Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Cucumis melo: A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae known for the melon fruits with reticulated (net) surface including cantaloupes, honeydew, casaba, and Persian melons.Cucumis: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae best known for cucumber (CUCUMIS SATIVUS) and cantaloupe (CUCUMIS MELO). Watermelon is a different genus, CITRULLUS. Bitter melon may refer to MOMORDICA or this genus.Raphanus: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE known for its peppery red root.Cucurbitaceae: The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.Crocus: A plant genus, in the IRIDACEAE family, known as a source of Saffron.Coriandrum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. The leaves are the source of cilantro and the seeds are the source of coriander, both of which are used in SPICES.Lawsonia Plant: A plant genus of the family LYTHRACEAE that is the source of henna and has cytotoxic activity.Peronospora: A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae. Most species are obligatory parasites and many are plant pathogens.Lathyrus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE known for LATHYRISM poisoning.Ascorbate Oxidase: An enzyme that converts ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid. EC A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Glutamate Synthase (NADH): A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme for AMMONIA assimilation in BACTERIA, microorganisms and PLANTS. It catalyzes the oxidation of 2 molecules of L-GLUTAMATE to generate L-GLUTAMINE and 2-oxoglutarate in the presence of NAD+.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Protochlorophyllide: A photo-active pigment localized in prolamellar bodies occurring within the proplastids of dark-grown bean leaves. In the process of photoconversion, the highly fluorescent protochlorophyllide is converted to chlorophyll.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Books, Illustrated: Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Sea Cucumbers: A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.Gardening: Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Brassinosteroids: Plant steroids ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. They play essential roles in modulating growth and differentiation of cells at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations.Steroids, Heterocyclic: Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with non-carbon atoms.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 1: Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of only the toxic A subunit, which is a polypeptide of around 30 kDa.Phytolacca: A plant genus of the family PHYTOLACCACEAE, order Caryophyllales.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Phytolacca americana: A plant species of the family PHYTOLACCACEAE. The root has been used in traditional medicine and contains POKEWEED MITOGENS, triterpene glycosides, and antiviral protein.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Photosystem II Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.

Thiol-dependent degradation of protoporphyrin IX by plant peroxidases. (1/376)

Protoporphyrin IX (PP) is the last porphyrin intermediate in common between heme and chlorophyll biosynthesis. This pigment normally does not accumulate in plants because its highly photodynamic nature makes it toxic. While the steps leading to heme and chlorophylls are well characterized, relatively little is known of the metabolic fate of excess PP in plants. We have discovered that plant peroxidases can rapidly degrade this pigment in the presence of thiol-containing substrates such as glutathione and cysteine. This thiol-dependent degradation of PP by horseradish peroxidase consumes oxygen and is inhibited by ascorbic acid.  (+info)

Enhancer-like properties of an RNA element that modulates Tombusvirus RNA accumulation. (2/376)

Prototypical defective interfering (DI) RNAs of the plus-strand RNA virus tomato bushy stunt virus contain four noncontiguous segments (regions I-IV) derived from the viral genome. Region I corresponds to 5'-noncoding sequence, regions II and III are derived from internal positions, and region IV represents a 3'-terminal segment. We analyzed the internally located region III in a prototypical DI RNA to understand better its role in DI RNA accumulation. Our results indicate that (1) region III is not essential for DI RNA accumulation, but molecules that lack it accumulate at significantly reduced levels ( approximately 10-fold lower), (2) region III is able to function at different positions and in opposite orientations, (3) a single copy of region III is favored over multiple copies, (4) the stimulatory effect observed on DI RNA accumulation is not due to region III-mediated RNA stabilization, (5) DI RNAs lacking region III permit the efficient accumulation of head-to-tail dimers and are less effective at suppressing helper RNA accumulation, and (6) negative-strand accumulation is also significantly depressed for DI RNAs lacking region III. Collectively, these results support a role for region III as an enhancer-like element that facilitates DI RNA replication. A scanning-type mutagenesis strategy was used to define portions of region III important for its stimulatory effect on DI RNA accumulation. Interestingly, the results revealed several differences in the requirements for activity when region III was in the forward versus the reverse orientation. In the context of the viral genome, region III was found to be essential for biological activity. This latter finding defines a critical role for this element in the reproductive cycle of the virus.  (+info)

Conversion of cucumber linoleate 13-lipoxygenase to a 9-lipoxygenating species by site-directed mutagenesis. (3/376)

