Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Chemosterilants: Compounds that cause reproductive sterility in organisms. They are sometimes used to control pest populations by sterilizing males within the population.Flavivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Filariasis: Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Wuchereria: A genus of filarial nematodes.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Oviparity: The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.PortugalHybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Libraries, NursingAtlantic Islands: Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.Oceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Namibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.Yellow Fever: An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nails, Ingrown: Excessive lateral nail growth into the nail fold. Because the lateral margin of the nail acts as a foreign body, inflammation and granulation may result. It is caused by improperly fitting shoes and by improper trimming of the nail.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.FloridaEncephalitis, St. Louis: A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)Ochlerotatus: A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.New JerseyMicronesia: The collective name for islands of the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, including the Mariana, PALAU, Caroline, Marshall, and Kiribati Islands. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p761 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p350)Flavivirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.Encephalitis Virus, Japanese: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.Encephalitis, Japanese: A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)Encephalitis Viruses, Japanese: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.Italy

An overview of the evolution of overproduced esterases in the mosquito Culex pipiens. (1/958)

Insecticide resistance genes have developed in a wide variety of insects in response to heavy chemical application. Few of these examples of adaptation in response to rapid environmental change have been studied both at the population level and at the gene level. One of these is the evolution of the overproduced esterases that are involved in resistance to organophosphate insecticides in the mosquito Culex pipiens. At the gene level, two genetic mechanisms are involved in esterase overproduction, namely gene amplification and gene regulation. At the population level, the co-occurrence of the same amplified allele in distinct geographic areas is best explained by the importance of passive transportation at the worldwide scale. The long-term monitoring of a population of mosquitoes in southern France has enabled a detailed study to be made of the evolution of resistance genes on a local scale, and has shown that a resistance gene with a lower cost has replaced a former resistance allele with a higher cost.  (+info)

Replication of dengue type 2 virus in Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). (2/958)

We were able to infect Culex quinquefasciatus by the parenteral route with dengue virus type 2. The percentage of mosquitoes infected was dose dependent and we obtained a rate of 45.6% infected Cx. quinquefasciatus when a 10(5.9) MID50 (mosquito infectious dose for 50% of the individuals as measured in Aedes aegypti) of dengue virus type 2 per mosquito was used. Infection was detected by an immunofluorescent assay performed on mosquito head squashes 14 days after infection. The replication of dengue virus in Cx. quinquefasciatus was either at a very low level of magnitude or generated a large number of noninfectious particles since the triturated bodies of infected Cx. quinquefasciatus did not infect Ae. aegypti mosquitoes when inoculated parenterally. We were unable to infect Cx. quinquefasciatus females orally with an artificial meal that infected 100% of Ae. aegypti females. These findings lead us to agree with the consensus that Cx. quinquefasciatus should not be considered a biological vector of dengue viruses.  (+info)

Can vector control play a useful supplementary role against bancroftian filariasis? (3/958)

A single campaign of mass treatment for bancroftian filariasis with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in Makunduchi, a town in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania, combined with elimination of mosquito breeding in pit latrines with polystyrene beads was followed by a progressive decline over a 5-year period in the microfilarial rate from 49% to 3%. Evidence that vector control had contributed to this long-term decline was obtained by comparison with another town, Moga, where a DEC campaign was used without vector control and where resurgence of microfilariae could be observed 3-6 years after the campaign. In Zanzibar town, treatment of 3844 wet pit latrines and cesspits with polystyrene beads reduced the adult mosquito population in houses by about 65%. Supplementary treatment of open drains and marshes with Bacillus sphaericus produced little or no additional reduction compared to a sector of the town where only pit treatment with polystyrene was carried out. The cost and effort of achieving the 65% reduction in mosquito population could hardly be justified for its impact on filariasis alone, but its noticeable impact on biting nuisance might help to gain community support for an integrated programme.  (+info)

Bancroftian filariasis on Pemba Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania: an update on the status in urban and semi-urban communities. (4/958)

