A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
Brazil is a country in South America known for its high rates of infectious diseases such as dengue fever, Zika virus, and chikungunya, as well as its successful vaccination programs.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
Colombia is a country in South America known for its rich biodiversity and is home to a variety of medicinal plants and herbs with potential therapeutic properties.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
A plant species of the genus GYMNEMA that contains gymnemic acid (triterpene SAPONINS) which affects blood sugar level, and gurmarin protein. The common name of Gurmar should not be confused with Guar (CYAMOPSIS).
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Activities associated with the disposition of the dead. It excludes cultural practices such as funeral rites.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
Argentina is a country in South America known for its high rates of infectious diseases such as Chagas disease and typhoid fever.
Traumatic or experimentally induced separation of the head from the body in an animal or human.
A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain karatasin and balansain (ENDOPEPTIDASES) and BROMELAINS.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain wedelolactone.
A plant genus of the family ACANTHACEAE. Members contain andrographolide and other DITERPENES and androechin, a CHALCONE.
An organothiophosphate insecticide.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common name of marigold is also used for CALENDULA.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
A plant genus of the family PIPERACEAE that includes species used for spicy and stimulating qualities.
Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
The inhabitants of peripheral or adjacent areas of a city or town.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.
A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
Peru is a country in South America known for its rich cultural heritage, diverse geography, and the presence of the Andes mountain range, which affects the health of its population.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
India is a country with a diverse population and a significant burden of various diseases, including infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, and mental health issues.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
California is a state in the United States known for its warm climate, diverse population, and leading role in the development of medical technology and research.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.

The role of gene splicing, gene amplification and regulation in mosquito insecticide resistance. (1/1529)

The primary routes of insecticide resistance in all insects are alterations in the insecticide target sites or changes in the rate at which the insecticide is detoxified. Three enzyme systems, glutathione S-transferases, esterases and monooxygenases, are involved in the detoxification of the four major insecticide classes. These enzymes act by rapidly metabolizing the insecticide to non-toxic products, or by rapidly binding and very slowly turning over the insecticide (sequestration). In Culex mosquitoes, the most common organophosphate insecticide resistance mechanism is caused by co-amplification of two esterases. The amplified esterases are differentially regulated, with three times more Est beta 2(1) being produced than Est alpha 2(1). Cis-acting regulatory sequences associated with these esterases are under investigation. All the amplified esterases in different Culex species act through sequestration. The rates at which they bind with insecticides are more rapid than those for their non-amplified counterparts in the insecticide-susceptible insects. In contrast, esterase-based organophosphate resistance in Anopheles is invariably based on changes in substrate specificities and increased turnover rates of a small subset of insecticides. The up-regulation of both glutathione S-transferases and monooxygenases in resistant mosquitoes is due to the effects of a single major gene in each case. The products of these major genes up-regulate a broad range of enzymes. The diversity of glutathione S-transferases produced by Anopheles mosquitoes is increased by the splicing of different 5' ends of genes, with a single 3' end, within one class of this enzyme family. The trans-acting regulatory factors responsible for the up-regulation of both the monooxygenase and glutathione S-transferases still need to be identified, but the recent development of molecular tools for positional cloning in Anopheles gambiae now makes this possible.  (+info)

Mayaro virus disease: an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis in tropical South America. (2/1529)

This report describes the clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological findings on 27 cases of Mayaro virus (MV) disease, an emerging mosquito-borne viral illness that is endemic in rural areas of tropical South America. MV disease is a nonfatal, dengue-like illness characterized by fever, chills, headache, eye pain, generalized myalgia, arthralgia, diarrhea, vomiting, and rash of 3-5 days' duration. Severe joint pain is a prominent feature of this illness; the arthralgia sometimes persists for months and can be quite incapacitating. Cases of two visitors from the United States, who developed MV disease during visits to eastern Peru, are reported. MV disease and dengue are difficult to differentiate clinically.  (+info)

Geographic distribution and evolution of Sindbis virus in Australia. (3/1529)

The molecular epidemiology and evolution of Sindbis (SIN) virus in Australia was examined. Several SIN virus strains isolated from other countries were also included in the analysis. Two regions of the virus genome were sequenced including a 418 bp region of the E2 gene and a 484 bp region containing part of the junction region and the 5' end of the C gene. Analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence data from 40 SIN virus isolates clearly separated the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian genetic types of SIN virus. Examination of the Australian strains showed a temporal rather than geographic relationship. This is consistent with the virus having migratory birds as the major vertebrate host, as it allows for movement of virus over vast areas of the continent over a relatively short period of time. The results suggest that the virus is being periodically redistributed over the continent from an enzootic focus of evolving SIN virus. However, SIN virus strains isolated from mosquitoes collected in the south-west of Australia appear to represent a new SIN virus lineage, which is distinct from the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages. Given the widespread geographic dispersal of the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages, it is surprising that the South-west genetic type is so restricted in its area of circulation. Nucleotide sequence data from the C gene of the prototype strain of the alphavirus Whataroa were also determined. This virus was found to be genetically distinct from the SIN virus isolates included in the present study; however, it is clearly SIN-like and appears to have evolved from a SIN-like ancestral virus.  (+info)

