A satellite RNA (not a satellite virus) which has several types. Different cucumoviruses can act as helper viruses for different types.
A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Folin is the water-soluble extract from Sasa albomarginata. Sasa kurinensis is an ingredient of Sho-ju-sen, a Japanese herbal medicine.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Diseases of plants.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A plant genus in the CHENOPODIACEAE family.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
Polymer of polytetrafluoroethylene and carbon filaments; porous biocompatible material used in orofacial and middle ear reconstruction and as coating for metal implants.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A genus in the family TOMBUSVIRIDAE mostly found in temperate regions. Some species infecting legumes (FABACEAE) are reported from tropical areas. Most viruses are soil-borne, but some are transmitted by the fungus Olpidium radicale and others by beetles. Carnation mottle virus is the type species.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
A plant genus of the family Gentianaceae whose members contain SECOIRIDOIDS and have been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE for suppressing INFLAMMATION.
A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.
A plant family of the order Gentianales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida.

Differential effects of satellite RNA on the accumulation of cucumber mosaic virus RNAs and their encoded proteins in tobacco vs zucchini squash with two strains of CMV helper virus. (1/16)

The presence of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) satellite RNA usually reduces the yield of accumulated helper virus, although more so in solanaceous than in cucurbit hosts. The accumulation of viral RNA and viral-encoded proteins of two strains of CMV (Fny- and Sny-) known to differ in their ability to support satellite RNA in zucchini squash was examined in squash and tobacco to determine the effect of satellite RNA on the accumulation of viral-associated components. In the absence of satellite RNA, Fny- and Sny-CMV showed similar levels of accumulation of RNA at 7 days postinoculation (p.i.), but by 14 days p.i. the Fny-CMV RNAs accumulated to lower levels than did both strains at 7 days p.i., in either host. The levels of accumulated Sny-CMV-encoded proteins were higher than those encoded by Fny-CMV in tobacco, but not squash plants, at 7 days p.i. At 14 days p.i., for Fny-CMV vs Sny-CMV, there were differences in the levels of accumulation of most CMV-encoded proteins in both hosts, more exacerbated in tobacco vs squash. The effect of satellite RNA was to intensify these differences; that is, by 7 days p.i., satellite RNA reduced the accumulation of Fny-CMV RNAs 1 and 2 and their encoded proteins in both tobacco and squash but had little or no effect on the accumulation of Sny-CMV RNAs or encoded proteins. By 14 days p.i., the levels of accumulation of all Fny-CMV RNAs and encoded proteins were severely reduced in both hosts, and the levels of accumulation of Sny-CMV RNAs 1 and 2 and their encoded proteins were also reduced in tobacco, but not squash. Sny-CMV did not support satellite RNA accumulation in squash plants or protoplasts. Satellite RNA did not appear to have a direct effect on the movement of either CMV strain. Rather, accumulation studies in tobacco protoplasts indicated that the difference in response of Fny-CMV vs Sny-CMV to satellite RNA in tobacco was due to the extent to which satellite RNA affected the levels of RNA 1, and to a lesser extent RNA 2, and their encoded proteins, 1a and 2a, both components of the CMV replicase.  (+info)

In spite of induced multiple defense responses, tomato plants infected with Cucumber mosaic virus and D satellite RNA succumb to systemic necrosis. (2/16)

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) D satellite RNA (satRNA) attenuates the symptoms induced by CMV in most plants, but causes leaf epinasty and systemic necrosis in tomato plants, where programmed cell death (PCD) is involved. However, our understanding of the cellular and molecular responses to the infection of CMV D satRNA that result in this lethal disease remains limited. In this article, we show for the first time, by histochemical and molecular analysis, that multiple defense responses are specifically induced in CMV and D satRNA (CMV/D satRNA)-infected tomato plants but not in mock-inoculated or CMV-infected plants. These responses include callose deposition and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in infected plants. Furthermore, the transcription of several tomato defense-related genes (e.g., PR-1a1, PR-1b1, PR-2, and PR-10) were activated, and the expression of tomato PR-5 and some abiotic and biotic stress-responsive genes (e.g., catalase II and tomato analogs of Arabidopsis AtBI-1 and tobacco hsr203j) are enhanced. The activation and increase in expression of these genes is correlated with the appearance of leaf epinasty and the development of systemic necrosis in infected tomato plants, while increased expression of the hsr203j analog precedes the development of any disease symptoms. The spatial and temporal expression patterns of these genes as detected by RNA in situ hybridization point to the involvement of a complex developmental program that accompanies disease development resulting from CMV/D satRNA infection.  (+info)

Analysis of mechanisms involved in the Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA-mediated transgenic resistance in tomato plants. (3/16)

Transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. UC82) plants expressing a benign variant of Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA (CMV Tfn-satRNA) were generated. The transformed plants did not produce symptoms when challenged with a satRNA-free strain of CMV (CMV-FL). The same plant lines initially were susceptible to necrosis elicited by a CMV strain supporting a necrogenic variant of satRNA (CMV-77), but a phenotype of total recovery from the necrosis was observed in the newly developing leaves. The features of the observed resistance were analyzed and are consistent with two different mechanisms of resistance. In transgenic plants inoculated with CMV-FL strain, the symptomless phenotype was correlated to the down-regulation of CMV by Tfn-satRNA, amplified from the transgene transcripts, as the first resistance mechanism. On the other hand, the delayed resistance to CMV-77 in transgenic tomato lines was mediated by a degradation process that targets satRNAs in a sequence-specific manner. Evidence is provided for a correlation between a reduced accumulation level of transgenic messenger Tfn-satRNA, the accumulation of small (approximately 23 nucleotides) RNAs with sequence homology to satRNAs, the progressively reduced accumulation of 77-satRNA in infected tissues, and the transition in infected plants from diseased to healthy. Thus, events leading to the degradation of satRNA sequences indicate a role for RNA silencing as the second mechanism determining resistance of transgenic tomato lines.  (+info)

Expression of antiapoptotic genes bcl-xL and ced-9 in tomato enhances tolerance to viral-induced necrosis and abiotic stress. (4/16)

D satellite RNA (satRNA) is a strain of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) satRNA that induces an epidemic lethal disease in tomato. No natural resistance or tolerance has ever been found. Previously, we demonstrated the involvement of programmed cell death in disease development. Here, transgenic tomato plants expressing animal antiapoptotic genes bcl-xL and ced-9 were generated through agrobacterium-mediated transformation. High expression of bcl-xL or ced-9 affected plant growth and seed development. Inoculation of seedlings with CMV/D satRNA at T(1) and T(2) generations resulted in delayed cell-death symptoms or absence of symptoms. The degree of symptom suppression was correlated with increasing expression levels of the transgenes. Survival rates were compared among inoculated transgenic lines expressing bcl-xL, ced-9, and bcl-xL (G138A), a loss-of-function mutant of bcl-xL. More than 80% of the bcl-xL and ced-9 T(1) transgenic lines showed higher survival rates than the average for bcl-xL (G138A) transgenic lines. Total RNA extracted from surviving plants contained D satRNA, indicating systemic accumulation of D satRNA. Thus, expression of bcl-xL and ced-9 improved tolerance to, rather than resistance to, CMV/D satRNA infection. In addition, expression of bcl-xL and ced-9 specifically abrogated the formation of necrotic lesions, but not other symptoms, in tomato leaves during chilling at 4 degrees C. At 7 degrees C, temperature-induced leaf senescence was dramatically delayed in bcl-xL and ced-9 transgenic plants, and high levels of anthocyanins accumulated, possibly limiting oxidative stress. Hence, expression of these animal antiapoptotic genes improved plant survival under abiotic or biotic stress.  (+info)

Genetic mapping of the compatibility between a lily isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus and a satellite RNA. (5/16)

Five isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from Lilium sp. (lily), which were isolated from specimens in Japan, Korea and Taiwan, were unable to support satellite RNA (satRNA) accumulation. In order to map the CMV sequences that are involved in satRNA support, HL-CMV (Japanese lily isolate), Y-CMV (ordinary strain) and Y-satellite RNA (Y-sat) were used as the source material. The pseudorecombinants between Y-CMV and HL-CMV revealed that RNA1 was essential for satRNA replication in lily. The results of chimeric constructs and various mutations showed that two amino acid residues (at positions 876 and 891) in the 1a protein were the determinants for the inability of HL-CMV to support a satRNA. Specifically, Thr at position 876 had a more pronounced effect than Met at position 891. Specific changes in RNA sequence were also detected in the 3' terminus of Y-sat and these particular alterations allowed it to be supported by HL-CMV. It is believed that, through evolution, the adaptation of CMV to lily resulted in the introduction of amino acid changes in the 1a protein, changes that coincidentally affected the ability of lily CMV to support satRNAs.  (+info)

Satellite RNA-mediated reduction of cucumber mosaic virus genomic RNAs accumulation in Nicotiana tabacum. (6/16)

Satellite RNAs (satRNAs) are molecular parasites that interfere with the pathogenesis of the helper viruses. In this study, the relative accumulation of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-Fny genomic RNAs with or without satRNAs were quantitatively analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that satRs apparently attenuated the symptoms of CMV-Fny on Nicotiana tabacum by depressing the accumulation of CMV-Fny genomic RNAs, tested as open reading frames. The accumulation of CMV-Fny 1a, 2a, 2b, 3a, and CP genes was much higher than that of CMV-Fny with satRs added (CMV-Fsat), at different inoculation times. CMV-FnyDelta2b, in which the complete 2b gene and 41 amino acids at the C-terminal of the 2a gene were deleted, caused only a slight mosaic effect on N. tabacum seedlings, similar to that of CMV-Fsat, but the addition of satRs to CMV-FnyDelta2b showed further decrease in the accumulation of CMV-FnyDelta2b genomic RNAs. Our results indicated that the attenuation of CMV, by adding satRs or deleting the 2b gene, was due to the low accumulation of CMV genomic RNAs, and that satRNA-mediated reduction of CMV genomic RNAs accumulation in N. tabacum was possibly related to the 2b gene.  (+info)

DCL4 targets Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA at novel secondary structures. (7/16)

It has been reported that plant virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) originated predominantly from structured single-stranded viral RNA of a positive single-stranded RNA virus replicating in the cytoplasm and from the nuclear stem-loop 35S leader RNA of a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus. Increasing lines of evidence have also shown that hierarchical actions of plant Dicer-like (DCL) proteins are required in the biogenesis process of small RNAs, and DCL4 is the primary producer of vsiRNAs. However, the structures of such single-stranded viral RNA that can be recognized by DCLs remain unknown. In an attempt to determine these structures, we have cloned siRNAs derived from the satellite RNA (satRNA) of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-satRNA) and studied the relationship between satRNA-derived siRNAs (satsiRNAs) and satRNA secondary structure. satsiRNAs were confirmed to be derived from single-stranded satRNA and are primarily 21 (64.7%) or 22 (22%) nucleotides (nt) in length. The most frequently cloned positive-strand satsiRNAs were found to derive from novel hairpins that differ from the structure of known DCL substrates, miRNA and siRNA precursors, which are prevalent stem-loop-shaped or dsRNAs. DCL4 was shown to be the primary producer of satsiRNAs. In the absence of DCL4, only 22-nt satsiRNAs were detected. Our results suggest that DCL4 is capable of accessing flexibly structured single-stranded RNA substrates (preferably T-shaped hairpins) to produce satsiRNAs. This result reveals that viral RNA of diverse structures may stimulate antiviral DCL activities in plant cells.  (+info)

Response of tomato and its wild relatives in the genus Solanum to cucumber mosaic virus and satellite RNA combinations. (8/16)

The differential response of 29 genotypes of tomato and wild tomato relatives (Solanum section Lycopersicon species) to cucumber mosaic virus strain Fny (CMV-Fny), alone or in combination with three different satellite RNA (satRNA) variants, allowed the identification of four disease phenotype patterns, each including plants that developed very severe symptoms (leaf malformations, top stunting and lethal necrosis) and plants that remained asymptomatic. No resistance or tolerance to CMV-Fny was observed, whilst individual host genotypes displayed latent infection upon inoculation with one (CMV-Fny/Tfn-satRNA, phenotype patterns 1 and 4), two (CMV-Fny/Tfn-satRNA and CMV-Fny/TTS-satRNA, phenotype pattern 2) or all three (the former two plus CMV-Fny/77-satRNA, phenotype pattern 3) CMV/satRNA combinations. RNA gel-blot analyses showed that latent infection generally correlated with a strong downregulation of CMV RNA accumulation levels. Introgression lines derived from a cross between Solanum habrochaites LA1777, which displayed disease phenotype pattern 2, and Solanum lycopersicum were screened for tolerance to the stunting phenotype induced by CMV-Fny/TTS-satRNA, and only one line, carrying an introgression on chromosome 6, was identified as being partially tolerant. Solanum chilense LA1932xS. lycopersicum back-cross introgression lines were screened for tolerance to lethal necrosis induced by CMV-Fny/77-satRNA (phenotype pattern 3); the tolerant phenotype was observed in 33 % of plants of the BC(1)F(2) progeny and <1 % of plants of the BC(1)F(3) progeny. Thus, potentially useful sources of tolerance to CMV/satRNA-induced diseases were identified, although the tolerant phenotypes appeared to be controlled by complex quantitative trait loci.  (+info)

