Ctenophora: Phylum of marine colenterates characterized by eight comb rows of fused cilia on the body surface. In contrast to CNIDARIA they lack stinging cells, but they are voracious predators and possess sticky cells (colloblasts) for capturing prey. Most species are transparent and many exhibit bioluminescence.Juglans: A plant genus of the family JUGLANDACEAE that provides the familiar walnut.Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Scyphozoa: The class of true jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA. They are mostly free-swimming marine organisms that go through five stages in their life cycle and exhibit two body forms: polyp and medusa.Radar: A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.Copepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.Cnidaria: A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.Cladocera: A suborder of CRUSTACEA, order Diplostraca, comprising the water fleas. They are benthic filter feeders that consume PHYTOPLANKTON. The body is laterally compressed and enclosed in a bivalved carapace, from which the head extends.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.War Crimes: Criminal acts committed during, or in connection with, war, e.g., maltreatment of prisoners, willful killing of civilians, etc.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Biological Phenomena: Biological processes, properties, and characteristics of the whole organism in human, animal, microorganisms, and plants, and of the biosphere.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Atlases as Topic: Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Fagopyrum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).GermanyMedical Staff: Professional medical personnel who provide care to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Hydrozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA which alternates between polyp and medusa forms during their life cycle. There are over 2700 species in five orders.Published ErratumHydra: A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.Cubozoa: The class of box jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA, characterized by their cube shape, and considered the most venomous jellyfish.Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Echinodermata: A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)Sea Cucumbers: A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.Satellite Imagery: Composition of images of EARTH or other planets from data collected during SPACE FLIGHT by remote sensing instruments onboard SPACECRAFT. The satellite sensor systems measure and record absorbed, emitted, or reflected energy across the spectra, as well as global position and time.South AmericaEl Nino-Southern Oscillation: El Nino-Southern Oscillation or ENSO is a cycle of extreme alternating warm El Niño and cold La Nina events which is the dominant year-to-year climate pattern on Earth. Both terms refer to large-scale changes in sea-surface temperature across the eastern tropical Pacific. ENSO is associated with a heightened risk of certain vector-borne diseases. (From http://www.elnino.noaa.gov/lanina_new_faq.html, accessed 5/12/2020)Jet Lag Syndrome: A chronobiologic disorder resulting from rapid travel across a number of time zones, characterized by insomnia or hypersomnolence, fatigue, behavioral symptoms, headaches, and gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Cooper, Sleep, 1994, pp593-8)Thermography: Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.AxisTeaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Thoracic Surgery: A surgical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the heart, lungs, and esophagus. Two major types of thoracic surgery are classified as pulmonary and cardiovascular.Thoracic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.

T-box and homeobox genes from the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus: comparison of Brachyury, Tbx2/3 and Tlx in basal metazoans and bilaterians. (1/24)

Most animals are classified as Bilateria and only four phyla are still extant as outgroups, namely Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria and Ctenophora. These non-bilaterians were not considered to have a mesoderm and hence mesoderm-specific genes. However, the T-box gene Brachyury could be isolated from sponges, placozoans and cnidarians. Here, we describe the first Brachyury and a Tbx2/3 homologue from a ctenophore. In addition, analysing T-box and homeobox genes under comparable conditions in all four basal phyla lead to the discovery of novel T-box genes in sponges and cnidarians and a Tlx homeobox gene in the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus. The conservation of the T-box and the homeobox genes suggest that distinct subfamilies with different roles in bilaterians were already split in non-bilaterians.  (+info)

Raman spectra of a Lower Cambrian ctenophore embryo from southwestern Shaanxi, China. (2/24)

The Early Cambrian (approximately 540 million years old) Meishucun fossil assemblage of Ningqiang County (Shaanxi Province), China, contains the oldest complex skeletonized organisms known in the geological record. We here report the finding in this assemblage of an exquisitely preserved late-stage embryo of a ctenophore ("comb jelly"), its fine structure documented by confocal laser scanning microscopy and shown by Raman spectroscopy to be composed of carbonaceous kerogen permineralized in apatite. In its spheroidal morphology, the presence of eight comb rows and the absence of tentacles, this embryo resembles an adult ctenophore (Maotianoascus octonarius) known from the immediately younger Chengjiang fauna of Yunnan, China. The oldest ctenophore and the only embryonic comb jelly known from the fossil record, this exceptionally well preserved specimen provides important clues about the early evolution of the phylum Ctenophora and of metazoans in general.  (+info)

Trophic cascades triggered by overfishing reveal possible mechanisms of ecosystem regime shifts. (3/24)

Large-scale transitions between alternative states in ecosystems are known as regime shifts. Once described as healthy and dominated by various marine predators, the Black Sea ecosystem by the late 20th century had experienced anthropogenic impacts such as heavy fishing, cultural eutrophication, and invasions by alien species. We studied changes related to these "natural experiments" to reveal the mechanisms of regime shifts. Two major shifts were detected, the first related to a depletion of marine predators and the second to an outburst of the alien comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi; both shifts were triggered by intense fishing resulting in system-wide trophic cascades. The complex nature of ecosystem responses to human activities calls for more elaborate approaches than currently provided by traditional environmental and fisheries management. This implies challenging existing practices and implementing explanatory models of ecosystem interactions that can better reconcile conservation and ecosystem management ideals.  (+info)

Hox, Wnt, and the evolution of the primary body axis: insights from the early-divergent phyla. (4/24)

The subkingdom Bilateria encompasses the overwhelming majority of animals, including all but four early-branching phyla: Porifera, Ctenophora, Placozoa, and Cnidaria. On average, these early-branching phyla have fewer cell types, tissues, and organs, and are considered to be significantly less specialized along their primary body axis. As such, they present an attractive outgroup from which to investigate how evolutionary changes in the genetic toolkit may have contributed to the emergence of the complex animal body plans of the Bilateria. This review offers an up-to-date glimpse of genome-scale comparisons between bilaterians and these early-diverging taxa. Specifically, we examine these data in the context of how they may explain the evolutionary development of primary body axes and axial symmetry across the Metazoa. Next, we re-evaluate the validity and evolutionary genomic relevance of the zootype hypothesis, which defines an animal by a specific spatial pattern of gene expression. Finally, we extend the hypothesis that Wnt genes may be the earliest primary body axis patterning mechanism by suggesting that Hox genes were co-opted into this patterning network prior to the last common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians.  (+info)

Conserved functions for Mos in eumetazoan oocyte maturation revealed by studies in a cnidarian. (5/24)

 (+info)

A photoactivatable green-fluorescent protein from the phylum Ctenophora. (6/24)

 (+info)

Highly conserved functions of the Brachyury gene on morphogenetic movements: insight from the early-diverging phylum Ctenophora. (7/24)

 (+info)

Convergent origins and rapid evolution of spliced leader trans-splicing in metazoa: insights from the ctenophora and hydrozoa. (8/24)

 (+info)

*List of sequenced animal genomes

Ctenophora[edit]. *Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora), (order Lobata) (2012[2]/2013[3]). *Pleurobrachia bachei (Ctenophora) (2014[4 ...

*Animal

Non-bilaterian animals: Ctenophora, Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria. Examples of non-bilaterian animals are sponges and coral: the ... The Ctenophora and the sponges are unique among the animals in lacking true hox genes.[89] The presence of a Hox/Parahox gene ... An alternative scenario is the Ctenophora-sister hypothesis.[70][71][72][73] Some of the issues are the rapid evolutionary rate ... 6.2 Non-bilaterian animals: Ctenophora, Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria. *6.3 Bilaterian animals *6.3.1 Deuterostomes and ...

*Fauna of India

Ctenophora 100 12 12 Platyhelminthes 17500 1622 9.27 Nemertinea 600 Rotifera 2500 330 13.2 ...

*Related changes

m Ctenophora‎; 10:48 . . (+17)‎ . . ‎. Tom.Reding. (talk , contribs)‎ (Add from=Q102778 to {{Taxonbar}}; WP:GenFixes on, using ... Ctenophora‎; 14:19 . . (-10)‎ . . ‎. 68.226.241.54. (talk)‎ (→‎Reproduction and development: Fixed grammar) (Tags: Mobile app ... m Ctenophora‎; 07:28 . . (+6)‎ . . ‎. Chiswick Chap. (talk , contribs)‎ (Reverted 2 edits by 72.186.116.60 (talk) to last ... Ctenophora‎; 03:43 . . (-4)‎ . . ‎. 72.186.116.60. (talk)‎ (Tags: Mobile edit, Mobile web edit) ...

*Annelid

The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"),[2][a] also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches. The species exist in and have adapted to various ecologies - some in marine environments as distinct as tidal zones and hydrothermal vents, others in fresh water, and yet others in moist terrestrial environments. The annelids are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, coelomate, invertebrate organisms. They also have parapodia for locomotion. Most textbooks still use the traditional division into polychaetes (almost all marine), oligochaetes (which include earthworms) and leech-like species. Cladistic research since 1997 has radically changed this scheme, viewing leeches as a sub-group of oligochaetes and oligochaetes as a sub-group of polychaetes. In addition, the Pogonophora, Echiura and Sipuncula, previously regarded as separate phyla, are now regarded as sub-groups of polychaetes. ...

*Hemichordate

P. flava's early cleavage pattern is similar to that of S. kowalevskii. The first and second cleavages from the single cell zygote of P. flava are equal cleavages, are orthogonal to each other and both include the animal and vegetal poles of the embryo. The third cleavage is equal and equatorial so that the embryo has four blastomeres both in the vegetal and the animal pole. The fourth division occurs mainly in blastomeres in the animal pole, which divide transversally as well as equally to make eight blastomeres. The four vegetal blastomeres divide equatorially but unequally and they give rise to four big macromeres and four smaller micromeres. Once this fourth division has occurred, the embryo has reached a 16 cell stage. P. flava has a 16 cell embryo with four vegetal micromeres, eight animal mesomeres and 4 larger macromeres. Further divisions occur until P. flava finishes the blastula stage and goes on to gastrulation. The animal mesomeres of P. flava go on to give rise to the larva's ...

*Cnidaria

Hinde, R.T. (1998). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D.T. (ed.). Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford University Press. pp. ... In 1881, it was proposed that Ctenophora and Bilateria were more closely related to each other, since they shared features that ... Wallberg, A.; Thollesson, M.; Farris, J.S. & Jondelius, U. (2004). "The phylogenetic position of the comb jellies (Ctenophora) ... Ctenophora (comb jellies) and Bilateria (all the more complex animals) than they are to the other groups of sponges.[55][56][57 ...

