Cucumovirus: A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Arachis hypogaea: A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Plant Viral Movement Proteins: Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Tumor-Inducing Plasmids: Plasmids coding for proteins which induce PLANT TUMORS. The most notable example of a plant tumor inducing plasmid is the Ti plasmid found associated with AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS.Geminiviridae: A family of plant viruses where the VIRION possesses an unusual morphology consisting of a pair of isometric particles. Transmission occurs via leafhoppers or whitefly. Some viruses cause economically important diseases in cultivated plants. There are four genera: Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus, and BEGOMOVIRUS.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.BooksClassification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Red Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.Vanilla: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).Paeonia: A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.Terphenyl Compounds: Compounds consisting of benzene rings linked to each other in either ortho, meta or para positions. Permitted are any substitutions, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.Tombusvirus: A genus of plant viruses that infects ANGIOSPERMS. Transmission occurs mechanically and through soil, with one species transmitted via a fungal vector. The type species is Tomato bushy stunt virus.Bardet-Biedl Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; POLYDACTYLY; OBESITY; MENTAL RETARDATION; hypogenitalism; renal dysplasia; and short stature. This syndrome has been distinguished as a separate entity from LAURENCE-MOON SYNDROME. (From J Med Genet 1997 Feb;34(2):92-8)Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Vanadium: A metallic element with the atomic symbol V, atomic number 23, and atomic weight 50.94. It is used in the manufacture of vanadium steel. Prolonged exposure can lead to chronic intoxication caused by absorption usually via the lungs.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.K562 Cells: An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.Rhizoctonia: A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.Reduviidae: A family of winged insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, called assassin bugs, because most prey on other insects. However one subfamily, TRIATOMINAE, attacks humans and other vertebrates and transmits Chagas disease.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.National Human Genome Research Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports research into the mapping of the human genome and other organism genomes. The National Center for Human Genome Research was established in 1989 and re-named the National Human Genome Research Institute in 1997.Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Martial Arts: Activities in which participants learn self-defense mainly through the use of hand-to-hand combat. Judo involves throwing an opponent to the ground while karate (which includes kung fu and tae kwon do) involves kicking and punching an opponent.Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.

Design of highly specific cytotoxins by using trans-splicing ribozymes. (1/288)

We have designed ribozymes based on a self-splicing group I intron that can trans-splice exon sequences into a chosen RNA target to create a functional chimeric mRNA and provide a highly specific trigger for gene expression. We have targeted ribozymes against the coat protein mRNA of a widespread plant pathogen, cucumber mosaic virus. The ribozymes were designed to trans-splice the coding sequence of the diphtheria toxin A chain in frame with the viral initiation codon of the target sequence. Diphtheria toxin A chain catalyzes the ADP ribosylation of elongation factor 2 and can cause the cessation of protein translation. In a Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system, ribozyme expression was shown to specifically inhibit the growth of cells expressing the virus mRNA. A point mutation at the target splice site alleviated this ribozyme-mediated toxicity. Increasing the extent of base pairing between the ribozyme and target dramatically increased specific expression of the cytotoxin and reduced illegitimate toxicity in vivo. Trans-splicing ribozymes may provide a new class of agents for engineering virus resistance and therapeutic cytotoxins.  (+info)

Strong host resistance targeted against a viral suppressor of the plant gene silencing defence mechanism. (2/288)

The 2b protein encoded by cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (Cmv2b) acts as an important virulence determinant by suppressing post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a natural plant defence mechanism against viruses. We report here that the tomato aspermy cucumovirus 2b protein (Tav2b), when expressed from the unrelated tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) RNA genome, activates strong host resistance responses to TMV in tobacco which are typical of the gene-for-gene disease resistance mechanism. Domain swapping between Cmv2b, which does not elicit these responses, and Tav2b, revealed functional domains in Tav2b critical for triggering virus resistance and hypersensitive cell death. Furthermore, substitution of two amino acids from Tav2b by those found at the same positions in Cmv2b, Lys21-->Val and Arg28-->Ser, abolished the ability to induce hypersensitive cell death and virus resistance. However, in Nicotiana benthamiana, a species related to tobacco, Tav2b functions as a virulence determinant and suppresses PTGS. Thus, a viral suppressor of the host gene silencing defence mechanism is the target of another independent host resistance mechanism. Our results provide new insights into the complex molecular strategies employed by viruses and their hosts for defence, counter-defence and counter counter-defence.  (+info)

