A satellite RNA (not a satellite virus) which has several types. Different cucumoviruses can act as helper viruses for different types.
A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Folin is the water-soluble extract from Sasa albomarginata. Sasa kurinensis is an ingredient of Sho-ju-sen, a Japanese herbal medicine.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Diseases of plants.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A plant genus in the CHENOPODIACEAE family.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
Polymer of polytetrafluoroethylene and carbon filaments; porous biocompatible material used in orofacial and middle ear reconstruction and as coating for metal implants.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A genus in the family TOMBUSVIRIDAE mostly found in temperate regions. Some species infecting legumes (FABACEAE) are reported from tropical areas. Most viruses are soil-borne, but some are transmitted by the fungus Olpidium radicale and others by beetles. Carnation mottle virus is the type species.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).

Differential effects of satellite RNA on the accumulation of cucumber mosaic virus RNAs and their encoded proteins in tobacco vs zucchini squash with two strains of CMV helper virus. (1/16)

The presence of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) satellite RNA usually reduces the yield of accumulated helper virus, although more so in solanaceous than in cucurbit hosts. The accumulation of viral RNA and viral-encoded proteins of two strains of CMV (Fny- and Sny-) known to differ in their ability to support satellite RNA in zucchini squash was examined in squash and tobacco to determine the effect of satellite RNA on the accumulation of viral-associated components. In the absence of satellite RNA, Fny- and Sny-CMV showed similar levels of accumulation of RNA at 7 days postinoculation (p.i.), but by 14 days p.i. the Fny-CMV RNAs accumulated to lower levels than did both strains at 7 days p.i., in either host. The levels of accumulated Sny-CMV-encoded proteins were higher than those encoded by Fny-CMV in tobacco, but not squash plants, at 7 days p.i. At 14 days p.i., for Fny-CMV vs Sny-CMV, there were differences in the levels of accumulation of most CMV-encoded proteins in both hosts, more exacerbated in tobacco vs squash. The effect of satellite RNA was to intensify these differences; that is, by 7 days p.i., satellite RNA reduced the accumulation of Fny-CMV RNAs 1 and 2 and their encoded proteins in both tobacco and squash but had little or no effect on the accumulation of Sny-CMV RNAs or encoded proteins. By 14 days p.i., the levels of accumulation of all Fny-CMV RNAs and encoded proteins were severely reduced in both hosts, and the levels of accumulation of Sny-CMV RNAs 1 and 2 and their encoded proteins were also reduced in tobacco, but not squash. Sny-CMV did not support satellite RNA accumulation in squash plants or protoplasts. Satellite RNA did not appear to have a direct effect on the movement of either CMV strain. Rather, accumulation studies in tobacco protoplasts indicated that the difference in response of Fny-CMV vs Sny-CMV to satellite RNA in tobacco was due to the extent to which satellite RNA affected the levels of RNA 1, and to a lesser extent RNA 2, and their encoded proteins, 1a and 2a, both components of the CMV replicase.  (+info)

In spite of induced multiple defense responses, tomato plants infected with Cucumber mosaic virus and D satellite RNA succumb to systemic necrosis. (2/16)

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) D satellite RNA (satRNA) attenuates the symptoms induced by CMV in most plants, but causes leaf epinasty and systemic necrosis in tomato plants, where programmed cell death (PCD) is involved. However, our understanding of the cellular and molecular responses to the infection of CMV D satRNA that result in this lethal disease remains limited. In this article, we show for the first time, by histochemical and molecular analysis, that multiple defense responses are specifically induced in CMV and D satRNA (CMV/D satRNA)-infected tomato plants but not in mock-inoculated or CMV-infected plants. These responses include callose deposition and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in infected plants. Furthermore, the transcription of several tomato defense-related genes (e.g., PR-1a1, PR-1b1, PR-2, and PR-10) were activated, and the expression of tomato PR-5 and some abiotic and biotic stress-responsive genes (e.g., catalase II and tomato analogs of Arabidopsis AtBI-1 and tobacco hsr203j) are enhanced. The activation and increase in expression of these genes is correlated with the appearance of leaf epinasty and the development of systemic necrosis in infected tomato plants, while increased expression of the hsr203j analog precedes the development of any disease symptoms. The spatial and temporal expression patterns of these genes as detected by RNA in situ hybridization point to the involvement of a complex developmental program that accompanies disease development resulting from CMV/D satRNA infection.  (+info)

Analysis of mechanisms involved in the Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA-mediated transgenic resistance in tomato plants. (3/16)

Transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. UC82) plants expressing a benign variant of Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA (CMV Tfn-satRNA) were generated. The transformed plants did not produce symptoms when challenged with a satRNA-free strain of CMV (CMV-FL). The same plant lines initially were susceptible to necrosis elicited by a CMV strain supporting a necrogenic variant of satRNA (CMV-77), but a phenotype of total recovery from the necrosis was observed in the newly developing leaves. The features of the observed resistance were analyzed and are consistent with two different mechanisms of resistance. In transgenic plants inoculated with CMV-FL strain, the symptomless phenotype was correlated to the down-regulation of CMV by Tfn-satRNA, amplified from the transgene transcripts, as the first resistance mechanism. On the other hand, the delayed resistance to CMV-77 in transgenic tomato lines was mediated by a degradation process that targets satRNAs in a sequence-specific manner. Evidence is provided for a correlation between a reduced accumulation level of transgenic messenger Tfn-satRNA, the accumulation of small (approximately 23 nucleotides) RNAs with sequence homology to satRNAs, the progressively reduced accumulation of 77-satRNA in infected tissues, and the transition in infected plants from diseased to healthy. Thus, events leading to the degradation of satRNA sequences indicate a role for RNA silencing as the second mechanism determining resistance of transgenic tomato lines.  (+info)

Expression of antiapoptotic genes bcl-xL and ced-9 in tomato enhances tolerance to viral-induced necrosis and abiotic stress. (4/16)

D satellite RNA (satRNA) is a strain of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) satRNA that induces an epidemic lethal disease in tomato. No natural resistance or tolerance has ever been found. Previously, we demonstrated the involvement of programmed cell death in disease development. Here, transgenic tomato plants expressing animal antiapoptotic genes bcl-xL and ced-9 were generated through agrobacterium-mediated transformation. High expression of bcl-xL or ced-9 affected plant growth and seed development. Inoculation of seedlings with CMV/D satRNA at T(1) and T(2) generations resulted in delayed cell-death symptoms or absence of symptoms. The degree of symptom suppression was correlated with increasing expression levels of the transgenes. Survival rates were compared among inoculated transgenic lines expressing bcl-xL, ced-9, and bcl-xL (G138A), a loss-of-function mutant of bcl-xL. More than 80% of the bcl-xL and ced-9 T(1) transgenic lines showed higher survival rates than the average for bcl-xL (G138A) transgenic lines. Total RNA extracted from surviving plants contained D satRNA, indicating systemic accumulation of D satRNA. Thus, expression of bcl-xL and ced-9 improved tolerance to, rather than resistance to, CMV/D satRNA infection. In addition, expression of bcl-xL and ced-9 specifically abrogated the formation of necrotic lesions, but not other symptoms, in tomato leaves during chilling at 4 degrees C. At 7 degrees C, temperature-induced leaf senescence was dramatically delayed in bcl-xL and ced-9 transgenic plants, and high levels of anthocyanins accumulated, possibly limiting oxidative stress. Hence, expression of these animal antiapoptotic genes improved plant survival under abiotic or biotic stress.  (+info)

Genetic mapping of the compatibility between a lily isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus and a satellite RNA. (5/16)

Five isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from Lilium sp. (lily), which were isolated from specimens in Japan, Korea and Taiwan, were unable to support satellite RNA (satRNA) accumulation. In order to map the CMV sequences that are involved in satRNA support, HL-CMV (Japanese lily isolate), Y-CMV (ordinary strain) and Y-satellite RNA (Y-sat) were used as the source material. The pseudorecombinants between Y-CMV and HL-CMV revealed that RNA1 was essential for satRNA replication in lily. The results of chimeric constructs and various mutations showed that two amino acid residues (at positions 876 and 891) in the 1a protein were the determinants for the inability of HL-CMV to support a satRNA. Specifically, Thr at position 876 had a more pronounced effect than Met at position 891. Specific changes in RNA sequence were also detected in the 3' terminus of Y-sat and these particular alterations allowed it to be supported by HL-CMV. It is believed that, through evolution, the adaptation of CMV to lily resulted in the introduction of amino acid changes in the 1a protein, changes that coincidentally affected the ability of lily CMV to support satRNAs.  (+info)