*Annelid

The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"),[2][a] also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches. The species exist in and have adapted to various ecologies - some in marine environments as distinct as tidal zones and hydrothermal vents, others in fresh water, and yet others in moist terrestrial environments. The annelids are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, coelomate, invertebrate organisms. They also have parapodia for locomotion. Most textbooks still use the traditional division into polychaetes (almost all marine), oligochaetes (which include earthworms) and leech-like species. Cladistic research since 1997 has radically changed this scheme, viewing leeches as a sub-group of oligochaetes and oligochaetes as a sub-group of polychaetes. In addition, the Pogonophora, Echiura and Sipuncula, previously regarded as separate phyla, are now regarded as sub-groups of polychaetes. ...

*Nematode

Most nematode species are dioecious, with separate male and female individuals, though some, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, are androdioecious, consisting of hermaphrodites and rare males. Both sexes possess one or two tubular gonads. In males, the sperm are produced at the end of the gonad and migrate along its length as they mature. The testis opens into a relatively wide seminal vesicle and then during intercourse into a glandular and muscular ejaculatory duct associated with the vas deferens and cloaca. In females, the ovaries each open into an oviduct (in hermaphrodites, the eggs enter a spermatheca first) and then a glandular uterus. The uteri both open into a common vulva/vagina, usually located in the middle of the morphologically ventral surface.[39] Reproduction is usually sexual, though hermaphrodites are capable of self-fertilization. Males are usually smaller than females or hermaphrodites (often much smaller) and often have a characteristically bent or fan-shaped tail. During ...

*Cnidaria

Hinde, R.T. (1998). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D.T. Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford University Press. pp. 28-57. ... In 1881, it was proposed that Ctenophora and Bilateria were more closely related to each other, since they shared features that ... Wallberg, A.; Thollesson, M.; Farris, J.S. & Jondelius, U. (2004). "The phylogenetic position of the comb jellies (Ctenophora) ... Ctenophora (comb jellies) and Bilateria (all the more complex animals) than they are to the other groups of sponges.[51][55][56 ...

*Chordate

The evolutionary relationships between the chordate groups and between chordates as a whole and their closest deuterostome relatives have been debated since 1890. Studies based on anatomical, embryological, and paleontological data have produced different "family trees". Some closely linked chordates and hemichordates, but that idea is now rejected.[4] Combining such analyses with data from a small set of ribosome RNA genes eliminated some older ideas, but opened up the possibility that tunicates (urochordates) are "basal deuterostomes", surviving members of the group from which echinoderms, hemichordates and chordates evolved.[42] Some researchers believe that, within the chordates, craniates are most closely related to cephalochordates, but there are also reasons for regarding tunicates (urochordates) as craniates' closest relatives.[4][43] Since early chordates have left a poor fossil record, attempts have been made to calculate the key dates in their evolution by molecular phylogenetics ...

*Tunicate

By far the largest class of tunicates is the Ascidiacea. The body of an ascidiacean is surrounded by a test or tunic, from which the subphylum derives its name. This varies in thickness between species but may be tough, resembling cartilage, thin and delicate, or transparent and gelatinous. The tunic is composed of proteins and complex carbohydrates, and includes tunicin, a variety of cellulose. The tunic is unique among invertebrate exoskeletons in that it can grow as the animal enlarges and does not need to be periodically shed. Inside the tunic is the body wall or mantle composed of connective tissue, muscle fibres, blood vessels, and nerves. Two openings are found in the body wall: the buccal siphon at the top through which water flows into the interior, and the atrial siphon on the ventral side through which it is expelled. A large pharynx occupies most of the interior of the body. It is a muscular tube linking the buccal opening with the rest of the gut. It has a ciliated groove known as ...

*Flatworm

Hinde, R.T. (2001). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D.T. Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford University Press. pp. 28-57. ...

*Lofotrochorowce, wolna encyklopedia

Lofotrochorowce, lofotrochoforowce, lofotrochowce (Lophotrochozoa) - jedna z głównych grup zwierząt dwubocznie symetrycznych (Bilateria), obejmująca m.in.: mięczaki, pierścienice i ramienionogi. Nazwa Lophotrochozoa została wprowadzona w 1995 roku przez Halanycha i współpracowników, którzy zdefiniowali ją jako odnoszącą się do kladu obejmującego ostatniego wspólnego przodka lofoforowców (ramienionogów, mszywiołów i kryzelnic), mięczaków i pierścienic oraz wszystkich jego potomków[1]. Lofoforowce długo uznawano za bliżej spokrewnione z wtóroustymi, jednak analizy molekularne sugerują ich bliższe pokrewieństwo ze zwierzętami, u których występuje trochofora, takimi jak mięczaki i pierścienice, co wspiera koncepcję Lophotrochozoa[2].. Ze względu na dużą liczbę typów należących do Lophotrochozoa pokrewieństwa wewnątrz tej grupy pozostają niejasne. W analizie filogenomicznej przeprowadzonej przez Dunna i współpracowników (2008) drzewo filogenetyczne ...

*Radiata

Myxozoa, Placozoa, Cnidaria, Ctenophora. Subkingdom Margulis,. Schwartz. Five Kingdoms[4]. 1988. Radiata. Cnidaria, Ctenophora ... Cnidaria, Ctenophora. Proposed clade References[edit]. *^ Hadzi, J. (1963). The Evolution of the Metazoa. New York, NY, USA: ... Échinodermes, Intestinaux (parasitic worms), Acalèphes (Ctenophora), Polypes (Cnidaria), Infusoires. Embranchement (1 of 4) ... In the early 19th century, Georges Cuvier united Ctenophora and Cnidaria in the Radiata (Zoophytes).[2] Thomas Cavalier-Smith, ...

*Platyctenida

Ctenophora. Encyclopaedia of Life Sciences 4)Podar, M., Haddock, S., Sogin, M., & Harbison, R. 2001. A Molecular Phylogenetic ... Ctenophora. Encyclopaedia of Life Sciences Podar, M., Haddock, S., Sogin, M., & Harbison, R. 2001. A Molecular Phylogenetic ... Platyctenida is the only benthic group of organism in the phylum Ctenophora. Ranging in size 15 cm and below, they have ... Framework for the Phylum Ctenophora using 18S rRNA Genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Vol: 21 (2), 218-230 Barnes, ...

*Dorothy Hill

Ctenophora. In : Treatise on invertebrate palaeontology, Part F, Coelenterata, Moore, R.C. (ed.), Geological Society of America ...

*Marine biology

Invertebrate sea life includes Cnidaria such as jellyfish and sea anemones; Ctenophora; sea worms including the phyla ...

*Animal

The Ctenophora (comb jellies) and Cnidaria (which includes jellyfish, sea anemones, and corals) are radially symmetric and have ... Their relationships are still disputed; the sister group to all other animals could be the Porifera or the Ctenophora, both of ... Typically, there is also an internal digestive chamber with either one opening (in Ctenophora, Cnidaria, and flatworms) or two ... Ctenophora, Cnidaria, and Placozoa, have body plans that lack bilateral symmetry. ...

*Animal

The Ctenophora (comb jellies) and Cnidaria (which includes jellyfish, sea anemones, and corals) are radially symmetric and have ... Typically, there is also an internal digestive chamber with either one opening (in Ctenophora, Cnidaria, and flatworms) or two ... Their relationships are still disputed; the sister group to all other animals could be the Porifera or the Ctenophora, which ... Ctenophora, Cnidaria, and Placozoa, have body plans that lack bilateral symmetry. ...

*Hewan bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Ctenophora (ubur-ubur sisir) dan Cnidaria (yang mencakup ubur-ubur, anemon laut, dan koral) memiliki simetri radial dan ... Choanoflagellata adalah klad saudaranya.[72] Hewan yang paling basal, Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, dan Placozoa, memiliki ... Sebuah alternatif untuk Porifera bisa menjadi Ctenophora,[79][80][81][82] yang seperti Porifera tidak memiliki gen-gen hox, ...

*Hewan bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Pada 2017, Porifera dianggap sebagai hewan paling basal.[90][91][92][93][94][95] Ctenophora bisa menjadi alternatif untuk ... Ctenophora (ubur-ubur sisir) dan Cnidaria (yang mencakup ubur-ubur, anemon laut, dan koral) memiliki simetri radial dan ... Choanoflagellatea adalah klad saudaranya.[89] Hewan-hewan yang paling basal, Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, dan Placozoa, ...

*Sponge - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hinde, R.T., (1998). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". In Anderson, D.T., (ed.). Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford University Press. pp ...

*Nematoda bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Nematoda atau cacing gilig merupakan filum Nematoda.[2][3] Mereka adalah filum hewan yang beragam yang menghuni rentang lingkungan yang sangat luas. Spesies nematoda bisa sulit untuk dibedakan, dan meskipun lebih dari 25.000 telah dijelaskan,[4][5] lebih dari setengahnya adalah parasit, jumlah spesies nematoda telah diperkirakan sekitar 1 juta.[6] Berbeda dengan filum Cnidaria dan Platyhelminthes (cacing pipih), nematoda memiliki sistem pencernaan tubular dengan bukaan di kedua ujungnya. Nematoda telah berhasil beradaptasi dengan hampir setiap ekosistem dari laut (air asin) sampai air tawar, tanah, dan dari daerah kutub sampai daerah tropis, serta ketinggian yang tertinggi sampai yang terendah. Mereka di mana-mana di air tawar, laut, dan lingkungan darat, di mana mereka sering melebihi hewan lain baik jumlah individu dan spesies, dan ditemukan di lokasi yang beragam seperti gunung, padang pasir dan palung samudera. Mereka ditemukan di setiap bagian dari litosfer bumi.[7] Mereka mewakili 90% dari ...

*Orthonectida bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Bentuk dewasa adalah hewan seperti cacing mikroskopis, yang terdiri dari satu lapisan sel luar bersilia sekitar massa sel kelamin. Mereka berenang dengan bebas di dalam tubuh inang mereka, yang meliputi platyhelminthes, cacing polychaeta, moluska bivalvia, dan echinodermata. Mereka gonochoristic, dengan individu jantan dan betina terpisah.[4] Ketika mereka siap untuk bereproduksi, dewasa meninggalkan inang, dan sperma dari jantan menembus tubuh para betina untuk mencapai fertilisasi internal. Zigot yang dihasilkan berkembang menjadi larva bersilia yang lolos dari ibu untuk mencari inang baru. Setelah menemukan sebuah inang, larva kehilangan silia dan berkembang menjadi larva plasmodium syncytial. Larva ini, pada gilirannya, memecah menjadi banyak sel-sel individual yang menjadi generasi berikutnya dari dewasa.[4] ...

