Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Crystallography: The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Radiography: Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).Synchrotrons: Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Neutron Diffraction: The scattering of NEUTRONS by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. It is useful in CRYSTALLOGRAPHY and POWDER DIFFRACTION.Elasmobranchii: A subclass of cartilaginous fish comprising the SHARKS; rays; skates (SKATES (FISH);), and sawfish. Elasmobranchs are typically predaceous, relying more on smell (the olfactory capsules are relatively large) than sight (the eyes are relatively small) for obtaining their food.Pneumoconiosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Skates (Fish): The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Photoreceptors, Microbial: Light absorbing proteins and protein prosthetic groups found in certain microorganisms. Some microbial photoreceptors initiate specific chemical reactions which signal a change in the environment, while others generate energy by pumping specific ions across a cellular membrane.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Scattering, Small Angle: Scattering of a beam of electromagnetic or acoustic RADIATION, or particles, at small angles by particles or cavities whose dimensions are many times as large as the wavelength of the radiation or the de Broglie wavelength of the scattered particles. Also know as low angle scattering. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed) Small angle scattering (SAS) techniques, small angle neutron (SANS), X-ray (SAXS), and light (SALS, or just LS) scattering, are used to characterize objects on a nanoscale.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Fast Neutrons: Neutrons, the energy of which exceeds some arbitrary level, usually around one million electron volts.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Negative Staining: The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.Radiology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which is responsible for the administration and provision of x-ray diagnostic and therapeutic services.Neutrons: Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectMicrospectrophotometry: Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Animal Fins: Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Metacarpophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Teleradiology: The electronic transmission of radiological images from one location to another for the purposes of interpretation and/or consultation. Users in different locations may simultaneously view images with greater access to secondary consultations and improved continuing education. (From American College of Radiology, ACR Standard for Teleradiology, 1994, p3)Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Cathode Ray Tube: A vacuum tube equipped with an electron emitting CATHODE and a fluorescent screen which emits visible light when excited by the cathode ray. Cathode ray tubes are used as imaging devises for TELEVISIONS; COMPUTER TERMINALS; TEXT TELECOMMUNICATION DEVICES; oscilloscopes; and other DATA DISPLAY devices.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Automation, Laboratory: Controlled operations of analytic or diagnostic processes, or systems by mechanical or electronic devices.Structural Homology, Protein: The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Cadmium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.Carbonic Anhydrase II: A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Selenomethionine: Diagnostic aid in pancreas function determination.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Radiation Genetics: A subdiscipline of genetics that studies RADIATION EFFECTS on the components and processes of biological inheritance.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.Asbestosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.Pleura: The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Fourier Analysis: Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Whales: Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Calcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.Calixarenes: Phenolic metacyclophanes derived from condensation of PHENOLS and ALDEHYDES. The name derives from the vase-like molecular structures. A bracketed [n] indicates the number of aromatic rings.Asbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Docking Simulation: A computer simulation technique that is used to model the interaction between two molecules. Typically the docking simulation measures the interactions of a small molecule or ligand with a part of a larger molecule such as a protein.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Bone Diseases, MetabolicUrate Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC 1.7.3.3.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Coordination Complexes: Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.Thermotoga maritima: A rod-shaped bacterium surrounded by a sheath-like structure which protrudes balloon-like beyond the ends of the cell. It is thermophilic, with growth occurring at temperatures as high as 90 degrees C. It is isolated from geothermally heated marine sediments or hot springs. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Phosphoric Triester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the three ester bonds in a phosphotriester-containing compound.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Thermus thermophilus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Rudiviridae: Family of rod-shaped DNA viruses infecting ARCHAEA. They lack viral envelopes or lipids.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs: Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Spinal Osteophytosis: Outgrowth of immature bony processes or bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE) from the VERTEBRAE, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It commonly occurs in cervical and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Flavonolignans: Heterodimers of FLAVONOIDS bound to LIGNANS.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Deuterium Exchange Measurement: A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Potassium Acetate: A potassium salt used to replenish ELECTROLYTES, for restoration of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE, as well as a urinary and systemic alkalizer, which can be administered orally or by intravenous infusion. Formerly, it was used in DIURETICS and EXPECTORANTS.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Ribonuclease, Pancreatic: An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of pancreatic ribonucleic acids to 3'-phosphomono- and oligonucleotides ending in cytidylic or uridylic acids with 2',3'-cyclic phosphate intermediates. EC 3.1.27.5.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Bromine: A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Camphor 5-Monooxygenase: A soluble cytochrome P-450 enzyme that catalyzes camphor monooxygenation in the presence of putidaredoxin, putidaredoxin reductase, and molecular oxygen. This enzyme, encoded by the CAMC gene also known as CYP101, has been crystallized from bacteria and the structure is well defined. Under anaerobic conditions, this enzyme reduces the polyhalogenated compounds bound at the camphor-binding site.Mutant Proteins: Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Egg White: The white of an egg, especially a chicken's egg, used in cooking. It contains albumin. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Protein Stability: The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Spinal DiseasesThermolysin: A thermostable extracellular metalloendopeptidase containing four calcium ions. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) 3.4.24.27.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Computer-Aided Design: The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.Proflavine: Topical antiseptic used mainly in wound dressings.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Pseudotsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sodium Acetate: The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.Sensilla: Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.Models, Structural: A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Bacteriorhodopsins: Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.Factor X: Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Chorioallantoic Membrane: A highly vascularized extra-embryonic membrane, formed by the fusion of the CHORION and the ALLANTOIS. It is mostly found in BIRDS and REPTILES. It serves as a model for studying tumor or cell biology, such as angiogenesis and TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.Aldose-Ketose Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of aldose and ketose compounds.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.England

Crystal structure of MHC class II-associated p41 Ii fragment bound to cathepsin L reveals the structural basis for differentiation between cathepsins L and S. (1/22435)

The lysosomal cysteine proteases cathepsins S and L play crucial roles in the degradation of the invariant chain during maturation of MHC class II molecules and antigen processing. The p41 form of the invariant chain includes a fragment which specifically inhibits cathepsin L but not S. The crystal structure of the p41 fragment, a homologue of the thyroglobulin type-1 domains, has been determined at 2.0 A resolution in complex with cathepsin L. The structure of the p41 fragment demonstrates a novel fold, consisting of two subdomains, each stabilized by disulfide bridges. The first subdomain is an alpha-helix-beta-strand arrangement, whereas the second subdomain has a predominantly beta-strand arrangement. The wedge shape and three-loop arrangement of the p41 fragment bound to the active site cleft of cathepsin L are reminiscent of the inhibitory edge of cystatins, thus demonstrating the first example of convergent evolution observed in cysteine protease inhibitors. However, the different fold of the p41 fragment results in additional contacts with the top of the R-domain of the enzymes, which defines the specificity-determining S2 and S1' substrate-binding sites. This enables inhibitors based on the thyroglobulin type-1 domain fold, in contrast to the rather non-selective cystatins, to exhibit specificity for their target enzymes.  (+info)

Structural basis of profactor D activation: from a highly flexible zymogen to a novel self-inhibited serine protease, complement factor D. (2/22435)

The crystal structure of profactor D, determined at 2.1 A resolution with an Rfree and an R-factor of 25.1 and 20.4%, respectively, displays highly flexible or disordered conformation for five regions: N-22, 71-76, 143-152, 187-193 and 215-223. A comparison with the structure of its mature serine protease, complement factor D, revealed major conformational changes in the similar regions. Comparisons with the zymogen-active enzyme pairs of chymotrypsinogen, trypsinogen and prethrombin-2 showed a similar distribution of the flexible regions. However, profactor D is the most flexible of the four, and its mature enzyme displays inactive, self-inhibited active site conformation. Examination of the surface properties of the N-terminus-binding pocket indicates that Ile16 may play the initial positioning role for the N-terminus, and Leu17 probably also helps in inducing the required conformational changes. This process, perhaps shared by most chymotrypsinogen-like zymogens, is followed by a factor D-unique step, the re-orientation of an external Arg218 to an internal position for salt-bridging with Asp189, leading to the generation of the self-inhibited factor D.  (+info)

Crystal structure of an MHC class I presented glycopeptide that generates carbohydrate-specific CTL. (3/22435)

T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of nonpeptidic and modified peptide antigens has been recently uncovered but is still poorly understood. Immunization with an H-2Kb-restricted glycopeptide RGY8-6H-Gal2 generates a population of cytotoxic T cells that express both alpha/beta TCR, specific for glycopeptide, and gamma/delta TCR, specific for the disaccharide, even on glycolipids. The crystal structure of Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 now demonstrates that the peptide and H-2Kb structures are unaffected by the peptide glycosylation, but the central region of the putative TCR binding site is dominated by the extensive exposure of the tethered carbohydrate. These features of the Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 structure are consistent with the individual ligand binding preferences identified for the alpha/beta and gamma/delta TCRs and thus explain the generation of a carbohydrate-specific T cell response.  (+info)

Crystal structures of two H-2Db/glycopeptide complexes suggest a molecular basis for CTL cross-reactivity. (4/22435)

Two synthetic O-GlcNAc-bearing peptides that elicit H-2Db-restricted glycopeptide-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) have been shown to display nonreciprocal patterns of cross-reactivity. Here, we present the crystal structures of the H-2Db glycopeptide complexes to 2.85 A resolution or better. In both cases, the glycan is solvent exposed and available for direct recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR). We have modeled the complex formed between the MHC-glycopeptide complexes and their respective TCRs, showing that a single saccharide residue can be accommodated in the standard TCR-MHC geometry. The models also reveal a possible molecular basis for the observed cross-reactivity patterns of the CTL clones, which appear to be influenced by the length of the CDR3 loop and the nature of the immunizing ligand.  (+info)

Structure of CD94 reveals a novel C-type lectin fold: implications for the NK cell-associated CD94/NKG2 receptors. (5/22435)

The crystal structure of the extracellular domain of CD94, a component of the CD94/NKG2 NK cell receptor, has been determined to 2.6 A resolution, revealing a unique variation of the C-type lectin fold. In this variation, the second alpha helix, corresponding to residues 102-112, is replaced by a loop, the putative carbohydrate-binding site is significantly altered, and the Ca2+-binding site appears nonfunctional. This structure may serve as a prototype for other NK cell receptors such as Ly-49, NKR-P1, and CD69. The CD94 dimer observed in the crystal has an extensive hydrophobic interface that stabilizes the loop conformation of residues 102-112. The formation of this dimer reveals a putative ligand-binding region for HLA-E and suggests how NKG2 interacts with CD94.  (+info)

Melatonin biosynthesis: the structure of serotonin N-acetyltransferase at 2.5 A resolution suggests a catalytic mechanism. (6/22435)

