Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.
Literary and oral genre expressing meaning via symbolism and following formal or informal patterns.
The collective name for islands of the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, including the Mariana, PALAU, Caroline, Marshall, and Kiribati Islands. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p761 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p350)
The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.
The scattering of NEUTRONS by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. It is useful in CRYSTALLOGRAPHY and POWDER DIFFRACTION.
Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.
Neutrons, the energy of which exceeds some arbitrary level, usually around one million electron volts.
A projective technique which focuses primarily on the dynamics of interpersonal relationships. It consists of a series of 31 pictures that depict various social situations and interpersonal relations. A subset is selected by the examiner and presented to the subject who is asked to tell a story about each picture. The stories are interpreted in terms of the subject's relations to authority figures, to contemporaries of both sexes, and in terms of the compromises between external demands and the needs of the id, the ego, and the superego. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.
Discussions, descriptions or catalogs of public displays or items representative of a given subject.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
Rare leukoencephalopathy with infantile-onset accumulation of Rosenthal fibers in the subpial, periventricular, and subependymal zones of the brain. Rosenthal fibers are GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN aggregates found in ASTROCYTES. Juvenile- and adult-onset types show progressive atrophy of the lower brainstem instead. De novo mutations in the GFAP gene are associated with the disease with propensity for paternal inheritance.

Three-dimensional structure of a recombinant gap junction membrane channel. (1/1562)

Gap junction membrane channels mediate electrical and metabolic coupling between adjacent cells. The structure of a recombinant cardiac gap junction channel was determined by electron crystallography at resolutions of 7.5 angstroms in the membrane plane and 21 angstroms in the vertical direction. The dodecameric channel was formed by the end-to-end docking of two hexamers, each of which displayed 24 rods of density in the membrane interior, which is consistent with an alpha-helical conformation for the four transmembrane domains of each connexin subunit. The transmembrane alpha-helical rods contrasted with the double-layered appearance of the extracellular domains. Although not indicative for a particular type of secondary structure, the protein density that formed the extracellular vestibule provided a tight seal to exclude the exchange of substances with the extracellular milieu.  (+info)

Structure of DNA-dependent protein kinase: implications for its regulation by DNA. (2/1562)

DNA double-strand breaks are created by ionizing radiation or during V(D)J recombination, the process that generates immunological diversity. Breaks are repaired by an end-joining reaction that requires DNA-PKCS, the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase. DNA-PKCS is a 460 kDa serine-threonine kinase that is activated by direct interaction with DNA. Here we report its structure at 22 A resolution, as determined by electron crystallography. The structure contains an open channel, similar to those seen in other double-stranded DNA-binding proteins, and an enclosed cavity with three openings large enough to accommodate single-stranded DNA, with one opening adjacent to the open channel. Based on these structural features, we performed biochemical experiments to examine the interactions of DNA-PKCS with different DNA molecules. Efficient kinase activation required DNA longer than 12 bp, the minimal length of the open channel. Competition experiments demonstrated that DNA-PKCS binds to double- and single-stranded DNA via separate but interacting sites. Addition of unpaired single strands to a double-stranded DNA fragment stimulated kinase activation. These results suggest that activation of the kinase involves interactions with both double- and single-stranded DNA, as suggested by the structure. A model for how the kinase is regulated by DNA is described.  (+info)

Solution structure of a lipid transfer protein extracted from rice seeds. Comparison with homologous proteins. (3/1562)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the three dimensional structure of rice nonspecific lipid transfer protein (ns-LTP), a 91 amino acid residue protein belonging to the broad family of plant ns-LTP. Sequence specific assignment was obtained for all but three HN backbone 1H resonances and for more than 95% of the 1H side-chain resonances using a combination of 1H 2D NOESY; TOCSY and COSY experiments at 293 K. The structure was calculated on the basis of four disulfide bridge restraints, 1259 distance constraints derived from 1H-1H Overhauser effects, 72 phi angle restraints and 32 hydrogen-bond restraints. The final solution structure involves four helices (H1: Cys3-Arg18, H2: Ala25-Ala37, H3: Thr41-Ala54 and H4: Ala66-Cys73) followed by a long C-terminal tail (T) with no observable regular structure. N-capping residues (Thr2, Ser24, Thr40), whose side-chain oxygen atoms are involved in hydrogen bonds with i + 3 amide proton additionally stabilize the N termini of the first three helices. The fourth helix involving Pro residues display a mixture of alpha and 3(10) conformation. The rms deviation of 14 final structures with respect to the average structure is 1.14 +/- 0.16 A for all heavy atoms (C, N, O and S) and 0.72 +/- 0.01 A for the backbone atoms. The global fold of rice ns-LTP is close to the previously published structures of wheat, barley and maize ns-LTPs exhibiting nearly identical pattern of the numerous sequence specific interactions. As reported previously for different four-helix topology proteins, hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic mechanisms of fold stabilization were found for the rice ns-LTP. The sequential alignment of 36 ns-LTP primary structures strongly suggests that there is a uniform pattern of specific long-range interactions (in terms of sequence), which stabilize the fold of all plant ns-LTPs.  (+info)

Biochemical evolution III: polymerization on organophilic silica-rich surfaces, crystal-chemical modeling, formation of first cells, and geological clues. (4/1562)

Catalysis at organophilic silica-rich surfaces of zeolites and feldspars might generate replicating biopolymers from simple chemicals supplied by meteorites, volcanic gases, and other geological sources. Crystal-chemical modeling yielded packings for amino acids neatly encapsulated in 10-ring channels of the molecular sieve silicalite-ZSM-5-(mutinaite). Calculation of binding and activation energies for catalytic assembly into polymers is progressing for a chemical composition with one catalytic Al-OH site per 25 neutral Si tetrahedral sites. Internal channel intersections and external terminations provide special stereochemical features suitable for complex organic species. Polymer migration along nano/micrometer channels of ancient weathered feldspars, plus exploitation of phosphorus and various transition metals in entrapped apatite and other microminerals, might have generated complexes of replicating catalytic biomolecules, leading to primitive cellular organisms. The first cell wall might have been an internal mineral surface, from which the cell developed a protective biological cap emerging into a nutrient-rich "soup." Ultimately, the biological cap might have expanded into a complete cell wall, allowing mobility and colonization of energy-rich challenging environments. Electron microscopy of honeycomb channels inside weathered feldspars of the Shap granite (northwest England) has revealed modern bacteria, perhaps indicative of Archean ones. All known early rocks were metamorphosed too highly during geologic time to permit simple survival of large-pore zeolites, honeycombed feldspar, and encapsulated species. Possible microscopic clues to the proposed mineral adsorbents/catalysts are discussed for planning of systematic study of black cherts from weakly metamorphosed Archaean sediments.  (+info)

Structural interpretation of site-directed mutagenesis and specificity of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 using comparative modelling. (5/1562)

The catalytic subunit of protein kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2alpha), which has specificity for both ATP and GTP, shows significant amino acid sequence similarity to the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). We constructed site-directed mutants of CK2alpha and used a three-dimensional model to investigate the basis for the dual specificity. Introduction of Phe and Gly at positions 50 and 51, in order to restore the pattern of the glycine-rich motif, did not seriously affect the specificity for ATP or GTP. We show that the dual specificity probably originates from the loop situated around the position His115 to Asp120 (HVNNTD). The insertion of a residue in this loop in CK2 alpha subunits, compared with CDK2 and other kinases, might orient the backbone to interact with the base A and G; this insertion is conserved in all known CK2alpha. The mutant deltaN118, the design of which was based on the modelling, showed reduced affinity for GTP as predicted from the model. Other mutants were intended to probe the integrity of the catalytic loop, alter the polarity of a buried residue and explore the importance of the carboxy terminus. Introduction of Arg to replace Asn189, which is mapped on the activation loop, results in a mutant with decreased k(cat), possibly as a result of disruption of the interaction between this residue and basic residues in the vicinity. Truncation at position 331 eliminates the last 60 residues of the alpha subunit and this mutant has a reduced catalytic efficiency compared with the wild-type. Catalytic efficiency is restored in the truncation mutant by the replacement of a potentially buried Glu at position 252 by Lys, probably owing to a higher stability resulting from the formation of a salt bridge between Lys252 and Asp208.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics simulation of alpha-lactalbumin and calcium binding c-type lysozyme. (6/1562)

Alpha-lactalbumins (LAs) and c-type lysozymes (LYZs) are two classes of proteins which have a 35-40% sequence homology and share a common three dimensional fold but perform different functions. Lysozymes bind and cleave the glycosidic bond linkage in sugars, where as, alpha-lactalbumin does not bind sugar but participates in the synthesis of lactose. Alpha-lactalbumin is a metallo-protein and binds calcium, where as, only a few of the LYZs bind calcium. These proteins consist of two domains, an alpha-helical and a beta-strand domain, separated by a cleft. Calcium is bound at a loop situated at the bottom of the cleft and is important for the structural integrity of the protein. Calcium is an ubiquitous intracellular signal in higher eukaryotes and structural changes induced on calcium binding have been observed in a number of proteins. In the present study, molecular dynamics simulations of equine LYZ and human LA, with and without calcium, were carried out. We detail the differences in the dynamics of equine LYZ and human LA, and discuss it in the light of experimental data already available and relate it to the behavior of the functionally important regions of both the proteins. These simulations bring out the role of calcium in the conformation and dynamics of these metallo-proteins. In the calcium bound LA, the region of the protein around the calcium binding site is not only frozen but the atomic fluctuations are found to increase away from the binding site and peak at the exposed sites of the protein. This channeling of fluctuations away from the metal binding site could serve as a general mechanism by which the effect of metal binding at a site is transduced to other parts of the protein and could play a key role in protein-ligand and/or protein-protein interaction.  (+info)

Homogenization and crystallization of histidine ammonia-lyase by exchange of a surface cysteine residue. (7/1562)

Histidase (histidine ammonia-lyase, EC 4.3.1.3) from Pseudomonas putida was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. In the absence of thiols the tetrameric enzyme gave rise to undefined aggregates and suitable crystals could not be obtained. The solvent accessibility along the chain was predicted from the amino acid sequence. Among the seven cysteines, only one was labeled as 'solvent-exposed'. The exchange of this cysteine to alanine abolished all undefined aggregations and yielded readily crystals diffracting to 1.8 A resolution.  (+info)

