Phylum of marine colenterates characterized by eight comb rows of fused cilia on the body surface. In contrast to CNIDARIA they lack stinging cells, but they are voracious predators and possess sticky cells (colloblasts) for capturing prey. Most species are transparent and many exhibit bioluminescence.
A plant genus of the family JUGLANDACEAE that provides the familiar walnut.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.
Criminal acts committed during, or in connection with, war, e.g., maltreatment of prisoners, willful killing of civilians, etc.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Biological processes, properties, and characteristics of the whole organism in human, animal, microorganisms, and plants, and of the biosphere.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.
The class of true jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA. They are mostly free-swimming marine organisms that go through five stages in their life cycle and exhibit two body forms: polyp and medusa.
A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.
A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.
A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
A suborder of CRUSTACEA, order Diplostraca, comprising the water fleas. They are benthic filter feeders that consume PHYTOPLANKTON. The body is laterally compressed and enclosed in a bivalved carapace, from which the head extends.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA which alternates between polyp and medusa forms during their life cycle. There are over 2700 species in five orders.
A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
The class of box jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA, characterized by their cube shape, and considered the most venomous jellyfish.

T-box and homeobox genes from the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus: comparison of Brachyury, Tbx2/3 and Tlx in basal metazoans and bilaterians. (1/24)

Most animals are classified as Bilateria and only four phyla are still extant as outgroups, namely Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria and Ctenophora. These non-bilaterians were not considered to have a mesoderm and hence mesoderm-specific genes. However, the T-box gene Brachyury could be isolated from sponges, placozoans and cnidarians. Here, we describe the first Brachyury and a Tbx2/3 homologue from a ctenophore. In addition, analysing T-box and homeobox genes under comparable conditions in all four basal phyla lead to the discovery of novel T-box genes in sponges and cnidarians and a Tlx homeobox gene in the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus. The conservation of the T-box and the homeobox genes suggest that distinct subfamilies with different roles in bilaterians were already split in non-bilaterians.  (+info)

Raman spectra of a Lower Cambrian ctenophore embryo from southwestern Shaanxi, China. (2/24)

The Early Cambrian (approximately 540 million years old) Meishucun fossil assemblage of Ningqiang County (Shaanxi Province), China, contains the oldest complex skeletonized organisms known in the geological record. We here report the finding in this assemblage of an exquisitely preserved late-stage embryo of a ctenophore ("comb jelly"), its fine structure documented by confocal laser scanning microscopy and shown by Raman spectroscopy to be composed of carbonaceous kerogen permineralized in apatite. In its spheroidal morphology, the presence of eight comb rows and the absence of tentacles, this embryo resembles an adult ctenophore (Maotianoascus octonarius) known from the immediately younger Chengjiang fauna of Yunnan, China. The oldest ctenophore and the only embryonic comb jelly known from the fossil record, this exceptionally well preserved specimen provides important clues about the early evolution of the phylum Ctenophora and of metazoans in general.  (+info)

Trophic cascades triggered by overfishing reveal possible mechanisms of ecosystem regime shifts. (3/24)

Large-scale transitions between alternative states in ecosystems are known as regime shifts. Once described as healthy and dominated by various marine predators, the Black Sea ecosystem by the late 20th century had experienced anthropogenic impacts such as heavy fishing, cultural eutrophication, and invasions by alien species. We studied changes related to these "natural experiments" to reveal the mechanisms of regime shifts. Two major shifts were detected, the first related to a depletion of marine predators and the second to an outburst of the alien comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi; both shifts were triggered by intense fishing resulting in system-wide trophic cascades. The complex nature of ecosystem responses to human activities calls for more elaborate approaches than currently provided by traditional environmental and fisheries management. This implies challenging existing practices and implementing explanatory models of ecosystem interactions that can better reconcile conservation and ecosystem management ideals.  (+info)

Hox, Wnt, and the evolution of the primary body axis: insights from the early-divergent phyla. (4/24)

The subkingdom Bilateria encompasses the overwhelming majority of animals, including all but four early-branching phyla: Porifera, Ctenophora, Placozoa, and Cnidaria. On average, these early-branching phyla have fewer cell types, tissues, and organs, and are considered to be significantly less specialized along their primary body axis. As such, they present an attractive outgroup from which to investigate how evolutionary changes in the genetic toolkit may have contributed to the emergence of the complex animal body plans of the Bilateria. This review offers an up-to-date glimpse of genome-scale comparisons between bilaterians and these early-diverging taxa. Specifically, we examine these data in the context of how they may explain the evolutionary development of primary body axes and axial symmetry across the Metazoa. Next, we re-evaluate the validity and evolutionary genomic relevance of the zootype hypothesis, which defines an animal by a specific spatial pattern of gene expression. Finally, we extend the hypothesis that Wnt genes may be the earliest primary body axis patterning mechanism by suggesting that Hox genes were co-opted into this patterning network prior to the last common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians.  (+info)

Conserved functions for Mos in eumetazoan oocyte maturation revealed by studies in a cnidarian. (5/24)

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A photoactivatable green-fluorescent protein from the phylum Ctenophora. (6/24)

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Highly conserved functions of the Brachyury gene on morphogenetic movements: insight from the early-diverging phylum Ctenophora. (7/24)

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Convergent origins and rapid evolution of spliced leader trans-splicing in metazoa: insights from the ctenophora and hydrozoa. (8/24)

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Specific immune priming enables an induced immune response upon repeated pathogen encounter. As a functional analogue to vertebrate immune memory, such adaptive plasticity has been described, for instance, in insects and crustaceans. However, towards the base of the metazoan tree our knowledge about the existence of specific immune priming becomes scattered. Here, we exposed the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi repeatedly to two different bacterial epitopes (Gram-positive or -negative) and measured gene expression. Ctenophores experienced either the same bacterial epitope twice (homologous treatments) or different bacterial epitopes (heterologous treatments). Our results demonstrate that immune gene expression depends on earlier bacterial exposure. We detected significantly different expression upon heterologous compared with homologous bacterial treatment at three immune activator and effector genes. This is the first experimental evidence for specific immune priming in Ctenophora and ...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Ctenophora - Comb jellies, Sea walnuts -- Discover Life
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modelling survival and connectivity of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the south-western North Sea and Scheldt estuaries. AU - van der Molen, J.. AU - van Beek, J.. AU - Augustine, Starrlight. AU - Vansteenbrugge, L.. AU - van Walraven, L.. AU - Langenberg, V.. AU - van der Veer, H. W.. AU - Hostens, K.. AU - Pitois, S.. AU - Robbens, J.. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Three different models were applied to study the reproduction, survival and dispersal of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Scheldt estuaries and the southern North Sea: a high-resolution particle tracking model with passive particles, a low-resolution particle tracking model with a reproduction model coupled to a biogeochemical model, and a dynamic energy budget (DEB) model. The results of the models, each with its strengths and weaknesses, suggest the following conceptual situation: (i) the estuaries possess enough retention capability to keep an overwintering population, and enough exchange with coastal waters of the North Sea to seed ...
There has been a long debate in the scientific community over the oldest surviving metazoan lineage. Traditionally it has been taught that Porifera, the sponges, occupy that nitche possessing a diploblastic body plan without true organs; however recent phylogentic analysis has suggests that Ctenophora may truly be the oldest lineage, free floating animals with a possible mesoderm layer and complex organs. In this study we searched for the presence of mesoderm in Ctenophora by examining the genome of Pleurobrachia bachei for the presence of tropomyosin, calponin, and β-catenin. Gene expression for all three were found not only in the muscular regions of P. bachei, but in the epidermal tissues as well, indicating there is an unknown function in the metazoan common ancestor. Homology comparisons to the rest of Metazoa reveal little about tropomyosin and calponin, however the ctenophore β-catenin protein appears to be to least derived of all metazoans and suggests Ctenophora may be the most basal ...
The phylum Ctenophora,[1] the comb jellies, is a phylum of marine invertebrates. They are part of the plankton, and there are also pelagic species. The phylum includes the sea gooseberry (Pleurobrachia pileus) and Venus girdle (Cestum veneris). The phylum was grouped with Cnidaria (jellyfish) in the former Coelenterata phylum. Ctenophores are the most basal known type of animals.[2] Even though they look like jellyfish, they are zoologically not related to them. They lack the characteristic nematocysts (stinging cells), but have colloblasts, sticky cells that snare small victims. They have eight rows of cilia which look like the teeth of a comb, hence Ctenophore = comb-bearer. Ctenophores have connective tissues and a nervous system. There are about 150 described species of ctenophora spread throughout the worlds oceans, from shallow estuarine waters to the deep sea. Although there are a few benthic species, most are gelatinous zooplankton and form a considerable proportion of the entire ...