Conversion of serotonin to N-acetylserotonin, the precursor of the circadian neurohormone melatonin, is catalyzed by serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) in a reaction requiring acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA). AANAT is a globular protein consisting of an eight-stranded beta sheet flanked by five alpha helices; a conserved motif in the center of the beta sheet forms the cofactor binding site. Three polypeptide loops converge above the AcCoA binding site, creating a hydrophobic funnel leading toward the cofactor and serotonin binding sites in the protein interior. Two conserved histidines not found in other NATs are located at the bottom of the funnel in the active site, suggesting a catalytic mechanism for acetylation involving imidazole groups acting as general acid/base catalysts.  (+info)

Structural basis of multidrug recognition by BmrR, a transcription activator of a multidrug transporter. (7/22435)

Multidrug-efflux transporters demonstrate an unusual ability to recognize multiple structurally dissimilar toxins. A comparable ability to bind diverse hydrophobic cationic drugs is characteristic of the Bacillus subtilis transcription regulator BmrR, which upon drug binding activates expression of the multidrug transporter Bmr. Crystal structures of the multidrug-binding domain of BmrR (2.7 A resolution) and of its complex with the drug tetraphenylphosphonium (2.8 A resolution) revealed a drug-induced unfolding and relocation of an alpha helix, which exposes an internal drug-binding pocket. Tetraphenylphosphonium binding is mediated by stacking and van der Waals contacts with multiple hydrophobic residues of the pocket and by an electrostatic interaction between the positively charged drug and a buried glutamate residue, which is the key to cation selectivity. Similar binding principles may be used by other multidrug-binding proteins.  (+info)

Structural basis of Rab effector specificity: crystal structure of the small G protein Rab3A complexed with the effector domain of rabphilin-3A. (8/22435)

The small G protein Rab3A plays an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. The crystal structure of activated Rab3A/GTP/Mg2+ bound to the effector domain of rabphilin-3A was solved to 2.6 A resolution. Rabphilin-3A contacts Rab3A in two distinct areas. The first interface involves the Rab3A switch I and switch II regions, which are sensitive to the nucleotide-binding state of Rab3A. The second interface consists of a deep pocket in Rab3A that interacts with a SGAWFF structural element of rabphilin-3A. Sequence and structure analysis, and biochemical data suggest that this pocket, or Rab complementarity-determining region (RabCDR), establishes a specific interaction between each Rab protein and its effectors. RabCDRs could be major determinants of effector specificity during vesicle trafficking and fusion.  (+info)

*DNA base flipping

X-ray crystallography is a technique that measures the angles and intensities of crystalline atoms in order to determine the ... X-ray crystallography Kumar, S; Cheng, X; Pflugrath, JW; Roberts, RJ (1992). "Purification, Crystallization, and Preliminary X- ... Brunger A.T. (1992)"X-PLOR, Version 3.1 : A system for x-ray crystallography and NMR"(New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University ... It was first observed in 1994 using X-ray crystallography in a methyltransferase enzyme catalyzing methylation of a cytosine ...

*Martin Julian Buerger

Buerger MJ (July 1950). "Some New Functions of Interest in X-Ray Crystallography". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... He invented the X-ray precession camera for studies in crystallography. Buerger authored twelve textbooks/monographs and over ... Buerger MJ (July 1953). "An Intersection Function and Its Relations to the Minimum Function of X-Ray Crystallography". ... 1963 X-ray crystallography;: An introduction to the investigation of crystals by their diffraction of monochromatic X radiation ...

*Soman

1999) by X-ray crystallography. Soman has a phosphonyl group with a fluoride and a (large) hydrocarbon covalently bound to it. ...

*Cleusonite

Pabst, A. (1961). X-ray crystallography of davidite. American Mineralogist, 1961; 46: 700-718. Sabau, G & Alberico, A. (2007). ...

*Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy). Solid-state NMR structure elucidation of proteins has traditionally been based on ... "A New Tool for NMR Crystallography: Complete 13C/15N Assignment of Organic Molecules at Natural Isotopic Abundance Using DNP- ...

*Johan Gadolin

Authier, Andre (2013). Early Days of X-ray Crystallography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 309. ISBN 978-0-19-965984-5. ...

*Jan Drenth

Principles of Protein X-Ray Crystallography. "Jan Drenth, 1925" (in Dutch). University of Groningen. Retrieved 17 September ... Drenth subsequently moved to New York, United States, where he became a post-doc and studied protein crystallography under ...

*Crystal structure of boron-rich metal borides

ISBN 84-7283-518-9. Bennett, Dennis W. (2010). Understanding Single-Crystal X-Ray Crystallography. Wiley-VCH. p. 689. ISBN 3- ... ISBN 3-540-64335-4. Wong J, Tanaka T, Rowen M, Schafers F, Muler BR, Rek ZU (1999). "YB66 - a new soft X-ray monochromator for ... X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and electron diffraction indicated that YB50 has an orthorhombic structure with lattice ... Crystals of the specific rare-earth boride YB66 are used as X-ray monochromators for selecting X-rays with certain energies (in ...

*Kathleen Lonsdale

Authier, André (2013-08-01). Early Days of X-ray Crystallography. OUP Oxford. ISBN 9780191635014. Baldwin, Melinda (2009-03-20 ... "Divergent Beam X-ray Photography of Crystals," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 240A: 219 (1947). Crystals and X ... Among her students was Karimat El-Sayed who became a Professor of Crystallography in Egypt. On a more personal level El-Sayed ... In 1924 she joined the crystallography research team headed by William Henry Bragg at the Royal Institution. After her marriage ...

*Protein folding

X-ray crystallography is one of the more efficient and important methods for attempting to decipher the three dimensional ... To be able to conduct X-ray crystallography, the protein under investigation must be located inside a crystal lattice. To place ... Cowtan K (2001). "Phase Problem in X-ray Crystallography, and Its Solution" (PDF). Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Macmillan ... Drenth J (2007-04-05). Principles of Protein X-Ray Crystallography. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-0-387-33746-3. ...

*Orellanine

in 1987 by X-ray crystallography. The chemical constitution of orellanine remained unknown until the Polish chemists Antkowiak ...

*Seamanite

July 1941). "X-ray Crystallography of Seamanite" (PDF). American Mineralogist. Mineralogical Society of America. 26 (7): 446- ...

*World Community Grid

The project involves X-ray crystallography. The mission of Help Conquer Cancer is to improve the results of protein X-ray ... crystallography, which helps researchers not only annotate unknown parts of the human proteome, but importantly improves their ...

*Zeitschrift für Kristallographie - New Crystal Structures

The Discovery of X-Ray Diffraction and the Birth of X-Ray Analysis". Early Days of X-ray Crystallography. International Union ... of Crystallography Texts on Crystallography. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191635021. "Zeitschrift für Kristallographie. ...

*Judith Howard

Howard has created instruments that allow scientists to help advance and prove theories in the field of X-ray crystallography. ... Howard's research is in x-ray crystallography. Her interests include in-situ crystallisation of liquids, ultra-low temperature ... "Crystallography". In Our Time. 29 November 2012. BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 2014-01-18. ResearcherID: H-7113-2012 "Bristol ... In 1991 Howard moved to become Professor of Crystallography at Durham University. According to the Web of Science ResearcherID ...

*Karolin Luger

The structure was discovered by X-ray crystallography. She also proposed that histone-DNA bonds are weaker at points where less ... In 2005, Luger and Kenneth Kaye used X-ray crystallography to determine the mechanism that the virus causing Kaposi's sarcoma, ... to augment traditional X-ray crystallography. Another related research interest for Luger's research group is the genetic cause ...

*Michael Rossmann

In 1985, he published his team's mapping, using X-ray crystallography, of a human common cold virus in the journal Nature. The ... He directs the Purdue X-ray crystallography laboratory. He became full professor in 1967 and since 1978 has held the chair of ... in chemical crystallography in 1956. He attributes his initial interest in crystallography to Kathleen Lonsdale, whom he heard ...

*Laue equations

This is the principle of x-ray crystallography. The incident and diffracted beams are planar wave excitations f i n ( t , x ... In crystallography, the Laue equations relate the incoming waves to the outcoming waves in the process of diffraction by a ...

*Thomson scattering

X-ray crystallography is based on Thomson scattering. Compton scattering Kapitsa-Dirac effect Klein-Nishina formula Chen, Szu- ...

*Orientation (geometry)

Structure Determination by X-Ray Crystallography (4th ed.). Springer. p. 62 ff. ISBN 0-306-47454-9. Stephen Mark Rowland; ... More specialist uses include Miller indices in crystallography, strike and dip in geology and grade on maps and signs. ...

*Reginald W. James

He specialised in problems of X-ray crystallography. 1936-1937 saw a change in James' personal and professional life. In the ...

*La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science

Molecular Imaging; research includes X-ray crystallography, NMR, spectroscopy, and microscopy. The institute has in-house ... It additionally houses inductively coupled plasma (ICP) equipment, atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS), X-Ray diffractometer, ... crystallography, and laser research. La Trobe University's Biochemistry and Cell Biology research was ranked equal top with ...

*Staphylococcus aureus

This enzyme has been solved by X-ray crystallography. The enzyme is able to attach an adenyl moiety to the 4' hydroxyl group of ... Ryan, KJ; Ray, CG, eds. (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. Varrone JJ, de Mesy ...

*Seleninic acid

Methaneseleninic acid has been characterized by X-ray crystallography. The configuration about the selenium atom is pyramidal, ... had been previously characterized by X-ray methods and its optical resolution reported. ten Brink, G.-J.; Fernandes, B. C. M.; ...

*De novo protein structure prediction

X-ray crystallography at the heart of life science. Current Opinion in Structural Biology. Volume 21, Issue 5, October 2011, ... For example, whereas X-ray crystallography has been successful in crystallizing approximately 80,000 cytosolic proteins, it has ...

