The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The scattering of NEUTRONS by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. It is useful in CRYSTALLOGRAPHY and POWDER DIFFRACTION.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Light absorbing proteins and protein prosthetic groups found in certain microorganisms. Some microbial photoreceptors initiate specific chemical reactions which signal a change in the environment, while others generate energy by pumping specific ions across a cellular membrane.
Scattering of a beam of electromagnetic or acoustic RADIATION, or particles, at small angles by particles or cavities whose dimensions are many times as large as the wavelength of the radiation or the de Broglie wavelength of the scattered particles. Also know as low angle scattering. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed) Small angle scattering (SAS) techniques, small angle neutron (SANS), X-ray (SAXS), and light (SALS, or just LS) scattering, are used to characterize objects on a nanoscale.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Controlled operations of analytic or diagnostic processes, or systems by mechanical or electronic devices.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
Data processing largely performed by automatic means.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-
Diagnostic aid in pancreas function determination.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Phenolic metacyclophanes derived from condensation of PHENOLS and ALDEHYDES. The name derives from the vase-like molecular structures. A bracketed [n] indicates the number of aromatic rings.
A computer simulation technique that is used to model the interaction between two molecules. Typically the docking simulation measures the interactions of a small molecule or ligand with a part of a larger molecule such as a protein.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.
A rod-shaped bacterium surrounded by a sheath-like structure which protrudes balloon-like beyond the ends of the cell. It is thermophilic, with growth occurring at temperatures as high as 90 degrees C. It is isolated from geothermally heated marine sediments or hot springs. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the three ester bonds in a phosphotriester-containing compound.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
Family of rod-shaped DNA viruses infecting ARCHAEA. They lack viral envelopes or lipids.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Heterodimers of FLAVONOIDS bound to LIGNANS.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
A potassium salt used to replenish ELECTROLYTES, for restoration of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE, as well as a urinary and systemic alkalizer, which can be administered orally or by intravenous infusion. Formerly, it was used in DIURETICS and EXPECTORANTS.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of pancreatic ribonucleic acids to 3'-phosphomono- and oligonucleotides ending in cytidylic or uridylic acids with 2',3'-cyclic phosphate intermediates. EC
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
A soluble cytochrome P-450 enzyme that catalyzes camphor monooxygenation in the presence of putidaredoxin, putidaredoxin reductase, and molecular oxygen. This enzyme, encoded by the CAMC gene also known as CYP101, has been crystallized from bacteria and the structure is well defined. Under anaerobic conditions, this enzyme reduces the polyhalogenated compounds bound at the camphor-binding site.
A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
The white of an egg, especially a chicken's egg, used in cooking. It contains albumin. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
A thermostable extracellular metalloendopeptidase containing four calcium ions. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Topical antiseptic used mainly in wound dressings.
The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of aldose and ketose compounds.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.
The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC
A hard, brittle, grayish-white rare earth metal with an atomic symbol Ru, atomic number 44, and atomic weight 101.07. It is used as a catalyst and hardener for PLATINUM and PALLADIUM.
Gram-negative non-motile bacteria found in soil or brines.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
A left-handed double helix of DNA. Its name derives from its narrow zigzag structure that is the least twisted and thinnest form of DNA. Z-DNA forming regions within the GENOME may play an important role in GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A method for determining points of contact between interacting proteins or binding sites of proteins to nucleic acids. Protein footprinting utilizes a protein cutting reagent or protease. Protein cleavage is inhibited where the proteins, or nucleic acids and protein, contact each other. After completion of the cutting reaction, the remaining peptide fragments are analyzed by electrophoresis.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Cytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Part of a MESSENGER RNA molecule that undergoes a conformation change upon binding a specific metabolite or other small molecule thereby regulating the messenger RNA's transcription, post-transcriptional processing, transport, translation, or stability in response to varying levels of the metabolite or other small molecule.
Carboxypeptidases that are primarily found the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM that catalyze the release of C-terminal amino acids. Carboxypeptidases A have little or no activity for hydrolysis of C-terminal ASPARTIC ACID; GLUTAMIC ACID; ARGININE; LYSINE; or PROLINE. This enzyme requires ZINC as a cofactor and was formerly listed as EC and EC
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.
Calcium-binding motifs composed of two helices (E and F) joined by a loop. Calcium is bound by the loop region. These motifs are found in many proteins that are regulated by calcium.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Compounds based on 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine.
A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A family of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria that deposit globules of elemental sulfur inside their cells. They are found in diverse aquatic environments.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
Cyclic compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-4 dozen atoms.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
A site on an enzyme which upon binding of a modulator, causes the enzyme to undergo a conformational change that may alter its catalytic or binding properties.
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)

Three-dimensional structure of a recombinant gap junction membrane channel. (1/1562)

Gap junction membrane channels mediate electrical and metabolic coupling between adjacent cells. The structure of a recombinant cardiac gap junction channel was determined by electron crystallography at resolutions of 7.5 angstroms in the membrane plane and 21 angstroms in the vertical direction. The dodecameric channel was formed by the end-to-end docking of two hexamers, each of which displayed 24 rods of density in the membrane interior, which is consistent with an alpha-helical conformation for the four transmembrane domains of each connexin subunit. The transmembrane alpha-helical rods contrasted with the double-layered appearance of the extracellular domains. Although not indicative for a particular type of secondary structure, the protein density that formed the extracellular vestibule provided a tight seal to exclude the exchange of substances with the extracellular milieu.  (+info)

Structure of DNA-dependent protein kinase: implications for its regulation by DNA. (2/1562)

DNA double-strand breaks are created by ionizing radiation or during V(D)J recombination, the process that generates immunological diversity. Breaks are repaired by an end-joining reaction that requires DNA-PKCS, the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase. DNA-PKCS is a 460 kDa serine-threonine kinase that is activated by direct interaction with DNA. Here we report its structure at 22 A resolution, as determined by electron crystallography. The structure contains an open channel, similar to those seen in other double-stranded DNA-binding proteins, and an enclosed cavity with three openings large enough to accommodate single-stranded DNA, with one opening adjacent to the open channel. Based on these structural features, we performed biochemical experiments to examine the interactions of DNA-PKCS with different DNA molecules. Efficient kinase activation required DNA longer than 12 bp, the minimal length of the open channel. Competition experiments demonstrated that DNA-PKCS binds to double- and single-stranded DNA via separate but interacting sites. Addition of unpaired single strands to a double-stranded DNA fragment stimulated kinase activation. These results suggest that activation of the kinase involves interactions with both double- and single-stranded DNA, as suggested by the structure. A model for how the kinase is regulated by DNA is described.  (+info)

Solution structure of a lipid transfer protein extracted from rice seeds. Comparison with homologous proteins. (3/1562)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the three dimensional structure of rice nonspecific lipid transfer protein (ns-LTP), a 91 amino acid residue protein belonging to the broad family of plant ns-LTP. Sequence specific assignment was obtained for all but three HN backbone 1H resonances and for more than 95% of the 1H side-chain resonances using a combination of 1H 2D NOESY; TOCSY and COSY experiments at 293 K. The structure was calculated on the basis of four disulfide bridge restraints, 1259 distance constraints derived from 1H-1H Overhauser effects, 72 phi angle restraints and 32 hydrogen-bond restraints. The final solution structure involves four helices (H1: Cys3-Arg18, H2: Ala25-Ala37, H3: Thr41-Ala54 and H4: Ala66-Cys73) followed by a long C-terminal tail (T) with no observable regular structure. N-capping residues (Thr2, Ser24, Thr40), whose side-chain oxygen atoms are involved in hydrogen bonds with i + 3 amide proton additionally stabilize the N termini of the first three helices. The fourth helix involving Pro residues display a mixture of alpha and 3(10) conformation. The rms deviation of 14 final structures with respect to the average structure is 1.14 +/- 0.16 A for all heavy atoms (C, N, O and S) and 0.72 +/- 0.01 A for the backbone atoms. The global fold of rice ns-LTP is close to the previously published structures of wheat, barley and maize ns-LTPs exhibiting nearly identical pattern of the numerous sequence specific interactions. As reported previously for different four-helix topology proteins, hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic mechanisms of fold stabilization were found for the rice ns-LTP. The sequential alignment of 36 ns-LTP primary structures strongly suggests that there is a uniform pattern of specific long-range interactions (in terms of sequence), which stabilize the fold of all plant ns-LTPs.  (+info)

Biochemical evolution III: polymerization on organophilic silica-rich surfaces, crystal-chemical modeling, formation of first cells, and geological clues. (4/1562)