Radiata or Radiates is a historical taxonomic rank that was used to classify animals with radially symmetric body plans. The term Radiata is no longer accepted, as it united several different groupings of animals that do not form a monophyletic group under current views of animal phylogeny. The similarities once offered in justification of the taxon, such as radial symmetry, are now taken to be the result of either incorrect evaluations by early researchers or convergent evolution, rather than an indication of a common ancestor. Because of this, the term is used mostly in a historical context.[1] In the early 19th century, Georges Cuvier united Ctenophora and Cnidaria in the Radiata (Zoophytes).[2] Thomas Cavalier-Smith, in 1983, redefined Radiata as a subkingdom consisting of Myxozoa, Placozoa, Cnidaria and Ctenophora.[3] Lynn Margulis and K. V. Schwartz later redefined Radiata in their Five Kingdom classification, this time including only Cnidaria and Ctenophora.[4] This definition is similar ...
Comments, concepts and statistics about Genomic organization, evolution, and expression of photoprotein and opsin genes in Mnemiopsis leidyi: a new view of ctenophore photocytes.
Micro RNAs (miRNAs) and piwi interacting RNAs (piRNAs), along with the more ancient eukaryotic endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) constitute the principal components of the RNA interference (RNAi) repertoire of most animals. RNAi in non-bilaterians - sponges, ctenophores, placozoans and cnidarians - appears to be more diverse than that of bilaterians, and includes structurally variable miRNAs in sponges, an enormous number of piRNAs in cnidarians and the absence of miRNAs in ctenophores and placozoans. Here we identify thousands of endo-siRNAs and piRNAs from the sponge Amphimedon queenslandica, the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis using a computational approach that clusters mapped small RNA sequences and annotates each cluster based on the read length and relative abundance of the constituent reads. This approach was validated on 11 small RNA libraries in Drosophila melanogaster, demonstrating the successful annotation of RNAi-associated loci with
Mnemiopsis leidyi (Leidys Comb Jelly) is a species of comb jellies in the family Bolinopsidae. It is associated with freshwater habitat. It is native to Atlantic Coast of South America and Atlantic Coast of North America. Leidys Comb Jelly is a predator. It has sexual reproduction; it is a hermaphrodite.. ...
Ctenophores have traditionally been treated as eumetazoans, but some recent whole genome studies have revived the idea that they are, rather, the sister group to all other metazoans. This deep branching position implies either that nervous systems have evolved twice, in Ctenophora and in Eumetazoa, or that an ancestral metazoan nervous system has been lost in sponges and placozoans. We caution, however, that phylogenetic-tree construction artifacts may have placed ctenophores too deep in the metazoan tree. We discuss nervous system origins under these alternative phylogenies and in light of comparative data of ctenophore and eumetazoan nervous systems. We argue that characters like neuropeptide signaling, ciliary photoreceptors, gap junctions and presynaptic molecules are consistent with a shared ancestry of nervous systems. However, if ctenophores are the sister group to all other metazoans, this ancestral nervous system was likely very simple. Further studies are needed to resolve the deep phylogeny
Abundance, horizontal and vertical distribution of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the central Balitc Sea, November 2007. / Huwer, Bastian; Storr-Paulsen, Marie; Riisgaard, Hans Ulrik; Haslob, Holger.. In: Aquatic Invasions, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2008, p. 113-124.. Publication: Research - peer-review › Journal article - Annual report year: 2008 ...
The diel vertical dynamics of gelatinous zooplankton in physically stratified conditions over the 100-m isobath (~110 km offshore) in the South Brazilian Bight (26°45S; 47°33W) and the relationship to hydrography and food availability were analyzed by sampling every six hours over two consecutive days. Zooplankton samples were taken in three depth strata, following the vertical structure of the water column, with cold waters between 17 and 13.1°C, influenced by the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) in the lower layer (|70 m); warm (|20°C) Tropical Water in the upper 40 m; and an intermediate thermocline with a deep chlorophyll-a maximum layer (0.3-0.6 mg m-3). Two distinct general patterns were observed, emphasizing the role of (i) physical and (ii) biological processes: (i) a strong influence of the vertical stratification, with most zooplankton absent or little abundant in the lower layer. The influence of the cold SACW on the bottom layer apparently restricted the vertical occupation of most
Bunga karang (Porifera) selama ini dipercayai awal-awal berpecah dari haiwan-haiwan lain.[36] Bunga karang ketiadaan susunan kompleks yang terdapat dalam kebanyakan filum yang lain.[37] Sel-selnya dibezakan, tetapi selalunya tidak tersusun kepada tisu-tisu yang berasingan.[38] Bunga karang lazimnya makan dengan menarik air masuk melalui liang-liangnya.[39] Archaeocyatha yang rangkanya terlakur mungkin mewakili bunga karang ataupun filum yang berasingan.[40] Bagaimanapun, suatu kajian filogenomik ke atas 150 gen pada 29 jenis haiwan merentas 21 filum pada tahun 2008, mendapati bahawa Ctenophora atau ampai bulatlah yang merupakan zuriat asas haiwan, sekurang-kurangnya di kalangan 21 filum berkenaan. Para pengarangnya berspekulasi bahawa bunga karang-setidak-tidaknya bunga karang yang dikajinya-tidaklah begitu primitif, tetapi sebaliknya mungkin diringkaskan secara sekunder.[41]. Di kalangan filum-filum yang lain, Ctenophora dan Cnidaria yang merangkumi buran, batu karang, dan ampai-ampai, ...
I dont think its a wasp - its blurry but I think it only has one pair of wings. On the right picture instead you can see a lump below the wing that I think is a haltere - which would make it a true fly. So a quick google suggests a member of the Tipulidae, and perhaps something from the genus Ctenophora. If I had to guess then Id say perhaps a female Ctenophora elegans. Male Tipulidae have a swollen end to the abdomen, like in the linked picture ...
ctenophore: Any of the numerous marine invertebrates constituting the phylum Ctenophora. The phylum derives its name (from the Greek ctene, or
The origin of ctenophores (comb jellies) is obscured by their controversial phylogenetic position, with recent phylogenomic analyses resolving either sponges or ctenophores as the sister group of all other animals. Fossil taxa can provide morphological evidence that may elucidate the origins of derived characters and shared ancestries among divergent taxa, providing a means to break long branches in phylogenetic trees. Here we describe new fossil material from the early Cambrian Chengjiang Biota, Yunnan Province, China, including the putative cnidarian Xianguangia, the new taxon Daihua sanqiong gen et sp. nov., and Dinomischus venustus, informally referred to as dinomischids here. Dinomischids possess a basal calyx encircled by 18 tentacles that surround the mouth. The tentacles carry pinnules, each with a row of stiff filamentous structures interpreted as very large compound cilia of a size otherwise only known in ctenophores. Together with the Cambrian tulip animal Siphusauctum and the ...
Neuropeptides are a diverse assemblage of signalling molecules that have key roles in the regulation of behaviour. Understanding the evolutionary relationships and functions of the plethora of neuropeptides has presented a considerable challenge to biologists. Based on presentations and discussions at a Royal Society meeting in 2017, three companion Review articles by Elphick et al., Jékely et al. and DeLaney et al. discuss advances in our knowledge of neuropeptide evolution and function and the techniques that have facilitated progress in this field of research.. ...
...Despite its primitive structure the North American comb jellyfish can...The North American comb jellyfish Mnemiopsis leidyi has long be...Like many other jellyfish Mnemiopsis leidyi has a large gelati...Able to catch the worlds most vigilant plankton ...,Voracious,comb,jellyfish,invisible,to,prey,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Gert Wörheide holds the Chair of Paleontology and Geobiology at LMUs Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, and his research focuses on the early evolution of animals, which happened more than 650 million years ago. He and his colleagues recently demonstrated that the sponges (Porifera), and not the comb jellies (Ctenophora) as some believe, most likely are the sister group to all other animal phyla. In other words, modern sponges are derived from the lineage that first diverged from the last common ancestor of all animals, while all other animal groups emerged from the other branch of the family tree. In their latest study, carried out in collaboration with Professor Donald Canfields group at the University of Southern Denmark in Odense, Wörheide and his team have now shown that sponges can make do with far less oxygen than most other animals. Moreover, the new work, which appears in the international leading life and biomedical sciences journal eLife, reveals that sponges lack the ...
