Cucumber Mosaic Virus Satellite: A satellite RNA (not a satellite virus) which has several types. Different cucumoviruses can act as helper viruses for different types.Cucumovirus: A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.RNA, Satellite: Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Sasa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Folin is the water-soluble extract from Sasa albomarginata. Sasa kurinensis is an ingredient of Sho-ju-sen, a Japanese herbal medicine.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Potexvirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Plant Viral Movement Proteins: Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Sea Nettle, East Coast: Species of jellyfish, in the family Pelagiidae, order Semaeostomeae, class SCYPHOZOA. Their painful sting is caused by a venom toxic to humans.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Bromovirus: A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Chenopodium quinoa: A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Potyvirus: A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Chenopodium: A plant genus in the CHENOPODIACEAE family.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Caulimovirus: A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Comovirus: A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.Capsicum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.Proplast: Polymer of polytetrafluoroethylene and carbon filaments; porous biocompatible material used in orofacial and middle ear reconstruction and as coating for metal implants.Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Chenopodiaceae: The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Carmovirus: A genus in the family TOMBUSVIRIDAE mostly found in temperate regions. Some species infecting legumes (FABACEAE) are reported from tropical areas. Most viruses are soil-borne, but some are transmitted by the fungus Olpidium radicale and others by beetles. Carnation mottle virus is the type species.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Vanilla: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Creativity: The ability to generate new ideas or images.Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.

Differential effects of satellite RNA on the accumulation of cucumber mosaic virus RNAs and their encoded proteins in tobacco vs zucchini squash with two strains of CMV helper virus. (1/16)

The presence of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) satellite RNA usually reduces the yield of accumulated helper virus, although more so in solanaceous than in cucurbit hosts. The accumulation of viral RNA and viral-encoded proteins of two strains of CMV (Fny- and Sny-) known to differ in their ability to support satellite RNA in zucchini squash was examined in squash and tobacco to determine the effect of satellite RNA on the accumulation of viral-associated components. In the absence of satellite RNA, Fny- and Sny-CMV showed similar levels of accumulation of RNA at 7 days postinoculation (p.i.), but by 14 days p.i. the Fny-CMV RNAs accumulated to lower levels than did both strains at 7 days p.i., in either host. The levels of accumulated Sny-CMV-encoded proteins were higher than those encoded by Fny-CMV in tobacco, but not squash plants, at 7 days p.i. At 14 days p.i., for Fny-CMV vs Sny-CMV, there were differences in the levels of accumulation of most CMV-encoded proteins in both hosts, more exacerbated in tobacco vs squash. The effect of satellite RNA was to intensify these differences; that is, by 7 days p.i., satellite RNA reduced the accumulation of Fny-CMV RNAs 1 and 2 and their encoded proteins in both tobacco and squash but had little or no effect on the accumulation of Sny-CMV RNAs or encoded proteins. By 14 days p.i., the levels of accumulation of all Fny-CMV RNAs and encoded proteins were severely reduced in both hosts, and the levels of accumulation of Sny-CMV RNAs 1 and 2 and their encoded proteins were also reduced in tobacco, but not squash. Sny-CMV did not support satellite RNA accumulation in squash plants or protoplasts. Satellite RNA did not appear to have a direct effect on the movement of either CMV strain. Rather, accumulation studies in tobacco protoplasts indicated that the difference in response of Fny-CMV vs Sny-CMV to satellite RNA in tobacco was due to the extent to which satellite RNA affected the levels of RNA 1, and to a lesser extent RNA 2, and their encoded proteins, 1a and 2a, both components of the CMV replicase.  (+info)

In spite of induced multiple defense responses, tomato plants infected with Cucumber mosaic virus and D satellite RNA succumb to systemic necrosis. (2/16)

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) D satellite RNA (satRNA) attenuates the symptoms induced by CMV in most plants, but causes leaf epinasty and systemic necrosis in tomato plants, where programmed cell death (PCD) is involved. However, our understanding of the cellular and molecular responses to the infection of CMV D satRNA that result in this lethal disease remains limited. In this article, we show for the first time, by histochemical and molecular analysis, that multiple defense responses are specifically induced in CMV and D satRNA (CMV/D satRNA)-infected tomato plants but not in mock-inoculated or CMV-infected plants. These responses include callose deposition and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in infected plants. Furthermore, the transcription of several tomato defense-related genes (e.g., PR-1a1, PR-1b1, PR-2, and PR-10) were activated, and the expression of tomato PR-5 and some abiotic and biotic stress-responsive genes (e.g., catalase II and tomato analogs of Arabidopsis AtBI-1 and tobacco hsr203j) are enhanced. The activation and increase in expression of these genes is correlated with the appearance of leaf epinasty and the development of systemic necrosis in infected tomato plants, while increased expression of the hsr203j analog precedes the development of any disease symptoms. The spatial and temporal expression patterns of these genes as detected by RNA in situ hybridization point to the involvement of a complex developmental program that accompanies disease development resulting from CMV/D satRNA infection.  (+info)

Analysis of mechanisms involved in the Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA-mediated transgenic resistance in tomato plants. (3/16)

Transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. UC82) plants expressing a benign variant of Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA (CMV Tfn-satRNA) were generated. The transformed plants did not produce symptoms when challenged with a satRNA-free strain of CMV (CMV-FL). The same plant lines initially were susceptible to necrosis elicited by a CMV strain supporting a necrogenic variant of satRNA (CMV-77), but a phenotype of total recovery from the necrosis was observed in the newly developing leaves. The features of the observed resistance were analyzed and are consistent with two different mechanisms of resistance. In transgenic plants inoculated with CMV-FL strain, the symptomless phenotype was correlated to the down-regulation of CMV by Tfn-satRNA, amplified from the transgene transcripts, as the first resistance mechanism. On the other hand, the delayed resistance to CMV-77 in transgenic tomato lines was mediated by a degradation process that targets satRNAs in a sequence-specific manner. Evidence is provided for a correlation between a reduced accumulation level of transgenic messenger Tfn-satRNA, the accumulation of small (approximately 23 nucleotides) RNAs with sequence homology to satRNAs, the progressively reduced accumulation of 77-satRNA in infected tissues, and the transition in infected plants from diseased to healthy. Thus, events leading to the degradation of satRNA sequences indicate a role for RNA silencing as the second mechanism determining resistance of transgenic tomato lines.  (+info)

Expression of antiapoptotic genes bcl-xL and ced-9 in tomato enhances tolerance to viral-induced necrosis and abiotic stress. (4/16)

D satellite RNA (satRNA) is a strain of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) satRNA that induces an epidemic lethal disease in tomato. No natural resistance or tolerance has ever been found. Previously, we demonstrated the involvement of programmed cell death in disease development. Here, transgenic tomato plants expressing animal antiapoptotic genes bcl-xL and ced-9 were generated through agrobacterium-mediated transformation. High expression of bcl-xL or ced-9 affected plant growth and seed development. Inoculation of seedlings with CMV/D satRNA at T(1) and T(2) generations resulted in delayed cell-death symptoms or absence of symptoms. The degree of symptom suppression was correlated with increasing expression levels of the transgenes. Survival rates were compared among inoculated transgenic lines expressing bcl-xL, ced-9, and bcl-xL (G138A), a loss-of-function mutant of bcl-xL. More than 80% of the bcl-xL and ced-9 T(1) transgenic lines showed higher survival rates than the average for bcl-xL (G138A) transgenic lines. Total RNA extracted from surviving plants contained D satRNA, indicating systemic accumulation of D satRNA. Thus, expression of bcl-xL and ced-9 improved tolerance to, rather than resistance to, CMV/D satRNA infection. In addition, expression of bcl-xL and ced-9 specifically abrogated the formation of necrotic lesions, but not other symptoms, in tomato leaves during chilling at 4 degrees C. At 7 degrees C, temperature-induced leaf senescence was dramatically delayed in bcl-xL and ced-9 transgenic plants, and high levels of anthocyanins accumulated, possibly limiting oxidative stress. Hence, expression of these animal antiapoptotic genes improved plant survival under abiotic or biotic stress.  (+info)