Satellite RNA-mediated reduction of cucumber mosaic virus genomic RNAs accumulation in Nicotiana tabacum. (6/16)

Satellite RNAs (satRNAs) are molecular parasites that interfere with the pathogenesis of the helper viruses. In this study, the relative accumulation of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-Fny genomic RNAs with or without satRNAs were quantitatively analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that satRs apparently attenuated the symptoms of CMV-Fny on Nicotiana tabacum by depressing the accumulation of CMV-Fny genomic RNAs, tested as open reading frames. The accumulation of CMV-Fny 1a, 2a, 2b, 3a, and CP genes was much higher than that of CMV-Fny with satRs added (CMV-Fsat), at different inoculation times. CMV-FnyDelta2b, in which the complete 2b gene and 41 amino acids at the C-terminal of the 2a gene were deleted, caused only a slight mosaic effect on N. tabacum seedlings, similar to that of CMV-Fsat, but the addition of satRs to CMV-FnyDelta2b showed further decrease in the accumulation of CMV-FnyDelta2b genomic RNAs. Our results indicated that the attenuation of CMV, by adding satRs or deleting the 2b gene, was due to the low accumulation of CMV genomic RNAs, and that satRNA-mediated reduction of CMV genomic RNAs accumulation in N. tabacum was possibly related to the 2b gene.  (+info)

DCL4 targets Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA at novel secondary structures. (7/16)

It has been reported that plant virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) originated predominantly from structured single-stranded viral RNA of a positive single-stranded RNA virus replicating in the cytoplasm and from the nuclear stem-loop 35S leader RNA of a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus. Increasing lines of evidence have also shown that hierarchical actions of plant Dicer-like (DCL) proteins are required in the biogenesis process of small RNAs, and DCL4 is the primary producer of vsiRNAs. However, the structures of such single-stranded viral RNA that can be recognized by DCLs remain unknown. In an attempt to determine these structures, we have cloned siRNAs derived from the satellite RNA (satRNA) of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-satRNA) and studied the relationship between satRNA-derived siRNAs (satsiRNAs) and satRNA secondary structure. satsiRNAs were confirmed to be derived from single-stranded satRNA and are primarily 21 (64.7%) or 22 (22%) nucleotides (nt) in length. The most frequently cloned positive-strand satsiRNAs were found to derive from novel hairpins that differ from the structure of known DCL substrates, miRNA and siRNA precursors, which are prevalent stem-loop-shaped or dsRNAs. DCL4 was shown to be the primary producer of satsiRNAs. In the absence of DCL4, only 22-nt satsiRNAs were detected. Our results suggest that DCL4 is capable of accessing flexibly structured single-stranded RNA substrates (preferably T-shaped hairpins) to produce satsiRNAs. This result reveals that viral RNA of diverse structures may stimulate antiviral DCL activities in plant cells.  (+info)

Response of tomato and its wild relatives in the genus Solanum to cucumber mosaic virus and satellite RNA combinations. (8/16)

The differential response of 29 genotypes of tomato and wild tomato relatives (Solanum section Lycopersicon species) to cucumber mosaic virus strain Fny (CMV-Fny), alone or in combination with three different satellite RNA (satRNA) variants, allowed the identification of four disease phenotype patterns, each including plants that developed very severe symptoms (leaf malformations, top stunting and lethal necrosis) and plants that remained asymptomatic. No resistance or tolerance to CMV-Fny was observed, whilst individual host genotypes displayed latent infection upon inoculation with one (CMV-Fny/Tfn-satRNA, phenotype patterns 1 and 4), two (CMV-Fny/Tfn-satRNA and CMV-Fny/TTS-satRNA, phenotype pattern 2) or all three (the former two plus CMV-Fny/77-satRNA, phenotype pattern 3) CMV/satRNA combinations. RNA gel-blot analyses showed that latent infection generally correlated with a strong downregulation of CMV RNA accumulation levels. Introgression lines derived from a cross between Solanum habrochaites LA1777, which displayed disease phenotype pattern 2, and Solanum lycopersicum were screened for tolerance to the stunting phenotype induced by CMV-Fny/TTS-satRNA, and only one line, carrying an introgression on chromosome 6, was identified as being partially tolerant. Solanum chilense LA1932xS. lycopersicum back-cross introgression lines were screened for tolerance to lethal necrosis induced by CMV-Fny/77-satRNA (phenotype pattern 3); the tolerant phenotype was observed in 33 % of plants of the BC(1)F(2) progeny and <1 % of plants of the BC(1)F(3) progeny. Thus, potentially useful sources of tolerance to CMV/satRNA-induced diseases were identified, although the tolerant phenotypes appeared to be controlled by complex quantitative trait loci.  (+info)

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a type of plant virus that can cause symptoms such as mosaic patterns on leaves, stunted growth, and reduced yield in various host plants. A satellite of CMV refers to a small, independent RNA molecule that can associate with the viral genome and affect its replication and symptom expression.

The satellite RNA of CMV is known as Satellite Cucumber Mosaic Virus (SCMV). It is a subviral agent that depends on the helper virus (CMV) for its replication, encapsidation, and movement within the host plant. SCMV can modulate the symptoms caused by CMV in infected plants, either attenuating or exacerbating them depending on the strain of SCMV and the host plant.

SCMV is a single-stranded RNA molecule that encodes a single protein, which functions as a coat protein for its own encapsidation. It can also affect the accumulation and symptom expression of CMV, making it an important factor to consider in the study of CMV epidemiology and pathogenesis.

A cucumovirus is a type of plant virus that belongs to the family Bromoviridae and the genus Cucumovirus. These viruses have a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome and are transmitted by various means, including mechanical inoculation, seed transmission, and insect vectors such as aphids.

Cucumoviruses infect a wide range of plants, causing symptoms such as mosaic patterns on leaves, stunted growth, and reduced yield. The type species of the genus Cucumovirus is cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), which is one of the most widespread and economically important plant viruses worldwide. Other important cucumoviruses include tomato aspermy virus (TAV) and peanut stunt virus (PSV).

Cucumoviruses have a tripartite genome, meaning that the RNA genome is divided into three segments, each of which encodes one or more viral proteins. The coat protein of cucumoviruses plays an important role in virus transmission by insect vectors and in the induction of symptoms in infected plants.

Preventing the spread of cucumoviruses involves using good hygiene practices, such as cleaning tools and equipment, removing infected plants, and using resistant plant varieties when available. There are no known treatments for plants infected with cucumoviruses, so prevention is key to managing these viruses in agricultural settings.

A satellite RNA is a type of non-coding RNA that does not encode proteins but instead plays a role in the regulation of gene expression. It is so named because it can exist as a separate, smaller molecule that "satellites" around a larger RNA molecule called the helper RNA. Satellite RNAs are often associated with viruses and can affect their replication and packaging. They can also be found in some eukaryotic cells, where they may play a role in regulating the expression of certain genes or in the development of diseases such as cancer.

Mosaic viruses are a group of plant viruses that can cause mottled or mosaic patterns of discoloration on leaves, which is why they're named as such. These viruses infect a wide range of plants, including important crops like tobacco, tomatoes, and cucumbers. The infection can lead to various symptoms such as stunted growth, leaf deformation, reduced yield, or even plant death.

Mosaic viruses are typically spread by insects, such as aphids, that feed on the sap of infected plants and then transmit the virus to healthy plants. They can also be spread through contaminated seeds, tools, or contact with infected plant material. Once inside a plant, these viruses hijack the plant's cellular machinery to replicate themselves, causing damage to the host plant in the process.

It is important to note that mosaic viruses are not related to human or animal health; they only affect plants.

Helper viruses, also known as "auxiliary" or "satellite" viruses, are defective viruses that depend on the assistance of a second virus, called a helper virus, to complete their replication cycle. They lack certain genes that are essential for replication, and therefore require the helper virus to provide these functions.

Helper viruses are often found in cases of dual infection, where both the helper virus and the dependent virus infect the same cell. The helper virus provides the necessary enzymes and proteins for the helper virus to replicate, package its genome into new virions, and bud off from the host cell.

One example of a helper virus is the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which can serve as a helper virus for hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection. HDV is a defective RNA virus that requires the HBV surface antigen to form an envelope around its nucleocapsid and be transmitted to other cells. In the absence of HBV, HDV cannot replicate or cause disease.