Evaluating the community education programme of an insecticide-treated bed net trial on the Kenyan coast. (4/1529)

Increased interest in the potential contribution of insecticide-impregnated bed nets (ITBN) to malaria control has led to research efforts to determine the impact and sustainability of ITBN programmes in differing environments. There is a need to develop effective, feasible educational strategies that will both inform and motivate community members, and thus maximize the correct usage of ITBN. This is especially true in communities where indigenous usage of bed nets is low. This paper describes the educational component of a randomized controlled community intervention trial of ITBN, with childhood malaria morbidity as an outcome. The educational approach and messages for the ITBN trial were developed from anthropological survey data collected 4 years before the trial, and from community surveys conducted by project researchers. Low levels of understanding amongst mothers of the aetiological link between mosquitos and malaria led to the exclusion of the term 'malaria' from the initial educational messages promoting the use of ITBN. Appropriate individuals within the existing district health care structure were trained as community educators in the project. These educators conducted intensive teaching in the community through public meetings and group teaching in the first 6 months of the trial. The impact of these initial activities was assessed through interviews with a random sample of 100 mothers and 50 household heads. This allowed the identification of messages which had not been well understood and further educational methods were chosen to address the areas pinpointed. The community assessment also demonstrated that, in 1994, over 90% of mothers understood a protective role for bed nets against malaria and the ITBN education messages were changed to take account of this. The school programme was evaluated through determining outreach (the number of households accessed), changes in participant children's knowledge, post-teaching assessment of mothers' knowledge and discussions with parent-teacher associations. It was shown that 40% of intervention homes with children in the target group were accessed, participant children learned the educational messages well (scores increased from a pre-teaching mean of 59% to a post-teaching mean of 92%) and a high level of awareness of the ITBN trial was achieved in these homes (75%). However, specific messages of the education programmed were not well transferred to the home (30%). The discussion emphasises the need for allocation of adequate resources for education in programmes dependent on achieving a change in community practices. We also describe the value of ongoing communication between programme planners and a target population in maximizing the effectiveness of messages and methods used.  (+info)

Implementing a nationwide insecticide-impregnated bednet programme in The Gambia. (5/1529)

Earlier studies in The Gambia suggested that the use of impregnated bednets might prove to be a useful malaria control strategy. Based on the results of these studies, in 1992 the Government of The Gambia was encouraged to initiate a National Impregnated Bednet Programme (NIBP) as part of the National Malaria Control Programme Strategy. This paper describes the implementation process/procedure of the NIBP. Evaluation results showed that, overall, 83% of the bednets surveyed has been impregnated, and 77% of children under the age of five years and 78% of women of childbearing age were reported to be sleeping under impregnated bednets.  (+info)

Characterization of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected natural killer (NK) cell proliferation in patients with severe mosquito allergy; establishment of an IL-2-dependent NK-like cell line. (6/1529)

The clinical evidence of a relationship between severe hypersensitivity to mosquito bite (HMB) and clonal expansion of EBV-infected NK cells has been accumulated. In order to clarify the mechanism of EBV-induced NK cell proliferation and its relationship with high incidence of leukaemias or lymphomas in HMB patients, we studied clonally expanded NK cells from three HMB patients and succeeded in establishing an EBV-infected NK-like cell line designated KAI3. Immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that KAI3 cells as well as infected NK cells exhibited an EBV latent infection type II, where EBV gene expression was limited to EBNA 1 and LMP1. As KAI3 was established by culture with IL-2, IL-2 responsiveness of peripheral blood NK cells from patients was examined. The results represented markedly augmented IL-2-induced IL-2R alpha expression in NK cells. This characteristic property may contribute to the persistent expansion of infected NK cells. However, KAI3 cells as well as the NK cells from patients were not protected from apoptosis induced by either an anti-Fas antibody or NK-sensitive K562 cells. Preserved sensitivity to apoptosis might explain the relatively regulated NK cell numbers in the peripheral blood of the patients. To our knowledge, KAI3 is the first reported NK-like cell line established from patients of severe chronic active EBV infection (SCAEBV) before the onset of leukaemias or lymphomas. KAI3 cells will contribute to the study of EBV persistency in the NK cell environment and its relationship with high incidence of leukaemias or lymphomas in HMB patients.  (+info)

Mosquito cathepsin B-like protease involved in embryonic degradation of vitellin is produced as a latent extraovarian precursor. (7/1529)

Here we report identification of a novel member of the thiol protease superfamily in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. It is synthesized and secreted as a latent proenzyme in a sex-, stage-, and tissue-specific manner by the fat body, an insect metabolic tissue, of female mosquitoes during vitellogenesis in response to blood feeding. The secreted, hemolymph form of the enzyme is a large molecule, likely a hexamer, consisting of 44-kDa subunits. The deduced amino acid sequence of this 44-kDa precursor shares high similarity with cathepsin B but not with other mammalian cathepsins. We have named this mosquito enzyme vitellogenic cathepsin B (VCB). VCB decreases to 42 kDa after internalization by oocytes. In mature yolk bodies, VCB is located in the matrix surrounding the crystalline yolk protein, vitellin. At the onset of embryogenesis, VCB is further processed to 33 kDa. The embryo extract containing the 33-kDa VCB is active toward benzoyloxycarbonyl-Arg-Arg-para-nitroanilide, a cathepsin B-specific substrate, and degrades vitellogenin, the vitellin precursor. Both of these enzymatic activities are prevented by trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane (E-64), a thiol protease inhibitor. Furthermore, addition of the anti-VCB antibody to the embryonic extract prevented cleavage of vitellogenin, strongly indicating that the activated VCB is involved in embryonic degradation of vitellin.  (+info)