Catalysis at organophilic silica-rich surfaces of zeolites and feldspars might generate replicating biopolymers from simple chemicals supplied by meteorites, volcanic gases, and other geological sources. Crystal-chemical modeling yielded packings for amino acids neatly encapsulated in 10-ring channels of the molecular sieve silicalite-ZSM-5-(mutinaite). Calculation of binding and activation energies for catalytic assembly into polymers is progressing for a chemical composition with one catalytic Al-OH site per 25 neutral Si tetrahedral sites. Internal channel intersections and external terminations provide special stereochemical features suitable for complex organic species. Polymer migration along nano/micrometer channels of ancient weathered feldspars, plus exploitation of phosphorus and various transition metals in entrapped apatite and other microminerals, might have generated complexes of replicating catalytic biomolecules, leading to primitive cellular organisms. The first cell wall might have been an internal mineral surface, from which the cell developed a protective biological cap emerging into a nutrient-rich "soup." Ultimately, the biological cap might have expanded into a complete cell wall, allowing mobility and colonization of energy-rich challenging environments. Electron microscopy of honeycomb channels inside weathered feldspars of the Shap granite (northwest England) has revealed modern bacteria, perhaps indicative of Archean ones. All known early rocks were metamorphosed too highly during geologic time to permit simple survival of large-pore zeolites, honeycombed feldspar, and encapsulated species. Possible microscopic clues to the proposed mineral adsorbents/catalysts are discussed for planning of systematic study of black cherts from weakly metamorphosed Archaean sediments.  (+info)

Structural interpretation of site-directed mutagenesis and specificity of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 using comparative modelling. (5/1562)

The catalytic subunit of protein kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2alpha), which has specificity for both ATP and GTP, shows significant amino acid sequence similarity to the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). We constructed site-directed mutants of CK2alpha and used a three-dimensional model to investigate the basis for the dual specificity. Introduction of Phe and Gly at positions 50 and 51, in order to restore the pattern of the glycine-rich motif, did not seriously affect the specificity for ATP or GTP. We show that the dual specificity probably originates from the loop situated around the position His115 to Asp120 (HVNNTD). The insertion of a residue in this loop in CK2 alpha subunits, compared with CDK2 and other kinases, might orient the backbone to interact with the base A and G; this insertion is conserved in all known CK2alpha. The mutant deltaN118, the design of which was based on the modelling, showed reduced affinity for GTP as predicted from the model. Other mutants were intended to probe the integrity of the catalytic loop, alter the polarity of a buried residue and explore the importance of the carboxy terminus. Introduction of Arg to replace Asn189, which is mapped on the activation loop, results in a mutant with decreased k(cat), possibly as a result of disruption of the interaction between this residue and basic residues in the vicinity. Truncation at position 331 eliminates the last 60 residues of the alpha subunit and this mutant has a reduced catalytic efficiency compared with the wild-type. Catalytic efficiency is restored in the truncation mutant by the replacement of a potentially buried Glu at position 252 by Lys, probably owing to a higher stability resulting from the formation of a salt bridge between Lys252 and Asp208.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics simulation of alpha-lactalbumin and calcium binding c-type lysozyme. (6/1562)

Alpha-lactalbumins (LAs) and c-type lysozymes (LYZs) are two classes of proteins which have a 35-40% sequence homology and share a common three dimensional fold but perform different functions. Lysozymes bind and cleave the glycosidic bond linkage in sugars, where as, alpha-lactalbumin does not bind sugar but participates in the synthesis of lactose. Alpha-lactalbumin is a metallo-protein and binds calcium, where as, only a few of the LYZs bind calcium. These proteins consist of two domains, an alpha-helical and a beta-strand domain, separated by a cleft. Calcium is bound at a loop situated at the bottom of the cleft and is important for the structural integrity of the protein. Calcium is an ubiquitous intracellular signal in higher eukaryotes and structural changes induced on calcium binding have been observed in a number of proteins. In the present study, molecular dynamics simulations of equine LYZ and human LA, with and without calcium, were carried out. We detail the differences in the dynamics of equine LYZ and human LA, and discuss it in the light of experimental data already available and relate it to the behavior of the functionally important regions of both the proteins. These simulations bring out the role of calcium in the conformation and dynamics of these metallo-proteins. In the calcium bound LA, the region of the protein around the calcium binding site is not only frozen but the atomic fluctuations are found to increase away from the binding site and peak at the exposed sites of the protein. This channeling of fluctuations away from the metal binding site could serve as a general mechanism by which the effect of metal binding at a site is transduced to other parts of the protein and could play a key role in protein-ligand and/or protein-protein interaction.  (+info)

Homogenization and crystallization of histidine ammonia-lyase by exchange of a surface cysteine residue. (7/1562)

Histidase (histidine ammonia-lyase, EC from Pseudomonas putida was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. In the absence of thiols the tetrameric enzyme gave rise to undefined aggregates and suitable crystals could not be obtained. The solvent accessibility along the chain was predicted from the amino acid sequence. Among the seven cysteines, only one was labeled as 'solvent-exposed'. The exchange of this cysteine to alanine abolished all undefined aggregations and yielded readily crystals diffracting to 1.8 A resolution.  (+info)

Iron in the basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease. An in vitro study using extended X-ray absorption fine structure and cryo-electron microscopy. (8/1562)

Iron is found in high concentration in some areas of the brain, and increased iron in the substantia nigra is a feature of Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical environment of brain iron in post-mortem tissue to provide information on the possible role of iron in neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. Iron has also been implicated as the cause of signal loss in areas of high brain iron on T2-weighted MRI sequences. Knowledge of the physical environment of the brain iron is essential in interpreting the cause of signal change. Post-mortem tissue was obtained from six cases of Parkinson's disease and from six age-matched controls. Iron levels were measured using absorption spectrophotometry. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure was used to evaluate the atomic environment of iron within the substantia nigra and both segments of the globus pallidus. Cryo-electron transmission microscopy was used to probe the iron storage proteins in these areas. Iron levels were increased in the parkinsonian nigra and lateral portion of the globus pallidus. Spectra from the extended X-ray absorption fine structure experiments showed that ferritin was the only storage protein detectable in both control and parkinsonian tissue in all areas studied. Cryo-electron transmission microscopy studies showed that ferritin was more heavily loaded with iron in Parkinson's disease when compared with age-matched controls. In summary we have shown that iron levels are increased in two areas of the brain in Parkinson's disease including the substantia nigra, the site of maximal neurodegeneration. This produces increased loading of ferritin, which is the normal brain iron storage protein. It is possible that increased loading of ferritin may increase the risk of free radical-induced damage. Differences in ferritin loading may explain regional differences in iron's effect on the T2 signal.  (+info)