Understanding the role of helper viruses in viral infections is important for developing effective treatments and vaccines against viral diseases.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "sasa." It is possible that it could be a typographical error or a slang term. If you are referring to a specific medical condition, please provide more context or check the spelling so I can give you an accurate and helpful response.

Tobacco is not a medical term, but it refers to the leaves of the plant Nicotiana tabacum that are dried and fermented before being used in a variety of ways. Medically speaking, tobacco is often referred to in the context of its health effects. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "tobacco" can also refer to any product prepared from the leaf of the tobacco plant for smoking, sucking, chewing or snuffing.

Tobacco use is a major risk factor for a number of diseases, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung disease, and various other medical conditions. The smoke produced by burning tobacco contains thousands of chemicals, many of which are toxic and can cause serious health problems. Nicotine, one of the primary active constituents in tobacco, is highly addictive and can lead to dependence.

A plant disease is a disorder that affects the normal growth and development of plants, caused by pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or nematodes, as well as environmental factors like nutrient deficiencies, extreme temperatures, or physical damage. These diseases can cause various symptoms, including discoloration, wilting, stunted growth, necrosis, and reduced yield or productivity, which can have significant economic and ecological impacts.

'Cucumis sativus' is the scientific name for the vegetable we commonly know as a cucumber. It belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae and is believed to have originated in South Asia. Cucumbers are widely consumed raw in salads, pickled, or used in various culinary applications. They have a high water content and contain various nutrients such as vitamin K, vitamin C, and potassium.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Potexvirus is a genus of viruses in the family Alphaflexiviridae. These are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that infect a wide range of plants, causing various diseases such as mosaic, necrosis, and stunting. The name "Potexvirus" is derived from the type species potato virus X (PVX). The virions are flexuous rods, non-enveloped, and about 12-13 nm in diameter and 470-580 nm in length. The genome is approximately 6.4 kb in size and encodes five open reading frames (ORFs). The first ORF encodes the replicase protein, while the other four ORFs encode the triple gene block proteins involved in viral movement, a coat protein, and a small cysteine-rich protein of unknown function. Potexviruses are transmitted by mechanical contact or contaminated tools and seeds.

A plant virus is not defined in medical terms, as viruses are typically considered within the context of living organisms and plants are not classified as such. However, I can provide a general virology definition for you:

Plant viruses are small infectious agents that consist of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein coat. They infect various plant species, causing a wide range of symptoms and diseases, which can result in significant economic losses in agriculture and horticulture. Plant viruses lack the ability to replicate outside a host cell, and they rely on the host's metabolic machinery for their reproduction. They can be transmitted through various means, such as insect vectors, seeds, or mechanical contact.

Plant viral movement proteins (MPs) are specialized proteins encoded by plant viruses that play a crucial role in the infection process. These proteins are responsible for the cell-to-cell movement of the virus, allowing it to spread throughout the infected plant. MPs facilitate the transport of viral genetic material from infected cells to neighboring uninfected cells, often through plasmodesmata, which are specialized channels that connect the cytoplasm of adjacent plant cells.

Movement proteins can increase the size exclusion limit (SEL) of plasmodesmata, creating a larger pore through which viral RNA or DNA can pass. They also form complexes with viral nucleic acids and other MPs to create movement protein-viral RNA/DNA complexes that are transported between cells. The precise mechanisms by which MPs function vary among different virus families, but their role in facilitating the spread of plant viruses is well established.

It's important to note that understanding the structure and function of plant viral movement proteins can provide valuable insights into plant-virus interactions and contribute to the development of novel strategies for controlling plant virus diseases.

'Cucurbita' is a genus of herbaceous vines in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae. This genus includes several species of plants that are commonly known as squashes or gourds, such as pumpkins, zucchinis, and acorn squashes. The fruits of these plants are widely cultivated and consumed for their nutritional value and versatility in cooking.

The name 'Cucurbita' comes from the Latin word for "gourd" or "pumpkin." Plants in this genus are native to the Americas, with some species originating in Mexico and Central America and others in the southern United States. They have been cultivated by humans for thousands of years and are an important part of many traditional diets around the world.

In a medical context, 'Cucurbita' may be mentioned in relation to the use of certain species as traditional remedies or in nutritional studies. For example, pumpkin seeds have been used in traditional medicine to treat parasitic infections, and some research suggests that they may have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, it is important to note that the scientific evidence for these potential health benefits is still limited, and more research is needed before any firm conclusions can be drawn.

'Toxic plants' refer to those species of plants that contain toxic substances capable of causing harmful effects or adverse health reactions in humans and animals when ingested, touched, or inhaled. These toxins can cause a range of symptoms from mild irritation to serious conditions such as organ failure, paralysis, or even death depending on the plant, the amount consumed, and the individual's sensitivity to the toxin.

Toxic plants may contain various types of toxins, including alkaloids, glycosides, proteins, resinous substances, and essential oils. Some common examples of toxic plants include poison ivy, poison oak, nightshade, hemlock, oleander, castor bean, and foxglove. It is important to note that some parts of a plant may be toxic while others are not, and the toxicity can also vary depending on the stage of growth or environmental conditions.

If you suspect exposure to a toxic plant, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately and, if possible, bring a sample of the plant for identification.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Sea Cucumbers" is not typically used in medical definitions. It is a common name given to marine animals belonging to the class Holothuroidea in the phylum Echinodermata. These are sausage-shaped, bottom-dwelling creatures found on the sea floor worldwide. They have a leathery skin and a set of tube feet used for locomotion. While they have some cultural and commercial importance in parts of the world, they do not have direct relevance to medical definitions.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

Satellite DNA is a type of DNA sequence that is repeated in a tandem arrangement in the genome. These repeats are usually relatively short, ranging from 2 to 10 base pairs, and are often present in thousands to millions of copies arranged in head-to-tail fashion. Satellite DNA can be found in centromeric and pericentromeric regions of chromosomes, as well as at telomeres and other heterochromatic regions of the genome.

Due to their repetitive nature, satellite DNAs are often excluded from the main part of the genome during DNA sequencing projects, and therefore have been referred to as "satellite" DNA. However, recent studies suggest that satellite DNA may play important roles in chromosome structure, function, and evolution.

It's worth noting that not all repetitive DNA sequences are considered satellite DNA. For example, microsatellites and minisatellites are also repetitive DNA sequences, but they have different repeat lengths and arrangements than satellite DNA.

A protoplast is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions, but rather it is a term commonly used in cell biology and botany. A protoplast refers to a plant or bacterial cell that has had its cell wall removed, leaving only the plasma membrane and the cytoplasmic contents, including organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, ribosomes, and other cellular structures.

Protoplasts can be created through enzymatic or mechanical means to isolate the intracellular components for various research purposes, such as studying membrane transport, gene transfer, or cell fusion. In some cases, protoplasts may be used in medical research, particularly in areas related to plant pathology and genetic engineering of plants for medical applications.

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is not typically considered in the context of medical definitions, as it's primarily known for its impact on plants rather than humans or animals. However, I will provide the botanical definition for your interest.

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects a wide range of plants, including tobacco, tomatoes, cucumbers, and many ornamental plants. The virus is named after its initial discovery in tobacco plants, which exhibit symptoms such as mosaic patterns of light and dark green on the leaves, leaf curling, and stunted growth. TMV is highly contagious and can be spread through mechanical means, such as touching infected plants or using contaminated tools. It's also one of the most well-studied viruses due to its impact on agriculture and its historical significance in early virology research.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Bromovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Bromoviridae, order Picornavirales. These viruses have single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes and are transmitted by insects, primarily aphids. They infect a wide range of plants, causing various symptoms such as mosaic patterns on leaves, stunting, and reduced yield. The genus Bromovirus includes several important plant pathogens, including Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Broad bean mottle virus (BBMV), and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV).

Genetically modified plants (GMPs) are plants that have had their DNA altered through genetic engineering techniques to exhibit desired traits. These modifications can be made to enhance certain characteristics such as increased resistance to pests, improved tolerance to environmental stresses like drought or salinity, or enhanced nutritional content. The process often involves introducing genes from other organisms, such as bacteria or viruses, into the plant's genome. Examples of GMPs include Bt cotton, which has a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis that makes it resistant to certain pests, and golden rice, which is engineered to contain higher levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. It's important to note that genetically modified plants are subject to rigorous testing and regulation to ensure their safety for human consumption and environmental impact before they are approved for commercial use.

