Phylum of marine colenterates characterized by eight comb rows of fused cilia on the body surface. In contrast to CNIDARIA they lack stinging cells, but they are voracious predators and possess sticky cells (colloblasts) for capturing prey. Most species are transparent and many exhibit bioluminescence.

T-box and homeobox genes from the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus: comparison of Brachyury, Tbx2/3 and Tlx in basal metazoans and bilaterians. (1/24)

Most animals are classified as Bilateria and only four phyla are still extant as outgroups, namely Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria and Ctenophora. These non-bilaterians were not considered to have a mesoderm and hence mesoderm-specific genes. However, the T-box gene Brachyury could be isolated from sponges, placozoans and cnidarians. Here, we describe the first Brachyury and a Tbx2/3 homologue from a ctenophore. In addition, analysing T-box and homeobox genes under comparable conditions in all four basal phyla lead to the discovery of novel T-box genes in sponges and cnidarians and a Tlx homeobox gene in the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus. The conservation of the T-box and the homeobox genes suggest that distinct subfamilies with different roles in bilaterians were already split in non-bilaterians.  (+info)

Raman spectra of a Lower Cambrian ctenophore embryo from southwestern Shaanxi, China. (2/24)

The Early Cambrian (approximately 540 million years old) Meishucun fossil assemblage of Ningqiang County (Shaanxi Province), China, contains the oldest complex skeletonized organisms known in the geological record. We here report the finding in this assemblage of an exquisitely preserved late-stage embryo of a ctenophore ("comb jelly"), its fine structure documented by confocal laser scanning microscopy and shown by Raman spectroscopy to be composed of carbonaceous kerogen permineralized in apatite. In its spheroidal morphology, the presence of eight comb rows and the absence of tentacles, this embryo resembles an adult ctenophore (Maotianoascus octonarius) known from the immediately younger Chengjiang fauna of Yunnan, China. The oldest ctenophore and the only embryonic comb jelly known from the fossil record, this exceptionally well preserved specimen provides important clues about the early evolution of the phylum Ctenophora and of metazoans in general.  (+info)

Trophic cascades triggered by overfishing reveal possible mechanisms of ecosystem regime shifts. (3/24)

Large-scale transitions between alternative states in ecosystems are known as regime shifts. Once described as healthy and dominated by various marine predators, the Black Sea ecosystem by the late 20th century had experienced anthropogenic impacts such as heavy fishing, cultural eutrophication, and invasions by alien species. We studied changes related to these "natural experiments" to reveal the mechanisms of regime shifts. Two major shifts were detected, the first related to a depletion of marine predators and the second to an outburst of the alien comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi; both shifts were triggered by intense fishing resulting in system-wide trophic cascades. The complex nature of ecosystem responses to human activities calls for more elaborate approaches than currently provided by traditional environmental and fisheries management. This implies challenging existing practices and implementing explanatory models of ecosystem interactions that can better reconcile conservation and ecosystem management ideals.  (+info)

Hox, Wnt, and the evolution of the primary body axis: insights from the early-divergent phyla. (4/24)

The subkingdom Bilateria encompasses the overwhelming majority of animals, including all but four early-branching phyla: Porifera, Ctenophora, Placozoa, and Cnidaria. On average, these early-branching phyla have fewer cell types, tissues, and organs, and are considered to be significantly less specialized along their primary body axis. As such, they present an attractive outgroup from which to investigate how evolutionary changes in the genetic toolkit may have contributed to the emergence of the complex animal body plans of the Bilateria. This review offers an up-to-date glimpse of genome-scale comparisons between bilaterians and these early-diverging taxa. Specifically, we examine these data in the context of how they may explain the evolutionary development of primary body axes and axial symmetry across the Metazoa. Next, we re-evaluate the validity and evolutionary genomic relevance of the zootype hypothesis, which defines an animal by a specific spatial pattern of gene expression. Finally, we extend the hypothesis that Wnt genes may be the earliest primary body axis patterning mechanism by suggesting that Hox genes were co-opted into this patterning network prior to the last common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians.  (+info)

Conserved functions for Mos in eumetazoan oocyte maturation revealed by studies in a cnidarian. (5/24)

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A photoactivatable green-fluorescent protein from the phylum Ctenophora. (6/24)

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Highly conserved functions of the Brachyury gene on morphogenetic movements: insight from the early-diverging phylum Ctenophora. (7/24)