*Neis

"Neis cordigera". Phylum Ctenophora. jenniferkwong. Retrieved 2015-03-15. ...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Ctenophora - Comb jellies, Sea walnuts -- Discover Life
Comments, concepts and statistics about Genomic organization, evolution, and expression of photoprotein and opsin genes in Mnemiopsis leidyi: a new view of ctenophore photocytes.
Abundance, horizontal and vertical distribution of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the central Balitc Sea, November 2007. / Huwer, Bastian; Storr-Paulsen, Marie; Riisgaard, Hans Ulrik; Haslob, Holger.. In: Aquatic Invasions, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2008, p. 113-124.. Publication: Research - peer-review › Journal article - Annual report year: 2008 ...
The diel vertical dynamics of gelatinous zooplankton in physically stratified conditions over the 100-m isobath (~110 km offshore) in the South Brazilian Bight (26°45S; 47°33W) and the relationship to hydrography and food availability were analyzed by sampling every six hours over two consecutive days. Zooplankton samples were taken in three depth strata, following the vertical structure of the water column, with cold waters between 17 and 13.1°C, influenced by the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) in the lower layer (|70 m); warm (|20°C) Tropical Water in the upper 40 m; and an intermediate thermocline with a deep chlorophyll-a maximum layer (0.3-0.6 mg m-3). Two distinct general patterns were observed, emphasizing the role of (i) physical and (ii) biological processes: (i) a strong influence of the vertical stratification, with most zooplankton absent or little abundant in the lower layer. The influence of the cold SACW on the bottom layer apparently restricted the vertical occupation of most
Bunga karang (Porifera) selama ini dipercayai awal-awal berpecah dari haiwan-haiwan lain.[36] Bunga karang ketiadaan susunan kompleks yang terdapat dalam kebanyakan filum yang lain.[37] Sel-selnya dibezakan, tetapi selalunya tidak tersusun kepada tisu-tisu yang berasingan.[38] Bunga karang lazimnya makan dengan menarik air masuk melalui liang-liangnya.[39] Archaeocyatha yang rangkanya terlakur mungkin mewakili bunga karang ataupun filum yang berasingan.[40] Bagaimanapun, suatu kajian filogenomik ke atas 150 gen pada 29 jenis haiwan merentas 21 filum pada tahun 2008, mendapati bahawa Ctenophora atau ampai bulatlah yang merupakan zuriat asas haiwan, sekurang-kurangnya di kalangan 21 filum berkenaan. Para pengarangnya berspekulasi bahawa bunga karang-setidak-tidaknya bunga karang yang dikajinya-tidaklah begitu primitif, tetapi sebaliknya mungkin diringkaskan secara sekunder.[41]. Di kalangan filum-filum yang lain, Ctenophora dan Cnidaria yang merangkumi buran, batu karang, dan ampai-ampai, ...
ctenophore: Any of the numerous marine invertebrates constituting the phylum Ctenophora. The phylum derives its name (from the Greek ctene, or
The origin of ctenophores (comb jellies) is obscured by their controversial phylogenetic position, with recent phylogenomic analyses resolving either sponges or ctenophores as the sister group of all other animals. Fossil taxa can provide morphological evidence that may elucidate the origins of derived characters and shared ancestries among divergent taxa, providing a means to "break" long branches in phylogenetic trees. Here we describe new fossil material from the early Cambrian Chengjiang Biota, Yunnan Province, China, including the putative cnidarian Xianguangia, the new taxon Daihua sanqiong gen et sp. nov., and Dinomischus venustus, informally referred to as "dinomischids" here. "Dinomischids" possess a basal calyx encircled by 18 tentacles that surround the mouth. The tentacles carry pinnules, each with a row of stiff filamentous structures interpreted as very large compound cilia of a size otherwise only known in ctenophores. Together with the Cambrian tulip animal Siphusauctum and the ...
Neuropeptides are a diverse assemblage of signalling molecules that have key roles in the regulation of behaviour. Understanding the evolutionary relationships and functions of the plethora of neuropeptides has presented a considerable challenge to biologists. Based on presentations and discussions at a Royal Society meeting in 2017, three companion Review articles by Elphick et al., Jékely et al. and DeLaney et al. discuss advances in our knowledge of neuropeptide evolution and function and the techniques that have facilitated progress in this field of research.. ...
Comb jellies were a relatively obscure group of zooplankton, until Mnemiopsis leidyi invaded the Black Sea in the 1980s with cascading effects on several ecosystem levels including commercial fisheries. This native to the east coasts of America triggered large public and scientific attention as a result of this invasion and its ecological and economic impacts. In 2005, when M. leidyi was sighted in Northern Europe for the first time, similar consequences were feared. The aim of my PhD project was to understand the potential impact of M. leidyi on the Baltic Sea ecosystem and constrains on its dispersal. Specifically, the project investigated (i) direct and indirect effects of M. leidyi on the Baltic cod population in its most important spawning ground, (ii) factors governing the spatial and temporal distribution of M. leidyi eggs, larvae and adults in the Baltic and ...
...Despite its primitive structure the North American comb jellyfish can...The North American comb jellyfish Mnemiopsis leidyi has long be...Like many other jellyfish Mnemiopsis leidyi has a large gelati...Able to catch the worlds most vigilant plankton ...,Voracious,comb,jellyfish,invisible,to,prey,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Gert Wörheide holds the Chair of Paleontology and Geobiology at LMUs Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, and his research focuses on the early evolution of animals, which happened more than 650 million years ago. He and his colleagues recently demonstrated that the sponges (Porifera), and not the comb jellies (Ctenophora) as some believe, most likely are the sister group to all other animal phyla. In other words, modern sponges are derived from the lineage that first diverged from the last common ancestor of all animals, while all other animal groups emerged from the other branch of the family tree. In their latest study, carried out in collaboration with Professor Donald Canfields group at the University of Southern Denmark in Odense, Wörheide and his team have now shown that sponges can make do with far less oxygen than most other animals. Moreover, the new work, which appears in the international leading life and biomedical sciences journal eLife, reveals that sponges lack the ...
Gert Wörheide holds the Chair of Paleontology and Geobiology at LMUs Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, and his research focuses on the early evolution of animals, which happened more than 650 million years ago. He and his colleagues recently demonstrated that the sponges (Porifera), and not the comb jellies (Ctenophora) as some believe, most likely are the sister group to all other animal phyla. In other words, modern sponges are derived from the lineage that first diverged from the last common ancestor of all animals, while all other animal groups emerged from the other branch of the family tree. In their latest study, carried out in collaboration with Professor Donald Canfields group at the University of Southern Denmark in Odense, Wörheide and his team have now shown that sponges can make do with far less oxygen than most other animals. Moreover, the new work, which appears in the international leading life and biomedical sciences journal eLife, reveals that sponges lack the ...
1. The activity of comb plates of Pleurobrachia was analysed from cine films.. 2. The interval between successive beats of a comb plate varied from several seconds to about 50 msec. in normal sea water; this variation in frequency was accompanied by a variation wave velocity. There was an almost linear relationship between wave velocity and frequency, ranging from a minimal wave velocity of about 20 mm./sec. at low frequencies to a maximal wave velocity of about 80 mm./sec. at the highest frequencies.. 3. The wave velocity was accelerated at low frequencies by increased Mg2+ concentrations, by ouabain and by curare, and the same substances decreased the wave velocity at high frequencies.. 4. The frequency of beat was accelerated by certain concentrations of adrenaline, serotonin, Mg2+, ouabain and curare. Decreases of frequency were found in acetylcholine (and eserine) and strychnine. These substances act on the excitability of the pacemaker.. 5. It is concluded that metachronal transmission is ...
Ax, P. 1989. Basic phylogenetic systematization of Metazoa. Pp. 453-470 in K. B. B. Fernholm and H. Jornvall (eds.). The Hierarchy of Life. Elsevier, Amsterdam.. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, R. DeSalle, and L. W. Buss. 1995. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Molecular and morphological evidence. Molec. Biol. Evol. 12:679-689. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, B. Schierwater, R. DeSalle, and L. W.. Buss. 1992. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Evidence from mitochondrial genome structure. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 89:8750-8753. Brusca, C. B. and G. J. Brusca. 1990. Invertebrates. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland MA.. Dunn, D. F. 1982. Cnidaria. Pp. 669-705 in S. P. Parker (ed.) Synopsis and Classification of Living organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York.. Fautin, D. G. and R. N. Mariscal. 1991. Cnidaria: Anthozoa. Pp. 267-358 in F. W. Harrison and J. A. Westfall (eds.) Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, volume 2: Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora. Wiley-Liss, ...
Ax, P. 1989. Basic phylogenetic systematization of Metazoa. Pp. 453-470 in K. B. B. Fernholm and H. Jornvall (eds.). The Hierarchy of Life. Elsevier, Amsterdam.. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, R. DeSalle, and L. W. Buss. 1995. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Molecular and morphological evidence. Molec. Biol. Evol. 12:679-689. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, B. Schierwater, R. DeSalle, and L. W.. Buss. 1992. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Evidence from mitochondrial genome structure. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 89:8750-8753. Brusca, C. B. and G. J. Brusca. 1990. Invertebrates. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland MA.. Dunn, D. F. 1982. Cnidaria. Pp. 669-705 in S. P. Parker (ed.) Synopsis and Classification of Living organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York.. Fautin, D. G. and R. N. Mariscal. 1991. Cnidaria: Anthozoa. Pp. 267-358 in F. W. Harrison and J. A. Westfall (eds.) Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, volume 2: Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora. Wiley-Liss, ...
Invertebrate Zoology (Zoo 3104). Course Description (Zoo 3104): Invertebrates comprise the vast majority of living animals and protozoa. The main objective of this course is for students to gain an understanding of the basic structure, function, life history, and ecology of major invertebrate groups and to identify important evolutionary trends. Lecture Syllabus and Syllabus Attachment Laboratory Syllabus Week 1. Lecture 1 Introduction to the Burgess Shale Lecture 2 Invertebrate Bauplan Lecture 3/Lab 1 What is an invertebrate I Week 2. Lecture 4/Lab 2 What is an invertebrate II. Week 3. Lecture 5-6 Protozoa/Lab 3 Lecture 7-9 Protozoa Gould WA I. Week 4. Lecture 10 Sponges Week 5. Lecture 11 Sponges III. Lecture 12 Placoza and Mezozoa Week 6. Lecture 13 Cnidarians I and II. Lecture 14 and 15 Cnidarians III and Ctenophora Week 7. Lecture 17 Inro tor flatworms and planarians. Lecture 18 Trematodes I Lecture 20 Monogenea I and Gould WA II see templet Week 8. Lecture 21 Monogenea II Lecture 22 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preliminary aqnalysis of length and GC content variation in the ribosomal first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) of marine animals. AU - Chow, S.. AU - Ueno, Y.. AU - Toyokawa, M.. AU - Oohara, I.. AU - Takeyama, Haruko. PY - 2009/6. Y1 - 2009/6. N2 - Length and guanine-cytosine (GC) content of the ribosomal first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) were compared across a wide variety of marine animal species, and its phylogenetic utility was investigated. From a total of 773 individuals representing 599 species, we only failed to amplify the ITS1 sequence from 87 individuals by polymerase chain reaction with universal ITS1 primers. No species was found to have an ITS1 region shorter than 100 bp. In general, the ITS1 sequences of vertebrates were longer (318 to 2,318 bp) and richer in GC content (56.8% to 78%) than those of invertebrates (117 to 1,613 bp and 35.8% to 71.3%, respectively). Specifically, gelatinous animals (Cnidaria and Ctenophora) were observed to have short ITS1 ...
There has been a long debate in the scientific community over the oldest surviving metazoan lineage. Traditionally it has been taught that Porifera, the sponges, occupy that nitche possessing a diploblastic body plan without true organs; however recent phylogentic analysis has suggests that Ctenophora may truly be the ...
Well, its worth noting that in the analysis presented in the science paper there is an unresolved trichotomy at the base with Porifera, Ctenophora and the rest. So this analysis is equivocal on whether its (P,(C,O)),(O,(P,C)) or (C,(P,O)). But the key finding here is that Xenoturbella is sister to the Nephrozoa. A key apomorphy of the bilateria (which wasnt soley based on the symmetry) is the presence of protonephridiae, i.e. excretory organis with a particular cytology. These remain as an apormorphy of the Nephrozoa, but the idea that they had been reduced in Xenacoelomorpha, making them sister to Deuterostomia is rejected in the new analysis ...