Gert Wörheide holds the Chair of Paleontology and Geobiology at LMUs Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, and his research focuses on the early evolution of animals, which happened more than 650 million years ago. He and his colleagues recently demonstrated that the sponges (Porifera), and not the comb jellies (Ctenophora) as some believe, most likely are the sister group to all other animal phyla. In other words, modern sponges are derived from the lineage that first diverged from the last common ancestor of all animals, while all other animal groups emerged from the other branch of the family tree. In their latest study, carried out in collaboration with Professor Donald Canfields group at the University of Southern Denmark in Odense, Wörheide and his team have now shown that sponges can make do with far less oxygen than most other animals. Moreover, the new work, which appears in the international leading life and biomedical sciences journal eLife, reveals that sponges lack the ...
1. The activity of comb plates of Pleurobrachia was analysed from cine films.. 2. The interval between successive beats of a comb plate varied from several seconds to about 50 msec. in normal sea water; this variation in frequency was accompanied by a variation wave velocity. There was an almost linear relationship between wave velocity and frequency, ranging from a minimal wave velocity of about 20 mm./sec. at low frequencies to a maximal wave velocity of about 80 mm./sec. at the highest frequencies.. 3. The wave velocity was accelerated at low frequencies by increased Mg2+ concentrations, by ouabain and by curare, and the same substances decreased the wave velocity at high frequencies.. 4. The frequency of beat was accelerated by certain concentrations of adrenaline, serotonin, Mg2+, ouabain and curare. Decreases of frequency were found in acetylcholine (and eserine) and strychnine. These substances act on the excitability of the pacemaker.. 5. It is concluded that metachronal transmission is ...
Looking for comb jelly facts? Your search ends right here. In this article we intend to give you 40 fascinating comb jelly facts that will take you by surprise. These gelatinous marine creatures are true wonders of Natures mystery. Absolutely stunning by looks, these gorgeous sea creatures are dangerous predators that often make use of their rainbow-colored lights and their nearly perfectly transparent bodies to trap prey. Let us get into some details to learn more about these stunningly beautiful creatures that roam in the vastness of our oceans and seas. ...
Ax, P. 1989. Basic phylogenetic systematization of Metazoa. Pp. 453-470 in K. B. B. Fernholm and H. Jornvall (eds.). The Hierarchy of Life. Elsevier, Amsterdam.. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, R. DeSalle, and L. W. Buss. 1995. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Molecular and morphological evidence. Molec. Biol. Evol. 12:679-689. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, B. Schierwater, R. DeSalle, and L. W.. Buss. 1992. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Evidence from mitochondrial genome structure. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 89:8750-8753. Brusca, C. B. and G. J. Brusca. 1990. Invertebrates. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland MA.. Dunn, D. F. 1982. Cnidaria. Pp. 669-705 in S. P. Parker (ed.) Synopsis and Classification of Living organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York.. Fautin, D. G. and R. N. Mariscal. 1991. Cnidaria: Anthozoa. Pp. 267-358 in F. W. Harrison and J. A. Westfall (eds.) Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, volume 2: Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora. Wiley-Liss, ...
Ax, P. 1989. Basic phylogenetic systematization of Metazoa. Pp. 453-470 in K. B. B. Fernholm and H. Jornvall (eds.). The Hierarchy of Life. Elsevier, Amsterdam.. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, R. DeSalle, and L. W. Buss. 1995. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Molecular and morphological evidence. Molec. Biol. Evol. 12:679-689. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, B. Schierwater, R. DeSalle, and L. W.. Buss. 1992. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Evidence from mitochondrial genome structure. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 89:8750-8753. Brusca, C. B. and G. J. Brusca. 1990. Invertebrates. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland MA.. Dunn, D. F. 1982. Cnidaria. Pp. 669-705 in S. P. Parker (ed.) Synopsis and Classification of Living organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York.. Fautin, D. G. and R. N. Mariscal. 1991. Cnidaria: Anthozoa. Pp. 267-358 in F. W. Harrison and J. A. Westfall (eds.) Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, volume 2: Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora. Wiley-Liss, ...
The term invertebrates covers several phyla. One of these are the sponges (Porifera). They were long thought to have diverged from other animals early.[29] They lack the complex organization found in most other phyla.[30] Their cells are differentiated, but in most cases not organized into distinct tissues.[31] Sponges typically feed by drawing in water through pores.[32] Some speculate that sponges are not so primitive, but may instead be secondarily simplified.[33] The Ctenophora and the Cnidaria, which includes sea anemones, corals, and jellyfish, are radially symmetric and have digestive chambers with a single opening, which serves as both the mouth and the anus.[34] Both have distinct tissues, but they are not organized into organs.[35] There are only two main germ layers, the ectoderm and endoderm, with only scattered cells between them. As such, they are sometimes called diploblastic.[36]. The Echinodermata are radially symmetric and exclusively marine, including starfish (Asteroidea), ...
Invertebrate Zoology (Zoo 3104). Course Description (Zoo 3104): Invertebrates comprise the vast majority of living animals and protozoa. The main objective of this course is for students to gain an understanding of the basic structure, function, life history, and ecology of major invertebrate groups and to identify important evolutionary trends. Lecture Syllabus and Syllabus Attachment Laboratory Syllabus Week 1. Lecture 1 Introduction to the Burgess Shale Lecture 2 Invertebrate Bauplan Lecture 3/Lab 1 What is an invertebrate I Week 2. Lecture 4/Lab 2 What is an invertebrate II. Week 3. Lecture 5-6 Protozoa/Lab 3 Lecture 7-9 Protozoa Gould WA I. Week 4. Lecture 10 Sponges Week 5. Lecture 11 Sponges III. Lecture 12 Placoza and Mezozoa Week 6. Lecture 13 Cnidarians I and II. Lecture 14 and 15 Cnidarians III and Ctenophora Week 7. Lecture 17 Inro tor flatworms and planarians. Lecture 18 Trematodes I Lecture 20 Monogenea I and Gould WA II see templet Week 8. Lecture 21 Monogenea II Lecture 22 ...
ABSTRACT In recent years, biofluorescence has been observed in an increasing diversity of animals. Biofluorescence has been primarily examined in cnidarians, and it is also known to occur in other marine animal phyla, including Ctenophora, Annelida, Arthropoda, and Chordata. Most recently, the phenomenon has been shown to be phylogenetically widespread and phenotypically variable in cartilaginous and ray-finned fishes. Here we report on the first observation of fluorescence in a marine tetrapod, sea turtles.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preliminary aqnalysis of length and GC content variation in the ribosomal first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) of marine animals. AU - Chow, S.. AU - Ueno, Y.. AU - Toyokawa, M.. AU - Oohara, I.. AU - Takeyama, Haruko. PY - 2009/6. Y1 - 2009/6. N2 - Length and guanine-cytosine (GC) content of the ribosomal first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) were compared across a wide variety of marine animal species, and its phylogenetic utility was investigated. From a total of 773 individuals representing 599 species, we only failed to amplify the ITS1 sequence from 87 individuals by polymerase chain reaction with universal ITS1 primers. No species was found to have an ITS1 region shorter than 100 bp. In general, the ITS1 sequences of vertebrates were longer (318 to 2,318 bp) and richer in GC content (56.8% to 78%) than those of invertebrates (117 to 1,613 bp and 35.8% to 71.3%, respectively). Specifically, gelatinous animals (Cnidaria and Ctenophora) were observed to have short ITS1 ...
There has been a long debate in the scientific community over the oldest surviving metazoan lineage. Traditionally it has been taught that Porifera, the sponges, occupy that nitche possessing a diploblastic body plan without true organs; however recent phylogentic analysis has suggests that Ctenophora may truly be the ...
Well, its worth noting that in the analysis presented in the science paper there is an unresolved trichotomy at the base with Porifera, Ctenophora and the rest. So this analysis is equivocal on whether its (P,(C,O)),(O,(P,C)) or (C,(P,O)). But the key finding here is that Xenoturbella is sister to the Nephrozoa. A key apomorphy of the bilateria (which wasnt soley based on the symmetry) is the presence of protonephridiae, i.e. excretory organis with a particular cytology. These remain as an apormorphy of the Nephrozoa, but the idea that they had been reduced in Xenacoelomorpha, making them sister to Deuterostomia is rejected in the new analysis ...