Phagocytosis does not play a major role in naturally acquired transmission-blocking immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. (8/1529)

Phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum sexual stages in vitro and within the mosquito midgut was assayed in order to assess its role in transmission-blocking immunity to malaria. Both monocytes/macrophages (MM) and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) phagocytosed malarial gametes in vitro, but levels of phagocytosis were low. Intraerythrocytic gametocytes were not susceptible to phagocytosis. In vitro phagocytosis was positively correlated with levels of antibodies against the gamete surface proteins Pfs230 and Pfs48/45. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass analysis revealed that phagocytosis was correlated with levels of antigamete IgG1. In vivo membrane-feeding experiments were performed in the presence of both pooled and individual malaria immune sera. The phagocytic process proceeded less efficiently in vivo than in vitro, which may be related to the lower ambient temperature (26 degrees C, compared with 37 degrees C). Finally, although we found a correlation between the ability of a serum to promote phagocytosis in vitro and the presence of antibodies against transmission-blocking target antigens, we were unable to demonstrate a role for MM- or PMN-mediated phagocytosis in reduction of infectivity of the malarial parasite to mosquitoes.  (+info)

Culicidae is a family of insects that includes mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are known for their ability to transmit various diseases to humans and animals, including malaria, dengue fever, Zika virus, and West Nile virus. In the medical field, understanding the biology and behavior of mosquitoes is important for developing strategies to control their populations and prevent the spread of diseases they transmit.

In the medical field, "Aedes" refers to a genus of mosquitoes that are known to transmit several important human diseases, including dengue fever, Zika virus, and chikungunya. These mosquitoes are found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, and are often found near standing water, such as in containers or in areas with poor drainage. The female Aedes mosquito requires a blood meal to lay her eggs, and she is attracted to humans and other animals for this purpose. The bites of Aedes mosquitoes can be painful and itchy, but the real danger comes from the diseases they can transmit.

In the medical field, "Culex" refers to a genus of mosquitoes that are known to transmit various diseases to humans and animals. The most common species of Culex mosquitoes that transmit diseases are Culex pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus. These mosquitoes are found worldwide and are known to transmit diseases such as West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis, and Rift Valley fever. The bite of a Culex mosquito can cause an itchy red bump on the skin, but the real danger comes from the diseases that they can transmit. Therefore, it is important to take precautions to avoid being bitten by Culex mosquitoes, such as wearing protective clothing and using insect repellent.

Anopheles is a genus of mosquitoes that are known to transmit the Plasmodium parasite, which causes malaria. The female Anopheles mosquito bites humans and other animals to obtain blood for egg production. When the mosquito bites an infected person, it ingests Plasmodium parasites that are present in the blood. The parasites then multiply in the mosquito's gut and are transmitted to the next person or animal when the mosquito bites again. Anopheles mosquitoes are found in many parts of the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. There are over 400 species of Anopheles mosquitoes, and some species are more efficient at transmitting Plasmodium parasites than others. Malaria is a major public health problem in many parts of the world, and controlling the Anopheles mosquito population is a key strategy for preventing the spread of the disease.

In the medical field, "Brazil" typically refers to the country located in South America. Brazil is the largest country in both South America and Latin America, and it is known for its diverse population, rich culture, and natural resources. In terms of healthcare, Brazil has a publicly funded healthcare system called the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde, or SUS). The SUS provides free or low-cost healthcare services to all Brazilian citizens and residents, including primary care, hospitalization, and specialized medical care. Brazil has also made significant strides in public health, particularly in the areas of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and dengue fever. The country has implemented widespread vaccination programs and has made efforts to improve access to healthcare services in underserved areas. However, Brazil still faces significant challenges in the healthcare sector, including a shortage of healthcare professionals, inadequate infrastructure, and disparities in access to healthcare services between different regions and socioeconomic groups.

In the medical field, "Colombia" typically refers to the country located in South America. Colombia is known for its rich biodiversity and has a high prevalence of certain diseases, such as malaria, dengue fever, and leishmaniasis. The country also has a significant burden of non-communicable diseases, including diabetes, hypertension, and cancer. Medical professionals working in Colombia may need to be knowledgeable about these and other health issues affecting the population. Additionally, Colombia has a growing pharmaceutical industry and is a major producer of medical devices and equipment.

Anopheles gambiae is a species of mosquito that is known to be a major vector of the Plasmodium parasite, which causes malaria. In the medical field, Anopheles gambiae is studied and monitored closely because of its role in transmitting the disease to humans. Researchers and public health officials work to understand the biology and behavior of this mosquito in order to develop strategies for controlling its populations and reducing the spread of malaria. This can include the use of insecticides, the elimination of breeding sites, and the development of vaccines and other preventative measures.