To investigate the extent of the 3 end repair in a satellite RNA of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) strain Q (Q(sat)) by a heterologous Tomato aspermy virus (TAV), a set of biologically active agrotransformants corresponding to the three genomic RNAs of TAV was developed. Analysis of Nicotiana benthamiana plants agroinfiltrated with TAV and either wild type or each of the six 3 deletion mutants of Q(sat) revealed that (i) heterologous replicase failed to generate Q(sat) multimers, a hallmark feature of homologous replicase dependent replication of Qsat; (ii) manifestation of severe symptom phenotypes and progeny analysis suggested that heterologous replicase was competent to repair Q(sat) deletion mutants lacking up to 313 nucleotides (nt) but not beyond and (iii) comparative in silico analysis indicated that the 3 secondary structural features of the repaired Q(sat) progeny from heterologous vs homologous driven replicases are remarkably very similar. The significance of these observations is discussed
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To determine the structural requirements for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) satellites to elicit lethal tomato necrosis, three satellite variants D, S and Y were used in the construction and cloning of chimeric cDNAs. D and S are necrogenic and non-necrogenic prototype variants, respectively, and Y possesses the 3′ conserved necrosis-determining region but does not cause lethal tomato necrosis. Its 5′ half harbours an insertion/deletion region that results in a molecule about 30 nucleotides longer than other variants. Tomato bioassays were conducted with RNA transcripts of all six chimeric combinations of the 5′ and 3′ halves of the three satellite variants divided by a common restriction site, as well as with a mutated chimera. None of the chimeras containing the 5′ half of Y induced lethal necrosis in tomato even when their 3′ halves were that of the D variant with the conserved necrogenic element. Chimeras with the 3′ half of Y elicited only partial or restricted necrosis which was much
MIRAHORIAN DAN, HOLY GRAIL - AN INTERDIMENSIONAL GATE FOR DNA REPAIR & ETERNAL YOUTH/SFANTUL GRAAL-O POARTA INTERDIMENSIONALA PT. REPARAREA ADN/ Cine va descifra secretele Florii Vietii-Shri Yantra,un simbol mai vechi de 12000 de ani,va descoperi toate secretele universului.Who will discover the secrets of Flower of Life-Shri Yantra,a symbol older then 12000 years ,will know all the secrets of the Universe contact:[email protected] If you think in terms of Energy, Vibration, Frequency and Information(in+form) you will discover that todays medical sciences use exclusively medication(chemical drugs) as a material vector of energy and information to control psychosomatic disorders(pain,anxiety, depression, insomnia, blood pressure, fever,sugar level..). Daca gandim in termeni de energie, vibratii, frecventa si Informatie(in+forma) vom descoperi ca stiintele medicale actuale utilizeaza exclusiv medicatia (substante chimice naturale ori de sinteza), un vector material pt. energia si ...
The Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC) is the state-of-the-art R&D satellite of the Tata Memorial Centre …… Read More ...
a href=http://www.wittyfeed.com/story/11011/dreadful-timeline-revealing-diseases-that-will-strike-you-in-futureMedical science/a;is improving every day. But, some a href=http://www.wittyfeed.com/st...
Are most IV Access Teams taking on central line dressing changes for continuity of care and maintenance particularly with the CMS reimbursement issue coming in Ocotber?Kevin
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the causal agents of viral diseases that infected mint (Mentha spp.). CMV is a member of the cucumovirus genus in Bromoviridae family. The virus is naturally transmitted by aphids in a non-persistent manner.During growing season 2007-2008, leaf samples from plants of mint fields with symptoms of viral disease were collected in mint fieldas in Tehran province. The polyclonal antibodies were used to the samples by DAS-ELISA . Some of the tested samples, showed positive reaction against cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) specific antibody. Some of the positive samples which are mechanically inoculated on test plants.Some leaf samples from mint plants with symptoms of yellows and mosaic were showed positived reaction against cucumber mosaic virus specific antibody.To confirm the identify of the virus detected using a specific primer pair of CMV which amplify part of coat protein of CMV . A fragment about 700bp was amplified in Immunocapture reverse transcriptase polymerase
TY - JOUR. T1 - Arabidopsis tonoplast proteins TIP1 and TIP2 interact with the cucumber mosaic virus 1a replication protein. AU - Kim, Min Jung. AU - Kim, Hwa Ran. AU - Paek, Kyung Hee. PY - 2006/11/1. Y1 - 2006/11/1. N2 - The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) replication complex has previously been shown to associate with cellular membranes. However, it remains unknown whether any host factors participate in this process. In this study, five groups of Arabidopsis tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) genes were isolated and the proteins they encoded were evaluated with regard to their interactions with CMV proteins. TIP1 and TIP2 were found to interact with the CMV 1a protein in the Sos recruitment system, whereas no interactions with the other three TIP subgroups were observed in this assay. The interaction of CMV 1a with the TIP1 and TIP2 proteins was confirmed via co-immunoprecipitation assays. Additionally, CMV 1a co-localized with TIP1 and TIP2 in transfected Arabidopsis protoplasts. The findings of ...
Looking for online definition of necrogenic in the Medical Dictionary? necrogenic explanation free. What is necrogenic? Meaning of necrogenic medical term. What does necrogenic mean?
Cucumber Mosaic Virus Identification and Control. CMV actually effects over 1200 plant species including cucumbers and related squash, melons and curcubits, tomatoes, Peppers and related plants and nearly all commonly grown vegetable and ornamental garden plants. In fact, it has the widest host range of any known plant virus.
Genomic comparisons of seed-transmissible and non-seed-transmissible strains of cucumber mosaic virus by Jeffrey L. Ried, unknown edition,
Courgette plants are also susceptible to Cucumber Mosaic Virus, but dont throw the plant away until you are sure. As stated before I would expect to see puckered, mottled leaves that turn yellow with time. The whole plant will have stunted growth. Does your corgette plant have these symptoms? Tell me about where you are growing it indoors, if it is still alive I would certainly plant it outside now as all danger of frost has passed, it may be protesting at the fact that it is still indoors! Was the plant siiting in a saucer of water? Was enough air getting to the roots or were they possibly waterlogged? Was the plant sat on a very hot and sunny windowsill where the young leaves were getting scorched? The more information you can give me, the more chance I have of solving this ...
Phytopathology 95:827-833...Phytopathology 95:827-833...An Analysis of Host Adaptation and Its Relationship with Virulence in Cucumber mosaic virus...Soledad Sacristán , Aurora Fraile , José M. Malpica , and Fernando García-Arenal...
When New Yorks snap bean growers began suffering widespread devastating losses, Stephen Reiners, Cornell University horticulture professor, assembled a research village to develop short-term and long-term responses. The multidisciplinary task force included Cornell horticultural specialists, entomologists, a seed scientist, a plant pathologist, a plant breeder, a virologist and extension educators.. At the start, we looked at the fields with severe yield loss and had more questions than answers, Reiners says. We identified the problem as cucumber mosaic virus and called together the expertise to answer our questions. It was a full effort to respond quickly.. Julie Kikkert, Cornell Cooperative Extension vegetable specialist, served as the conduit to the processing industry and the growers who periodically met with the research team.. Pete Call was among the growers whose fields were 50 to 100 percent infected with cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in 2001. Call, who has 2,500 acres of beans, ...
Sepsis is a lethal disease caused by a systemic microbial infection that spreads via the bloodstream to overwhelm the bodys defenses. Current therapeutic approaches are often suboptimal, in part, because they do not fully eliminate the pathogen, and hence the source of deadly toxins. Here we describe an ext
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Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a serious pathogen of many economically important crops. In Western Australia (WA), CMV is a serious disease of narrow-leafed lupin, Lupinus angustifolius, which is the main grain legume crop. There is no known natural resistance genes to CMV have been identified .in narrow-leafed lupin germplasm that can be transferred to new cultivars using classical breeding techniques. The aim of this project was to develop a series of molecular resistance constructs and to apply them to produce pathogen-derived resistance to CMV in narrow-leafed lupin. A total of nine different CMV resistance gene constructs were developed. Eight constructs were based on the movement protein (MP), coat protein (CP) and replicase (Rep) genes of the WA subgroup II CMV-LY isolate originally obtained from infected narrow-leafed lupin, and one was based on the CP gene of a WA subgroup I CMV isolate from banana.. The gene constructs were cloned into the plant binary vectors pYR2 and pART27/7 driven ...
The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b protein not only inhibits anti-viral RNA silencing but also quenches transcriptional responses of plant genes to jasmonic acid, a key signalling molecule in defence against insects. This suggested that it might affect interactions between infected plants and aphids, insects that transmit CMV. We found that infection of tobacco with a 2b gene deletion mutant (CMVD2b) induced strong resistance to aphids (Myzus persicae) while CMV infection fostered aphid survival. Using electrical penetration graph methodology we found that higher proportions of aphids showed sustained phloem ingestion on CMV-infected plants than on CMVD2b-infected or mock-inoculated plants although this did not increase the rate of growth of individual aphids. This indicates that while CMV infection or certain viral gene products might elicit aphid resistance, the 2b protein normally counteracts this during a wild-type CMV infection. Our findings suggest that the 2b protein could indirectly ...
Satellite RNAs Cucumber mosaic virus (an epiphytotic of lethal necrotic disease among tomato plants in France in 1972). This was unusual because of the severity and atypical nature of the symptoms associated with infections of tomato plants (See description of cucumber mosaic in prior text). Enhanced response of tomatoes to this disease were associated with host used for virus propagation; virus grown in tobacco or tomato yielded an enhanced necrotic response, those propagated in cucurbit hosts yielded a reduce necrotic response. RNA extractions of necrotic tomato plants revealed the presence of variable amounts of a small RNA species in addition to the expected three genomic and one subgenomic RNAs. This 5th RNA species was designated CARNA 5 (i.e., CMV-associated RNA 5 or CMV satRNA), a satellite RNA. When CARNA 5 is present with CMV, symptoms of the disease are enhanced in tomato plants, while in tabasco pepper the presence of CARNA 5 tends to attenuate the disease symptoms caused by CMV. ...
Satellite RNAs Cucumber mosaic virus (an epiphytotic of lethal necrotic disease among tomato plants in France in 1972). This was unusual because of the severity and atypical nature of the symptoms associated with infections of tomato plants (See description of cucumber mosaic in prior text). Enhanced response of tomatoes to this disease were associated with host used for virus propagation; virus grown in tobacco or tomato yielded an enhanced necrotic response, those propagated in cucurbit hosts yielded a reduce necrotic response. RNA extractions of necrotic tomato plants revealed the presence of variable amounts of a small RNA species in addition to the expected three genomic and one subgenomic RNAs. This 5th RNA species was designated CARNA 5 (i.e., CMV-associated RNA 5 or CMV satRNA), a satellite RNA. When CARNA 5 is present with CMV, symptoms of the disease are enhanced in tomato plants, while in tabasco pepper the presence of CARNA 5 tends to attenuate the disease symptoms caused by CMV. ...
Normand, Russell Anthony, Studies on the Differential Transmission of Strains of Cucumber Mosaic Virus by Aphids. (1967). LSU Historical Dissertations and Theses. 1356 ...
BioCore Group publishes top quality latest scientific research articles/journals in the field of science, Technology and Medicine. All are open access journals.
The NBRP is one of the research arms of NARO, the National Banana Research Program is mandated to carry out research on Banana in Uganda.
Find out all you need to about caring for Wisteria. Read advice from RHS to find out everything from growing your own plants, fruit & veg to winter pruning.
Been a long time since i have purchased any light, and this is good. Nice and i was going to email my regular shops till i saw the price. Unfortunately at 220 bucks its crazy. My TK70 with batteries included still is under this and kcd is a wee bit higher. (of course thats a bigger light). But its good, time for Trustfire/SkyRay/Ultrafire to come out with 85mm head diameter based lights. The last time that one from cnquality goods was underdriven at 2A. They already have the host ready (and its quite nice), the X7 ...
COGEM released a comprehensive database of pathogenicity assessment of around 2575 bacterial species in 2011. The database ranks the pathogenicity of species on a scale of 1 to 4 - 1 being not belonging to a recognized group of disease-invoking agents in humans or animals and having an extended history of safe usage and 4 being a species that can cause a very serious human disease, for which no prophylaxis is known ...
We examined the correlation of the amino acid at position 129 in the coat protein (CP) of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) with the phenotype of the viral pathology in tobacco by using CP mutants in which several amino acid substitutions had been introduced. An exchange between Ser129 in CMV-Y, a chlorosis-inducing strain, and Pro129 of CMV-O, a green-mosaic-inducing strain, reciprocally altered the phenotypes of those virus strains on tobacco. Replacement of either Ser129 in CMV-Y or Pro129 in CMV-O with a Leu, as is found in a chlorosis-inducing strain, CMV-M, resulted in veinal necrosis. Furthermore, we created mutants that have a Phe or a Gly at position 129. Two Phe129 mutants induced necrotic lesions on the inoculated leaves, and a Gly129 mutant induced green mosaic symptoms. In inoculated protoplasts, the mutant viruses and the wild-type virus all replicated RNA well, and accumulated CP; however, infection with the Leu129 and Phe129 mutants yielded few virions. The Phe129 mutants lacked the capacity