Genetic mapping of the compatibility between a lily isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus and a satellite RNA. (5/16)

Five isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from Lilium sp. (lily), which were isolated from specimens in Japan, Korea and Taiwan, were unable to support satellite RNA (satRNA) accumulation. In order to map the CMV sequences that are involved in satRNA support, HL-CMV (Japanese lily isolate), Y-CMV (ordinary strain) and Y-satellite RNA (Y-sat) were used as the source material. The pseudorecombinants between Y-CMV and HL-CMV revealed that RNA1 was essential for satRNA replication in lily. The results of chimeric constructs and various mutations showed that two amino acid residues (at positions 876 and 891) in the 1a protein were the determinants for the inability of HL-CMV to support a satRNA. Specifically, Thr at position 876 had a more pronounced effect than Met at position 891. Specific changes in RNA sequence were also detected in the 3' terminus of Y-sat and these particular alterations allowed it to be supported by HL-CMV. It is believed that, through evolution, the adaptation of CMV to lily resulted in the introduction of amino acid changes in the 1a protein, changes that coincidentally affected the ability of lily CMV to support satRNAs.  (+info)

Satellite RNA-mediated reduction of cucumber mosaic virus genomic RNAs accumulation in Nicotiana tabacum. (6/16)

Satellite RNAs (satRNAs) are molecular parasites that interfere with the pathogenesis of the helper viruses. In this study, the relative accumulation of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-Fny genomic RNAs with or without satRNAs were quantitatively analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that satRs apparently attenuated the symptoms of CMV-Fny on Nicotiana tabacum by depressing the accumulation of CMV-Fny genomic RNAs, tested as open reading frames. The accumulation of CMV-Fny 1a, 2a, 2b, 3a, and CP genes was much higher than that of CMV-Fny with satRs added (CMV-Fsat), at different inoculation times. CMV-FnyDelta2b, in which the complete 2b gene and 41 amino acids at the C-terminal of the 2a gene were deleted, caused only a slight mosaic effect on N. tabacum seedlings, similar to that of CMV-Fsat, but the addition of satRs to CMV-FnyDelta2b showed further decrease in the accumulation of CMV-FnyDelta2b genomic RNAs. Our results indicated that the attenuation of CMV, by adding satRs or deleting the 2b gene, was due to the low accumulation of CMV genomic RNAs, and that satRNA-mediated reduction of CMV genomic RNAs accumulation in N. tabacum was possibly related to the 2b gene.  (+info)

DCL4 targets Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA at novel secondary structures. (7/16)

It has been reported that plant virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) originated predominantly from structured single-stranded viral RNA of a positive single-stranded RNA virus replicating in the cytoplasm and from the nuclear stem-loop 35S leader RNA of a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus. Increasing lines of evidence have also shown that hierarchical actions of plant Dicer-like (DCL) proteins are required in the biogenesis process of small RNAs, and DCL4 is the primary producer of vsiRNAs. However, the structures of such single-stranded viral RNA that can be recognized by DCLs remain unknown. In an attempt to determine these structures, we have cloned siRNAs derived from the satellite RNA (satRNA) of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-satRNA) and studied the relationship between satRNA-derived siRNAs (satsiRNAs) and satRNA secondary structure. satsiRNAs were confirmed to be derived from single-stranded satRNA and are primarily 21 (64.7%) or 22 (22%) nucleotides (nt) in length. The most frequently cloned positive-strand satsiRNAs were found to derive from novel hairpins that differ from the structure of known DCL substrates, miRNA and siRNA precursors, which are prevalent stem-loop-shaped or dsRNAs. DCL4 was shown to be the primary producer of satsiRNAs. In the absence of DCL4, only 22-nt satsiRNAs were detected. Our results suggest that DCL4 is capable of accessing flexibly structured single-stranded RNA substrates (preferably T-shaped hairpins) to produce satsiRNAs. This result reveals that viral RNA of diverse structures may stimulate antiviral DCL activities in plant cells.  (+info)

Response of tomato and its wild relatives in the genus Solanum to cucumber mosaic virus and satellite RNA combinations. (8/16)

The differential response of 29 genotypes of tomato and wild tomato relatives (Solanum section Lycopersicon species) to cucumber mosaic virus strain Fny (CMV-Fny), alone or in combination with three different satellite RNA (satRNA) variants, allowed the identification of four disease phenotype patterns, each including plants that developed very severe symptoms (leaf malformations, top stunting and lethal necrosis) and plants that remained asymptomatic. No resistance or tolerance to CMV-Fny was observed, whilst individual host genotypes displayed latent infection upon inoculation with one (CMV-Fny/Tfn-satRNA, phenotype patterns 1 and 4), two (CMV-Fny/Tfn-satRNA and CMV-Fny/TTS-satRNA, phenotype pattern 2) or all three (the former two plus CMV-Fny/77-satRNA, phenotype pattern 3) CMV/satRNA combinations. RNA gel-blot analyses showed that latent infection generally correlated with a strong downregulation of CMV RNA accumulation levels. Introgression lines derived from a cross between Solanum habrochaites LA1777, which displayed disease phenotype pattern 2, and Solanum lycopersicum were screened for tolerance to the stunting phenotype induced by CMV-Fny/TTS-satRNA, and only one line, carrying an introgression on chromosome 6, was identified as being partially tolerant. Solanum chilense LA1932xS. lycopersicum back-cross introgression lines were screened for tolerance to lethal necrosis induced by CMV-Fny/77-satRNA (phenotype pattern 3); the tolerant phenotype was observed in 33 % of plants of the BC(1)F(2) progeny and <1 % of plants of the BC(1)F(3) progeny. Thus, potentially useful sources of tolerance to CMV/satRNA-induced diseases were identified, although the tolerant phenotypes appeared to be controlled by complex quantitative trait loci.  (+info)