Iron in the basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease. An in vitro study using extended X-ray absorption fine structure and cryo-electron microscopy. (8/1562)

Iron is found in high concentration in some areas of the brain, and increased iron in the substantia nigra is a feature of Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical environment of brain iron in post-mortem tissue to provide information on the possible role of iron in neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. Iron has also been implicated as the cause of signal loss in areas of high brain iron on T2-weighted MRI sequences. Knowledge of the physical environment of the brain iron is essential in interpreting the cause of signal change. Post-mortem tissue was obtained from six cases of Parkinson's disease and from six age-matched controls. Iron levels were measured using absorption spectrophotometry. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure was used to evaluate the atomic environment of iron within the substantia nigra and both segments of the globus pallidus. Cryo-electron transmission microscopy was used to probe the iron storage proteins in these areas. Iron levels were increased in the parkinsonian nigra and lateral portion of the globus pallidus. Spectra from the extended X-ray absorption fine structure experiments showed that ferritin was the only storage protein detectable in both control and parkinsonian tissue in all areas studied. Cryo-electron transmission microscopy studies showed that ferritin was more heavily loaded with iron in Parkinson's disease when compared with age-matched controls. In summary we have shown that iron levels are increased in two areas of the brain in Parkinson's disease including the substantia nigra, the site of maximal neurodegeneration. This produces increased loading of ferritin, which is the normal brain iron storage protein. It is possible that increased loading of ferritin may increase the risk of free radical-induced damage. Differences in ferritin loading may explain regional differences in iron's effect on the T2 signal.  (+info)