Tomaru, K., 1967: Changes in virus concentration in Tobacco plants at different periods of time after inoculation with Cucumber mosaic virus. VII. Cross protection in symptom-masked leaves, effect of DIECA on infectivity and measurements of virus concentration by serological reaction, purification, and specific infectivity
The program. Our intensive graduate program puts you on a fast career track with a leading supplier of semiconductor process equipment for wafer processing. Our goal is to cultivate and nurture the next wave of technical experts, project managers or leaders of ASM.. For the first 2-3 years, you will be working at our R&D satellites in Helsinki, Finland or Leuven, Belgium. During the program, you will be assigned to creating breakthrough process solutions in collaboration with our global product lines and research partners. You will play a pivotal role in strengthening the connection between the business and R&D.. You will work on challenging process development projects and at the same time participate in internal and external training. After some time you will be assigned to lead projects where you can use your creative abilities to overcome tough, technical obstacles and drive new R&D breakthroughs.. With a mentor from a business unit and expert partner, you will work with other talented ...
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 23:283-293...Ken Komatsu,1 Masayoshi Hashimoto,1 Johji Ozeki,1 Yasuyuki Yamaji,1 Kensaku Maejima,1 Hiroko Senshu,1 Misako Himeno,1 Yukari Okano,1 Satoshi Kagiwada,2 and Shigetou Namba1...
Cucumbers are known to mankind for over six thousand years. Article about calories in cucumber, useful properties of cucumberm how to choose them.
A woodiness disease of passionfruit was described by Cobb (1901) but as both passionfruit woodiness and cucumber mosaic viruses may cause woody fruit and leaf mosaic (Taylor, 1959), the authenticity of records prior to that of McKnight (1953) is in doubt. However, passionfruit woodiness virus was rare in P. edulis in Queensland in 1927 and widespread in 1932 (Simmonds, 1959) suggesting that it was introduced into that State about 1927. Its absence from cool, temperate areas of Australia and the rare occurrence of cucumber mosaic virus in Queensland suggest that ecological factors influence the distribution of both viruses. Experimentally, a mixed infection by the two viruses in P. edulis causes a very severe disease (Taylor, 1959), but naturally occurring mixed infections are not always so virulent. To differentiate the two viruses it is best to use the electron microscope; the filamentous particles of passionfruit woodiness virus are usually readily found in the sap of infected plants. The ...
I think I used about 12 cucumbers but you can pickle any amount, just adjust the quantity of spiced vinegar you make. The night before, peel and slice all your cucumbers and place in a large bowl. Pour over about a tablespoon of salt. Dont worry, you wont eat the salt. If you dont drawn the fluid from the cucumbers it dilutes the vinegar too much in the jars. Mix the cucumbers around with your hands, making sure the salt is well distributed, put a clean tea towel over the top of the bowl and leave it overnight. The following morning there will be a lot of fluid in the cucumber bowl. Pour it all into a colander and let the salty water go down the drain. Run clean cold water from the tap over the cucumbers to make sure all the salt is removed. Leave the cucumber in the colander for about an hour to drain ...
Because cucumbers are mostly water, they are low in calories -- even a large cucumber contains less than 100 calories -- but they still come loaded with...
Gentian (Gentiana sp.) is an important perennial flower in Japan. In terms of cut flower cultivation area size it occupies 2nd to 3rd place. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), broad bean wilt virus (BBWV), tobacco rattle virus and clover yellow vein virus have been reported to infect gentians. We have analyzed gentian plants collected from the largest production area in Japan, Ashiro-cho in the Iwate prefecture, and found that most plants with severe virus symptoms were infected either by CMV alone or by both CMV and BBWV. The association of CMV with severe symptomatolgy was also confirmed in greenhouse experiments in which CMV and BBWV isolates obtained from symptomatic gentian plants were inoculated to gentian seedlings. CMV induced severe symptoms, while BBWV did not cause any. Dual inoculation of CMV and BBWV slightly aggravated symptoms in comparison with those caused by CMV alone. These results suggested that CMV is the most destructive virus in gentian. In greenhouse experiments three satellite ...
Zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo) is a systemic host for most strains of the cucumovirus Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), although the long-distance movement of the M strain of CMV (M-CMV) is inhibited in some cultivars. However, co-infection of zucchini plants with M-CMV and the potyvirus Zucchini yellow mosaic virus strain A (ZYMV-A) allowed M-CMV to move systemically, as demonstrated by tissue-print analysis. These doubly infected plants exhibited severe synergism in pathology. Infection of zucchini squash by M-CMV and an attenuated strain of ZYMV (ZYMV-AG) showed a milder synergy in pathology, in which ZYMV-AG also facilitated the long-distance movement of M-CMV similar to that promoted by ZYMV-A. Variation in the extent of synergy in pathology by the two strains of ZYMV did not correlate with differences in levels of accumulation of either virus. Thus, the extent of synergy in pathology is at least in part independent of the resistance-neutralizing function of the potyvirus ...
2020) LreEF1A,, a translation elongation factor from Lilium regale, Is pivotal for cucumber mosaic virus and tobacco rattle virus infections and tolerance to salt and drought. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21 (6). Article 2083. Jia, Y., Selva, C., Zhang, Y., Li, B., McFawn, L.A., Broughton, S., Zhang, X., Westcott, S., Wang, P., Tan, C., Angessa, T., Xu, Y., Whitford, R. and Li, C. ...
Slicing cucumbers are best served fresh and raw, but they can also be sautéed, fried, or even mixed in drinks. Cucumbers contain most of their nutrients in their seeds and their skin. It is advised, from a nutritional standpoint, to eat cucumbers with both. However, cucumbers have wax coatings on their skin. Organically grown cucumbers have non-synthetic waxes where conventionally grown cucumbers may have synthetic waxes and pesticides. If you choose to eat the skin, buy organic cucumbers to eliminate the risk of synthetic wax consumption. If buying organic is not an option, then thoroughly wash each cucumber with a brush or simply remove the skin before eating.. ...
How to Make Cucumber Juice. Cucumber juice is a very healthy and versatile drink. Cucumbers have a high content of water and contain noteworthy amounts of potassium, silica, vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, and chlorophyll, among other...
With its cooling, hydrating effect, cucumber is excellent for the skin. Learn how to nourish and sooth with cucumber homemade skin care.
Fresh or pickled, cucumber benefits offer more than mere hydration. Our expert talks us through cucumbers impressive nutritional profile.
This chef has some epic knife skills and can turn an ordinary cucumber into some amazing things. Thats pretty much the role of any startup founder. Except, usually, it involves less knives.
Poniente offers an upgrade from Tyria with added resistance to cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV). Bitter-free, 12–13" ...
This project applies biotechnology to effectively mitigate the impact of pests and pathogens on priority floral crops and develops systems that can be manipulated to preserve select hardwood tree taxa for future genetic engineering applications. Genetic engineering of floral crops for pest and pathogen resistance contributes to sustainable production. There has been little research done on migratory nematodes such as Pratylenchus, and this project addresses the use of transgenes that may be effective in controlling Pratylenchus. Viruses are always a problem for propagated plants, particularly flower bulb crops that are propagated from the same bulb for many years. This project determines if an RNAi approach is effective for control of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), an economically important virus that affects numerous crops. In vitro manipulation of plants through genetic engineering allows for rapid clonal propagation, ploidy level manipulation, and preservation of germplasm and cryopreservation. ...
Courgette Defender F1. Resistant to cucumber mosaic virus, the cause of many crop failures. Very early, with uniform dark green fruits. Crops all summer.
When choosing cucumbers, Korean cucumbers are ideal for their soft skin and crunch, but pickling cucumbers are a good substitute. This refreshing instant kimchi is wonderful with barbecued meats and a glass of beer.
Health Benefits of Cucumber - Cucumber is a vegetable which is known for its mild and pleasant watery taste. It is a highly cultivated vegetable and is...
Author: Chris Conkey Cucumbers are 96% water which is essential to our good health. Lets face it; most of us dont drink enough water. So if youre not going to drink water, why not eat it? That is not difficult to do when cucumbers are such a quick and easy snack. Comprised of mostly water…
Theres no reason to only use cucumbers raw--they are wonderful sautéed then pureed with avocado for a silken-textured soup thats good warm or cold.
Cucumber is an essential vegetable with varied uses in cooking and other plain servings, take advantage of bulk purchase to save money compared to buy
Genus Tymovirus, mit Species Wild cucumber mosaic virus, sowie Gelber Rüben-Mosaikvirus - en. Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) ... a b c d e f Krupovic M, Kuhn JH, Fischer MG (2016) A classification system for virophages and satellite viruses. Arch Virol 161 ... Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Lily-Mottle-Virus - en. Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY ... Tomato black ring virus,; Arabis-Mosaic-Virus - en. Arabis mosaic virus, sowie Beet ringspot virus ...
1 January - NASA's GRAIL-B satellite successfully enters lunar orbit, joining its twin spacecraft GRAIL-A. The two satellites ... Change) 1 October - Sea cucumbers and sea urchins are able to change the elasticity of collagen within their bodies, and could ... BBC) (uniQure) 5 November New research suggests that just one or two individual herpes virus particles attack a skin cell in ... with over a billion stars visible in a mosaic combined from thousands of individual images. (BBC) (The Royal Observatory, ...
... satellite RNAs Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA Cymbidium ringspot virus satellite RNA Pea enation mosaic virus satellite ... virus satellite RNA Panicum mosaic virus small satellite RNA Peanut stunt virus satellite RNA Turnip crinkle virus satellite ... Maize white line mosaic satellite virus Papanivirus - Panicum mosaic satellite virus Virtovirus - Tobacco mosaic satellite ... satellite RNAs Large linear satellite RNAs Arabis mosaic virus large satellite RNA Bamboo mosaic virus satellite RNA (satBaMV) ...
... cucumber, pumpkin, melon, and eggplant, can cause an estimated yield loss of 40-70%. Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) ... The DNA B genome originated as a satellite that was captured by the monopartite progenitor of all extant bipartite ... virus Jatropha mosaic Nigeria virus Jatropha mosaic virus Jatropha yellow mosaic virus Kudzu mosaic virus Leonurus mosaic virus ... mosaic virus Sida mosaic Alagoas virus Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 1 Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 Sida mosaic Sinaloa virus Sida ...
... terrestrial and satellite television, telex, and internet. Rural telephone service is available via satellite in the ... 158 health workers contracted the virus and two died. 46% of the cases were treated at hospitals run by Servicios de Salud de ... These include bananas, cherimoyas, mameys, melons, cucumbers, tomatillos, jicama, squash, alfalfa, cotton, peanuts, onions and ... is the Glorieta de La Luna with Venetian mosaic by José García Narezo. Along the main street, Paseo de la Reforma, there are ...
1957 Artificial satellite Sputnik 1, the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite. It was launched into an elliptical low ... The key part of rassolnik is rassol, a liquid based on the juice of pickled cucumbers with some additions, famous for its usage ... Architecture The earliest Kievan churches were built and decorated with frescoes and mosaics by Byzantine masters. The great ... 1891 Three-phase hydroelectric power plant By Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky 1892 Viruses By Dmitri Ivanovsky 1894 Nephoscope By ...
It is estimated viruses kill 20% of this biomass each day and that there are 15 times as many viruses in the oceans as there ... Colorful sea lilies in shallow waters Sea cucumbers filter feed on plankton and suspended solids. The sea pig, a deep water sea ... Zhu, M; Zhao, W; Jia, L; Lu, J; Qiao, T; Qu, Q (2009). "The oldest articulated osteichthyan reveals mosaic gnathostome ... 2011). "Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data". Global Ecology and ...
... satellite MeSH D13.444.735.721.250 - cucumber mosaic virus satellite MeSH D13.444.735.757 - rna, transfer MeSH D13.444.735.757. ... satellite MeSH D13.444.308.497 - dna, single-stranded MeSH D13.444.308.497.220 - dna, complementary MeSH D13.444.308.520 - dna ...
... M. S. ... A benign viral satellite RNA, in combination with a mild strain of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-S), was used as a "vaccine" or " ... The use of this technology for biological control of plant viruses is discussed. ...
D satellite RNA (satRNA) with its helper virus, namely, cucumber mosaic virus, causes systemic necrosis in tomato. The infected ... 1999). Structure and functional relationships of satellite RNAs of cucumber mosaic virus. In Satellites and Defective Viral ... 1995). Effect of temperature on cucumber mosaic virus satellite-induced lethal tomato necrosis is helper virus strain dependent ... 1992). Cucumber mosaic virus. In Advances in Virus Research, Maramorosch K., Murphy F.A., Shatkin A.J., eds (San Diego, CA: ...
Identification of a Previously Undescribed Satellite RNA Associated with a Cucumber mosaic virus Subgroup II Strain from Pratia ... Peanut stunt virus (PSV) ER strain was used as the outgroup for the CP and MP trees. E-satRNA was used as the outgroup for the ...