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To determine the structural requirements for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) satellites to elicit lethal tomato necrosis, three satellite variants D, S and Y were used in the construction and cloning of chimeric cDNAs. D and S are necrogenic and non-necrogenic prototype variants, respectively, and Y possesses the 3′ conserved necrosis-determining region but does not cause lethal tomato necrosis. Its 5′ half harbours an insertion/deletion region that results in a molecule about 30 nucleotides longer than other variants. Tomato bioassays were conducted with RNA transcripts of all six chimeric combinations of the 5′ and 3′ halves of the three satellite variants divided by a common restriction site, as well as with a mutated chimera. None of the chimeras containing the 5′ half of Y induced lethal necrosis in tomato even when their 3′ halves were that of the D variant with the conserved necrogenic element. Chimeras with the 3′ half of Y elicited only partial or restricted necrosis which was much
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Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the causal agents of viral diseases that infected mint (Mentha spp.). CMV is a member of the cucumovirus genus in Bromoviridae family. The virus is naturally transmitted by aphids in a non-persistent manner.During growing season 2007-2008, leaf samples from plants of mint fields with symptoms of viral disease were collected in mint fieldas in Tehran province. The polyclonal antibodies were used to the samples by DAS-ELISA . Some of the tested samples, showed positive reaction against cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) specific antibody. Some of the positive samples which are mechanically inoculated on test plants.Some leaf samples from mint plants with symptoms of yellows and mosaic were showed positived reaction against cucumber mosaic virus specific antibody.To confirm the identify of the virus detected using a specific primer pair of CMV which amplify part of coat protein of CMV . A fragment about 700bp was amplified in Immunocapture reverse transcriptase polymerase
TY - JOUR. T1 - Arabidopsis tonoplast proteins TIP1 and TIP2 interact with the cucumber mosaic virus 1a replication protein. AU - Kim, Min Jung. AU - Kim, Hwa Ran. AU - Paek, Kyung Hee. PY - 2006/11/1. Y1 - 2006/11/1. N2 - The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) replication complex has previously been shown to associate with cellular membranes. However, it remains unknown whether any host factors participate in this process. In this study, five groups of Arabidopsis tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) genes were isolated and the proteins they encoded were evaluated with regard to their interactions with CMV proteins. TIP1 and TIP2 were found to interact with the CMV 1a protein in the Sos recruitment system, whereas no interactions with the other three TIP subgroups were observed in this assay. The interaction of CMV 1a with the TIP1 and TIP2 proteins was confirmed via co-immunoprecipitation assays. Additionally, CMV 1a co-localized with TIP1 and TIP2 in transfected Arabidopsis protoplasts. The findings of ...
Looking for online definition of necrogenic in the Medical Dictionary? necrogenic explanation free. What is necrogenic? Meaning of necrogenic medical term. What does necrogenic mean?
Courgette plants are also susceptible to Cucumber Mosaic Virus, but dont throw the plant away until you are sure. As stated before I would expect to see puckered, mottled leaves that turn yellow with time. The whole plant will have stunted growth. Does your corgette plant have these symptoms? Tell me about where you are growing it indoors, if it is still alive I would certainly plant it outside now as all danger of frost has passed, it may be protesting at the fact that it is still indoors! Was the plant siiting in a saucer of water? Was enough air getting to the roots or were they possibly waterlogged? Was the plant sat on a very hot and sunny windowsill where the young leaves were getting scorched? The more information you can give me, the more chance I have of solving this ...
When New Yorks snap bean growers began suffering widespread devastating losses, Stephen Reiners, Cornell University horticulture professor, assembled a "research village" to develop short-term and long-term responses. The multidisciplinary task force included Cornell horticultural specialists, entomologists, a seed scientist, a plant pathologist, a plant breeder, a virologist and extension educators.. "At the start, we looked at the fields with severe yield loss and had more questions than answers," Reiners says. "We identified the problem as cucumber mosaic virus and called together the expertise to answer our questions. It was a full effort to respond quickly.". Julie Kikkert, Cornell Cooperative Extension vegetable specialist, served as the conduit to the processing industry and the growers who periodically met with the research team.. Pete Call was among the growers whose fields were 50 to 100 percent infected with cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in 2001. Call, who has 2,500 acres of beans, ...
Sepsis is a lethal disease caused by a systemic microbial infection that spreads via the bloodstream to overwhelm the bodys defenses. Current therapeutic approaches are often suboptimal, in part, because they do not fully eliminate the pathogen, and hence the source of deadly toxins. Here we describe an ext
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The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b protein not only inhibits anti-viral RNA silencing but also quenches transcriptional responses of plant genes to jasmonic acid, a key signalling molecule in defence against insects. This suggested that it might affect interactions between infected plants and aphids, insects that transmit CMV. We found that infection of tobacco with a 2b gene deletion mutant (CMVD2b) induced strong resistance to aphids (Myzus persicae) while CMV infection fostered aphid survival. Using electrical penetration graph methodology we found that higher proportions of aphids showed sustained phloem ingestion on CMV-infected plants than on CMVD2b-infected or mock-inoculated plants although this did not increase the rate of growth of individual aphids. This indicates that while CMV infection or certain viral gene products might elicit aphid resistance, the 2b protein normally counteracts this during a wild-type CMV infection. Our findings suggest that the 2b protein could indirectly ...
Satellite RNAs Cucumber mosaic virus (an epiphytotic of lethal necrotic disease among tomato plants in France in 1972). This was unusual because of the severity and atypical nature of the symptoms associated with infections of tomato plants (See description of cucumber mosaic in prior text). Enhanced response of tomatoes to this disease were associated with host used for virus propagation; virus grown in tobacco or tomato yielded an enhanced necrotic response, those propagated in cucurbit hosts yielded a reduce necrotic response. RNA extractions of necrotic tomato plants revealed the presence of variable amounts of a small RNA species in addition to the expected three genomic and one subgenomic RNAs. This 5th RNA species was designated CARNA 5 (i.e., CMV-associated RNA 5 or CMV satRNA), a satellite RNA. When CARNA 5 is present with CMV, symptoms of the disease are enhanced in tomato plants, while in tabasco pepper the presence of CARNA 5 tends to attenuate the disease symptoms caused by CMV. ...
Satellite RNAs Cucumber mosaic virus (an epiphytotic of lethal necrotic disease among tomato plants in France in 1972). This was unusual because of the severity and atypical nature of the symptoms associated with infections of tomato plants (See description of cucumber mosaic in prior text). Enhanced response of tomatoes to this disease were associated with host used for virus propagation; virus grown in tobacco or tomato yielded an enhanced necrotic response, those propagated in cucurbit hosts yielded a reduce necrotic response. RNA extractions of necrotic tomato plants revealed the presence of variable amounts of a small RNA species in addition to the expected three genomic and one subgenomic RNAs. This 5th RNA species was designated CARNA 5 (i.e., CMV-associated RNA 5 or CMV satRNA), a satellite RNA. When CARNA 5 is present with CMV, symptoms of the disease are enhanced in tomato plants, while in tabasco pepper the presence of CARNA 5 tends to attenuate the disease symptoms caused by CMV. ...
Normand, Russell Anthony, "Studies on the Differential Transmission of Strains of Cucumber Mosaic Virus by Aphids." (1967). LSU Historical Dissertations and Theses. 1356 ...
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Find out all you need to about caring for Wisteria. Read advice from RHS to find out everything from growing your own plants, fruit & veg to winter pruning.
The NBRP is one of the research arms of NARO, the National Banana Research Program is mandated to carry out research on Banana in Uganda.
The program. Our intensive graduate program puts you on a fast career track with a leading supplier of semiconductor process equipment for wafer processing. Our goal is to cultivate and nurture the next wave of technical experts, project managers or leaders of ASM.. For the first 2-3 years, you will be working at our R&D satellites in Helsinki, Finland or Leuven, Belgium. During the program, you will be assigned to creating breakthrough process solutions in collaboration with our global product lines and research partners. You will play a pivotal role in strengthening the connection between the business and R&D.. You will work on challenging process development projects and at the same time participate in internal and external training. After some time you will be assigned to lead projects where you can use your creative abilities to overcome tough, technical obstacles and drive new R&D breakthroughs.. With a mentor from a business unit and expert partner, you will work with other talented ...