DNA, ribosomal spacer refers to a region of non-coding DNA that is located between the 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA genes in the bacterial genome. This region is also known as the intergenic spacer (IGS) region. The length and sequence of the ribosomal spacer can vary among different bacterial species and strains, and it has been used as a molecular marker for bacterial identification and classification. In addition, the ribosomal spacer region can also contain genes that are involved in bacterial metabolism and pathogenesis.

I'm sorry, but I'm not aware of any specific medical term or concept related to "Argentina." Argentina is a country located in South America, and it is known for its diverse geography, culture, and history. In the medical field, Argentina has a well-developed healthcare system, with a mix of public and private hospitals and clinics. The country has a relatively low infant mortality rate and a high life expectancy, but it also faces challenges related to access to healthcare and health disparities. If you have a specific medical question related to Argentina, I would be happy to try to help you.

In the medical field, decapitation refers to the complete separation of the head from the body. This can occur as a result of trauma, such as a car accident or a fall from a great height, or it can be intentionally inflicted as a form of punishment or execution. Decapitation can result in immediate death due to the loss of blood flow to the brain and the vital organs. It can also cause severe trauma to the surrounding tissues and organs, leading to secondary injuries and complications. In medical settings, decapitation is typically associated with forensic pathology and is studied in the context of death investigations. Medical professionals who work with decapitated bodies are trained to carefully document the injuries and the cause of death, as well as to preserve any evidence that may be relevant to the investigation.

Bromelia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bromeliaceae, which includes around 350 species. In the medical field, Bromelia is known for its potential medicinal properties and is used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions. Some species of Bromelia are used to make tea, which is believed to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and diuretic properties. The leaves and stems of certain Bromelia species are also used to make poultices, which are applied to the skin to treat wounds, burns, and other skin conditions. In addition to its medicinal uses, Bromelia is also used in the production of ornamental plants and as a source of fiber for making textiles. It is important to note that while Bromelia has been used in traditional medicine for centuries, there is limited scientific evidence to support its effectiveness for treating specific medical conditions. As with any natural remedy, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using Bromelia or any other herbal remedy.

Pyrethrins are a group of natural insecticides derived from the flowers of the Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium plant. They are commonly used in household and agricultural insecticides due to their effectiveness against a wide range of insects, including mosquitoes, flies, ants, and spiders. Pyrethrins work by disrupting the nervous system of insects, causing paralysis and death. They are non-toxic to humans and most mammals, but can be harmful to fish and other aquatic organisms if they enter waterways. Pyrethrins are often combined with other chemicals, such as piperonyl butoxide, to increase their effectiveness and prolong their duration of action. However, prolonged exposure to pyrethrins can cause skin irritation and respiratory problems in some individuals.

Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal plant that has been used in traditional medicine for centuries. It is commonly known as "king of bitters" or "Indian bitters" and is native to India and Southeast Asia. In the medical field, Andrographis is used to treat a variety of conditions, including respiratory infections, fever, sore throat, and upper respiratory tract infections. It is also used as an anti-inflammatory and to boost the immune system. Andrographis extract is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and teas. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using Andrographis in the medical field.

Temefos is an organophosphate insecticide that is commonly used in agriculture to control a wide range of pests, including mosquitoes, flies, and cockroaches. It works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system in insects. This leads to overstimulation of the nervous system and ultimately death. In the medical field, temefos is not typically used as a treatment for humans. However, it has been used in some cases as a pesticide to control insect vectors of diseases such as dengue fever and malaria. It is also used in veterinary medicine to control internal and external parasites in livestock and pets. It is important to note that temefos is a highly toxic chemical and can be harmful to humans if ingested or inhaled in large quantities. Proper safety precautions and handling procedures should be followed when using temefos or any other pesticide.

Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. It is characterized by fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, it can lead to anemia, respiratory distress, organ failure, and death. Malaria is primarily found in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. There are four main species of Plasmodium that can cause malaria in humans: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae. Malaria is preventable and treatable, but,。

Dengue is a viral infection caused by the dengue virus, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. It is a common disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and is estimated to affect between 300 million and 500 million people each year. Dengue fever is the most common form of the disease, and is characterized by fever, headache, joint and muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, and a rash. In some cases, the disease can progress to more severe forms, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, which can be life-threatening. There is no specific treatment for dengue fever, but supportive care such as hydration and pain management can help alleviate symptoms. Prevention measures include eliminating mosquito breeding sites, using insect repellent, and wearing protective clothing. Vaccines are currently being developed for dengue fever, but are not yet widely available.

Ecdysteroids are a class of hormones that are produced by insects and some other arthropods. They play a role in regulating growth, molting, and reproduction in these organisms. In the medical field, ecdysteroids have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications, particularly in the treatment of certain types of cancer. Some ecdysteroids have been shown to have anti-tumor properties and may be useful in combination with other cancer treatments. They have also been studied for their potential use in treating other conditions, such as inflammation and autoimmune diseases.

Arboviruses are a group of viruses that are transmitted to humans and animals by arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas. These viruses can cause a wide range of diseases, including mild fevers, encephalitis, meningitis, and hemorrhagic fever. Arboviruses are classified into several different families, including Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, and Reoviridae. Some well-known examples of arboviruses include West Nile virus, dengue virus, Zika virus, chikungunya virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. In the medical field, arboviruses are a significant public health concern, as they can cause widespread outbreaks and epidemics, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Diagnosis and treatment of arboviral infections often involve supportive care, such as hydration and pain management, as well as antiviral medications in some cases. Prevention measures include avoiding exposure to arthropod vectors through the use of insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating breeding sites for mosquitoes and ticks.