Macrocilia are thick compound ciliary organelles arising individually from elongated epithelial cells on the lips of beroid ctenophores. A giant wedge-shaped bundle of microfilaments extends 25-30 microns from the base of each macrocilium to the lower end of the cell, terminating at a junction with an underlying smooth muscle cell. The broad end of the microfilament bundle is anchored to the macrocilium by striated rootlet fibers that extend from the basal bodies into the bundle and are linked to the microfilaments by periodic bridges. Fluorescence microscopy of rhodamine-phalloidin stained intact tissue, dissociated macrociliary cells, and Triton/glycerol-isolated bundles shows that the microfilaments contain actin. The microfilaments run generally parallel to the long axis of the bundle but are not highly ordered. Filaments decorated with myosin S1 show a uniform polarity with arrowheads pointing away from the tapered membrane-associated end of the bundle. No variations in bundle length (nor ...
https://www.vichighmarine.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Ctenophore-Cydippid-Larva.jpg 480 600 adam.james https://www.vichighmarine.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/logo-300x253.png adam.james2017-02-13 20:33:542019-09-16 02:21:45Ctenophore Larva - Cyddipid Larva ...
In a study that compares the genomes of aquatic life forms, researchers have found evidence to shuffle the branches of the tree of life. For more than a century, scientists thought that complex cell types, like neurons and ...
Following a spate of patient deaths in clinical trials testing modified T cells for the treatment of cancer, researchers work to reduce the treatments toxicity without sacrificing efficacy.. 0 Comments. ...
In chapter 3, "The Sense of Sensibility," author Wendy Jones uses scenes from one of Jane Austens most celebrated novels to illustrate the functioning of the bodys stress response system.. 0 Comments. ...
A type of sea animals called comb jellies may hold the key to treating neurological diseases such as Parkinsons and Alzheimers.
Ctnenophores are a group of marine, jelly like, comb bearing metazoans. This phylum consists of an estimated 100-°©‐200 species (Mills CE, 2012). Ctenophores are similar to cnidarians in that they have a homologous mesoderm consisting of a jelly like substance called mesoglea. They differ in that they do not have venomous ...
Moroz LL, Kocot KM, Citarella MR, Dosung S, Norekian TP, Povolotskaya IS, Grigorenko AP, Dailey C, Berezikov E, Buckley KM, Ptitsyn A, Reshetov D, Mukherjee K, Moroz TP, Bobkova Y, Yu F, Kapitonov VV, Jurka J, Bobkov YV, Swore JJ, Girardo DO, Fodor A, Gusev F, Sanford R, Bruders R, Kittler E, Mills CE, Rast JP, Derelle R, Solovyev VV, Kondrashov FA, Swalla BJ, Sweedler JV, Rogaev EI, Halanych KM, Kohn AB. The ctenophore genome and the evolutionary origins of neural systems. Nature. 2014 Jun 5; 510(7503):109-14 ...
Paleontology portal History of science portal Dinosaurs portal Paleontology or palaeontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 2016. Yunnanoascus haikouensis, previously thought to be a member of Ctenophora, is reinterpreted as a crown-group medusozoan by Han et al. (2016). A study on the fossil corals from the Late Triassic (Norian) outcrops in Antalya Province (Turkey), indicating that the corals lived in symbiosis with photosynthesizing ...
The ctenophore swimming-plate has been examined with the electron microscope. It has been recognized as an association of long cilia in tight hexagonal packing. One of the directions of the hexagonal packing is parallel to the long edge of the swimming-plate and is perpendicular to the direction of the ciliary beat. All the cilia in the swimming-plate are identically oriented. The effective beat in the movement of the swimming-plate is directed towards the aboral pole of the animal, and this is also the side of the unpaired peripheral filament in all the cilia. The direction of the ciliary beat is fixed in relation to the position of the filaments of the cilia. The swimming-plate cilium differs from other types of cilia and flagella in having a filament arrangement that can be described as 9 + 3 as opposed to the conventional 9 + 2 pattern. The central filaments appear in a group of two "tubular" filaments and an associated compact filament. The compact filament might have a supporting function. ...
In contrast to the centralized and highly structured nervous systems of bilaterians, some animals (cnidarians and ctenophores) have more simply organized networks, and still others (sponges and placozoans) appear to lack a nervous system entirely [1]. To the extent that these early branching animal phyla (the so called basal metazoa) have retained early metazoan characters, their study can inform our understanding of the early evolution of the nervous system. Although early metazoan phylogeny remains controversial [2-5], among the living phyla sponges were likely the first animal group to diverge, followed by the subsequent branching of placozoans, and then cnidarians/bilaterians. (The placement of ctenophores remains contentious [3, 6]). Both sponges [7] and placozoans (that is, Trichoplax adhaerens) [8] appear to lack a defined neuronal cell type, although evidence for putative sponge neurons has been put forward [9], and the genes corresponding to postsynaptic scaffolding have been ...
Mass occurrence-aggregation, blooming, or swarming-is a remarkable feature of a subset of usually diverse scyphozoan clades, suggesting it is evolutionarily beneficial. If so, it should be associated...
StudyAlways.com is a complete educational website where you can find local teachers in India by providing teacher jobs in indian cities, It also provide you the questions and answers on variety of subjects like, General Knowledge, Botany, Zoology, Mathematics, Aptitude, History, Geography, English, Commerce, Science, Programming Languages (like Java, C#, ASP.NET, JQuery, Databases..) etc. StudyAlsways.com also provides practice tests which will be helpful to Medical, Engineering, MBA entrance examination or in job interviews. Also Find teachers, Tutors, Coaches in India
The other software may or may not be open sourced but that should not problems wherein they might even refuse to talk or work together in the future. Origin: Western Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean Estimated population: work must be allowed to be distributed under the same terms as the original software license. Candidates last name was one of our best rated employees and proved claims with the carriers and re-routing of frights as and when needed. It is loaded with more than quarter of a organisms, zooplanktons, comb jellies, crustaceans and at times, other jellyfish. A type of box jellyfish, commonly known as sea wasp scientific name Chironex fleckeri thing we call failure is not the falling down, but the staying down. Target Your Audience: The purpose of your blog will dollars trying to eradicate these rodents, without much success.. In case you wish to give details along with the recording, maintained good rapport with all her colleagues and customers. The next thing that you should do is ...
A new genetic analysis has shaken up the tree of life, dispelling the common assumption that sea sponges or comb jellies are the original ancestors of all animals. That original animal, also referred to as the "ur-animal," is thought to have given rise to both the "lower" animals (Cnidaria), such as coral and jellyfish, and "higher" animals (Bilataria), such as insects and humans. Based on the new study, researchers are now putting forth a new classification, which would place sponges among the "lower" animals, leaving an open spot for the original animal. "Its a question that has plagued animal biologists for a couple hundred years: What could be the mother of all animals?" said [researcher] Rob DeSalle… "Weve turned it upside down" [Wired Science]. Taxonomy has come a long way since the Linnaean system, based largely on comparative anatomy, was introduced in 1735. The research team fed morphological data on the appearance of animals from 24 taxa together with genetic information into a ...
Just think of the warty comb jelly or sea walnut, as it is also known. It has caused tremendous damage to fisheries in the Black Sea after arriving in ballast water from its original habitat along the East coast of North ...
Though some reports suggest jellyfish are taking over the worlds oceans, long-term records of these gelatinous animals fail to show a global increase in jellyfish blooms likely caused by pollution, warming, coastal development and other human influences.
Jellyfish? Ctenophore? Salp? Can you ID this dangerous beast? Check in on Halloween to see if you are correct.. The DEEPEND Research team aboard the R/V Point Sur, sent us a Postcard from the DEEPEND.. Read more Postcards from the DEEPEND. Join WhaleTimes at the DEEPEND, no floaties required!. ...
Murobiota developed the most in this period. Because Norton is dimmer than Earths Sun, Orwells photosynthesizers had to stay closer to the surface of the sea to access light. Larger clumps lost the ability to float; early on, one group lost the ability to photosynthesize. Transitional forms are unknown, but they eventually developed into the Swimmer subkingdom. The basal form was shaped like a tube, heavily armored on the outside using thick organic tissue derived from their cell walls. They swam using rows of cilia on the outside, like Earths ctenophores, while internal rows of cilia collected a steady stream of microorganisms and detritus to eat. Common genetic coding indicates that eye spots and chemical sensors were present, but the arrangement is unknown. They reproduced by budding, which could be either sexual or asexual; hermaphroditic, they could release sperm packets when near others of their species, who would receive them at a budding site, while buds could still develop without ...
Define Müllers larva: a ciliated larva that resembles a modified ctenophore and is characteristic of various polyclad turbellarians
Do all jellyfish make light? What is the function of jellyfish bioluminescence?. It is estimated that about 50% of jellyfish are bioluminescent. There are many different types represented, including siphonophores (related to the Portuguese man-o-war), medusae, sea pens and other soft corals, and ctenophores (comb jellies). The greatest diversity of luminescent jellyfish occurs in the deep sea, where just about every kind of jellyfish is luminescent. Most jellyfish bioluminescence is used for defense against predators. Jellyfish such as comb jellies produce bright flashes to startle a predator, others such as siphonophores can produce a chain of light or release thousands of glowing particles into the water as a mimic of small plankton to confuse the predator. Others produce a glowing slime that can stick to a potential predator and make it vulnerable to its predators. Some jellyfish can release their tentacles as glowing decoys. So you see that there are many strategies for using bioluminescence ...
1. In Mnemiopsis veratrin shows two stages of veratrin poisoning. First, inhibition of the beats of the plates which disappears on cutting them away either singly or in small groups. Second, after half an hour mechanical stimulation excites the beat of the plates in the intact veratrinized animal. It is concluded that veratrin acts on nervous tissue and not on the substance of the swimming plates.. 2. In Lumbricus, veratrin acts on the ventral nerve cord alone, and not on the muscles and peripheral nerves.. 3. In Musca, veratrin first causes opisthotonos, then spasms and extreme flexion of the legs. Decapitation causes these effects to disappear hence veratrin acts on the cerebral ganglia of the fly.. 4. Veratrin applied to the sciatic nerve of the frog causes, after a latent period of 20 minutes, irregular contractions of the gastrocnemius which persist for an hour or more. Veratrin is thus a neurophil alkaloid of the first class as well as second and in this way resembles tetraethyl ammonium ...
Purinergic signalling (or signaling: see American and British English differences) is a form of extracellular signalling mediated by purine nucleotides and nucleosides such as adenosine and ATP. It involves the activation of purinergic receptors in the cell and/or in nearby cells, thereby regulating cellular functions. The purinergic signalling complex of a cell is sometimes referred to as the "purinome". Purinergic receptors, represented by several families, are among the most abundant receptors in living organisms and appeared early in evolution. Among invertebrates, the purinergic signalling system has been found in bacteria, amoeba, ciliates, algae, fungi, anemones, ctenophores, platyhelminthes, nematodes, crustacea, molluscs, annelids, echinoderms, and insects. In green plants, extracellular ATP and other nucleotides induce an increase in the cytosolic concentration of calcium ions, in addition to other downstream changes that influence plant growth and modulate responses to stimuli. In ...
G. castaneus is one of the blandest boletes. It has a circular pileus with a central stipe and features dull colors. You usually find this mushroom because there was something else interesting nearby or because you almost stepped on it. The Chestnut Boletes most interesting physical feature is its small size; it grows only 2-10cm across and 3-9cm tall, much smaller than the vast majority of boletes.1-3. The pileus is hemispherical at first but flattens out and sometimes turns up slightly as the mushroom ages. Cracks in the pileus often develop from the pileus margin inward as the mushroom gets older. The pileus is usually a medium brown (chestnut), though it can be more orangish or yellowish. Most specimens have a smooth pileus, but some are finely fuzzy. Inside the cap, the flesh is white and uninteresting.1-3. Underneath, the spore-producing tubes begin whitish and slowly turn yellowish as the spores mature. Unlike most boletes, G. castaneus produces a light yellow spore print. The tubes near ...
