo, Picture And...

Download and buy this stock image: Female of the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus biting on human skin and bloodfeeding to... - L95-1631456 from age fotostocks photo library of over 50+ million high resolution stock photos, stock pictures, videos and stock vectors
more infohttps://www.agefotostock.com/age/en/Stock-Images/Rights-Managed/L95-1631456

Culicidae - Wikimedia CommonsCulicidae - Wikimedia Commons

Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Culicidae&oldid=145312683" ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Mosquito

Virus pathogens of Culicidae (‎mosquitos)‎.Virus pathogens of Culicidae (‎mosquitos)‎.

Federici, B. A. (‎1977)‎. Virus pathogens of Culicidae (‎mosquitos)‎.. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 55 (‎Suppl 1 ...
more infohttps://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/261183

Fossil Diptera Catalog - CulicidaeFossil Diptera Catalog - Culicidae

Culicidae as fossils are not common. Most listed in this catalog are known from compression fossils. However, there are a few ... Culicidae, or mosquitoes, are found worldwide. Adult females of most living forms are blood feeders and are infamous as vectors ... listed a fossil record of Culicidae from the Triassic; however, it is not known from which deposit the specimen referred to ...
more infohttp://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/fossilcat/fosscul.html

Mosquitoes (family culicidae) - videos, photos and facts | ArkiveMosquitoes (family culicidae) - videos, photos and facts | Arkive

... family culicidae). View videos and photos of 50 of the most popular mosquitoes (family culicidae) in nature. Learn more about ...
more infohttp://www.arkive.org/ft/mosquitoes

Studies on Anopheles (Kerteszia) homunculus Komp (Diptera: Culicidae)Studies on Anopheles (Kerteszia) homunculus Komp (Diptera: Culicidae)

... Dataset homepage. Citation. Wilkerson R C (2008). Studies ... Culicidae). Zootaxa 2299: 1-18, DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.191667 Taxonomic Coverages. Geographic Coverages. Bibliographic Citations. ... on Anopheles (Kerteszia) homunculus Komp (Diptera: Culicidae). Plazi.org taxonomic treatments database. Checklist Dataset https ...
more infohttps://www.gbif.org/dataset/e7c6d4bc-0d9b-4c18-a4c7-8eaf30e6c54e

Canary Database: Culicidae as Sentinel SpeciesCanary Database: Culicidae as Sentinel Species

Culicidae as Sentinel Species. This table summarizes studies curated in the Canary Database about the overall quality of ... published evidence supporting sentinels of human health hazards with respect to the species Culicidae. ...
more infohttp://canarydatabase.org/summary/species/26584

Estudo taxonômico sobre Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) strodei Root (Diptera: Culicidae):...Estudo taxonômico sobre Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) strodei Root (Diptera: Culicidae):...

Estudo taxonômico sobre Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) strodei Root (Diptera: Culicidae): uma abordagem morfológica e molecular ... Taxonomic studies on Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) strodei Root (Diptera: Culicidae): a morphological and molecular approach ...
more infohttp://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/livredocencia/6/tde-28032018-095803/pt-br.php

EENY134/IN291: Crabhole Mosquito, Deinocerites cancer Theobald (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae)EENY134/IN291: Crabhole Mosquito, Deinocerites cancer Theobald (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae)

Mosquito Studies (Diptera, Culicidae). XXIV. A revision of the crabhole mosquitoes of the genus Deinocerites. Contributions of ... Mating and pupal attendance in Deinocerites cancer and comparisons with Opifex fuscus (Diptera: Culicidae). Annals of the ... Topics: Coastal Wildlife , Florida Medical Entomology Lab - Vero Beach , Featured Creatures collection , Family: Culicidae ( ... Crabhole Mosquito, Deinocerites cancer Theobald (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae)1. George F. OMeara2 ...
more infohttp://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in291

The Culicidae (Diptera): a review of taxonomy, classification and phylogeny *The Culicidae (Diptera): a review of taxonomy, classification and phylogeny *

... Dataset homepage ... Harbach R E (2007). The Culicidae (Diptera): a review of taxonomy, classification and phylogeny *. Plazi.org taxonomic ... The Culicidae (Diptera): a review of taxonomy, classification and phylogeny *. Zootaxa 1668: 591-638, DOI: 10.5281/zenodo. ...
more infohttps://www.gbif.org/dataset/f29da217-a6c9-427e-a0de-4df214d2fc1c

Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in a tree hole in BrazilAedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in a tree hole in Brazil