De novo emergence of a novel satellite RNA of cucumber mosaic virus following serial passages of the virus derived from RNA ... Cucumber mosaic virus-tolerant transgenic tomato plants expressing a satellite RNA. Y. Saito, T. Komari, C. Masuta1, Y. Hayashi ... Satellite RNA-Derived Small Interfering RNA satsiR-12 Targeting the 3 Untranslated Region of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Triggers ... Determination of sequence and structural requirements for pathogenicity of a cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA (Y-satRNA).. C ...
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), broad bean wilt virus (BBWV), tobacco rattle virus and clover yellow vein virus have been reported ... CONTROL OF CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS (CMV) IN GENTIAN BY SATELLITE RNA CONTAINING ATTENUATED CMV STRAINS ... 722_18 CONTROL OF CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS (CMV) IN GENTIAN BY SATELLITE RNA CONTAINING ATTENUATED CMV STRAINS ... Vaccination, pre-inoculation, biological control, Cucumovirus, cucumber mosaic virus, CMV, satellite RNA, mild strain, gentian ...
... satellites to elicit lethal tomato necrosis, three satellite variants D, S and Y were used in the construction and cloning of ... The results revealed the presence of structural elements in CMV satellite variant Y that modulate or even suppress the ... They indicate that in CMV satellites widely separated sequence elements constituting a three-dimensional requirement are ... halves of the three satellite variants divided by a common restriction site, as well as with a mutated chimera. None of the ...
... by a heterologous Tomato aspermy virus (TAV), a set of biologically active agrotransformants corresponding to the three genomic ... end repair in a satellite RNA of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) strain Q (Q(sat)) ... Template-Independent Repair of the 3′ End of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Satellite RNA Controlled by RNAs 1 and 2 of Helper Virus ... Helper Virus-Independent Transcription and Multimerization of a Satellite RNA Associated with Cucumber Mosaic Virus ...
Nucleotide sequence of a cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA associated with a tomato top stunting. ... Nucleotide sequence of a cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA associated with a tomato top stunting ... A strain of cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) belonging to the WT subgroup has been isolated in Apulia (Southern Italy) form ... A strain of cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) belonging to the WT subgroup has been isolated in Apulia (Southern Italy) form ...
Genetic mapping of the compatibility between a lily isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus and a satellite RNA. Files in This Item: ... Genetic mapping of the compatibility between a lily isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus and a satellite RNA. ... Five isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from Lilium sp. (lily), which were isolated from specimens in Japan, Korea and ... and Y-satellite RNA (Y-sat) were used as the source material. The pseudorecombinants between Y-CMV and HL-CMV revealed that ...
... from leaves and fruits of Lagenaria siceraria plants infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) were ... from leaves and fruits of Lagenaria siceraria plants infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) were ... vsiRNAs from both leaves and fruits were mostly 21- and 22-nt in size as previously described in other virus-infected plants. ... vsiRNAs from both leaves and fruits were mostly 21- and 22-nt in size as previously described in other virus-infected plants. ...
A Field Survey for Serogroups and the Satellite RNA of Cucumber Mosaic Virus. Christopher M. Kearney, Thomas A. Zitter, and ... Decline of Bean Pod Mottle Virus Specific Infectivity in Vivo Correlates with Degradation of Encapsidated RNA-1. S. ...
... cucumber mosaic virus D satellite RNA has been shown to induce morphological features of PCD in infected tomato (13). Thus, PCD ... However, we have preliminary evidence that a cultivar-specific HR is not inhibited by these genes because tobacco mosaic virus ... However, the transgenes not only prevented the typical local necrotic response to virus inoculations, but limited virus ... expression of pathogenesis-related proteins PR1 and PR3 was reduced and expression of tobacco mosaic virus coat protein was ...
Virus resistance in transgenic plants that express cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA. Nature, 328, 799-802. 1997 F. Ratcliff ... The starting point of his ground-breaking research was two papers in which he showed that viruses could be a target of RNA ... Expression of biologically active viral satellite RNA from the nuclear genome of transformed plants. Nature, 321, 446-449. 1987 ... Characterized mechanisms of viral pathogenesis in plants and identified virus resistance genes. Recognized the importance of ...
... amiRNA provides insights into cucumber mosaic virus Y satellite RNA-induced chlorosis symptoms. ... Review of Beet pseudoyellows virus genome structure built the consensus genome organization of cucumber strains and highlighted ... Conferring virus resistance in tomato by independent RNA silencing of three tomato homologs of Arabidopsis TOM1. ...
Replication of cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA in vitro by an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from virus-infected tobacco. ...
Nucleotide sequence analysis of six satellite RNAs of cucumber mosaic virus: primary sequence and secondary structure ... Electroporation-mediated infection of tobacco leaf protoplasts with tobacco mosaic virus RNA and cucumber mosaic virus RNA. ... Replicase-mediated resistance to cucumber mosaic virus in transgenic plants involves suppression of both virus replication in ... Specificity of replicase-mediated resistance to cucumber mosaic virus.. Zaitlin M, Anderson JM, Perry KL, Zhang L, Palukaitis P ...
Virus resistance in transgenic plants that express cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA. Nature (London) 328, 799-802.CrossRef ... Expression of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 4 in transgenic plants confers virus resistance. EMBO J. 6, 1845-1851.CrossRefGoogle ... Construction of a plant disease resistance gene from the satellite RNA of tobacco ringspot virus. Nature (London) 328, 802-805. ... Delay of disease development in transgenic plants that express the tobacco mosaic virus coat protein gene. Science 232, 738-743 ...
A Bromodomain-Containing Host Protein Mediates the Nuclear Importation of a Satellite RNA of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Sonali ... Virus-Cell Interactions. *. Virus-Cell Interactions. Quantification of Entry Phenotypes of Macrophage-Tropic HIV-1 across a ... Ablation of Nectin4 Binding Compromises CD46 Usage by a Hybrid Vesicular Stomatitis Virus/Measles Virus Yu-Ping Liu, Samuel P. ... Virus-Cell Interactions. Encephalomyocarditis Virus Leader Is Phosphorylated by CK2 and Syk as a Requirement for Subsequent ...
Ethylene is Involved in the Secondary Cell Death Caused by the Infection of Cucumber Mosaic Virus D Satellite RNA in Tomato ...
The precise mechanism regulating the nuclear import of a satellite RNA of cucumber mosaic virus is not known. Chaturvedi et al ... Bromodomain-Containing Protein Functions in Nuclear Import of a Satellite RNA. *Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Latency-Associated ... Universal Influenza Virus Vaccine Constructs Protect against H7N9 Virus Challenge. Vaccine constructs based on the conserved ... Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Latency-Associated Transcript Regulates Herpesvirus Entry Mediator Expression. The herpes simplex virus ...
Identification of Three Distinct Classes of Satellite RNAs Associated With Two Cucumber mosaic virus Serotypes from the ... Mixed Groundnut bud necrosis virus and Okra yellow vein mosaic virus Infection of Okra in India. K. Suresh, B. Babasaheb, K. ... First Report of Alfalfa mosaic virus Occurrence in Tecoma capensis in the USA. B. E. Lockhart and D. Mollov.. 24 August 2012. ... First Report of Turnip mosaic virus Occurrence in Garlic Mustard in Minnesota. B. E. Lockhart.. 24 August 2012. Public Summary ...
the 3« end of cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA controlled by RNAs. 1 and 2 of helper virus. Journal of Virology 72, 5061± ... related viruses, positive-sense and negative-sense viruses, DI. RNAs and viruses, satellite RNAs and viruses, and even with. ... turnip crinkle virus (Burgyan & Garcõ!a-Arenal, 1998) and. cucumber mosaic virus (Simon & Nagy, 1996).. Unintentional ` natural ... Review: Recombination in RNA viruses. facilitate restoration of infectivity in brome mosaic virus. Journal of. Virology 67, 969 ...
Citrus yellow vein clearing virus(CYVCV) was first discovered in China. Now CYVCV is widely distributed in the field, and has ... of Cucumber mosaic virus by Aphis gossypii correlates with viral accumulation and affected by the presence of its satellite RNA ... Citrus yellow vein clearing virus Aphis spiraecola Transmission rate This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... Citrus yellow vein clearing virus (CYVCV) was first discovered in China. Now CYVCV is widely distributed in the field, and has ...
Differential replication in zucchini squash of a cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA maps to RNA 1 of the helper virus. ... De novo emergence of a novel satellite RNA of cucumber mosaic virus following serial passages of the virus derived from RNA ... Thapa, V., McGlinn, D. J., Melcher, U., Palmer, M. W. & Roossinck, M. J., 2015, In : Virus Evolution. 1, 1, vev007.. Research ... Development of a real-time RT-PCR SYBR green assay for Tomato ring spot virus in grape. Stewart, E. L., Qu, X., Overton, B. E ...
Virus resistance in transgenic plants that express cucumber mosaic satellite RNA. Nature (Lond.) 328, 799-802.CrossRefGoogle ... Viral protection in transgenic tobacco plants expressing the cucumber mosaic virus coat protein or its antisense RNA. Bio/ ... Construction of a plant disease gene from the satellite RNA of tobacco ringspot virus. Nature (Lond.) 328, 802-805.CrossRef ... Torrance L. and Robinson D. (1989) Modern methods of detecting and identifying potato viruses. Ag/ Biotech News and Info. 6, ...
For survival, plant viruses and herbivores have evolved strategies to convergently target JA signaling. Here, we review the ... What is worse, a successful plant virus evolves multiple strategies to manipulate host defenses to promote the population of ... Plant viruses pose serious threats to stable crop yield. The majority of them are transmitted by insects, which cause secondary ... roles of JA signaling in the tripartite interactions among plant, virus, and insect vectors, with a focus on the molecular and ...
Buy the Paperback Book Virus-resistant Transgenic Plants by Mark Tepfer at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free ... in natural populations of cucumber mosaic cucumovirus-The potential of a beneficial satellite RNA of cucumber mosaic virus to ... in brome mosaic virus-Studies on RNA recombination in vivo and in vitro-RNA recombination in viral protein mediated virus ... Virus-resistant Transgenic Plants: Potential Ecological Impact. byMark TepferEditorErvin Balazs. Paperback , January 16, 2013. ...
A new satellite RNA is associated with natural infections of cucumber mosaic virus in succulent snap bean. ... Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has a worldwide distribution and the widest host range of any known plant virus. From 2000 to 2012 ... Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was consistently recovered from symptomatic snap bean plants during surveys conducted in 2007 and ... Genetic structure and molecular variability of Cucumber mosaic virus isolates in the United States. ...
A bromodomain-containing host protein mediates the nuclear importation of a satellite RNA of Cucumber mosaic virus. J Virol 88( ...
Satellites are subviral agents that differ from viroids because they depend on the presence of a helper virus for their ... For example, the Y-satellite RNA of cucumber mosaic virus causes systemic chlorosis in tobacco. This syndrome is caused by ... Satellite viruses may infect plants, animals, or bacteria. An example of a satellite virus is satellite tobacco necrosis virus ... Most known satellites are associated with plant viruses, but hepatitis delta satellite virus is associated with a human helper ...
  • Some strains of CMV harbor satellite RNAs (satRNAs)-small, linear molecules ranging from 332 to 405 nucleotides long. (plantcell.org)
  • To investigate the extent of the 3' end repair in a satellite RNA of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) strain Q (Q(sat)) by a heterologous Tomato aspermy virus (TAV), a set of biologically active agrotransformants corresponding to the three genomic RNAs of TAV was developed. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Virus-associated small satellite RNAs and viroids display similarities in their replication strategies. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Comparative studies on two satellite RNAs of cucumber mosaic virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Virus preparations purified from naturally infected plants contained CMV genomic RNAs 1-4 and a satellite RNA named TTS-CARNA 5 (CARNA 5 for CMV-associated RNA 5). (uniba.it)
  • RNA silencing is an evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanism, through which virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) playing roles in host antiviral defense are produced in virus-infected plant. (frontiersin.org)
  • Identification of Three Distinct Classes of Satellite RNAs Associated With Two Cucumber mosaic virus Serotypes from the Ornamental Groundcover Vinca minor . (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • 1997) presented evidence for a splicing-like, transesterication mechanism to explain the in vitro generation of recombinants between RNAs associated with Qb bacteriophage ± a possible exception to the copy±choice model of recombination in RNA viruses. (biology-online.org)
  • Satellite RNAs do not encode capsid protein, but are packaged by a protein encoded in the helper virus genome. (virology.ws)
  • Satellite RNAs do not encode a capsid protein and therefore require helper virus proteins for both genome encapsidation and replication. (virology.ws)
  • Class 1 satellite RNAs are 800-1500 nucleotide linear molecules with a single open reading frame encoding at least one non-structural protein. (virology.ws)
  • Class 2 satellite RNAs are linear, less than 700 nucleotides long and do not encode protein. (virology.ws)
  • Class 3 satellite RNAs are 350-400 nucleotide long circles without an open reading frame. (virology.ws)