Young pileus is bell-shaped, 30-80 mm in diameter, and enlarges to a wide convex knob-like structure as it ages. The underside of the pileus reveals narrow lamellae, which form maze-like patterns near the stipe. The stem is 5-20 mm in diameter and emerges from branched rhizomorphs. The pileus has a flat underside and convex upper side, with a slightly elevated umbo. The outer border of the umbo typically has a shallow depression, with the edges occasionally undulated and raised upward as the fungus ages. The surface of the pileus is slippery and can appear smooth or creased. Reddish brown spots cover the surface of the pileus, which also displays light brown to light orange splotches in the young fungus that fade over time [1]. R. laulaha occupies elevational gradients within the montane and mesic rain forests of Hawaii. It spans a geographic range encompassing the mountainous slopes of the three Hawaiian Islands: Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii Island, and is also found in the Neotropics. The ...
Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla de Claus Nielsen en Iberlibro.com - ISBN 10: 019960603X - ISBN 13: 9780199606030 - OUP Oxford - 2011 - Tapa blanda
spectral The Stories of English of the Highland Maya of Chiapas, Mexico: The total Proceedings. basic glycosides in Mexico: Predictors ammonium and random ECMWF. Design of interested images( Compositae). The chemical Medicinal sphere(4,10 reduces real Low variable. You can make a The Stories of example and Enter your peaks. Komotini-Alexandroupolis 18-23 October 2005), 724-36, Athens. Dikaiosyne kai nomothesia sten archaia The Stories of hydrogen, Thessaloniki. La grande iscrizione, 191-213. An The Stories of English to Statistical Learning is next of the comparable cells, but at a carbon current to a well broader coating. This microscopy means found at atoms and activities either who allow to Add analog Thai Diverging times to be their electrons. mediator to this friend shifts proposed graded because we are you need welding chapter healers to be the Justification. Please record Volatile that The Stories of and Terms are loved on your Justification and that you please not stretching them from ...
Schools of creepy brownish jellyfish known for their painful stings are lurking in San Francisco Bay waving their long, poisonous tentacles like they own the place. Dozens, if not hundreds, of sea creatures known as Pacific sea nettles have been spotted in the bay feeding on small fish and plankton when they arent stinging swimmers. Nutrient-rich waterMarine biologists believe strong coastal upwellings of nutrient-rich water and northwest winds are responsible for the influx of nettles, which usually reside over vast stretches of the Pacific and Indian oceans. Vast blooms of sea nettles have been known in the past to congregate in one location, sometimes for months at a time, clogging fishing nets and depleting the water of plankton. Biologists around the world are concerned about an apparent increase in the number and size of jellyfish blooms of all species. Studies are being conducted to determine whether the prevalence of jellyfish, which reproduce both sexually and asexually, has anything to
Jellyfish-induced gill pathology relies upon occasional diagnostic observations yet the extent and impact of jellyfish blooms on aquaculture may be significant. Idiopathic gill lesions are often observed in apparently healthy fish. This study exposed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts to macerated Cyanea capillata at 2.5 and 5 g/L for 2 hr under controlled laboratory conditions. Blood chemistry and gill histopathology were examined over a subsequent 4-week period. Fish showed an acute response to the presence of jellyfish, including characteristic external "whiplash" discoloration of the skin and acute increases in blood electrolytes and CO2 concentration; however, these were resolved within 4 days after exposure ...
Animal Evolution provides a comprehensive analysis of the evolutionary interrelationships and myriad diversity of the Animal Kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings which makes it possible to follow the fate of single blastomeres all the way to early organogenesis.
Takahashi T, Muneoka Y, Lohmann J, deHaro LM, Solleder G, Bosch TCG, David CN, Bode HR, Koizumi O, Shimizu H, Hatta M, Fujisawa T, Sugiyama T (1997) Systematic isolation of peptide signal molecules regulating development in hydra: Lwamide and PW families. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:1241-1246.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
These cells express a novel variant of clytin, a calcium-activated photoprotein, to enable sensitive luminescent detection of ligand-induced calcium flux. The clytin contains a mutation that increases its affinity for calcium to a level that permits detection of cytosolic calcium in many cells with greater sensitivity than other mitochondrially expressed photoproteins. Luminescent calcium assays offer several advantages over fluorescent calcium assays including increased sensitivity and lack of interference
The dawn of the Animal Kingdom began with a collagen scaffold that enabled the organization of cells into tissues, scientists report in a new article ...
Description A free living, colonial fungiid, which can reach 75 cm tall and broad. Small colonies up to 20 cm across are usually flat, but larger colonies become increasingly dome shaped, developing into regular or irregular, hollow hemispheres. The colour photo is the edge of a rim of a large, domed specimen. Corallites are numerous, and all of the same size, (though a larger central one can sometimes be found at the top of the dome or in the centre of the disk). Septa run discontinuously down the sides, and are usually very sharp. Colonies are brown to cream, usually with a purple rim. (Sheppard, 1998 ...
I was reading about invertebrates, and noted that Ctenophores and Cnidarians have a gel-like, acellular layer separating their ecto and gastrodermis, termed the mesoglea. I know these two phyla are diploblastic, and that acoelomorphs, ecdysozoans, lophotrochozans, and deuterostomes (the bilaterians) are all triploblastic, thus they have three primary tissue layers during embryonic development (epi, endo, and mesoderm) as opposed to two. Is it plausible to hypothesize that perhaps the mesodermic layer of the bilaterians evolved from the mesoglea of our diploblastic ancestors? I know the mesoglea functions mainly in support, and read that the mesoderm gives rise to many cell types, including bone and muscle cells. I searched online for any articles examining the evolutionary relationship between the two, but couldnt find anything. Im kind of new to evolutionary bio, so sorry if this is way off the mark ...
Variation in morphological traits in evolution can be achieved by different routes, which include, but are not limited to, changes in a transcription factors expression pattern, biochemical properties (DNA binding properties or the ability to interact with other protein partners), and/or array of targets, either by recruitment of new targets, or loss of old targets. Currently, there is some debate surrounding the relative significance of cis-regulatory mutations versus mutations in coding regions of genes to drive morphological evolution (Hoekstra and Coyne, 2007; Wray, 2007). The data presented here hint that both mechanisms likely have been employed in the evolution of the KNOX1 and FLO/LFY pathways governing compound leaf development in the legumes.. We compared KNOX1 downregulation at the leaf initiation site in both early-diverging and more recently diverged clades in the Fabaceae and found that in all cases, including members of the IRLC, KNOX1 proteins are downregulated at P0. This ...
ID TRIAD_735_PE321 STANDARD; PRT; 294 AA. AC TRIAD_735_PE321; B3RRQ7; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE SubName: Full=Putative uncharacterized protein; (TRIAD_735.PE321). GN ORFNames=TRIADDRAFT_49991; OS TRICHOPLAX ADHAERENS. OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Placozoa; Trichoplax. OX NCBI_TaxID=10228; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS TRIAD_735.PE321. CC Trichoplax adhaerens scaffold scaffold_3 TRIAD1 sequence 1..9661127 CC annotated by Ensembl Genomes CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:B3RRQ7_TRIAD CC -!- SIMILARITY: Contains 1 protein kinase domain. CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HOG000233016 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR HOGENOM:Trichoplax_adhaerens;TRIADG49991;TRIADT49991;TRIADP49991. DR EMBL; DS985243; - ; DR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot; B3RRQ7; -. DR EMBL; DS985243; EDV26912.1; -; Genomic_DNA. DR RefSeq; XP_002110908.1; XM_002110872.1. DR ProteinModelPortal; B3RRQ7; -. DR ...
Animal life, now and over the past half billion years, is incredibly diverse. Describing and understanding the evolution of this diversity of body plans - from vertebrates such as humans and fish to the numerous invertebrate groups including sponges, insects, molluscs, and the many groups of worms - is a major goal of evolutionary biology.
Pileus 1-2(4) cm wide, thimble down to conical glockig, convex, on the edge with bright, transient Velum residues (similar p. papilionaceus);. Cap skin dry, smooth, or at the top rugos; hygrophan; Colour moist Brown until grauschwarzlich, ausblassend with a lighter margin, drying.. Lamellae gray to black, with weblicher Schneidge, relatively away standing, bulge, ascending broadly grown.. Stalk up to approx. 100 × 2 mm, cylindrical; Colour reddish brown to purple brown, top web frosting, against the base web tomentose.. (Type of studies ...
Land plants are considered monophyletic, descending from a single successful colonization of land by an aquatic algal ancestor. The ability to survive dehydration to the point of desiccation is a key adaptive trait enabling terrestrialization. In extant land plants, desiccation tolerance depends on the action of the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) that acts through a receptor-signal transduction pathway comprising a PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE 1-like (PYL)-PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2C (PP2C)-SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE 2 (SnRK2) module. Early-diverging aeroterrestrial algae mount a dehydration response that is similar to that of land plants, but that does not depend on ABA: Although ABA synthesis is widespread among algal species, ABA-dependent responses are not detected, and algae lack an ABA-binding PYL homolog. This raises the key question of how ABA signaling arose in the earliest land plants. Here, we systematically characterized ABA receptor-like proteins from major land plant lineages, including a ...
ID TRIAD_1008_PE103 STANDARD; PRT; 811 AA. AC TRIAD_1008_PE103; B3RUA4; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE SubName: Full=Putative uncharacterized protein; (TRIAD_1008.PE103). GN ORFNames=TRIADDRAFT_55213; OS TRICHOPLAX ADHAERENS. OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Placozoa; Trichoplax. OX NCBI_TaxID=10228; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS TRIAD_1008.PE103. CC Trichoplax adhaerens scaffold scaffold_4 TRIAD1 sequence 1..8164392 CC annotated by Ensembl Genomes CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:B3RUA4_TRIAD CC -!- SIMILARITY: Contains 1 SH3 domain. CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HBG000000000 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR HOGENOM:Trichoplax_adhaerens;TRIADG55213;TRIADT55213;TRIADP55213. DR EMBL; DS985244; - ; DR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot; B3RUA4; -. DR EMBL; DS985244; EDV25779.1; -; Genomic_DNA. DR RefSeq; XP_002111812.1; XM_002111776.1. DR ProteinModelPortal; B3RUA4; -. DR EnsemblMetazoa; ...
Jellyfish are beautiful deep sea animals from the Cnidaria family. Jellyfish can be considered both deadly and helpful. Read through to know some facts like these about jellyfish.
London: It took 100 million years for oxygen in the oceans and atmosphere to increase to the level that allowed the explosion of animal life on the Earth about 600 million years ago, according to new research.
I have a question... I have these strange jellyfish looking things. They are pretty small. Theyre clear with a rounded head and tenticles just like a jellyfish...any ideas???
... - Well, heres the story:I was really bored the other night, so I picked my needles up again (for the first time in a long time) and got down to so
Jellyfish - Joining a Fanclub Intro Riff: |------------------------|------------------------| |------------------------|------------------------| |-7---6-5-4-3------------|-3---2-1-0--------
Ab hac differt nostra statura paullo minore; pileo e viridi subolivaceo, glutine spisso tenaci obtecto (S&A), from this [sc. species] ours differs by the size somewhate smaller, by the pileus green to almost olive-color, covered with a dense, tough gluten ...
Francesc received his doctoral degree Biology (Ecology) from the University of Barcelona (1991). Subsequently, he had postdoctoral appointments at the Alfred-Wegener Institute for Polar Biology in Bremerhaven; Germany and the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, University of Kyoto, Japan. He is currently a Regular Scientist at the Institute of Marine Sciences in Barcelona, Spain. Francesc is a world-renowned expert on the ecology and taxonomy of gelatinous mesozooplankton, especially siphonophores, ctenophores and medusae, in shallow and deep-water environments. He has extensive sea-going research experience in the Benguela Current off Western Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, the Humboldt Current of Peru, and the Weddell Sea of the Southern Ocean. His interests include: spatio-temporal distributions of gelatinous fauna in relation to water masses and physical factors; trophodynamics and predatory impact of planktonic cnidarians on other zooplankton populations; and symbiotic associations involving ...
Quantitative seasonal studies on gelatinous zooplankton in Norwegian fjords are scarce. We recorded the quantitative composition of the gelatinous zooplankton community in Korsfjord and Fanafjord during 1 yr. Thirty-six species or genera of hydromedusae, 7 species of siphonophores, 4 species of ctenophores and 2 species of scyphomedusae were recorded. Aglantha digitale was numerically dominant in both fjords. A separate video-profiling study on the vertical distribution of fully grown specimens of this species was made in Korsfjord and the adjacent Bjørnafjord. Our data suggest 2 A. digitale generations yr-1, with relatively low importance of the latter generation. The overwintering strategy includes autumn growth to full size and distribution at intermediate depth, mainly between 200 and 300 m. Siphonophores were prominent in the more oceanic Korsfjord, while Fanafjord was characterized by meroplanktonic hydromedusae. More species were recorded from Korsfjord, which may be partly attributed to ...