The basic principle of electron crystallography is to calculate a 3D density map by combining the amplitudes obtained from electron diffraction patterns with the experimental phases calculated from images of two-dimensional crystals of membrane or soluble proteins. This technology is very well developed and has produced a number of atomic models of membrane proteins in a lipid environment. Focused on comprehensive experimental protocols, Electron Crystallography of Soluble and Membrane Proteins: Methods and Protocols covers the entire range of techniques used in electron crystallography, including protein sample preparation, 2D crystallization, and screening in negative stain over electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) and data processing, as well as modeling of conformational changes. Additional chapters provide perspective on past, present, and future challenges as well as complementary methods. Written for the popular Methods in Molecular Biology™ series, the work contains the kind of detailed ...
This patterns more hydrologic download electron crystallography novel approaches for structure determination of nanosized materials nato science series ii mathematics physics and Pages for pharmaceutical service updates. 8 ( 120x173mm) fine to a national suited download electron crystallography novel approaches for structure determination of nanosized materials nato science way with those apps and deposition movies. 9600 and the datasets think predetermined organized.
In the era of nanoscience, the size of particles to be investigated gets smaller and smaller but the traditional techniques used for characterization of materials are becoming inadequate. Electron Crystallography (EC) is a powerful and sometimes the unique tool to study crystal structure and properties of nano sized materials. It is a broad branch of science comprising both academic research and industrial needs. Materials studied using EC methods vary in size and nature, ranging from inorganic nanoparticles to biological samples. Exciting developments such as aberration correctors, dedicated specimen-holders, highly sensitive cameras, new data acquisition techniques, automated routines for data collection and new data processing softwares allow electron crystallographers to solve crystal structures from nano particles at atomic resolution.. The Course intends to review the structure solution using electron crystallography methods as well as novel applications; it will be divided into three ...
Electron crystallography is a method to determine the arrangement of atoms in solids using an electron microscope. It can complement X-ray crystallography on proteins, such as membrane proteins, that cannot easily form the large 3-dimensional crystals required for that process. Structures are usually determined from either 2-dimensional crystals (sheets or helices), polyhedrons such as viral capsids, or dispersed individual proteins. Electrons can be used in these situations, whereas X-rays cannot, because electrons interact more strongly with atoms than X-rays do. Thus, X-rays will travel through a thin 2-dimensional crystal without diffracting significantly, whereas electrons can be used to form an image. Conversely, the strong interaction between electrons and proteins makes thick (e.g. 3-dimensional) crystals impervious to electrons, which only penetrate short distances. One of the main difficulties in X-ray crystallography is determining phases in the diffraction pattern. Because no X-ray ...
In cases where ultra-flat cryo-preparations of well-ordered two-dimensional (2D) crystals are available, electron crystallography is a powerful method for the determination of the high-resolution structures of membrane and soluble proteins. However, crystal unbending and Fourier-filtering methods in electron crystallography three-dimensional (3D) image processing are generally limited in their performance for 2D crystals that are badly ordered or non-flat. Here we present a single particle image processing approach, which is implemented as an extension of the 2D crystallographic pipeline realized in the 2dx software package, for the determination of high-resolution 3D structures of membrane proteins. The algorithm presented, addresses the low single-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 2D crystal images by exploiting neighborhood correlation between adjacent proteins in the 2D crystal. Compared with conventional single particle processing for randomly oriented particles, the computational costs are greatly ...
Examples of technology (hardware and software) developed for electron crystallogarphy by TEMIMPS Transcontinental Electron Microscopy Initiative for Membrane Protein Structure
Examples of technology (hardware and software) developed for electron crystallography by TEMIMPS Transcontinental Electron Microscopy Initiative for Membrane Protein Structure
PDB 2B6O, EMDB 2973 - 1.9Å resolutuion electron crystallography structure of the water channel Aquaporin-0 in its closed state. ...
Author: Zhao, G. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2010; Keywords: Two-dimensional crystallization; Membrane protein; Eukaryotic; Structure; Electron crystallography; Cryo-EM; Title: Two-dimensional crystallization conditions of human leukotriene C4 synthase requiring adjustment of a particularly large combination of specific parameters
Electron crystallography is a method to determine the arrangement of atoms in solids using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This method works in many cases where X-ray crystallography does not. The latter needs large 3-D crystals to work. Protein structures are usually done from 2-dimensional crystals (sheets or helices), polyhedrons such as viral capsids, or dispersed proteins. Electrons can be used in these situations, whereas X-rays cannot, because electrons interact more strongly with atoms than X-rays do. ...
The workshop will provide hands-on training on practical aspects of 2D crystal data collection on a Titan Krios, and cover in depth the theoretical foundations and the practical image processing of 2D crystal cryo-EM images with the 2DX software package. No previous experience is required ...
Electron crystallographic studies on inorganic crystals using high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) images were first performed by Aaron Klug in 1978[9] and by Sven Hovmöller and coworkers in 1984.[10] HREM images were used because they allow to select (by computer software) only the very thin regions close to the edge of the crystal for structure analysis (see also crystallographic image processing). This is of crucial importance since in the thicker parts of the crystal the exit-wave function (which carries the information about the intensity and position of the projected atom columns) is no longer linearly related to the projected crystal structure. Moreover, not only do the HREM images change their appearance with increasing crystal thickness, they are also very sensitive to the chosen setting of the defocus Δf of the objective lens (see the HREM images of GaN for example). To cope with this complexity Michael OKeefe started in the early 1970s to develop image simulation software ...
Voltage gated potassium channels are transmembrane protein complexes that form a pore specifically allowing the passage of potassium ions. One method to determine the structure of these and other membrane proteins is electron crystallography. For this, purified membrane proteins are mixed with lipids and induced to form two-dimensional crystals. These flat crystal sheets are then imaged by cryo-EM and analysed. There is no potential gradient across them as the protein is surrounded by the same buffer. The gradient required for voltage gated channel proteins to function can be created if they are embedded in a spherical lipid bilayer that encloses liquid, i.e., if they are embedded in the membrane of a liposome. The buffer conditions inside and outside the liposomes dictate whether they are in an open or a closed conformation ...
I was a postdoctoral scientist in Prof. Taylors laboratory from 1998 to 2001. My project was to determine the structure of the inhibited conformation of smooth muscle HMM and myosin. I used electron crystallography of 2-D arrays of dephosphorylated smooth muscle HMM. The protein was expressed by Dr. Kathy Trybus and the crystallography was done using frozen hydrated specimens. This is a unique capability of Prof. Taylor’s laboratory. The 3-D reconstructions showed an unusual interaction between the two myosin heads that explained most of the biochemistry of the inhibited state of this myosin. The result obtained with the HMM fragment was later confirmed using full length smooth muscle myosin and later by work done in the laboratory of Dr. Roger Craig in tarantula myosin filaments.. ...
The Woodlands, Texas (PRWEB) August 30, 2017 -- The latest edition of Crystallography Times, the X-ray crystallography newsletter from Rigaku Oxford
Crystallography: the science that examines crystals, which can be found everywhere in nature-from salt to snowflakes to gemstones. Crystallographers use
Over 4,714 mineral species descriptions are included in this HTML-linked table of crystallography for all known valid mineral species.
9780198717591 Our cheapest price for Crystallography: A Very Short Introduction is $8.68. Free shipping on all orders over $35.00.
Dan, perhaps one reason crystallography isnt more popular in your poll is that the question was what technique is used in fragment screening. I would bet that most, if not all of us use crystallography in FBLD, but not as the upfront screen. At least, thats how I interpreted the question. ...
The structure of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complex, a membrane protein serving as the major antenna of solar energy in plant photosynthesis, has been determined at 6 Å resolution by electron crystallography. Within the complex, three membrane-spanning α helices and 15 chlorophyll molecules are resolved. There is an intramolecular diad relating two of the α helices and some of the chlorophylls. The spacing of the chlorophylls suggests energy transfer by delocalized exciton coupling and Förster mechanisms.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The molecular structure of maleimide. T2 - an electron diffraction study. AU - Harsányi, László. AU - Vajda, Erzsébet. AU - Hargittai, István. PY - 1985/7. Y1 - 1985/7. N2 - The molecular structure of maleimide has been investigated by electron diffraction. The experimental data are consistent with a C2v symmetry model. The following bond lengths (rg) and bond angles (rc) were determined:NC 1.409 = 0.003, CC 1.508 ± 0.003, C=C 1.344 ± 0.004, and C=O 1.206 ± 0.002 A; CNC 112.0 = 0.2, NCC 106.8 ± 0.2, NC=O 123.9 ± 0.3, and CCH 114.7 ± 1.3°. The electron diffraction structure is in agreement with the results of quantum chemical calculations. The bond lengths indicate a somewhat greater delocalization about the N atom than in the OCCCCO skeleton.. AB - The molecular structure of maleimide has been investigated by electron diffraction. The experimental data are consistent with a C2v symmetry model. The following bond lengths (rg) and bond angles (rc) were determined:NC ...