*Frank Hawthorne

In 1985, he was appointed an Associate Professor and in 1986 he was appointed a Professor of Crystallography and Mineralogy. He ... He had used several experimental techniques, including X-ray and neutron diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and Mössbauer ... appointed Canada Research Chair in Crystallography and Mineralogy 2001, listed by Sciencewatch as the most highly cited ... on the energetic content of the chemical bonds in mineral structures has advanced solid-state chemistry and crystallography. ...
Creative Biostructure, an expert in the supplying of products and services for structural biology studies, recently built X-ray Crystallography Platform to provide support to customers from both industry and academia for their structural biology projects.. Scientists in this field can have access to Creative Biostructures state-of-the-art tools and identify and optimize crystallization conditions as well as X-ray diffraction data processing for any macromolecule of interest.. X-ray crystallography is one of the most favored techniques for the determination of the atomic structure of proteins, nucleic acids and other molecules. This platform in Creative Biostructure is equipped with highly specialized instruments for X-ray diffraction studies, including multipurpose diffractometers, nano-liter crystallization robots, high-throughput liquid handling robots and high-resolution imaging systems. With advanced equipment and experienced crystallographers, the company is able to set up crystallization ...
X-ray crystallography is a technique used by biochemist to determine the three dimensional structure of an enzyme, protein, molecule, etc. Although the technique requires the molecule to be able to be crystallized it has helped scientist discover how drugs can prevent certain enzyme from reacting. By determining the three dimensional structure of the protein or enzyme scientists can determine how enzyme folds and binds. From that information, scientists can design certain drugs that only stop that enzyme. For example, scientists used x-ray crystallography to determine the structure of the COX enzyme that is responsible for arthritis. Now that the scientists know the three dimensional structure of the COX enzyme, they can create drugs that would be able to stop it, such as aspirin. Therefore X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool that biochemist and scientists can use to discover new drugs that can prevent certain enzymes from activating.. ...
Post-doctoral Positions in X-ray Crystallography and Computational Biology Two post-doctoral positions are available immediately, one in experimental and one in computational aspects of protein crystallography. Applicants for the first position should be experienced in practical aspects of protein crystallography and structure determination. Experience in cloning and protein expression is also desirable. Crystals are already in hand for one novel carotenoid-binding protein. Subsequent projects will diversify to include work on self-assembling proteins and other proteins with repetitive or otherwise unusual architectures. The second position is in the area of computational crystallography, but may also include other aspects of computational biology such as genomics or protein structure analysis. The successful applicant should have a strong background in scientific programming, an understanding of numerical methods, and an ability to solve complex problem. Familiarity with crystallographic and ...
where Nall is the total number of atoms and Npeak is the number of atoms which contain one or more peaks within 2.2 Å of the atom.. In order to analyse the effect of X-ray resolution, m,Fo, − D,Fc, electron-density maps were generated at five different resolutions as follows. The same X-ray refinements as those in the above procedure were performed for DNA crystal structures solved at a resolution equal to or better than 2.5 Å. The m,Fo, − D,Fc, map was calculated at 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, 1.9 and 2.5 Å resolution for data of ≤1.0, 1.0-1.25, 1.25-1.5, 1.5-1.9 and 1.9-2.5 Å resolution, respectively. A search was made for peaks in the maps in the same way as above.. In this study, the r.m.s. of densities (σ) was used to distinguish peaks from noise. The density of electrons (e Å−3) can also be used and this different measure might give a different result. We then investigated the variation of electron density corresponding to 1σ in the electron-density maps. Supplementary Fig. S2 shows the ...
X-ray crystallography is the major method for structure determination of macromolecules. About 85% of all known structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Knowing the structure of a protein helps in understanding better how the protein works, how it interacts with other proteins and small molecules in the cell and what kind of conformational changes it undergoes to exert its function. Even subtle changes in protein structures can have tremendous consequences on human health, causing serious diseases. A major application therefore of X-ray crystallography is in the design of new drugs.. A crystal structure determination is not a trivial task. It mainly involves five steps with the first two being the most difficult ("bottlenecks"):. ...
1GNR: X-ray crystal structure analysis of the catalytic domain of the oncogene product p21H-ras complexed with caged GTP and mant dGppNHp.
The -ray crystal-structure analysis of 1,3-diadamantylaziridinone (1b) demonstrates that the configuration at nitrogen is pyramidal (N lying 0·534 Å from the plane defined by its three substituents) and that the adamantyl groups are to each other.
The Crystallography Times newsletter from Rigaku Oxford Diffraction focuses on single crystal X-ray diffraction and is available from the companys website October 30, 2017 - The Woodlands, Texas. The latest edition of Crystallography Times, the X-ray crystallography newsletter from Rigaku Oxford Diffraction, is now available to view on the companys global website. 1600181092
Two user-friendly computer programs are described for use in macromolecular X-ray crystallography, xdlMAPMAN provides an interface for electron-density map exchange between some of the most commonly used phase refinement, structure refinement and model- building programs. In addition, it contains several options to analyse and abstract such maps. xdlDATAMAN provides similar functionality for the analysis and manipulation of macromolecular reflection data sets. Both programs have a simple graphical user interface, and their source code has been put into the public domain.. ...
The Woodlands, Texas (PRWEB) August 30, 2017 -- The latest edition of Crystallography Times, the X-ray crystallography newsletter from Rigaku Oxford
The conjugative transfer of F-like plasmids is repressed by FinO, an RNAbinding protein. FinO interacts with the F-plasmid encoded traJ mRNA andits antisense RNA, FinP, stabilizing FinP against endonucleolyticdegradation and facilitating sense-antisense RNA recognition. Here wepresent the 2.0 A resolution X-ray crystal structure of FinO, lacking itsflexible N-terminal extension. FinO adopts a novel, elongated, largelyhelical conformation. An N-terminal region, previously shown to contactRNA, forms a positively charged alpha-helix (helix 1) that protrudes 45 Afrom the central core of FinO. A C-terminal region of FinO that isimplicated in RNA interactions also extends out from the central body ofthe protein, adopting a helical conformation and packing against the baseof the N-terminal helix. A highly positively charged patch on the surfaceof the FinO core may present another RNA binding surface. The results ofan in vitro RNA duplexing assay demonstrate that the flexible N-terminalregion of FinO ...
Up to four post-doctoral positions are available immediately in the new laboratory of Dr. Bob Liddington at the Burnham Institute, La Jolla, California, to work on the structural biology of membrane proteins, including integrins, ion channels and toxins. Both experienced crystallographers and protein chemists are sought. The Burnham Institute is adjacent to Scripps, the Salk Institute, the UCSD campus and the Pacific Ocean. Daytime highs currently around 70 F (21 C) with unbroken blue skies. Reply to rlidding at burnham-inst.org ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Sodium atom in PDB 1uy1: Binding Sub-Site Dissection of A Family 6 Carbohydrate-Binding Module By X-Ray Crystallography and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry
Figure 1 - Scientists supported in attending the Erice school through CCDC travel bursaries - Abishek Chitnis from Mumbai University (left) and Madan Kumar from Mangalore University (right). Abishek is working in the field of high pressure physics, in particular looking at the stability of perovskite metal-organic frameworks. He commented that during the Erice School he "got to know about different research areas, ideas & opportunities in high pressure crystallography as well as enjoying healthy conversations and discussion with lecturers and experts." Abishek also commented that "I learnt many things as well as enjoyed this school. I am very grateful to the organizers and volunteers for the arrangements and all kind of comforts and supports we obtained.". Madan Kumar is based at the PURSE lab at Mangalore University. He has worked with both small molecule crystallography as well as the structure determination of proteins from single crystal x-ray diffraction. Madan commented that the hands-on ...
The workshop will include comprehensive theoretical lectures on all facets of crystallographic structure determination and hands-on tutorials. The lectures will be open to all, but the tutorials will be limited to 20 participants that will be chosen by committee. Lectures and tutorials will be given by Tom Terwilliger (Los Alamos), Randy Read (Cambridge), Zbigniew Dauter (Argonne), Karine Sparta (from the XDS development group) and members of the TCSB. The cost of participation in the full program is 200 Euro. More information, including fellowships, and the registration page can be found: http://tcsb-biox-wksp.net.technion.ac.il.. ...
The Alber lab at UC Berkeley is pleased to release of the code for Ringer version 1.0 (http://ucxray.berkeley.edu/ringer.htm), which depends on Chimera. Ringer is a program to detect molecular motions by systematic X-ray electron-density sampling. The aim of Ringer is to go beyond static structural snapshots of proteins by uncovering structural ensembles in X-ray electron density. This information can reveal not only which parts of proteins are flexible and which parts are rigid, but it also can define alternate conformations that may be important for function. Alternate conformations of binding sites also may afford additional targets for drug design. The Ringer method is described in Lang et al. /Protein Sci/. 2010 Jul; 19(7):1420-31 ,http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20499387,. An application of Ringer, determining the structural underpinnings of the side chain dynamics critical for the function of the enzyme proline isomerase, was published in Fraser JS et al. /Nature/. 2009 Dec ...
The Protein crystallography core facility of Biocenter Oulu has the infrastructure for protein structural studies from crystallization to x-ray data collection and structure determination.
The Chemical Crystallography Service is run in two parts: the analytical service and the "DIY" service which includes some 40 trained "users". It is a special feature of the X-ray crystallography laboratory in Oxford that hands-on crystallography is promoted. Initially researchers who want to determine their own structures complete a minimal practical health and safety course and are invited to attend crash-courses on crystal structure analysis. Following tailored one-to-one training in the use of the instrumentation, structure solution/refinement software, preparing files for publication and validation, data can be collected unsupervised, although help is always available in case of difficulties. Some examples of structures published by The Service are shown left.. In addition to the in-house instrumentation, we also have regular access to the Small Molecule Beamline at the Diamond Light Source, I19 (bottom left) under the Block Allocation System. As part of The Service, trained users have ...
Water is one of the simplest molecule on earth and essential to life. Well known molecule, it is in the same time a molecule that still not completely known when grouped with other water molecule. Snowflakes show broad number of structures, from which mechanical behavior will depend. Macroscopic mechanical behavior of snow, especially in montains, depends then only of the weak very small hydrogen bonds. In the same time not so weak as USA think to use it with wood fibers to build armor for warships as strong as metallic ones during the WWII. -Pennarun. ...
The 220 kDa dimeric cytochrome b6f complex of oxygenic photosynthesis provides the electronic connection between the two reaction centers, Photosystems I and II that are, respectively, coupled to NADP+ reduction and oxygen evolution. The electron transport functions of the b6f complex are coupled to proton transfer and generation of a trans-membrane proton electrochemical gradient, by mechanisms similar to those of the cytochrome bc1 complex of the respiratory chain and the photosynthetic bacteria, whose protein core is similar to that of the b6f complex. Prior to X-ray crystal structure analysis, each monomeric unit of the complex was known to contain six bound prosthetic groups, three hemes (f, two hemes b, bp and bn), one [2Fe-2S] cluster, and one molecule each of chlorophyll-a and carotene. Crystal structure analysis of the b6f complex from a green alga and a thermophilic cyanobacterium revealed the presence of an additional heme cn in the complex, which is covalently bound on the ...
ATP synthase is a membrane-bound rotary motor enzyme that is critical for cellular energy metabolism in all kingdoms of life. Despite conservation of its basic structure and function, autoinhibition by one of its rotary stalk subunits occurs in bacteria and chloroplasts but not in mitochondria. The crystal structure of the ATP synthase catalytic complex (F(1)) from Escherichia coli described here reveals the structural basis for this inhibition. The C-terminal domain of subunit ɛ adopts a heretofore unknown, highly extended conformation that inserts deeply into the central cavity of the enzyme and engages both rotor and stator subunits in extensive contacts that are incompatible with functional rotation. As a result, the three catalytic subunits are stabilized in a set of conformations and rotational positions distinct from previous F(1) structures.. ...
1DWB: CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS AT 3.0-ANGSTROMS RESOLUTION OF THE BINDING TO HUMAN THROMBIN OF FOUR ACTIVE SITE-DIRECTED INHIBITORS
9780387333342 Our cheapest price for Principles of Protein X-Ray Crystallography is $77.18. Free shipping on all orders over $35.00.