The basic principle of electron crystallography is to calculate a 3D density map by combining the amplitudes obtained from electron diffraction patterns with the experimental phases calculated from images of two-dimensional crystals of membrane or soluble proteins. This technology is very well developed and has produced a number of atomic models of membrane proteins in a lipid environment. Focused on comprehensive experimental protocols, Electron Crystallography of Soluble and Membrane Proteins: Methods and Protocols covers the entire range of techniques used in electron crystallography, including protein sample preparation, 2D crystallization, and screening in negative stain over electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) and data processing, as well as modeling of conformational changes. Additional chapters provide perspective on past, present, and future challenges as well as complementary methods. Written for the popular Methods in Molecular Biology™ series, the work contains the kind of detailed ...
This patterns more hydrologic download electron crystallography novel approaches for structure determination of nanosized materials nato science series ii mathematics physics and Pages for pharmaceutical service updates. 8 ( 120x173mm) fine to a national suited download electron crystallography novel approaches for structure determination of nanosized materials nato science way with those apps and deposition movies. 9600 and the datasets think predetermined organized.
In the era of nanoscience, the size of particles to be investigated gets smaller and smaller but the traditional techniques used for characterization of materials are becoming inadequate. Electron Crystallography (EC) is a powerful and sometimes the unique tool to study crystal structure and properties of nano sized materials. It is a broad branch of science comprising both academic research and industrial needs. Materials studied using EC methods vary in size and nature, ranging from inorganic nanoparticles to biological samples. Exciting developments such as aberration correctors, dedicated specimen-holders, highly sensitive cameras, new data acquisition techniques, automated routines for data collection and new data processing softwares allow electron crystallographers to solve crystal structures from nano particles at atomic resolution.. The Course intends to review the structure solution using electron crystallography methods as well as novel applications; it will be divided into three ...
Electron crystallography is a method to determine the arrangement of atoms in solids using an electron microscope. It can complement X-ray crystallography on proteins, such as membrane proteins, that cannot easily form the large 3-dimensional crystals required for that process. Structures are usually determined from either 2-dimensional crystals (sheets or helices), polyhedrons such as viral capsids, or dispersed individual proteins. Electrons can be used in these situations, whereas X-rays cannot, because electrons interact more strongly with atoms than X-rays do. Thus, X-rays will travel through a thin 2-dimensional crystal without diffracting significantly, whereas electrons can be used to form an image. Conversely, the strong interaction between electrons and proteins makes thick (e.g. 3-dimensional) crystals impervious to electrons, which only penetrate short distances. One of the main difficulties in X-ray crystallography is determining phases in the diffraction pattern. Because no X-ray ...
In cases where ultra-flat cryo-preparations of well-ordered two-dimensional (2D) crystals are available, electron crystallography is a powerful method for the determination of the high-resolution structures of membrane and soluble proteins. However, crystal unbending and Fourier-filtering methods in electron crystallography three-dimensional (3D) image processing are generally limited in their performance for 2D crystals that are badly ordered or non-flat. Here we present a single particle image processing approach, which is implemented as an extension of the 2D crystallographic pipeline realized in the 2dx software package, for the determination of high-resolution 3D structures of membrane proteins. The algorithm presented, addresses the low single-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 2D crystal images by exploiting neighborhood correlation between adjacent proteins in the 2D crystal. Compared with conventional single particle processing for randomly oriented particles, the computational costs are greatly ...
Examples of technology (hardware and software) developed for electron crystallogarphy by TEMIMPS Transcontinental Electron Microscopy Initiative for Membrane Protein Structure
Examples of technology (hardware and software) developed for electron crystallography by TEMIMPS Transcontinental Electron Microscopy Initiative for Membrane Protein Structure
PDB 2B6O, EMDB 2973 - 1.9Å resolutuion electron crystallography structure of the water channel Aquaporin-0 in its closed state. ...
Author: Zhao, G. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2010; Keywords: Two-dimensional crystallization; Membrane protein; Eukaryotic; Structure; Electron crystallography; Cryo-EM; Title: Two-dimensional crystallization conditions of human leukotriene C4 synthase requiring adjustment of a particularly large combination of specific parameters
Electron crystallography is a method to determine the arrangement of atoms in solids using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This method works in many cases where X-ray crystallography does not. The latter needs large 3-D crystals to work. Protein structures are usually done from 2-dimensional crystals (sheets or helices), polyhedrons such as viral capsids, or dispersed proteins. Electrons can be used in these situations, whereas X-rays cannot, because electrons interact more strongly with atoms than X-rays do. ...
The workshop will provide hands-on training on practical aspects of 2D crystal data collection on a Titan Krios, and cover in depth the theoretical foundations and the practical image processing of 2D crystal cryo-EM images with the 2DX software package. No previous experience is required ...
Electron crystallographic studies on inorganic crystals using high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) images were first performed by Aaron Klug in 1978[9] and by Sven Hovmöller and coworkers in 1984.[10] HREM images were used because they allow to select (by computer software) only the very thin regions close to the edge of the crystal for structure analysis (see also crystallographic image processing). This is of crucial importance since in the thicker parts of the crystal the exit-wave function (which carries the information about the intensity and position of the projected atom columns) is no longer linearly related to the projected crystal structure. Moreover, not only do the HREM images change their appearance with increasing crystal thickness, they are also very sensitive to the chosen setting of the defocus Δf of the objective lens (see the HREM images of GaN for example). To cope with this complexity Michael OKeefe started in the early 1970s to develop image simulation software ...
Voltage gated potassium channels are transmembrane protein complexes that form a pore specifically allowing the passage of potassium ions. One method to determine the structure of these and other membrane proteins is electron crystallography. For this, purified membrane proteins are mixed with lipids and induced to form two-dimensional crystals. These flat crystal sheets are then imaged by cryo-EM and analysed. There is no potential gradient across them as the protein is surrounded by the same buffer. The gradient required for voltage gated channel proteins to function can be created if they are embedded in a spherical lipid bilayer that encloses liquid, i.e., if they are embedded in the membrane of a liposome. The buffer conditions inside and outside the liposomes dictate whether they are in an open or a closed conformation ...
I was a postdoctoral scientist in Prof. Taylors laboratory from 1998 to 2001. My project was to determine the structure of the inhibited conformation of smooth muscle HMM and myosin. I used electron crystallography of 2-D arrays of dephosphorylated smooth muscle HMM. The protein was expressed by Dr. Kathy Trybus and the crystallography was done using frozen hydrated specimens. This is a unique capability of Prof. Taylor’s laboratory. The 3-D reconstructions showed an unusual interaction between the two myosin heads that explained most of the biochemistry of the inhibited state of this myosin. The result obtained with the HMM fragment was later confirmed using full length smooth muscle myosin and later by work done in the laboratory of Dr. Roger Craig in tarantula myosin filaments.. ...
The Woodlands, Texas (PRWEB) August 30, 2017 -- The latest edition of Crystallography Times, the X-ray crystallography newsletter from Rigaku Oxford
Crystallography: the science that examines crystals, which can be found everywhere in nature-from salt to snowflakes to gemstones. Crystallographers use
Over 4,714 mineral species descriptions are included in this HTML-linked table of crystallography for all known valid mineral species.
9780198717591 Our cheapest price for Crystallography: A Very Short Introduction is $8.68. Free shipping on all orders over $35.00.
Dan, perhaps one reason crystallography isnt more popular in your poll is that the question was what technique is used in fragment screening. I would bet that most, if not all of us use crystallography in FBLD, but not as the upfront screen. At least, thats how I interpreted the question. ...
The structure of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complex, a membrane protein serving as the major antenna of solar energy in plant photosynthesis, has been determined at 6 Å resolution by electron crystallography. Within the complex, three membrane-spanning α helices and 15 chlorophyll molecules are resolved. There is an intramolecular diad relating two of the α helices and some of the chlorophylls. The spacing of the chlorophylls suggests energy transfer by delocalized exciton coupling and Förster mechanisms.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The molecular structure of maleimide. T2 - an electron diffraction study. AU - Harsányi, László. AU - Vajda, Erzsébet. AU - Hargittai, István. PY - 1985/7. Y1 - 1985/7. N2 - The molecular structure of maleimide has been investigated by electron diffraction. The experimental data are consistent with a C2v symmetry model. The following bond lengths (rg) and bond angles (rc) were determined:NC 1.409 = 0.003, CC 1.508 ± 0.003, C=C 1.344 ± 0.004, and C=O 1.206 ± 0.002 A; CNC 112.0 = 0.2, NCC 106.8 ± 0.2, NC=O 123.9 ± 0.3, and CCH 114.7 ± 1.3°. The electron diffraction structure is in agreement with the results of quantum chemical calculations. The bond lengths indicate a somewhat greater delocalization about the N atom than in the OCCCCO skeleton.. AB - The molecular structure of maleimide has been investigated by electron diffraction. The experimental data are consistent with a C2v symmetry model. The following bond lengths (rg) and bond angles (rc) were determined:NC ...
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In this chapter, the main formulations of the dynamical theory of electron diffraction are outlined. These include the defining equations, forward scattering, the evolution operator, the projection approximation, semi‐reciprocal space, the two‐beam approximation, the eigenvalue approach, translational invariance, dispersion surfaces, the multislice formulation, the Born series and other approximations. ...
The Escherichia coli porin OmpG, which acts as an efficient unspecific channel for mono-, di- and trisaccharides, has been purified and crystallized in two dimensions. Projection maps of two different crystal forms of OmpG at 6 A resolution show that the protein has a beta-barrel structure character …
Exploring ultrafast charge migration is of great importance in biological and chemical reactions. We present a scheme to monitor attosecond charge migration in molecules by electron diffraction with spatial and temporal resolutions from ab initio numerical simulations. An ultraviolet pulse creates a coherent
The huge interest in two-dimensional crystals for energy applications comes both from their physico-chemical properties, and the possibility of producing and processing them in large quantities, in a cost-effective manner, says Bonaccorso. In this context, the development of functional inks based on two-dimensional crystals is the gateway for the realisation of new generation electrodes in energy storage and conversion devices. Bonaccorso adds that the challenge ahead is to demonstrate a disruptive technology in which two-dimensional materials not only replace traditional electrodes, but more importantly enable whole new device concepts ...
Best wishes, Tracey ------------ Dr Tracey Barrett, Crystallography, Senior Lecturer in Structural Biology, Institute for Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck College, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX Tel: 020 7631 6822 Fax: 020 7631 6803 ...
從圖書館擷取資料! Advancing methods for biomolecular crystallography. [Randy J Read; Alexandre G Urzhumtsev; Vladimir Y Lunin;] -- This work presents a snapshot of the state of the art of modern biomolecular crystallography, from crystallisation through structure determination and even interactive presentation on the web. ...
You searched for: Genre Drafts (documents) Remove constraint Genre: Drafts (documents) Language English Remove constraint Language: English Subject Crystallography, X-Ray Remove constraint Subject: Crystallography, X-Ray ...
National Seminar on Crystallography The National Seminar on Crystallography 43A was held at Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali during 28th and 30th March, 2014 by the Department of Chemical Sciences. This conference was
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!%Bruker AXS%! has launched its Smart X2S crystal-to-structure benchtop x-ray crystallography system for automated 3-D chemical structure determinatio