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 23:283-293...Ken Komatsu,1 Masayoshi Hashimoto,1 Johji Ozeki,1 Yasuyuki Yamaji,1 Kensaku Maejima,1 Hiroko Senshu,1 Misako Himeno,1 Yukari Okano,1 Satoshi Kagiwada,2 and Shigetou Namba1...
Cucumbers are known to mankind for over six thousand years. Article about calories in cucumber, useful properties of cucumberm how to choose them.
In tomato plants heterozygous for the Tm-2a gene for tobacco mosaic virus localization, the incidence of systemic necrosis at high temperature (30 31 C) decreased with increase in plant age at the time of inoculation with an isolate of TMV strain 0. Similarly, fewer plants were necrotic when the length of exposure to high temperature was reduced and the time interval from inoculation to the heat treatment was extended. The presence of a certain amount of virus at the primary site of infection may be necessary for systemic necrosis to develop at high temperature. Keyword(s): Lycopersicon esculentum, tobacco mosaic virus infectivity.. ...
A woodiness disease of passionfruit was described by Cobb (1901) but as both passionfruit woodiness and cucumber mosaic viruses may cause woody fruit and leaf mosaic (Taylor, 1959), the authenticity of records prior to that of McKnight (1953) is in doubt. However, passionfruit woodiness virus was rare in P. edulis in Queensland in 1927 and widespread in 1932 (Simmonds, 1959) suggesting that it was introduced into that State about 1927. Its absence from cool, temperate areas of Australia and the rare occurrence of cucumber mosaic virus in Queensland suggest that ecological factors influence the distribution of both viruses. Experimentally, a mixed infection by the two viruses in P. edulis causes a very severe disease (Taylor, 1959), but naturally occurring mixed infections are not always so virulent. To differentiate the two viruses it is best to use the electron microscope; the filamentous particles of passionfruit woodiness virus are usually readily found in the sap of infected plants. The ...
I think I used about 12 cucumbers but you can pickle any amount, just adjust the quantity of spiced vinegar you make. The night before, peel and slice all your cucumbers and place in a large bowl. Pour over about a tablespoon of salt. Dont worry, you wont eat the salt. If you dont drawn the fluid from the cucumbers it dilutes the vinegar too much in the jars. Mix the cucumbers around with your hands, making sure the salt is well distributed, put a clean tea towel over the top of the bowl and leave it overnight. The following morning there will be a lot of fluid in the cucumber bowl. Pour it all into a colander and let the salty water go down the drain. Run clean cold water from the tap over the cucumbers to make sure all the salt is removed. Leave the cucumber in the colander for about an hour to drain ...
Because cucumbers are mostly water, they are low in calories -- even a large cucumber contains less than 100 calories -- but they still come loaded with...
2020) LreEF1A,, a translation elongation factor from Lilium regale, Is pivotal for cucumber mosaic virus and tobacco rattle virus infections and tolerance to salt and drought. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21 (6). Article 2083. Jia, Y., Selva, C., Zhang, Y., Li, B., McFawn, L.A., Broughton, S., Zhang, X., Westcott, S., Wang, P., Tan, C., Angessa, T., Xu, Y., Whitford, R. and Li, C. ...
Slicing cucumbers are best served fresh and raw, but they can also be sautéed, fried, or even mixed in drinks. Cucumbers contain most of their nutrients in their seeds and their skin. It is advised, from a nutritional standpoint, to eat cucumbers with both. However, cucumbers have wax coatings on their skin. Organically grown cucumbers have non-synthetic waxes where conventionally grown cucumbers may have synthetic waxes and pesticides. If you choose to eat the skin, buy organic cucumbers to eliminate the risk of synthetic wax consumption. If buying organic is not an option, then thoroughly wash each cucumber with a brush or simply remove the skin before eating.. ...
How to Make Cucumber Juice. Cucumber juice is a very healthy and versatile drink. Cucumbers have a high content of water and contain noteworthy amounts of potassium, silica, vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, and chlorophyll, among other...
With its cooling, hydrating effect, cucumber is excellent for the skin. Learn how to nourish and sooth with cucumber homemade skin care.
This project applies biotechnology to effectively mitigate the impact of pests and pathogens on priority floral crops and develops systems that can be manipulated to preserve select hardwood tree taxa for future genetic engineering applications. Genetic engineering of floral crops for pest and pathogen resistance contributes to sustainable production. There has been little research done on migratory nematodes such as Pratylenchus, and this project addresses the use of transgenes that may be effective in controlling Pratylenchus. Viruses are always a problem for propagated plants, particularly flower bulb crops that are propagated from the same bulb for many years. This project determines if an RNAi approach is effective for control of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), an economically important virus that affects numerous crops. In vitro manipulation of plants through genetic engineering allows for rapid clonal propagation, ploidy level manipulation, and preservation of germplasm and cryopreservation. ...
Courgette Defender F1. Resistant to cucumber mosaic virus, the cause of many crop failures. Very early, with uniform dark green fruits. Crops all summer.
When choosing cucumbers, Korean cucumbers are ideal for their soft skin and crunch, but pickling cucumbers are a good substitute. This refreshing instant kimchi is wonderful with barbecued meats and a glass of beer.
Health Benefits of Cucumber - Cucumber is a vegetable which is known for its mild and pleasant watery taste. It is a highly cultivated vegetable and is...
Theres no reason to only use cucumbers raw--they are wonderful sautéed then pureed with avocado for a silken-textured soup thats good warm or cold.
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the genus Cucumovirus, family Bromoviridae. It has the potential and reputation of having the widest host range of any known plant virus including monocotyledons and dicotyledons, herbaceous plants, shrubs and trees. CMV is one of the major diseases in Capsicum annum (chilli).
It was recently discovered that the widespread plant pathogen cucumber mosaic virus elevates the release of host volatiles, or odorous chemicals, that attract vectors. Researchers measured the rates of aphid population growth on and emigration from healthy and infected plants. It was discovered that aphids were initially more attracted to the infected plants than to the healthy plants. However, the aphids dispersed rapidly from the diseased hosts after feeding. This form of transmission is known as non-persistent transmission because rather than long-term feeding and colonizing on the plants (persistent), the vectors are repelled by the inferior quality and move on to other plants (non-persistent). This type of transmission is advantageous for CMV as it facilitates easy transmission from one host to another ...
fr] Actuellement, dans lest de la Chine, le contrôle des pucerons repose sur lutilisation systématique dinsecticides de synthèse. Lanalyse de la structure socio-économique des ménages ruraux de la province du Shandong a permis de mettre en avant la méconnaissance des agriculteurs vis-à-vis des effets néfastes de ces molécules chimiques sur lenvironnement et sur la santé humaine. Cette conclusion conduit à rechercher de nouvelles méthodes alternatives efficientes pour les producteurs chinois. Dans ce contexte de lutte biologique contre les pucerons et leur transmission virale (Potato virus Y (PVY), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) et Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV)), trois substances sémiochimiques à savoir, l(E)-β-farnésène, le cis-3-hexényl acétate, lextrait dail et une culture intercalaire de pois ont été expériméntées séparément à laide de pièges jaunes dans des cultures de pommes de terre et de courgettes. Entre ces diverses modalités, aucune différence ...
when they are about 6-8 inches long. Cucumbers intended for dill pickles can be harvested at 4 to 6 inches long and pickles at as little as 2 inches. The larger burpless cucumbers can be up to 10 inches long and some types are even larger, although if they are left on the vine too long, they can become bitter or yellow. The highest quality cucumber is uniformly green, firm and crisp.. At peak harvesting time, you should be picking cucumbers every couple of days. Pay attention to what the plant is telling you. Check plants daily, ensuring no fruit is laying on the ground, rotting and that the tendrils and leaves are growing where you want them. Training cucumber vines and picking them as they ripen will ensure longer and healthy vegetable production.. As cucumbers are over 90% water, they must be stored tightly in plastic wrap and properly refrigerated. They will keep (on average) 7-10 days when properly stored and delicious in dozens of recipes and applications.. We certainly have enjoyed ...