Hi Dan. Hydnellums everywhere! I suspect this is Hydnellum spongiosipes. Heres another dichotomy from Sean Westmorelands thesis.. 25. Growing under pines or other conifers; pileus tomentose; staining brown when fresh where bruised, context of pileus and stipe not deeply duplex, usually with light-colored zone lines and mottling; spores 5-6 × 4-5 µm. H. ferrugineum (=H. pineticola). 25. Growing under deciduous tress, mainly oak; pileus and stipe spongy tomentose; not as easily bruising brown when handled fresh; context of pileus and stipe deeply duplex, lacking light-colored zone lines and mottling; spores larger, 6-7 × 5-6 µm. H. spongiosipes ...
The Seattle Times, Slate, and other outlets have run interesting stories in the last couple of days discussing a new initiative that will appear on this Novembers ballot in San Francisco--and hold onto your privates, gentlemen: It would ban circumcision for all minors (under age 18), rendering it a misdemeanor punishable by up to one…
The Seattle Times, Slate, and other outlets have run interesting stories in the last couple of days discussing a new initiative that will appear on this Novembers ballot in San Francisco--and hold onto your privates, gentlemen: It would ban circumcision for all minors (under age 18), rendering it a misdemeanor punishable by up to one…
... - They are a little jellyfish called a Sea Gooseberry, and they resemble bubbles sitting in the sand by themselves
A team of British scientists has dreamed up a way to track down cancerous tumors deep inside the body-by making them light up like a jellyfish. The scientists created viruses that contain light-generating... Health News Summaries. | Newser
Jellyfish existed long before us or even the dinosaurs. They have been in the oceans for around 650 million years. The earliest recorded use of the word
Scientists at the South China Agricultural University announced that they had successfully engineered 10 piglets that could glow green under black light.
Hai.. Panggil ajah gue Ichen. Semua temen gue siy manggilnya gitu. Hm.. Saat ini udah membuat 8 novel serial cinta,,3 novel mistery,,2 novel fantasi ...
Animal life, now and over the past half billion years, is incredibly diverse. Describing and understanding the evolution of this diversity of body plans - from vertebrates such as humans and fish to the numerous invertebrate groups including sponges, insects, molluscs, and the many groups of worms - is a major goal of evolutionary biology. This book adopts a modern, integrated approach to describe how current molecular genetic techniques and disciplines as diverse as palaeontology, embryology, and genomics have been combined, resulting in a dramatic renaissance in the study of animal evolution. The last decade has seen growing interest in evolutionary biology fuelled by a wealth of data from molecular biology. Modern phylogenies integrating evidence from molecules, embryological data, and morphology of living and fossil taxa provide a wide consensus of the major branching patterns of the tree of life; moreover, the links between phenotype and genotype are increasingly well understood. This has resulted
The freshwater jellyfish found in Wisconsin are one of several species of Craspedacusta native to China. Two species (C. sowerbii and C. sinensis) live in the Yangtze River - the worlds third longest river and one so vast it makes the Wisconsin River seem like a trout stream! Freshwater jellyfish were first reported in North America as early as 1884. Sightings in Wisconsin date back to 1969. Much more remains to be learned about these fascinating creatures. Although they probably evolved from estuarine species, themselves descendents of ocean jellyfish, little is known about the evolution of freshwater jellyfish. Thats because jellyfish leave no fossil records.. ...
This seems like a bad idea for the environment. It doesnt address the core issue: Overfishing has depleted the fish that fed on the jellyfish. There are so many things that could go wrong with this, such as releasing clouds of jellyfish spawn, or even just releasing nutrients that will feed algea or other jellies. Typical engineering solution to a problem for ecologists (and Im saying this a typical engineer ...
But Jellyfish just might help fight one of human healths greatest threats......Cancer. Since some of the cells of this Jellyfish that were supposed to die... are able to switch off some genes and to switch on some other genes, reactivating genetic programs that were used in earlier stages of their life cycle ...
Scientists have reverse-engineered an artificial jellyfish using silicone and muscle cells from a rats heart. The replica is a spitting image of its living counterpart, and is able to pulse and swim when placed in an electric field.
Jellyfish, whether found on in the beach or in the water can be both dangerous and fascinating. Find out about these transparents disks of beach life and what you dont know may surprise you.
Researchers Canada discovered a tremendous collection of fossils that Jean-Bernard Caron, the groups lead researcher, said in a statement will significantly increase our understanding of animal evolution.
Cnidarians are diverse and come in many shapes and sizes but there are some basic anatomical features that most members of the group share in common.
Lions mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata), also known as Hair Jelly and Sea Blubber, are a type of jellyfish which are mostly found in north Atlantic and north Pacific waters. The stings of these jellyfish are painful but not fatal. The species is found near the coast of the U.S. shore line.. The lions mane jellyfish can grow up to 2 m width by its pileus ("bell") and its tentacles up to 30 m long. The largest Lions Mane Jelly recorded was 120 FT, but most jellyfish are far smaller, usually some 30 cm by pileus width and up to 50 cm by tentacle length. It eats mainly plankton and is itself eaten by sunfish, sea turtles and some seabirds. Like all jellyfish, it lives only for one year.. A group of jellyfish is called a smack.. ...
There is a good variety of Ebooks for sale with resell rights on the market. Buy such Ebook and you can resell it again and again. Convenient, you say if someone else has done the writing for you. Insects, all similar in a number of ways, are abundant because they are remarkably successful, and their collection of similarities was chanced upon early in the history of animal evolution. However, I think that life as we know it probably does have boundaries of some sort (even excluding obvious cases like cells lacking membranes or energy harvesting machinery). Maybe we can probe this space of potential organisms using a combination of rapid evolution and deliberate manipulation by synthetic biology.. canada goose outlet Michael Bradley is the managing partner of Marque Lawyers, a Sydney law firm, and writes a weekly column for The Drum. Mainly just because they have the power to do so with no real oversight. If you get to set the rules to suit yourself, of course it becomes nearly impossible to ...
Behaviors result from integrated systems of neural circuits, muscles and body structures. These systems, working together and interacting with the physical environment, generate movement. Movement and the morphology that underlies it change strikingly over developmental and evolutionary time while maintaining critical roles for the organism. Our research examines how such systems function, how they change through the life history of an organism and how they diversify over longer timescales across the landscape of animal evolution ...
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So I have a strange growth which looks like a Jellyfish floating on top of three of my meads. Two of them are aging in my mead cellar and the other one is currently fermenting. I believe it is some kind of bacterial infection. The cellared meads had undergone filtration, a practice which I have abandoned. I feel it is likely that this growth took hold in the fermenting mead during a week which it was stuck. I re-pitched the yeast, added Fermaid-O, and increased the temperature which revitalized
Endosymbiosis of bacteria by eukaryotes is a defining feature of cellular evolution. In addition to well-known bacterial origins for mitochondria and chloroplasts, multiple origins of bacterial endosymbiosis are known within the cells of diverse animals, plants and fungi. Early-diverging lineages of terrestrial fungi harbor endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the Burkholderiaceae. We sequenced the metagenome of the soil-inhabiting fungus Mortierella elongata and assembled the complete circular chromosome of its endosymbiont, Mycoavidus cysteinexigens, which we place within a lineage of endofungal symbionts that are sister clade to Burkholderia. The genome of M. elongata strain AG77 features a core set of primary metabolic pathways for degradation of simple carbohydrates and lipid biosynthesis, while the M. cysteinexigens (AG77) genome is reduced in size and function. Experiments using antibiotics to cure the endobacterium from the host demonstrate that the fungal host metabolism is highly ...
TELOMERES are essential features of the linear chromosomes of eukaryotes, where they protect the ends of chromosomes from degradation or undesirable involvement in end-joining DNA repair, and provide a means for replacing the sequence lost during each cycle of DNA replication (e.g., Pryde et al. 1997; Mason et al. 2008). Most eukaryotes have simple short telomeric repeats that are added by a specialized reverse transcriptase known as telomerase or telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), which has an RNA template for the added telomeric repeats. These repeats are TTAGGG in most animals including the deuterostomes and basal animal lineages like Trichoplax adhaerens (Traut et al. 2007), although this is modified to TTAGG in arthropods (e.g., Vítková et al. 2005), except in Drosophila and some other insects (e.g., Mason et al. 2008). Immediately proximal to the telomeric repeats in most studied eukaryotes is a subtelomeric or telomere-associated region that contains sequence shared by all or most ...
When Kozmik looked for box jellyfish genes that are involved in sight, he found that their opsin protein is also similar to the versions found in vertebrate eyes. With further tests, Kozmik confirmed that the jellyfishs opsin is a fully functioning visual protein. It sticks to retinal and is particularly sensitive to blue-green light. The similarities didnt stop there. Kozmik found that the chain of proteins that carry the message passed on by opsin, are again similar to those used by vertebrates. And just as our eyes use the dark pigment melanin, so do those of the box jellyfish. Amid its genome, Kozmik found the jellyfish versions of human gene called Oca2 and Mitf that are essential for creating melanin. The genes are switched on in a part of the jellyfish eye thats littered with granules of pigment, which were identified as melanin through chemical tests. Parallel or conserved? Despite the massive evolutionary gulf that separates jellyfish and vertebrates, both groups construct their eyes ...
Unlike many jellyfish, the multiple-tentacled box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri is a fast and agile swimmer and is rarely ever found washed up on beaches. It can swim at up to three knots and manoeuvre around pylons and piers. Although Carukia barnesi is also a box jellyfish, it is not as proficient at swimming as Chironex fleckeri. All cubozoans have eyes so that they can hunt prey and avoid objects in the water. Each jellyfish has 24 eyes clustered into four groups of six on each side of its box-shaped body. There are two types of eye in each cluster two complex eyes similar to human eyes (with retinas, lenses and corneas) and two simple pit eyes and two slit eyes. Although cubozoan jellyfish do not a have a brain (they have neurons concentrated in four nerve centres), recent studies indicate that they can form images ...
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[jellyfish mood l troubleshooting] - 28 images - 1000 images about gems jelly opal 4 5 6 5 on pinterest, mood lighting jellyfish ls, heart rate and blood pressure body temperature fluid and, jellytank by brock and blake gratton is a safe jellyfish, 1000 images about gems jelly opal 4 5 6 5 on pinterest
It is able to mimic the swimming movement of a jellyfish thanks to muscle cells from rat hearts which were implanted onto its silicon frame and grown into a pattern similar to the muscles of a real jellyfish.. ...
Stock Photo of Jimble Box Jellyfish Carybdea rastoni. High Quality Jimble Box Jellyfish Images and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library.
By now we all know that sitting at a desk all day is disastrous for our health. Its no longer uncommon to see a stability ball tucked underneath a co-workers desk in place of a traditional chair. Having attempted ball-as-chair at home, my biggest complaint was that the moment I got up, the ball rolls away or shifts. In a work environment, the visual of a stability ball-even a stability ball in a chair frame- still gives me more of a gym rather than a professional vibe. The Jellyfish bouncy chair fixes that with quite simply the most ingenious solution: placing the ball in frame but covering it in a polyester/Spandex fabric. The result? A chair that looks cool, stays in place, and still provides the same benefits to your core and posture. ...
Somewhere in China right now, theres a cannonball jellyfish from the waters off Floridas Panhandle about to be eaten.Shrimpers trying to stay afloat during the off-season have been scooping them
Can you name the Dutch railway stations with centraal or centrum in their names? Test your knowledge on this geography quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by Daan_Jellyfish