Pris: 945,-. E-bok, 2015. Leveres direkte via nedlastning . Kjøp boken Symmetry, Spectroscopy, and Crystallography av Robert Glaser (ISBN 9783527684205) hos Adlibris.com. Fri frakt.
Read independent reviews on RAPID II: Curved imaging plate chemical crystallography system from Rigaku Corporation on SelectScience
MolProbity Validation and Corrections: for Crystallography, PDB, and Biomedicine Summary: The criteria and services of our MolProbity web site a...
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Structural Chemistry & Crystallography Communication journal publishes open access papers in the field of structural chemistry and crystallography.
The theory of modulated structures and the study of such materials constitute an active and healthy field in crystallography. To view visualizations of over 60 modulated stuctures published in Acta Crystallographica Section B, click on the structure below. ...
The theory of modulated structures and the study of such materials constitute an active and healthy field in crystallography. To view visualizations of over 60 modulated stuctures published in Acta Crystallographica Section B, click on the structure below. ...
Ultracold Electron Source for Single-Shot, Ultrafast Electron Diffraction - Volume 15 Issue 4 - S.B. van der Geer, M.J. de Loos, E.J.D. Vredenbregt, O.J. Luiten
Present-day electron microscopy enables sub-Angstrom spatial resolution, i.e. a single atom may be resolved, but only at exposure times of the order of seconds. The time scale of atomic motion, however, can be as short as 100 fs. The next challenge is therefore to realize both atomic spatial and temporal resolution, i.e. 0.1 nm and 0.1 ps, thus enabling the study of structural dynamics at the shortest time scales. For reasons of process repeatability, reproducibility, and radiation damage considerations single-shot operation would be ideal. Because of stringent beam requirement single-shot, 100 fs electron microscopy is completely impossible. Electron diffraction, however, is much less demanding, requiring much less charge for recording a high-quality diffraction patter and only a modest beam quality. We have developed a setup for doing single-shot, 100 fs electron diffraction. Key ingredients are creation of waterbag bunches by femtosecond photoemission and compression of bunches (inversion of ...
Scientists at the University of Toronto have employed femtosecond electron diffraction to study the ultrafast melting of aluminum under illumination b
Post-doctoral Positions in X-ray Crystallography and Computational Biology Two post-doctoral positions are available immediately, one in experimental and one in computational aspects of protein crystallography. Applicants for the first position should be experienced in practical aspects of protein crystallography and structure determination. Experience in cloning and protein expression is also desirable. Crystals are already in hand for one novel carotenoid-binding protein. Subsequent projects will diversify to include work on self-assembling proteins and other proteins with repetitive or otherwise unusual architectures. The second position is in the area of computational crystallography, but may also include other aspects of computational biology such as genomics or protein structure analysis. The successful applicant should have a strong background in scientific programming, an understanding of numerical methods, and an ability to solve complex problem. Familiarity with crystallographic and ...
The Protein crystallography core facility of Biocenter Oulu has the infrastructure for protein structural studies from crystallization to x-ray data collection and structure determination.
Scientists have made a significant advance toward making movies of extremely fast atomic processes with potential applications in energy production, chemistry, medicine, materials science and more. Using a superfast, high-resolution electron camera, a new instrument for ultrafast electron diffraction (UED), researchers have captured the worlds fastest UED images of nitrogen molecules rotating in a gas, with a record shutter speed of 100 quadrillionths of a second ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Orientation imaging microscopy in two-dimensional crystals via undersampled microscopy. AU - Angelescu, D. E.. AU - Harrison, C. K.. AU - Trawick, M. L.. AU - Chaikin, P. M.. AU - Register, Richard Alan. AU - Adamson, D. H.. PY - 2004/2/1. Y1 - 2004/2/1. N2 - A novel microscopy analysis technique is presented, with applications in imaging two-dimensional grains and grain boundaries. The method allows the identification of grain shapes and orientations from large area micrographs, via the moire pattern obtained in a raster image. The observed moire pattern originates from the aliasing between a micrographs regular sampling raster and the inherent periodicity of the elements forming the grain under study. The technique presented is very general, allowing grain analysis via many types of microscopy. We demonstrate it in this paper by using Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy on diblock copolymer thin films.. AB - A novel microscopy analysis ...
Almenningen, Arne Helgaker, Trygve Haaland, Arne Samdal, Svein . The molecular structures of dimethyl-, diethyl- and dipropylzinc determined by gas phase electron diffraction. Normal coordinate analysis and ab initio molecular orbital calculations on dimethylzinc. Acta Chemica Scandinavica. 1982, A36, 159- ...
An investigation of some molecular structures by the method of electron diffraction and a preliminary design of a new apparatus for measuring scattered electron intensities ...
Publishers Accepted Manuscript: Complex oxide growth using simultaneous in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and x-ray reflectivity: When is one layer complete? ...
Protein Crystallization & Crystallography Market by Technology (Ion-Exchange Chromatography, HPLC, Gel-Electrophoresis, NMR, X-Ray Crystallography), Products (Reagents & Instruments) & End-Users
X-ray crystallography is the major method for structure determination of macromolecules. About 85% of all known structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Knowing the structure of a protein helps in understanding better how the protein works, how it interacts with other proteins and small molecules in the cell and what kind of conformational changes it undergoes to exert its function. Even subtle changes in protein structures can have tremendous consequences on human health, causing serious diseases. A major application therefore of X-ray crystallography is in the design of new drugs.. A crystal structure determination is not a trivial task. It mainly involves five steps with the first two being the most difficult (bottlenecks):. ...
[251 Pages Report] Protein Crystallization Market categories the Global Market by Product (Instruments, Services & Software), Technology (Chromatography, Electrophoresis, Protein Crystallization, Protein Crystal Mounting, Reagents/Consumables) & End Users & by Geography
(EMAILWIRE.COM, January 12, 2018 ) Protein crystallization is a process of formation of protein crystals, which are used for industrial or scientific purposes, such as X-Ray Crystallography. Increasing R&D by pharmaceuticals and biotechnology companies is one of the major driver driving the growth...
The Crystallography Times newsletter from Rigaku Oxford Diffraction focuses on single crystal X-ray diffraction and is available from the companys website October 30, 2017 - The Woodlands, Texas. The latest edition of Crystallography Times, the X-ray crystallography newsletter from Rigaku Oxford Diffraction, is now available to view on the companys global website. 1600181092
Crystallography Made Crystal Clear makes crystallography accessible to readers who have no prior knowledge of the field or its mathematical basis. This is the most comprehensive and concise reference for beginning Macromolecular crystallographers, written by a leading expert in the field. Rhodes uses visual and geometric models to help readers understand the mathematics that form the basis of x-ray crystallography. He has invested a great deal of time and effort on World Wide Web tools for users of models, including beginning-level tutorials in molecular modeling on personal computers. Rhodes personal CMCC Home Page also provides access to tools and links to resources discussed in the text. Most significantly, the final chapter introduces the reader to macromolecular modeling on personal computers-featuring SwissPdbViewer, a free, powerful modeling program now available for PC, Power Macintosh, and Unix computers. This updated and expanded new edition uses attractive four-color art, web tool access
The following companies as the key players in the global protein crystallization and crystallography market: Anatrace, Bruker, Formulatrix, Jena Bioscience, and Rigaku
The facility provides low volume crystallisation services and screen making. Our customers can also order custom built premixed crystallisation solutions. Full crystallisation service includes composition of the crystallisation setup and scheduled imaging of the experiment for up to four months. The crystallisation droplets are set up using our Mosquito LCP or Oryx nanodrop robots, which can use as little as 100 nl protein per experiment and are suitable for membrane proteins and for air-sensitive samples. Scientists can examine the maturation of the project over time and can pick up the crystallisation plate for an X-ray experiment. The facility is equipped with a dedicated imaging station for combined visible/UV epifluorescence imaging of very small protein crystals (2μm ...
Modern electron microscope can provide information at the atomic scale in the spatial dimemsion. The next generation of instruments will also provide temporal resolutions in the fs regime. This project will investigate solutions to providng temporal resoltuions from the ms to micro s timescale to bridge the gap between the limits imposed by current detectors and possible future pulsed electron sources.. ...
The ultrafast CT scanner is located in a large room. Your child will lie on a narrow table that slides into the hollow tube-shaped scanner.. Your child will have an intravenous (IV) line if contrast medication is being used. The contrast medication may be injected prior to the procedure or during the procedure.. The CT technologist will be in an adjacent room where the equipment controls are located. However, they will be able to see your child through a large window and will be monitoring him or her constantly during the procedure. If your child is not sedated, he or she will be given a call bell device to let the staff know if he or she needs anything during the procedure. Speakers are located inside the scanner so that your child can hear instructions from the CT staff and they can hear your child respond.. Once the procedure begins, your child will need to be remain very still at all times so that movement will not adversely affect the quality of the images. At intervals, he or she will be ...
The ultrafast CT scanner is located in a large room. Your child will lie on a narrow table that slides into the hollow tube-shaped scanner.. Your child will have an intravenous (IV) line if contrast medication is being used. The contrast medication may be injected prior to the procedure or during the procedure.. The CT technologist will be in an adjacent room where the equipment controls are located. However, they will be able to see your child through a large window and will be monitoring him or her constantly during the procedure. If your child is not sedated, he or she will be given a call bell device to let the staff know if he or she needs anything during the procedure. Speakers are located inside the scanner so that your child can hear instructions from the CT staff and they can hear your child respond.. Once the procedure begins, your child will need to be remain very still at all times so that movement will not adversely affect the quality of the images. At intervals, he or she will be ...
Crystallization is the major bottleneck to 3D structure determination using X-ray crystallography. In this workshop we will discuss many tenets of successful crystallization for both conventional and serial crystallography. Many topics will be covered including fundamentals of crystal growth, strategies to sample crystallization space, identifying crystal hits, electron microscopy applications of crystal analysis, practical considerations for data analysis, difficult crystallization problems, virus crystallography, and an overview of serial crystallography.
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Ultra-fast detection of light lies at the heart of optical communication systems nowadays. Driven by the internet of things and 5G, data communication bandwidth is growing exponentially, thus requiring even faster optical ...
Scientists working with Europes Graphene Flagship provide a wide-ranging review of the potential for 2D crystals in energy conversion and storage.
You searched for: Format Text Remove constraint Format: Text Genre Letters (correspondence) Remove constraint Genre: Letters (correspondence) Subject Crystallography, X-Ray Remove constraint Subject: Crystallography, X-Ray ...
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Title: Journal of Applied Crystallography, Description: Journal of Applied Crystallography covers a wide range of crystallographic topics from the viewpoints of both techniques and theory. The journal presents articles on the application of crystallographi, By: Feedage Forager, ID: 29619, Grade: 88, Type:
The development of cancer is a complex process, which can result from minor mistakes in an otherwise well-functioning network of cellular processes. As such, it is essential that scientists have a clear picture of biochemical processes at an atomic level in order to gain an in-depth understanding of how various cancers occur and develop. One technique starting to gain recognition as a powerful tool is neutron crystallography.
Using neutron crystallography, a team of researchers unequivocally mapped the active site of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an enzyme necessary for nucleotide biosynthesis and a classical drug target.