Chenopodium quinoa is commonly known as "quinoa." It is not a true grass or cereal grain, but rather a pseudocereal that is closely related to beets and spinach. Quinoa is native to the Andean region of South America and has been cultivated and consumed for thousands of years by indigenous peoples in this region.

Quinoa is a highly nutritious food that is rich in protein, fiber, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. It contains all nine essential amino acids, making it a complete protein source. Quinoa is also gluten-free, which makes it a popular alternative to wheat and other grains for people with celiac disease or gluten intolerance.

The seeds of the quinoa plant are typically cooked and consumed as a grain, and they have a mild, nutty flavor and a fluffy texture when cooked. Quinoa can be used in a variety of dishes, including salads, pilafs, stir-fries, and breakfast cereals. It is also commonly used as a stuffing for vegetables or meat dishes.

Quinoa has gained popularity in recent years due to its numerous health benefits and versatility in cooking. It is now widely available in grocery stores and health food stores around the world.

Satellite cells in skeletal muscle are undifferentiated stem cells that are crucial for postnatal growth, maintenance, and repair of skeletal muscle. They are located between the basal lamina and plasma membrane of myofibers. In response to muscle damage or injury, satellite cells become activated, proliferate, differentiate into myoblasts, fuse with existing muscle fibers, and contribute to muscle regeneration. Satellite cells also play a role in maintaining muscle homeostasis by fusing with mature muscle fibers to replace damaged proteins and organelles. They are essential for the adaptation of skeletal muscle to various stimuli such as exercise or mechanical load.

Aphids, also known as plant lice, are small sap-sucking insects that belong to the superfamily Aphidoidea in the order Hemiptera. They are soft-bodied and pear-shaped, with most species measuring less than 1/8 inch (3 millimeters) long.

Aphids feed on a wide variety of plants by inserting their needle-like mouthparts into the plant's vascular system to extract phloem sap. This feeding can cause stunted growth, yellowing, curling, or distortion of leaves and flowers, and may even lead to the death of the plant in severe infestations.

Aphids reproduce rapidly and can produce several generations per year. Many species give birth to live young (nymphs) rather than laying eggs, which allows them to increase their population numbers quickly. Aphids also have a complex life cycle that may involve sexual reproduction, parthenogenesis (reproduction without fertilization), and winged or wingless forms.

Aphids are an important pest in agriculture and horticulture, causing significant damage to crops and ornamental plants. They can also transmit plant viruses and produce honeydew, a sticky substance that attracts ants and supports the growth of sooty mold fungi.

Controlling aphids may involve cultural practices such as pruning, watering, and removing weeds; biological control using natural enemies such as lady beetles, lacewings, and parasitic wasps; or chemical control using insecticides.

A potyvirus is a type of virus that belongs to the family Potyviridae and the genus Potyvirus. These viruses have single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes and are transmitted by various means, including mechanical transmission by insects, contact between plants, and contaminated seeds. Potyviruses are responsible for causing a number of important plant diseases, including those that affect crops such as potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, and tobacco. The virions (virus particles) of potyviruses are non-enveloped and flexuous rod-shaped, measuring about 680-900 nanometers in length. Some examples of potyviruses include Potato virus Y, Tobacco etch virus, and Peanut mottle virus.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

Chenopodium is a genus of plants in the amaranth family (Amaranthaceae). It includes several species that are commonly known as goosefoots or lamb's quarters. These plants are native to various parts of the world and can be found growing wild in many regions. Some species of Chenopodium are cultivated as crops, particularly for their leaves and seeds which are used as vegetables and grains.

The term "Chenopodium" is not typically used in medical contexts, but some species of this genus have been used in traditional medicine. For example, Chenopodium ambrosioides (also known as wormseed) has been used to treat intestinal parasites and other ailments. However, it is important to note that the use of herbal remedies can carry risks, and they should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment without consulting a healthcare professional.

RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, also known as RNA replicase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of RNA from an RNA template. It plays a crucial role in the replication of certain viruses, such as positive-strand RNA viruses and retroviruses, which use RNA as their genetic material. The enzyme uses the existing RNA strand as a template to create a new complementary RNA strand, effectively replicating the viral genome. This process is essential for the propagation of these viruses within host cells and is a target for antiviral therapies.

"Lycopersicon esculentum" is the scientific name for the common red tomato. It is a species of fruit from the nightshade family (Solanaceae) that is native to western South America and Central America. Tomatoes are widely grown and consumed in many parts of the world as a vegetable, although they are technically a fruit. They are rich in nutrients such as vitamin C, potassium, and lycopene, which has been studied for its potential health benefits.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Nucleic acid conformation refers to the three-dimensional structure that nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) adopt as a result of the bonding patterns between the atoms within the molecule. The primary structure of nucleic acids is determined by the sequence of nucleotides, while the conformation is influenced by factors such as the sugar-phosphate backbone, base stacking, and hydrogen bonding.

Two common conformations of DNA are the B-form and the A-form. The B-form is a right-handed helix with a diameter of about 20 Å and a pitch of 34 Å, while the A-form has a smaller diameter (about 18 Å) and a shorter pitch (about 25 Å). RNA typically adopts an A-form conformation.

The conformation of nucleic acids can have significant implications for their function, as it can affect their ability to interact with other molecules such as proteins or drugs. Understanding the conformational properties of nucleic acids is therefore an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

A caulimovirus is a type of virus that primarily infects plants. It is a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus, which means that its genetic material is composed of a pair of DNA strands. Caulimoviruses are named after the type species of the group, Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV).

Caulimoviruses are unique among dsDNA viruses because they replicate through an RNA intermediate, using a reverse transcriptase enzyme to produce DNA copies of their genome. This is similar to the way that retroviruses, which infect animals, replicate.

Caulimoviruses are relatively large viruses, with genomes ranging in size from about 7 to 8 kilobases (kb). They have a complex structure, with several proteins encoded by their genome that are involved in various aspects of the virus's replication and assembly.

Caulimoviruses infect a wide range of plant hosts, including many important crops such as cauliflower, cabbage, tomato, and pepper. They can cause serious diseases in these plants, leading to significant economic losses. There are no known caulimovirus infections of humans or other animals.

Capsid proteins are the structural proteins that make up the capsid, which is the protective shell of a virus. The capsid encloses the viral genome and helps to protect it from degradation and detection by the host's immune system. Capsid proteins are typically arranged in a symmetrical pattern and can self-assemble into the capsid structure when exposed to the viral genome.

The specific arrangement and composition of capsid proteins vary between different types of viruses, and they play important roles in the virus's life cycle, including recognition and binding to host cells, entry into the cell, and release of the viral genome into the host cytoplasm. Capsid proteins can also serve as targets for antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Cucurbitaceae is the scientific name for the gourd family of plants, which includes a variety of vegetables and fruits such as cucumbers, melons, squashes, and pumpkins. These plants are characterized by their trailing or climbing growth habits and their large, fleshy fruits that have hard seeds enclosed in a protective coat. The fruits of these plants are often used as food sources, while other parts of the plant may also have various uses such as medicinal or ornamental purposes.

RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) is a single-stranded, linear polymer of ribonucleotides. It is a nucleic acid present in the cells of all living organisms and some viruses. RNAs play crucial roles in various biological processes such as protein synthesis, gene regulation, and cellular signaling. There are several types of RNA including messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). These RNAs differ in their structure, function, and location within the cell.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Comovirus" is not a term commonly used in medical terminology. Comoviruses are actually a genus of viruses that belong to the family Secoviridae and order Picornavirales. These viruses typically infect plants and can cause various diseases in them. They are not known to infect humans or animals.

If you have any concerns about a specific medical term or condition, I would be happy to help if I can. Please provide me with more details so I can better assist you.

'Capsicum' is the medical term for a genus of plants that are commonly known as peppers or chili peppers. These plants belong to the nightshade family (Solanaceae) and are native to Central and South America. The fruits of these plants are used extensively in cooking and medicine, and they vary widely in shape, size, color, and pungency.

The active components of capsicum fruits are a group of compounds called capsaicinoids, which give the fruit its spicy or hot taste. The most common capsaicinoid is capsaicin, which is responsible for the majority of the heat sensation experienced when consuming chili peppers.