  • The symptoms induced by satellite RNAs are thought to be a consequence of silencing of host genes. (virology.ws)
  • Examples include RNAs associated with groundnut rosette virus (genus Umbravirus ) or with beet necrotic yellow vein virus (genus Benyvirus ), that contribute to vector transmissibility and DNAs associated with begomoviruses (betasatellites) that encode a pathogenicity determinant. (ictvonline.org)
  • Satellites are distinct from defective interfering (DI) RNAs or defective RNAs because such RNAs are derived from their "helper" virus genomes. (ictvonline.org)
  • Nevertheless, satellite viruses may form their own DI RNAs that specifically interfere with the satellite virus genomic RNA, as has been shown for satellite panicum mosaic virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • Danthinne X, Seurinck J, Van Montagu M, Pleij CW, Van Emmelo J. Structural similarities between the RNAs of two satellites of tobacco necrosis virus. (ugent.be)
  • Compilation of self-cleaving sequences from plant virus satellite RNAs and other sources. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 11) has been used to transcribe complementary DNA probes from the four major RNA species of cucumber mosaic virus (RNAs 1 - 4 in order of decreasing molecular weight). (eurekamag.com)
  • Cucumber Mosaic Virus reprints the first three papers on cucumber mosaic disease published in 1916 and covers the literature since then on various aspects of CMV: the pathology associated with CMV, the molecular biology of CMV, the purification of CMV, the use of CMV as a protein expression vector or a gene-silencing vector, and the structure, biology, and evolution of CMV satellite RNAs. (apsnet.org)
  • The aggressiveness of these strains appears to be caused by satellite RNAs," he notes. (growingmagazine.com)
  • Upon viral infection, virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) can target both viral and host transcripts. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In tobacco, however, D-satRNA and WL1-satRNA attenuate symptoms, whereas minor nucleotide sequence variants of the B-satRNA either attenuate symptoms or induce chlorosis in a helper virus-specific manner (reviewed in García-Arenal and Palukaitis, 1999 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), broad bean wilt virus (BBWV), tobacco rattle virus and clover yellow vein virus have been reported to infect gentians. (ishs.org)
  • In addition, the transgenic tobacco plants displayed resistance to a necrogenic virus. (pnas.org)
  • Elucidation of the genome organization of tobacco mosaic virus. (nih.gov)
  • Cucumber mosaic virus is restricted from entering minor veins in transgenic tobacco exhibiting replicase-mediated resistance. (nih.gov)
  • A single nucleotide change in the coat protein gene of tobacco mosaic virus is involved in the induction of severe chlorosis. (nih.gov)
  • Replicase-mediated resistance to potato virus Y in transgenic tobacco plants. (nih.gov)
  • A defective replicase gene induces resistance to cucumber mosaic virus in transgenic tobacco plants. (nih.gov)
  • Resistance to tobacco mosaic virus induced by the 54-kDa gene sequence requires expression of the 54-kDa protein. (nih.gov)
  • Alleged common antigenic determinant of tobacco mosaic virus coat protein and the host protein ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase is an artifact of indirect ELISA and western blotting. (nih.gov)
  • Gerlach, W., Llewellyn, D. and Haseloff, J. (1987) Construction of a plant disease resistance gene from the satellite RNA of tobacco ringspot virus. (springer.com)
  • An example of a satellite virus is satellite tobacco necrosis virus, which encodes a capsid protein that forms an icosahedral capsid that packages only the 1,260 nucleotide satellite RNA. (virology.ws)
  • The helper virus, tobacco necrosis virus, encodes an RNA polymerase that replicates its genome and that of the satellite. (virology.ws)
  • For example, the Y-satellite RNA of cucumber mosaic virus causes systemic chlorosis in tobacco. (virology.ws)
  • 1986) have shown that viral coat protein confers a degree of resistance to tobacco mosaic virus, when expressed in tobacco. (pdfslide.net)
  • It was first described with Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) by McKinney in 1929 [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The relative content of TMV [tobacco mosaic virus] in tobacco and its reproduction curve were determined by the spectrophotometric method according to Taniguchi. (eurekamag.com)
  • This method was extended to other viruses (PVY [potato virus Y] and CMV [cucumber mosaic virus]) in tobacco. (eurekamag.com)
  • The virus reacted specifically with IgG for Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and related tobamoviruses [including Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV)] in double antibody sandwich, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (ishs.org)
  • The strains showed some biological, serological and satellite RNA based differentiation with other CMV strains isolated earlier from chrysanthemum, petunia and tobacco. (bvsalud.org)
  • We show that silencing of NbRDR6 causes plants to be hypersusceptible to PVX, potato potyvirus Y (PVY), and the Y satellite of CMV but not TMV, tobacco rattle tobravirus (TRV), turnip crinkle carmovirus (TCV), or CMV alone. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a positive-sense single stranded RNA virus that infects a wide range of plants, especially tobacco and other members of the family Solanaceae . (wn.com)
  • Although it was known from the late 19th century that an infectious disease was damaging tobacco crops, it was not until 1930 that the infectious agent was determined to be a virus. (wn.com)
  • Tobacco mosaic virus ( TMV ) can be spread from many plants to tomatoes. (wn.com)
  • The genomes of satellites range upward from 359 nucleotides in length for satellite tobacco ringspot virus RNA (STobRV). (wikipedia.org)
  • The tobacco necrosis virus was the virus that led to the discovery of the first satellite virus in 1962. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few years later in 1969, scientists discovered another symbiotic relationship with the tobacco ringspot neopvirus (TobRV) and another satellite virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This photo shows orchid leaves with symptoms of ringspots resulting from a strain of tobacco mosaic virus. (thoughtco.com)
  • The genomic sequences of several RNA plant viruses including cucumber mosaic virus, brome mosaic virus, alfalfa mosaic virus and tobacco mosaic virus have become available recently. (ias.ac.in)
  • The polypeptide folds of the coat protein of three biologically distinct isometric plant viruses, tomato Bushy stunt virus, southern bean mosaic virus and satellite tobacco necrosis virus have been shown to display a striking resemblance. (ias.ac.in)
  • A strain of cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) belonging to the WT subgroup has been isolated in Apulia (Southern Italy) form tomato plants showing a severe shortening of internodes of terminal shoots leading to a bushy appearance. (uniba.it)
  • Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from the genus Cucumovirus, family Bromoviridae has great economic importance because it affects a wide range of hosts, including over 1300 species in more than 500 genera, over 100 families, with new hosts being reported each year ( 1 ). (ijbiotech.com)
  • Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cucumovirus, Bromoviridae) is an economically significant virus infecting important horticultural and field crops. (bvsalud.org)
  • DAC-ELISA and RT-PCR tests were performed in leaf sap samples of betelvine for detection of a cucumovirus (Cucumber mosaic virus) and potyvirus (Bean yellow mosaic virus) using specific antibodies and universal primers of respective viruses. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cucumber mosaic virus is the type member of the Cucumovirus genus having isometric virus particles. (entomoljournal.com)
  • A benign viral satellite RNA, in combination with a mild strain of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-S), was used as a "vaccine" or "preinoculum" to demonstrate the feasibility of protecting pepper ( Capsicum annuum cv. (apsnet.org)
  • Characterized mechanisms of viral pathogenesis in plants and identified virus resistance genes. (maizegdb.org)
  • The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) is the only viral transcript consistently expressed during viral latency in sensory neurons. (asm.org)
  • The first, reassortment, occurs only in multipartite viruses and involves swapping one or more of the discrete RNA molecules that make up the segmented viral genome. (biology-online.org)
  • Transmissibility of Cucumber mosaic virus by Aphis gossypii correlates with viral accumulation and affected by the presence of its satellite RNA. (springer.com)
  • Here, we review the roles of JA signaling in the tripartite interactions among plant, virus, and insect vectors, with a focus on the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that drive vector-borne plant viral diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • For example, sputnik virus can only replicate in cells infected with mimivirus, and does so within viral factories. (virology.ws)
  • Others argue that the definition of satellite viruses as sub-viral agents cannot apply to these very large viruses. (virology.ws)
  • This is presumably linked to the dependence of nucleic acids of both satellite and helper virus on the same viral polymerase and host-encoded proteins for replication. (ictvonline.org)
  • parasite-derived resistance include resistance to cucumber mosaic virus deriving from viral satellite eDNA (Baulcombe et al. (pdfslide.net)
  • 1986), and resistance to alfalfa mosaic virus deriving from the viral coat gene (Loesch-Fries et al. (pdfslide.net)
  • We are studying viruses in wild plants in Costa Rica using next-gen sequence analysis of viral RNA from individual plants. (psu.edu)
  • Genetic loci controlling lethal cell death in tomato caused by viral satellite RNA infection. (psu.edu)
  • 2013. Fixation of emerging inter-viral recombinants in Cucumber mosaic virus populations is controlled by the replicase. (psu.edu)
  • Viral diseases, especially the cucumber mosaic, are the major limiting factors for successful pepper cultivation (Tan et al. (biocoreopen.org)
  • Positive-strand RNA viruses replicate in host cells by forming large viral replication organelles, which harbor numerous membrane-bound viral replicase complexes (VRCs). (bvsalud.org)
  • For example, it is known that it could protect itself from viral attack using RNA interference ( RNAi ), but, since no natural virus capable of infecting C. elegans had ever been described, why does it have innate antiviral defences? (botany.one)
  • It can be very difficult to distinguish between satellite RNA and viral genomic RNA (e. g., dsRNA satellites of fungus viruses) and it is very likely that other satellites, some with novel combinations of characters, remain to be discovered. (ictvonline.org)
  • Most viruses have the capability to use host enzymes or their own replication machinery to independently replicate their own viral RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • A satellite virus important to human health that demonstrates the need for co-infection to replicate and infect within a host is the virus that causes hepatitis D. Hepatitis D or delta virus (HDV) was discovered in 1977 by Mario Rizzetto and is differentiated from hepatitis A, B, and C because it requires viral particles from hepatitis B virus (HBV) to replicate and infect liver cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral dsRNAs accumulate during virus infection and are processed into vsiRNA duplexes by Dicer-2. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Bioinformatic analysis of viral metagenomic sequences derived from a hot, acidic lake revealed a circular, putatively single-stranded DNA virus encoding a major capsid protein similar to those found only in single-stranded RNA viruses. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This unique viral genome carries implications for theories of virus emergence and evolution, as no mechanism for interviral RNA-DNA recombination has yet been identified, and only scant evidence exists that genetic exchange occurs between such distinct virus lineages. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Untranslated Region of Plant Viral Genomes Expressed in Transgenic Plants upon Infection with Related Viruses. (memphisastro.org)
  • A recent promoter of viruses affects for dietary viral namely studied traits, coloring space assessment, accessed choosing, notable sky inventor, and review property. (atlantaflyfishingschool.com)
  • As simple organisms with a parasite nature, viruses have become masters in manipulating and subvert cellular components, including host proteins and organelles, to improve viral replication. (usda.gov)
  • Therefore, the understanding of viral strategies to manipulate cell function disrupting plant defenses and enhancing viral infection cycles is fundamental to the production of virus-resistant plant lines. (usda.gov)
  • may explore Algebraic for the first traits retrieved in the second species: ranchers in the integrated and viral autopilot, with promoter in ridges( second fields) in the information virus, which has gene to the t and is constitutively a external safety of cloze capacity. (memphisastro.org)
  • D satellite RNA (satRNA) with its helper virus, namely, cucumber mosaic virus, causes systemic necrosis in tomato. (plantcell.org)
  • To determine the structural requirements for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) satellites to elicit lethal tomato necrosis, three satellite variants D, S and Y were used in the construction and cloning of chimeric cDNAs. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Tomato bioassays were conducted with RNA transcripts of all six chimeric combinations of the 5′ and 3′ halves of the three satellite variants divided by a common restriction site, as well as with a mutated chimera. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • They indicate that in CMV satellites widely separated sequence elements constituting a three-dimensional requirement are responsible for eliciting lethal necrosis in tomato. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The virus, for which the name of CMV-TTS was adopted, was cultured in Rutgers tomato and purified by a standardized procedure (2). (uniba.it)
  • Conferring virus resistance in tomato by independent RNA silencing of three tomato homologs of Arabidopsis TOM1. (nih.gov)
  • Cucumber mosaic virus-tolerant transgenic tomato plants expres. (mysciencework.com)
  • Cucumber mosaic virus-tolerant transgenic tomato plants expressing a satellite RNA. (mysciencework.com)
  • A satellite RNA (T73-satRNA) gave reduced symptom severity on tomato plants when coinoculated with an ordinary strain of cucumber mosaic virus (CMVO). (mysciencework.com)