Chemistry Crystallography Organic Physics Science: 1 assigned downloads, like X-Ray Diffraction: In Crystals, Imperfect Crystals, and Amorphous Bodies - A. Guinier from ebook-reader
On the streets, fans would be at him, demonstrating him a download and a Office. It was like I kept got into the door of a Enough vault seller, he s. Lee was doing download the crystal lattice; the consent constituted changed away Worth.
This book is the first book dealing with structural crystallography of inorganic oxysalts in general. A special emphasis is placed upon structural topology and methods of its description. The latter include graph theory, nets, 2-D and 3-D tilings, polyhedra, etc. The structures considered range from minerals to organically templated oxysalts, for all of which this book provides a unified approach to structure interpretation and classification.
International Tables for Crystallography () pe OKIAN.ro. Pret: 1198.99 lei. Presents a systematic treatment of the maximal subgroups and minimal supergroup
Using X-ray crystallography to determine the 3D structure of a protein is a costly and time-consuming process. One of the major reasons is that the protein
In 1929 Linus Pauling came up with Paulings Rules to describe the principles governing the structure of complex ionic crystals. These rules essentially describe how the arrangement of atoms in a crystal is critically dependent on the size of the atoms, their charge and type of bonding.
The repeating group of a crystal is called the A. nucleus. B. unit cell. C. net. D. crystal system.
X-ray crystallography is currently the most accurate technology for determining 3D structure of protein. It uses the ability of proteins to form crystals under specific conditions. Molecules in the crystal form a very regular three-dimensional pattern, which upon being e...
The actual atomic arrangements of solid material, which may be classified as single crystal, poly crystal, and amorphous. In which, the single crystal has many types, such as SC, BCC, FCC and DIA etc.
Using X-ray crystallography, we are determining the high-resolution structures of enzymes that contribute to the oxidative folding of substrate proteins.. ...
As a solid, Cr adopts a body-centered cubic unit cell. How many unit cells are present per cubic centimeter of Cr?The density of Cr is 7.15g/cm^3 so:...
leptology definition: one minute and tedious discourse on trifling things.; crystallography; one minute and tiresome discourse on trifling things.; In rhetoric, min and step-by-step information.
Crystallography. Mineralogy 55 Earth sciences. Geological sciences 56 Paleontology 57 Biological sciences in general 58 Botany ... Crystallography. Mineralogy 542 Practical laboratory chemistry. Preparative and experimental chemistry 543 Analytical chemistry ...
On May 31, 2011, The BBC World Service broadcast Bök reading "The Xenotext." Crystallography. Coach House (1994) ISBN 978-1- ... In 1994, Bök published Crystallography, "a pataphysical encyclopaedia that misreads the language of poetics through the ... Crystallography was reissued in 2003, and was nominated for a Gerald Lampert Award. Bök is a sound poet and has performed an ...
Twinning can often be a problem in X-ray crystallography, as a twinned crystal does not produce a simple diffraction pattern. ... Macle Tin cry Icosahedral twins Spencer, Leonard James (1911). "Crystallography" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). pp. ... twins Mathematical and Theoretical Crystallography Quartz Crystals - Twinning Grain Boundary Twinning. ...
In geometry and crystallography, a glide plane (or transflection) is a symmetry operation describing how a reflection in a ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Walter Borchardt-Ott (1995). Crystallography. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-59478-7.. ...
Crystallography. Molecular biology, microbiology and synthetic biology methodologies. Advantages of solar fuel production ... A case study for metalloprotein crystallography". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 102 (34): 12047-12052. ...
"Crystallography." Mineralogy Tutorials. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. CD-ROM. Herwig, S. , Hawthorne F.C. (2006) The Topology of ...
Spencer, Leonard James (1911). "Crystallography" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge ...
"Scattering and diffraction". Crystallography. International Union of Crystallography.. ... Optical diffraction pattern ( laser), (analogous to X-ray crystallography) Colors seen in a spider web are partially due to ...
Various authors (2010). "Crystallography". Spanish National Research Council, Department of Crystallography. Retrieved 2010-01- ... Crystallography is the science of measuring the crystal structure (in other words, the atomic arrangement) of a crystal. One ... International Union of Crystallography (1992). "Report of the Executive Committee for 1991". Acta Crystallogr. A. 48 (6): 922- ... See diagram on right.) One of the oldest techniques in the science of crystallography consists of measuring the three- ...
Crystallography Reports. 63 (7): 1110-1115. Bibcode:2018CryRp..63.1110Z. doi:10.1134/s1063774518070283.. ...
V.M. Fridkin (2001). "Bulk photovoltaic effect in noncentrosymmetric crystals". Crystallography Reports. 46 (4): 654-658. ...
Crystallography Reports. 65 (3): 22-427.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Gerasimovskii, V. I. "Lomonosovite, a ...
Crystallography Reports. 50 (3): 379-381. doi:10.1134/1.1927593. ISSN 1063-7745. Rastsvetaeva, Ramiza K.; Chukanov, Nikita V.; ...
Crystallography Reviews. 17 (2): 153-155. doi:10.1080/0889311X.2010.520013. S2CID 97934253. "Yr Athro Syr John Meurig Thomas". ... Crystallography Reviews. 15 (2): 147-150. doi:10.1080/00343400802667749. S2CID 97637525. Somorjai, G. A.; Roberts, M. W. (2003 ...
History of the Crystallography Laboratory Of Crystal-optics of the Institute of Crystallography of the Russian Academy of ... She was noted for development and design of instruments to improve the methods of optical crystallography. She was the last ... Пахомова 2004, p. 2. Crystallography 2010. Burgin 1994, p. 194. Burgin 1994, pp. 270-271. Burgin 2002, p. 48. Burgin 1994, p. ... Пахомова 2004, p. 3. Пахомова 2004, p. 4. Crystallography 2010. Пахомова 2004, p. 6. Burgin, Diana Lewis (2002). "Sophia Parnok ...
Beznosikov, B.V.; Aleksandrov, K.S. (2000). "Perovskite-like crystals of the Ruddlesden-Popper series". Crystallography Reports ...
Crystallography Reports. 53 (4): 553-556. doi:10.1134/S1063774508040044. "Norra Kärr mine" (PDF). tasmanmetals.com. 2012. ...
Crystallography Reports. 52 (4): 639-646. Bibcode:2007CryRp..52..639S. doi:10.1134/S1063774507040116. S2CID 95018505. ...
Crystallography Reports. 48 (2): 226-232. Bibcode:2003CryRp..48..226Y. doi:10.1134/1.1564200. S2CID 94186620. (subscription ...
X-ray crystallography "Set of Beevers Lipson Strips, Sine Set, c.1936". Oxford: Museum of the History of Science. Retrieved 28 ... International Union of Crystallography. Retrieved 28 March 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Cecil Arnold Beevers ... The technique was developed by C. Arnold Beevers (1908-2001), reader in crystallography at the University of Edinburgh, and ... The approach converted the sizable calculations of multi-dimensional Fourier summations needed in crystallography analysis into ...
Bunn, C.W. (1945). Chemical Crystallography. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 88. Williams, R. (1969). "Optical-rotary ...
"Cecil Arnold Beevers" (PDF). Crystallography News. Royal Society of Edinburgh. 2001. Retrieved 28 March 2014. Ross, M. A. S.; ... was a Scottish physicist noted for her work in x-ray crystallography and fluid dynamics. Ross was born in Edinburgh, one of the ...
Crystallography Reports. 50 (6): 938-948. Bibcode:2005CryRp..50..938Z. doi:10.1134/1.2132400. S2CID 94290876. Grassberger, P. ( ...
"Yuri Andreevich Osipyan (On the occasion of his seventieth birthday)". Crystallography Reports. 46 (4): 696-697. 2001. doi: ...
Crystallography Reports. 50 (4): 539-43. Bibcode:2005CryRp..50..539R. doi:10.1134/1.1996727. Johnsen, O.; Grice, J. D.; Gault, ... Crystallography Reports. 63 (3): 349-357. doi:10.1134/s1063774518030240. ISSN 1063-7745 Johnsen, O.; Ferraris, G.; Gault, R. A ... Crystallography Reports. 60 (6): 831-840. Bibcode:2015CryRp..60..831R. doi:10.1134/S1063774515060279. Mindat.org The Eudialyte ...
Bayley, William Shirley (1910). Elementary Crystallography. McGraw-Hill. pp. 192-193. v t e. ...
Schwalbe, Carl H. (1 July 2012). "June Sutor and the C-H ··· O hydrogen bonding controversy". Crystallography Reviews. 18 (3): ... and Aaron Klug on the application of X-ray crystallography in molecular biology. She worked on hydrogen bonding and ...
Kochervinskii, V. (2003). "Piezoelectricity in Crystallizing Ferroelectric Polymers". Crystallography Reports. 48 (4): 649-675 ...
Crystallography Reports. 53 (4): 553-556. doi:10.1134/s1063774508040044. S2CID 96285220. Mindat, Perraultite Mindat, ...
Journal of Applied Crystallography. 13 (5): 450-451. doi:10.1107/s0021889880012514. Harrison, William T. A. (17 June 2010). " ... Journal of Applied Crystallography. 14 (5): 297-299. doi:10.1107/S0021889881009412. Percival, M. J. L. (1990). "Optical ... Crystallography Reports. 49 (6): 895-898. Bibcode:2004CryRp..49..895T. doi:10.1134/1.1828132. S2CID 101730864. Orlova, Albina I ... Crystallography Reports. 51 (3): 357-365. Bibcode:2006CryRp..51..357O. doi:10.1134/S1063774506030011. S2CID 93802518. Xue, Ya- ...
Comparison with X-ray crystallography[edit]. It can complement X-ray crystallography for studies of very small crystals (,0.1 ... A common problem to X-ray crystallography and electron crystallography is radiation damage, by which especially organic ... T.E. Weirich, X.D. Zou & J.L. Lábár (2006). Electron Crystallography: Novel Approaches for Structure Determination of Nanosized ... Electron crystallography is a method to determine the arrangement of atoms in solids using a transmission electron microscope ( ...
... the newly discovered x-ray diffraction by crystals made a complete change in crystallography and in the whole science of the ... chemistry crystallography diffraction dynamics electron microscopy materials science thermodynamics Authors and affiliations. * ... Early in this century, the newly discovered x-ray diffraction by crystals made a complete change in crystallography and in the ... Other important factors promoting the development of crystallog- raphy were the elaboration of the theory of crystal growth ( ...
Other articles where Ionic crystal is discussed: chemical bonding: Ionic solids: The structures of ionic solids have already been described in some detail. They consist of individual ions that are stacked together in such a way that the assembly has the lowest possible energy. These ions may be monatomic (as in sodium chloride, which…
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Talk:Journal_of_Applied_Crystallography&oldid=659275009" ...
https://www.nist.gov/ncnr/sample-prep-labs/restricted-access-sample-prep-labs/a127-crystallography-preparation ...
Other articles where Twinning plane is discussed: twinning: …reflected images along a common twinning plane, repetitions rotated about a common twinning axis, or both. Such twinning planes and axes have simple relations to the crystallographic axes of the crystal and are governed by some fundamental laws; e.g., because the resulting twin would be identical to the original crystal,…
This volume provides methods for modern macromolecular crystallography, including all steps leading to crystal structure ... 1.Macromolecular Crystallography LaboratoryNational Cancer InstituteFrederickUSA. *2.Synchrotron Radiation Research SectionMCL ... Authoritative and practical, Protein Crystallography aims to ensure successful results in the further study of this vital field ... 3.Department of CrystallographyFaculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz UniversityPoznanPoland ...
Over 4,714 mineral species descriptions are included in this HTML-linked table of crystallography for all known valid mineral ... Crystallography and Minerals Arranged by Crystal Form. Amorphous. Isometric. Tetragonal. Orthorhombic. Hexagonal. Trigonal. ... Table Crystallography (Mason 68, p18) - The thirty-two crystal classes are summarized by symmetry elements in the following ... Example crystal images within the crystallography group in the yellow columns.. *Stereo crystal images/java example and mineral ...
Expanding the femtosecond crystallography toolkit. Sol M. Gruner. PNAS December 2, 2014 111 (48) 16986-16987; published ahead ... 2014) Serial crystallography on in vivo grown microcrystals using synchrotron radiation. IUCrJ 1(Pt 2):87-94. ... 2014) Goniometer-based femtosecond crystallography with X-ray free electron lasers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111:17122-17127. ... This is the basis for the term "femtosecond crystallography" (FSC), also known as "diffract before destroy" (4). Thus, although ...
Crystallography is one of the most important techniques in helping to understand the world around us. But what is ... The discovery of crystallography. The story of crystallography dates back to 1912. German physicist Max von Laue and colleagues ... This means crystallography can be used to understand how the immune system fights off viruses. Or it can be used by robotic ... Crystallography reveals why diamonds are hard and shiny and why salt melts in the mouth. But the technique doesnt just look at ...
title = {Neutron protein crystallography}. author = {Niimura, Nobuo}. abstractNote = {X-ray diffraction of single crystal has ... It is difficult to make structural analysis of hydrogen atoms in a protein using X-ray crystallography, whereas neutron ... It is difficult to make structural analysis of hydrogen atoms in a protein using X-ray crystallography, whereas neutron ... 66 PHYSICS; PROTEINS; CRYSTALLOGRAPHY; NEUTRON DIFFRACTION; MONOCHROMATORS; HYDROGEN; LYSOZYME; LAUE METHOD; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ...
Crystallography with X-ray Free Electron Lasers. N. A. Zatsepin X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) promise to revolutionize ... This chapter introduces XFELs and focuses on serial femtosecond crystallography. The principles of SFX, radiation damage and ...