The grant, from the Wellcome Trust, will enable the department to purchase a state-of-the-art CCD X-ray detector which it has had on loan from the manufacturers Bruker AXS for the past 3 years.. X-ray crystallography is the most widely-used method for solving the 3D structure of proteins. During the procedure, the X-rays are scattered by crystals of the protein and their pattern provides information about the shape of the molecule. The X-rays are detected using a highly efficient CCD detector.. The detector which has been on loan to the department is fast, efficient and easy to use. It has already enabled researchers to solve the structures of many important biomedical proteins including those involved in pathogen virulence, antibiotic biosynthesis, the cell division cycle and oxygen sensing.. In addition to high quality equipment, the X-ray facility relies on the support of the Facilities Manager, Dr Ed Lowe. Dr Lowe provides high level training and assistance to all users and maintains the ...
An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the worlds repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures ...
An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the worlds repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures ...
a) Single-crystal X-ray structure of 17 f. Ellipsoids are depicted at 30 % probability. b) Part of the crystal lattice packing diagram of 17 f to illustrate the
We describe the self-assembly of a DNA crystal that contains two tensegrity triangle molecules per asymmetric unit. We have used X-ray crystallography to determine its crystal structure. In addition, we have demonstrated control over the colors of the crystals by attaching either Cy3 dye (pink) or Cy5 dye (blue-green) to the components of the crystal, yielding crystals of corresponding colors. Attaching the pair of dyes to the pair of molecules yields a purple crystal. ...
Scientists have solved 1,000 protein structures using data collected at CLSs CMCF beamlines. These have been added to the Protein Data Bank - a collection of structures solved by researchers globally.
The malfunction of the transcriptional regulator RUNX1 is the major cause of several variants of acute human leukemias and its normal function is to regulate the development of the blood system in concert with other transcriptional co-regulators. RUNX1 belongs to a conserved family of heterodimeric transcription factors that share a conserved DNA binding domain, the Runt domain (RD), named after the first member of this group - Runt - found in Drosophila melanogaster. The binding partner CBFβ serves as a regulator of RUNX by enhancing its DNA binding affinity through an allosteric mechanism.. The main focus ofo my thesis work has been the crystallization and structural analysis of the RUNX1 RD and involved also more technical methodological aspects that can be applied to X-ray crystallography in general.. The high resolution crystal structure of the free RD shows that this immunoglobulin-like molecule undergoes significant structural changes upon binding to both CBFβ and DNA. This involves a ...
b) using the five-crystal substructure for each. The final electron-density map from the five-crystal data set itself was excellent, giving a MapCC of 85.3% and automated building of 1117 of the 1200 residues (93%) for the DnaK-ATP structure. Even the SAD-phased map without DM modification gave a MapCC of 46.6%. We also found that data sets that did not support substructure determination on their own could support overall structure determination when given the substructure of anomalous scatterers. Thus, single data set 1′ gave a MapCC of 73.0% and an 88% autobuilt atomic model. Only data from single-crystal set 5′, the worst crystal, and the single-wedge data sets other than wedge 1 did not support automated structure determination efficiently (40% autobuilt for crystal 5′, 39-47% for wedges 2 through 8). With the addition of data, either crystal by crystal or wedge by wedge, progressive improvements followed in the monitors of phasing effectiveness.. There are complications in measuring ...
Crystal Structure Analysis, Third Edition, explains how and why the detailed three-dimensional architecture of molecules can be determined by an analysis of the diffraction patterns obtained when X-rays or neutrons are scattered by the atoms in single crystals. Part 1 covers the nature of the crystalline state, diffraction in general, and diffraction by crystals, and also looks briefly at experimental procedures.
Caspases are important players in programmed cell death. Normal activities of caspases are critical for the cell life cycle and dysfunction of caspases may lead to the development of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. They have become a popular target for drug design against abnormal cell death. In this study, the recognition of P5 position in substrates by caspase-3, -6 and -7 has been investigated by kinetics, modeling and crystallography. Crystal structures of caspase-3 and -7 in complexes with substrate analog inhibitor Ac-LDESD-CHO have been determined at resolutions of 1.61 and 2.45 Å, respectively, while a model of caspase-6/LDESD is constructed. Enzymatic study and structural analysis have revealed that Caspase-3 and -6 recognize P5 in pentapeptides, while caspase-7 lacks P5-binding residues. D-arginine dehydrogenase catalyzes the flavin-dependent oxidative deamination of D-amino acids to the corresponding imino acids and ammonia. The X-ray crystal structures of DADH and its complexes with
In a majority of living organisms, FoF1 ATP synthase performs the fundamental process of ATP synthesis. Despite the simple net reaction formula, ADP + Pi. ATP + H2O, the detailed step-by-step mechanism of the reaction yet remains to be resolved owing to the complexity of this multisubunit enzyme. Based on quantum mechanical computations using recent high resolution X-ray structures, we propose that during ATP synthesis the enzyme first prepares the inorganic phosphate for the gamma P-O-ADP bond-forming step via a double-proton transfer. At this step, the highly conserved alpha S344 side chain plays a catalytic role. The reaction thereafter progresses through another transition state (TS) having a planar PO3- ion configuration to finally form ATP. These two TSs are concluded crucial for ATP synthesis. Using stepwise scans and several models of the nucleotide-bound active site, some of the most important conformational changes were traced toward direction of synthesis. Interestingly, as the active site
The Annual Meeting of the American Crystallographic Association (ACA) will be held July 28 - Aug. 1, 2012, at the Westin Waterfront Hotel in Boston, Mass. Crystallography is the science devoted to exploring the arrangement of atoms in regular crystalline solids and in complicated molecules. Scientists will present research spanning a diverse array of disciplines, including medicine, genomics, material science, and structural biology.. The following summaries link to full news releases and highlight a few of the meetings many noteworthy talks.. Speed and power of X-ray laser helps unlock molecular mysteries: New nanocrystallography technique shines light on biomolecules in action: By outrunning a lasers path of destruction, an international research team has created 3D images of fragile but biologically important molecules inside protein nanocrystals. Using the Linac Coherence Light Source (LCLS), a powerful X-ray laser at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in Menlo Park, Calif., the ...
Caspase-3 is a cysteine protease that hydrolyzes diverse intracellular proteins during programmed cell death (known as apoptosis). It has been a popular target for drug design against abnormal cell death for more than a decade. No approved caspase based drug, however, is available so far. Therefore, structural insights about the substrate recognition of caspase-3 are needed for the future development of caspase-3 based inhibitors and drugs. In this study, crystal structures of recombinant caspase-3 in complex with seven substrate analog inhibitors, including acetyl (Ac)-DEVD-aldehyde (Cho), Ac-DMQD-Cho, Ac-IEPD-Cho, Ac-YVAD-Cho, Ac-WEHD-Cho, Ac-VDVAD-Cho, and tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc)-D-fluoromethylketone (Fmk), have been analyzed in combination with enzyme kinetic data and computational models. Seven crystal structures were determined at resolutions of 1.7-2.6Å. The binding conformation of each inhibitor residue at P1-P4 position was analyzed. The negative P1 aspartic acid side chain is exclusively
The productivity of the ESRFs Structural Biology facilities is currently unmatched within Europe. The basis of our success is the provision of many of the complementary techniques required to study complex problems. In this context, the ESRF Structural Biology Group provides tools, and crucially, access mechanisms, for experiments combining X-ray crystallography and bioSAXS (this may also be extended to bioSANS where appropriate); for experiments combining X-ray crystallography and spectroscopy; for experiments requiring the routine use of micro-focus X-ray beams in an automated fashion; for the collection of high quality diffraction data at both very high and very low resolutions. The provision of robust & reliable facilities for the experiments described above is coupled with the development of innovative methods. Most of the developments currently deployed result from the high quality in-house research carried out in the Group, examples of which are included in this chapter.. A brief perusal ...
All current inhibitors of HIV proteases that are used in clinical treatment of AIDS are targeted against dimeric form of protease. Retrovirus M-PMV infects rhesus monkeys and causes simian immunodeficiency syndrom (SAIDS). This virus is an excellent model for investigation of many processes in retroviruses and for development of new drugs against retroviruses. Our previous biochemical and NMR studies have indicated that in the absence of substrate or inhibitors M-PMV PR should fold into a stable monomer. For solution of crystal structure we prepared a protease mutant, which enabled to prepare a highly concentrated sample for crystallography. However, crystallographers in Poznan could not solve the structure by available molecular replacement and Rosetta programmes. A solution was finally obtained, after several years of experiments, by players of the online game FoldIt who were able to generate model of sufficient quality for successful molecular replacement and subsequent structure ...
A post-doctoral position is available in the research group of Associate Prof. Maike Bublitz at the Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford. The project aims to understand the structure and function of fungal membrane transport proteins identified as potential new drug targets, using a combination of state-of-the-art structural (X-ray crystallography, cryo-EM) and biochemical/biophysical techniques.. Applicants should hold a PhD in a relevant subject area, such as membrane protein biochemistry or structural biology. Experience in native or recombinant membrane protein expression, purification and either structural determination or functional analysis using biochemical and biophysical techniques is essential. Ability to work in a team as well as contribute to supervision activities and excellent verbal and written communication skills are expected. Experience in protein X-ray crystallography and/or cryo-EM is an advantage.. To apply for this role and for further details, including the ...
Overview. Research in my laboratory is focused on understanding fundamental biological processes in atomic detail. A multi-disciplinary strategy is employed using macromolecular X-ray crystallography to determine high resolution, three-dimensional images of proteins and appropriate complexes. The structural information is combined with biochemical, biophysical, genetic, and computational analyses to address questions central to cancer biology. In addition to generating basic biological insights, this approach may facilitate the development new therapeutic agents for the treatment cancer and other diseases.. DNA Replication. My laboratory has contributed to understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie accurate and mutagenic DNA replication. By integrating high-resolution X-ray structures with functional studies and computational analyses we have been able to elucidate key features that determine high-fidelity DNA replication. This work included exploitation of the properties of a DNA ...
The results are reported here of a XAS study of the O K-edge in oxide minerals, focused on triangular (C2ν site symmetry) and tetrahedral (Td, C2ν and C1) environments involving diverse coordinating cations within four crystal structure types: rutile-type (rutile, pyrolusite and cassiterite), fluorite-type (thorianite), spinel-type (spinel s.s.) and garnet-type (andradite). Full multiple-scattering calculations are compared to actual spectra with the aim of interpreting pre-edge peaks and post-edge features. Comments are presented on the role of combinations between O 2p and metal valence bands. It is concluded that the details and the energy of the O K-edge are influenced by the electronic state and coordination geometry of the surrounding cations in connection with the site symmetry constraints of the coordinated oxygen atoms within the host crystal structure. ...
Aronov A.M., Baker C., Bemis G.W., Cao J., Chen G., Ford P.J., Germann U.A., Green J., Hale M.R., Jacobs M., Janetka J.W., Maltais F., Martinez-Botella G., Namchuk M.N., Straub J., Tang Q., Xie X.. The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signal transduction is a key oncogenic pathway implicated in a variety of human cancers. We have identified a novel series of pyrazolylpyrroles as inhibitors of ERK. Aided by the discovery of two distinct binding modes for the pyrazolylpyrrole scaffold, structure-guided optimization culminated in the discovery of 6p, a potent and selective inhibitor of ERK.. J. Med. Chem. 50:1280-1287(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] ...
The new crystal structure shows the location of σ70 for the first time. Its a medium-sized protein (M.W. = 70,000) with five domains. The σ2, σ3, σ4 and σNCR domains form a tight interaction with core RNA polymerase but the flexible end of σ70 is the N-terminal domain (σ1.1) that binds weakly to the main groove where DNA interacts with the holoenzyme. This covers the active site of the enzyme where the first few nucleotides will be polymerized. That σ1.1 domain is shown as a yellow outline in the figure from the paper (below right). The structure of σ1.1 was difficult to resolve in the electron density map, indicating that it is not tightly bound ...
Nek2 (NIMA-related kinase 2) is a cell cycle-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase that regulates centrosome separation at the onset of mitosis. Overexpression of Nek2 is common in human cancers and suppression can restrict tumor cell growth and promote apoptosis. Nek2 inhibition with small molecules, therefore, offers the prospect of a new therapy for cancer. To achieve this goal, a better understanding of the requirements for selective-inhibition of Nek2 is required. 6-Alkoxypurines were identified as ATP-competitive inhibitors of Nek2 and CDK2. Comparison with CDK2-inhibitor structures indicated that judicious modification of the 6-alkoxy and 2-arylamino substituents could achieve discrimination between Nek2 and CDK2. In this study, a library of 6-cyclohexylmethoxy-2-arylaminopurines bearing carboxamide, sulfonamide and urea substituents on the 2-arylamino ring was synthesized. Few of these compounds were selective for Nek2 over CDK2, with the best result being obtained for ...