Multiple lipoxygenase sequence alignments and structural modeling of the enzyme/substrate interaction of the cucumber lipid body lipoxygenase suggested histidine 608 as the primary determinant of positional specificity. Replacement of this amino acid by a less-space-filling valine altered the positional specificity of this linoleate 13-lipoxygenase in favor of 9-lipoxygenation. These alterations may be explained by the fact that H608V mutation may demask the positively charged guanidino group of R758, which, in turn, may force an inverse head-to-tail orientation of the fatty acid substrate. The R758L+H608V double mutant exhibited a strongly reduced reaction rate and a random positional specificity. Trilinolein, which lacks free carboxylic groups, was oxygenated to the corresponding (13S)-hydro(pero)xy derivatives by both the wild-type enzyme and the linoleate 9-lipoxygenating H608V mutant. These data indicate the complete conversion of a linoleate 13-lipoxygenase to a 9-lipoxygenating species by a single point mutation. It is hypothesized that H608V exchange may alter the orientation of the substrate at the active site and/or its steric configuration in such a way that a stereospecific dioxygen insertion at C-9 may exclusively take place.  (+info)

Cucumber cotyledon lipoxygenase during postgerminative growth. Its expression and action on lipid bodies. (4/376)

In cucumber (Cucumis sativus), high lipoxygenase-1 (LOX-1) activity has been detected in the soluble fraction prepared from cotyledons of germinating seeds, and the involvement of this enzyme in lipid turnover has been suggested (K. Matsui, M. Irie, T. Kajiwara, A. Hatanaka [1992] Plant Sci 85: 23-32; I. Fuessner, C. Wasternack, H. Kindl, H. Kuhn [1995] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 11849-11853). In this study we have investigated the expression of the gene lox-1, corresponding to the LOX-1 enzyme. LOX-1 expression is highly coordinated with that of a typical glyoxysomal enzyme, isocitrate lyase, during the postgerminative stage of cotyledon development. In contrast, although icl transcripts accumulated in tissue during in vitro senescence, no accumulation of lox-1 mRNA could be observed, suggesting that lox-1 plays a specialized role in fat mobilization. LOX-1 is also known to be a major lipid body protein. The partial peptide sequences of purified LOX-1 and lipid body LOX-1 entirely coincided with that deduced from the lox-1 cDNA sequence. The data strongly suggest that LOX-1 and lipid body LOX-1 are derived from a single gene and that LOX-1 can exist both in the cytosol and on the lipid bodies. We constructed an in vitro oxygenation system to address the mechanism of this dual localization and to investigate the action of LOX-1 on lipids in the lipid bodies. LOX-1 cannot act on the lipids in intact lipid bodies, although degradation of lipid body proteins, either during seedling growth or by treatment with trypsin, allows lipid bodies to become susceptible to LOX-1. We discuss the role of LOX-1 in fat mobilization and its mechanism of action.  (+info)

Both RNA rearrangement and point mutation contribute to repair of defective chimeric viral genomes to form functional hybrid viruses in plants. (5/376)

The putative movement protein gene (p27) plus 5' and 3' flanking sequences of cucumber leaf spot aureusvirus (CLSV) was inserted into an infectious cucumber necrosis tombusvirus (CNV) cDNA clone containing a deletion in the cell-to-cell movement protein gene. Approximately 5% of plants inoculated with synthetic transcripts of two such defective chimeric CNV/CLSV cDNA clones developed systemic symptoms 7-19 days postinoculation. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of virus obtained from systemically infected leaves indicated that both point mutation and RNA rearrangement (deletion) contributed to the formation of movement competent CNV/CLSV hybrid viruses. The hybrid viruses were found to accumulate to high levels in infected plants, to form stable virions, and to be mechanically transmissible. In addition, a hybrid virus that lacked 50 amino acids at the carboxyl-terminal region of CLSV p27 was still capable of facilitating CNV movement. These data provide experimental evidence for the role of CLSV p27 in viral cell-to-cell movement and demonstrate that p27 can enable efficient movement of the CNV genome. Moreover, the data show that RNA rearrangements known to occur during CNV RNA replication can contribute to rapid evolution of the CNV genome.  (+info)

alpha-oxidation of fatty acids in higher plants. Identification of a pathogen-inducible oxygenase (piox) as an alpha-dioxygenase and biosynthesis of 2-hydroperoxylinolenic acid. (6/376)