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Les échantillons biologiques ne sarrangent pas toujours en objets ordonnés (cristaux 2D ou hélices) nécessaires pour la microscopie électronique ni en cristaux 3D parfaitement ordonnés pour la cristallographie rayons X alors que de nombreux spécimens sont tout simplement trop Many biological specimens do not arrange themselves in ordered assemblies (tubular or flat 2D crystals) suitable for electron crystallography, nor in perfectly ordered 3D crystals for X-ray diffraction; many other are simply too large to be approached by NMR spectroscopy. Therefore, single-particles analysis has become a progressively more important technique for structural determination of large isolated macromolecules by cryo-electron microscopy. Nevertheless, the low signal-to-noise ratio and the high electron-beam sensitivity of biological samples remain two main resolution-limiting factors, when the specimens are observed in their native state. Cryo-negative staining is a recently developed technique that allows the
In this chapter, the main formulations of the dynamical theory of electron diffraction are outlined. These include the defining equations, forward scattering, the evolution operator, the projection approximation, semi‐reciprocal space, the two‐beam approximation, the eigenvalue approach, translational invariance, dispersion surfaces, the multislice formulation, the Born series and other approximations. ...
The Escherichia coli porin OmpG, which acts as an efficient unspecific channel for mono-, di- and trisaccharides, has been purified and crystallized in two dimensions. Projection maps of two different crystal forms of OmpG at 6 A resolution show that the protein has a beta-barrel structure character …
Exploring ultrafast charge migration is of great importance in biological and chemical reactions. We present a scheme to monitor attosecond charge migration in molecules by electron diffraction with spatial and temporal resolutions from ab initio numerical simulations. An ultraviolet pulse creates a coherent
Ting, V, Liu, Y, Withers, R et al 2004, An electron diffraction and bond valence sum study of the space group symmetries and structures of the photocatalytic 1:1 ordered A2InNbO6 double perovskites (A = Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+), Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol. 177, no. 3, pp. 979-986. ...
The huge interest in two-dimensional crystals for energy applications comes both from their physico-chemical properties, and the possibility of producing and processing them in large quantities, in a cost-effective manner, says Bonaccorso. In this context, the development of functional inks based on two-dimensional crystals is the gateway for the realisation of new generation electrodes in energy storage and conversion devices. Bonaccorso adds that the challenge ahead is to demonstrate a disruptive technology in which two-dimensional materials not only replace traditional electrodes, but more importantly enable whole new device concepts ...
Best wishes, Tracey ------------ Dr Tracey Barrett, Crystallography, Senior Lecturer in Structural Biology, Institute for Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck College, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX Tel: 020 7631 6822 Fax: 020 7631 6803 ...
從圖書館擷取資料! Advancing methods for biomolecular crystallography. [Randy J Read; Alexandre G Urzhumtsev; Vladimir Y Lunin;] -- This work presents a snapshot of the state of the art of modern biomolecular crystallography, from crystallisation through structure determination and even interactive presentation on the web. ...
You searched for: Genre Drafts (documents) Remove constraint Genre: Drafts (documents) Language English Remove constraint Language: English Subject Crystallography, X-Ray Remove constraint Subject: Crystallography, X-Ray ...
National Seminar on Crystallography The National Seminar on Crystallography 43A was held at Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali during 28th and 30th March, 2014 by the Department of Chemical Sciences. This conference was
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!%Bruker AXS%! has launched its Smart X2S crystal-to-structure benchtop x-ray crystallography system for automated 3-D chemical structure determinatio
Pris: 945,-. E-bok, 2015. Leveres direkte via nedlastning . Kjøp boken Symmetry, Spectroscopy, and Crystallography av Robert Glaser (ISBN 9783527684205) hos Fri frakt.
Read independent reviews on RAPID II: Curved imaging plate chemical crystallography system from Rigaku Corporation on SelectScience
MolProbity Validation and Corrections: for Crystallography, PDB, and Biomedicine Summary: The criteria and services of our MolProbity web site a...
We understand that your research may have unique needs. Our engineers, product developers and network of manufacturing partners are at your disposal for timely, competent, and confidential development of custom products to meet your specific needs ...
Structural Chemistry & Crystallography Communication journal publishes open access papers in the field of structural chemistry and crystallography.
The theory of modulated structures and the study of such materials constitute an active and healthy field in crystallography. To view visualizations of over 60 modulated stuctures published in Acta Crystallographica Section B, click on the structure below. ...
The theory of modulated structures and the study of such materials constitute an active and healthy field in crystallography. To view visualizations of over 60 modulated stuctures published in Acta Crystallographica Section B, click on the structure below. ...
Ultracold Electron Source for Single-Shot, Ultrafast Electron Diffraction - Volume 15 Issue 4 - S.B. van der Geer, M.J. de Loos, E.J.D. Vredenbregt, O.J. Luiten
Present-day electron microscopy enables sub-Angstrom spatial resolution, i.e. a single atom may be resolved, but only at exposure times of the order of seconds. The time scale of atomic motion, however, can be as short as 100 fs. The next challenge is therefore to realize both atomic spatial and temporal resolution, i.e. 0.1 nm and 0.1 ps, thus enabling the study of structural dynamics at the shortest time scales. For reasons of process repeatability, reproducibility, and radiation damage considerations single-shot operation would be ideal. Because of stringent beam requirement single-shot, 100 fs electron microscopy is completely impossible. Electron diffraction, however, is much less demanding, requiring much less charge for recording a high-quality diffraction patter and only a modest beam quality. We have developed a setup for doing single-shot, 100 fs electron diffraction. Key ingredients are creation of waterbag bunches by femtosecond photoemission and compression of bunches (inversion of ...
Scientists at the University of Toronto have employed femtosecond electron diffraction to study the ultrafast melting of aluminum under illumination b
Post-doctoral Positions in X-ray Crystallography and Computational Biology Two post-doctoral positions are available immediately, one in experimental and one in computational aspects of protein crystallography. Applicants for the first position should be experienced in practical aspects of protein crystallography and structure determination. Experience in cloning and protein expression is also desirable. Crystals are already in hand for one novel carotenoid-binding protein. Subsequent projects will diversify to include work on self-assembling proteins and other proteins with repetitive or otherwise unusual architectures. The second position is in the area of computational crystallography, but may also include other aspects of computational biology such as genomics or protein structure analysis. The successful applicant should have a strong background in scientific programming, an understanding of numerical methods, and an ability to solve complex problem. Familiarity with crystallographic and ...
The Protein crystallography core facility of Biocenter Oulu has the infrastructure for protein structural studies from crystallization to x-ray data collection and structure determination.
Scientists have made a significant advance toward making movies of extremely fast atomic processes with potential applications in energy production, chemistry, medicine, materials science and more. Using a superfast, high-resolution electron camera, a new instrument for ultrafast electron diffraction (UED), researchers have captured the worlds fastest UED images of nitrogen molecules rotating in a gas, with a record shutter speed of 100 quadrillionths of a second ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Orientation imaging microscopy in two-dimensional crystals via undersampled microscopy. AU - Angelescu, D. E.. AU - Harrison, C. K.. AU - Trawick, M. L.. AU - Chaikin, P. M.. AU - Register, Richard Alan. AU - Adamson, D. H.. PY - 2004/2/1. Y1 - 2004/2/1. N2 - A novel microscopy analysis technique is presented, with applications in imaging two-dimensional grains and grain boundaries. The method allows the identification of grain shapes and orientations from large area micrographs, via the moire pattern obtained in a raster image. The observed moire pattern originates from the aliasing between a micrographs regular sampling raster and the inherent periodicity of the elements forming the grain under study. The technique presented is very general, allowing grain analysis via many types of microscopy. We demonstrate it in this paper by using Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy on diblock copolymer thin films.. AB - A novel microscopy analysis ...
Almenningen, Arne Helgaker, Trygve Haaland, Arne Samdal, Svein . The molecular structures of dimethyl-, diethyl- and dipropylzinc determined by gas phase electron diffraction. Normal coordinate analysis and ab initio molecular orbital calculations on dimethylzinc. Acta Chemica Scandinavica. 1982, A36, 159- ...
An investigation of some molecular structures by the method of electron diffraction and a preliminary design of a new apparatus for measuring scattered electron intensities ...
Publishers Accepted Manuscript: Complex oxide growth using simultaneous in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and x-ray reflectivity: When is one layer complete? ...
Protein Crystallization & Crystallography Market by Technology (Ion-Exchange Chromatography, HPLC, Gel-Electrophoresis, NMR, X-Ray Crystallography), Products (Reagents & Instruments) & End-Users
X-ray crystallography is the major method for structure determination of macromolecules. About 85% of all known structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Knowing the structure of a protein helps in understanding better how the protein works, how it interacts with other proteins and small molecules in the cell and what kind of conformational changes it undergoes to exert its function. Even subtle changes in protein structures can have tremendous consequences on human health, causing serious diseases. A major application therefore of X-ray crystallography is in the design of new drugs.. A crystal structure determination is not a trivial task. It mainly involves five steps with the first two being the most difficult (bottlenecks):. ...