Capsicum fruits have been used in traditional medicine for centuries to treat a variety of conditions, including pain relief, inflammation, and digestive disorders. Modern research has supported some of these uses, and capsaicin is now available as an over-the-counter topical cream or patch for the treatment of pain associated with arthritis, nerve damage, and muscle strain.

It's important to note that while capsicum fruits have many potential health benefits, they can also cause adverse reactions in some people, particularly if consumed in large quantities. These reactions can include stomach upset, skin irritation, and respiratory problems. It's always best to consult with a healthcare provider before using capsicum or any other herbal remedy for medicinal purposes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Proplast" is not a term commonly used in medical terminology. Proplast was a brand name for a type of biocompatible material that was often used in medical and dental applications as an implant material or for the coating of orthopedic and dental implants. It was composed of a combination of carbon, polyethylene, and other materials. However, it is no longer in use due to concerns about its long-term durability and biocompatibility.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!

"Satellite viruses" are a type of viruses that require the presence of another virus, known as a "helper virus," to complete their replication cycle. They lack certain genes that are essential for replication and therefore depend on the helper virus to provide these functions. Satellite viruses can either be satellite RNA or satellite DNA viruses, and they can affect plants, animals, and bacteria.

Satellite viruses can influence the severity of the disease caused by the helper virus, either increasing or decreasing it. They can also interfere with the replication of the helper virus and affect its transmission. The relationship between satellite viruses and their helper viruses is complex and can vary depending on the specific viruses involved.

It's important to note that the term "satellite virus" is not used consistently in the scientific literature, and some researchers may use it to refer to other types of dependent or defective viruses. Therefore, it's always a good idea to consult the original research when interpreting the use of this term.

Chenopodiaceae is a family of flowering plants, also known as goosefoot family. It includes a number of genera and species that are commonly found in various parts of the world, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. The plants in this family are characterized by their fleshy leaves and stems, and tiny flowers that lack petals.

Some well-known genera in Chenopodiaceae include Chenopodium (goosefoot), Atriplex (saltbush), and Beta (beet). Many of the plants in this family have economic importance as food crops, ornamental plants, and sources of medicinal compounds. For example, beets, spinach, and chard are all members of Chenopodiaceae that are commonly consumed as vegetables.

It's worth noting that recent taxonomic revisions have led to some changes in the classification of this family, with many of its genera now being placed in other families such as Amaranthaceae. However, the name Chenopodiaceae is still widely used and recognized in the scientific literature.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

Carmovirus is a genus of viruses in the family *Tombusviridae*, which infect plants. The name "Carmovirus" is derived from the initials of the plant it was first isolated from, **C**harlock **A**rtichoke **M**osaic **Virus**. These viruses have a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome and are transmitted by beetles and through mechanical means such as contaminated tools or hands.

Carmoviruses cause symptoms such as mosaic patterns, leaf curling, and stunting in infected plants. They replicate in the cytoplasm of host cells and form viral inclusion bodies called **X**-**bodies**. Examples of Carmoviruses include:

* Carmovirus (CarMV)
* Cardamine chlorotic fleck virus (CCFV)
* Poplar mosaic virus (PopMV)
* Turnip crinkle virus (TCV)

It's important to note that medical professionals and researchers in human health may not encounter the term "Carmovirus" frequently, as it primarily relates to plant virology.

I apologize for any confusion, but "plants" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "plants" refers to a large and diverse group of organisms that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, which is the process of converting sunlight into chemical energy. Plants are typically characterized by having cells with cell walls containing cellulose, chloroplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll, and the ability to synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

In a medical or biological context, you might be thinking of "plant-based" or "phytomedicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as a form of medicine or treatment. Phytomedicines have been used for thousands of years in many traditional systems of medicine, and some plant-derived compounds have been found to have therapeutic benefits in modern medicine as well. However, "plants" itself does not have a medical definition.

"Vanilla" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a flavoring derived from the beans of the vanilla orchid (Vanilla planifolia), and it is widely used in the food industry to give a sweet and creamy taste to various products, such as ice cream, cakes, and beverages.

However, there is a term called "vanillin" that has a medical relevance. Vanillin is a chemical compound found in the vanilla bean, but it can also be synthetically produced. It has been studied for its potential medicinal properties, including its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, more research is needed to determine its therapeutic potential fully.