A pathogen-inducible oxygenase in tobacco leaves and a homologous enzyme from Arabidopsis were recently characterized (Sanz, A., Moreno, J. I., and Castresana, C. (1998) Plant Cell 10, 1523-1537). Linolenic acid incubated at 23 degrees C with preparations containing the recombinant enzymes underwent alpha-oxidation with the formation of a chain-shortened aldehyde, i.e., 8(Z),11(Z), 14(Z)-heptadecatrienal (83%), an alpha-hydroxy acid, 2(R)-hydroxy-9(Z),12(Z),15(Z)-octadecatrienoic acid (15%), and a chain-shortened fatty acid, 8(Z),11(Z),14(Z)-heptadecatrienoic acid (2%). When incubations were performed at 0 degrees C, 2(R)-hydroperoxy-9(Z),12(Z),15(Z)-octadecatrienoic acid was obtained as the main product. An intermediary role of 2(R)-hydroperoxy-9(Z), 12(Z),15(Z)-octadecatrienoic acid in alpha-oxidation was demonstrated by re-incubation experiments, in which the hydroperoxide was converted into the same alpha-oxidation products as those formed from linolenic acid. 2(R)-Hydroperoxy-9(Z),12(Z), 15(Z)-octadecatrienoic acid was chemically unstable and had a half-life time in buffer of about 30 min at 23 degrees C. Extracts of cells expressing the recombinant oxygenases accelerated breakdown of the hydroperoxide (half-life time, about 3 min at 23 degrees C), however, this was not attributable to the recombinant enzymes since the same rate of hydroperoxide degradation was observed in the presence of control cells not expressing the enzymes. No significant discrimination between enantiomers was observed in the degradation of 2(R,S)-hydroperoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid in the presence of recombinant oxygenases. A previously studied system for alpha-oxidation in cucumber was re-examined using the newly developed techniques and was found to catalyze the same conversions as those observed with the recombinant enzymes, i.e. enzymatic alpha-dioxygenation of fatty acids into 2(R)-hydroperoxides and a first order, non-stereoselective degradation of hydroperoxides into alpha-oxidation products. It was concluded that the recombinant enzymes from tobacco and Arabidopsis were both alpha-dioxygenases, and that members of this new class of enzymes catalyze the first step of alpha-oxidation in plant tissue.  (+info)

Spider mite-induced (3S)-(E)-nerolidol synthase activity in cucumber and lima bean. The first dedicated step in acyclic C11-homoterpene biosynthesis. (7/376)

Many plant species respond to herbivory with de novo production of a mixture of volatiles that attracts carnivorous enemies of the herbivores. One of the major components in the blend of volatiles produced by many different plant species in response to herbivory by insects and spider mites is the homoterpene 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E), 7-nonatriene. One study (J. Donath, W. Boland [1995] Phytochemistry 39: 785-790) demonstrated that a number of plant species can convert the acyclic sesquiterpene alcohol (3S)-(E)-nerolidol to this homoterpene. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) both produce 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene in response to herbivory. We report the presence in cucumber and lima bean of a sesquiterpene synthase catalyzing the formation of (3S)-(E)-nerolidol from farnesyl diphosphate. The enzyme is inactive in uninfested cucumber leaves, slightly active in uninfested lima bean leaves, and strongly induced by feeding of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on both plant species, but not by mechanical wounding. The activities of the (3S)-(E)-nerolidol synthase correlated well with the levels of release of 4, 8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene from the leaves of the different treatments. Thus, (3S)-(E)-nerolidol synthase is a good candidate for a regulatory role in the release of the important signaling molecule 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene.  (+info)

Phloem long-distance transport of CmNACP mRNA: implications for supracellular regulation in plants. (8/376)

Direct support for the concept that RNA molecules circulate throughout the plant, via the phloem, is provided through the characterisation of mRNA from phloem sap of mature pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) leaves and stems. One of these mRNAs, CmNACP, is a member of the NAC domain gene family, some of whose members have been shown to be involved in apical meristem development. In situ RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of CmNACP RNA in the companion cell-sieve element complex of leaf, stem and root phloem. Longitudinal and transverse sections showed continuity of transcript distribution between meristems and sieve elements of the protophloem, suggesting CmNACP mRNA transport over long distances and accumulation in vegetative, root and floral meristems. In situ hybridization studies conducted on CmNACP confirmed the results obtained using in situ RT-PCR. Phloem transport of CmNACP mRNA was proved directly by heterograft studies between pumpkin and cucumber plants, in which CmNACP transcripts were shown to accumulate in cucumber scion phloem and apical tissues. Similar experiments were conducted with 7 additional phloem-related transcripts. Collectively, these studies established the existence of a system for the delivery of specific mRNA transcripts from the body of the plant to the shoot apex. These findings provide insight into the presence of a novel mechanism likely used by higher plants to integrate developmental and physiological processes on a whole-plant basis.  (+info)