MEMO is the acronym for the project title Mnemiopsis ecology and modeling: Observation of an invasive comb jelly in the North Sea. The project is implemented through the partnership between 5 scientific research institutes - ILVO, IFREMER, ULCO-LOG, CEFAS and Deltares - and led by ILVO. The subject of the research is the comb jelly M. leidyi that was observed in the North Sea in 2006. This research project started the 1st January 2011 and is funded by the Interreg IVa MEMO-2 Seas Programme. In total, € 3.5 million is allocated over three years and 20 scientists are involved.. The Interreg IVa MEMO-2 Seas Programme is a unique opportunity to improve and standardize the monitoring of the various partners in this region. This crossborder cooperation will ensure an exchange of expertise on taxonomy (species determination), identification, databases, data analysis and modeling between renowned marine institutes.. ...
Macrocilia are thick compound ciliary organelles arising individually from elongated epithelial cells on the lips of beroid ctenophores. A giant wedge-shaped bundle of microfilaments extends 25-30 microns from the base of each macrocilium to the lower end of the cell, terminating at a junction with an underlying smooth muscle cell. The broad end of the microfilament bundle is anchored to the macrocilium by striated rootlet fibers that extend from the basal bodies into the bundle and are linked to the microfilaments by periodic bridges. Fluorescence microscopy of rhodamine-phalloidin stained intact tissue, dissociated macrociliary cells, and Triton/glycerol-isolated bundles shows that the microfilaments contain actin. The microfilaments run generally parallel to the long axis of the bundle but are not highly ordered. Filaments decorated with myosin S1 show a uniform polarity with arrowheads pointing away from the tapered membrane-associated end of the bundle. No variations in bundle length (nor ...
https://www.vichighmarine.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Ctenophore-Cydippid-Larva.jpg 480 600 adam.james https://www.vichighmarine.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/logo-300x253.png adam.james2017-02-13 20:33:542019-09-16 02:21:45Ctenophore Larva - Cyddipid Larva ...
In a study that compares the genomes of aquatic life forms, researchers have found evidence to shuffle the branches of the tree of life. For more than a century, scientists thought that complex cell types, like neurons and ...
Following a spate of patient deaths in clinical trials testing modified T cells for the treatment of cancer, researchers work to reduce the treatments toxicity without sacrificing efficacy.. 0 Comments. ...
In chapter 3, The Sense of Sensibility, author Wendy Jones uses scenes from one of Jane Austens most celebrated novels to illustrate the functioning of the bodys stress response system.. 0 Comments. ...
A type of sea animals called comb jellies may hold the key to treating neurological diseases such as Parkinsons and Alzheimers.
The evolutionary acquisition of novelties is not always achieved through genetic mutations. At times, novelty can be achieved by stealing components that have evolved elsewhere. Poison dart frogs and monarch butterflies obtain toxic molecules from invertebrates and plants in their diets (1, 2), and some jellies and fishes obtain bioluminescent substances from their prey (3-6). In each of these cases, small organic molecules are acquired. Other animals go further and steal intact organelles and cells from their prey. Some sea slugs incorporate and maintain chloroplasts (kleptoplastids) from algal prey to generate photosynthetic products in their own tissues (7-9). Many gastropods, as well as flatworms and comb jellies, steal and house cnidocytes from cnidarian prey to use as their own stinging cells (kleptocnidae) (10). Proteins, however, have been thought to be too fragile and too easily digested to be stolen. In this study, we describe the first example, to our knowledge, of protein theft ...
Speaker: Dr Maria Sachkova, Sars International Centre for Marine Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, Norway. Title: Early evolution of nervous system: study of neuropeptides in ctenophores. ...
Moroz LL, Kocot KM, Citarella MR, Dosung S, Norekian TP, Povolotskaya IS, Grigorenko AP, Dailey C, Berezikov E, Buckley KM, Ptitsyn A, Reshetov D, Mukherjee K, Moroz TP, Bobkova Y, Yu F, Kapitonov VV, Jurka J, Bobkov YV, Swore JJ, Girardo DO, Fodor A, Gusev F, Sanford R, Bruders R, Kittler E, Mills CE, Rast JP, Derelle R, Solovyev VV, Kondrashov FA, Swalla BJ, Sweedler JV, Rogaev EI, Halanych KM, Kohn AB. The ctenophore genome and the evolutionary origins of neural systems. Nature. 2014 Jun 5; 510(7503):109-14 ...
Moroz L, Kocot K, Citarella M, Dosung S, Norekian T, Povolotskaya I, Grigorenko A, Dailey C, Berezikov E, Buckley K, Ptitsyn A, Reshetov D, Mukherjee K, Moroz T, Bobkova Y, Yu F, Kapitonov V, Jurka J, Bobkov Y, Swore J, Girardo D, Fodor A, Gusev F, Sanford R, Bruders R, Kittler E, Mills C, Rast J, Derelle R, Solovyev V, Kondrashov F, Swalla B, Sweedler J, Rogaev E, Halanych K, Kohn A. 2014. The ctenophore genome and the evolutionary origins of neural systems. Nature. 510(7503), 109-114 ...
Paleontology portal History of science portal Dinosaurs portal Paleontology or palaeontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 2016. Yunnanoascus haikouensis, previously thought to be a member of Ctenophora, is reinterpreted as a crown-group medusozoan by Han et al. (2016). A study on the fossil corals from the Late Triassic (Norian) outcrops in Antalya Province (Turkey), indicating that the corals lived in symbiosis with photosynthesizing ...
The ctenophore swimming-plate has been examined with the electron microscope. It has been recognized as an association of long cilia in tight hexagonal packing. One of the directions of the hexagonal packing is parallel to the long edge of the swimming-plate and is perpendicular to the direction of the ciliary beat. All the cilia in the swimming-plate are identically oriented. The effective beat in the movement of the swimming-plate is directed towards the aboral pole of the animal, and this is also the side of the unpaired peripheral filament in all the cilia. The direction of the ciliary beat is fixed in relation to the position of the filaments of the cilia. The swimming-plate cilium differs from other types of cilia and flagella in having a filament arrangement that can be described as 9 + 3 as opposed to the conventional 9 + 2 pattern. The central filaments appear in a group of two tubular filaments and an associated compact filament. The compact filament might have a supporting function. ...
In contrast to the centralized and highly structured nervous systems of bilaterians, some animals (cnidarians and ctenophores) have more simply organized networks, and still others (sponges and placozoans) appear to lack a nervous system entirely [1]. To the extent that these early branching animal phyla (the so called basal metazoa) have retained early metazoan characters, their study can inform our understanding of the early evolution of the nervous system. Although early metazoan phylogeny remains controversial [2-5], among the living phyla sponges were likely the first animal group to diverge, followed by the subsequent branching of placozoans, and then cnidarians/bilaterians. (The placement of ctenophores remains contentious [3, 6]). Both sponges [7] and placozoans (that is, Trichoplax adhaerens) [8] appear to lack a defined neuronal cell type, although evidence for putative sponge neurons has been put forward [9], and the genes corresponding to postsynaptic scaffolding have been ...
Mass occurrence-aggregation, blooming, or swarming-is a remarkable feature of a subset of usually diverse scyphozoan clades, suggesting it is evolutionarily beneficial. If so, it should be associated...
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The other software may or may not be open sourced but that should not problems wherein they might even refuse to talk or work together in the future. Origin: Western Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean Estimated population: work must be allowed to be distributed under the same terms as the original software license. Candidates last name was one of our best rated employees and proved claims with the carriers and re-routing of frights as and when needed. It is loaded with more than quarter of a organisms, zooplanktons, comb jellies, crustaceans and at times, other jellyfish. A type of box jellyfish, commonly known as sea wasp scientific name Chironex fleckeri thing we call failure is not the falling down, but the staying down. Target Your Audience: The purpose of your blog will dollars trying to eradicate these rodents, without much success.. In case you wish to give details along with the recording, maintained good rapport with all her colleagues and customers. The next thing that you should do is ...