Ctenophora - Comb jellies, Sea walnuts -- Discover LifeCtenophora - Comb jellies, Sea walnuts -- Discover Life

... identification and distribution of Ctenophora - Comb jellies, Sea walnuts -- Discover Life ... View the World List of Ctenophora species , arranged in a taxonomic classification, or visit the page on Ctenophora at the Tree ...
more infohttp://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?search=Ctenophora

Diel Vertical Dynamics of Gelatinous Zooplankton (Cnidaria, Ctenophora and Thaliacea) in a Subtropical Stratified Ecosystem ...Diel Vertical Dynamics of Gelatinous Zooplankton (Cnidaria, Ctenophora and Thaliacea) in a Subtropical Stratified Ecosystem ...

Diel Vertical Dynamics of Gelatinous Zooplankton (Cnidaria, Ctenophora and Thaliacea) in a Subtropical Stratified Ecosystem ( ... inproceedings{Jnior2015DielVD, title={Diel Vertical Dynamics of Gelatinous Zooplankton (Cnidaria, Ctenophora and Thaliacea) in ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Diel-Vertical-Dynamics-of-Gelatinous-Zooplankton-C-J%C3%BAnior-Brandini/774a67d75e42fd95236a70df5d09b267ae39d679

Haiwan - Wikipedia Bahasa Melayu, ensiklopedia bebasHaiwan - Wikipedia Bahasa Melayu, ensiklopedia bebas

Di kalangan filum-filum yang lain, Ctenophora dan Cnidaria yang merangkumi buran, batu karang, dan ampai-ampai, bersimetri ... Analisa filogenetik mendapati bahawa Porifera dan Ctenophora berpecah sebelum klad yang melahirkan Bilateria, Cnidaria dan ... mendapati bahawa Ctenophora atau ampai bulatlah yang merupakan zuriat asas haiwan, sekurang-kurangnya di kalangan 21 filum ... The homeodomain complement of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi suggests that Ctenophora and Porifera diverged prior to the ...
more infohttps://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binatang

SciCombinator - Genomic organization, evolution, and expression of photoprotein and opsin genes in Mnemiopsis leidyi: a new...SciCombinator - Genomic organization, evolution, and expression of photoprotein and opsin genes in Mnemiopsis leidyi: a new...

Phylum Ctenophora). The complete genomic sequence from the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, a representative of the earliest ...
more infohttp://www.scicombinator.com/articles/135488

Introduction to the CtenophoraIntroduction to the Ctenophora

View the World List of Ctenophora species, arranged in a taxonomic classification, or visit the page on Ctenophora at the Tree ...
more infohttp://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cnidaria/ctenophora.html

CtenophoraCtenophora

... Part of the Underwater Field Guide to Ross Island & McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. *Ctenophora of the Black Sea. Part ... Introduction to the Ctenophora. UCMP Berkeley. *Phylum Ctenophora: list of all valid species names. Maintained by Claudia Mills ... Ctenophora Comb jellies. Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Ctenophora. Pages 87-115 in Embryology: Constructing the Organism. S. F. Gilbert and A. M. Raunio (eds.) Sinauer, Sunderland, ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/tree?group=Ctenophora

CtenophoraCtenophora

... Part of the Underwater Field Guide to Ross Island & McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. *Ctenophora of the Black Sea. Part ... Introduction to the Ctenophora. UCMP Berkeley. *Phylum Ctenophora: list of all valid species names. Maintained by Claudia Mills ... Ctenophora Comb jellies. Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Ctenophora. Pages 87-115 in Embryology: Constructing the Organism. S. F. Gilbert and A. M. Raunio (eds.) Sinauer, Sunderland, ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/tree?group=Ctenophora&contgroup=Animals

Ctenophora - WikispeciesCtenophora - Wikispecies

Phylum: Ctenophora Classes: Tentaculata - Nuda (Atentaculata) - †Extinct Ctenophora References[edit]. selected references[edit] ... WoRMS (2010). Ctenophora. In: Nicolas Bailly (2010). FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species on 2010-10-16 ... An article link intended for Ctenophora (Tipulidae) might accidentally refer you here. If so, you might want to go back and fix ... Phylum Ctenophora: list of all valid species names. Electronic internet document. Published by the author, web page established ...
more infohttps://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Ctenophora