  • The tomato has a cDNA of a satellite RNA of cucumber mosaic virus. (springernature.com)
  • The method for transforming a tomato according to the present invention comprises transforming the tomato with Agrobacterium tumefaciens to which a plasmid containing a DNA region originating from the virulence region of Ti plasmid pTiBo542, and a cDNA of a satellite RNA of cucumber mosaic virus are introduced. (springernature.com)
  • CMV has the broadest host range of any virus, and among the 1,000-plus host plants it affects are economically important food crops such as tomato, pepper, and lettuce. (apsnet.org)
  • The authors identified critical roles of cellular membrane-shaping proteins and PI(3)P (phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate) phosphoinositide, a minor lipid with key functions in endosomal vesicle trafficking and autophagosome biogenesis, in VRC formation for tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV). (bvsalud.org)
  • The begomovirus infection and disease spread on new hosts as well as new geographic regions are significantly increasing in many new regions in the kingdom, and currently begomovirus-associated disease on multiple crops like Amaranthus plant, beans, Corchorus plant, cucumber, okra, ridge gourd, squash, and tomato has been reported from Saudi Arabia. (springer.com)
  • Ajlan AM, Ghanem GAM, Abdulsalam KS (2007) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in Saudi Arabia: identification, partial characterization and virus-vector relationship. (springer.com)
  • Alhudiab K, Alaraby W, Rezk A (2014) Molecular characterization of tomato yellow leaf curl disease associated viruses in Saudi Arabia. (springer.com)
  • Al-Shahwan IM, Harrison BD, Abdalla OA, Al-Saleh MA (1997) Detection of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) and other geminiviruses in Saudi Arabia. (springer.com)
  • Al-Shahwan I, Abdalla O, AL-Saleh M (2001) Detection of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in Saudi Arabia. (springer.com)
  • The pathogenicity of ToLCNDV-IN[IN:Nag:Egg:09] isolate was confirmed by agroinfiltraion and dimeric clones of DNA-A and DNA-B induced characteristic yellow mosaic symptoms in eggplants and leaf curling in tomato plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, a few Old World begomoviruses such as Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) are monopartite and have single genomic component, homologous to DNA-A of the bipartite begomoviruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Around 70 years ago, the discovery of the phenomenon that aphids ( Aphis fabae ) benefit from feeding on virus-infected leaves initiated a new research area in plant virology and the tripartite interaction of virus-vector-plant [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Identification and characterization of Citrus yellow vein clearing virus , a putative new member of the genus Mandarivirus . (springer.com)
  • For example, chimeric molecules can be formed from a satellite RNA associated with turnip crinkle virus (genus Carmovirus ) and parts of the helper virus genome. (ictvonline.org)
  • Yellow mosaic symptoms, frequently associated with family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus, were observed in 60 to 80% of M. charantia plants in surveys conducted in three countries in West Africa. (elsevier.com)
  • Genus Tequatrovirus ( T4virus , T4-ähnliche Viren , en. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) (genus Potexvirus , family Flexiviridae ), a widespread plant virus, is a promising candidate expression vector for plants because of its high level of accumulation in its hosts and the absence of severe infection symptoms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cucumis comprises a genus of nearly 40 species including several of considerable economic importance such as cucumber, muskmelon and West Indian gherkin (C. anguria L. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • The satRNAs are dependent on CMV for their replication, encapsidation, and dispersion, but they are not necessary for the life cycle of the virus. (plantcell.org)
  • Functional significance of a hepta nucleotide motif present at the junction of Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA multimers in helper-virus dependent replication. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Replicase-mediated resistance to cucumber mosaic virus in transgenic plants involves suppression of both virus replication in the inoculated leaves and long-distance movement. (nih.gov)
  • Satellites are subviral agents which lack genes that could encode functions needed for replication. (ictvonline.org)
  • A final group of agents described are nucleic acids capable of autonomous replication and which therefore are not strictly satellites although the term has sometimes been loosely applied to them. (ictvonline.org)
  • It has no effect on primary replication and cell-to-cell movement of the virus and does not contribute significantly to the formation of virus-derived small interfering (si) RNA in a fully established potato virus X infection. (plantphysiol.org)
  • A satellite is a subviral agent that depends on the coinfection of a host cell with a helper virus for its replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Satellites, in contrast, are completely dependent on a helper virus for replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symbiotic relationship between a satellite and a helper virus to catalyze the replication of a satellite genome is also dependent on the host to provide components like replicases to carry out replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • A satellite virus of mamavirus that inhibits the replication of its host has been termed a virophage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our experiments have also highlighted virus requirements for replication in single cells as well as intercellular and long-distance movement. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Potexviruses and carlaviruses constitute models for virus replication, movement and encapsidation studies. (els.net)
  • In this study, the profiles of vsiRNAs from leaves and fruits of Lagenaria siceraria plants infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) were comprehensively characterized and compared. (frontiersin.org)
  • Type strain ( Ainsworth, 1935 ) = cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, reported in UK and Europe. (dpvweb.net)
  • Five isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from Lilium sp. (hokudai.ac.jp)
  • Attenuated isolates of cucumber mosaic virus produced by satellite RNA and cross protection between attenuated isolates and virulent ones. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Telomeric function of the tRNA-like structure of brome mosaic virus RNA. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a small, positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus of the alphavirus-like superfamily. (thoughtco.com)
  • The brome mosaic virus commonly infects grasses, grains, and bamboos. (thoughtco.com)
  • The 3a protein of cucumber mosaic virus has an amino acid sequence homology of 33.7% with the corresponding protein of brome mosaic virus. (ias.ac.in)
  • A similar protein from alfalfa mosaic virus has a homology of 18.2% and 14.2% with the protein from brome mosaic virus and cucumber mosaic virus, respectively. (ias.ac.in)
  • These results suggest that the three plant viruses are evolutionarily related, although, the evolutionary distance between alfalfa mosaic virus and cucumber mosaic virus or brome mosaic virus is much larger than the corresponding distance between the latter two viruses. (ias.ac.in)
  • The non-structural 3a proteins of cucumber mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus have an amino acid sequence homology of 35% and hence are evolutionarily related. (ias.ac.in)
  • Comparison of the brome mosaic virus and alfalfa mosaic virus sequences reveals that they are probably related although with a much larger evolutionary distance. (ias.ac.in)
  • Satellite nucleic acids encode either non-structural proteins, or no proteins at all, and are encapsidated by the CP of helper viruses. (ictvonline.org)
  • 1992, Plant Cell 4, 1425) recently identified two proteins from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) that induced extension in walls isolated from dicotyledons, but were relatively ineffective on grass coleoptile walls. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hybrid-arrested translation (HART) studies using synthetic CNV antisense RNA corresponding to the entire CNV genome demonstrated that the four major proteins synthesized from CNV virion RNA in wheat germ extracts are virus-specific translation products. (ubc.ca)
  • Satellite viruses, which are most commonly associated with plants, but are also found in mammals, arthropods, and bacteria, encode structural proteins to enclose their genetic material, which are therefore distinct from the structural proteins of their helper viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Satellite nucleic acids, in contrast, do not encode their own structural proteins, but instead are encapsulated by proteins encoded by their helper viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have generated a novel tool for the expression of recombinant proteins in plants and for the functional analysis of virus and plant genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1992) The organization of Potato virus X coat proteins in virus particles studied by tritium planigraphy and model building. (els.net)
  • In contrast, the coat proteins exhibit little homology, although the circular dichroism spectrum of these viruses are similar. (ias.ac.in)
  • The development of new vectors based on plant viruses creates more efficient vectors driving high expression levels of heterologous proteins. (usda.gov)
  • Production of cucumber mosaic virus RNA5 and its role in recombination. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Evolution of a quadripartite hybrid virus by interspecific exchange and recombination between replicase components of two related tripartite RNA viruses. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A second process, recombination, can occur ineither segmented or unsegmented viruses when `donor'nucleotide sequence is introduced into a single, contiguous ` acceptor ' RNA molecule to produce a new RNA containing genetic information from more than one source. (biology-online.org)
  • First, we brie¯y review current knowledge of RNA virus recombination and describe new methods for detecting its occurrence using gene sequence data. (biology-online.org)
  • We then discuss some of the evolutionary implications of virus recombination and some of the constraints that may shape the variety of RNA virus recombination. (biology-online.org)
  • In some cases of RNA virus recombination, the donor sequence neatly replaces a homologous region of the acceptor sequence leaving its structure unchanged. (biology-online.org)
  • hybrid sequences resulting from aberrant homologous recombination (when similar viruses exchange sequence without maintaining strict alignment) and nonhomologous recombination (recombination between unrelated RNA sequences) are also commonly observed (Lai, 1992). (biology-online.org)
  • Recombination can occur between satellites and their helper viruses. (ictvonline.org)
  • We use Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) as a model virus for experimental evolution studies, including generation and maintenance of quasispecies, rates of recombination, and polymerase fidelity. (psu.edu)
  • The virus genome appears to be the result of a RNA-DNA recombination event between two ostensibly unrelated virus groups. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Susceptibility of Arabidopsis Ecotypes to Infection by Iris yellow spot virus . (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • Infection with hepatitis delta satellite virus only occurs in individuals infected with hepatitis B virus: it is globally distributed, present in about 5% of the 350 million carriers of hepatitis B virus. (virology.ws)
  • Acute co-infections of the two viruses can be more severe than infection with hepatitis B virus alone, leading to more cases of liver failure. (virology.ws)
  • Thus for their multiplication they depend on the co-infection of a host cell with a helper virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • Extremely severe but nonlethal symptoms were observed in pepper plants co-infected with CMV and Pepper Mottle Virus relative to infection with either virus alone in experiments carried out under greenhouse conditions (Murphy & Bowen, 2005). (biocoreopen.org)
  • Cross protection is a phenomenon in which plants infected or pre-inoculated with one virus with mild symptoms will show resistance to the subsequent infection by a severe isolate of the same or closely related virus [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The infection causes characteristic patterns, such as " mosaic "-like mottling and discoloration on the leaves (hence the name). (wn.com)
  • In 2008, the NYFVI granted Griffiths, a Cornell plant breeder, $325,000 to conduct multiple planting time field trials of snap bean cultivars selectively bred for CMV resistance and to investigate the use of CMV gene fragments to trigger RNA silencing in the snap bean plants as an innate defense mechanism against virus infection. (growingmagazine.com)
  • Plant cells, however, have a cell wall that is nearly impossible for viruses to breach in order to cause infection. (thoughtco.com)
  • Taken together, our results reveal that infection by the same virus can generate distinct vsiRNAs in different hosts to potentially regulate different biological processes, thus reflecting distinct virus-host interactions. (beds.ac.uk)
  • One of the antiviral immunity strategies is the RNA silencing machinery triggered by virus infection. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Persistent BPH infestations and subsequent infection with different virus transmitted by this vector are the best example of iatrogeny in agriculture (disease caused by deliberate actions of man and chemical applications). (hpathy.com)
  • The stability and quantity of coat protein gene of Citrus yellow vein clearing virus in different citrus cultivars. (springer.com)
  • Many persistently transmitted viruses have direct effects on their insect vectors including biting rates, feeding amount and the immunity alterations of defensive related gene expression, as reviewed previously [ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • This syndrome is caused by production of a small RNA from the Y-satellite RNA that has homology to a gene needed for chlorophyll biosynthesis. (virology.ws)
  • Characterization of Coat Protein Gene of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Isolates in Iran', Iranian Journal of Biotechnology , 11(2), pp. 109-114. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Prospects are discussed for using such genes in gene therapy treatment of people infected with this virus. (pdfslide.net)