The 3-D structures of CpSGL (5GZH and 5GZK) and BDI_3064 (5Z06) were determined by X-ray crystallography and showed an (α/α)6-fold of this family [1]. BDI_3064 possesses additional N-terminal domains 1 and 2, important for the substrate specificity of this enzyme, as described below. The overall structure of CpSGL is similar to that of GH162 endo-β-1,2-glucanase (TfSGL) despite their low sequence similarity [3]. The crystal structure of CpSGL in complex with glucose and sophorotriose provided the structural basis for substrate recognition of this enzyme. CpSGL possesses the large cleft typical of endo-acting enzymes. HPLC and ESI-MS analysis suggested that the bound glucose and sophorotriose occupies −3 subsite and +1 to +3 subsites, respectively. Docking analysis of CpSGL using sophoropentaose as a ligand supported the subsite assignment (unpublished data). The ligand-free crystal structure and docking analysis of BDI_3064 showed that Arg93 in the N-terminal domain 1 overlaps −3 subsite ...
從圖書館擷取資料! Advancing methods for biomolecular crystallography. [Randy J Read; Alexandre G Urzhumtsev; Vladimir Y Lunin;] -- This work presents a snapshot of the state of the art of modern biomolecular crystallography, from crystallisation through structure determination and even interactive presentation on the web. ...
GM2-activator protein (GM2-AP) is a lipid transfer protein that has the ability to stimulate the enzymatic processing of gangliosides as well as T-cell activation through lipid presentation. Our previous X-ray crystallographic studies of GM2-AP have revealed a large lipid binding pocket as the central overall feature of the structure with non-protein electron density within this pocket suggesting bound lipid. To extend these studies, we present here the 2A crystal structure of GM2-AP complexed with platelet activating factor (PAF). PAF is a potent phosphoacylglycerol whose toxic patho-physiological effects can be inhibited by GM2-AP. The structure shows an ordered arrangement of two bound lipids and a fatty acid molecule. One PAF molecule binds in an extended conformation within the hydrophobic channel that has an open and closed conformation, and was seen to contain bound phospholipid in the low pH apo structure. The second molecule is submerged inside the pocket in a U-shaped conformation with ...
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NOTE: Text or symbols not renderable in plain ASCII are indicated by [...]. Abstract is included in .pdf document. Crystals of the intermetallic compound, MgZn2, were prepared and the crystal structure was determined from x-ray data furnished by Laue and rotation photographs. The crystal was found to have hexagonal axes with a. = 5.15A and c. = 8.48A. The unit cell contains four molecules. The effect of absorption in the crystal in determining the wave-length giving a maximum intensity of reflection in Laue photographs was used to confirm the dimensions of the unit cell. The atoms have the positions: [...] where u = .830 and v = 0.62. The least distance between two magnesium atoms is 3.16A, between two zinc atoms, 2.52A, and between a magnesium and a zinc atom, 3.02A. The constitution diagram for the binary system, magnesium-zinc, has a pronounced maximum corresponding to the formation of an intermetallic compound, MgZn2, which forms eutectics with both constituents. Since both magnesium and ...
A display system includes a relatively higher resolution display for presenting visual information, and a relatively lower resolution display for presenting visual information, the displays being positioned to present the visual information images therefrom in substantially side-by-side relation, the lower resolution image being provided by the cooperation of focusing optics which form a real image at a retro-reflector, which reflects light along an optical path conjugate with light incident thereon to provide an image for viewing, and the higher resolution image being provided without passing through the focusing optics. A method of display includes forming a relatively lower resolution real image, reflecting the image to the eye of an observer, forming a relatively higher resolution image, and directing the relatively higher resolution image to the eye of the observer such that at least a portion of the relatively lower resolution image circumscribes at least a portion of the relatively higher
The structure of a large molecular fragment of factor Xa that lacks only a Gla (gamma-carboxyglutamic acid) domain (N-terminal 45 residues) has been solved by X-ray crystallography and refined at 2.2 A resolution to a crystallographic R-value of 0.168. The fragment identity was clearly established by automated Edman degradation. X-ray structure analysis confirmed the biochemical characterization and also revealed that the N-terminal epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain is flexibly disordered in crystals. The second EGF module, however, is positionally ordered making contacts with the catalytic domain. The overall folding of the catalytic domain is similar to that of alpha-thrombin, excluding the insertion loops of the latter with respect to simpler serine proteinases. The C-terminal arginine of the A-chain interacts in a substrate-like manner with the S1 specificity site of the active site of a crystallographically neighboring molecule. Based on this interaction and the structure of ...
Researchers have used a combined powder XRD, solid-state NMR and computational approach to determine the structure of 3,5-bis-O-decanoyl-2-deoxyguanosine.
This force field is intended for crystallographic structure determination. It may be used in conjunction with the ``parhcxdx.pro and ``tophcsdx.pro files for proteins. The parameters originated from Ha et al. (1988) and were modified as described by Weis et al. (1990). ...
I found many weak points in the Ants critique, but Id like to focus on the following point. Scientist in general make dubious or weak assumptions on their results, even experimentalist. After every CD or fluorescence spectrum we read that the protein behaves this or that: the protein: just one, no ensemble, no averaging, all the molecules the same... The native structure of proteins is usually assumed to be a rock the shape you see from the crystal structure, disregarding packing artifacts or the fact that the structure is an averaging (some people have found alternative conformation from the data discarded by crystallographers), even disregarding dynamical evidence from NMR. How many dimers emerge irresponsible from crystal structures, without further tests? How many more emerge from throughput screening in vitro tests in uncontrolled conditions, disregarding the effects of fusion-proteins, tags, cysteine oxidation, aggregation an so on? Almost everybody fit their unfolding curves to ...
I found many weak points in the Ants critique, but Id like to focus on the following point. Scientist in general make dubious or weak assumptions on their results, even experimentalist. After every CD or fluorescence spectrum we read that the protein behaves this or that: the protein: just one, no ensemble, no averaging, all the molecules the same... The native structure of proteins is usually assumed to be a rock the shape you see from the crystal structure, disregarding packing artifacts or the fact that the structure is an averaging (some people have found alternative conformation from the data discarded by crystallographers), even disregarding dynamical evidence from NMR. How many dimers emerge irresponsible from crystal structures, without further tests? How many more emerge from throughput screening in vitro tests in uncontrolled conditions, disregarding the effects of fusion-proteins, tags, cysteine oxidation, aggregation an so on? Almost everybody fit their unfolding curves to ...
Title: Journal of Applied Crystallography, Description: Journal of Applied Crystallography covers a wide range of crystallographic topics from the viewpoints of both techniques and theory. The journal presents articles on the application of crystallographi, By: Feedage Forager, ID: 29619, Grade: 88, Type:
National Seminar on Crystallography The National Seminar on Crystallography 43A was held at Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali during 28th and 30th March, 2014 by the Department of Chemical Sciences. This conference was
Use [email protected] as the username and leeds8116 as the password If you have not been trained to use the X-ray machine then you need to arrange a training session with Chi (Facility Manager). He must be satisfied that you know how to use the X-ray machine properly and are aware of the health and safety procedures, before you will be allowed to work unsupervised.. ...
Compound. EXEL-2880 (Supplementary Fig. S1) was synthesized at Exelixis ( 41) and its synthesis will be reported separately. The compound was licensed to GSK in December 2007 and is now called GSK1363089.. Kinase inhibition assays. Kinase inhibition was investigated using one of three assay formats: [33P]phosphoryl transfer, luciferase-coupled chemiluminescence, or AlphaScreen tyrosine kinase technology (Perkin-Elmer). Further assay details are provided in Supplementary Section. IC50 values were calculated by nonlinear regression analysis using XLFit.. Expression and X-ray crystallography of Met receptor. The Met kinase domain (1051-1348) was expressed with a NH2-terminal histidine tag and Tobacco Etch Virus protease cleavage site (MLLGSHHHHHHGENLYFQGS) in Sf9 insect cells using a modified pAcGP67 baculovirus DNA transfer vector (BD Pharmingen). Further details of protein purification and X-ray crystallography are provided in Supplementary Section.. Cell lines, cell culture conditions, and ...
!%Bruker AXS%! has launched its Smart X2S crystal-to-structure benchtop x-ray crystallography system for automated 3-D chemical structure determinatio
Activities: Coherent X-ray diffractive imaging of biological samples; Simulation of dynamics within samples irradiated by FEL pulse; Phase retrieval algorithms ...
Well I was reading BKs excellent blog Life of a Lab Rat (an opinion piece from the Guardian "Only biology is safe and, as everybody knows, biology is science for girls." WTF?) When I came upon a link to this great entry on x-ray crystallography (here is some background on what the hell x-ray crystallography…. ...
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
Rigaku VariMax optics are Confocal Max-Flux (CMF) optics used to generate an intense, monochromatic X-ray beam suitable for single-crystal X-ray crystallography.
by volunteering, or simply sending us feedback on the site. Scientists, teachers, writers, illustrators, and translators are all important to the program. If you are interested in helping with the website we have a Volunteer page to get the process started.. ...
Date: Jun 1, 2014. The 1962 book, Fifty Years of X-Ray Diffraction, dedicated to the International Union of Crystallography on the occasion of the commemoration meeting in Munich, July 1962, by P.P. Ewald (editor), and numerous crystallographers has been digitized and put on the web as a free site by the ICU.. Read More ...
Crystal structure models are used by material science professors to help explain how structure influences properties of various materials. Some models come in self assembly kits like the molymod line [2] or molecular model company [3] that range 20-40 Euros, but more detailed models can run hundreds of Euros [4]. Some can even be thousands of euros - particularly for large scale or complex models. Ideally, anyone interested in material science could print these structures in any size or format for a few pennies. Your project: develop an OpenSCAD script to make a 3-D printable model of your randomly selected crystal structure: Due Date Oct 4, 2017 ...
Crystal structure models are used by material science professors to help explain how structure influences properties of various materials. Some models come in self assembly kits like the molymod line [2] or molecular model company [3] that range 20-40 Euros, but more detailed models can run hundreds of Euros [4]. Some can even be thousands of euros - particularly for large scale or complex models. Ideally, anyone interested in material science could print these structures in any size or format for a few pennies. Your project: develop an OpenSCAD script to make a 3-D printable model of your randomly selected crystal structure: Due Date Oct 4, 2017 ...
Science. 2016;352(6286):687-90. Design of structurally distinct proteins using strategies inspired by evolution.. Jacobs TM, Williams B, Williams T, Xu X, Eletsky A, Federizon JF, Szyperski T, Kuhlman B.. Natural recombination combines pieces of preexisting proteins to create new tertiary structures and functions. We describe a computational protocol, called SEWING, which is inspired by this process and builds new proteins from connected or disconnected pieces of existing structures. Helical proteins designed with SEWING contain structural features absent from other de novo designed proteins and, in some cases, remain folded at more than 100°C. High-resolution structures of the designed proteins CA01 and DA05R1 were solved by x-ray crystallography (2.2 angstrom resolution) and nuclear magnetic resonance, respectively, and there was excellent agreement with the design models. This method provides a new strategy to rapidly create large numbers of diverse and designable protein scaffolds.. ...
Four dicoumarols (DC, 2-PyDC, 3-PyDC and 4-PyDC) were synthesized and characterized via IR, H-1 NMR, HRMS, and single crystal X-ray crystallography. Two ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Zinc atom in PDB 2fpx: Crystal Structure Of the N-Terminal Domain of E.Coli Hisb- Sulfate Complex.
A radial press comprising a first and a second structure, each having a press yoke that form a receiving chamber for a press tool. Under the action of a drive unit, the second structure can be linearl
Pris: 945,-. E-bok, 2015. Leveres direkte via nedlastning . Kjøp boken Symmetry, Spectroscopy, and Crystallography av Robert Glaser (ISBN 9783527684205) hos Adlibris.com. Fri frakt.
Density functional theory with dispersion corrections (DFT-D) was used to study pressure-induced effects in a novel energetic CL-20:HMX cocrystal and to understand what role its constituents CL-20 and HMX have. The structural, electronic, absorption, and mechanical properties of the cocrystal and its constituents were compared and analyzed in detail. The results indicate that the two constituents produce different effects on the crystal structure of the cocrystal in different directions. This distinct energy distribution in the cocrystal suggests that electron transitions may take place between the HMX and CL-20 molecules. The CL-20 in the cocrystal plays a leading role in the electronic structure of the cocrystal. The cocrystal has quite similar absorption spectra to ε-CL-20 but very different ones from β-HMX. Compared with the pure crystals, the mechanical properties of the cocrystal present a great anisotropy, which not only greatly strengthens the stiffness but also affects the... Read more ...
Dallas, Texas (PRWEB) July 18, 2019 -- FabriTec Structures announced the company has partnered with Architectural Record and BNP Media to certify, host, and