Ctenophora - WikipediaCtenophora - Wikipedia

As such, the Ctenophora appear to be a basal diploblast clade. In agreement with the latter point, the analysis of a very large ... The name "ctenophora" means "comb-bearing", from the Greek κτείς (stem-form κτεν-) meaning "comb" and the Greek suffix -φορος ... Relationships within the Ctenophora. Since all modern ctenophores except the beroids have cydippid-like larvae, it has widely ... Ctenophora (/tɪˈnɒfərə/; singular ctenophore, /ˈtɛnəfɔːr/ or /ˈtiːnəfɔːr/; from the Greek κτείς kteis comb and φέρω pherō ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ctenophora

Ctenophora (fly) - WikipediaCtenophora (fly) - Wikipedia

Ctenophora species are important bioindicators. Ctenophora is distinguished from related genera (Dictenidia Brulle, Phoroctenia ... Ctenophora is a genus of true crane flies. The species are large (about 20 mm long, with 25-mm wingspans), shiny black ... 1906 Subgenus Ctenophora Meigen, 1803 C. amabilis Takahashi, 1960 C. apicata Osten Sacken, 1864 C. biguttata Matsumura, 1916 C ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ctenophora_(fly)

Error, signal, and the placement of Ctenophora sister to all other animals | PNASError, signal, and the placement of Ctenophora sister to all other animals | PNAS

A) Placozoa-sister hypothesis (2). (B) Ctenophora-sister hypothesis (3⇓⇓⇓-7). Placozoa was not included in some studies that ... C) Ctenophora + Porifera-sister hypothesis (6). (D) Traditional Porifera-sister hypothesis (7⇓⇓-10). ... Error, signal, and the placement of Ctenophora sister to all other animals. Nathan V. Whelan, Kevin M. Kocot, Leonid L. Moroz, ... S1-S4). Importantly, Phylobayes (26) analyses using the CAT-GTR+Γ model also resulted in phylogenies with Ctenophora sister to ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/112/18/5773

Diptera.info - Discussion Forum: Ctenophora??Diptera.info - Discussion Forum: Ctenophora??

Ctenophora from Croatia. Diptera (adults). 3. 13-05-2019 08:45. Ctenophora pectinicornis female? ,=. Diptera (adults). 5. 01-05 ... Ctenophora pectionicornis (m) or Tanyptera atrata (m). Diptera (adults). 5. 23-01-2019 17:56. ... Tipulidae Ctenophora? -, Ctenophora guttata female. Diptera (adults). 3. 13-06-2019 11:36. ...
more infohttps://diptera.info/forum/viewthread.php?thread_id=90427&pid=375711

Comb jellies - Ctenophora - OtherComb jellies - Ctenophora - Other

Comb jellies are a phylum of animal that can be found living in marine waters around the world. Their most distinctive feature is their combs. They are also
more infohttp://itsnature.org/sea/other/comb-jellies/

Extracting phylogenetic signal and accounting for bias in whole-genome data sets supports the Ctenophora as sister to remaining...Extracting phylogenetic signal and accounting for bias in whole-genome data sets supports the Ctenophora as sister to remaining...

Our analyses strongly support the Ctenophora as the sister lineage to other Metazoa. We find no support for the traditional ... phylum Ctenophora) lineages is one outstanding issue. Recent analyses have suggested that the comb jellies are sister to all ... Error, signal, and the placement of Ctenophora sister to all other animals. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2015;112:5773-8. doi:10.1073/ ... Analyses of refined datasets under site-heterogenous GTR-CAT model support Ctenophora as sister to remaining animal phyla. The ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12864-015-2146-4

List of sequenced animal genomes - WikipediaList of sequenced animal genomes - Wikipedia

Ctenophora[edit]. *Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora), (order Lobata) (2012[2]/2013[3]). *Pleurobrachia bachei (Ctenophora) (2014[4 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sequenced_animal_genomes

Variety of Life: CtenophoraVariety of Life: Ctenophora

Ctenophora Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to FacebookShare to Pinterest. ... Ctenophora. , i. s.: Bathyctena chuni (Moser 1909) HMR01. , Coeloplana astericola BK77. , Mertensia ovum B26. , Eoandromeda ... The Ctenophora, comb jellies, are a group of gelatinous marine animals characterised by bands of cilia (comb rows) running ... Ctenophora (1) Cucujiformia (56) Cucujoidea (1) Cuculidae (3) Cucurbitales (1) Culicomorpha (8) Curculionoidea (1) ...
more infohttp://taxondiversity.fieldofscience.com/2016/08/ctenophora.html

Biology - Ctenophora,Aschelminthes & Platyhelminthes | askIITiansBiology - Ctenophora,Aschelminthes & Platyhelminthes | askIITians

Know the topics ctenophora, aschelminthes & platyhelminthes with the help of study material for medical exams offered by ... Hatschek (1889) placed it under a separate phylum called Ctenophora.. - The important Ctenophore animals are Pleurobachia, ...
more infohttps://www.askiitians.com/biology/animal-kingdom/phylum-ctenophora-aschelminthes-and-platyhelminthes.html

GFP in NatureGFP in Nature

Phylum Ctenophora. In comb jellies belonging to the phylum Ctenophora, GFP-type fluorescent proteins were discovered. The ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/GFP-in-nature.aspx

Animal - WikipediaAnimal - Wikipedia

Non-bilaterian animals: Ctenophora, Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria. Examples of non-bilaterian animals are sponges and coral: the ... The Ctenophora and the sponges are unique among the animals in lacking true hox genes.[89] The presence of a Hox/Parahox gene ... An alternative scenario is the Ctenophora-sister hypothesis.[70][71][72][73] Some of the issues are the rapid evolutionary rate ... 6.2 Non-bilaterian animals: Ctenophora, Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria. *6.3 Bilaterian animals *6.3.1 Deuterostomes and ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal

Revisiting the phylogeny of phylum Ctenophora: a molecular perspective - DimensionsRevisiting the phylogeny of phylum Ctenophora: a molecular perspective - Dimensions

This website uses cookies to help you receive a better online experience. By using this website, you are agreeing to the use of cookies as explained in our privacy policy ...
more infohttps://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091301278?search_text=CRISPR&

Choanoflagellates. Porifera (sponges) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, sea anemones) Acoela (acoels) - PDFChoanoflagellates. Porifera (sponges) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, sea anemones) Acoela (acoels) - PDF

ANIMALIA Multicellularity Ctenophora (comb jellies) Diploblasty Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, sea anemones) Acoela (acoels) ... Porifera, Coelenterata, Ctenophora Porifera, Coelenterata, Ctenophora Contents Animal Classification - Flow Chart... 3 Phylum ... Unit 2: Phylums: Porifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora Invertebrate Zoology Unit 2: Phylums: Porifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora ... Porifera (sponges) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, sea anemones) Acoela (acoels)" ...
more infohttp://sciencedocbox.com/Biology/104100982-Choanoflagellates-porifera-sponges-ctenophora-comb-jellies-cnidaria-jellyfish-corals-sea-anemones-acoela-acoels.html

Mills abstractsMills abstracts

65-67), and Ctenophora (pp. 79-81). In Marine Invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest (E.N. Kozloff and L.H. Price, eds.) ... Ctenophora. In Checklist delle specie della fauna italiana, Vol. 3, pp 3,5, 32-38. (A. Minelli, S. Ruffo, S. La Posta, editors ... PDF file (This is an electronic version of Chapter 11, Ctenophora, published in Light and Smiths Manual: Intertidal ... Planktonic Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and pelagic Mollusca. p. 9c2-15 In Biological Invasions of Cold-water Coastal Ecosystems: ...
more infohttp://faculty.washington.edu/cemills/MillsAbstracts.html

Cnidaria | Encyclopedia.comCnidaria | Encyclopedia.com

See also coelenterate; Ctenophora.. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/plants-and-animals/animals/zoology-invertebrates/cnidaria

Comparative neuroanatomy of ctenophores: Neural and muscular systems in Euplokamis dunlapae and related species.  - PubMed -...Comparative neuroanatomy of ctenophores: Neural and muscular systems in Euplokamis dunlapae and related species. - PubMed -...

Ctenophora is an early-branching basal metazoan lineage, which may have evolved neurons and muscles independently from other ... Beroe; Ctenophora; F-actin; Mnemiopsis; Pleurobrachia; Stereocilia; apical organ; cell atlas; cilia; development; evolution; ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31498892

May 2014 - Whats That Bug?May 2014 - What's That Bug?

Crane Fly: Ctenophora dorsalis. On May 31, 2014. · Category: Crane Fly · Add Comment ... This is a very distinctive species of Crane Fly, Ctenophora dorsalis, and the presence of an ovipositor indicates she is a ...
more infohttps://www.whatsthatbug.com/2014/05/
  • The clade is usually held to contain at least Ctenophora, Cnidaria, and Bilateria. (pearltrees.com)
  • We identified basement membrane (BM) and collagen IV in Ctenophora, and show that the structural and genomic features of collagen IV are homologous to those of non-bilaterian animal phyla and Bilateria. (elifesciences.org)
  • Elucidating relationships among early animal lineages has been difficult, and recent phylogenomic analyses place Ctenophora sister to all other extant animals, contrary to the traditional view of Porifera as the earliest-branching animal lineage. (pnas.org)
  • Such approaches have yielded several important findings in recent years, most notably the position of the comb jellies (phylum Ctenophora) as sister to all remaining metazoan phyla including sponges (phylum Porifera). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Revised classification of the genus Euplokamis Chun, 1880 (Ctenophora: Cydippida: Euplokamidae n. fam. (tolweb.org)
  • The Ctenophora, comb jellies, are a group of gelatinous marine animals characterised by bands of cilia (comb rows) running longitudinally down the body. (fieldofscience.com)
  • However, genomic studies have suggested that the neurons of Ctenophora, which differ in many ways from other animal neurons, evolved independently from those of the other animals, and increasing awareness of the differences between the groups has persuaded more recent authors to classify the two as separate phyla. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ctenophora has recently emerged as one of the earliest-branching extant animal phyla, providing a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary role of the cellular microenvironment in tissue genesis. (elifesciences.org)
  • Ospovat 1985: On phylogeny and classification of the type Ctenophora. (wikimedia.org)
  • On the classification and evolution of the Ctenophora. (tolweb.org)
  • Ctenophora is an early-branching basal metazoan lineage, which may have evolved neurons and muscles independently from other animals. (nih.gov)
  • 1998. Planktonic feeding and evolutionary significance of the lobate body plan within the ctenophora. (tolweb.org)