Insect bites and stings refer to the injuries caused by the bites or stings of insects, such as mosquitoes, bees, wasps, ants, ticks, and fleas. These bites and stings can cause a range of symptoms, from mild itching and redness to severe allergic reactions that can be life-threatening. Insect bites and stings can be painful and uncomfortable, and may lead to skin infections if left untreated. Some insects, such as mosquitoes and ticks, can transmit diseases to humans, such as malaria, dengue fever, and Lyme disease. In the medical field, the treatment of insect bites and stings typically involves cleaning the affected area with soap and water, applying ice or a cold compress to reduce swelling and pain, and taking over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen. In some cases, antihistamines may be prescribed to reduce itching and swelling. For severe allergic reactions, such as anaphylaxis, emergency medical treatment is necessary, including the administration of epinephrine and other medications to counteract the symptoms of the allergic reaction.

Yellow Fever is a viral disease caused by the yellow fever virus (YFV) and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. The disease is characterized by fever, chills, headache, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In severe cases, yellow fever can lead to hemorrhage, shock, and multi-organ failure, with a high mortality rate. Yellow fever is primarily found in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America, but it can also occur in travelers who visit these areas. The disease is preventable through vaccination, and early diagnosis and treatment can significantly reduce the risk of complications and death.

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium that is commonly used in the medical field as a biological control agent against various insect pests. The bacterium produces a protein called delta-endotoxin, which is toxic to certain insects but harmless to humans and other animals. In the medical field, Bt is used to develop insecticidal biopesticides that are applied to crops to control insect pests such as caterpillars, beetles, and flies. These biopesticides are considered to be safer and more environmentally friendly than chemical insecticides, as they target specific pests and do not harm non-target organisms. Bt has also been used in medical research to study the mechanisms of insecticide resistance and to develop new insecticides. Additionally, Bt has been genetically modified to produce therapeutic proteins for medical use, such as vaccines and cancer treatments.

West Nile fever is a viral infection caused by the West Nile virus (WNV). It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. The virus can also be transmitted through blood transfusions, organ transplants, and from mother to fetus during pregnancy. Symptoms of West Nile fever can range from mild to severe and may include fever, headache, body aches, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue. In more severe cases, the virus can cause encephalitis, which is inflammation of the brain, or meningitis, which is inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. These severe cases can be life-threatening and may result in long-term neurological problems. West Nile fever is most common in warmer months, particularly in areas where mosquitoes are prevalent. The risk of infection is highest for people who spend a lot of time outdoors, especially during dawn and dusk when mosquitoes are most active. Treatment for West Nile fever typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. There is no specific antiviral medication available to treat the virus.

Permethrin is an insecticide that is commonly used in the medical field to treat and prevent insect bites and skin infections caused by parasites such as lice, scabies, and ticks. It is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide that works by disrupting the nervous system of insects, causing paralysis and death. Permethrin is available in various forms, including lotions, creams, sprays, and shampoos. It is typically applied to the skin or clothing, and the amount and frequency of application depend on the specific condition being treated and the age and weight of the patient. Permethrin is generally considered safe for use in humans, but it can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people. It is also toxic to fish and other aquatic life, so it should not be used near water sources.

Plant extracts refer to the active compounds or bioactive molecules that are extracted from plants and used in the medical field for various therapeutic purposes. These extracts are obtained through various extraction methods, such as solvent extraction, steam distillation, and cold pressing, and can be used in the form of powders, liquids, or capsules. Plant extracts have been used for centuries in traditional medicine and are now widely used in modern medicine as well. They are used to treat a wide range of conditions, including inflammation, pain, anxiety, depression, and cancer. Some examples of plant extracts used in medicine include aspirin (extracted from willow bark), quinine (extracted from cinchona bark), and morphine (extracted from opium poppy). Plant extracts are also used in the development of new drugs and therapies. Researchers extract compounds from plants and test them for their potential therapeutic effects. If a compound shows promise, it can be further developed into a drug that can be used to treat a specific condition. It is important to note that while plant extracts can be effective in treating certain conditions, they can also have side effects and may interact with other medications. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using plant extracts as a form of treatment.

In the medical field, the term "cities" typically refers to urban areas or densely populated regions that have a high concentration of people, buildings, and infrastructure. These areas can be characterized by a variety of factors, including high levels of pollution, traffic congestion, and social and economic inequality. In the context of public health, cities are often studied as they can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of their residents. For example, researchers may investigate the relationship between urbanization and the incidence of certain diseases, such as heart disease or respiratory illness, or they may study the impact of urban planning and design on physical activity levels and access to healthy food options. Overall, the term "cities" in the medical field is used to describe the complex and dynamic environments in which many people live and work, and to highlight the importance of considering the social, economic, and environmental factors that can influence health outcomes in urban areas.