Cross-sectional clinical, parasitological and entomological surveys for bancroftian filariasis were conducted in Konde, Chake Chake and Kengeja, three urban and semiurban communities on Pemba Island, and the results were compared with similar surveys done 15 years earlier. The overall prevalences of clinical manifestations among males aged 15 years or more (n = 614) was remarkably similar to those recorded 15 years earlier: elephantiasis 1.4% in 1975 and 1.1% in 1990; hydrocele, 22.4% and 21.8%, respectively. However, when the communities were compared individually, there was a reduction in the hydrocele prevalence in Konde from 22.4% to 11.5% and an increase in Kengeja from 27.0% to 35.5%. The overall microfilarial prevalence found during night blood surveys of all individuals aged 1 year or more (n = 2687) was 9.7%, compared to 14.2% recorded in 1975. The reduction was most pronounced in Konde. Of 1052 female mosquitoes caught with CDC light traps, 95% were Culex quinquefasciatus and 5% Anopheles gambiae s.l. Infective larvae of Wuchereria bancrofti were found only in the former. The filariasis situation in urban and semiurban communities on Pemba Island appears not to have changed considerably over the last 15 years.  (+info)

Use of base excision sequence scanning for detection of genetic variations in St. Louis encephalitis virus isolates. (5/958)

Twenty-two isolates of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus of various geographical origins (Brazil, Argentina, Panama, Texas, Missouri, Maryland, California, and Florida) were examined for genetic variation by the base excision sequence scanning (BESS T-scan) method. A fragment was amplified in the envelope gene with the forward primer labeled in the PCR. The BESS T-scan method determined different clusters according to the profiles generated for the isolates and successfully grouped the isolates according to their geographical origins. Two major clusters, the North American cluster (cluster A) and the South and Central American cluster (cluster B), were defined. Two subgroups, the Texas-California subgroup (subgroup A1) and the Missouri-Maryland-Florida subgroup (subgroup A2), were distinguished within group A. Similarly, group B strains were subclustered to a South American subgroup (subgroup B1) and a Central American subgroup (subgroup B2). These results were consistent with those obtained by DNA sequencing analysis. The ability of the BESS T-scan method to discriminate between strains that present with high degrees of nucleotide sequence similarity indicated that this method provides reliable results and multiple applications for other virus families. The method has proven to be suitable for phylogenetic comparison and molecular epidemiology studies and may be an alternative to DNA sequencing.  (+info)

Study on the transmission threshold value of bancroftian filariasis. (6/958)

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the transmission dynamic and epidemic trend of bancroftian filariasis occurred under the condition with no control measure taken 5 years after elimination of filariasis. METHODS: A 10-year longitudinal observation (from 1984 to 1994) was made in Huayuan Village in Shengli Township of Tancheng County, which used to be a high bancroftian filariasis-endemic area in southern part of Shandong Province. RESULTS: The microfilarial rate decreased from 0.56% before the study to 0.12% after the study and 8 out of the 9 previous microfilaria-positive cases became negative gradually. During the study period, 6 new microfilaremia cases were detected, 5 of which became negative naturally within 3 to 4 years. Eighty-eight point eight nine per cent of the detected patients with microfilaremia converted into IgG4-negative after 10 years. The natural infective rate of vectors decreased year by year and became zero by the tenth year of the study, the annual transmission potency decreased also from 3.47 to zero by the tenth year. CONCLUSIONS: It showed that under the local natural environment the biting rate representing the vector density which was obtained by capture method was from 24.1 to 52.5 person/night among the residents who did not use mosquito nets, and 13.5 to 21 person/night among the residents who used mosquito nets. The microfilarial rate of 0.56% in population with the average microfilarial density of 6.6 to 20.7 capita/60 microliters ear blood of residual microfilaria-positive patients might be considered as the terminal threshold of transmission.  (+info)

Model ecosystem evaluation of the environmental impacts of the veterinary drugs phenothiazine, sulfamethazine, clopidol, and diethylstilbestrol. (7/958)