The advantage of this system is that it is very intuitive to the crystallographer. In addition, with Eulerian χ values of 0, 90, 180 or 270 degrees the spindle and vertical axes are parallel to the x or y axes of the detector. The main disadvantage of this system is that it is dependent on knowing the geometry of the camera.. While the crystal and cassette orientations follow the spindle/beam convention for Denzo, the beam, box printout, spot, margin, film width and length in the Denzo log file follow the data convention. The X-beam and Y-beam values are the distance from the edge of the data to the beam spot, in mm.. Crossfire is a measure of the X-ray beam divergence and focusing as it leaves the collimator and illuminates the crystal. Crossfire, being a symmetric tensor, has x, y, and xy components. It affects the prediction of partial reflections and their positions, not their angular width. It is expressed as angular divergence of the beam. The default value is zero crossfire, i.e. a ...
Face to this problematic, we propose to design and synthesize a new and anoriginal category of InhA inhibitors targeting, as for the validated antituberculardrug INH, the NADH/NAD+ cofactor-binding site. The design of these newcompounds, analogues of the cofactor, will be assisted by a rational computedmethodology involving structure-based and ligand-based techniques for thedefinition of a pharmacophore. The proof of concept will be validated by acombination of approaches such as: enzymology tests of InhA inhibitory activity,X-ray crystallographic analysis and by biological tests of MTB growth inhibition ...
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On the streets, fans would be at him, demonstrating him a download and a Office. It was like I kept got into the door of a Enough vault seller, he s. Lee was doing download the crystal lattice; the consent constituted changed away Worth.
9780198717591 Our cheapest price for Crystallography: A Very Short Introduction is $8.68. Free shipping on all orders over $35.00.
Snyder DA, Chen Y, Denissova NG, Acton T, Aramini JM, Ciano M, Karlin R, Liu J, Manor P, Rajan PA, et al. Comparisons of NMR spectral quality and success in crystallization demonstrate that NMR and X-ray crystallography are complementary methods for small protein structure determination. J Am Chem Soc. 2005 ;127(47):16505-11. ...
Snyder DA, Chen Y, Denissova NG, Acton T, Aramini JM, Ciano M, Karlin R, Liu J, Manor P, Rajan PA, et al. Comparisons of NMR spectral quality and success in crystallization demonstrate that NMR and X-ray crystallography are complementary methods for small protein structure determination. J Am Chem Soc. 2005 ;127(47):16505-11. ...
Over 4,714 mineral species descriptions are included in this HTML-linked table of crystallography for all known valid mineral species.
Five monomeric complexes of Co(ii), Cu(ii), Ni(ii), Zn(ii) and Ag(i) with 6-methoxyquinoline (6-MeOQ) as ligand have been prepared, and their crystal structures have been determined by single X-ray diffractions. The Cu(ii), Ni(ii) and Zn(ii) complexes are formulated as M(6-MeOQ)2Cl2, completing MN2Cl2 coordi
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Potassium atom in PDB 1zz0: Crystal Structure of A Hdac-Like Protein With Acetate Bound
A new type of isomerism has been detected in the cyclidene family of lacunar dioxygen carriers, providing an additional Structural variable for the central of their oxygen affinity. In those rare complexes that do not have methyl substituents on the primary macrocycle, NMR and X-ray crystallographic data indicate that, in addition to their usual cis orientation, the bridges can also adopt a trans orientation. In the crystal structure of [Co(C8MeHH[16]cyclidene)](PF6)(2) . 3CH(3)OH, the bridge has this trails orientation with one end in the lid-on configuration while the other end is lid-off. The trans orientation of the bridge is identified as the principal cause of the decreased dioxygen affinity of such unsubstituted cyclidenes.. ...
Researchers in the field of structural biology, especially X-ray crystallography and protein nuclear magnetic resonance, are interested in knowing as much as possible about the state of their target protein in solution. Not only is this knowledge relevant to studies of biological function, it also facilitates determination of a protein structure using homogeneous monodisperse protein samples. A researcher faced with a new protein to study will have many questions even after that protein has been purified. Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) can provide all of this information readily from a small sample in a non-destructive way, without the need for labeling, enabling structure determination experiments without any wasting time and material on uncharacterized samples ...
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Read "Synthesis, crystal structure and antitumor activity of a dinuclear calcium complex based on 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonate and 2,2′-bipyridine ligands, Research on Chemical Intermediates" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
2. I am a chemist who has himself been in a very mathematical part of science (crystal structure determination). In the neighbouring lab, there were two guys which most of us thought to be a little odd and cracked up. They were trying to predict the structures of short metal complexes that were designed to look like the active centers of enzymes and wanted to emulate those enzymes\ functionality. Weird with that PC power we had back then (486s) and often it took weeks just to do one calculation and just to find out something had gone \ploink\. Looks like these things are not so weird anymore, and maybe I\d like to work off a little of the time I\ll spend in purgatory by already now acknowledging that, maybe, those guys weren\t so weird at all ...
Crystal structure of LepB313-618 and comparison with the VirA/EspG-family bacterial RabGAP and the TBC domain of Gyp1p. (A) Overall structure of LepB313-618 in
A group of scientists headed by José Antonio Márquez from EMBL Grenoble and Pedro Luis Rodriguez from CSIC looked at one member of this family, a protein called PYR1. When they used X-ray crystallography to determine its 3-dimensional structure, the scientists found that the protein looks like a hand. In the absence of ABA, the hand remains open, but when ABA is present it nestles in the palm of the PYR1 hand, which closes over the hormone as if holding a ball, thereby enabling a PP2C molecule to sit on top of the folded fingers. As these features seem to be conserved across most members of this protein family, these findings confirm the family as the main ABA receptors. Moreover, they elucidate how the whole process of stress response starts: by binding to PYR1, ABA causes it to hijack PP2C molecules, which are therefore not available to block the stress response ...
A group of scientists headed by José Antonio Márquez from EMBL Grenoble and Pedro Luis Rodriguez from CSIC looked at one member of this family, a protein called PYR1. When they used X-ray crystallography to determine its 3-dimensional structure, the scientists found that the protein looks like a hand. In the absence of ABA, the hand remains open, but when ABA is present it nestles in the palm of the PYR1 hand, which closes over the hormone as if holding a ball, thereby enabling a PP2C molecule to sit on top of the folded fingers. As these features seem to be conserved across most members of this protein family, these findings confirm the family as the main ABA receptors. Moreover, they elucidate how the whole process of stress response starts: by binding to PYR1, ABA causes it to hijack PP2C molecules, which are therefore not available to block the stress response ...
Julich, Germany (SPX) Oct 08, 2015 - X-ray crystallography reveals the three-dimensional structure of a molecule, thus making it possible to understand how it works and potentially use this knowledge to subsequently modulate its activi
Using X-ray crystallography, we are determining the high-resolution structures of enzymes that contribute to the oxidative folding of substrate proteins.. ...
The SaS campus will be getting a new building. Entries will be graced with canopies provided by Crystal Structures, commercial division of Sunshine Rooms
We are a professional partner responsible for X-ray crystallography and have extensive experience in supporting drug discovery projects and other scientific endeavors with both the biotech-pharmaceutical industry and academia.
Vol 70: Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of Rv3705c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Upon release from the stable complex formed with its antitoxin VapB, the toxin VapC (MvpT) of the Gram-negative pathogen Shigella flexneri is capable of globally down-regulating translation by specifically cleaving initiator tRNA(fMet) in the anticodon region. Recombinant Shigella flexneri VapC(D7A) harbouring an active-site mutation was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity and crystallized by the vapour-diffusion technique. A preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis shows that the crystals diffracted to at least 1.9 Å resolution at a synchrotron X-ray source and belonged to the trigonal space group in the hexagonal setting, H3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 120.1, c = 52.5 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. The Matthews coefficient is 2.46 Å(3) Da(-1), suggesting two molecules per asymmetric unit and corresponding to a solvent content of 50.0 ...
The protozoan parasites of the Apicomplexa phylum are devastating global pathogens. Their success is largely due to phylum-specific proteins found in specialized organelles and cellular structures. The inner membrane complex (IMC) is a unique apicomplexan structure that is essential for motility, invasion and replication. The IMC subcompartment proteins (ISP) have recently been identified in Toxoplasma gondii and shown to be critical for replication, although their specific mechanisms are unknown. Structural characterization of TgISP1 was pursued in order to identify the fold adopted by the ISPs and to generate detailed insight into how this family of proteins functions during replication. An N-terminally truncated form of TgISP1 was purified from Escherichia coli, crystallized and subjected to X-ray diffraction analysis. Two crystal forms of TgISP1 belonging to space groups P4(1)32 or P4(3)32 and P2(1)2(1)2(1) diffracted to 2.05 and 2.1 Å resolution, respectively ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Iron atom in PDB 2mgl: High Resolution Crystal Structures Of Five Distal Histidine Mutants of Sperm Whale Myoglobin
Endo-β-1,4-d-mannanase is the key depolymerizing enzyme for β-1,4-mannan polymers present in the cell walls of plants and some algae, as well as in some types of plant seeds. Endo-1,4-β-mannanase from blue mussel Mytilus edulis (MeMan5A) belongs to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 enzymes. The MeMan5A structure has been determined to 1.6 resolution using the multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion method at the selenium K edge with selenomethionyl MeMan5A expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. As expected for GH 5 enzymes, the structure showed a (βα)8-barrel fold. An unusually large number of histidine side-chains are exposed on the surface, which may relate to its location within the crystalline style of the digestive tract of the mussel. Kinetic analysis of MeMan5A revealed that the enzyme requires at least six subsites for efficient hydrolysis. Mannotetraose (M4) and mannopentaose (M5) were shown to interact with subsites −3 to +1, and −3 to +2, respectively. A clear kinetic ...
The enzyme 3beta/17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta/17beta-HSD) is a steroid-inducible component of the Gram-negative bacterium Conramonas testosteroni. It catalyzes the reversible reduction/ dehydrogenation of the oxo/beta-hydroxy groups at positions 3 and 17 of steroid compounds, including hormones and isobile acids. Crystallographic analysis at 1.2 Angstrom resolution reveals the enzyme to have nearly identical subunits that form a tetramer with 222 symmetry. This is one of the largest oligomeric structures refined at this resolution. The subunit consists of a monomer with a single-domain structure built around a seven-stranded beta-sheet flanked by six alpha-helices. The active site contains a Ser-Tyr-Lys triad, typical for short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR). Despite their highly diverse substrate specificities, SDR members show a close to identical folding pattern architectures and a common catalytic mechanism. In contrast to other SDR apostructures determined, the ...
The octakis(DMSO) (DMSO = dimethylsulfoxide) neodymium(III), samarium(III), gadolinium(III), dysprosium(III), erbium(III), and lutetium(III) iodides crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/n (No. 14) with Z = 4, while the octakis(DMSO) iodides of the larger lanthanum(III), cerium(III), and praseodymium(III) ions crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Pbca (No. 61), Z = 8. In all [Ln(OS(Me2)8]I3 compounds the lanthanoid(III) ions coordinate eight DMSO oxygen atoms in a distorted square antiprism. Up to three of the DMSO ligands were found to be disordered and were described by two alternative configurations related by a twist around the metal−oxygen (Ln−O) bond. To resolve the atomic positions and achieve reliable Ln−O bond distances, complete semirigid DMSO molecules with restrained geometry and partial occupancy were refined for the alternative sites. This disorder model was also applied on previously collected data for the monoclinic octakis(DMSO)yttrium(III) iodide. At ...
Laser diffraction analysis, also known as laser diffraction spectroscopy, is a technology that utilizes diffraction patterns of a laser beam passed through any object ranging from nanometers to millimeters in size to quickly measure geometrical dimensions of a particle. This process does not depend on volumetric flow rate, the amount of particles that passes through a surface over time. Laser diffraction analysis is based on the Fraunhofer diffraction theory, stating that the intensity of light scattered by a particle is directly proportional to the particle size. The angle of the laser beam and particle size have an inversely proportional relationship, where the laser beam angle increases as particle size decreases and vice versa. Laser diffraction analysis is accomplished via a red He-Ne laser, a commonly used gas laser for physics experiments that is made up of a laser tube, a high-voltage power supply, and structural packaging. Alternatively, blue laser diodes or LEDs of shorter wavelength ...
Specific allergy vaccination is an efficient treatment for allergic disease; however, the development of safer vaccines would enable a more general use of the treatment. Determination of molecular structures of allergens and allergen-Ab complexes facilitates epitope mapping and enables a rational approach to the engineering of allergen molecules with reduced IgE binding. In this study, we describe the identification and modification of a human IgE-binding epitope based on the crystal structure of Bet v 1 in complex with the BV16 Fab fragment. The epitope occupies approximately 10% of the molecular surface area of Bet v 1 and is clearly conformational. A synthetic peptide representing a sequential motif in the epitope (11 of 16 residues) did not inhibit the binding of mAb BV16 to Bet v 1, illustrating limitations in the use of peptides for B cell epitope characterization. The single amino acid substitution, Glu(45)-Ser, was introduced in the epitope and completely abolished the binding of mAb ...