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Convergent origins and rapid evolution of spliced leader trans-splicing in metazoa: insights from the ctenophora and hydrozoa. (8/24)

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Ctenophora, also known as comb jellies, are a phylum of marine animals characterized by the presence of cilia or combs that they use for locomotion. These creatures are typically transparent and have a gelatinous body. They are found in various sizes and shapes, ranging from a few millimeters to over a meter in length. Ctenophores do not have a true digestive system or an anus; instead, they consume their food through their mouth and excrete waste through the same opening. They primarily feed on small organisms such as plankton and other ctenophores. Some species of ctenophores are bioluminescent and produce light through a chemical reaction in their bodies.

As such, the Ctenophora appear to be a basal diploblast clade. In agreement with the latter point, the analysis of a very large ... The name "ctenophora" means "comb-bearing", from the Greek κτείς (stem-form κτεν-) meaning "comb" and the Greek suffix -φορος ... Relationships within the Ctenophora. Since all modern ctenophores except the beroids have cydippid-like larvae, it has widely ... Ctenophora (/təˈnɒfərə/; SG: ctenophore /ˈtɛnəfɔːr, ˈtiːnə-/; from Ancient Greek κτείς (kteis) comb, and φέρω (pherō) to ...
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Podeniene V, Naseviciene N, Podenas S, plazi (2014). Notes on the first instar larvae of Ctenophora and Nephrotoma (Diptera, ... Notes on the first instar larvae of Ctenophora and Nephrotoma (Diptera, Tipulidae) Dataset homepage ... Podeniene, Virginija, Naseviciene, Nijole, Podenas, Sigitas (2014): Notes on the first instar larvae of Ctenophora and ... Notes on the first instar larvae of Ctenophora and Nephrotoma (Diptera, Tipulidae). Zootaxa 3764 (2): 152-168, DOI: 10.11646/ ...
Ctenophora pulchella , Media: Modified 2X CHEV Medium , Origin: North Dakota, USA , Description of Location: , Collection: D. ...
In Ctenophora, What are the Functions of Comb Plates? [92][101][102][103][104] As such, the Ctenophora appear to be a basal ... The Ctenophora digestive system breaks down food using various organs. Ctenophora is a phylum of invertebrate creatures which ... The Ctenophora digestive system breaks down food using various organs. If it is indeed a Ctenophore, it places the group close ... And ctenophora digestive system animals by using a pair of tentacles that are branched and sticky phylum called on... A two- ...
Ctenophora comprise a phylum of marine invertebrates, commonly known as comb jellies, that inhabit sea waters worldwide. Source ...
Ctenophora, Cydippida) in Swedish coastal waters and molecular identification of this genus Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, ...
Ctenophora vaucheriae (Kützing) Schönfeldt, 1907 accepted as Fragilaria capucina var. vaucheriae (Kützing) Lange-Bertalot, 1980 ... Ctenophora vaucheriae var. vaucheriae (Kützing) Schonfeldt, 1907. Accessed at: http://diatombase.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id= ...
Write down four characteristics of Ctenophora and give two examples. ... Answer: Characteristics of Ctenophora:. (i) They have a transparent body with biradial symmetry and are triploblastic.. (ii) ... Question 28: Write down four characteristics of Ctenophora and give two examples. Views: 5,905. students ... Question 28: Write down four characteristics of Ctenophora and give two examples. ...
After reading this article you will learn about Ctenophora General Characteristics and Classification ... Ctenophora General Characteristics. *Habit & Habitat - Exclusively marine and mostly solitary *Ctenophora are also known as ... Ctenophora General Characteristics and Classification. After reading this article you will learn about Ctenophora General ... Ctenophora General Characteristics and Classification , 100% Free Biology Notes. August 17, 2021. August 16, 2021. by Rajkumar ...