... satellite MeSH D13.444.735.721.250 - cucumber mosaic virus satellite MeSH D13.444.735.757 - rna, transfer MeSH D13.444.735.757. ... satellite MeSH D13.444.308.497 - DNA, single-stranded MeSH D13.444.308.497.220 - DNA, complementary MeSH D13.444.308.520 - DNA ...
... satellite RNAs Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA Cymbidium ringspot virus satellite RNA Pea enation mosaic virus satellite ... virus satellite RNA Panicum mosaic virus small satellite RNA Peanut stunt virus satellite RNA Turnip crinkle virus satellite ... Maize white line mosaic satellite virus Papanivirus - Panicum mosaic satellite virus Virtovirus - Tobacco mosaic satellite ... satellite RNAs Large linear satellite RNAs Arabis mosaic virus large satellite RNA Bamboo mosaic virus satellite RNA (satBaMV) ...
... vein virus Croton golden mosaic virus Croton yellow vein mosaic virus Cucumber chlorotic leaf virus Cucurbit leaf crumple virus ... The DNA B genome originated as a satellite that was captured by the monopartite progenitor of all extant bipartite ... virus Jatropha mosaic Nigeria virus Jatropha mosaic virus Jatropha yellow mosaic virus Kudzu mosaic virus Leonurus mosaic virus ... mosaic virus Sida mosaic Alagoas virus Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 1 Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 Sida mosaic Sinaloa virus Sida ...
As a team, from 1956 they started publishing seminal works on TMV, cucumber virus 4 and turnip yellow mosaic virus. Franklin ... On 30 June 2021, a satellite named after her (ÑuSat 19 or "Rosalind", COSPAR 2021-059AC) was launched into space. 2021, the ... Franklin, RE (1956). "Structure of Tobacco Mosaic Virus: Location of the Ribonucleic Acid in the Tobacco Mosaic Virus Particle ... Casper, D. L. D. (1956). "Structure of Tobacco Mosaic Virus: Radial Density Distribution in the Tobacco Mosaic Virus Particle ...
... mosaic virus Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus Cucumber mosaic virus Cucumber mottle virus Cucumber soil-borne virus Cucumber ... satellite virus 1 Macroptilium bright mosaic virus Macroptilium common mosaic virus Macroptilium golden mosaic virus ... mosaic virus Yam chlorotic necrosis virus Yam latent virus Yam mild mosaic virus Yam mosaic virus Yam virus X Yambean mosaic ... mosaic virus Sida mosaic Alagoas virus Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 1 Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 Sida mosaic Sinaloa virus Sida ...
... terrestrial and satellite television, telex, and internet. Rural telephone service is available via satellite in the ... 158 health workers contracted the virus and two died. 46% of the cases were treated at hospitals run by Servicios de Salud de ... These include bananas, cherimoyas, mameys, melons, cucumbers, tomatillos, jicama, squash, alfalfa, cotton, peanuts, onions and ... is the Glorieta de La Luna with Venetian mosaic by José García Narezo. Along the main street, Paseo de la Reforma, there are ...
1957 Artificial satellite Sputnik 1, the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite. It was launched into an elliptical low ... The key part of rassolnik is rassol, a liquid based on the juice of pickled cucumbers with some additions, famous for its usage ... 1891 Three-phase hydroelectric power plant By Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky 1892 Viruses By Dmitri Ivanovsky 1894 Nephoscope By ... Aerosledge 1907 Pulsejet 1907 Bayan 1907 Church of the Savior on Blood The church contains over 7500 square metres of mosaics ...
It is estimated viruses kill 20% of this biomass each day and that there are 15 times as many viruses in the oceans as there ... Colorful sea lilies in shallow waters Sea cucumbers filter feed on plankton and suspended solids. The sea pig, a deep water sea ... Zhu M, Zhao W, Jia L, Lu J, Qiao T, Qu Q (March 2009). "The oldest articulated osteichthyan reveals mosaic gnathostome ... 2011). "Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data". Global Ecology and ...
... satellite MeSH D13.444.735.721.250 - cucumber mosaic virus satellite MeSH D13.444.735.757 - rna, transfer MeSH D13.444.735.757. ... satellite MeSH D13.444.308.497 - DNA, single-stranded MeSH D13.444.308.497.220 - DNA, complementary MeSH D13.444.308.520 - DNA ...
2014) A bromodomain-containing host protein mediates the nuclear importation of a satellite RNA of Cucumber mosaic virus. J ...
D satellite RNA (satRNA) is a strain of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) satRNA that induces an epidemic lethal disease in tomato. ... cucumber mosaic virus satellite,cucumovirus,viral dna,lycopersicon esculentum,plant diseases,plants, genetically modified,proto ...
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) often accompanies a short RNA molecule called a satellite RNA (satRNA). When infected with CMV in ... strawberry crinkle virus, strawberry mild yellow edge virus, strawberry vein banding virus, and strawberry virus 1. SPV1 was ... A plant virus satellite RNA directly accelerates wing formation in its insect vector for spread. ... BACKGROUND: Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are orbiviruses that can cause fatal vector- ...
Cucumber Mosaic Virus reprints the first three papers on cucumber mosaic disease published in 1916 and covers the literature ... and evolution of CMV satellite RNAs. ... Cucumber Mosaic Virus. Editado por: Peter Palukaitis and ... Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has the broadest host range of any virus, and among the 1,000-plus host plants it affects are ... That has changed with release of this new book by APS PRESS, Cucumber Mosaic Virus. Written by an international group of 29 ...
Viral Satellite RNAs for the Prevention of Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) Disease in Field-Grown Pepper and Melon Plants ... Biology of the Transmission of Peach Mosaic Virus by Eriophyes insidiosus (Acari: Eriophyidae) ... Banana Streak Badnavirus and Cucumber Mosaic Cucumovirus in Farmers Fields in Zanzibar ... Comparative Virus Resistance and Fruit Yield of Transgenic Squash with Single and Multiple Coat Protein Genes ...
Transformed tomato plants express a satellite RNA of cucumber mosaic virus and produce lethal necrosis upon infection with ... Komuro, M.; Tajima, M.; Kato, K. 1989: Transformation of Golgi membrane into the envelope of herpes simplex virus in rat ... Falcone, G.; Provenzano, C.; Alemà, S.; Tatò, F. 1992: Transformation of NIH3T3 cells by Rous sarcoma virus occurs with high ... Kalloo, M.K.B. 1990: Transfer of tomato leaf curl virus resistance from lycopersicon hirsutum f glabratum to lycopersicon ...
One such satellite virus is associated with cucumber mosaic virus (Cucumovirus). Hepatitis D virus is another example which can ... Virusoids resemble the satellite viruses which are defective viruses unable to grow by themselves and require a helper virus ... The helper viruses associated with viroids include velvet tobacco mottle virus, Solarium nodiflorum virus, Lucerne transient ... the outer capsid of this satellite virus is composed of hepatitis B surface antigen. During replication in the nucleus of the ...
1992). PSV supports the replication of its satRNAs but not those associated with cucumber mosaic virus. PSV is transmitted in ... Peanut stunt virus satellite RNA: analysis of sequences that affect symptom attenuation in tobacco. Virology 189: 668-677. ... Virus dieases of groundnut in India with particular reference to peanut stripe virus. In: Reddy DVR, McDonald D, Moss JP, eds. ... Peanut stripe (Peanut stripe virus) of groundnut: (A)stripe and green banding symptoms; (B)striping and mosaic (oak leaf ...
... groundnut rosette virus (GRV), which depends on a luteovirus, groundnut rosette assistor virus (GRAV), for transmission by the ... No virus-like particles have been reported for GRV but infected plants yield infective ssRNA. Infected leaves also contain ... The results show that the satellite RNA is largely responsible for rosette disease symptoms in groundnut. ... These results show that dsRNA-3 represents a satellite RNA. Addition of dsRNA-3 to the G96 culture resulted in a slight ...
Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) (genus Potexvirus, family Flexiviridae), a widespread plant virus, is a promising candidate ... The possible use of PepMV as a virus-induced gene silencing vector to study gene function was also demonstrated. Protocols for ... We have generated a novel tool for the expression of recombinant proteins in plants and for the functional analysis of virus ... Our experiments have also highlighted virus requirements for replication in single cells as well as intercellular and long- ...
Since then an increasing number of RNA viruses have been used to construct infectious clones, including cucumber mosaic virus ( ... Purification of plant viral and satellite double-stranded RNAs on DEAE monoliths. J. Chromatogr A. 1144:111-119.. ... ribgrass mosaic virus (RMV) (Zhu et al., 2006), potato virus M (PVM) (Flatken et al., 2008), and pepper mottle virus (PMV) (Lee ... turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) (Sánchez et al., 1998), johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV) (Kim et al., 2003), PMV (Lee et al., 2011 ...
TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. ... UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. B06 - PLANTS. ALFALFA. MEDICAGO SATIVA. CINNAMON. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM. CUCUMBERS. CUCUMIS SATIVUS. ... TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. ... SIMBU GROUP VIRUSES. SIMBU VIRUS. SWINE INFERTILITY AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS. PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE ...
TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. ... UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. B06 - PLANTS. ALFALFA. MEDICAGO SATIVA. CINNAMON. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM. CUCUMBERS. CUCUMIS SATIVUS. ... TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. ... SIMBU GROUP VIRUSES. SIMBU VIRUS. SWINE INFERTILITY AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS. PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE ...
TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. ... UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. B06 - PLANTS. ALFALFA. MEDICAGO SATIVA. CINNAMON. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM. CUCUMBERS. CUCUMIS SATIVUS. ... TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. ... SIMBU GROUP VIRUSES. SIMBU VIRUS. SWINE INFERTILITY AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS. PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE ...
TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. ... UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. B06 - PLANTS. ALFALFA. MEDICAGO SATIVA. CINNAMON. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM. CUCUMBERS. CUCUMIS SATIVUS. ... TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. ... SIMBU GROUP VIRUSES. SIMBU VIRUS. SWINE INFERTILITY AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS. PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE ...
TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. ... UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. B06 - PLANTS. ALFALFA. MEDICAGO SATIVA. CINNAMON. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM. CUCUMBERS. CUCUMIS SATIVUS. ... TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. ... SIMBU GROUP VIRUSES. SIMBU VIRUS. SWINE INFERTILITY AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS. PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE ...
TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. ... UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. B06 - PLANTS. ALFALFA. MEDICAGO SATIVA. CINNAMON. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM. CUCUMBERS. CUCUMIS SATIVUS. ... TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. ... SIMBU GROUP VIRUSES. SIMBU VIRUS. SWINE INFERTILITY AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS. PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE ...
TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. ... UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. B06 - PLANTS. ALFALFA. MEDICAGO SATIVA. CINNAMON. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM. CUCUMBERS. CUCUMIS SATIVUS. ... TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. ... SIMBU GROUP VIRUSES. SIMBU VIRUS. SWINE INFERTILITY AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS. PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE ...
TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. ... UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. B06 - PLANTS. ALFALFA. MEDICAGO SATIVA. CINNAMON. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM. CUCUMBERS. CUCUMIS SATIVUS. ... TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. ... SIMBU GROUP VIRUSES. SIMBU VIRUS. SWINE INFERTILITY AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS. PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE ...
TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. ... UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. B06 - PLANTS. ALFALFA. MEDICAGO SATIVA. CINNAMON. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM. CUCUMBERS. CUCUMIS SATIVUS. ... TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. ... SIMBU GROUP VIRUSES. SIMBU VIRUS. SWINE INFERTILITY AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS. PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE ...
TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. ... UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. B06 - PLANTS. ALFALFA. MEDICAGO SATIVA. CINNAMON. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM. CUCUMBERS. CUCUMIS SATIVUS. ... TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. ... SIMBU GROUP VIRUSES. SIMBU VIRUS. SWINE INFERTILITY AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS. PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE ...
TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. ... UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. B06 - PLANTS. ALFALFA. MEDICAGO SATIVA. CINNAMON. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM. CUCUMBERS. CUCUMIS SATIVUS. ... TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. ... SIMBU GROUP VIRUSES. SIMBU VIRUS. SWINE INFERTILITY AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS. PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE ...
TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. ... UUKUNIEMI VIRUS. B06 - PLANTS. ALFALFA. MEDICAGO SATIVA. CINNAMON. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM. CUCUMBERS. CUCUMIS SATIVUS. ... TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE. TOBACCO MOSAIC SATELLITE VIRUS. UUKUNIEMI GROUP VIRUSES. ... SIMBU GROUP VIRUSES. SIMBU VIRUS. SWINE INFERTILITY AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS. PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE ...
All three strains are related distantly to cucumber virus 4, cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, and an isolate of sunn-hemp ... Species: Frangipani mosaic virus , Acronym: FrMV. Frangipani mosaic virus. A. Varma Division of Mycology and Plant Pathology, ... tomato mosaic virus and ribgrass mosaic virus. (A. J. Gibbs & A. Varma, unpublished data; Francki et al., 1971). There was no ... Temple tree mosaic virus A virus with tubular particles 300 nm long and 18 nm in diameter. Sap transmissible. No vector known; ...
The replicase proteins p33 and p92 of Cymbidium ringspot virus (CymRSV) were found to support the replication of defective ... Ishikawa M., Janda M., Krol M. A., Ahlquist P. 1997; In vivo DNA expression of functional brome mosaic virus RNA replicons in ... Panaviene Z., Panavas T., Serva S., Nagy P. D. 2004; Purification of the Cucumber necrosis virus replicase from yeast cells: ... The replication of cymbidium ringspot tombusvirus defective interfering-satellite RNA hybrid molecules. Virology 190:579-586 [ ...
modified RNA s viral by Positive-Strand RNA Viruses and DNA Viruses but very in Detectable Amounts by Negative-Strand RNA ... The earlier signals are used not in doing authorities commercially respectively as Mosaic viruses in virus tuberosum with a ... of Transgenic Squash Containing Single or Multiple Virus Coat Protein Gene Constructs for Resistance to Cucumber vertical Virus ... satellites which reduce only awarded. Gurevich, Yuri, Monadic Second-Order Theories, in J. Geometry of driving in ...
... and construction of an inducible Cucumber mosaic virus amplicon for production of plant-based therapeutic proteins. From 2005- ... Gene from a novel plant virus satellite from grapevine identifies a viral satellite lineage. Virus Genes. 47:114-118.. ... Gene from a novel plant virus satellite from grapevine identifies a viral satellite lineage. -(Peer Reviewed Journal) Al ... Advances in Virus Research. 75:185-220.. *LETTUCE INFECTIOUS YELLOWS VIRUS-ENCODED P26 INDUCES PLASMALEMMA DEPOSIT ...
"Remote Sensing : Satellite Imagery to Map Topsoil Organic Carbon Content over Cultivated Areas: An Overview" LINK. Agriculture ... "MOSAIC on the ELT: optomechanical design of the NIR spectrograph" LINK. "Emerging applications of nano-optical sensors combined ... Methods of optical spectroscopy in detection of virus in infected samples: A Review " LINK. Equipment for Spectroscopy. "An ... "Detection of Cucumber Fruits with Excessive Consumption of Nitrogen using Hyperspectral imaging (With Emphasis on Sustainable ...
Golden Mosaic Virus Disease of Cowpea in Rajasthan: Survey, Occurrence and Yield Loss Anil Kumar, G.S. Rathore, Sunil Kumar*, ... Pattern Recognition of Satellite Imageries of Somwarpet Taluk of Kodagu District: Land Use Patterns Classification Vaibhav ... Influence of Foliar Ethrel on Growth, Flowering, Fruit Set and Yield of different Varieties on Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) ... Study of Seed Protein Profiling of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Genotype using SDS-PAGE for Determination of Genetic ...
  • Among the important diseases caused by viroids, are the potato spindle tuber, citrus exocortis, chrysanthemum stunt, chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle, cucumber pale fruit and cadang-cadang of coconut. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • The effect of peanut mottle virus infection on growth and yield of peanuts. (croptrust.org)
  • 1977. Seed transmission of peanut mottle virus in peanuts. (croptrust.org)
  • Some properties of a peanut mottle virus (PMoV) isolate from soybeans in South Africa. (croptrust.org)
  • 1993. Reaction of Arachis germplasm to peanut stripe, peanut mottle and tomato spotted wilt viruses. (croptrust.org)
  • Aphid-injection experiments with carrot mottle virus and its helper virus, carrot red leaf. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Relations of carrot red leaf and carrot mottle viruses with their aphid vector. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Molecular weight of the infective RNA from leaves infected with carrot mottle virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Carrot mottle - a persistent aphid-borne virus with unusual properties and particles. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Viroids differ from viruses in having no coat enclosing the nucleic acid which in these agents is a small single stranded circular RNA. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • A satellite-like nucleic acid of arabis mosaic virus associated with hop nettlehead disease. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • COLD SPRING HARBOR, NEW YORK -- In an important, comprehensive, and timely review, an expert team from the University of California Berkeley details the methodologies used in nucleic acid-based tests for detecting the presence of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. (cshlpress.com)
  • Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is the predominant viral pathogen that affects the yield and quality of soybean. (ppjonline.org)
  • Some cookies wake rendered that institutes has in general goals and that under viral crops it has a undersea fresh lake with spectacular anti-virus animal( Steinbrecher, l996). (be-mindful.de)
  • PStV infection has a highly variable effect on groundnut yield, depending on the test conditions, cultivar and the virus isolate. (croptrust.org)
  • Symptoms on groundnut plants vary, depending on virus isolate and groundnut cultivar. (croptrust.org)
  • D satellite RNA (satRNA) is a strain of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) satRNA that induces an epidemic lethal disease in tomato. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Mechanical and aphid transmission of an Ivory Coast strain of groundnut rosette virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • and even more distantly to TMV-type strain , TMV-U2 strain , tomato mosaic virus and ribgrass mosaic virus . (dpvweb.net)
  • 35S RNA Interference Targeting V2 Gene of Cotton Leaf Curl Kokhran Virus-Burewala Strain Can remain Resistance in Transgenic Cotton Plants. (be-mindful.de)
  • No virus-like particles have been reported for GRV but infected plants yield infective ssRNA. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) (genus Potexvirus , family Flexiviridae ), a widespread plant virus, is a promising candidate expression vector for plants because of its high level of accumulation in its hosts and the absence of severe infection symptoms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have generated a novel tool for the expression of recombinant proteins in plants and for the functional analysis of virus and plant genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results show that the satellite RNA is largely responsible for rosette disease symptoms in groundnut. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We explored several strategies for vector development including coat protein (CP) replacement, duplication of the CP subgenomic promoter (SGP) and the creation of a fusion protein using the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A catalytic peptide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A stable PepMV vector was generated by expressing the transgene as a CP fusion using the sequence encoding the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A catalytic peptide to separate them. (biomedcentral.com)
  • First report of grapevine red blotch virus, the causal agent of grapevine red blotch disease in vitis vinifera in North Carolina. (usda.gov)
  • A virus with tubular particles 300 nm long and 18 nm in diameter. (dpvweb.net)
  • Particles of the virus are strongly immunogenic. (dpvweb.net)
  • The particles of frangipani mosaic virus are morphologically indistinguishable from those of other tobamoviruses. (dpvweb.net)
  • Groundnut viruses and virus diseases: distribution, identification and control. (croptrust.org)
  • This method of construction not only makes up for the time-consuming and laborious defect of traditional methods used to construct infectious cDNA clones, but also avoids the toxicity of the Potyvirus special sequence to Escherichia coli , thus providing a useful cloning strategy for the construction of infectious cDNA clones for other viruses and laying down a foundation for the further investigation of SMV cross-family infection mechanisms. (ppjonline.org)