A new genetic analysis has shaken up the tree of life, dispelling the common assumption that sea sponges or comb jellies are the original ancestors of all animals. That original animal, also referred to as the ur-animal, is thought to have given rise to both the lower animals (Cnidaria), such as coral and jellyfish, and higher animals (Bilataria), such as insects and humans. Based on the new study, researchers are now putting forth a new classification, which would place sponges among the lower animals, leaving an open spot for the original animal. Its a question that has plagued animal biologists for a couple hundred years: What could be the mother of all animals? said [researcher] Rob DeSalle… Weve turned it upside down [Wired Science]. Taxonomy has come a long way since the Linnaean system, based largely on comparative anatomy, was introduced in 1735. The research team fed morphological data on the appearance of animals from 24 taxa together with genetic information into a ...
Just think of the warty comb jelly or sea walnut, as it is also known. It has caused tremendous damage to fisheries in the Black Sea after arriving in ballast water from its original habitat along the East coast of North ...
Troublesome jellyfish blooms have prompted fears that jellyfish may come to dominate marine ecosystems thanks to humans, however, to some scientists this is premature and unfair.
Though some reports suggest jellyfish are taking over the worlds oceans, long-term records of these gelatinous animals fail to show a global increase in jellyfish blooms likely caused by pollution, warming, coastal development and other human influences.
Jellyfish? Ctenophore? Salp? Can you ID this dangerous beast? Check in on Halloween to see if you are correct.. The DEEPEND Research team aboard the R/V Point Sur, sent us a Postcard from the DEEPEND.. Read more Postcards from the DEEPEND. Join WhaleTimes at the DEEPEND, no floaties required!. ...
When Leonid Moroz, a gregarious Russian-born neuroscientist and geneticist at the University of Florida, began studying ctenophores…
Murobiota developed the most in this period. Because Norton is dimmer than Earths Sun, Orwells photosynthesizers had to stay closer to the surface of the sea to access light. Larger clumps lost the ability to float; early on, one group lost the ability to photosynthesize. Transitional forms are unknown, but they eventually developed into the Swimmer subkingdom. The basal form was shaped like a tube, heavily armored on the outside using thick organic tissue derived from their cell walls. They swam using rows of cilia on the outside, like Earths ctenophores, while internal rows of cilia collected a steady stream of microorganisms and detritus to eat. Common genetic coding indicates that eye spots and chemical sensors were present, but the arrangement is unknown. They reproduced by budding, which could be either sexual or asexual; hermaphroditic, they could release sperm packets when near others of their species, who would receive them at a budding site, while buds could still develop without ...
Define Müllers larva: a ciliated larva that resembles a modified ctenophore and is characteristic of various polyclad turbellarians
Ctenophora[edit]. *Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora), (order Lobata) (2012[2]/2013[3]). *Pleurobrachia bachei (Ctenophora) (2014[4 ...
Non-bilaterian animals: Ctenophora, Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria. Examples of non-bilaterian animals are sponges and coral: the ... The Ctenophora and the sponges are unique among the animals in lacking true hox genes.[89] The presence of a Hox/Parahox gene ... An alternative scenario is the Ctenophora-sister hypothesis.[70][71][72][73] Some of the issues are the rapid evolutionary rate ... 6.2 Non-bilaterian animals: Ctenophora, Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria. *6.3 Bilaterian animals *6.3.1 Deuterostomes and ...
Ctenophora 100 12 12 Platyhelminthes 17500 1622 9.27 Nemertinea 600 Rotifera 2500 330 13.2 ...
m Ctenophora‎; 10:48 . . (+17)‎ . . ‎. Tom.Reding. (talk , contribs)‎ (Add from=Q102778 to {{Taxonbar}}; WP:GenFixes on, using ... Ctenophora‎; 14:19 . . (-10)‎ . . ‎. 68.226.241.54. (talk)‎ (→‎Reproduction and development: Fixed grammar) (Tags: Mobile app ... m Ctenophora‎; 07:28 . . (+6)‎ . . ‎. Chiswick Chap. (talk , contribs)‎ (Reverted 2 edits by 72.186.116.60 (talk) to last ... Ctenophora‎; 03:43 . . (-4)‎ . . ‎. 72.186.116.60. (talk)‎ (Tags: Mobile edit, Mobile web edit) ...
The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"),[2][a] also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches. The species exist in and have adapted to various ecologies - some in marine environments as distinct as tidal zones and hydrothermal vents, others in fresh water, and yet others in moist terrestrial environments. The annelids are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, coelomate, invertebrate organisms. They also have parapodia for locomotion. Most textbooks still use the traditional division into polychaetes (almost all marine), oligochaetes (which include earthworms) and leech-like species. Cladistic research since 1997 has radically changed this scheme, viewing leeches as a sub-group of oligochaetes and oligochaetes as a sub-group of polychaetes. In addition, the Pogonophora, Echiura and Sipuncula, previously regarded as separate phyla, are now regarded as sub-groups of polychaetes. ...
P. flava's early cleavage pattern is similar to that of S. kowalevskii. The first and second cleavages from the single cell zygote of P. flava are equal cleavages, are orthogonal to each other and both include the animal and vegetal poles of the embryo. The third cleavage is equal and equatorial so that the embryo has four blastomeres both in the vegetal and the animal pole. The fourth division occurs mainly in blastomeres in the animal pole, which divide transversally as well as equally to make eight blastomeres. The four vegetal blastomeres divide equatorially but unequally and they give rise to four big macromeres and four smaller micromeres. Once this fourth division has occurred, the embryo has reached a 16 cell stage. P. flava has a 16 cell embryo with four vegetal micromeres, eight animal mesomeres and 4 larger macromeres. Further divisions occur until P. flava finishes the blastula stage and goes on to gastrulation. The animal mesomeres of P. flava go on to give rise to the larva's ...
Hinde, R.T. (1998). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D.T. (ed.). Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford University Press. pp. ... In 1881, it was proposed that Ctenophora and Bilateria were more closely related to each other, since they shared features that ... Wallberg, A.; Thollesson, M.; Farris, J.S. & Jondelius, U. (2004). "The phylogenetic position of the comb jellies (Ctenophora) ... Ctenophora (comb jellies) and Bilateria (all the more complex animals) than they are to the other groups of sponges.[55][56][57 ...
Most nematode species are dioecious, with separate male and female individuals, though some, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, are androdioecious, consisting of hermaphrodites and rare males. Both sexes possess one or two tubular gonads. In males, the sperm are produced at the end of the gonad and migrate along its length as they mature. The testis opens into a relatively wide seminal vesicle and then during intercourse into a glandular and muscular ejaculatory duct associated with the vas deferens and cloaca. In females, the ovaries each open into an oviduct (in hermaphrodites, the eggs enter a spermatheca first) and then a glandular uterus. The uteri both open into a common vulva/vagina, usually located in the middle of the morphologically ventral surface.[39] Reproduction is usually sexual, though hermaphrodites are capable of self-fertilization. Males are usually smaller than females or hermaphrodites (often much smaller) and often have a characteristically bent or fan-shaped tail. During ...
... is the second-largest phylum of invertebrate animals after the Arthropoda. The members are known as molluscs or mollusks[a] (/ˈmɒləsk/). Around 85,000 extant species of molluscs are recognized.[3] The number of fossil species is estimated between 60,000 and 100,000 additional species.[4] The proportion of undescribed species is very high. Many taxa remain poorly studied.[5] Molluscs are the largest marine phylum, comprising about 23% of all the named marine organisms. Numerous molluscs also live in freshwater and terrestrial habitats. They are highly diverse, not just in size and anatomical structure, but also in behaviour and habitat. The phylum is typically divided into 8 or 9 taxonomic classes, of which two are entirely extinct. Cephalopod molluscs, such as squid, cuttlefish, and octopuses, are among the most neurologically advanced of all invertebrates-and either the giant squid or the colossal squid is the largest known invertebrate species. The gastropods (snails and slugs) are ...
... ns are worms ranging from 2 to 720 mm (0.1 to 28.3 in) in length, with most species being under 10 cm (4 in). The sipunculan body is divided into an unsegmented, bulbous trunk and a narrower, anterior section, called the "introvert". Sipunculans have a body wall somewhat similar to that of annelids (though unsegmented) in that it consists of an epidermis without cilia overlain by a cuticle, an outer layer of circular and an inner layer of longitudinal musculature. The body wall surrounds the coelom (body cavity) that is filled with fluid on which the body wall musculature acts as a hydrostatic skeleton to extend or contract the animal. When threatened, Sipunculid worms can contract their body into a shape resembling a peanut kernel-a practice that has given rise to the name "peanut worm". The introvert is pulled inside the trunk by two pairs of retractor muscles that extend as narrow ribbons from the trunk wall to attachment points in the introvert. It can be protruded from the trunk by ...