Ctenophora (phylum) (preferred,C,U,LC,S,English-P,D,L,N) ... Ctenophora (phylum) (Latin-P,D,U,N) Ctenophora (stam) (Dutch-P, ... Ctenophora (phylum)............ [RKD, AAT-Ned Preferred, VP Preferred]. ................................... AAT-Ned (1994-) ... Websters Third New International Dictionary (1961) : CTENOPHORA. comb jelly (phylum)............ [VP]. ... Refers to solitary, hermaphroditic, marine invertebrates of the phylum Ctenophora, found worldwide, having an ovoid, gelatinous ...
Ctenophora. -- Platyhelminthes. -- Gnathostomulida. -- Nemertini. -- Entoprocta (Kamptozoa). -- Gastrotricha. -- Nematoda. -- ...
Cnidaria and Ctenophora /. 1991. 6. Corals and other prominent benthic cnidaria of Looe Key National Marine Sanctuary, Florida ... Coelenterate biology 2003 : trends in research on Cnidaria and Ctenophora : proceedings of the 7th International Conference on ...
"Chave de identificação dos Ctenophora da costa brasileira". Biota Neotropica. Retrieved 6 April 2023.. ...
The evaluation of seasonal fatty acid composition and food sources of Pileurobrachia pileus (Ctenophora) in terms of trophic ... E. (2018). The feeding behaviour of Pleurobrachia pileus (ctenophora: tentaculata) in the Southeastern Black Sea: in relation ... P.D. (2000). Lipids of Gelatinous Antarctic Zooplankton: Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Lipids, 35 (5), 551-559. DOI: 10.1007/s11745- ... E. (2018). The feeding behaviour of Pleurobrachia pileus (ctenophora: tentaculata) in the Southeastern Black Sea: in relation ...
2 Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora". Ed by F. W. Harrison and J. A. Westfall . Wiley-Liss Inc. New York. pp. 13-27 ... 2 Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora". Ed by F. W. Harrison and J. A. Westfall . Wiley-Liss Inc. New York. pp. 29-89 ... I. Protozoa through Ctenophora. McGraw Hill. New York. pp. 233-247. Google Scholar ...
Ctenophora 0.208. 37085010 Dussumieria elopsoides 1. 0.025. 37085013 Sardinella gibbosa 20. 0.266. ...
Ctenophora. *Heteraxonia (= Bilateria) *Zygoneura. *Ambulacralia [misspelling of Ambulacraria]. *Chordonii *Tunicata. * ...
Ctenophora 0.067. 23615000 Teuthoidea 1. 0.004. 37085013 Sardinella gibbosa 3. 0.044. 37085015 Anodontostoma chacunda 1. 0.048 ...
Ctenophora Brachiopoda Nemertea Heliozoa. Cyanobacteria Ciliophora Nitrospirae Microsporidia. Dicyemida Cnidaria Orthonecta ...
Lophophorata dipersatukan oleh kehadiran lofofor, kipas tentakel bersilia sekitar mulut, dan diperlakukan sama sebagai lofoforata. Mereka tidak biasa dalam menunjukkan pembelahan radial, dan beberapa penulis menganggap mereka deuterostom. Klad Lophotrochozoa didasarkan pada bukti dari RNA ribosom 18S,[2] tetapi studi kemudian LSU dan SSU gen ribosom menyarankan bahwa Lophophorata polifiletik.[7] Lophophorata termasuk Bryozoa, Entoprocta, Phoronida, dan Brachiopoda.[6] ...
It is worth mentioning that neither Ctenophora nor Placozoa have LOX genes. The origin of the eumetazoans witnessed the main ...
Ctenophora (additional source). Cydippida (basis of record). Hormiphora L. Agassiz, 1860 (additional source). Hormiphora ... Liley, R. (1958). Ctenophora. Replaced by sheet no. 146. Fiches didentification du zooplancton, 82. ICES: Copenhagen, Denmark ...
European Marine Sites, Datasets, Species and Distribution - MarBEF Integrated Data System (MarIDaS)
Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora 2nd Edition. $ ...
Ctenophora sp, also known as daddy-long-legs, is another type of crane fly. These are characterized by their extremely long ... Ctenophora sp. Extremely long legs. Also known as daddy-long-legs, up to 1.2″ long. ...
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The Ctenophora, Scyphozoa and Anthozoa of Norfolk, with additional notes on the Hydrozoa. Trans. Norfolk Norwich Nat. Soc. 24 ... Cnidaria e Ctenophora. J. nat. Hist. 3 : 329-343.. page(s): 341 [details] ...
Brusca, R.C.; Brusca, G.J. (1990). Invertebrates. Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA (USA). ISBN 0-87893-098-1. 922 pp ...
Metazoa: Coelenterata (Ctenophora and Cnidaria). Comments:. This code is also used for the kinetoplast DNA (maxicircles, ...

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