[251 Pages Report] Protein Crystallization Market categories the Global Market by Product (Instruments, Services & Software), Technology (Chromatography, Electrophoresis, Protein Crystallization, Protein Crystal Mounting, Reagents/Consumables) & End Users & by Geography
(EMAILWIRE.COM, January 12, 2018 ) Protein crystallization is a process of formation of protein crystals, which are used for industrial or scientific purposes, such as X-Ray Crystallography. Increasing R&D by pharmaceuticals and biotechnology companies is one of the major driver driving the growth...
The Crystallography Times newsletter from Rigaku Oxford Diffraction focuses on single crystal X-ray diffraction and is available from the companys website October 30, 2017 - The Woodlands, Texas. The latest edition of Crystallography Times, the X-ray crystallography newsletter from Rigaku Oxford Diffraction, is now available to view on the companys global website. 1600181092
Crystallography Made Crystal Clear makes crystallography accessible to readers who have no prior knowledge of the field or its mathematical basis. This is the most comprehensive and concise reference for beginning Macromolecular crystallographers, written by a leading expert in the field. Rhodes uses visual and geometric models to help readers understand the mathematics that form the basis of x-ray crystallography. He has invested a great deal of time and effort on World Wide Web tools for users of models, including beginning-level tutorials in molecular modeling on personal computers. Rhodes personal CMCC Home Page also provides access to tools and links to resources discussed in the text. Most significantly, the final chapter introduces the reader to macromolecular modeling on personal computers-featuring SwissPdbViewer, a free, powerful modeling program now available for PC, Power Macintosh, and Unix computers. This updated and expanded new edition uses attractive four-color art, web tool access
Fior Markets introduces the latest market research study on Global Protein Crystallization & Crystallography Market 2020 clarifies the definition
The following companies as the key players in the global protein crystallization and crystallography market: Anatrace, Bruker, Formulatrix, Jena Bioscience, and Rigaku
The facility provides low volume crystallisation services and screen making. Our customers can also order custom built premixed crystallisation solutions. Full crystallisation service includes composition of the crystallisation setup and scheduled imaging of the experiment for up to four months. The crystallisation droplets are set up using our Mosquito LCP or Oryx nanodrop robots, which can use as little as 100 nl protein per experiment and are suitable for membrane proteins and for air-sensitive samples. Scientists can examine the maturation of the project over time and can pick up the crystallisation plate for an X-ray experiment. The facility is equipped with a dedicated imaging station for combined visible/UV epifluorescence imaging of very small protein crystals (2μm ...
1 as = 0.000000000000000001 sec. Attosecond science is a branch of strong field physics that investigates ultrafast phenomena in nature. An attosecond (1 as = 10-18 sec) is a characteristic time scale for the description of electron dynamics. The electron plays a key role in many phenomena: it determines molecular structure and bond formation; it relays information and is used in calculations in electronic devices, and it absorbs and emits radiation. The control of chemical processes, revolutions in communications and computing, and generation of novel light sources are areas of research that benefit from the study of ultrafast electron dynamics. The goal of attosecond science is to understand and manipulate ultrafast electron dynamics in a variety of materials such as atoms, molecules, and solids with the purpose of future applications ...
Modern electron microscope can provide information at the atomic scale in the spatial dimemsion. The next generation of instruments will also provide temporal resolutions in the fs regime. This project will investigate solutions to providng temporal resoltuions from the ms to micro s timescale to bridge the gap between the limits imposed by current detectors and possible future pulsed electron sources.. ...
The ultrafast CT scanner is located in a large room. Your child will lie on a narrow table that slides into the hollow tube-shaped scanner.. Your child will have an intravenous (IV) line if contrast medication is being used. The contrast medication may be injected prior to the procedure or during the procedure.. The CT technologist will be in an adjacent room where the equipment controls are located. However, they will be able to see your child through a large window and will be monitoring him or her constantly during the procedure. If your child is not sedated, he or she will be given a call bell device to let the staff know if he or she needs anything during the procedure. Speakers are located inside the scanner so that your child can hear instructions from the CT staff and they can hear your child respond.. Once the procedure begins, your child will need to be remain very still at all times so that movement will not adversely affect the quality of the images. At intervals, he or she will be ...
The ultrafast CT scanner is located in a large room. Your child will lie on a narrow table that slides into the hollow tube-shaped scanner.. Your child will have an intravenous (IV) line if contrast medication is being used. The contrast medication may be injected prior to the procedure or during the procedure.. The CT technologist will be in an adjacent room where the equipment controls are located. However, they will be able to see your child through a large window and will be monitoring him or her constantly during the procedure. If your child is not sedated, he or she will be given a call bell device to let the staff know if he or she needs anything during the procedure. Speakers are located inside the scanner so that your child can hear instructions from the CT staff and they can hear your child respond.. Once the procedure begins, your child will need to be remain very still at all times so that movement will not adversely affect the quality of the images. At intervals, he or she will be ...
Crystallization is the major bottleneck to 3D structure determination using X-ray crystallography. In this workshop we will discuss many tenets of successful crystallization for both conventional and serial crystallography. Many topics will be covered including fundamentals of crystal growth, strategies to sample crystallization space, identifying crystal hits, electron microscopy applications of crystal analysis, practical considerations for data analysis, difficult crystallization problems, virus crystallography, and an overview of serial crystallography.
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Ultra-fast detection of light lies at the heart of optical communication systems nowadays. Driven by the internet of things and 5G, data communication bandwidth is growing exponentially, thus requiring even faster optical ...
Scientists working with Europes Graphene Flagship provide a wide-ranging review of the potential for 2D crystals in energy conversion and storage.
You searched for: Format Text Remove constraint Format: Text Genre Letters (correspondence) Remove constraint Genre: Letters (correspondence) Subject Crystallography, X-Ray Remove constraint Subject: Crystallography, X-Ray ...
Amaze yourself & your friends by easily solving the 3D Crystal Puzzle - Skull (Black) puzzle. Puzzle Master has an amazing collection of mind tickling Wood Puzzles puzzles. Order Now!
Title: Journal of Applied Crystallography, Description: Journal of Applied Crystallography covers a wide range of crystallographic topics from the viewpoints of both techniques and theory. The journal presents articles on the application of crystallographi, By: Feedage Forager, ID: 29619, Grade: 88, Type:
The development of cancer is a complex process, which can result from minor mistakes in an otherwise well-functioning network of cellular processes. As such, it is essential that scientists have a clear picture of biochemical processes at an atomic level in order to gain an in-depth understanding of how various cancers occur and develop. One technique starting to gain recognition as a powerful tool is neutron crystallography.
Using neutron crystallography, a team of researchers unequivocally mapped the active site of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an enzyme necessary for nucleotide biosynthesis and a classical drug target.
Nokia sites use cookies to improve and personalize your experience and to display advertisements. The sites may also include cookies from third parties. By using this site, you consent to the use of cookies. Learn more ...
Chemistry Crystallography Organic Physics Science: 1 assigned downloads, like X-Ray Diffraction: In Crystals, Imperfect Crystals, and Amorphous Bodies - A. Guinier from ebook-reader
On the streets, fans would be at him, demonstrating him a download and a Office. It was like I kept got into the door of a Enough vault seller, he s. Lee was doing download the crystal lattice; the consent constituted changed away Worth.
This book is the first book dealing with structural crystallography of inorganic oxysalts in general. A special emphasis is placed upon structural topology and methods of its description. The latter include graph theory, nets, 2-D and 3-D tilings, polyhedra, etc. The structures considered range from minerals to organically templated oxysalts, for all of which this book provides a unified approach to structure interpretation and classification.
International Tables for Crystallography () pe Pret: 1198.99 lei. Presents a systematic treatment of the maximal subgroups and minimal supergroup
Using X-ray crystallography to determine the 3D structure of a protein is a costly and time-consuming process. One of the major reasons is that the protein
In 1929 Linus Pauling came up with Paulings Rules to describe the principles governing the structure of complex ionic crystals. These rules essentially describe how the arrangement of atoms in a crystal is critically dependent on the size of the atoms, their charge and type of bonding.
The repeating group of a crystal is called the A. nucleus. B. unit cell. C. net. D. crystal system.
X-ray crystallography is currently the most accurate technology for determining 3D structure of protein. It uses the ability of proteins to form crystals under specific conditions. Molecules in the crystal form a very regular three-dimensional pattern, which upon being e...