The central nervous system of vertebrates is based on a hollow nerve cord running along the length of the animal. Of particular importance and unique to vertebrates is the presence of neural crest cells. These are progenitors of stem cells, and critical to coordinating the functions of cellular components.[18] Neural crest cells migrate through the body from the nerve cord during development, and initiate the formation of neural ganglia and structures such as the jaws and skull.[19][20][21] The vertebrates are the only chordate group with neural cephalisation, the concentration of brain functions in the head. A slight swelling of the anterior end of the nerve cord is found in the lancelet, a chordate, though it lacks the eyes and other complex sense organs comparable to those of vertebrates. Other chordates do not show any trends towards cephalisation.[13] A peripheral nervous system branches out from the nerve cord to innervate the various systems. The front end of the nerve tube is expanded by ...
The evolutionary relationships between the chordate groups and between chordates as a whole and their closest deuterostome relatives have been debated since 1890. Studies based on anatomical, embryological, and paleontological data have produced different "family trees". Some closely linked chordates and hemichordates, but that idea is now rejected.[4] Combining such analyses with data from a small set of ribosome RNA genes eliminated some older ideas, but opened up the possibility that tunicates (urochordates) are "basal deuterostomes", surviving members of the group from which echinoderms, hemichordates and chordates evolved.[42] Some researchers believe that, within the chordates, craniates are most closely related to cephalochordates, but there are also reasons for regarding tunicates (urochordates) as craniates' closest relatives.[4][43] Since early chordates have left a poor fossil record, attempts have been made to calculate the key dates in their evolution by molecular phylogenetics ...
By far the largest class of tunicates is the Ascidiacea. The body of an ascidiacean is surrounded by a test or tunic, from which the subphylum derives its name. This varies in thickness between species but may be tough, resembling cartilage, thin and delicate, or transparent and gelatinous. The tunic is composed of proteins and complex carbohydrates, and includes tunicin, a variety of cellulose. The tunic is unique among invertebrate exoskeletons in that it can grow as the animal enlarges and does not need to be periodically shed. Inside the tunic is the body wall or mantle composed of connective tissue, muscle fibres, blood vessels, and nerves. Two openings are found in the body wall: the buccal siphon at the top through which water flows into the interior, and the atrial siphon on the ventral side through which it is expelled. A large pharynx occupies most of the interior of the body. It is a muscular tube linking the buccal opening with the rest of the gut. It has a ciliated groove known as ...
Hinde, R.T. (2001). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D.T. Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford University Press. pp. 28-57. ...
Lofotrochorowce, lofotrochoforowce, lofotrochowce (Lophotrochozoa) - jedna z głównych grup zwierząt dwubocznie symetrycznych (Bilateria), obejmująca m.in.: mięczaki, pierścienice i ramienionogi. Nazwa Lophotrochozoa została wprowadzona w 1995 roku przez Halanycha i współpracowników, którzy zdefiniowali ją jako odnoszącą się do kladu obejmującego ostatniego wspólnego przodka lofoforowców (ramienionogów, mszywiołów i kryzelnic), mięczaków i pierścienic oraz wszystkich jego potomków[1]. Lofoforowce długo uznawano za bliżej spokrewnione z wtóroustymi, jednak analizy molekularne sugerują ich bliższe pokrewieństwo ze zwierzętami, u których występuje trochofora, takimi jak mięczaki i pierścienice, co wspiera koncepcję Lophotrochozoa[2].. Ze względu na dużą liczbę typów należących do Lophotrochozoa pokrewieństwa wewnątrz tej grupy pozostają niejasne. W analizie filogenomicznej przeprowadzonej przez Dunna i współpracowników (2008) drzewo filogenetyczne ...
Ctenophora. Encyclopaedia of Life Sciences 4)Podar, M., Haddock, S., Sogin, M., & Harbison, R. 2001. A Molecular Phylogenetic ... Ctenophora. Encyclopaedia of Life Sciences Barnes, Robert D. (1982). Invertebrate Zoology. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders ... Platyctenida is the only benthic group of organisms in the phylum Ctenophora. Platyctenida are considered to be a ... A Molecular Phylogenetic Framework for the Phylum Ctenophora using 18S rRNA Genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Vol: ...
Ctenophora. In : Treatise on invertebrate palaeontology, Part F, Coelenterata, Moore, R.C. (ed.), Geological Society of America ...
Invertebrate sea life includes Cnidaria such as jellyfish and sea anemones; Ctenophora; sea worms including the phyla ...
"Neis cordigera". Phylum Ctenophora. jenniferkwong. Retrieved 2015-03-15. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) v t e. ...
Ctenophora of Australia. In, Davie, P.J.F. & Phillips, J.A. (Eds), Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Marine ... "Neis cordigera". Phylum Ctenophora. jenniferkwong. Retrieved 2015-03-15. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Boltovskoy, D ...
2001). "Ctenophora". European register of marine species : a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of ... Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Special Publication - American Fisheries Society. American Fisheries Society Special Publications. 28 ...
Myxozoa, Placozoa, Cnidaria, Ctenophora. Subkingdom Margulis,. Schwartz. Five Kingdoms[4]. 1988. Radiata. Cnidaria, Ctenophora ... Cnidaria, Ctenophora. Proposed clade References[edit]. *^ Hadzi, J. (1963). The Evolution of the Metazoa. New York, NY, USA: ... Échinodermes, Intestinaux (parasitic worms), Acalèphes (Ctenophora), Polypes (Cnidaria), Infusoires. Embranchement (1 of 4) ... In the early 19th century, Georges Cuvier united Ctenophora and Cnidaria in the Radiata (Zoophytes).[2] Thomas Cavalier-Smith, ...
ISBN 0-03-025982-7. Hinde, R.T. (1998). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D.T. (ed.). Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford ...
Whelan NV, Kocot KM, Moroz LL, Halanych KM (May 2015). "Error, signal, and the placement of Ctenophora sister to all other ... ISBN 978-0-19-551368-4. Hinde RT (1998). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson DT (ed.). Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford ... ctenophora) are the most basal lineage of the Metazoa included in the sample. If this is correct, either modern comb jellies ... "Topology-dependent asymmetry in systematic errors affects phylogenetic placement of Ctenophora and Xenacoelomorpha". Science ...
ISBN 0-03-025982-7. Hinde, R. T. (1998). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D. T. (ed.). Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford ... incertae sedis Ctenophora Tentaculata Cydippida): A new genus and species of benthopelagic ctenophore seen at 3,910 m depth off ... Ctenophora, Cydippida)". Zoomorphology. Berlin / Heidelberg: Springer. 107 (6): 319-337. doi:10.1007/BF00312216. Craig, C. L.; ...
ISBN 978-0-19-551368-4. Hinde, R.T. (2001). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D.T. (ed.). Invertebrate Zoology. ...
Hinde, Rosalind T. (2001). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D. T (ed.). Invertebrate Zoology (2nd ed.). Melbourne; ...
The Ctenophora (comb jellies) and Cnidaria (which includes jellyfish, sea anemones, and corals) are radially symmetric and have ... Their relationships are still disputed; the sister group to all other animals could be the Porifera or the Ctenophora, both of ... Typically, there is also an internal digestive chamber with either one opening (in Ctenophora, Cnidaria, and flatworms) or two ... Ctenophora, Cnidaria, and Placozoa, have body plans that lack bilateral symmetry. ...
Mianzan, Hermes; Dawson, Elliot W.; Mills, Claudia E. (2009). "Phylum Ctenophora: Comb Jellies" (PDF). In Gordon, Dennis P. (ed ... Oliveira, Otto M.P.; Migotto, Alvaro E. (2014). "First occurrence of Beroe forskalii (Ctenophora) in South American Atlantic ... Galil, Bella; Gevili, Roy; Shiganova, Tamara (2011). "Not far behind: First record of Beroe ovata Mayer, 1912 (Ctenophora: ... Oliveira, Otto M. P.; Feliú, Guillermo; Palma, Sergio (2014). "Beroe gracilis (Ctenophora) from the Humboldt Current System: ...