Principles of Protein X-Ray Crystallography | SpringerLinkPrinciples of Protein X-Ray Crystallography | SpringerLink

X-ray crystallography has long been a vital method for studying the structure of proteins and other macromolecules. As the ... Biophysics Crystallography SAD X-ray X-ray diffraction biochemistry crystal growth crystal twinning protein proteins scattering ... X-ray crystallography has long been a vital method for studying the structure of proteins and other macromolecules. As the ... Principles of Protein X-ray Crystallography provides the theoretical background necessary to understand how the structure of ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/0-387-33746-6

X-Ray Crystallography of Protein-Ligand Interactions | SpringerLinkX-Ray Crystallography of Protein-Ligand Interactions | SpringerLink

Schmidt K. (1995) X-ray crystallography at extremely low temperatures. Biotechnology (N. Y.) 13, 133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Schlichting I. (2005) X-Ray Crystallography of Protein-Ligand Interactions. In: Ulrich Nienhaus G. (eds) Protein-Ligand ... Schlichting I. and Goody R. (1997) Triggering methods in kinetic crystallography. Methods in Enzymology 277, 467-490.PubMed ... Schmidt K. (1989) Time-resolved macromolecular crystallography. Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biophys. Chem. 18, 309-332.CrossRefGoogle ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1385/1-59259-912-5:155

X-ray crystallography - wikidocX-ray crystallography - wikidoc

The main goal of X-ray crystallography is to determine the density of electrons f(r) throughout the crystal. To do this, X-ray ... The oldest and most precise method of X-ray crystallography is single-crystal X-ray diffraction, in which a beam of X-rays is ... The term "X-ray crystallography" is also sometimes applied to methods that involve X-ray diffraction from polycrystalline ... Further information: [[:X-ray scattering techniques]]. Elastic vs. inelastic scattering. X-ray crystallography is a form of ...
more infohttp://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/X-ray_crystallography

Biomolecular X-ray Crystallography Group | Research | University of GroningenBiomolecular X-ray Crystallography Group | Research | University of Groningen

The Biomolecular X-ray crystallography group, headed by Assistant Prof. Albert Guskov, is embedded in the GBB Institute and ... In their research the group uses the combination of macromolecular crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy as well as ... Additionally the group has an interest in macromolecular crystallization and serial crystallography techniques. ... Biomolecular X-ray Crystallography Group * Biomolecular X-ray Crystallography Group * Group members ...
more infohttps://www.rug.nl/research/protein-crystallography/

X-Ray Crystallography PhD Projects, Programs & ScholarshipsX-Ray Crystallography PhD Projects, Programs & Scholarships

Search Funded PhD Projects, Programs & Scholarships in X-Ray Crystallography. Search for PhD funding, scholarships & ... We have 28 X-Ray Crystallography PhD Projects, Programs & Scholarships. * Keywords:. x-ray AND crystallography × ... Development of a neutron macromolecular crystallography (NMX) refinement software module and its implementation in the Refmac5 ... X-Ray Crystallography PhD Projects, Programs & Scholarships. ...
more infohttps://www.findaphd.com/search/phd.aspx?Keywords=x-ray%20crystallography

Measuring and modeling diffuse scattering in protein X-ray crystallography | PNASMeasuring and modeling diffuse scattering in protein X-ray crystallography | PNAS

X-ray crystallography can be a key tool for elucidating the structural basis of protein motions that play critical roles in ... Measuring and modeling diffuse scattering in protein X-ray crystallography. Andrew H. Van Benschoten, Lin Liu, Ana Gonzalez, ... 1994) Dynamic structure of human lysozyme derived from X-ray crystallography: Normal mode refinement. Biophys Chem 50(1-2):25- ... Measuring and modeling diffuse scattering in protein X-ray crystallography Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/113/15/4069

baker | Crystal Structure | X Ray Crystallographybaker | Crystal Structure | X Ray Crystallography

The X-ray 70 com- Atom x y z puter program package was used to generate Carbon 1 --0.100 0.012 0.038 IFc2l values for each ... The X-ray intact up to the melting point, Which means that data presented in this work on the position of the the spatial ... Good definition X-ray fibre patterns were ob- where R is the residual factor. tained from an axially oriented nylon 66 mono- ... perature X-ray films. These findings support the For example [Fo 21(01 o)+(11 o) has to be compared conclusions reached by ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/document/23116397/baker

X-ray crystallography photos capture amazing structures in objects | Daily Mail OnlineX-ray crystallography photos capture amazing structures in objects | Daily Mail Online

London-based photographer Max Alexander has shed light on a technique known as X-ray crystallography in an exhibition being ... The new exhibition aims to highlight the structures, people and processes involved in X-ray crystallography ... London-based photographer Max Alexander has shed light on a technique known as X-ray crystallography ... WHAT IS CRYSTALLOGRAPHY? Crystallography is the study of atomic and molecular structure. ...
more infohttp://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2828699/Inner-beauty-world-revealed-Photographer-captures-amazing-crystal-structures-objects-reveals-created.html