The actual atomic arrangements of solid material, which may be classified as single crystal, poly crystal, and amorphous. In which, the single crystal has many types, such as SC, BCC, FCC and DIA etc.
Using X-ray crystallography, we are determining the high-resolution structures of enzymes that contribute to the oxidative folding of substrate proteins.. ...
As a solid, Cr adopts a body-centered cubic unit cell. How many unit cells are present per cubic centimeter of Cr?The density of Cr is 7.15g/cm^3 so:...
আয়নীয় যৌগ সাধারণত ধাতব ও অধাতব পদার্থ দ্বারা গঠিত হয়। ধাতব মৌল হতে উৎপন্ন বিচ্ছিন্ন গ্যাসীয় ক্যাটায়ন এবং অধাতব মৌল হতে উৎপন্ন বিচ্ছিন্ন গ্যাসীয় অ্যানায়ন তাড়িতিক আকর্ষণ বলে যুক্ত হয়ে বিচ্ছিন্ন আয়নযুগল গঠন করার পরিবর্তে বহুসংখ্যক ক্যাটায়ন ও অ্যানায়ন একত্রিত হয়ে ত্রিমাত্রিক নির্দিষ্ট জ্যামিতিক আকৃতি বিশিষ্ট কেলাস জালক (Three) dimensional Crystal Lattice) গঠন করে। এই সময় প্রচুর ...
... is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids. Crystallography is a ... American Crystallographic Association Learning Crystallography Web Course on Crystallography Crystallographic Space Groups (CS1 ... Hence crystallography applies for the most part only to crystals, or to molecules which can be coaxed to crystallize for the ... Crystallography covers the enumeration of the symmetry patterns which can be formed by atoms in a crystal and for this reason ...
In chemistry isomorphism has meanings both at the level of crystallography and at a molecular level. In crystallography, ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Crystallography, Mineralogy concepts). ... X-Ray Crystallography. University Science Books. ISBN 978-1-891389-77-1. Wells, A.F. (1984). Structural Inorganic Chemistry ( ...
... is a technique used in structural biology where crystals of a protein molecule are developed from an ... In molecular crystallography, these arrangements are called 'space groups'. However, only 65 of these arrangements are ... In the first practical application to solving an unknown structure, racemic and quasi-racemic X-ray crystallography were used ... Yan B, Ye L, Xu W, Liu L (September 2017). "Recent advances in racemic protein crystallography". Bioorganic & Medicinal ...
... is a branch of crystallography that investigates crystalline materials within the framework of quantum ... The Erice School of crystallography (52nd course): first course on Quantum crystallography (June 2018) The XIX Sagamore ... The International Union of Crystallography has recently established a commission on Quantum Crystallography, as extension of ... Quantum crystallography involves both experimental and computational work. The theoretical part of quantum crystallography is ...
A common problem to X-ray crystallography and electron crystallography is radiation damage, by which especially organic ... Electron crystallography is a method to determine the arrangement of atoms in solids using a transmission electron microscope ( ... These are more complex than the most complex zeolite structures determined by X-ray crystallography. R Hovden; Y Jiang; HL Xin ... Because of this problem, X-ray crystallography has been much more successful in determining the structure of proteins that are ...
... is a technique used in physics and astronomy to determine the possible topology of the universe (e.g. a ... September 1996), "Cosmic crystallography", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 313: 339-346, arXiv:gr-qc/9604050, Bibcode:1996A&A...313 ...
International Union of Crystallography (IUCr). 58 (3): 380-388. doi:10.1107/s0108768102003890. ISSN 0108-7681. Bruno, I. J. " ... "Mercury 4.0: from visualization to analysis, design and prediction" (PDF). Journal of Applied Crystallography. 53: 226. doi: ... Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre Crystallographic Information File International Union of Crystallography Protein Data ... Journal of Applied Crystallography. 39: 453. doi:10.1107/S002188980600731X. "Mercury User Guide and Tutorials" (PDF). ...
Crystallography refers to both the science of crystallography and a reanalysis of the word's roots: crystal meaning "clear", ... Crystallography is a book of poetry and prose published in 1994 and revised in 2003 by Canadian author Christian Bök. Based ... and "graph" meaning "writing": Inspired by the etymology of the word "crystallography," such a work represents an act of lucid ... Crystallography. Toronto: Coach House Press, 2003(2nd. Ed.). Writing with images. (n.d.). from ...
... is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing review articles on all aspects of ... "Crystallography Reviews". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Sciences ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2021. Official website ... "Crystallography Reviews". Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index (CASSI) (Displaying Record for Publication). American ... Crystallography journals, Publications established in 1987, Taylor & Francis academic journals, All stub articles, Materials ...
In crystallography, the term polysome is used to describe overall mineral structures which have structurally and ... v t e v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Crystallography, All stub articles ...
... (SFX) is a form of X-ray crystallography developed for use at X-ray free-electron lasers ( ... a software suite for snapshot serial crystallography" (PDF). Journal of Applied Crystallography. 45 (2): 335-41. doi:10.1107/ ... March 2014). "Serial crystallography on in vivo grown microcrystals using synchrotron radiation". IUCrJ. 1 (Pt 2): 87-94. doi: ... While the idea of serial crystallography had been proposed earlier, it was first demonstrated with XFELs by Chapman et al. at ...
... allows measuring the size of these oscillations. The technique of single-crystal X-ray crystallography ... Although crystallography can be used to characterize the disorder in an impure or irregular crystal, crystallography generally ... crystallography-are often discerned. Small-molecule crystallography typically involves crystals with fewer than 100 atoms in ... X-ray crystallography is a form of elastic scattering; the outgoing X-rays have the same energy, and thus same wavelength, as ...
The Crystallography Open Database (COD) is a database of crystal structures. Unlike similar crystallography databases, the ... Crystallography Crystallographic database Gražulis, Saulius; Daškevič Adriana; Merkys Andrius; Chateigner Daniel; Lutterotti ... Oxford Journal - Nucleic Acids Research Crystallography Open Database (COD): an open-access collection of crystal structures ... and contains Crystallographic Information Files as defined by the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr). There are ...
In crystallography, the R-factor (sometimes called residual factor or reliability factor or the R-value or RWork) is a measure ... "R factor". International Union of Crystallography. Retrieved 2013-12-13. Brunger AT (January 1992). "Free R value: a novel ... Patterson function (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Crystallography). ...
In crystallography, a periodic graph or crystal net is a three-dimensional periodic graph, i.e., a three-dimensional Euclidean ... J. Math., 7: 1-39, doi:10.1007/s11537-012-1144-4 Senechal, M. (1990), "A brief history of geometrical crystallography", in Lima ... Soc., 353: 1-20, doi:10.1090/S0002-9947-00-02632-5 Sunada, T. (2012), Topological crystallography ---With a View Towards ... Faria, J. (ed.), Historical Atlas of Crystallography, Kluwer, pp. 43-59 Wells, A. (1977). Three-dimensional Nets and Polyhedra ...
... utilizes X-ray crystallography imaging to visualize reactions in four dimensions (x, y, z and ...
... is the application of crystallography to biological macromolecules at cryogenic temperatures. Cryo ... Significant improvement of resolution in data collection Reduced or eliminated radiation damage in crystals Crystallography of ... Ada Yonath (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Crystallography). ... crystallography enables X-ray data collection at cryogenic temperatures, typically 100K. Crystals are transferred from the ...
In crystallography, direct methods are a family of methods for estimating the phases of the Fourier transform of the scattering ... Usón I, Sheldrick GM (1999). "Advances in direct methods for protein crystallography". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 9 (5): 643-8. ... Direct methods (electron microscopy) Phase problem X-ray crystallography "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985". ... Hauptman H (1997). "Phasing methods for protein crystallography". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 7 (5): 672-80. doi:10.1016/S0959- ...
This is a timeline of crystallography. 1723 - Moritz Anton Cappeller introduces the term 'crystallography'. 1766 - Pierre- ... 1979 - The first award of the Gregori Aminoff Prize for a contribution in the field of crystallography is made by the Royal ... 1999 - G. N. Ramachandran wins the fifth IUCr Ewald Prize "for his outstanding contributions to the field of crystallography: ... 2008 - David Sayre wins the eighth IUCr Ewald Prize "for the unique breadth of his contributions to crystallography, which ...
... describes the orientation relationship and interface orientation after a phase ... "On the crystallography of precipitation". Progress in Materials Science. 50 (2): 181-292. doi:10.1016/j.pmatsci.2004.04.002. ... Software to calculate transformation crystallography-PTCLab, (Wikipedia articles needing ...
... (NMR crystallography) is a method which utilizes primarily NMR spectroscopy to ... In NMR crystallography the observed spins in case of organic molecules would often be spin-1/2 nuclei of moderate frequency (13 ... Unlike in the case of diffraction methods, it appears that NMR crystallography needs to work on a case-by-case basis. This is ... The main interest in NMR crystallography is in microcrystalline materials which are amenable to this method but not to X-ray, ...
... is abstracted and indexed in the following databases: Chemical Abstracts Service - CASSI ... The editor-in-chief of Journal of Chemical Crystallography is W.T. Pennington. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the ... "Journal of Chemical Crystallography". Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index (CASSI) (Displaying Record for Publication). ... The Journal of Chemical Crystallography covers crystal chemistry and physics and their relation to problems of molecular ...
The opening ceremony of the International Year of Crystallography was held in Paris on 20 and 21 January 2014. Many activities ... The International Year of Crystallography (abbreviation: IYCr2014) is an event promoted in the year 2014 by the United Nations ... They include among others the International Union of Crystallography, the European Crystallographic Association, the American ... UNESCO and the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) are responsible for this event. ...