  • CP gene of the virus was amplified using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned and sequenced. (bvsalud.org)
  • The major virus resistance gene combinations that can be bred into cultivars have now been identified. (growingmagazine.com)
  • The possible use of PepMV as a virus-induced gene silencing vector to study gene function was also demonstrated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both virus types have a genome with a similar structural organisation, comprising five (potexviruses) or six (carlaviruses) open reading frames, three of which, known as the 'triple gene block', encode polypeptides that facilitate virus movement within the host. (els.net)
  • Both genera are characterised by the presence of the so‐called triple gene block that provides the support for virus movement in infected hosts. (els.net)
  • A method is provided for introducing a foreign gene into a plant cell by means of an Olpidium zoospore vector having associated with it a reassembled nucleoprotein complex comprising the foreign gene and reassociated coat protein of a zoospore-transmissable virus. (google.com)
  • We report the discovery of a group of circovirus-like DNA genomes whose common ancestor appears to have incorporated a capsid protein (CP) gene known previously only in RNA viruses. (beds.ac.uk)
  • virus workers may strengthen up as a cellular aid on page and 03B2 genomes of conventional transcripts resulting oceanic Casion of virus over a success of gene. (memphisastro.org)
  • Department of V^n.f Sd-Cnc-c The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date P'&-DE-6 (2/88) Abstract The in vitro translation products directed by cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) R N A were analyzed in both rabbit reticulocyte lysate and wheat germ extract cell-free translation systems. (ubc.ca)
  • These findings suggest that an evolutionary relationship exists between satellite RNA and viroids. (asm.org)
  • Satellites are subviral agents that differ from viroids because they depend on the presence of a helper virus for their propagation. (virology.ws)
  • Peach latent mosaic and pear blister canker viroids: detection by molecular hybridization and relationships with specific maladies affecting peach and pear trees. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Infectious particles known as viroids and satellite viruses cause several plant diseases as well. (thoughtco.com)
  • In greenhouse experiments three satellite RNA containing attenuated CMV strains (CMV vaccines), CMV-PV1, CMV-NDM1 and CMV-KO3 were tested to evaluate their possible adverse or protective effects on gentian plants. (ishs.org)
  • Review of Beet pseudoyellows virus genome structure built the consensus genome organization of cucumber strains and highlighted the unique feature of strawberry strain. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that a universal influenza virus vaccine based on the conserved HA stalk domain could be further developed to protect against seasonal as well as pandemic influenza virus strains. (asm.org)
  • The virus is readily sap-transmissible, but most strains have a restricted host range. (dpvweb.net)
  • Small, semi-necrotic local lesions ( Fig. 2 ) occur with the watermelon, Yodo and Indian C strains ( Tochihara & Komuro, 1974 ) but rarely with cucumber strains from Europe. (dpvweb.net)
  • Diffuse, chlorotic local lesions c. 1 week after inoculation occur with the Yodo and cucumber strains from Japan ( Fig. 3 ) ( Tochihara & Komuro, 1974 ). (dpvweb.net)
  • These lines also showed virus resistance against two closely related strains of CMV. (bvsalud.org)
  • Virus strains isolated from Ocimum sanctum and Zinnia elegans were identified as cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) strains on the basis of non-persistant aphid transmission, 28 nm particles, 26 kDa coat protein subunits and serological relationships with CMV and chrysanthemum aspermy virus. (bvsalud.org)
  • There is an urgent need to perform more research on the disease spread, epidemiology, as well as molecular characterization of begomoviruses to identify the currently circulating virus isolates as well as possible emergence of new strains with their extended host characteristics in Saudi Arabia. (springer.com)
  • Potato virus X (PVX) infects many crops and induces huge economic losses to agricultural production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we show that the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase RDR6 in Nicotiana benthamiana is involved in defense against potato virus X at the level of systemic spreading and in exclusion of the virus from the apical growing point. (plantphysiol.org)
  • A particle of Potato virus X. Bar, 100 nm. (els.net)
  • They can attenuate or exacerbate the symptoms induced by the helper viruses in specific plant hosts. (plantcell.org)
  • We have analyzed gentian plants collected from the largest production area in Japan, Ashiro-cho in the Iwate prefecture, and found that most plants with severe virus symptoms were infected either by CMV alone or by both CMV and BBWV. (ishs.org)
  • The number of plants with severe virus symptoms increased over time in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated plants. (ishs.org)
  • Inducible expression of magnesium protoporphyrin chelatase subunit I (CHLI)-amiRNA provides insights into cucumber mosaic virus Y satellite RNA-induced chlorosis symptoms. (nih.gov)
  • Does not normally cause fruit symptoms in cucumber, and produces a few local lesions in Chenopodium amaranticolor under certain conditions only. (dpvweb.net)
  • Virus-like symptoms were recently observed on leaves of landscape and nursery downy and star jasmine ( Jasminum multiflorum ) and wax jasmine ( J. gracile ) in southeast Florida. (ishs.org)
  • samsun NN symptoms were induced by experimental inoculations of CMV RNA preparations containing satellite RNA (sat-RNA). (bvsalud.org)
  • Inoculations of RNA preparations without sat-RNA did not induce that severe symptoms on these plants, only late mild mosaic was observed. (bvsalud.org)
  • It was detected through DAS-ELISA from the samples showing mosaic, leaf distortion, yellowing, and vein etching, stunting and yellowing like symptoms and also confirmed by RT-PCR. (entomoljournal.com)
  • vsiRNAs from both leaves and fruits were mostly 21- and 22-nt in size as previously described in other virus-infected plants. (frontiersin.org)
  • Harrison, B.D., Mayo, M.A. and Baulcombe, D.C. (1987) Virus resistance in transgenic plants that express cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA. (springer.com)
  • These persistent transmitted viruses, such as geminiviruses, bunyaviruses and luteoviruses, often increase the attraction of their vectors to virus-infected plants [ 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Satellite viruses may infect plants, animals, or bacteria. (virology.ws)
  • In plants, satellites and satellite viruses may attenuate or exacerbate disease caused by the helper virus. (virology.ws)
  • We are interested in how plants use viruses in adaptation to extreme environments. (psu.edu)
  • Fungal viruses are involved in plants adapting to geothermal soils in Yellowstone National Park, and acute plant viruses confer drought and cold tolerance to plants. (psu.edu)
  • 2005). CMV can sometimes cause severe infections in synergy with other viruses in pepper plants. (biocoreopen.org)
  • Cucumber Mosaic Virus also provides the context for the state of research on CMV and identifies what areas require more research for better understanding of one of the world's most important plant viruses and the diseases it causes in numerous host plants. (apsnet.org)
  • Rod-shaped particles (297 x 18 nm) similar to tobamoviruses were observed in partially purified virus preparations, and in leaf dips from symptomatic star jasmine and indicator plants. (ishs.org)
  • The virus was purified from inoculated N. benthamiana plants and negatively stained purified preparations contained isometric particles of about 28 nm in diameter. (bvsalud.org)
  • Not to be outdone, CSIRO Plant Industry (Australia) scientists Ming-Bo Wang and Neil Smith have made a breakthrough in understanding how viruses infect plants . (botany.one)
  • This work should help us better understand how viruses cause diseases in plants - and potentially in animals and humans (and even model nematodes. (botany.one)
  • BLASTn analysis revealed a closest match of the begomovirus Chayote yellow mosaic virus (ChaYMV) (AJ223191), reported from chayote plants Sechium edule (Jacq. (elsevier.com)
  • Plant viruses are viruses that infect plants . (thoughtco.com)
  • Some plant viruses are not limited to one particular plant host but may infect different varieties of plants. (thoughtco.com)
  • Plants that have been damaged by weather, pruning, or plant vectors ( bacteria , fungi , nematodes , and insects) are typically more susceptible to a virus. (thoughtco.com)
  • When the new plants develop from the stems, roots, bulbs, etc. of the parent plant, the virus is passed along to the developing plant . (thoughtco.com)
  • Natural hosts of both virus types are herbaceous (weeds, ornamentals, vegetables) rather than woody plants. (els.net)
  • These saponins are found in the fruit, or drupes, of the soapnut tree (as well as in soapwort plants and sea cucumbers). (thedailygarden.us)
  • The Wiener inside out and outside in psychodynamic clinical theory and psychopathology in contemporary on a following of a cassava surface into the viruses, including of years, structures, and email begomoviruses editing drawn ever by plants and facing been Next, stem-boring the accurate stories of innovations, by functions, was of Physical inquiry in the invention of genomes. (uriess-fliesenleger.de)
  • unstable viruses of Transgenic Plants: The Scope and Adequacy of Regulation. (atlantaflyfishingschool.com)
  • Replicase-mediated resistance to plant virus disease. (nih.gov)
  • What is worse, a successful plant virus evolves multiple strategies to manipulate host defenses to promote the population of the insect vector and thereby furthers the disease pandemic. (mdpi.com)
  • Plant-mediated interactions between viruses and insect vectors greatly influence the population dynamics of the vectors and plant disease epidemiology. (mdpi.com)
  • The association of begomovirus with eggplant yellow mosaic disease is hitherto unknown apart from one report from Thailand. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A survey in Nagpur, Central India, in 2009-2010 showed severe incidence of eggplant yellow mosaic disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we have identified and characterized a begomovirus responsible for the newly emerging yellow mosaic disease of eggplant in India. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is the first report of a ToLCNDV variant moving to a new agriculturally important host, eggplant and causing yellow mosaic disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is also a first experimental demonstration of Koch's postulate for a begomovirus associated with eggplant yellow mosaic disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the recent past, novel satellite molecules called betasatellites (formerly known as DNA-β), were found to be associated with some monopartite begomoviruses such as Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMV), which is responsible in the latest disease epidemic of cotton in Pakistan [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cucumber Mosaic Virus A Disease of Economic Importance. (co.zw)
  • We explored several strategies for vector development including coat protein (CP) replacement, duplication of the CP subgenomic promoter (SGP) and the creation of a fusion protein using the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A catalytic peptide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A stable PepMV vector was generated by expressing the transgene as a CP fusion using the sequence encoding the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A catalytic peptide to separate them. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All major seed companies are incorporating disease resistance into most released varieties with emphasis placed on bacterial leaf spot, Phytophthora blight, and assorted virus diseases. (blogspot.com)
  • Rice stripe virus (RSV) is a persistent-propagative virus transmitted by the small brown planthopper ( Laodelphax striatellus , Fallen) and can cause a severe disease on rice. (beds.ac.uk)
  • binary( from the study information device and the river disease cotton) achieved in principle journeys, and to use them as information Viruses( 12). (atlantaflyfishingschool.com)
  • Advances in Understanding Plant Viruses and Virus Diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Study on control of plant virus diseases by vaccination with attenuated virus:(2). (nii.ac.jp)
  • Mosaic diseases. (wn.com)
  • Control of plant viruses is of great economic importance worldwide, because these viruses cause diseases that destroy commercial crops. (thoughtco.com)
  • Plant viruses cause various types of diseases, but the diseases do not typically result in plant death. (thoughtco.com)
  • Insects that attack pepper serve to create wounds favorable for bacterial soft rot and spread several virus diseases. (blogspot.com)
  • Over the last two decades it has become increasingly clear that many RNA viruses add the capacity to exchange genetic material with one another, and to acquire genes from their hosts, to this evolutionary repertoire. (biology-online.org)
  • Readers learn about the history of this unique science, how viruses are named, how their genes work, how they copy and package themselves, how they interact with their hosts, how immune systems counteract viruses, and how viruses travel from host to host. (credoreference.com)
  • Environmental sequence databases were examined for homologous genes arranged in similar configurations and three similar putative virus genomes from marine environments were identified. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Instead, "virus hallmark genes" [ 8 ] that are present in sub-groups of viruses are often used as the basis for taxonomic classification and evolutionary studies. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We report here the nucleotide sequence of its satellite RNA (Figure 1). (uniba.it)
  • Satellite genomes have a substantial portion or all of their nucleotide sequences distinct from those of the genomes of their helper virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • Satellites are genetically distinct from their helper virus with a nucleotide sequence that is substantially different from that of their helper virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causing mosaic, leaf distortion and stunting of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) in India was characterized on the basis of biological and coat protein (CP) nucleotide sequence properties. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1996) A carlavirus‐specific PCR primer and partial nucleotide sequence provides further evidence for the recognition of cowpea mild mottle virus as a whitefly transmitted carlavirus. (els.net)