Dear Editor,. Aedes aegypti aegypti, commonly abbreviated as Ae. aegypti, can be differentiated from Ae. aegypti formosus, a purely sylvatic species in sub-Saharan Africa, whose immature forms mostly inhabit holes in stones and trees, and have also been collected in bamboo traps1. Aedes aegypti eggs show good adaptation ability to other vessels and strong resistance to desiccation, which has facilitated its transportation to several regions worldwide by humans2. It invaded the American continent through trading and slaving ships, subsequently adapting to a large area and transmitting yellow fever virus in cities across the continent, ranging from Baltimore in the United States to Buenos Aires in Argentina3, and has since been incriminated in the transmission of several arboviruses4. It has also been reported to rarely invade sylvatic environments in Rio de Janeiro5, as well as in rock holes in Anguilla and in tree holes in New Orleans6, and was found in tree holes in the Caribbean among 12 types ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822016000300394&lng=en&nrm=iso

Cryptic species Anopheles daciae (Diptera: Culicidae) found in the Czech Republic and Slovakia | SpringerLinkCryptic species Anopheles daciae (Diptera: Culicidae) found in the Czech Republic and Slovakia | SpringerLink

Halgoš J, Benková I (2004) First record of Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera:Culicidae) from Slovakia. Biologia 59:68Google Scholar ... Kramář J (1958) Mosquitoes-Culicidae (in Czech). Fauna ČSR, vol 13. Nakladatelství ČSAV, Praha [in Czech]Google Scholar ... Orszagh I, Halgoš J, Jalili N, Labuda M (2001) Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of Slovakia II. Eur Mosq Bull 11:1-26Google ... Rettich F, Šebesta O, Imrichová K (2012) Long-term study of the mosquito fauna (Diptera, Culicidae) of the Czech lowlands and ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00436-017-5670-0

Folding cages for the transport of Culicidae and other diptera  / by G. FurtunescuFolding cages for the transport of Culicidae and other diptera / by G. Furtunescu

1958)‎. Folding cages for the transport of Culicidae and other diptera / by G. Furtunescu. Geneva : World Health Organization. ... Folding cages for the transport of Culicidae and other diptera / by G. Furtunescu. ... A new species of the Anopheles funestus complex (‎diptera : culicidae)‎ from Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania / by S. K. ... Etude comparative de différentes techniques de récolte de moustiques adultes (‎Diptera, Culicidae)‎ faite au Maroc, en zone ...
more infohttp://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/64587

EENY319/IN594: Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae)EENY319/IN594: Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae)

Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae)1. Leslie Rios and James E. Maruniak2 ...
more infohttp://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in594

Distribution and genetic structure of Aedes japonicus japonicus populations (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany | SpringerLinkDistribution and genetic structure of Aedes japonicus japonicus populations (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany | SpringerLink

Kampen H, Zielke D, Werner D (2012) A new focus of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera, Culicidae) distribution ... Schneider K (2011) Breeding of Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) 80 km north of its known range in southern ... Turell MJ, OGuinn ML, Dohm DJ, Jones JW (2001) Vector competence of North American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for West ... Werner D, Kampen H (2013) The further spread of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera, Culicidae) towards northern Germany. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00436-014-4000-z

Washington DC Arthropod Biodiversity Project Culicidae......Washington DC Arthropod Biodiversity Project Culicidae......

Scientific name: Arthropoda: Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae: Common Name: Information Sheet, West Nile Virus & Mosquitoes Country ...
more infohttp://biodiversity.georgetown.edu/searchfiles/infosearch.cfm?view=all&IDNumber=1409

WRBU: Culicidae Genera - ArmigeresWRBU: Culicidae Genera - Armigeres

The Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit , Museum Support Center, MRC-534 , Smithsonian Institution , 4210 Silver Hill Rd. , Suitland, MD 20746-2863 USA , Ph: 301-238-1077; FAX: 301-238- ...
more infohttp://wrbu.si.edu/mqID/mq_gnra/armigeres.htm

WRBU: Culicidae Genera - HodgesiaWRBU: Culicidae Genera - Hodgesia

Hodgesia, an Old World tropical genus, is comprised of four species found in Africa, two in the Oriental Region, three in the Australasian Region and two that are found in both the Oriental and Australasian Regions. ...
more infohttp://wrbu.si.edu/mqID/mq_gnra/hodgesia.htm

Molecules | Free Full-Text | Essential Oils of Satureja Species: Insecticidal Effect on Culex pipiens Larvae (Diptera:...Molecules | Free Full-Text | Essential Oils of Satureja Species: Insecticidal Effect on Culex pipiens Larvae (Diptera:...

