The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The scattering of NEUTRONS by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. It is useful in CRYSTALLOGRAPHY and POWDER DIFFRACTION.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Light absorbing proteins and protein prosthetic groups found in certain microorganisms. Some microbial photoreceptors initiate specific chemical reactions which signal a change in the environment, while others generate energy by pumping specific ions across a cellular membrane.
Scattering of a beam of electromagnetic or acoustic RADIATION, or particles, at small angles by particles or cavities whose dimensions are many times as large as the wavelength of the radiation or the de Broglie wavelength of the scattered particles. Also know as low angle scattering. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed) Small angle scattering (SAS) techniques, small angle neutron (SANS), X-ray (SAXS), and light (SALS, or just LS) scattering, are used to characterize objects on a nanoscale.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Controlled operations of analytic or diagnostic processes, or systems by mechanical or electronic devices.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
Data processing largely performed by automatic means.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-
Diagnostic aid in pancreas function determination.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Phenolic metacyclophanes derived from condensation of PHENOLS and ALDEHYDES. The name derives from the vase-like molecular structures. A bracketed [n] indicates the number of aromatic rings.
A computer simulation technique that is used to model the interaction between two molecules. Typically the docking simulation measures the interactions of a small molecule or ligand with a part of a larger molecule such as a protein.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.
A rod-shaped bacterium surrounded by a sheath-like structure which protrudes balloon-like beyond the ends of the cell. It is thermophilic, with growth occurring at temperatures as high as 90 degrees C. It is isolated from geothermally heated marine sediments or hot springs. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the three ester bonds in a phosphotriester-containing compound.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
Family of rod-shaped DNA viruses infecting ARCHAEA. They lack viral envelopes or lipids.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Heterodimers of FLAVONOIDS bound to LIGNANS.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
A potassium salt used to replenish ELECTROLYTES, for restoration of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE, as well as a urinary and systemic alkalizer, which can be administered orally or by intravenous infusion. Formerly, it was used in DIURETICS and EXPECTORANTS.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of pancreatic ribonucleic acids to 3'-phosphomono- and oligonucleotides ending in cytidylic or uridylic acids with 2',3'-cyclic phosphate intermediates. EC
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
A soluble cytochrome P-450 enzyme that catalyzes camphor monooxygenation in the presence of putidaredoxin, putidaredoxin reductase, and molecular oxygen. This enzyme, encoded by the CAMC gene also known as CYP101, has been crystallized from bacteria and the structure is well defined. Under anaerobic conditions, this enzyme reduces the polyhalogenated compounds bound at the camphor-binding site.
A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
The white of an egg, especially a chicken's egg, used in cooking. It contains albumin. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
A thermostable extracellular metalloendopeptidase containing four calcium ions. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Topical antiseptic used mainly in wound dressings.
The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of aldose and ketose compounds.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.
The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC
A hard, brittle, grayish-white rare earth metal with an atomic symbol Ru, atomic number 44, and atomic weight 101.07. It is used as a catalyst and hardener for PLATINUM and PALLADIUM.
Gram-negative non-motile bacteria found in soil or brines.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
A left-handed double helix of DNA. Its name derives from its narrow zigzag structure that is the least twisted and thinnest form of DNA. Z-DNA forming regions within the GENOME may play an important role in GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A method for determining points of contact between interacting proteins or binding sites of proteins to nucleic acids. Protein footprinting utilizes a protein cutting reagent or protease. Protein cleavage is inhibited where the proteins, or nucleic acids and protein, contact each other. After completion of the cutting reaction, the remaining peptide fragments are analyzed by electrophoresis.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Cytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Part of a MESSENGER RNA molecule that undergoes a conformation change upon binding a specific metabolite or other small molecule thereby regulating the messenger RNA's transcription, post-transcriptional processing, transport, translation, or stability in response to varying levels of the metabolite or other small molecule.
Carboxypeptidases that are primarily found the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM that catalyze the release of C-terminal amino acids. Carboxypeptidases A have little or no activity for hydrolysis of C-terminal ASPARTIC ACID; GLUTAMIC ACID; ARGININE; LYSINE; or PROLINE. This enzyme requires ZINC as a cofactor and was formerly listed as EC and EC
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.
Calcium-binding motifs composed of two helices (E and F) joined by a loop. Calcium is bound by the loop region. These motifs are found in many proteins that are regulated by calcium.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Compounds based on 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine.
A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A family of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria that deposit globules of elemental sulfur inside their cells. They are found in diverse aquatic environments.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
Cyclic compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-4 dozen atoms.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
A site on an enzyme which upon binding of a modulator, causes the enzyme to undergo a conformational change that may alter its catalytic or binding properties.
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)

Three-dimensional structure of a recombinant gap junction membrane channel. (1/1562)