  • Unlike the stable double-helical configuration adopted by double-stranded DNA molecules, ssDNA virus genomes likely form complex arrangements of double helices interspersed with single-stranded loops to enhance stability. (asm.org)
  • p. 1972-1989 ) found that many of the structural features observed in a broad range of ssDNA virus genomes are conserved. (asm.org)
  • So, in addition to producing prodigious amounts of the raw material of evolution (mutations), these viruses also possess mechanisms that, in principle, allow them both to purge their genomes of accumulated deleterious changes (Muller, 1964) and to create or spread bene locial combinations of mutations in an efficient manner (Fisher, 1930;Muller, 1932), two processes which are not available to clonal organisms. (biology-online.org)
  • Satellite viruses are particles that contain nucleic acid genomes encoding a structural protein that encapsidates the satellite genome. (virology.ws)
  • Satellite genomes may be single-stranded RNA or DNA or circular RNA, and are replicated by enzymes provided by the helper virus. (virology.ws)
  • Satellite RNA genomes range in length from 220-1500 nucleotides, and have been placed into one of three classes. (virology.ws)
  • Like satellite viruses, sputnik and others have similar relationships with their helper viruses: they require their helper for their propagation, but their genomes are not derived from the helper, and they negatively impact helper reproduction. (virology.ws)
  • However, the genomes of most satellites have short sequences, often at the termini, that are identical to the genome of the helper virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • Begomoviruses are economically important viruses with ssDNA containing monopartite or bipartite genomes, encapsulated in twinned particles belonging to family Geminiviridae . (springer.com)
  • An RNA-containing virus found in cucurbitaceous crops in Europe, India and Japan. (dpvweb.net)
  • Found in naturally infected cucumber, watermelon and melon ( Cucumis melo ) crops, but apparently not in vegetable marrow ( Cucurbita pepo ). (dpvweb.net)
  • It is a eudicot diploid species (2n = 2x = 24) that belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family which includes other important vegetable crops such as cucumber, watermelon and squash. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The download regression analysis: theory, methods, and and viruses' primes describe the latest seen on their Loop Proof crops and may Generally encourage their ice-minus at the transgenesis of fish. (memphisastro.org)
  • The dull mosaic of fold - Swiss number observation - has social or no DNA nitrogen crops. (uriess-fliesenleger.de)
  • Annamalai P, Hsu YH, Liu YP, Tsai CH and Lin NS (2003) Structural and mutational analyses of cis‐acting sequences in the 5′‐untranslated region of satellite RNA of bamboo mosaic potexvirus. (els.net)
  • Transgene translatability increases effectiveness of replicase-mediated resistance to cucumber mosaic virus. (nih.gov)
  • Specificity of replicase-mediated resistance to cucumber mosaic virus. (nih.gov)
  • Coat protein (CP) -mediated resistance against an Indian isolate of the Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup IB was demonstrated in transgenic lines of Nicotiana benthamiana through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. (bvsalud.org)
  • The transgenic lines exhibiting complete resistance remained symptomless throughout life and showed reduced or no virus accumulation in their systemic leaves after virus challenge. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dasgupta I, Malathi VG, Mukherjee SK (2003) Genetic engineering for virus resistance. (springer.com)
  • Control is based on preventive measures, such as sanitary selection, production of virus‐free seed lots and resistance through conventional breeding and genetic engineering. (els.net)
  • The holon is in perpetual movement, and repeated insecticide applications markedly decrease plant resistance to viruses and facilitate attacks Nilaparvata lugen (BHP). (hpathy.com)
  • In order to map the CMV sequences that are involved in satRNA support, HL-CMV (Japanese lily isolate), Y-CMV (ordinary strain) and Y-satellite RNA (Y-sat) were used as the source material. (hokudai.ac.jp)
  • Early vectors suffered from limitations such as instability and low yields, but this has been addressed by the genetic modification of vector sequences and by delivering virus vectors into plant cells using Agrobacterium tumefaciens [ 39 , 40 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3a protein) from three plant viruses - cucumber mosaic, brome mosaic and alfalfa mosaic have been systematically compared using the partial genomic sequences for these three viruses already available. (ias.ac.in)
  • In cucumber ( Cucumis sativus ) the type strain causes leaf mottling, blistering and distortion ( Fig. 4 ), with stunted growth. (dpvweb.net)
  • Bewley, 1923 ) = cucumber virus 4 ( Ainsworth, 1935 ) = Cucumis virus 2A ( Smith, 1957 ). (dpvweb.net)
  • Decline of Bean Pod Mottle Virus Specific Infectivity in Vivo Correlates with Degradation of Encapsidated RNA-1. (apsnet.org)
  • Physalis mottle virus (PhMV) belongs to the tymogroup of positive-strand RNA viruses with a genome size of 6 kb. (ias.ac.in)
  • This work suggests that genomic secondary structures serve an important function in the biology of ssDNA viruses. (asm.org)
  • The distinction between satellite nucleic acids, satellite-like nucleic acids and virus genomic components can be subtle and these agents are not always easy to categorize. (ictvonline.org)
  • Genomic structure of three phenotypically different isolates of peach latent mosaic viroid: implications of the existence of constraints limiting the heterogeneity of viroid quasispecies. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The complete DNA-A and DNA-B genomic components of the causative virus were cloned and sequenced. (biomedcentral.com)
  • while they are sometimes considered to be genomic elements of their helper viruses, they are not always found within their helper viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occurrence Of Viruses Infecting Watermelon, Other Cucurbits, and Weeds in the Parts of Southern United States. (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • Amplified product showed clear a band of an expected size whereas no satellite RNA was detected by using different sets of primers which shows that Pakistani isolate of CMV infecting chilli pepper belongs to 1b group. (entomoljournal.com)
  • In this paper, we describe an analysis of RDR-mediated defense against viruses in the virological model species Nicotiana benthamiana (Nb). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Occurrence of Citrus yellow vein clearing virus in citrus species in Iran. (springer.com)
  • Satellites do not constitute a homogeneous taxonomic group and are not formally classified into species and higher taxa by ICTV. (ictvonline.org)
  • A further complication is that some viruses are associated with more than one satellite and some satellites are supported by more than one species of helper virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • The occurrence of ChaYMV in both M. charantia and S. edule suggests that M. charantia is an alternative host of this virus, which is likely transmitted between these species, implicating a role of M. charantia in the epidemiology of ChaYMV for the first time. (elsevier.com)
  • In mechanical inoculation tests, the virus was found to infect members of Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae and Solanaceae. (bvsalud.org)
  • The use of this technology for biological control of plant viruses is discussed. (apsnet.org)
  • Deep sequencing technology has revolutionized the study on the interaction between virus and plant host through the analysis of vsiRNAs profile. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has a worldwide distribution and the widest host range of any known plant virus. (jove.com)
  • Plant viruses pose serious threats to stable crop yield. (mdpi.com)
  • For survival, plant viruses and herbivores have evolved strategies to convergently target JA signaling. (mdpi.com)
  • There are many plant viruses in natural and agricultural ecosystems. (mdpi.com)
  • The majority of plant viruses are transmitted by piercing-sucking insects. (mdpi.com)
  • Since then, increasing evidence has clearly demonstrated that insect-borne plant viruses generally have effects on their vectors directly and/or indirectly. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, several insect-borne plant viruses have been shown to indirectly manipulate the behaviors of their vectors to promote their own transmission. (mdpi.com)
  • Most known satellites are associated with plant viruses, but hepatitis delta satellite virus is associated with a human helper virus, hepatitis B virus. (virology.ws)
  • The first satellites characterized were mostly ssRNA satellites that use ssRNA plant viruses as helpers. (ictvonline.org)
  • Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. (ctsicn.org)
  • Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from the Bromoviridae family, is one of the most widespread plant viruses in the world. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Our focus in the Roossinck lab is on virus-plant and virus-fungus-plant interactions in virus evolution and ecology. (psu.edu)
  • We are interested in the biodiversity of plant viruses. (psu.edu)
  • 2013. Biosecurity implications of new technology in plant virus research. (psu.edu)
  • Here, using a noncoding plant pathogenic satellite-RNA (Sat-RNA) of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) as an RNA source, we describe a stepwise protocol for identifying the host proteome interacting specifically with the Sat-RNA. (bvsalud.org)
  • Mosaic viruses are plant viruses that cause the leaves to have a speckled appearance. (wn.com)
  • Like other viruses, a plant virus particle, also known as a virion, is an extremely small infectious agent. (thoughtco.com)
  • Most plant viruses are classified as single-stranded RNA or double-stranded RNA virus particles. (thoughtco.com)
  • As a result, plant viruses are typically spread by two common mechanisms: horizontal transmission and vertical transmission. (thoughtco.com)
  • In this type of transmission, the plant virus is transmitted as a result of an external source. (thoughtco.com)
  • In order to 'invade' the plant, the virus must penetrate the plant's outer protective layer. (thoughtco.com)
  • Plant cutting and grafting are common modes by which plant viruses may be transmitted. (thoughtco.com)
  • In most cases, scientists have been unable to find cures for plant viruses, so they have been focusing on reducing the occurrence and transmission of the viruses. (thoughtco.com)
  • Viruses are not the only plant pathogens. (thoughtco.com)
  • Plant viruses are useful expression vectors because they can mount systemic infections allowing large amounts of recombinant protein to be produced rapidly in differentiated plant tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Potexviruses and carlaviruses are plant‐infecting viruses belonging to the family Aphaflexiviridae and Betaflexiviridae , respectively. (els.net)
  • The implications of these studies to the understanding of the evolution of plant viruses will be discussed. (ias.ac.in)
  • Most plant viruses depend on vector insects for transmission. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Roger Hull graduated in Botany from Cambridge University in 1960, and subsequently studied plant virus epidemiology at London University's Wye College, gaining a PhD in 1964. (indigo.ca)
  • During the past four decades, the scientific community has seen an exponential advance in the number, sophistication, and quality of molecular techniques and bioinformatics tools for the genetic characterization of plant virus populations. (usda.gov)
  • Predating these advances, the field of Phylogenetics has significantly contributed to understand important aspects of plant virus evolution. (usda.gov)
  • A benign cucumber mosaic virus strain (CMV) associated with satRNA, CMV-KU1, was successfully used as a biological control agent to combat infections caused by another severe strain of CMV , CMV-16. (biocoreopen.org)
  • Here we discuss in depth the molecular features of known viruses infecting R. solani and their potential as biological control agents. (mdpi.com)
  • Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the virus contained one polypeptide with an approximate molecular weight (Mr) of 18 kDa. (ishs.org)
  • Based on molecular assays, the virus was identified as Groundnut ringspot tospovirus (GRSV). (usda.gov)
  • Ghanem GAM (2003) Okra leaf curl virus: a monopartite begomovirus infecting okra crop in Saudi Arabia. (springer.com)
  • Satellite-like nucleic acids resemble satellites because they do not encode a replicase but differ because they encode a function necessary for the biological success of the associated virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • Satellite-like nucleic acids resemble satellite nucleic acids, in that they replicate with the aid of helper viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sputnik is dependent upon mimivirus not for DNA polymerase - it encodes its own - but probably for the transcriptional machinery of the helper virus. (virology.ws)
  • Greenpeace's List of GM and Non-GM FoodsGreenpeace, which dives against several answers, confirms a mosaic of impact bacteria that they are vary or are not carry PRSV-transgenic begomoviruses. (uriess-fliesenleger.de)
  • Satellite viruses encode a structural protein that encapsidates their genome and so have nucleoprotein components distinct from those of their helper viruses. (ictvonline.org)
  • The biosphere is saturated with an unimaginable diversity of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses, including some important pathogens. (asm.org)
  • The genome (illustrated) is 1.7 kb - the smallest of any known animal virus - of circular single-stranded RNA that is 70% base paired and folds upon itself in a tight rod-like structure. (virology.ws)
  • An increasing number of novel mycoviruses are being reported, including double-stranded (ds) RNA, circular single-stranded (ss) DNA, negative sense (−)ssRNA, and positive sense (+)ssRNA viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • The in vitro translation products directed by cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) RNA were analyzed in both rabbit reticulocyte lysate and wheat germ extract cell-free translation systems. (ubc.ca)