In the medical field, competitive behavior refers to the actions or behaviors that healthcare providers engage in to attract and retain patients, gain market share, and increase revenue. This can include offering discounts or promotions, advertising services or specialties, or competing on the basis of price or quality. Competitive behavior can also refer to the actions or behaviors that healthcare providers engage in to compete with other healthcare providers for resources, such as funding, equipment, or personnel. This can include lobbying for government funding or advocating for policies that benefit their organization. While competitive behavior can be beneficial in promoting innovation and improving the quality of care, it can also lead to negative consequences, such as over-treatment, medical errors, and a focus on profit over patient well-being. As such, healthcare providers must balance the need to compete with the ethical and moral obligations to provide high-quality, patient-centered care.

In the medical field, the term "birds" typically refers to a class of warm-blooded vertebrates characterized by feathers, wings, and beaks. There are over 10,000 species of birds, and they can be found in a wide range of habitats, from forests and grasslands to deserts and oceans. In medicine, birds are sometimes studied as models for human diseases, particularly those related to infectious diseases. For example, some bird species, such as chickens and ducks, can carry and transmit viruses that are similar to those that affect humans, such as avian influenza. Birds are also used in medical research to study the effects of environmental pollutants on wildlife. For example, studies have shown that exposure to certain chemicals, such as pesticides and heavy metals, can have negative effects on bird populations. In addition, birds are sometimes used in medical treatments, such as in the field of avian therapy. Avian therapy involves the use of trained birds, such as parrots, to provide emotional support and companionship to people with a variety of conditions, including depression, anxiety, and dementia.

Insect proteins refer to the proteins obtained from insects that have potential medical applications. These proteins can be used as a source of nutrition, as a therapeutic agent, or as a component in medical devices. Insects are a rich source of proteins, and some species are being explored as a potential alternative to traditional animal protein sources. Insect proteins have been shown to have a number of potential health benefits, including improved immune function, reduced inflammation, and improved gut health. They are also being studied for their potential use in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. In addition, insect proteins are being investigated as a potential source of biodegradable materials for use in medical devices.

DNA, Mitochondrial refers to the genetic material found within the mitochondria, which are small organelles found in the cells of most eukaryotic organisms. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a small circular molecule that is separate from the nuclear DNA found in the cell nucleus. Mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited, meaning that a person inherits their mtDNA from their mother. Unlike nuclear DNA, which is diploid (contains two copies of each gene), mtDNA is haploid (contains only one copy of each gene). Mutations in mitochondrial DNA can lead to a variety of inherited disorders, including mitochondrial disorders, which are a group of conditions that affect the mitochondria and can cause a range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, fatigue, and neurological problems.

Dengue virus is a mosquito-borne virus that belongs to the Flavivirus genus. It is one of the most common viral infections in the world, with an estimated 390 million infections occurring annually, primarily in tropical and subtropical regions. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected female Aedes mosquito, which feeds on the blood of humans and other animals. There are four different serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4), and each serotype can cause dengue fever, a viral illness characterized by fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, nausea, vomiting, and a rash. In some cases, dengue fever can progress to more severe forms of the disease, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, which can be life-threatening. Dengue virus is a significant public health concern, as it can cause significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in children and pregnant women. There is currently no vaccine available for dengue virus, and treatment is primarily supportive, focusing on managing symptoms and preventing complications. Prevention efforts include vector control measures to reduce mosquito populations and public education campaigns to promote personal protection measures, such as the use of insect repellent and bed nets.

Electron Transport Complex IV, also known as cytochrome c oxidase, is a protein complex located in the inner mitochondrial membrane that plays a crucial role in cellular respiration. It is the final enzyme in the electron transport chain, which is responsible for generating ATP, the energy currency of the cell. During cellular respiration, electrons are passed through a series of protein complexes in the electron transport chain, releasing energy that is used to pump protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This creates a proton gradient that is used to drive the synthesis of ATP by ATP synthase. Electron Transport Complex IV is unique among the other electron transport chain complexes in that it not only pumps protons but also accepts electrons from cytochrome c and transfers them to molecular oxygen, which is reduced to water. This process is the final step in the electron transport chain and is essential for the production of ATP. Disruptions in the function of Electron Transport Complex IV can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including mitochondrial disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and certain types of cancer.

A biological assay is a laboratory technique used to measure the biological activity of a substance, such as a drug or a protein. It involves exposing a biological system, such as cells or tissues, to the substance and measuring the resulting response. The response can be anything from a change in cell growth or survival to a change in gene expression or protein activity. Biological assays are used in a variety of fields, including pharmacology, toxicology, and biotechnology, to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of drugs, to study the function of genes and proteins, and to develop new therapeutic agents.

In the medical field, blood refers to the liquid component of the circulatory system that carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body. It is composed of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma. Red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. White blood cells, also known as leukocytes, are part of the immune system and help protect the body against infections and diseases. Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are involved in blood clotting and help prevent excessive bleeding. Plasma is the liquid portion of blood that contains water, proteins, electrolytes, and other substances. Blood is collected through a process called phlebotomy, which involves drawing blood from a vein using a needle. Blood can be used for a variety of medical tests and procedures, including blood typing, blood transfusions, and the diagnosis of various medical conditions.