"A new format and overall appearance for Journal of Applied Crystallography". Journal of Applied Crystallography. 33: 1. doi: ... "Journal of Applied Crystallography". Official website (Articles with short description, Short description is different from ... The Journal of Applied Crystallography is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the ... The Journal of Applied Crystallography publishes articles on the crystallographic methods that are used to study crystalline ...
"International Tables for Crystallography". International Tables for Crystallography. International Union of Crystallography. " ... Acta Crystallographica X-ray crystallography Crystallography International Year of Crystallography Open Access Scholarly ... "Crystallography Journals Online". Crystallography Journals Online. The International Union of Crystallography. " ... Ewald, Paul P (ed.). "The Consolidation of the New Crystallography". The International Union of Crystallography. With one very ...
CNS or Crystallography and NMR system, is a software library for computational structural biology. It is an offshoot of X-PLOR ... It is used in the fields of X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy of biological macromolecules. Brunger AT, Adams PD, ... Brunger AT (2007). "Version 1.2 of the Crystallography and NMR System" (PDF). Nature Protocols. 2: 2728-2733. doi:10.1038/nprot ... "Crystallography & NMR System (CNS), A new software suite for macromolecular structure determination". Acta Crystallogr D. 54: ...
The Heart of Europe Bio-Crystallography Meeting (short HEC-Meeting) is an annual academic conference on structural biology, in ... Former HEC-Meetings: Mariusz Jaskolski und Michal M. Sikorski: 15 Years of Heart of Europe bio-Crystallography Meetings - ... 4, Website of HEC-16 at the ... particular protein crystallography. Researchers from universities, other research institutions and industry from Austria, Czech ...
ISBN 0-471-80580-7. "Crystallography and Minerals Arranged by Crystal Form". Webmineral. "Crystallography". ... In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal family is one of the six crystal families, which includes two crystal systems ( ... Jaswon, Maurice Aaron (1965-01-01). An introduction to mathematical crystallography. American Elsevier Pub. Co. De Graef, Marc ... 186 (in International Union of Crystallography classification) or P63mc (in Hermann-Mauguin notation). The Hermann-Mauguin ...
Crystallography. Mineralogy 55 Earth sciences. Geological sciences 56 Paleontology 57 Biological sciences in general 58 Botany ... Crystallography. Mineralogy 542 Practical laboratory chemistry. Preparative and experimental chemistry 543 Analytical chemistry ...
On May 31, 2011, The BBC World Service broadcast Bök reading "The Xenotext." Crystallography. Coach House (1994) ISBN 978-1- ... In 1994, Bök published Crystallography, "a pataphysical encyclopaedia that misreads the language of poetics through the ... Crystallography was reissued in 2003, and was nominated for a Gerald Lampert Award. Bök is a sound poet and has performed an ...
Other articles where splintery fracture is discussed: mineral: Cleavage and fracture: Splintery fracture is breakage into elongated fragments like splinters of wood, while hackly fracture is breakage along jagged surfaces.
Integrating Research and Education:Crystallography: Crystal Structure Databases. Subject: Geoscience:Geology:Geochemistry. ...
X-ray crystallography, Crystal growth, Materials, Solids, Tables, Electrons, Cristallographie ...
The 10,058 entries contributed by the Structural Genomics Initiative represent 14% of the 72,000 total in the PDB. But they are about 50% non-redundant compared to 25% for the PDB as a whole ...
... (1). *The big data ecosystem for science: X-ray crystallography - Jan 19, 2017.. Diffract-and-destroy ...
ID29 offers two techniques: MX (macromolecular crystallography) and SMX (serial macromolecular crystallography). ... ID29 is currently being upgraded as part of the EBSL8 project to a new Serial Macromolecular Crystallography Beamline for room ... ID29 is intended for room temperature serial crystallography experiments over a wide energy range (10-25 keV and 35 keV) with ... EH1 - SMX is dedicated to room temperature serial crystallography experiments, EH2 is designed to be a flexible endstation for ...
Georgina Ferry celebrates the egalitarian, collaborative culture that has so far produced two female Nobel prizewinners.
The Rotation Method in Crystallography. Amsterdam: North Holland. Google Scholar. Buerger, M. J. (1944). The Photography of the ... Copyright © International Union of Crystallography. Home Contact us Site index About us Partners and site credits Help Terms of ... Synchrotrons started being used for X-ray crystallography in the early 1980s. Synchrotron data gave much cleaner patterns that ... serial femtosecond crystallography or SFX). Thus each image is a `still of a randomly orientated crystal. It is therefore not ...
Surface Crystallography by X-Ray Diffraction. / Grey, F.; Feidenhansl, R.. In: Europhys. News, 1988.. Research output: ... Grey, F. ; Feidenhansl, R. / Surface Crystallography by X-Ray Diffraction. In: Europhys. News. 1988. ... Grey, F., & Feidenhansl, R. (1988). Surface Crystallography by X-Ray Diffraction. Europhys. News. ... Grey, F & Feidenhansl, R 1988, Surface Crystallography by X-Ray Diffraction, Europhys. News. ...
Nokia sites use cookies to improve and personalize your experience and to display advertisements. The sites may also include cookies from third parties. By using this site, you consent to the use of cookies. Learn more ...
For a full description of Macromolecular Crystallography research activities, please click HERE. ... For a full description of Macromolecular Crystallography research activities, please click HERE. ...
X-Ray Crystallography Determining the atomic three dimensional structures of large biological molecules, to link protein ... The X-ray Crystallography Facility provides instrumentation and expertise to help researchers crystallize biological ... macromolecules and determine their three-dimensional structures by X-ray crystallography. To aid crystallisation we have access ...
José BARRENECHEA | Cited by 1,869 | of Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid (UCM) | Read 101 publications | Contact José BARRENECHEA
Rigor and reproducibility are crucial to your research aims, and they are becoming greater factors in securing critical grant funding opportunities. There are eight steps to Rigorous and Reproducible Experiments in Biomolecular Research at UNC:. 1. If using a core facility, consult with the core staff in the planning stage. Consult with a statistician if you need help developing a Power Analysis to assure that your results will be adequately powered.. 2. Design your experiment with sufficient controls (rigor) and replicates (reproducibility).. 3. Assure that ALL of your reagents (antibodies, cell lines, mice) are fully validated (see below).. 4. Have a clear and detailed protocol (SOP) and data analysis plan that can be easily followed. Assure that the protocol is strictly followed or that any deviation is well documented.. 5. Assure that the staff or students performing the experiment are well trained and understand each step and the importance of performing them precisely (rigor again).. 6. ...
SECTION D: BIOLOGICAL CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. Vols. 56-69. Oxford, 2000-2013. Partly reprint. ...
Director, Biomolecular X-ray Crystallography Facility. Jennie Smoly Caruthers Biotechnology Building , 596 UCB. Office: JSCBB ... Biomolecular X-ray Crystallography Facility Annette Erbse. ... Biomolecular X-ray Crystallography Facility College of Arts and ...
International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F. ch. 1.1, pp. 1-4. , 1 , 2 , ... International Tables for Crystallography (2012). Vol. F. ch. 1.1, pp. 1-4. ...
Please dont hesitate to contact any of the Macromolecular crystallography team. ... The High Performance Macromolecular Crystallography MX3 beamline is one of the upcoming Project BR-GHT Beamlines and is in the ...
Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) as pursued at X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) sources relies mainly on injectors ... Lipidic cubic phase serial millisecond crystallography using synchrotron radiation, P. Nogly (a), D. James (b), D. Wang (b), T. ... To demonstrate how serial crystallography, developed in femtosecond timescales at X-ray free electron laser sources, can be ... These results suggest that synchrotron based serial crystallography with fast and sensitive state-of-the-art detectors ...
... chemical crystallography). The course includes instruction and lab time. The training is in English, so participants should ... chemical crystallography). The course includes instruction and lab time. The training is in English, so participants should ...
Automatically cite a interview in ACTA-CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA-SECTION-D-BIOLOGICAL-CRYSTALLOGRAPHY by using Citation Machines free ... Creating accurate citations in ACTA-CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA-SECTION-D-BIOLOGICAL-CRYSTALLOGRAPHY has never been easier! ...
International tables for crystallography Imprint. Dordrecht, Holland ; Boston, U.S.A. : D. Reidel Pub. Co. ; Hingham, MA : Sold ... "Published for the International Union of Crystallography.". Some volumes published by Kluwer Academic Publishers; some vols. ...
Happy hour for time-resolved crystallography. Researchers from Hamburg simplify time-resolved X-ray crystallography ... One method that illuminates them is time-resolved X-ray crystallography, where the reaction of a biological molecule is ... allowing many more researchers to carry out time-resolved crystallography studies. ... method has already been implemented as a generally accessible option at the new time-resolved macromolecular crystallography ...
CRYSTALLOGRAPHY This technique employs single crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD) to unambiguously determine the three dimensional ... CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. This technique employs single crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD) to unambiguously determine the three ...
Corentin won the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) "Applied Crystallography" Poster Prize for his poster "In situ ... The 33rdedition of the European Crystallography Conference (ECM33) has just come to an end after five days of effervescent ... Corentin CHATELIER, second on the left side, winner of the poster prize IUCr « Applied Crystallography » ... and the 50th anniversary of the European Crystallography Meetings, before the gala dinner on a cruise on the Seine. ...
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Persons tagged with «protein crystallography» Name. Phone. E-mail. Tags. Hatlem, Daniel Senior Executive Officer [email protected] ... protein crystallography, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, structural biology Hersleth, Hans-Petter Senior Lecturer +47 ... structural biology, biochemistry, enzymology, protein crystallography, protein structure, diffraction, spectroscopy, Life ...