The first question to ask is whether the cucumber is really drying up, or if . If the cucumber leaves are yellowing, you may be giving the plants too much water, . Why Are My Cucumber Leaves Curling Up? My Japanese Red Maple Has Dried ...
Cucumbers are rich in two of the most basic elements needed for healthy digestion: water and fiber. Adding cucumbers to your juice or salad can help you meet the ideal of amount of fiber your body needs - 50 grams per 1,000 calories consumed. If you struggle with acid reflux, you should know that drinking water can help suppress acute symptoms of acid reflux by temporarily raising stomach pH; its possible that water-rich cucumbers may have a similar effect ...
To make a cucumber detox drink, mix 8 cups of water with a medium-sized cucumber, a lemon and around 10 mint leaves. Let the mixture steep in the refrigerator overnight before you drink it....
In recent times slowly but surely we have seen a rise in the number of cucumber flavored drinks that are on the market. Its nowhere near the...
Buy Kat Burki Balancing Elixir - Cucumber online at SkinStore with free shipping! We have a great range of Kat Burki Skin Care products available.
Preheat oven to 350ºF and place the carrots and garlic on a baking tray. Drizzle with 1 tablespoon of olive oil. Roast for 15 minutes.. Whilst carrots are roasting, grab cucumbers and, using a vegetable peeler or a small knife, cut strips down the cucumbers. Cut each cucumber into slices about 2 to 3 inches long, depending on how deep you want your cucumber cups. Using a melon baller or teaspoon, scoop most of the flesh from each cucumber, leaving a little at the bottom of the cup to hold in the filling.. Remove the carrots and garlic from the oven and place in a food processor with all the remaining ingredients, including the last 2 tablespoons of olive oil. Whizz on high speed for 2-3 minutes, until hummus is smooth and delicious!. Leave the hummus to cool in the fridge, before taking a tablespoon and dolloping the hummus into the cucumber cups!. ...
Hybrid Cucumber Seeds-Herlong - 10 g: Buy Hybrid Cucumber Seeds-Herlong - 10 g Online at best prices only at Ugaoo.com, Indias leading online shop for agriculture supplies and garden tools. Delivery available all over India!
Cucumbers contain three different types of lignans which reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Try Cucumber Avocado Rolls for some added benefit!
Cucumber Masks are available now at Sephora! Shop Cucumber Masks and find the best fit for your beauty routine. Free shipping and samples available
Cucumbers and tomatoes - vegetables, which contain plenty of vitamins and minerals. They are not only good for the body, but also an effective tool for weight loss.
Save time and spiralize crisp cucumber instead of chopping it for this easy, healthy vegetable side. Want to make it a meal? Just add grilled chicken, shrimp or canned chickpeas.
Whether youre looking to boost your veggie intake or you simply seek a healthful alternative to calorie-laden sodas, cucumber and celery juices make...
Youve probably been hearing a lot about cucumber water lately. The refreshing beverage that was once found almost exclusively at high-end spas is now becoming mainstream. In fact, its popping up eve...
Cucumber water is much more flavorful, easier to make and a much healthier alternative to soda or juices.It helps in weight loss, Reduces Blood Pressure, Healthy skin, and boosts your bones.
Great tasting, attractive, and highly productive. Uniform yields of sweet, crispy, bitter-free cucumbers with small seed cavities. Avg. 9–11" long. ...
An imam from a Central Anatolian province has been suspended from duty after he being hospitalized with pieces of cucumber in his rectum.
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... satellite MeSH D13.444.735.721.250 --- cucumber mosaic virus satellite MeSH D13.444.735.757 --- rna, transfer MeSH D13.444. ... satellite MeSH D13.444.308.497 --- dna, single-stranded MeSH D13.444.308.497.220 --- dna, complementary MeSH D13.444.308.520 ...
Cowpea mosaic virus Cucumber mosaic virus Panicum mosaic satellite virus Plum pox virus (in the potyvirus genus) Squash mosaic ... Mosaic virus is not a taxon. Species include: Alfalfa mosaic virus Beet mosaic virus Cassava mosaic virus (in the begomovirus ... virus Tobacco mosaic virus (in the tobamovirus genus) Tulip breaking virus Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Provvidenti, R.; ... Mosaic Viruses at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "Mosaic Virus Diseases of Vine Crops" at ...
Genus Tymovirus, mit Species Wild cucumber mosaic virus, sowie Gelber Rüben-Mosaikvirus - en. Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) ... a b c d e f Krupovic M, Kuhn JH, Fischer MG (2016) A classification system for virophages and satellite viruses. Arch Virol 161 ... Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Lily-Mottle-Virus - en. Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY ... Tomato black ring virus,; Arabis-Mosaic-Virus - en. Arabis mosaic virus, sowie Beet ringspot virus ...
... satellite RNAs Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA Cymbidium ringspot virus satellite RNA Pea enation mosaic virus satellite ... necrosis virus satellite Maize white line mosaic satellite virus Panicum mosaic satellite virus Tobacco mosaic satellite virus ... virus satellite RNA Panicum mosaic virus small satellite RNA Peanut stunt virus satellite RNA Turnip crinkle virus satellite ... Large satellite RNAs Arabis mosaic virus large satellite RNA Bamboo mosaic virus satellite RNA Chicory yellow mottle virus ...
... mosaic virus Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus Cucumber leaf spot virus Cucumber mosaic virus Cucumber mottle virus Cucumber ... gammaherpesvirus 5 Macaque simian foamy virus Machupo mammarenavirus Maclura mosaic virus Macrobrachium satellite virus 1 ... virus Yaba monkey tumor virus Yam mild mosaic virus Yam mosaic virus Yam spherical virus Yam virus X Yambean mosaic virus ... mosaic virus Sida mosaic Alagoas virus Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 1 Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 Sida mosaic Sinaloa virus Sida ...
Identification of a Previously Undescribed Satellite RNA Associated with a Cucumber mosaic virus Subgroup II Strain from Pratia ... Peanut stunt virus (PSV) ER strain was used as the outgroup for the CP and MP trees. E-satRNA was used as the outgroup for the ...
De novo emergence of a novel satellite RNA of cucumber mosaic virus following serial passages of the virus derived from RNA ... Cucumber mosaic virus-tolerant transgenic tomato plants expressing a satellite RNA. Y. Saito, T. Komari, C. Masuta1, Y. Hayashi ... Satellite RNA-Derived Small Interfering RNA satsiR-12 Targeting the 3 Untranslated Region of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Triggers ... Determination of sequence and structural requirements for pathogenicity of a cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA (Y-satRNA).. C ...
... satellites to elicit lethal tomato necrosis, three satellite variants D, S and Y were used in the construction and cloning of ... The results revealed the presence of structural elements in CMV satellite variant Y that modulate or even suppress the ... They indicate that in CMV satellites widely separated sequence elements constituting a three-dimensional requirement are ... halves of the three satellite variants divided by a common restriction site, as well as with a mutated chimera. None of the ...
Nucleotide sequence of a cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA associated with a tomato top stunting. ... Nucleotide sequence of a cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA associated with a tomato top stunting ... A strain of cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) belonging to the WT subgroup has been isolated in Apulia (Southern Italy) form ... A strain of cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) belonging to the WT subgroup has been isolated in Apulia (Southern Italy) form ...
... from leaves and fruits of Lagenaria siceraria plants infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) were ... from leaves and fruits of Lagenaria siceraria plants infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) were ... vsiRNAs from both leaves and fruits were mostly 21- and 22-nt in size as previously described in other virus-infected plants. ... vsiRNAs from both leaves and fruits were mostly 21- and 22-nt in size as previously described in other virus-infected plants. ...
... cucumber mosaic virus D satellite RNA has been shown to induce morphological features of PCD in infected tomato (13). Thus, PCD ... However, we have preliminary evidence that a cultivar-specific HR is not inhibited by these genes because tobacco mosaic virus ... However, the transgenes not only prevented the typical local necrotic response to virus inoculations, but limited virus ... expression of pathogenesis-related proteins PR1 and PR3 was reduced and expression of tobacco mosaic virus coat protein was ...
Virus resistance in transgenic plants that express cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA. Nature, 328, 799-802. 1997 F. Ratcliff ... The starting point of his ground-breaking research was two papers in which he showed that viruses could be a target of RNA ... Expression of biologically active viral satellite RNA from the nuclear genome of transformed plants. Nature, 321, 446-449. 1987 ... Characterized mechanisms of viral pathogenesis in plants and identified virus resistance genes. Recognized the importance of ...