  • Stable-isotope-labelled (2H6, 18O) 3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid, a putative intermediate in the biosynthesis of benzoic acid (BA) and salicylic acid (SA) from cinnamic acid, has been synthesized and administered to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and Nicotiana attenuata (Torrey). (
  • The present study was designed to screen the anti-aging and anti-wrinkle potential of Cucumis sativus fruit through in vitro estimation of antioxidant, anti-hyaluronidase, anti-elastase, anti-collagenase/anti-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, and anti-tyrosinase activity. (
  • Ondrej V, Navratilova B, Lebeda A (2002) Influence of GA 3 on the zygotic embryogenesis of Cucumis species in vitro . (
  • Hypocotyl explants have been used to achieve regenerated plants in several species including Capsicum (Gunay and Rao, 1978), Peganum harmala (Ehsanpour and Saadat, 2002), and Cucumis sativus (Andr'yskova et al. (
  • Thus, in vitro regulatory and kinetic properties of source leaf stachyose synthase are similar between species or cultivars of Cucumis which are predicted to differ significantly in sink carbohydrate metabolism. (
  • The effects of cobalt (Co) stress on seedling vigor, photosynthetic pigment content, biochemical constituents, mineral status, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in Raphanus sativus L. were studied. (
  • Malinowski R, Filipecky M, Tagashira N, Wisniewska A, Gaj P, Plader W, Malepsy S (2004) Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase genes in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus )-differential expression during somatic embryogenesis. (
  • We investigated the effects of exogenous spermidine (Spd) on growth, photosynthesis and expression of the Calvin cycle-related genes in cucumber seedlings ( Cucumis sativus L.) exposed to NaCl stress. (
  • Transcriptomic analysis reveals the roles of microtubule-related genes and transcription factors in fruit length regulation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. (
  • Brassinosteroids promote photosynthesis and growth by enhancing activation of Rubisco and expression of photosynthetic genes in Cucumis sativus. (
  • Effects of light quality on CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll-fluorescence quenching, expression of Calvin cycle genes and carbohydrate accumulation in Cucumis sativus. (
  • Cuevas HE, Song H, Staub JE, Simon PW (2010) Inheritance of beta-carotene-associated flesh color in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) fruit. (
  • In the present study, we have investigated the mechanism through which carbon dioxide induces ethylene biosynthesis in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) fruit. (
  • The present study was designed to screen the anti-aging and anti-wrinkle potential of Cucumis sativus fruit through in vitro estimation of antioxidant, anti-hyaluronidase, anti-elastase, anti-collagenase/anti-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, and anti-tyrosinase activity. (
  • In the study of the lyophilized juice of Cucumis sativus fruit (CSLJ) and its antioxidant , anti-hyaluronidase, and anti-elastase activity found that Content of ascorbic acid was calculated with respect to the standard compound and it was found to be 3.5 ± 0.23% w/w. (
  • CSLJ is the rich source of ascorbic acid and this study thereby rationalizes the use of C. sativus as potential anti-wrinkle agent in cosmetic products, according to " Cucumis sativus fruit-potential antioxidant , anti-hyaluronidase, and anti-elastase agen t" by Nema NK, Maity N, Sarkar B, Mukherjee PK. (
  • We monitored the protein, chlorophyll and electron transport activities in Cucumis sativus cv Poinsette cotyledonary leaves and observed that by 20th day, there was a 50%, 41 % and 30-33% decline in the chlorophyll, protein and photosystem II activity respectively when compared to 6th day cotyledonary leaves taken as control. (
  • Role of pectin from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) in modulation of protein kinase C activity and regulation of glycogen metabolism in rats. (
  • Aydemir I (2009) Determination of genetic diversity in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) germplasms. (
  • Bisht IS, Bhat KV, Tanwar SPS, Bhandari DC, Joshi K, Sharma AK (2004) Distribution and genetic diversity of Cucumis sativus var. (
  • Horejsi T, Staub JE (1999) Genetic variation in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) as assessed by random amplified poly-morphic DNA. (
  • PLOS ONE: Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. (
  • Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L. (
  • Molecular mapping reveals structural rearrangements and quantitative trait loci underlying traits with local adaptation in semi-wild Xishuangbanna cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. var. (
  • Expression and epigenetic profile of protoplast cultures ( Cucumis sativus L. (
  • Gajdová J, Navrátilová B, Smolná J, Lebeda A (2007) Factors affecting protoplast isolation and cultivation of Cucumis spp. (
  • Ondřej V, Navrátilová B, Lebeda A (2009b) The heterochromatin as a marker for protoplast differentiation of Cucumis sativus . (