Electron crystallography is similar to X-ray crystallography in that a protein crystal scatters a beam to produce a diffraction ... 5) Did the authors try a standard indexing programs used in X-ray crystallography? It is curious why a new indexing program was ... X-ray crystallography has been used to work out the atomic structure of a large number of proteins. In a typical X-ray ... 1998) Crystallography & NMR system: a new software suite for macromolecular structure determination Acta Crystallogr D Biol ...
  • Welcome to the Online Dictionary of Crystallography (the ODC) maintained by the Commission for Crystallographic Nomenclature (CCN) of the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr). (
  • In a typical X-ray crystallography experiment, a beam of X-rays is directed at a protein crystal, which scatters some of the X-ray photons to produce a diffraction pattern. (
  • Electron crystallography is similar to X-ray crystallography in that a protein crystal scatters a beam to produce a diffraction pattern. (
  • By reducing the electron dose by a factor of 200, it was possible to collect up to 90 diffraction patterns from the same, very small, three-dimensional crystal, and then-similar to what happens in X-ray crystallography-work backwards to figure out the structure of the protein. (
  • To commemorate the International Year of Crystallography and also the centennial year of X-ray diffraction, the Indian Crystallography Association has planned to organize three National Seminars on Crystallography across the country. (
  • Crystallography: Introduction, Symmetry, Diffraction. (
  • To demonstrate how serial crystallography, developed in femtosecond timescales at X-ray free electron laser sources, can be implemented on a millisecond timescale at a synchrotron radiation source, membrane protein microcrystals in lipidic cubic phase have been injected into a X-ray microbeam. (
  • Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) as pursued at X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) sources relies mainly on injectors delivering the sample, such as protein microcrystals, in a fluid medium to pulsed X-rays. (
  • We demonstrate that it is feasible to determine high-resolution protein structures by electron crystallography of three-dimensional crystals in an electron cryo-microscope (CryoEM). (
  • demonstrated the feasibility of the MicroED approach by using it to determine the structure of lysozyme, which is widely used as a test protein in crystallography, with a resolution of 2.9 Å. (
  • Teams from Rigaku UK and Rigaku Europe SE in Germany attended the event, representing both materials and protein crystallography. (
  • The Protein Crystallography Unit at Karolinska Institutet, led by Dr. Luca Jovine, has now determined the structure of the most conserved part of this building block, the ZP-N domain. (
  • Femtosecond time resolved pump-probe protein X-ray crystallography requires highly accurate measurements of the photoinduced structure factor amplitude differences. (
  • We offer a complete range of protein crystallography equipment from benchtop to floor standing systems. (
  • Heterogeneity and Inaccuracy in Protein Structures Solved by X-Ray Crystallography. (
  • ID29 is currently being upgraded as part of the EBSL8 project to a new Serial Macromolecular Crystallography Beamline for room temperature and time resolved studies. (
  • ID29 offers two techniques: MX (macromolecular crystallography) and SMX (serial macromolecular crystallography). (
  • Please don't hesitate to contact any of the Macromolecular crystallography team. (
  • The High Performance Macromolecular Crystallography MX3 beamline is one of the upcoming Project BR-GHT Beamlines and is in the development stages. (
  • These results suggest that synchrotron based serial crystallography with fast and sensitive state-of-the-art detectors operating in the kHz range could well develop into a powerful method for macromolecular crystal structure determination that is complementary regarding timescales ( i.e. femtoseconds vs. milliseconds) with SFX applications. (
  • The LAMA method has already been implemented as a generally accessible option at the new time-resolved macromolecular crystallography end station on the EMBL beamline P14-2 at the PETRA III synchrotron at DESY. (
  • The Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) team at PSI is responsible for the development and operation of three MX beamlines and a crystallization facility at the Swiss Light Source (SLS) and for serial crystallography at both large research infrastructures SLS and SwissFEL. (
  • Biophysical methods such as X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, analytical ultra-centrifugation (AUC) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) are being used to study the molecular and structural basis of macromolecular functions. (
  • ID29 is intended for room temperature serial crystallography experiments over a wide energy range (10-25 keV and 35 keV) with an extremely high flux density. (
  • EH1 - SMX is dedicated to room temperature serial crystallography experiments, EH2 is designed to be a flexible endstation for developing and prototyping new methods. (
  • Partner with UNESCO, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in the International Year of Crystallography 2014. (
  • The 29th European Crystallography Meeting will be held in Rovinj, Croatia from 23-28 August 2015. (
  • Basel will held the 30th European Crystallography Meeting, ECM-30 , from 28 August until 1 September 2016. (
  • There is no formal review process, so if an entry in the ODC differs from a similar definition in one of the volumes of the International Tables for Crystallography the latter is the more authoritative source. (
  • report a new approach to electron crystallography that works with very small three-dimensional crystals. (
  • Excitingly, this new method has great potential on existing and up-coming high-brilliance synchrotron radiation sources, allowing many more researchers to carry out time-resolved crystallography studies. (
  • These improvements will further enable serial microsecond crystallography, offering interesting opportunities for room-temperature kinetics studies, e.g. via laser excitation. (
  • We introduce a liquid application method for time-resolved analyses (LAMA), an in situ mixing approach for serial crystallography. (
  • X-ray Crystallography and NMR: Complementary Views of Structure and Dynamics, Nature Structural Biology 4, 862-865 (1997). (
  • The X-ray Crystallography Facility provides instrumentation and expertise to help researchers crystallize biological macromolecules and determine their three-dimensional structures by X-ray crystallography. (
  • The Electron Microscopy and Crystallography Platform is an open access facility at the CIC bio GUNE. (
  • The crystals used for X-ray crystallography must be large to withstand the damage caused by repeated exposure to the X-ray beam. (
  • If you need more information please contact the developers of CRYSTALS (Chemical Crystallography Laboratory, Oxford), or check out their product website. (
  • Published for the International Union of Crystallography by Munksgaard. (
  • Acta crystallographica - Section A - Foundations of crystallography / International Union of Crystallography by Munksgaard. (
  • One method that illuminates them is time-resolved X-ray crystallography, where the reaction of a biological molecule is triggered and then snapshots are taken as it reacts. (
  • At the meeting, crystallographers and researchers with interests in crystallography and crystal growth met to share their scientific views and new achievements. (
  • The International Union of Crystallography is a non-profit scientific union serving the world-wide interests of crystallographers and other scientists employing crystallographic methods. (
  • The big data ecosystem for science: X-ray crystallography - Jan 19, 2017. (
  • The three-dimensional structures of the magnesium- and manganese-bound forms of calbindin D(9k) were determined to 1.6 Å and 1.9 Å resolution, respectively, using X-ray crystallography. (
  • The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has awarded David H. Mao of the Geophysical Laboratory the Gregori Aminoff Prize in Crystallography 2005 "for pioneering research of materials at ultrahigh pressures and temperatures. (
  • Research into the pathogenesis of based in part on x-ray crystallography. (
  • Optical Mineralogy:Introduction to Optics, Optical Crystallography & Crystal Chemistry. (
  • F.D. Bloss, Crystallography and Crystal Chemistry, (1971). (
  • The article describes a course in undergraduate solid state chemistry that integrates the main concepts of crystallography which is also considered as an attempt to create a course in applied crystallography. (
  • The experience of teaching this course proved that the merging of chemistry and crystallography is synergistic. (
  • This course is designed for experienced users of the Bruker D8 QUEST or D8 VENTURE systems for X-ray crystal structure determination (chemical crystallography). (
  • Journal of Applied Crystallography [electronic resource]. (
  • X-ray crystallography has been used to work out the atomic structure of a large number of proteins. (
  • Elucidating the medium-resolution structure of ribosomal particles: an interplay between electron cryo-microscopy and X-ray crystallography. (
  • In 1952, a young female scientist Rosalind Franklin at Kings' College London took the first known picture of DNA in its helical structure using x-ray crystallography. (
  • The structure and absolute configuration has been confirmed with single crystal X-ray crystallography. (
  • The structure of the IkappaBalpha ankyrin repeat domain, bound to a partially truncated NF-kappaB heterodimer (p50/ p65), has been determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.7 A resolution. (
  • We then pierce the molecular secret of their reaction by looking at them with X-ray crystallography, which means that we have to crystallize the enzymes, and use X-ray to get their pictures. (
  • During the subsequent days, June 9-10, there will be a symposium on a theme in crystallography related to the subject of the award. (
  • Using high-resolution X-ray crystallography, we show that the SH3 domain in the Shank family has lost its canonical ligand-binding site. (
  • Named after Gregori Aminoff, the pioneering Swedish crystallographer, the prize is given annually to recognized scientists, or to a group of no more than three persons of international distinction, who have made a major contribution to crystallography. (
  • The 33rdedition of the European Crystallography Conference (ECM33) has just come to an end after five days of effervescent scientific meetings, in a renovated congress venue, in the immediate vicinity of "her majesty" the Château de Versailles. (
  • ECM-30 will be a four-day vibrant and intensive scientific meeting with many learning opportunities in every current aspect of crystallography. (