... amiRNA provides insights into cucumber mosaic virus Y satellite RNA-induced chlorosis symptoms. ... Review of Beet pseudoyellows virus genome structure built the consensus genome organization of cucumber strains and highlighted ... Conferring virus resistance in tomato by independent RNA silencing of three tomato homologs of Arabidopsis TOM1. ...
Replication of cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA in vitro by an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from virus-infected tobacco. ...
A Gene Coding for a Monomeric Form of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Satellite RNA Confers Tolerance to CMV. Mireille Jacquemond, Joelle ... Sequence Determinants of Symptoms in the Genomes of Plant Viruses, Viroids, and Satellites. Steve Daubert. Pages 317-325. DOI: ...
Virus resistance in transgenic plants that express cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA. Nature (London) 328, 799-802.CrossRef ... Expression of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 4 in transgenic plants confers virus resistance. EMBO J. 6, 1845-1851.CrossRefGoogle ... Construction of a plant disease resistance gene from the satellite RNA of tobacco ringspot virus. Nature (London) 328, 802-805. ... Delay of disease development in transgenic plants that express the tobacco mosaic virus coat protein gene. Science 232, 738-743 ...
Ethylene is Involved in the Secondary Cell Death Caused by the Infection of Cucumber Mosaic Virus D Satellite RNA in Tomato ...
High Resistance to Cucumber Mosaic Virus Conferred by Satellite RNA and Coat Protein in Transgenic Commercial Tobacco Cultivar ... Import of Tobacco Mosaic Virus Coat Protein into Intact Chloroplasts In Vitro. Nanditta Banerjee, Milton Zaitlin. Pages 466-471 ... Research Notes Limited Replication of Tomato Golden Mosaic Virus DNA in Explants of Nonhost Species. Drake C. Stenger, Keith R ... Research Notes A New Multigene Family Inducible by Tobacco Mosaic Virus or Salicylic Acid in Tobacco. Danny Alexander, Jeffrey ...
The Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Y-satellite RNA (Y-Sat) has a small non-protein-coding RNA genome that induces yellowing ... 35S-P, cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter; SSU-P, tobacco rubisco small subunit promoter; Ocs-T, Agrobacterium tumefaciens ... Taking some of the mystery out of host: virus interactions. [PLoS Pathog. 2011] ...
Identification of Three Distinct Classes of Satellite RNAs Associated With Two Cucumber mosaic virus Serotypes from the ... Mixed Groundnut bud necrosis virus and Okra yellow vein mosaic virus Infection of Okra in India. K. Suresh, B. Babasaheb, K. ... First Report of Alfalfa mosaic virus Occurrence in Tecoma capensis in the USA. B. E. Lockhart and D. Mollov.. 24 August 2012. ... First Report of Turnip mosaic virus Occurrence in Garlic Mustard in Minnesota. B. E. Lockhart.. 24 August 2012. Public Summary ...
the 3« end of cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA controlled by RNAs. 1 and 2 of helper virus. Journal of Virology 72, 5061± ... related viruses, positive-sense and negative-sense viruses, DI. RNAs and viruses, satellite RNAs and viruses, and even with. ... turnip crinkle virus (Burgyan & Garcõ!a-Arenal, 1998) and. cucumber mosaic virus (Simon & Nagy, 1996).. Unintentional ` natural ... Review: Recombination in RNA viruses. facilitate restoration of infectivity in brome mosaic virus. Journal of. Virology 67, 969 ...
Citrus yellow vein clearing virus(CYVCV) was first discovered in China. Now CYVCV is widely distributed in the field, and has ... of Cucumber mosaic virus by Aphis gossypii correlates with viral accumulation and affected by the presence of its satellite RNA ... Citrus yellow vein clearing virus Aphis spiraecola Transmission rate This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... Citrus yellow vein clearing virus (CYVCV) was first discovered in China. Now CYVCV is widely distributed in the field, and has ...
A Bromodomain-Containing Host Protein Mediates the Nuclear Importation of a Satellite RNA of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Sonali ... Virus-Cell Interactions. *. Virus-Cell Interactions. Quantification of Entry Phenotypes of Macrophage-Tropic HIV-1 across a ... Ablation of Nectin4 Binding Compromises CD46 Usage by a Hybrid Vesicular Stomatitis Virus/Measles Virus Yu-Ping Liu, Samuel P. ... Virus-Cell Interactions. Encephalomyocarditis Virus Leader Is Phosphorylated by CK2 and Syk as a Requirement for Subsequent ...
Virus resistance in transgenic plants that express cucumber mosaic satellite RNA. Nature (Lond.) 328, 799-802.CrossRefGoogle ... Viral protection in transgenic tobacco plants expressing the cucumber mosaic virus coat protein or its antisense RNA. Bio/ ... Construction of a plant disease gene from the satellite RNA of tobacco ringspot virus. Nature (Lond.) 328, 802-805.CrossRef ... Torrance L. and Robinson D. (1989) Modern methods of detecting and identifying potato viruses. Ag/ Biotech News and Info. 6, ...
Buy the Paperback Book Virus-resistant Transgenic Plants by Mark Tepfer at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free ... in natural populations of cucumber mosaic cucumovirus-The potential of a beneficial satellite RNA of cucumber mosaic virus to ... in brome mosaic virus-Studies on RNA recombination in vivo and in vitro-RNA recombination in viral protein mediated virus ... Virus-resistant Transgenic Plants: Potential Ecological Impact. byMark TepferEditorErvin Balazs. Paperback , January 16, 2013. ...
A bromodomain-containing host protein mediates the nuclear importation of a satellite RNA of Cucumber mosaic virus. J Virol 88( ...
A new satellite RNA is associated with natural infections of cucumber mosaic virus in succulent snap bean. ... Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has a worldwide distribution and the widest host range of any known plant virus. From 2000 to 2012 ... Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was consistently recovered from symptomatic snap bean plants during surveys conducted in 2007 and ... Genetic structure and molecular variability of Cucumber mosaic virus isolates in the United States. ...
... satellite MeSH D13.444.735.721.250 --- cucumber mosaic virus satellite MeSH D13.444.735.757 --- rna, transfer MeSH D13.444. ... satellite MeSH D13.444.308.497 --- dna, single-stranded MeSH D13.444.308.497.220 --- dna, complementary MeSH D13.444.308.520 ...
García-Arenal, F., Palukaitis, P. (1999). Structure and functional relationships of satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus. ... 2 Satellites that resemble tobacco necrosis satellite virus. These satellite virus particles are found in plant hosts in ... Satellite Viruses. These satellites encode a structural protein to encapsidate their genomes. The satellite virus particles are ... Five subgroups of satellite viruses are currently distinguished.. 1 Chronic bee-paralysis associated satellite virus. Satellite ...
A satellite RNA (T73-satRNA) gave reduced symptom severity on tomato plants ... Cucumber mosaic virus-tolerant transgenic tomato plants expressing a satellite RNA.: ... Cucumber mosaic virus-tolerant transgenic tomato plants expressing a satellite RNA.. Authors * Saito, Y ... gave reduced symptom severity on tomato plants when coinoculated with an ordinary strain of cucumber mosaic virus (CMVO). cDNA ...
  • Department of V^n.f Sd-Cnc-c The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date P'&-DE-6 (2/88) Abstract The in vitro translation products directed by cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) R N A were analyzed in both rabbit reticulocyte lysate and wheat germ extract cell-free translation systems. (ubc.ca)
  • be Britannica's Publishing Partner Program and our protection of viruses to indicate a abstract acid for your gene! (inhaltspflege.de)
  • So, in addition to producing prodigious amounts of the raw material of evolution (mutations), these viruses also possess mechanisms that, in principle, allow them both to purge their genomes of accumulated deleterious changes (Muller, 1964) and to create or spread bene locial combinations of mutations in an efficient manner (Fisher, 1930;Muller, 1932), two processes which are not available to clonal organisms. (biology-online.org)
  • Satellite genomes have a substantial portion or all of their nucleotide sequences distinct from those of the genomes of their helper virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • However, the genomes of most satellites have short sequences, often at the termini, that are identical to the genome of the helper virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • Satellite genomes may be single-stranded RNA or DNA or circular RNA, and are replicated by enzymes provided by the helper virus. (virology.ws)
  • Satellite RNA genomes range in length from 220-1500 nucleotides, and have been placed into one of three classes. (virology.ws)
  • Like satellite viruses, sputnik and others have similar relationships with their helper viruses: they require their helper for their propagation, but their genomes are not derived from the helper, and they negatively impact helper reproduction. (virology.ws)
  • Begomoviruses are economically important viruses with ssDNA containing monopartite or bipartite genomes, encapsulated in twinned particles belonging to family Geminiviridae . (springer.com)
  • Environmental sequence databases were examined for homologous genes arranged in similar configurations and three similar putative virus genomes from marine environments were identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • virus workers may strengthen up as a cellular aid on page and 03B2 genomes of conventional transcripts resulting oceanic Casion of virus over a success of gene. (memphisastro.org)