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Practical_optical_crystallography.html?id=WV0bAQAAIAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus ... 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Practical_optical_crystallography.html?id=WV0bAQAAIAAJ ...
The January edition of Crystallography Times from Rigaku Corporation is now available on the companys global ... The January edition of the Crystallography Times newsletter is onlinePress Release: The January edition of the Crystallography ... Crystallography Times vol. 13, No. 1, focusing on single crystal X-ray diffraction, is available from the Rigaku global website ... Crystallography Times is an electronic newsletter published by Rigaku. It serves the X-ray analysis community by presenting ...
An introduction to chemical crystallography / by P. H. Groth, Authorised translation by Hugh Marshall. 1906 [Ebook PDF] by P. H ... Chemical Crystallography: An Introduction to Optical and X-Ray Methods (Second Edition) Bunn, C W ... An introduction to chemical crystallography / by P. H. Groth, Authorised translation by Hugh Marshall. 1906 [Ebook PDF] P. H. ... Chemical crystallography;: An introduction to optical and X-ray methods, Bunn, C. W ...
... crystallography in art and cultural heritage crystallography of materials electron crystallography high pressure inorganic and ... crystallography in art and cultural heritage crystallography of materials electron crystallography high pressure inorganic and ... He now is a prominent part of the history of Crystallography in Canada. Early days of protein crystallography in Canada. ... Crystallography in Canada. continued from Volume 17, Number 4. (This is an extended version of the article that appeared in the ...
... crystallography in art and cultural heritage crystallography of materials electron crystallography high pressure inorganic and ... crystallography in art and cultural heritage crystallography of materials electron crystallography high pressure inorganic and ... principles aperiodic crystals biological macromolecules quantum crystallography crystal growth and characterization of ... aperiodic crystals biological macromolecules quantum crystallography crystal growth and characterization of materials ...
The Basics of Crystallography and Diffraction, 2nd ed. Texts on Crystallography, 5. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN ... X-ray crystallography. Notes. *↑ J.C. Kendrew, et al. 1958. A three-dimensional model of the myoglobin molecule obtained by X- ... Notations used in crystallography. *Coordinates in square brackets such as [100] denote a direction vector (in real space). ... The word "crystallography" is derived from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to ...
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Make research projects and school reports about Crystallography easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... Home Earth and the Environment Minerals, Mining, and Metallurgy Mineralogy and Crystallography Crystallography ... Crystallography is particularly concerned with the internal structure of crystals. X-ray crystallography uses X-rays to ... crystallography A Dictionary of Earth Sciences © A Dictionary of Earth Sciences 1999, originally published by Oxford University ...
The Macromolecular Crystallography SR facility provides PCCR with robotic systems, temperature-controlled rooms, x-ray data ... Macromolecular Crystallography. Overview The ability to determine the structure of proteins using X-ray crystallography has ... As such, X-ray crystallography is an essential tool for the PCCR to carry out its mission - to uncover the fundamental sources ... To enable the research of X-ray crystallography expert and nonexpert PCCR members, the MM-SR provides and maintains in-house ...
Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology have published a review on serial femtosecond crystallography, ... X-ray crystallography. X-ray crystallography is one of the main methods for revealing the 3D structure of biological ... X-ray crystallography produces good results for crystals that are large, stable, and homogeneous -- that is, with no impurities ... Conventional X-ray crystallography involves exposing one crystal to radiation from various angles and analyzing the resulting ...
Previous message: [Protein-crystallography] Two-detector Rigaku Crystallography System Available! *Next message: [Protein- ... Previous message: [Protein-crystallography] Two-detector Rigaku Crystallography System Available! *Next message: [Protein- ... Protein-crystallography] From Paul Tucker. Paul Tucker via xtal-log%40net.bio.net (by tucker from embl-hamburg.de). Tue Apr 15 ... crystallography] 6th International NCCR Symposium on New Trends in Structural Biology * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] ...
US DOE Crystallography Research Resources International Union of Crystallography Web Portal of Open Access Crystallography ... Resources Interactive Crystallography Timeline from the Royal Institution Nature Milestones in Crystallography Crystallography ... Hence crystallography applies for the most part only to crystals, or to molecules which can be coaxed to crystallize for the ... Crystallography covers the enumeration of the symmetry patterns which can be formed by atoms in a crystal and for this reason ...
... scientific monograph on X-ray diffraction analysis Summarizes the complete knowledge on X-Ray diffraction crystallography and ... X-Ray Diffraction Crystallography. Book Subtitle. Introduction, Examples and Solved Problems. Authors. * Yoshio Waseda ... X-ray diffraction crystallography for powder samples is a well-established and widely used method. It is applied to materials ... X-Ray Diffraction Crystallography. Introduction, Examples and Solved Problems. Authors: Waseda, Yoshio, Matsubara, Eiichiro, ...
This evening study postgraduate certificate course in crystallography is an excellent introduction for those who wish to pursue ... Protein Crystallography (Postgraduate Certificate). Year of entry. 2018. Start date. October 2018. Location. Distance learning ... This postgraduate course is an excellent introduction to protein crystallography. It is designed for those who are interested ... Up-to-date descriptions of the background, methods and techniques of protein crystallography are explained, and the programme ...
Serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography permits the use of very small protein crystals; however, a continuous flow of sample ... providing a continuously renewed source of material for serial femtosecond crystallography. Data collected from sub-10-μm-sized ... In situ crystallography as an emerging method for structure solution of membrane proteins: the case of CCR2A *Robert Cheng ... Smith, J. L., Fischetti, R. F. & Yamamoto, M. Micro-crystallography comes of age. Curr. Opin. Struc. Biol. 22, 602-612 (2012). ...
London-based photographer Max Alexander has shed light on a technique known as X-ray crystallography in an exhibition being ... WHAT IS CRYSTALLOGRAPHY? Crystallography is the study of atomic and molecular structure. ... It opens up a new set of people that might be engaged with crystallography and the science, just as were engaging with the ... Crystallography experiments carried out on these blades helps to understand how their performance is affected by the materials ...
The resurgence in mathematical crystallography motivated the formation of the IUCr Commission on Mathematical Crystallography, ... Next is a series of papers on three-dimensional and Euclidean crystallography. M. I. Aroyo et al.. present the database of ... Copyright © International Union of Crystallography. Home Contact us Site index About us Partners and site credits Help Terms of ... introduces this virtual issue with an article on Prospects for mathematical crystallography, where the potential of ...
Abstract: Three nickel(II) isothiocyanato complexes of the formula trans-[NiL4(NCS)2] (L = ethylisonicotinate, methylisonicotinate and 4-benzoylpyridine) have been prepared: [Ni(ethyl-isonicotinate)4(NCS)2] (I), [Ni(methylisonicotinate)4(NCS)2] (II) and [Ni(4-benzoylpyridine)4(NCS)2] (III). All three complexes are monomeric and have a distorted octahedral geometry around NiII. Despite their apparent molecular similarity, the crystal density of (III) (1.454 g cm-3) is significantly higher than that of (I) and (II) (both 1.408 g cm-3), suggesting that the molecular packing is most efficient in (III). A study of the molecular Hirshfeld surfaces, together with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, provide insights into the origin of the molecular packing features, and it is suggested that the greater crystal density of (III) results from smaller intermolecular electrostatic repulsions.. CCDC references: 885882, 885884 and 885883. Keywords: nickel(II) pyridine thiocyanate complexes; molecular ...
  • This is the basis for the term "femtosecond crystallography" (FSC), also known as "diffract before destroy" ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • This chapter introduces XFELs and focuses on serial femtosecond crystallography. (rsc.org)
  • Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology have published a review on serial femtosecond crystallography, one of the most promising methods for analyzing the tertiary structure of proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • Here we present a technique for extruding gel-like LCP with embedded membrane protein microcrystals, providing a continuously renewed source of material for serial femtosecond crystallography. (nature.com)
  • Nanoflow electrospinning serial femtosecond crystallography. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • An electrospun liquid microjet has been developed that delivers protein microcrystal suspensions at flow rates of 0.14-3.1 µl min(-1) to perform serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies with X-ray lasers. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Serial femtosecond crystallography based on X-ray free-electron laser sources (XFELs) provides new opportunities for structural sciences, in particular for the time-resolved investigation of dynamic processes [1-3]. (psi.ch)
  • Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) is a powerful new method for protein structure determination at X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) and synchrotron X-ray sources [1,2]. (psi.ch)
  • High-resolution protein structure determination by serial femtosecond crystallography. (psi.ch)
  • [7] The highest resolution protein structure solved by electron crystallography of 2D crystals is that of the water channel aquaporin -0. (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] In 2013 electron crystallography was extended to 3D crystals by a new method called microcrystal electron diffraction, or MicroED. (wikipedia.org)
  • In crystallography crystals are described as isomorphous if they are closely similar in shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Racemic crystallography-easy crystals and easy structures: What's not to like? (wikipedia.org)
  • Early in this century, the newly discovered x-ray diffraction by crystals made a complete change in crystallography and in the whole science of the atomic structure of matter, thus giving a new impetus to the development of solid-state physics. (springer.com)
  • Other important factors promoting the development of crystallog- raphy were the elaboration of the theory of crystal growth (which brought crystallography closer to thermodynamics and physical chem- istry) and the development of the various methods of growing synthetic crystals dictated by practical needs. (springer.com)
  • Exponential growth in the number of determined protein structures has largely been driven by new technologies in protein X-ray crystallography, including synchrotron X-ray sources, X-ray detectors, computational tools, and methods of handling protein crystals. (pnas.org)
  • Before the development of X-ray diffraction crystallography, the study of crystals was based on their geometry. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Some materials studied using crystallography, proteins for example, do not occur naturally as crystals. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Crystallography is particularly concerned with the internal structure of crystals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • X-ray crystallography uses X-rays to discover the molecular structure of crystals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • X-ray crystallography produces good results for crystals that are large, stable, and homogeneous -- that is, with no impurities or structural defects. (news-medical.net)
  • But membrane proteins, many receptors among them, form crystals that are not large and pure enough for standard X-ray crystallography. (news-medical.net)
  • Extensively revised and updated, this new edition of a classic text presents a unified approach to crystallography and to the defects found within crystals. (wiley.com)
  • The Braggs - of Bragg's Law fame - used crystallography to explain how sodium and chloride together form salt crystals and how carbon atoms interact to form diamond crystals. (theconversation.com)
  • The Protein Crystallography Lab offers users a unique capability to perform room- and cryogenic X-ray diffraction data collection from biomacromolecular crystals, data analysis and visualization. (ornl.gov)
  • Frequently, protein crystallographers will start out with small crystals that need to be optimized to larger crystals for conventional X-ray crystallography. (biophysics.org)
  • It can complement X-ray crystallography on proteins , such as membrane proteins , that cannot easily form the large 3-dimensional crystals required for that process. (wikidoc.org)
  • A wide variety of materials can form crystals - such as salts , metals , minerals , semiconductors , as well as various inorganic, organic and biological molecules - which has made X-ray crystallography fundamental to many scientific fields. (wikidoc.org)
  • The term "X-ray crystallography" is also sometimes applied to methods that involve X-ray diffraction from polycrystalline materials, such as powders of small crystals studied by X-ray powder diffraction . (wikidoc.org)