Essential Oils of Satureja Species: Insecticidal Effect on Culex pipiens Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). Antonios Michaelakis 1, ... "Essential Oils of Satureja Species: Insecticidal Effect on Culex pipiens Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae)." Molecules 12, no. 12: ... Essential Oils of Satureja Species: Insecticidal Effect on Culex pipiens Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). Molecules. 2007; 12(12): ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/12/12/2567

The classification of genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae): a working hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships | Bulletin of...The classification of genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae): a working hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships | Bulletin of...

Culicidae): a working hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships - Volume 94 Issue 6 - R.E. Harbach ... Culicidae Fascicle 194. 259 pp. Bruxelles Desmet-Verteneuil.. Faran, M.E. (1980) Mosquito studies (Diptera, Culicidae) XXXIV. A ... Lee, D.J., Hicks, M.M., Griffiths, M., Debenham, M.L., Bryan, J.H., Russell, R.C., Geary, M. & Marks, E.N. (1987) The Culicidae ... V. Familie Culicidae (Stechmuecken). Palaeontographica (A) 95, 108-121.. Suguna, S.G., Rathinam, K.G., Rajavel, A.R. & Dhanda, ...
more infohttps://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/bulletin-of-entomological-research/article/classification-of-genus-anopheles-diptera-culicidae-a-working-hypothesis-of-phylogenetic-relationships/A32CD4DAA0FC7F6D1407F507F17BA883

Genetic Diversity and Population Genetics of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae: Culex spp.) from the Sonoran Desert of North...Genetic Diversity and Population Genetics of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae: Culex spp.) from the Sonoran Desert of North...

L. Kothera, M. S. Godsey Jr., M. S. Doyle, and H. M. Savage, "Characterization of Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae) ... W. K. Reisen, M. M. Milby, and R. P. Meyer, "Population dynamics of adult Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) along the Kern ... S. Huang, G. Molaei, and T. G. Andreadis, "Genetic insights into the population structure of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae ... R. E. Harbach, "The Culicidae (Diptera): a review of taxonomy, classification and phylogeny," Zootaxa, vol. 1668, pp. 591-638, ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2013/724609/

Adults, Larvae and Pupae of the British Mosquitoes (Culicidae) | NHBS Academic & Professional BooksAdults, Larvae and Pupae of the British Mosquitoes (Culicidae) | NHBS Academic & Professional Books

Culicidae) (9780900386466): A Key: NHBS - Peter S Cranston, CD Ramsdale, Katrin R Snow, GB White, Freshwater Biological ... Adults, Larvae and Pupae of the British Mosquitoes (Culicidae) A Key Identification Key ...
more infohttps://www.nhbs.com/adults-larvae-and-pupae-of-the-british-mosquitoes-culicidae-book

Nuevos registros de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) en la provincia de La Pampa, ArgentinaNuevos registros de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) en la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina

Keywords : Culicidae; Distribution; New records; La Pampa Province; Argentina. · abstract in Spanish · text in Spanish · ... DIEZ, Fernando; BRESER, Víctor J.; QUIRAN, Estela M. and ROSSI, Gustavo C.. New records of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0373-56802011000200018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Entomopathogenic fungi and their potential for the management of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in the AmericasEntomopathogenic fungi and their potential for the management of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Americas

2001). Nevertheless, species of Entomophthora were also found to be common on adults of Culicidae in the tropical high forest ... 2016). The principal vector of all these exotic viruses in the Americas is Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): often called the ... Wide spread cross resistance to pyrethroids in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Veracruz state, Mexico. J Econ Entomol. ... mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Zika virus. BMC Infect Dis. 2015; 15: 492. [ Links ] ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02762018000300206&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=en
  • Culicidae as fossils are not common. (bishopmuseum.org)
  • A list of the most common phytotelmata and their Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae inhabitants from Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, Argentina, is presented, and biological and behavioral observations are also included. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Andrea Drago , Simone Martini , Christian Vettorato , Marco Pombi , and Moreno Dutto "The Presence of White Eggs in the Monitoring of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) by Ovitraps," Journal of Vector Ecology 38(2), 326-329, (1 December 2013). (bioone.org)
  • The Nelson L. Cerqueira Mosquito Collection (Diptera, Culicidae) in the Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, Brazil. (inpa.gov.br)
  • Due to the high species diversity of Culicidae in Golestan Province, further studies are of essence to investigate the ecology of medically important species such as Culex pipiens , Culex tritaeniorhynchus, and Anopheles superpicts, which are the vectors of many diseases in Golestan province. (ac.ir)