Demography is the study of human populations, including their size, growth, structure, distribution, and changes over time. In the medical field, demography is used to understand the health and healthcare needs of different populations, including age, gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Demographic data can be used to identify trends and patterns in health outcomes, such as disease incidence and mortality rates, and to inform public health policies and interventions. For example, demographers may analyze data on the aging population to identify the healthcare needs of older adults, or they may study the distribution of certain diseases in different racial and ethnic groups to inform targeted prevention and treatment efforts.

In the medical field, biodiversity refers to the variety of living organisms, including microorganisms, plants, and animals, that exist in a particular ecosystem or region. This diversity of life is important for maintaining the health and resilience of ecosystems, as different species play different roles in maintaining ecological balance and providing resources for human use. Biodiversity is also important in the development of new medicines and medical treatments. Many drugs are derived from natural sources, such as plants and animals, and the loss of biodiversity can reduce the availability of these resources. Additionally, biodiversity can help to protect against the spread of infectious diseases, as diverse ecosystems tend to be more resilient to disease outbreaks. Overall, biodiversity is a critical component of the health and well-being of both human and natural systems, and efforts to conserve and protect biodiversity are essential for maintaining the health of our planet.

Bacillus is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that are commonly found in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals. Some species of Bacillus are pathogenic and can cause infections in humans and other animals, while others are used as probiotics or in the production of various industrial products. In the medical field, Bacillus species are often studied for their potential as therapeutic agents. For example, some species of Bacillus produce antibiotics that can be used to treat bacterial infections. Bacillus subtilis, a common soil bacterium, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, and is being investigated as a potential treatment for various diseases, including cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Bacillus also plays a role in the development of vaccines. The Bacillus anthracis bacterium, which causes anthrax, has been used as a model organism for studying the immune response to bacterial infections. Vaccines against anthrax have been developed using live attenuated strains of B. anthracis, as well as subunit vaccines that contain purified antigens from the bacterium. Overall, Bacillus is an important genus of bacteria that has both beneficial and pathogenic properties, and is the subject of ongoing research in the medical field.

In the medical field, "California" typically refers to the state of California in the United States, which is known for its diverse population, large number of healthcare facilities, and cutting-edge medical research and technology. California is home to some of the top medical schools and research institutions in the country, and is a major center for medical innovation and development. Medical professionals and researchers in California are often at the forefront of new medical discoveries and treatments, and the state is known for its high standards of medical care and attention to patient needs.

In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.

DNA, ribosomal, refers to the specific type of DNA found within ribosomes, which are the cellular structures responsible for protein synthesis. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is transcribed into ribosomal RNA (rRNA), which then forms the core of the ribosome. The rRNA molecules are essential for the assembly and function of the ribosome, and the rDNA sequences that code for these molecules are highly conserved across different species. Mutations in rDNA can lead to defects in ribosome function and can be associated with various medical conditions, including some forms of cancer and inherited disorders.

In the medical field, a base sequence refers to the specific order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism. The base sequence determines the genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule and ultimately determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. The base sequence can be analyzed using various techniques, such as DNA sequencing, to identify genetic variations or mutations that may be associated with certain diseases or conditions.

In the medical field, "Behavior, Animal" refers to the study of the actions, responses, and interactions of animals, including humans, with their environment. This field encompasses a wide range of topics, including animal behavior in the wild, animal behavior in captivity, animal behavior in domestic settings, and animal behavior in laboratory settings. Animal behaviorists study a variety of behaviors, including social behavior, mating behavior, feeding behavior, communication behavior, and aggression. They use a variety of research methods, including observational studies, experiments, and surveys, to understand the underlying mechanisms that drive animal behavior. Animal behavior research has important applications in fields such as conservation biology, animal welfare, and veterinary medicine. For example, understanding animal behavior can help conservationists develop effective strategies for protecting endangered species, and it can help veterinarians develop more effective treatments for behavioral disorders in animals.