  • The second section focusses on high pressure crystallography as a technique for exploring polymorphic landscapes, of a series of acid-base co-crystals, and the well-known active pharmaceutical ingredient 5-methyl-2-[(2-nitrophenyl)amino]-3-thiophenecarbonitrile (ROY). (bl.uk)
  • The Synchrotron Radiation Research Section, based at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory and headed by Dr. Zbigniew Dauter, is involved in developing new macromolecular crystallography methods related to the tunability and high intensity of synchrotron radiation, such as the use of anomalous signals, particularly from comparatively light atoms, and the effects of radiation damage incurred in crystals of proteins. (cancer.gov)
  • At the structural determination level, the Unit offers state-of-theart, high-throughput protein crystallisation screening facilities that include sophisticated equipment for the identification of protein crystals, as well as a full-service offering of X-ray crystallography and small-angle x-ray (SAXS) analyses. (cnio.es)
  • Electron crystallography is a method to determine the arrangement of atoms in solids using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). (wikipedia.org)
  • A common problem to X-ray crystallography and electron crystallography is radiation damage , by which especially organic molecules and proteins are damaged as they are being imaged, limiting the resolution that can be obtained. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is especially troublesome in the setting of electron crystallography, where that radiation damage is focused on far fewer atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, several other high-resolution structures have been determined by electron crystallography, including the light-harvesting complex , [5] the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor , [6] and the bacterial flagellum . (wikipedia.org)
  • Alongside synchrotrons, two other forms of crystallography can probe molecules in different ways: neutron diffraction and electron diffraction. (iop.org)
  • This new technique, called serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography, or SFX, relies on X-ray free-electron lasers, developed shortly before SFX. (news-medical.net)
  • Topics range from topological methods in crystallography (Nancy 2010, Samara 2014) to irreducible representations of space groups (Nancy 2010) to electron crystallography (Antwerp 2016) to graph theory. (iucr.org)
  • The Biomolecular X-ray crystallography group, headed by Assistant Prof. Albert Guskov, is embedded in the GBB Institute and together with the Electron Microscopy group headed by Assistant Prof. Cristina Paulino constitutes the Structural Biology unit of GBB. (rug.nl)
  • In their research the group uses the combination of macromolecular crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy as well as various biochemical and biophysical techniques. (rug.nl)
  • The structure of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b -protein complex, a membrane protein serving as the major antenna of solar energy in plant photosynthesis, has been determined at 6 Å resolution by electron crystallography. (nature.com)
  • We report direct determination of the structures and dynamics of interfacial water on a hydrophilic surface with atomic-scale resolution using ultrafast electron crystallography. (sciencemag.org)
  • Since then, several other high-resolution structures have been done by electron crystallography, including the light-harvesting complex , [2] and the bacterial flagellum . (wikipedia.org)
  • Atomic model of plant light-harvesting complex by electron crystallography. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fortunately, electron microscopes contain electron lenses , and phase information tends to be much more reliable in electron crystallography. (wikidoc.org)
  • Here we report ligand-induced conformational changes in full-length MloK1, a cyclic nucleotide-modulated potassium channel from the bacterium Mesorhizobium loti, analysed by electron crystallography and atomic force microscopy. (rcsb.org)
  • To discover how biology works researchers are now combining the power of crystallography with multiple other methods, spanning from the atomic to cellular scale, and including revolutionary developments in electron cryo-microscopy and tomography. (crystalerice.org)
  • Crystallography Times vol. 13, No. 1, focusing on single crystal X-ray diffraction, is available from the Rigaku global website. (prweb.com)
  • which includes useful articles and methods utilizing single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) and its applications in protein and small molecule (chemical) crystallography, features breakthroughs from top research institutions around the world. (prweb.com)
  • The Product Spotlight showcases the Rigaku XtaLAB Synergy Custom single crystal X-ray diffraction system, a fully flexible Hybrid Photon Counting (HPC)-based system for laboratories requiring tailored solutions for their unique crystallography applications. (prweb.com)
  • The oldest and most precise method of X-ray crystallography is single-crystal X-ray diffraction , in which a beam of X-rays is reflected from evenly spaced planes of a single crystal, producing a diffraction pattern of spots called reflections . (wikidoc.org)
  • Sometimes referred to as small molecule crystallography, this technique employs single crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD) to unambiguously determine the three dimensional structure of molecules. (rigaku.com)
  • The University of Toronto was also a hub of small molecule crystallography, with Stan Nyberg in the Chemistry Department and Norman Camerman in the Biochemistry Department. (iucr.org)
  • Crystallography Times is designed to keep the scientific community abreast of topics related to protein and small molecule crystallography. (prweb.com)
  • Because of this problem, X-ray crystallography has been much more successful in determining the structure of proteins that are especially vulnerable to radiation damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, the crystal structures of tens of thousands of proteins have been determined using X-ray crystallography. (iop.org)
  • misc{etde_327261, title = {Neutron protein crystallography} author = {Niimura, Nobuo} abstractNote = {X-ray diffraction of single crystal has enriched the knowledge of various biological molecules such as proteins, DNA, t-RNA, viruses, etc. (osti.gov)
  • The ability to determine the structure of proteins using X-ray crystallography has been one of the great scientific achievements over the past 50-60 years. (purdue.edu)
  • X-ray crystallography is one of the main methods for revealing the 3D structure of biological macromolecules, such as proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • X-ray crystallography provides a wealth of biologically important molecular data in the form of atomic three-dimensional structures of proteins, nucleic acids and increasingly large complexes in multiple forms and states. (nih.gov)
  • Time-resolved structural studies with serial crystallography: A new light on retinal proteins. (psi.ch)
  • We manage a platform for protein expression in insect cells, purification and characterization of proteins and macromolecular complexes and state-of-the-art infrastructures for X-ray Crystallography. (ieo.it)
  • At the Crystallography Unit, we routinely express proteins and multi-protein complexes in insect cells with the MultiBac system, and offer a complete service that goes from gene cloning to protein production. (ieo.it)
  • However, insufficiency of qualified and experienced researchers, lack of generalized crystallization methods associated with the types of proteins, and highly time-consuming and expensive protein crystallization and crystallography processes are expected to hinder the growth of this market during the forecasted period. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Over the last 50 years, crystallography has developed from a method capable of determining the structures of isolated, soluble proteins to one able to provide detailed information on mechanisms of action of integral membrane proteins, whole viruses and the complex nano-machines that are central to cellular function. (crystalerice.org)
  • X-ray crystallography has been a vital method for studying the structure of proteins and other macromolecules for many years. (alibris.com)
  • Looking back to the late 60's and early 70's, and the start of my own independent career, it was clear that the young crystallographers of my generation, helped by some very skilled mentors and experts, were really at the forefront of what became a" Chemical Crystallography" revolution, with crystal structure analysis feeding back fundamental information into synthetic organic, inorganic and organometallic chemistry research. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An introduction to chemical crystallography / by P. H. Groth, Authorised translation by Hugh Marshall. (abebooks.com)
  • An introduction to chemical crystallography. (abebooks.com)
  • The Chemical Crystallography Laboratory is located in the white house with white shutters just by the junction of Parks Road and South Parks Road. (ccp14.ac.uk)
  • The Chemical Crystallography Laboratory has a long history of involvement in software development. (ccp14.ac.uk)
  • ROD is a leader in the field of single crystal analysis, both in the field of chemical crystallography as well as well as macromolecular crystallography. (prweb.com)
  • Chemical crystallography may be applied to compounds of both chemical and biological interest, including: new synthetic chemicals, catalysts, pharmaceuticals, and natural products. (rigaku.com)
  • It is difficult to make structural analysis of hydrogen atoms in a protein using X-ray crystallography, whereas neutron diffraction seems usable to directly determine the location of those hydrogen atoms. (osti.gov)
  • In conventional X-ray crystallography, a protein crystal is rotated in the X-ray beam to produce diffraction patterns for various spatial orientations. (news-medical.net)
  • Conventional X-ray crystallography involves exposing one crystal to radiation from various angles and analyzing the resulting diffraction patterns collectively. (news-medical.net)
  • In conventional X-ray crystallography, simply choosing the largest and highest-quality crystal was the way to go. (news-medical.net)
  • In particular, the 2013 SIAM Conference on Mathematical Aspects of Materials Science in Philadelphia was the occasion to gather articles, partly issued from that meeting, for this second special issue on Mathematical Crystallography in Acta Crystallographica Section A . Perhaps befitting this digital age, this is a virtual issue, spanning three regular issues, but all appearing during the International Year of Crystallography. (iucr.org)
  • The resurgence in mathematical crystallography motivated the formation of the IUCr Commission on Mathematical Crystallography, as well as this virtual special issue of Acta Crystallographica Section A . This foreword describes some of the current activities of the Commission and introduces the articles in the special issue. (iucr.org)
  • Such considerations led to the formation of a MaThCryst `workgroup' in 2002, which the 20th IUCr Congress in Florence transformed into the Commission on Mathematical and Theoretical Crystallography in August 2005. (iucr.org)
  • In contrast, to observe hydrogen atoms via ultra-high resolution X-ray crystallography requires diffraction data beyond 1.0 Å. (iucr.org)
  • Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • X-ray crystallography is the science of determining the arrangement of atoms within a crystal from the manner in which a beam of X-rays is scattered from the electrons within the crystal. (wikidoc.org)
  • By contrast, macromolecular crystallography often involves tens of thousands of atoms in the unit cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • however, X-ray crystallography has proven possible even for viruses with hundreds of thousands of atoms. (wikidoc.org)
  • This review reports on the application of charge density analysis in the field of crystal engineering, which is one of the most growing and productive areas of the entire field of crystallography. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In 1912 Lawrence Bragg , a young Australian working in Cambridge, made a key discovery that helped establish the field of crystallography. (theconversation.com)
  • Kent and co-workers have since tested racemic crystallography on a wide range of protein molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyril and Larry wanted to start a protein crystallography group to assist in structural studies of molecules in which they were interested. (iucr.org)
  • Protein crystallography enables researchers to learn the structure of molecules involved in disease and health. (osti.gov)
  • Crystallography allows us to see our world at the level of the atom, by generating crystal structures that can be analysed and probed, and then used to design new and improved molecules. (theconversation.com)
  • Upgrading and expanding the x-ray crystallography facility will make it one of seven core European centers for structural biology and was part of an initiative by ESFRI-INSTRUCT (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures -- Integrated Structural Biology Infrastructure). (photonics.com)
  • X-ray crystallography is the foremost technique used in structural biology to determine the three-dimensional structure of macromolecules. (ieo.it)
  • The Crystallography Unit supports scientific groups which are interested in developing structural biology aspects of their projects. (ieo.it)
  • Macromolecular crystallography and structural biology databases at NIST. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • the protein crystallization problem remains the most challenging and unpredictable obstacle in macromolecular crystallography. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally the group has an interest in macromolecular crystallization and serial crystallography techniques. (rug.nl)