Structure of Hep E Decoded Through X-ray Crystallography | MedgadgetStructure of Hep E Decoded Through X-ray Crystallography | Medgadget

Structure of Hep E Decoded Through X-ray Crystallography. July 23rd, 2009 Medgadget Editors News ... Taos [Yizhi Jane Tao, assistant professor of biochemistry and cell biology] lab specializes in X-ray crystallography, a ...
more infohttps://www.medgadget.com/2009/07/structure_of_hep_e_decoded_through_xray_crystallography.html

Post-doctoral Positions in X-ray Crystallography and Computational 
 BiologyPost-doctoral Positions in X-ray Crystallography and Computational Biology

Post-doctoral Positions in X-ray Crystallography and Computational Biology. Duilio Cascio cascio at ucla.edu Mon Mar 13 12:28: ... Post-doctoral Positions in X-ray Crystallography and Computational Biology Two post-doctoral positions are available ... The second position is in the area of computational crystallography, but may also include other aspects of computational ... Applicants for the first position should be experienced in practical aspects of protein crystallography and structure ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/xtal-log/2000-March/004310.html

IUCr) Integrating X-ray crystallography  and scattering with electron microscopyIUCr) Integrating X-ray crystallography and scattering with electron microscopy

... crystallography in art and cultural heritage crystallography of materials electron crystallography high pressure inorganic and ... crystallography in art and cultural heritage crystallography of materials electron crystallography high pressure inorganic and ... Home , calendar , events , Meetings , Microscopy , Integrating X-ray crystallography and scattering with electron microscopy ... aspects early history journals history extension previous executive committees photos of crystallographers 50 years of x-ray ...
more infohttp://www.iucr.org/calendar/events/topics/microscopy/integrating-x-ray-crystallography-and-scattering-with-electron-microscopy

X-ray Crystallography | ASU - Ask A BiologistX-ray Crystallography | ASU - Ask A Biologist

by volunteering, or simply sending us feedback on the site. Scientists, teachers, writers, illustrators, and translators are all important to the program. If you are interested in helping with the website we have a Volunteer page to get the process started.. ...
more infohttp://askabiologist.asu.edu/activities/x-ray-crystallography-quiz

Max-Planck Institute Updates X-ray Crystallography Facility | Jan 2008 | Photonics.comMax-Planck Institute Updates X-ray Crystallography Facility | Jan 2008 | Photonics.com

Germany is updating its x-ray crystallography facility with Rigaku protein crystallography and au ... Germany is updating its x-ray crystallography facility with Rigaku protein crystallography and automated crystallization ... crystallography. The analysis of the atomic structures within crystals by means of x-ray diffraction.. photonics. The ... x-ray crystallography. The study of the arrangement of atoms in a crystal by means of x-rays.. ...
more infohttps://www.photonics.com/a32177/Max-Planck_Institute_Updates_X-ray

X Ray crystallography & transmembrane proteins - Biology-OnlineX Ray crystallography & transmembrane proteins - Biology-Online

I have read up on x-ray crystallography but cant see why it would be different for the transmembrabe portion. I think it could ... X Ray crystallography & transmembrane proteins. Discussion of all aspects of biological molecules, biochemical processes and ... The crystallization of membrane proteins in toto is one of the "holy grails" of crystallography. There is no general way to do ... You should think aboout how X ray cristallographt woks. Read about how the cristal are obtained and what they should be and you ...
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/biology-forum/viewtopic.php?p=102875

XRCL - X Ray Crystallography Laboratory | AcronymAtticXRCL - X Ray Crystallography Laboratory | AcronymAttic

XRCL stands for X Ray Crystallography Laboratory. XRCL is defined as X Ray Crystallography Laboratory very rarely. ... X-Ray Crystallography Laboratory. Established in 1981, the X-Ray Crystallography Laboratory provides single-crystal X-ray ... X-Ray Crystallography C h e m i s t r y Home , Facilities Introduction Our X-ray crystallography laboratory provides a ... Director, X-ray Crystallography Laboratory Ph.D., 1965, MIT Research Topics: Inorganic, Organometallic, X-ray Crystallography. ...
more infohttps://www.acronymattic.com/X-Ray-Crystallography-Laboratory-

Nanotechnology Now - News Story: Picosecond X-ray Crystallography of a ProteinNanotechnology Now - News Story: Picosecond X-ray Crystallography of a Protein

Home , News , Picosecond X-ray Crystallography of a Protein. July 17th, 2003 Picosecond X-ray Crystallography of a Protein. ... Picosecond x-ray crystallography of a protein has been demonstrated for the first time, by a multinational collaboration ...
more infohttp://www.nanotech-now.com/news.cgi?story_id=01323

New Edition of Crystallography Times Offering Current X-Ray Crystallography News Is Available OnlineNew Edition of Crystallography Times Offering Current X-Ray Crystallography News Is Available Online

... the X-ray crystallography newsletter from Rigaku Oxford ... New Edition of Crystallography Times Offering Current X-Ray ... New edition of Crystallography Times offering current X-ray crystallography news is available onlinePress Release: New edition ... The latest edition of Crystallography Times, the X-ray crystallography newsletter from Rigaku Oxford Diffraction, is now ... of Crystallography Times offering current X-ray crystallography news is available online. Rigaku XtaLAB Synergy-Custom X-ray ...
more infohttp://www.prweb.com/releases/2017/09/prweb14648074.htm

X-Ray Crystallography  - William Clegg - Oxford University PressX-Ray Crystallography - William Clegg - Oxford University Press

X-Ray Crystallography provides a succinct account of the technique of X-ray crystallography for determining structure in the ... 1. Fundamentals of X-ray crystallography. 2. X-ray crystallography in practice. 3. X-ray crystallography case studies. 4. ... X-Ray Crystallography provides a succinct account of the technique of X-ray crystallography for determining structure in the ... X-Ray Crystallography. Second Edition. William Clegg. Oxford Chemistry Primers. *Examples and applications presented throughout ...
more infohttps://global.oup.com/academic/product/x-ray-crystallography-9780198700975?facet_narrowbybinding_facet=Ebook&prevNumResPerPage=20&lang=en&cc=us

Small Molecule X-ray Crystallography Facility (CheXray) | College of ChemistrySmall Molecule X-ray Crystallography Facility (CheXray) | College of Chemistry

The Small Molecule X-ray Crystallography Facility (a.k.a. CheXray) is a full service and user facility. We can provide you with ... The facility currently houses three state-of-the-art single crystal X-ray diffractometers and one state-of-the-art powder X-ray ... Typically, X-ray diffraction is used to determine the solid-state molecular structure at the atomic level of crystalline ... all services related to the X-ray diffraction of single crystals and powders of small molecule compounds. ...
more infohttps://chemistry.berkeley.edu/research-facilities/chexray

Principles of Protein X-Ray Crystallography book by Jan Drenth | 5 available editions | Alibris BooksPrinciples of Protein X-Ray Crystallography book by Jan Drenth | 5 available editions | Alibris Books

Principles of Protein X-Ray Crystallography has 5 available editions to buy at Alibris ... Principles of Protein X-Ray Crystallography by Jan Drenth starting at $7.48. ... X-ray crystallography has been a vital method for studying the structure of proteins and other macromolecules for many years. ... X-ray crystallography has been a vital method for studying the structure of proteins and other macromolecules for many years. ...
more infohttps://www.alibris.com/Principles-of-Protein-X-Ray-Crystallography-Jan-Drenth/book/5341154?qsort=p

Capsid conformational sampling in HK97 maturation visualized by X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM.  - PubMed - NCBICapsid conformational sampling in HK97 maturation visualized by X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM. - PubMed - NCBI

Capsid conformational sampling in HK97 maturation visualized by X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM.. Gan L1, Speir JA, Conway JF ... Here, we use X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM to demonstrate that in the final transition in maturation (requiring neutral pH ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17098191?dopt=AbstractPlus

Structure of ATP synthase from Paracoccus denitrificans determined by X-ray crystallography at 4.0 Å resolution | PNASStructure of ATP synthase from Paracoccus denitrificans determined by X-ray crystallography at 4.0 Å resolution | PNAS

Structure of ATP synthase from Paracoccus denitrificans determined by X-ray crystallography at 4.0 Å resolution. Edgar Morales- ... Structure of ATP synthase from Paracoccus denitrificans determined by X-ray crystallography at 4.0 Å resolution ... has been solved by X-ray crystallography at 4.0 Å resolution. The ζ-protein is bound via its N-terminal α-helix in a catalytic ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/112/43/13231.abstract

Global X-Ray Crystallography Market Insights, Forecast to 2025 : ReportsnReportsGlobal X-Ray Crystallography Market Insights, Forecast to 2025 : ReportsnReports

Check for Discount on Global X-Ray Crystallography Market Insights, Forecast to 2025 report by QYResearch Group. X-Ray ... Crystallography is the study of crystal structures, when... ... 1.4.3 X-Ray Crystallography Reagents. 1.4.4 X-Ray Optics. 1.4.5 ... Table X-Ray Crystallography Value Chain. Table X-Ray Crystallography Customers List. Table X-Ray Crystallography Distributors ... 2.2 X-Ray Crystallography Growth Rate by Regions. 2.2.1 Global X-Ray Crystallography Sales by Regions. 2.2.2 Global X-Ray ...
more infohttps://www.reportsnreports.com/reports/1708955-global-x-ray-crystallography-market-insights-forecast-to-2025.html
  • The Biomolecular X-ray crystallography group, headed by Assistant Prof. Albert Guskov, is embedded in the GBB Institute and together with the Electron Microscopy group headed by Assistant Prof. Cristina Paulino constitutes the Structural Biology unit of GBB. (rug.nl)
  • The authors have developed their course lecture notes into a useful book that is suitable for graduate students of materials science and engineering who use X-ray diffraction techniques. (springer.com)
  • Singer P. T., Smalas A., Carty R. P., Mangel W. F., and Sweet R. M. (1993) The hydrolytic water molecule in trypsin, revealed by time-resolved Laue crystallography. (springer.com)
  • First, we decided to replace two 19-year-old Rigaku RU200 x-ray sources with a new powerful, state-of-the-art x-ray generator with optics and a CCD detector. (photonics.com)
  • The Product Spotlight showcases the Rigaku XtaLAB Synergy Custom single crystal X-ray diffraction system, a fully flexible Hybrid Photon Counting (HPC)-based system for laboratories requiring tailored solutions for their unique crystallography applications. (prweb.com)
  • To learn the method of X-ray diffraction crystallography well and to be able to cope with the given subject, a certain number of exercises is presented in the book to calculate specific values for typical examples. (springer.com)
  • The objectives of this study are to define, segment, and project the size of the X-Ray Crystallography market based on company, product type, end user and key regions. (reportsnreports.com)
  • To study and analyze the global X-Ray Crystallography market size (value & volume) by company, key regions, products and end user, breakdown data from 2014 to 2018, and forecast to 2025. (reportsnreports.com)