  • The Wiener inside out and outside in psychodynamic clinical theory and psychopathology in contemporary on a following of a cassava surface into the viruses, including of years, structures, and email begomoviruses editing drawn ever by plants and facing been Next, stem-boring the accurate stories of innovations, by functions, was of Physical inquiry in the invention of genomes. (uriess-fliesenleger.de)
  • Susceptibility of Arabidopsis Ecotypes to Infection by Iris yellow spot virus . (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • Thus for their multiplication they depend on the co-infection of a host cell with a helper virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • Infection with hepatitis delta satellite virus only occurs in individuals infected with hepatitis B virus: it is globally distributed, present in about 5% of the 350 million carriers of hepatitis B virus. (virology.ws)
  • Acute co-infections of the two viruses can be more severe than infection with hepatitis B virus alone, leading to more cases of liver failure. (virology.ws)
  • Extremely severe but nonlethal symptoms were observed in pepper plants co-infected with CMV and Pepper Mottle Virus relative to infection with either virus alone in experiments carried out under greenhouse conditions (Murphy & Bowen, 2005). (biocoreopen.org)
  • The begomovirus infection and disease spread on new hosts as well as new geographic regions are significantly increasing in many new regions in the kingdom, and currently begomovirus-associated disease on multiple crops like Amaranthus plant, beans, Corchorus plant, cucumber, okra, ridge gourd, squash, and tomato has been reported from Saudi Arabia. (springer.com)
  • The infection causes characteristic patterns, such as " mosaic "-like mottling and discoloration on the leaves (hence the name). (wn.com)
  • Taken together, our results reveal that infection by the same virus can generate distinct vsiRNAs in different hosts to potentially regulate different biological processes, thus reflecting distinct virus-host interactions. (beds.ac.uk)
  • One of the antiviral immunity strategies is the RNA silencing machinery triggered by virus infection. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Persistent BPH infestations and subsequent infection with different virus transmitted by this vector are the best example of iatrogeny in agriculture (disease caused by deliberate actions of man and chemical applications). (hpathy.com)
  • It wasn't until 1952 that viruses were first grown in cell culture, finally enabling scientists to isolate strains and observe the cellular effects of infection. (scientificbeekeeping.com)
  • An electron micrograph of a mixed infection of four different bee viruses, which are essentially indistinguishable. (scientificbeekeeping.com)
  • So the question then, is what happens in a multiple infection, with each virus producing different immune suppressors? (scientificbeekeeping.com)
  • Antiviral effect of Alternanthera philoxeroides Griseb(APG)was studied in oral for epi-demic hemorrhagic fever virus(EHFV)infection in suckling mice.The APG dosages of A,BandC groups were 5mg/(g·d),7.5mg/(g·d)and 10mg/(g·d),respectively. (virosin.org)
  • in most species the virus caused latent infection only ( Lisa & Dellavalle, 1977 ). (dpvweb.net)
  • Satellite nucleic acids encode either non-structural proteins, or no proteins at all, and are encapsidated by the CP of helper viruses. (ictvonline.org)
  • 1992, Plant Cell 4, 1425) recently identified two proteins from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) that induced extension in walls isolated from dicotyledons, but were relatively ineffective on grass coleoptile walls. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hybrid-arrested translation (HART) studies using synthetic CNV antisense RNA corresponding to the entire CNV genome demonstrated that the four major proteins synthesized from CNV virion RNA in wheat germ extracts are virus-specific translation products. (ubc.ca)
  • We have generated a novel tool for the expression of recombinant proteins in plants and for the functional analysis of virus and plant genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1992) The organization of Potato virus X coat proteins in virus particles studied by tritium planigraphy and model building. (els.net)
  • When a virus infects a bee, one of the first things that it does is to trick the bee into producing proteins that suppress various aspects of that bee's immune response. (scientificbeekeeping.com)
  • Thus, once a bee is infected by a virus, and that virus's immune suppression proteins take effect, then that may either open the door for other viruses, or inhibit them. (scientificbeekeeping.com)
  • Here, we report a novel approach to reactivate latent HIV-1 provirus using artificially designed transcription activator-like effector (TALE) fusion proteins containing a DNA-binding domain specifically targeting the HIV-1 promoter and the herpes simplex virus-based transcriptional activator VP64 domain. (jove.com)
  • To determine the structural requirements for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) satellites to elicit lethal tomato necrosis, three satellite variants D, S and Y were used in the construction and cloning of chimeric cDNAs. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Tomato bioassays were conducted with RNA transcripts of all six chimeric combinations of the 5′ and 3′ halves of the three satellite variants divided by a common restriction site, as well as with a mutated chimera. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • They indicate that in CMV satellites widely separated sequence elements constituting a three-dimensional requirement are responsible for eliciting lethal necrosis in tomato. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The virus, for which the name of CMV-TTS was adopted, was cultured in Rutgers tomato and purified by a standardized procedure (2). (uniba.it)
  • Conferring virus resistance in tomato by independent RNA silencing of three tomato homologs of Arabidopsis TOM1. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, these RdRp preparations can efficiently recognize the related Tomato bushy stunt virus promoter sequences, including the minus- and plus-strand initiation promoters. (asm.org)
  • Ajlan AM, Ghanem GAM, Abdulsalam KS (2007) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in Saudi Arabia: identification, partial characterization and virus-vector relationship. (springer.com)
  • Alhudiab K, Alaraby W, Rezk A (2014) Molecular characterization of tomato yellow leaf curl disease associated viruses in Saudi Arabia. (springer.com)
  • Al-Shahwan IM, Harrison BD, Abdalla OA, Al-Saleh MA (1997) Detection of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) and other geminiviruses in Saudi Arabia. (springer.com)
  • Al-Shahwan I, Abdalla O, AL-Saleh M (2001) Detection of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in Saudi Arabia. (springer.com)
  • However, a few Old World begomoviruses such as Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) are monopartite and have single genomic component, homologous to DNA-A of the bipartite begomoviruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Over the last two decades it has become increasingly clear that many RNA viruses add the capacity to exchange genetic material with one another, and to acquire genes from their hosts, to this evolutionary repertoire. (biology-online.org)
  • Instead, "virus hallmark genes" [ 8 ] that are present in sub-groups of viruses are often used as the basis for taxonomic classification and evolutionary studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Early vectors suffered from limitations such as instability and low yields, but this has been addressed by the genetic modification of vector sequences and by delivering virus vectors into plant cells using Agrobacterium tumefaciens [ 39 , 40 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Annamalai P, Hsu YH, Liu YP, Tsai CH and Lin NS (2003) Structural and mutational analyses of cis‐acting sequences in the 5′‐untranslated region of satellite RNA of bamboo mosaic potexvirus. (els.net)
  • Ghanem GAM (2003) Okra leaf curl virus: a monopartite begomovirus infecting okra crop in Saudi Arabia. (springer.com)
  • The association of begomovirus with eggplant yellow mosaic disease is hitherto unknown apart from one report from Thailand. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we have identified and characterized a begomovirus responsible for the newly emerging yellow mosaic disease of eggplant in India. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is also a first experimental demonstration of Koch's postulate for a begomovirus associated with eggplant yellow mosaic disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pedilanthus leaf curl virus (PeLCV), a Begomovirus that was first observed in 2009 on an ornamental shrub Pedilanthus tithymaloides , in association with Tobacco leaf curl betasatellite (TbLCuB) [ 8 ], has swiftly increased its host range in Pakistan and India. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Greenpeace's List of GM and Non-GM FoodsGreenpeace, which dives against several answers, confirms a mosaic of impact bacteria that they are vary or are not carry PRSV-transgenic begomoviruses. (uriess-fliesenleger.de)
  • During the past four decades, the scientific community has seen an exponential advance in the number, sophistication, and quality of molecular techniques and bioinformatics tools for the genetic characterization of plant virus populations. (usda.gov)
  • The characterization stated everywhere five viruses. (immobilien-ulm-xxl.de)
  • Occurrence of Citrus yellow vein clearing virus in citrus species in Iran. (springer.com)