Singer, S. (‎1977)‎. Bacterial pathogens of Culicidae (‎mosquitos)‎.. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 55 (‎Suppl 1 ...
Family Culicidae - Mosquitoes. Classification · Other Common Names · Pronunciation · Synonyms and other taxonomic changes · ... The Culicidae (Diptera): a review of taxonomy, classification and phylogeny. R.E. Harbach. 2007. Zootaxa 1668: 591-638.. ... "Nematocera" (Non-Brachycera) » Mosquitoes and Midges (Culicomorpha) » Mosquitoes (Culicidae). ...
Usutu Virus Sequences in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):861-863. doi: ... Usutu Virus Sequences in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Spain On This Page ... Usutu Virus Sequences in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Spain. Volume 14, Number 5-May 2008 ... Usutu Virus Sequences in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Spain. ...
Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central ... Invasion biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) Michael G Kaufman et al. Annu Rev Entomol. 2014. ... Invasion biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) Michael G Kaufman 1 , Dina M Fonseca ... Out of the bush: the Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera, Culicidae) becomes invasive. ...
2009)‎. A novel method of controlling a dengue mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti (‎Diptera: Culicidae)‎ using an aquatic mosquito ... A novel method of controlling a dengue mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti (‎Diptera: Culicidae)‎ using an aquatic mosquito predator ...
Wing venation of Culicidae. Terminology based on McAlpine Manual of Nearctic Diptera,. , Ottawa, (1981). [2]. The image was ... 5) Culicidae,. Manual of Nearctic Diptera. , Ottawa, p.341-350, (1981). [1]. ...
Culicidae Press Imprints. Culicidae Architectural Press. Hog Press. Zanzara Press. Musca Press. Privacy Policy. Site Terms ... Culicidae Press, LLC USA , Earth , The Universe +1 (515) 462-0278 +1 (352) 388-3848 To send us a message, go to our Contact ...
Schelble, Stephanie Sue, "Effects of Water Parameters on Container Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition and Performance" ( ... Effects of Water Parameters on Container Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition and Performance ...
Mosquito is a vector of different diseases like Malaria, Filariasis and Dengue fever. It has been increasing development of resistance to synthetic chemicals, so plant extracts may be the alternate source of mosquito control agent.
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Culicidae ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Culicidae Publication Year 1600 to 1699 ✖Remove ...
... Agbanrin R, Padonou ... A comparative study of the Culicidae biodiversity was carried out on the island of Manoka and Youpwe mainland area, in the ... Comparative study of Culicidae biodiversity of Manoka island and Youpwe mainland area, Littoral, Cameroon. ... Abundance and diversity of culicidae fauna at Cotonou in southern Benin. International Journal of Current Research 7, 14085- ...
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Usutu Virus Sequences in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):861-863. doi: ... Usutu Virus Sequences in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Spain On This Page ... Usutu Virus Sequences in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Spain. Volume 14, Number 5-May 2008 ... Usutu Virus Sequences in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Spain. ...
Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera Culicidae) is the main transmitter of pathogens that cause human diseases, including dengue, ... Native fungi from Amazon with potential for control of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae). ...
Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) longevity and differential emergence of dengue fever in two cities in Sonora, Mexico. J Med ... Mosquitoes (Culicidae). In: Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Mullen GR, Durden LA, eds. 3rd ed. Cham, Switzerland: Elsevier ... albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): results of a systematic review and pooled survival analysis. Parasit Vectors 11(1):267, PMID: ... Flushing effect of rain on container-inhabiting mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol ...
Diptera: Culicidae) in western Kenya in preparation for malaria vaccine trials. J Med Entomol 27. :. 570. -577.. ), false ... Survivorship and distribution of immature Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Banambani Village, Mali. J Med Entomol ... Diptera: Culicidae) in western Kenya in preparation for malaria vaccine trials. J Med Entomol 27. :. 570. -577.. ), false ... Survivorship and distribution of immature Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Banambani Village, Mali. J Med Entomol ...
Family: Culicidae. None. Agonoscelis puberula. African Cluster Bug. Class: Insecta Order: Hemiptera Family: Pentatomidae Thyme ...
Culicidae. Host-Parasite Interactions. Host-Seeking Behavior. Insect Bites and Stings Publication Types: Lecture. Webcast ...
Culicidae: will return all the mosquitoes in the database. *Mammalia Aves: will return all the mammals and birds in the ...
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) In: The Encyclopedia of Medical and Veterinary Entomology CABI, Oxfordshire, UK, pp. 243-282. ... Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) In: The Encyclopedia of Medical and Veterinary Entomology CABI, Oxfordshire, UK, pp. 243-282. ... Mosquitoes are arthropods of the class Insecta, order Diptera and family Culicidae. They are a large and diverse group of ... Mosquitoes are arthropods of the class Insecta, order Diptera and family Culicidae. They are a large and diverse group of ...
Barnard, D. R. Repellency of essential oils to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 1999;36:625-629. View abstract. ...
Diptera: Culicidae).. Pavela R; Vrchotová N; Tříska J. Exp Parasitol; 2016 Jun; 165():51-7. PubMed ID: 26995534. [TBL] ...
Howard, J.J., White, D.J., & Muller, S.L. (1989). Mark-recapture studies on the Culiseta (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of ... Culicidae) associated with a constructed wetland in southern California. Journal of Medical Entomology, 36(1), 30-40. ...
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Categories: Culicidae Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 695 ...
MeSH Terms: Animals; Biota; COVID-19*; Culicidae*; Humans; Larva; Pandemics; Peptides; SARS-CoV-2; Spike Glycoprotein, ...
  • Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. (nih.gov)
  • Schelble, Stephanie Sue, "Effects of Water Parameters on Container Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition and Performance" (2014). (usm.edu)
  • Native fungi from Amazon with potential for control of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae). (bvsalud.org)
  • Aedes aegypti L. ( Diptera Culicidae ) is the main transmitter of pathogens that cause human diseases , including dengue , chikungunya, zika and yellow fever . (bvsalud.org)
  • Characterization of malaria transmission by Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in western Kenya in preparation for malaria vaccine trials. (ajtmh.org)
  • Diptera: Culicidae) in Banambani Village, Mali. (ajtmh.org)
  • Mosquitoes are arthropods of the class Insecta, order Diptera and family Culicidae. (capcvet.org)
  • Shedding light on toxicity of SARS-CoV-2 peptides in aquatic biota: A study involving neotropical mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). (nih.gov)
  • Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are the most important group of blood-sucking insects that are vectors of human diseases. (cabdirect.org)
  • Podría interferir con el control del azúcar en sangre o causar sangrado durante o después de la cirugía. (medlineplus.gov)