Four veterinary drugs of dissimilar chemical structures were evaluated for environmental stability and penchant for bioaccumulation. The techniques used were (1) a model aquatic ecosystem (3 days) and (2) a model feedlot ecosystem (33 days) in which the drugs were introduced via the excreta of chicks or mice. The model feedlot ecosystem was supported by metabolism cage studies to determine the amount and the form of the drug excreted by the chicks or mice. Considerable quantities of all the drugs were excreted intact or as environmentally short-lived conjugates. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Clopidol were the most persistent molecules, but only DES bioaccumulated to any appreciable degree. Phenothiazine was very biodegradable; sulfamethazine was relatively biodegradable and only accumulated in the organisms to very low levels. Data from the aquatic model ecosystem demonstrated a good correlation between the partition coefficients of the drugs and their accumulation in the fish.  (+info)

Production of Cry11A and Cry11Ba toxins in Bacillus sphaericus confers toxicity towards Aedes aegypti and resistant Culex populations. (8/958)

Cry11A from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Cry11Ba from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan were introduced, separately and in combination, into the chromosome of Bacillus sphaericus 2297 by in vivo recombination. Two loci on the B. sphaericus chromosome were chosen as target sites for recombination: the binary toxin locus and the gene encoding the 36-kDa protease that may be responsible for the cleavage of the Mtx protein. Disruption of the protease gene did not increase the larvicidal activity of the recombinant strain against Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens. Synthesis of the Cry11A and Cry11Ba toxins made the recombinant strains toxic to A. aegypti larvae to which the parental strain was not toxic. The strain containing Cry11Ba was more toxic than strains containing the added Cry11A or both Cry11A and Cry11Ba. The production of the two toxins together with the binary toxin did not significantly increase the toxicity of the recombinant strain to susceptible C. pipiens larvae. However, the production of Cry11A and/or Cry11Ba partially overcame the resistance of C. pipiens SPHAE and Culex quinquefasciatus GeoR to B. sphaericus strain 2297.  (+info)

  • And with this vector having totally different habits from Aedes aegypti, we will have to create new strategies to combat Culex as well," said Constancia Ayres, a researcher from the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, a leading government-led research institute in Recife, who led the study. (
  • Se efectuaron investigaciones experimentales para determinarel potencial de Culex quinquefasciatus Say como vector del virus Oropouche (ORO). (
  • Population ecology of Culex tarsalis Coquillett was studied at Hart Park, Kern County, Calif., during the winters of 1982-83 and 1983-84. (
  • Virus establishment and amplification in this region was likely facilitated by above average nightly temperatures and a rapid accumulation of degree-days in late summer.Estimated exposure dates for humans and initial detection of WNV-positive mosquitoes occurred concurrently with a late summer increase in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes (which spread western equine encephalitis) in the southern Okanagan Valley.The conditions present during this range expansion suggest that temperature and Cx. (
  • Estimated exposure dates for humans and initial detection of WNV-positive mosquitoes occurred concurrently with a late summer increase in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes (which spread western equine encephalitis) in the southern Okanagan Valley. (
  • Predicting weekly variation of Culex tarsalis in the Canadian Prairies [J Med Entomol. (
  • This article, by Chen et al describes statistical models constructed to predict West-Nile virus infection rates in female Culex Tarsalis Coquillett mosquitoes in the Canadian Prairies. (
  • The genus Culex contains 768 described species, many of which (198) are grouped in the subgenus Culex , and important gaps still exist in our knowledge of their taxonomy and relationships [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • 2017. (
  • Gravid Culex nigripalpus females take flight during evening crepuscular periods and search throughout the night for oviposition sites. (
  • Determination of optimum concentration of bacterial culture filtrates for oviposition attractancy test - Three-day-old Culex quinquefasciatus females, obtained from a colony maintained at VCRC, were fed on fowl blood and maintained for two days on raisins at 28 ± 2 o C and 70-80% RH. (
  • The Culex pipiens complex consists of several species, subspecies, forms, races, physiological variants, or biotypes according to different authors and includes the 2 holarctic variants Cx. (
  • Se permitio que mosquitos de una colonia de laboratorio y otros nacidos de los huevos de hembras capturadas en su medio natural se alimentaran con la sangre de hamsters con viremia. (
  • El indice minimo de infeccion en los mosquitos Cx. (
  • In naming this genus, Carl Linnaeus appropriated the non-specific Latin term for a midge or gnat: culex. (