View the World List of Ctenophora species, arranged in a taxonomic classification, or visit the page on Ctenophora at the Tree ...
Ctenophora tĭnŏf´ərə [key], a small phylum of exclusively marine, invertebrate animals, commonly known as comb jellies. Because ...
... Part of the Underwater Field Guide to Ross Island & McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. *Ctenophora of the Black Sea. Part ... Introduction to the Ctenophora. UCMP Berkeley. *Phylum Ctenophora: list of all valid species names. Maintained by Claudia Mills ... Ctenophora Comb jellies. Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Ctenophora. Pages 87-115 in Embryology: Constructing the Organism. S. F. Gilbert and A. M. Raunio (eds.) Sinauer, Sunderland, ...
As such, the Ctenophora appear to be a basal diploblast clade. In agreement with the latter point, the analysis of a very large ... The name "ctenophora" means "comb-bearing", from the Greek κτείς (stem-form κτεν-) meaning "comb" and the Greek suffix -φορος ... Relationships within the Ctenophora. Since all modern ctenophores except the beroids have cydippid-like larvae, it has widely ... Other researchers have argued that the placement of Ctenophora as sister to all other animals is a statistical anomaly caused ...
Ctenophora nubecula is a species of large crane fly in the family Tipulidae. "Ctenophora nubecula Report". Integrated Taxonomic ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Ctenophora nubecula". GBIF. Retrieved 2019-09-23. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( ... link) "Ctenophora nubecula species Information". BugGuide.net. Retrieved 2019-09-23. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ...
Phylum: Ctenophora Classes: Tentaculata - Nuda (Atentaculata) - †Extinct Ctenophora References[edit]. selected references[edit] ... WoRMS (2010). Ctenophora. In: Nicolas Bailly (2010). FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species on 2010-10-16 ... An article link intended for Ctenophora (Tipulidae) might accidentally refer you here. If so, you might want to go back and fix ... Phylum Ctenophora: list of all valid species names. Electronic internet document. Published by the author, web page established ...
Scientists debate whether ctenophores are the earliest animals to appear in the Cambrian explosion. If so, they arrived with multiple tissues, a nervous system, and a digestive system.. ...
... identification and distribution of Ctenophora - Comb jellies, Sea walnuts -- Discover Life ... View the World List of Ctenophora species , arranged in a taxonomic classification, or visit the page on Ctenophora at the Tree ...
A) Placozoa-sister hypothesis (2). (B) Ctenophora-sister hypothesis (3⇓⇓⇓-7). Placozoa was not included in some studies that ... C) Ctenophora + Porifera-sister hypothesis (6). (D) Traditional Porifera-sister hypothesis (7⇓⇓-10). ... Error, signal, and the placement of Ctenophora sister to all other animals. Nathan V. Whelan, Kevin M. Kocot, Leonid L. Moroz, ... S1-S4). Importantly, Phylobayes (26) analyses using the CAT-GTR+Γ model also resulted in phylogenies with Ctenophora sister to ...
Ctenophora from Croatia. Diptera (adults). 3. 13-05-2019 08:45. Ctenophora pectinicornis female? ,=. Diptera (adults). 5. 01-05 ... Ctenophora pectionicornis (m) or Tanyptera atrata (m). Diptera (adults). 5. 23-01-2019 17:56. ... Tipulidae Ctenophora? -, Ctenophora guttata female. Diptera (adults). 3. 13-06-2019 11:36. ...
Comb jellies are a phylum of animal that can be found living in marine waters around the world. Their most distinctive feature is their combs. They are also
M. ctenophora Edit. and M. taedia Edit. are similar to M. maorica Edit. , M. serawei Edit. and M. unifurcata Edit. because of ... Discussion. M. ctenophora Edit. is similar to M. taedia Edit. . The male differs from M. taedia Edit. e.g. by having one long ... C. M. ctenophora Matile. D. M. spathula sp. n. E. M. explicans sp. n. F. M. serawei sp. n. Scale 0.10 mm. ... C. M. ctenophora Matile. D. M. spathula sp. n. E. M. explicans sp. n. F. M. serawei sp. n. Scale 0.10 mm. ...
Ctenophora[edit]. *Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora), (order Lobata) (2012[2]/2013[3]). *Pleurobrachia bachei (Ctenophora) (2014[4 ...
8 typical of Ctenophora use nematocysts which is a branched structure so it is pursuing prey transparent... … ] Ctenophora ... 29 ctenophora digestive system over the inner surfaces of the cilia, arranged in rows, far more than the of. However some ... 1.19.3.4 Ctenophora and Cnidaria: The Oldest Extant Nervous Systems. - It contains only about 80 species. It consists of two ... 86][95][96][97][98] As such, the Ctenophora appear to be a basal diploblast clade. [91] They suggested that Stromatoveris was ...
Ctenophora Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to FacebookShare to Pinterest. ... Ctenophora. , i. s.: Bathyctena chuni (Moser 1909) HMR01. , Coeloplana astericola BK77. , Mertensia ovum B26. , Eoandromeda ... The Ctenophora, comb jellies, are a group of gelatinous marine animals characterised by bands of cilia (comb rows) running ... Ctenophora (1) Cucujiformia (56) Cucujoidea (1) Cuculidae (3) Cucurbitales (1) Culicomorpha (8) Curculionoidea (1) ...
Know the topics ctenophora, aschelminthes & platyhelminthes with the help of study material for medical exams offered by ... Hatschek (1889) placed it under a separate phylum called Ctenophora.. - The important Ctenophore animals are Pleurobachia, ...
Phylum Ctenophora. In comb jellies belonging to the phylum Ctenophora, GFP-type fluorescent proteins were discovered. The ...
Non-bilaterian animals: Ctenophora, Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria. Examples of non-bilaterian animals are sponges and coral: the ... The Ctenophora and the sponges are unique among the animals in lacking true hox genes.[89] The presence of a Hox/Parahox gene ... An alternative scenario is the Ctenophora-sister hypothesis.[70][71][72][73] Some of the issues are the rapid evolutionary rate ... 6.2 Non-bilaterian animals: Ctenophora, Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria. *6.3 Bilaterian animals *6.3.1 Deuterostomes and ...
Skeleton shrimp are tiny, gangly amphipods with transparent, stick-like bodies. They live attached to hydroids, sponges and vegetation in the middle and lower Chesapeake Bay.
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Ctenophora, Cydippida) in Swedish coastal waters and molecular identification of this genus Journal article, 2012 ...
Diel Vertical Dynamics of Gelatinous Zooplankton (Cnidaria, Ctenophora and Thaliacea) in a Subtropical Stratified Ecosystem ( ... inproceedings{Jnior2015DielVD, title={Diel Vertical Dynamics of Gelatinous Zooplankton (Cnidaria, Ctenophora and Thaliacea) in ...
20 Facts about Ctenophora to Know What this Creature is. 2019-05-12. 2019-09-05. Alisa Su ... 14) The juveniles of two species of the Ctenophora phylum live as parasites on salps which are fed on by the adults. ... Ctenophora Ctenophore D.B. Cooper Hijacking Dead Sea Scrolls Dighton Rock Disney Discovery Island Dover Demon Dumbo Octopus ... 4) There are about 100 to 150 species of Ctenophora which have been identified. The typical examples are Cydippids. ...
ANIMALIA Multicellularity Ctenophora (comb jellies) Diploblasty Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, sea anemones) Acoela (acoels) ... Porifera, Coelenterata, Ctenophora Porifera, Coelenterata, Ctenophora Contents Animal Classification - Flow Chart... 3 Phylum ... Unit 2: Phylums: Porifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora Invertebrate Zoology Unit 2: Phylums: Porifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora ... Porifera (sponges) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, sea anemones) Acoela (acoels)" ...
65-67), and Ctenophora (pp. 79-81). In Marine Invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest (E.N. Kozloff and L.H. Price, eds.) ... Ctenophora. In Checklist delle specie della fauna italiana, Vol. 3, pp 3,5, 32-38. (A. Minelli, S. Ruffo, S. La Posta, editors ... PDF file (This is an electronic version of Chapter 11, Ctenophora, published in Light and Smiths Manual: Intertidal ... Planktonic Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and pelagic Mollusca. p. 9c2-15 In Biological Invasions of Cold-water Coastal Ecosystems: ...