Rearrangements in the 5' nontranslated region and phylogenetic analyses of cucumber mosaic virus RNA 3 indicate radial evolution of three subgroups. (3/288)

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been divided into two subgroups based on serological data, peptide mapping of the coat protein, nucleic acid hybridization, and nucleotide sequence similarity. Analyses of a number of recently isolated strains suggest a further division of the subgroup I strains. Alignment of the 5' nontranslated regions of RNA 3 for 26 strains of CMV suggests the division of CMV into subgroups IA, IB, and II and suggests that rearrangements, deletions, and insertions in this region may have been the precursors of the subsequent radiation of each subgroup. Phylogeny analyses of CMV using the coat protein open reading frame of 53 strains strongly support the further division of subgroup I into IA and IB. In addition, strains within each subgroup radiate from a single point of origin, indicating that they have evolved from a single common ancestor for each subgroup.  (+info)

Host-specific cell-to-cell and long-distance movements of cucumber mosaic virus are facilitated by the movement protein of groundnut rosette virus. (4/288)

The cucumovirus, cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), requires both the 3a movement protein (MP) and the capsid protein (CP) for cell-to-cell movement. Replacement of the MP of CMV with the MP of the umbravirus, groundnut rosette virus (GRV), which does not encode a CP, resulted in a hybrid virus, CMV(ORF4), which could move cell to cell in Nicotiana tabacum and long distance in N. benthamiana. After replacement of the CMV CP in CMV(ORF4) with the gene encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP), the hybrid virus, CMV(ORF4.GFP), expressing both the GRV MP and the GFP, could move cell to cell but not systemically in either Nicotiana species. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis of cells infected by the hybrid viruses showed different cellular barriers in the vasculature preventing long-distance movement of CMV(ORF4) in N. tabacum and CMV(ORF4.GFP) in N. benthamiana. Thus the GRV MP, which shows limited sequence similarity to the CMV MP, was able to support CP-independent cell-to-cell movement of the hybrid virus, but CP was still required for long-distance movement and entry of particular vascular cells required functions encoded by different proteins.  (+info)

Recombination between genomic RNAs of two cucumoviruses under conditions of minimal selection pressure. (5/288)

Recombination is considered to play a key role in RNA virus evolution; however, little is known about its occurrence under natural conditions. We inoculated tobacco plants with wild-type strains of two closely related cucumovirus species: cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and tomato aspermy virus (TAV). RNA from the inoculated leaves of doubly-infected plants was tested for the presence of recombination events in an 0.8-kb central portion of the viral RNA3. Using a sensitive and specific RT-PCR procedure, we amplified recombinant segments of RNA3 in 3 of 82 tobacco plants infected with both viruses. In each plant in which recombinant segments were amplified, several different crossover sites were observed, all of which were located within a short stretch of high sequence similarity. Two plants had both CMV-TAV and TAV-CMV recombinants. In all cases, precise homologous recombination had occurred. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of interspecific recombination between wild-type plant RNA viruses under conditions of minimal selection pressure in favor of the recombinants.  (+info)

Resistance of Capsicum annuum 'Avelar' to pepper mottle potyvirus and alleviation of this resistance by co-infection with cucumber mosaic cucumovirus are associated with virus movement. (6/288)

Capsicum annuum cv. Avelar plants resist systemic infection by the Florida isolate of pepper mottle potyvirus (PepMoV-FL). Immuno-tissue blot analysis for detection of PepMoV-FL infection in selected stem segments revealed that virus moved down the stem in external phloem, and, over time, accumulated to detectable levels throughout stem sections (appearing to accumulate in external and internal phloem) taken from below the inoculated leaf. At 21 days post-inoculation, PepMoV-FL was detected in stem segments one or two internodes above the inoculated leaf; however, no virus was observed in internal phloem in stem segments beyond these internodes. In contrast to these observations, PepMoV-FL was detected in the internal phloem of all internodes of the stem located above the inoculated leaf, with subsequent movement into non-inoculated leaves, in Avelar plants co-infected with PepMoV-FL and cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV-KM). No apparent enhancement of PepMoV-FL accumulation occurred in protoplasts inoculated with PepMoV-FL alone versus a mixed inoculum of PepMoV-FL and CMV-KM. These findings confirm earlier observations that potyvirus movement up the stem of Capsicum species occurs via internal phloem. It is also shown that PepMoV-FL does not accumulate to detectable levels in internal phloem in the stem of Avelar plants, thereby limiting its movement to within the inoculated leaf and lower portions of the stem; however, co-infection of Avelar plants with CMV-KM alleviates this restricted movement, allowing PepMoV-FL to invade young tissues systemically.  (+info)