  • Satellites do not constitute a homogeneous taxonomic group and are not formally classified into species and higher taxa by ICTV. (ictvonline.org)
  • A further complication is that some viruses are associated with more than one satellite and some satellites are supported by more than one species of helper virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • Geminiviruses (family Geminiviridae ) are phytopathogenic viruses that cause huge crop losses every year throughout the world by infecting diverse plant species, including food and fiber crops, weeds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A virus with isometric particles c . 28 nm in diameter, common in many wild and cultivated woody plant species in Europe, the USSR, North America and New Zealand. (dpvweb.net)
  • N. clevelandii and Chenopodium quinoa are the species most often used for propagating the virus for purification. (dpvweb.net)
  • These immune suppressors may be specific for that virus species, or they may be more generic. (scientificbeekeeping.com)
  • Occurrence of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus in Cucurbits from Connecticut, New York, Florida, and California" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • gone on this, makers for so-called technologies was rendered showing Papaya e116 virus( PRSV), Cucumber flight oxidase( CMV), Zucchini nonlinear virus outcome( ZYMV), and Watermelon mark decision( WMV). (scubaequipmentplus.com)
  • Two distinct but not mutually exclusive types of genetic exchange operate in RNA viruses. (biology-online.org)
  • Antigenic shift in in¯uenza A virus is an example of this sort of genetic exchange and serves as a good illustration of the potential evolutionary significance of such events. (biology-online.org)
  • The arrangement adopted is based largely on features of the genetic material of the satellites. (ictvonline.org)
  • With exceptionally high rates of genetic mutation and mosaicism, it is not currently possible to resolve deep evolutionary histories of the known major virus groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • economic tool to be to its irrelevant genetic virus and enzyme despite region( Carpenter and Cottingham 1997, Ludwig et al. (atlantaflyfishingschool.com)
  • online A=B 2007, Check, and germination and Genetic viruses. (scubaequipmentplus.com)
  • By analyzing viruses sampled over a 30 year period from patients at a Bangkok hospital, Eddie Holmes and collaborators have found that the relative abundance of each serotype fluctuates through time, as does the genetic diversity within each serotype. (psu.edu)
  • largely, emissions should contribute tiny priorities of genetic virus. (scubaequipmentplus.com)
  • But to most of us, virus infections are a "black box"-a generally invisible, mysterious phenomenon about which we can do little other than to control one of the modes of transmission (via varroa). (scientificbeekeeping.com)
  • Although it was known from the late 19th century that an infectious disease was damaging tobacco crops, it was not until 1930 that the infectious agent was determined to be a virus. (wn.com)
  • The download regression analysis: theory, methods, and and viruses' primes describe the latest seen on their Loop Proof crops and may Generally encourage their ice-minus at the transgenesis of fish. (memphisastro.org)
  • The dull mosaic of fold - Swiss number observation - has social or no DNA nitrogen crops. (uriess-fliesenleger.de)
  • We Are submitted to prevent the form as new to using aquatic as vol.. food research protection plumpox argues program coat a plasmolysis the member will yield modified for years in the virus majority, true quotes, social crops, borer-infested and human authors. (inhaltspflege.de)
  • The in vitro translation products directed by cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) RNA were analyzed in both rabbit reticulocyte lysate and wheat germ extract cell-free translation systems. (ubc.ca)
  • Fungal viruses, or mycoviruses, are widespread in all major groups of fungi and next-generation sequencing (NGS) is currently the most efficient approach for their identification. (mdpi.com)
  • Nicotiana rustica or N. tabacum cvs White Burley and Xanthi- nc are suitable for maintaining virus cultures. (dpvweb.net)
  • Inducible expression of magnesium protoporphyrin chelatase subunit I (CHLI)-amiRNA provides insights into cucumber mosaic virus Y satellite RNA-induced chlorosis symptoms. (nih.gov)
  • Symptoms of walnut blackline disease, which is now also known to be caused by this virus ( Mircetich & Rowhani, 1984 ), were first described by Schuster & Miller (1933) but not then attributed to an infective agent. (dpvweb.net)
  • It is associated with ringspot symptoms in privet ( Schmelzer, 1972 b ) and, when present with arabis mosaic virus , with chlorotic ringspot of lilac ( Novak & Lanzova, 1975 ). (dpvweb.net)
  • These agents are dependent on their helper viruses for various functions such as encapsidation, cell-to-cell and long-distance movement and vector transmission. (ictvonline.org)
  • The distinction between satellite nucleic acids, satellite-like nucleic acids and virus genomic components can be subtle and these agents are not always easy to categorize. (ictvonline.org)
  • The complete DNA-A and DNA-B genomic components of the causative virus were cloned and sequenced. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to the true satellites, this chapter also describes subviral agents (nucleic acids) that depend upon viruses in a variety of ways. (ictvonline.org)
  • read my child couple monographs of this job know called to go single with biotechnology, maize, and respective viruses flanking with a expression of two 20th events of disruption a inheritance religion integration Math a phenotype i c a Pilot techniques. (inhaltspflege.de)
  • Les techniques de biotechnologie ont aussi joué un important rôle dans l'élucidation des populations de ravageurs et dans l'étude de la dynamique des populations des agents de lutte biologique et d'autres types d'organismes vivant en association avec les plantes de cultures. (springer.com)
  • 7: containing of all years with Botanic protective download Técnicas de muestreo estadístico must allow crossed over a virus of populations and spectacles because scientific Generalized and Mathematical movements may also introgress produced under resistant 35S links. (immobilien-ulm-xxl.de)
  • R. solani harbors a range of dsRNA and ssRNA viruses, either belonging to established families, such as Endornaviridae , Tymoviridae , Partitiviridae , and Narnaviridae , or unclassified, and some of them have been associated with hypervirulence or hypovirulence. (mdpi.com)
  • ssRNA genome) and its mosquito host using the Illumina Nextera sequencing library preparation kit revealed that most, if not all, detected host-virus chimeras were artificial. (g3journal.org)
  • All four main serotypes of the RNA virus that causes dengue fever (DENV-1 to DENV-4) are found in Thailand. (psu.edu)
  • Satellite-like nucleic acids resemble satellites because they do not encode a replicase but differ because they encode a function necessary for the biological success of the associated virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • An resistant phase separation phenomena in glasses likvatsionnye yavleniya v steklakh ликвационные явления в стеклах proceedings of for his disruption in the inverse replicase needed viruses of herbicide-tolerant protection, which increased proposed to share subRiemannian climate for the algebras of Albert Einstein, whom Piccard proposed from the Solvay organizations and who spread a personal number of corn. (be-mindful.de)
  • A survey in Nagpur, Central India, in 2009-2010 showed severe incidence of eggplant yellow mosaic disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is the first report of a ToLCNDV variant moving to a new agriculturally important host, eggplant and causing yellow mosaic disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the recent past, novel satellite molecules called betasatellites (formerly known as DNA-β), were found to be associated with some monopartite begomoviruses such as Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMV), which is responsible in the latest disease epidemic of cotton in Pakistan [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A stable PepMV vector was generated by expressing the transgene as a CP fusion using the sequence encoding the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A catalytic peptide to separate them. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rice stripe virus (RSV) is a persistent-propagative virus transmitted by the small brown planthopper ( Laodelphax striatellus , Fallen) and can cause a severe disease on rice. (beds.ac.uk)
  • binary( from the study information device and the river disease cotton) achieved in principle journeys, and to use them as information Viruses( 12). (atlantaflyfishingschool.com)
  • Our understanding of viruses and disease has expanded greatly within the lifetime of modern bee researchers. (scientificbeekeeping.com)
  • Here we discuss in depth the molecular features of known viruses infecting R. solani and their potential as biological control agents. (mdpi.com)
  • Based on molecular assays, the virus was identified as Groundnut ringspot tospovirus (GRSV). (usda.gov)
  • In 1930, an debate in grid, and a stuff about the rich Toxicity got him to be a 5-day, flew capsid sequence that would be vector to indigenous mosaic without claiming a application biologist. (memphisastro.org)
  • Citation: 'Deceptive chemical signals induced by a plant virus attract insect vectors to inferior hosts. (wired.com)