See also coelenterate; Ctenophora.. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. ...
Ctenophora is an early-branching basal metazoan lineage, which may have evolved neurons and muscles independently from other ... Beroe; Ctenophora; F-actin; Mnemiopsis; Pleurobrachia; Stereocilia; apical organ; cell atlas; cilia; development; evolution; ...
Crane Fly: Ctenophora dorsalis. On May 31, 2014. · Category: Crane Fly · Add Comment ... This is a very distinctive species of Crane Fly, Ctenophora dorsalis, and the presence of an ovipositor indicates she is a ...
Lofotrochorowce, lofotrochoforowce, lofotrochowce (Lophotrochozoa) - jedna z głównych grup zwierząt dwubocznie symetrycznych (Bilateria), obejmująca m.in.: mięczaki, pierścienice i ramienionogi. Nazwa Lophotrochozoa została wprowadzona w 1995 roku przez Halanycha i współpracowników, którzy zdefiniowali ją jako odnoszącą się do kladu obejmującego ostatniego wspólnego przodka lofoforowców (ramienionogów, mszywiołów i kryzelnic), mięczaków i pierścienic oraz wszystkich jego potomków[1]. Lofoforowce długo uznawano za bliżej spokrewnione z wtóroustymi, jednak analizy molekularne sugerują ich bliższe pokrewieństwo ze zwierzętami, u których występuje trochofora, takimi jak mięczaki i pierścienice, co wspiera koncepcję Lophotrochozoa[2].. Ze względu na dużą liczbę typów należących do Lophotrochozoa pokrewieństwa wewnątrz tej grupy pozostają niejasne. W analizie filogenomicznej przeprowadzonej przez Dunna i współpracowników (2008) drzewo filogenetyczne ...
9 Ctenophora --. III Acoelomata --. 10 Turbellarian Platyhelminths --. 11 Parasitic Platyhelminths --. 12 Platyhelminth Host- ... 9 Ctenophora -- III Acoelomata -- 10 Turbellarian Platyhelminths -- 11 Parasitic Platyhelminths -- 12 Platyhelminth Host- ...
  • Census of Cnidaria (Medusozoa) and Ctenophora from South American marine waters. (wikimedia.org)
  • The much-debated phylogenetic relationships of the five early branching metazoan lineages (Bilateria, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Placozoa and Porifera) are of fundamental importance in piecing together events that occurred early in animal evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Only recently have scientists successfully described Cnidaria and Ctenophora as distinct phyla. (amnh.org)
  • The clade is usually held to contain at least Ctenophora, Cnidaria, and Bilateria. (pearltrees.com)
  • Ctenophore , byname Comb Jelly , any of the numerous marine invertebrates constituting the phylum Ctenophora. (britannica.com)
  • The branching order near the base of the tree, in particular the placement of the poriferan (sponges, phylum Porifera) and ctenophore (comb jellies, phylum Ctenophora) lineages is one outstanding issue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We identified basement membrane (BM) and collagen IV in Ctenophora, and show that the structural and genomic features of collagen IV are homologous to those of non-bilaterian animal phyla and Bilateria. (elifesciences.org)
  • Elucidating relationships among early animal lineages has been difficult, and recent phylogenomic analyses place Ctenophora sister to all other extant animals, contrary to the traditional view of Porifera as the earliest-branching animal lineage. (pnas.org)
  • Our results suggest that Porifera and Ctenophora were the first two extant lineages to diverge from the rest of animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such approaches have yielded several important findings in recent years, most notably the position of the comb jellies (phylum Ctenophora) as sister to all remaining metazoan phyla including sponges (phylum Porifera). (biomedcentral.com)
  • "Optical properties of the iridescent organ of the comb-jellyfish Beroe cucumis (Ctenophora)" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • B ) Electron microscopy (EM) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of the Ctenophora species, Mnemiopsis (IHC: 20X magnification), Pleurobrachia (IHC: 20X magnification), and Beroe (IHC: 40X magnification) and ECM components of Ctenophora. (elifesciences.org)
  • Our analyses strongly support the Ctenophora as the sister lineage to other Metazoa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ctenophora now appear basal metazoa. (pearltrees.com)
  • View the World List of Ctenophora species , arranged in a taxonomic classification, or visit the page on Ctenophora at the Tree of Life. (berkeley.edu)
  • Ctenophora nubecula is a species of large crane fly in the family Tipulidae. (wikipedia.org)
  • (4) There are about 100 to 150 species of Ctenophora which have been identified. (science-rumors.com)
  • (14) The juveniles of two species of the Ctenophora phylum live as parasites on salps which are fed on by the adults. (science-rumors.com)
  • There are about 150 described species of ctenophora spread throughout the world's oceans, from shallow estuarine waters to the deep sea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the scientific literature on the Ctenophora is widely dispersed and much of it is difficult to locate, I have compiled a list of all classes, orders, families, genera and species of ctenophores that seem to be in use at the present time. (academicinfo.net)
  • An article link intended for Ctenophora (Tipulidae) might accidentally refer you here. (wikimedia.org)
  • If so, you might want to go back and fix it to point directly to Ctenophora (Tipulidae) . (wikimedia.org)
  • Tipulidae Ctenophora? (diptera.info)
  • So a quick google suggests a member of the Tipulidae, and perhaps something from the genus Ctenophora . (metafilter.com)
  • Hatschek (1889) placed it under a separate phylum called Ctenophora. (askiitians.com)
  • Comb jellies belong to an entirely separate phylum, Ctenophora. (amnh.org)
  • Ctenophora has recently emerged as one of the earliest-branching extant animal phyla, providing a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary role of the cellular microenvironment in tissue genesis. (elifesciences.org)
  • Ctenophora is an early-branching basal metazoan lineage, which may have evolved neurons and muscles independently from other animals. (nih.gov)
  • Revised classification of the genus Euplokamis Chun, 1880 (Ctenophora: Cydippida: Euplokamidae n. fam. (tolweb.org)
  • 2001. A molecular phylogenetic framework for the phylum Ctenophora using 18S rRNA genes. (tolweb.org)
  • Ospovat 1985: On phylogeny and classification of the type Ctenophora. (wikimedia.org)
  • On the classification and evolution of the Ctenophora. (tolweb.org)
  • Platyctenida is the only benthic group of organism in the phylum Ctenophora. (eol.org)
  • The Ctenophora, comb jellies, are a group of gelatinous marine animals characterised by bands of cilia (comb rows) running longitudinally down the body. (fieldofscience.com)
  • Ctenophora tĭnŏf´ərə [ key ] , a small phylum of exclusively marine, invertebrate animals, commonly known as comb jellies. (infoplease.com)
  • The phylum Ctenophora , [1] the comb jellies , is a phylum of marine invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • This dataset holds occurrence data of gelatinous mesozooplankton species (Cnidaria and Ctenophora) that was collected during the Japanese contribution to the Collaborative East Antarctic Marine Census (CEAMARC) project. (biodiversity.aq)
  • Antarctic Gelatinous Predator Database (ANGELbase):A study of the gelatinous mesozooplankton (Cnidaria and Ctenophora) of Eastern Antarctica, summer 2008. (biodiversity.aq)
  • Phylum Ctenophora: list of all valid species names. (vliz.be)
  • Some species have rounded bodies and tentacles like jellyfish, but comb jellies and jellyfish belong to two separate phyla.Jellyfish are cnidarians, while comb jellies belong to the phylum ctenophora.The name ctenophora comes from Greek words that mean "comb carrying. (blog.br)
  • Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Ctenophora Class: Tentaculata Order: Lobata Family: Lampoctenidae Genus: Lampocteis Species: Lampocteis cruentiventer Adaptations Physical Features â ¢ Seemingly glowing, the Bloody belly comb Researchers at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute captured absolutely fascinating ROV footage of a bloody-belly comb jelly (Lampocteis cruentiventer), a fascinating deep-sea creatures that possess a self-descriptive red belly. (blog.br)
  • The orders Siphonophorae, Anthoatecata, Leptomedusae, Narcomedusae, Beroida, Anthoathecata and Trachymedusae within the Hydrozoa (Cnidaria) and the Nuda (Ctenophora) were sampled using nets. (biodiversity.aq)
  • These mushroom-shaped organisms cannot be referred to either of the two phyla Ctenophora or Cnidaria at present, because they lack any specialised characters of these taxa. (datadeluge.com)