  • The virus is easily purified from infected leaves of frangipani or N. glutinosa by several methods. (dpvweb.net)
  • As a technology, infectious cloning has been widely used in the study of pathogenicity of plant viruses. (ppjonline.org)
  • Infectious clones for plant viruses refer to DNA clones that have been constructed artificially using molecular biology techniques and have the same infectious activity as plant viruses under natural conditions. (ppjonline.org)
  • information of Transgenic Hybrid Squash ZW-20 Expressing the Coat Protein Genes of Zucchini Yellow particular Virus and Watermelon infectious Virus 2 to many transgenes by Both commercials. (be-mindful.de)
  • The possible use of PepMV as a virus-induced gene silencing vector to study gene function was also demonstrated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Early vectors suffered from limitations such as instability and low yields, but this has been addressed by the genetic modification of vector sequences and by delivering virus vectors into plant cells using Agrobacterium tumefaciens [ 39 , 40 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1989. Penicillinase-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of plant viruses. (croptrust.org)
  • Satellites of plant viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Plant viruses are useful expression vectors because they can mount systemic infections allowing large amounts of recombinant protein to be produced rapidly in differentiated plant tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • the symptoms of these hosts were similar to those caused by the virus isolated from natural infected plant tissue. (ppjonline.org)
  • Begum N, Sharma B, Pandey RS( 2011) mosaic transgenic and Anti AchE vein of Some Plant Extracts in Musca Domestica. (be-mindful.de)
  • Investigating grapevine red blotch virus infection in Vitis vinifera L. cv. (usda.gov)
  • Our experiments have also highlighted virus requirements for replication in single cells as well as intercellular and long-distance movement. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The replicase proteins p33 and p92 of Cymbidium ringspot virus (CymRSV) were found to support the replication of defective interfering (DI) RNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The replication of cymbidium ringspot tombusvirus defective interfering-satellite RNA hybrid molecules. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • There was no detectable serological relationship with Sammons opuntia virus even though comparisons of coat protein composition indicate a close affinity ( Description No. 184 ). (dpvweb.net)
  • Field Evaluation of Transgenic Squash Containing Single or Multiple Virus Coat Protein Gene Constructs for Resistance to Cucumber vertical Virus, Watermelon other Virus 2, and Zucchini Yellow yellow Virus. (be-mindful.de)
  • Characterization of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 genetic variants and application towards RT-qPCR assay design. (usda.gov)
  • Properties, serological relationships and particle morphology place the virus in the tobamovirus group . (dpvweb.net)
  • 2014) A bromodomain-containing host protein mediates the nuclear importation of a satellite RNA of Cucumber mosaic virus. (forth.gr)
  • Grapevine red blotch virus alters grape skin cell-wall composition impacting phenolic extractability during winemaking. (usda.gov)
  • for home, things 8th from mathematical viruses or progeny variables may be shown for metabolism with Cas9-based crops. (be-mindful.de)
  • When people are talking about complex things like the Covid-19 virus and the pandemic we're in, it's important to have a trusting relationship with a health care provider with true expertise in medical science - whether an individual person or a practice - to help us sort through the noise presented to us by social media and politics. (issuu.com)
  • 2000). Adams and Kuhn (1977) reported that seed transmission is due to the presence of the virus in the embryo. (croptrust.org)
  • Rao AL, Kalantidis K. (2015) Virus-associated smalls atellite RNAs and viroids display similarities in their replication strategies. (forth.gr)
  • Plants such as tomatoes, potatoes , avocados , coconuts , peaches , pears , apples , chrysanthemums , and cucumbers are known to be infected with viroids, which can be transmitted by pollen or seed . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Viroids differ from viruses in that viruses, at their most basic level, consist of genetic material (DNA or RNA) contained within a protective protein shell. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Jasmine virus H (JaVH) is a newly reported viral pathogen of jasmine in China and USA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To study the viral gene function and pathogenic mechanism, a full-length infectious clone of JaVH (pXT-JaVH FJ ) was constructed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results showed that diverse virus species are present in Zambian common bean fields and the information will be useful for the management of common bean viral diseases. (tamu.edu)
  • De façon plus générale, j'étudie certaines propriétés de l'évolution des virus des plantes (gamme d'hôtes, intensité de la dérive génétique lors du cycle infectieux viral, pressions de sélection exercées sur les virus). (hal.science)
  • In this study, we serially passaged the Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) associated-satRNA (satBaMV) under conditions in which satBaMV either coinfects an uninfected host plant, Nicotiana benthamiana , with BaMV or superinfects a transgenic N. benthamiana expressing the full-length BaMV genome. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2017) Dicer-Like 4 Is Involved in Restricting the Systemic Movement of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana. (forth.gr)
  • broad bean necrosis , beet necrotic yellow vein , peanut clump , potato mop-top , nicotiana velutina mosaic and wheat soil-borne mosaic . (dpvweb.net)
  • Satellite RNAs (satRNAs) are molecular parasites that depend on their non-homologous helper viruses (HVs) for essential biological functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Different cucumoviruses can act as helper viruses for different types. (nih.gov)
  • James A, Andronis C, Kryovrysanaki N, Goumenaki E, Kalantidis K, Katsarou K. (2023) First Report of Southern Tomato Virus from Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in Greece. (forth.gr)
  • D satellite RNA (satRNA) is a strain of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) satRNA that induces an epidemic lethal disease in tomato. (uea.ac.uk)
  • The production of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is adversely affected by virus-like diseases globally, but little is known about the occurrence, distribution, and diversity of common bean-infecting viruses in Zambia. (tamu.edu)
  • For instance, the p37 of pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV) exerts its VSR function by sequestering small RNAs (Pérez-Cañamás and Hernández 2015 , 2018 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Characterization of Peanut stunt virus Isolated from Black Locust Tree (Robiniapseudo-acacia L. (ppjonline.org)
  • Kassanis, 1962 ), the TRSV-associated satellite RNA (satTRSV) does not encode its own coat protein, a feature that differentiates between satellite viruses (SVs) and satRNAs. (frontiersin.org)
  • RNA, SATELLITE ) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein. (lookformedical.com)
  • In plant protection and serological tests, no relationship was found between a cherry isolate of cherry leaf roll virus and arabis mosaic , tomato black ring , raspberry ringspot , tomato ringspot or tobacco ringspot viruses ( Cropley, 1961 ). (dpvweb.net)
  • In an attempt to address sequence heterogeneity from a population dynamics perspective, a GF305-indicator peach tree was infected with a single variant of the Avsunviroidae family member Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd). (cdc.gov)
  • Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. (childrensmercy.org)
  • is useful for maintaining cultures, and is the best source of virus for purification. (dpvweb.net)
  • N. tabacum and Chenopodium quinoa are useful for propagating the virus for purification. (dpvweb.net)
  • not you can find some download Facility Piping Systems version or additionally involve a mosaic on fungal chemicals. (be-mindful.de)
  • They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION. (lookformedical.com)
  • Jasmine virus H (JaVH) is a new member of the Pelarspovirus genus in the Tombusviridae family that was found in the infected jasmine in Fujian Province of China (Zhuo et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To investigate the occurrence and mutations of the virus, jasmine samples were collected from eight provinces of China and were tested for JaVH. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Causes leaf roll of cherry ( Fig. 1 ), ringspot of Sambucus racemosa, yellow net of S. nigra, mosaic of elm, and stunting, leaf pattern and death of blackberry (P. J. Ormerod, pers. (dpvweb.net)
  • RNA, Satellite" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
  • Jasmine showed yellow spots after rubbing with total RNA extracted from Agro-infiltrated N. benthamiana , indicating that JaVH was highly associated with yellow mosaic symptoms observed on jasmine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hypochoeris radicata (cat s ear) and Leontodon autumnalis (autumnal or fall hawkbit) are the only known natural hosts of the virus. (dpvweb.net)
  • One-way protection between elm mosaic and tomato ringspot viruses led Varney & Moore (1952) to suspect a relationship between them but serological tests ( Fulton & Fulton, 1970 ) did not confirm this. (dpvweb.net)
  • In Spain, bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by several Culicoides taxa, including Culicoides imicola, Obsoletus complex, Culicoides newsteadi and Culicoides pulicaris that vary in seasonality and distribution, affecting the distribution and dynamics of BT outbreaks. (bvsalud.org)
  • Andrewes and Pereira's Viruses of Vertebrates (3d edition, 1972) (VIR) - all virus genera and families have been entered 3. (nih.gov)
  • Previously, hepatitis D was tied to a virus called delta agent, but delta agent appears to be a viroid enclosed in a hepatitis B virus capsid (Biotecnika 2005). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • COLD SPRING HARBOR, NEW YORK -- In an important, comprehensive, and timely review, an expert team from the University of California Berkeley details the methodologies used in nucleic acid-based tests for detecting the presence of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. (cshlpress.com)
  • The satellite sensor systems measure and record absorbed, emitted, or reflected energy across the spectra, as well as global position and time. (lookformedical.com)
  • They are distinguished from the perineuronal satellite oligodendrocytes (OLIGODENDROGLIA) found in the central nervous system. (lookformedical.com)
  • Screening of the survey samples by real-time PCR for the viruses detected by high-throughput sequencing revealed the prevalence of single (65.2% or 417/640) over mixed (1.9% or 12/640) infections in the samples. (tamu.edu)
  • SBMV was the most frequently detected virus, occurring in 29.4% (188/640) of the samples and at a prevalence rate of 58.6% (75/128) across fields. (tamu.edu)