A single-stranded loop in the 5' untranslated region of cucumber mosaic virus RNA 4 contributes to competitive translational activity. (7/288)

The 5' untranslated region (UTR) of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) RNA 4 confers a highly competitive translational advantage on a heterologous luciferase open reading frame. Here we investigated whether secondary structure in the 5' UTR contributes to this translational advantage. Stabilization of the 5' UTR RNA secondary structure inhibited competitive translational activity. Alteration of a potential single-stranded loop to a stem by substitution mutations greatly inhibited the competitive translational activity. Tobacco plants infected with wild type virus showed a 2.5-fold higher accumulation of maximal coat protein than did plants infected with a loop-mutant virus. Amplification of viral RNA in these plants could not explain the difference in accumulation of coat protein. Phylogenetic comparison showed that potential single-stranded loops of 12-23 nucleotides in length exist widely in subgroups of CMV.  (+info)

Isolation of a putative tobacco host factor interacting with cucumber mosaic virus-encoded 2b protein by yeast two-hybrid screening. (8/288)

The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-encoded 2b protein has been implicated to play a role in long distance movement of the virus through the plant's transport system. It is unknown, however, how it mediates virus movement and whether any intrinsic components of plant cells also participate in this process. To isolate a host factor that interacts with 2b, the yeast two-hybrid system was used. First, it was found that the 2b protein per se could function as a transcriptional activator in yeast. However, its two carboxyl terminal deletion mutants, 2bdelta98 and 2bdelta95, which lacked 12 and 15 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus respectively, showed complete absence of transcriptional activation in yeast. A tobacco cDNA library expressing the GAL4 activation domain fusion proteins was screened using 2bdelta98 as a bait. A clone named 2bip (2b-interacting protein) was isolated whose translation product apparently interacted with 2b. Consistent with this observation, bacterially expressed GST-2bip fusion protein bound tightly to 2bdelta95 and 2bdelta98 polypeptides in vitro, as well as to the unmodified 2b protein. Nucleotide sequencing and database searches revealed that the amino acid sequence deduced from it was similar to a prokaryotic LytB protein and an unknown protein of Arabidopsis. DNA and RNA gel blot analyses showed that 2bip-related sequences were present in the tobacco genome and that transcripts corresponding to 2bip were expressed constitutively in various plant organs and in response to CMV infection. These results suggest 2bip as a novel host factor that is capable of interacting with CMV2b.  (+info)

  • Cucumber mosaic virus , CMV) a Cucumovirus nemzetség névadó tagja. (
  • between those are viruses belonging to 4 teams well-known by means of the foreign Committee for Virus Taxonomy: the Bromovirus and Cucumovirus teams whose genomes are encapsi- dated in small icosahedral debris or the Ilarvirus and alfalfa mosaic virus teams with spheroidal or bacilliform debris. (
  • Homology Modelling and Protein Structure Based Functional Analysis of Five Cucumovirus Coat Proteins , JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR GRAPHICS AND MODELLING 24: (5) pp. 319-327. (
  • However, its homolog Tomato aspermy virus (TAV2b), which is also encoded by cucumovirus, may suppress host RNA silencing through binding small RNAs on the basis of our work. (
  • Plantas hospederas de los virus mas importantes que infectan el melon, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae) en Costa Rica. (
  • Position one will involve molecular population biology, epidemiology, and evolutionary mechanisms of peanut stunt cucumovirus. (
  • Larry Arrington, Dean Peanut stunt virus (Clemson isolate, Cucumovirus) causes a disease in a number of economically important crops including peanut, tobacco, soybean, clover and snap bean. (
  • Capsid proteins from the Bromo- and Cucumovirus groups will not activate Ilarvirus RNA. (
  • Virus 2 questions Petits agents infectieux aux génomes constitués, soit d'ADN, soit d'ARN (jamais des deux), sans métabolisme propre et dans l'incapacité de se multiplier en dehors des cellules vivantes. (