  • Advances in automation, in everything from crystallization to data collection to phasing to model building to refinement, have made solving a structure using crystallography easier than ever. (nih.gov)
  • The Protein crystallography core facility of Biocenter Oulu has the infrastructure for protein structural studies from crystallization to x-ray data collection and structure determination. (oulu.fi)
  • Protein crystallization & crystallography are techniques that are used very frequently by researchers to understand the three-dimensional structure of a protein. (sbwire.com)
  • The market for protein crystallization & crystallography is expected to grow at a high rate owing to its huge potential in drug discovery and development. (sbwire.com)
  • This research report categorizes the protein crystallization & crystallography market on the basis of technologies (protein purification, protein crystallization, protein crystal mounting, and protein crystallography), products (analyzers and reagents), and end users (pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, government institutes, and academic institutions). (sbwire.com)
  • The growing need to identify new ligands for the drug discovery process and the rising popularity of structure-based/rational drug design are factors that present opportunities for the protein crystallization & crystallography market. (sbwire.com)
  • The large numbers of ongoing research projects involving protein crystallization, and the increased variety of reagents and analytical techniques employed are are also major drivers for the protein crystallography reagents market. (sbwire.com)
  • Geographically, North America commanded the largest market share of the protein crystallization & crystallography market, followed by Europe. (sbwire.com)
  • The Max-Planck Institute of Biophysics in Frankfurt, Germany is updating its x-ray crystallography facility with Rigaku protein crystallography and automated crystallization systems, Rigaku Americas Corp. of The Woodlands, Texas, announced this week. (photonics.com)
  • Short-wavelength XFELs suitable for crystallography have only become available since the Linac Coherent Light Source turned on at the Department of Energy's California SLAC laboratory in 2009. (pnas.org)
  • X-ray diffraction crystallography for powder samples is a well-established and widely used method. (springer.com)
  • To learn the method of X-ray diffraction crystallography well and to be able to cope with the given subject, a certain number of exercises is presented in the book to calculate specific values for typical examples. (springer.com)
  • This is particularly important for beginners in X-ray diffraction crystallography. (springer.com)
  • The latest issue highlights several noteworthy crystallography papers from researchers around the world. (prweb.com)
  • Formally established as a shared resource in 1998, this resource has been committed to the support of macromolecular crystallography projects of PCCR researchers. (purdue.edu)
  • The MM-SR's services and support are critical to PCCR members' research needs because X-ray crystallography requires that sophisticated and dedicated resources be immediately and locally available to researchers. (purdue.edu)
  • The researchers have now answered this question: High-resolution X-ray crystallography provided incredibly accurate structural snapshots of a sodium-bound glutamate transporter right before the binding of glutamate. (eurekalert.org)
  • Soon after X-ray crystallography emerged, it became clear that not all biological macromolecules can be crystallized. (news-medical.net)
  • The Protein Crystallography Core Facility assists investigators in the determination of the 3-D structure of biological macromolecules and their complexes. (btk.fi)
  • X-ray crystallography is the major method for structure determination of macromolecules. (btk.fi)
  • The word "crystallography" is derived from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • It can be equally well applied to study crystalline solids (see crystallography ), gasses, liquids or amorphous materials. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Crystallography Times is an electronic newsletter published by Rigaku. (prweb.com)
  • The January edition of Crystallography Times from Rigaku Corporation is now available on the company's global website. (prweb.com)
  • With hundreds of major innovations to their credit, Rigaku companies are world leaders in X-ray spectrometry, diffraction, and optics, as well as small molecule and protein crystallography and semiconductor metrology. (prweb.com)
  • Protein-crystallography] Two-detector Rigaku Crystallography System Available! (bio.net)
  • The latest edition of Crystallography Times , the X-ray crystallography newsletter from Rigaku Oxford Diffraction , is now available to view on the company's global website. (prweb.com)
  • This ability stems from the fact that Neutron Macromolecular Crystallography (NMC) can provide accurate hydrogen atom positions, protonation states and hydration states, as well as information on hydrogen/deuterium exchange in macromolecular crystal structures, even at a moderate 2 Å resolution. (iucr.org)
  • Designed to allow organic and inorganic chemists to produce atomic-resolution 3-D structures of routine samples without any specialized crystallography training, the system determines x-ray structure. (photonics.com)
  • KJM4350 is a very challenging course, giving a thorough introduction to protein crystallography, the most powerful method to study protein structures and biomolecular complexes. (uio.no)
  • About 85% of all known structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank have been determined by X-ray crystallography. (btk.fi)
  • At its surface, crystallography is a beautiful technique: the specimens look gorgeous, the diffraction patterns can cause grown men to weep, and protein structures are delightful to look at. (biophysics.org)
  • She returned to Oxford to learn protein crystallography where in 1989, working with Prof Dave Stuart, she determined one of the first crystal structures of a cytokine, tumour necrosis factor (TNF). (crystalerice.org)
  • Dorothy Hodgkin had been able to determine the three-dimensional structures of biomolecules with the new technique of X-ray crystallography that she helped to advance. (lindau-nobel.org)
  • This Course will celebrate its milestone as the 50th in the crystallography series started by Dorothy Hodgkin by focusing on integration: 1) of different techniques, 2) of molecular and cellular approaches and 3) of the crystallographic community, including diversity. (crystalerice.org)
  • Crystallography is the study of atomic and molecular structure. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • As the crystal's unit cell becomes larger, the atomic-level picture provided by X-ray crystallography becomes less well-resolved (more "fuzzy") for a given number of observed reflections. (wikidoc.org)
  • Since that time, the integration of the two fundamental subjects of chemistry, in its broadest sense, and crystallography has created a focussed multidisciplinary area, aided and abetted by consistent and continuing technique and instrumental developments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Download Chemistry Crystallography Organic Physics Science, a. guin. (tradebit.com)
  • X-ray crystallography remains a crucial technique for this mission. (iop.org)
  • Now London-based photographer Max Alexander had shed light on some of these shapes, highlighting the importance of a technique known as X-ray crystallography. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Tao's [ Yizhi Jane Tao, assistant professor of biochemistry and cell biology ] lab specializes in X-ray crystallography, a powerful technique that can pinpoint the exact location of every atom in a biomacromolecule or a large biomacromolecular assembly. (medgadget.com)
  • Dear Readers, Macromolecular crystallography is my favorite scientific technique, and likely the most important one of the past 100 years. (biophysics.org)
  • The technique of single-crystal X-ray crystallography has three basic steps. (wikidoc.org)
  • The technique involves the use of crystallography to study problems which are primarily of a chemical nature and provides accurate and precise measurements of molecular dimensions in a way that no other method can approach. (rigaku.com)
  • This volume provides methods for modern macromolecular crystallography, including all steps leading to crystal structure determination and analysis. (springer.com)
  • My supervisor has been very supportive and encouraging," she said, adding that Ramsland helped her navigate the roadblocks of learning crystallography, teaching her how to collect data from the Australian Synchrotron and walking her through the process of solving a crystal structure. (asbmb.org)
  • Fast, flexible system with the latest generation sources and HPC detectors, perfect for any crystallography lab. (rigaku.com)
  • crystallography Study of the formation and structure of crystalline substances. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Crystallography Science Group beamlines employ various X-ray scattering and diffraction techniques to study structural properties of crystalline, amorphous, and liquid materials at ambient and different nonambient conditions. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • He happily enjoys his retirement at the Universities of Zürich, Western Australia and Berkeley where he collaborates with his colleagues and friends in areas of common interest: structure determination of disordered materials from diffuse scattering, quantum crystallography, dynamics and thermodynamics of crystalline polymorphs. (rsc.org)
  • It may not be the most familiar branch of science to everyone, but crystallography is one of the most important techniques in helping to understand the world around us. (iop.org)
  • The year 2003 was one of great excitement and hard work at the Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) beamlines of the ESRF (ID14 A&B, ID29), and the year's closing brings about a welcome chance to report on some of the work carried out there. (esrf.eu)
  • The Crystallography Science Group comprises beamlines I11, I15, I15-1, and I19, members of the former Engineering & Environment and the Materials Villages. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • I11 is a high resolution powder diffraction beamline for structural crystallography using an undulator source. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • The Crystallography Science Group comprises the High Resolution Powder Diffraction beamline (I11), the Extreme Conditions beamline (I15), the X-ray Pair Distribution Function (XPDF) beamline (I15-1), and the Small-Molecule Single-Crystal Diffraction beamline (I19). (diamond.ac.uk)
  • One of the main difficulties in X-ray crystallography is determining phases in the diffraction pattern . (wikipedia.org)
  • The main problem in neutron protein crystallography is the low flux of present reactor based or pulsed neutron sources. (spie.org)
  • As such, X-ray crystallography is an essential tool for the PCCR to carry out its mission - to uncover the fundamental sources of cell growth anomalies associated with cancer and to develop new and effective therapeutics through structure-based drug design. (purdue.edu)
  • In particular, the lack of a solid education in fundamental crystallography among chemists, crystallographers, physicists and other participants prompted the Commission to develop itinerant schools, which are becoming a tradition. (iucr.org)
  • In the Magnetic Material and Functional Oxides department at ICMAB, the activities of the Crystallography of Magnetic and Electronic Oxides and Surfaces group are addressed to explore, understand and develop new strongly correlated materials of interest in fundamental Condensed Matter research and as novel materials for the Information technologies. (icmab.es)
  • Carol returned to Canada and went to the NRC labs in Ottawa, where she eventually became involved in protein crystallography and specialized in the cathepsins, a group of lysosomal proteinases that resembled the plant enzyme papain. (iucr.org)
  • The story of crystallography dates back to 1912. (iop.org)
  • Diffractionists usually place the birth of crystallography in 1912 with the first X-ray diffraction experiment of Friedrich, Knipping and Laue. (epfl.ch)
  • For additional information on crystal systems, please review an excellent on-line treatment of this subject, the Introduction to Crystallography and Mineral Crystal Systems by Mike and Darcy Howard. (webmineral.com)
  • This postgraduate course is an excellent introduction to protein crystallography. (bbk.ac.uk)
  • Combined with advances in analysis methods and new ways of crystallising various materials, X-ray crystallography was ready to become a central tool in deciphering the mysteries of the world around us. (iop.org)
  • In addition to Cambridge's Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Dorothy Hodgkin's laboratory in the University of Oxford was also a Mecca for those wanting to learn the methods of protein crystallography. (iucr.org)
  • Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Present and Future Methods of Biomolecular Crystallography: the Structural Path to Defence Against CBRN Agents, Erice Italy, 1-10 June 2012"--Title page verso. (worldcat.org)
  • The group applies spectroscopic, crystallographic and theoretical methods of structure determination and advances them, especially quantum crystallography. (rsc.org)
  • I find it hard to believe, although very satisfying, that the methods of x-ray crystallography can be used so effectively on such a complex molecule. (lindau-nobel.org)
  • The activities of the group are based on the application of chemical and magnetic crystallography methods to the investigation of emergent functional oxides. (icmab.es)
  • This is due to their wide range applicability and radiation-free structure determination which drive the crystallography market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Serial millisecond crystallography for routine room-temperature structure determination at synchrotrons, Nat. (psi.ch)