Gap junction membrane channels mediate electrical and metabolic coupling between adjacent cells. The structure of a recombinant cardiac gap junction channel was determined by electron crystallography at resolutions of 7.5 angstroms in the membrane plane and 21 angstroms in the vertical direction. The dodecameric channel was formed by the end-to-end docking of two hexamers, each of which displayed 24 rods of density in the membrane interior, which is consistent with an alpha-helical conformation for the four transmembrane domains of each connexin subunit. The transmembrane alpha-helical rods contrasted with the double-layered appearance of the extracellular domains. Although not indicative for a particular type of secondary structure, the protein density that formed the extracellular vestibule provided a tight seal to exclude the exchange of substances with the extracellular milieu.  (+info)

Structure of DNA-dependent protein kinase: implications for its regulation by DNA. (2/1562)

DNA double-strand breaks are created by ionizing radiation or during V(D)J recombination, the process that generates immunological diversity. Breaks are repaired by an end-joining reaction that requires DNA-PKCS, the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase. DNA-PKCS is a 460 kDa serine-threonine kinase that is activated by direct interaction with DNA. Here we report its structure at 22 A resolution, as determined by electron crystallography. The structure contains an open channel, similar to those seen in other double-stranded DNA-binding proteins, and an enclosed cavity with three openings large enough to accommodate single-stranded DNA, with one opening adjacent to the open channel. Based on these structural features, we performed biochemical experiments to examine the interactions of DNA-PKCS with different DNA molecules. Efficient kinase activation required DNA longer than 12 bp, the minimal length of the open channel. Competition experiments demonstrated that DNA-PKCS binds to double- and single-stranded DNA via separate but interacting sites. Addition of unpaired single strands to a double-stranded DNA fragment stimulated kinase activation. These results suggest that activation of the kinase involves interactions with both double- and single-stranded DNA, as suggested by the structure. A model for how the kinase is regulated by DNA is described.  (+info)

Solution structure of a lipid transfer protein extracted from rice seeds. Comparison with homologous proteins. (3/1562)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the three dimensional structure of rice nonspecific lipid transfer protein (ns-LTP), a 91 amino acid residue protein belonging to the broad family of plant ns-LTP. Sequence specific assignment was obtained for all but three HN backbone 1H resonances and for more than 95% of the 1H side-chain resonances using a combination of 1H 2D NOESY; TOCSY and COSY experiments at 293 K. The structure was calculated on the basis of four disulfide bridge restraints, 1259 distance constraints derived from 1H-1H Overhauser effects, 72 phi angle restraints and 32 hydrogen-bond restraints. The final solution structure involves four helices (H1: Cys3-Arg18, H2: Ala25-Ala37, H3: Thr41-Ala54 and H4: Ala66-Cys73) followed by a long C-terminal tail (T) with no observable regular structure. N-capping residues (Thr2, Ser24, Thr40), whose side-chain oxygen atoms are involved in hydrogen bonds with i + 3 amide proton additionally stabilize the N termini of the first three helices. The fourth helix involving Pro residues display a mixture of alpha and 3(10) conformation. The rms deviation of 14 final structures with respect to the average structure is 1.14 +/- 0.16 A for all heavy atoms (C, N, O and S) and 0.72 +/- 0.01 A for the backbone atoms. The global fold of rice ns-LTP is close to the previously published structures of wheat, barley and maize ns-LTPs exhibiting nearly identical pattern of the numerous sequence specific interactions. As reported previously for different four-helix topology proteins, hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic mechanisms of fold stabilization were found for the rice ns-LTP. The sequential alignment of 36 ns-LTP primary structures strongly suggests that there is a uniform pattern of specific long-range interactions (in terms of sequence), which stabilize the fold of all plant ns-LTPs.  (+info)

Biochemical evolution III: polymerization on organophilic silica-rich surfaces, crystal-chemical modeling, formation of first cells, and geological clues. (4/1562)

Catalysis at organophilic silica-rich surfaces of zeolites and feldspars might generate replicating biopolymers from simple chemicals supplied by meteorites, volcanic gases, and other geological sources. Crystal-chemical modeling yielded packings for amino acids neatly encapsulated in 10-ring channels of the molecular sieve silicalite-ZSM-5-(mutinaite). Calculation of binding and activation energies for catalytic assembly into polymers is progressing for a chemical composition with one catalytic Al-OH site per 25 neutral Si tetrahedral sites. Internal channel intersections and external terminations provide special stereochemical features suitable for complex organic species. Polymer migration along nano/micrometer channels of ancient weathered feldspars, plus exploitation of phosphorus and various transition metals in entrapped apatite and other microminerals, might have generated complexes of replicating catalytic biomolecules, leading to primitive cellular organisms. The first cell wall might have been an internal mineral surface, from which the cell developed a protective biological cap emerging into a nutrient-rich "soup." Ultimately, the biological cap might have expanded into a complete cell wall, allowing mobility and colonization of energy-rich challenging environments. Electron microscopy of honeycomb channels inside weathered feldspars of the Shap granite (northwest England) has revealed modern bacteria, perhaps indicative of Archean ones. All known early rocks were metamorphosed too highly during geologic time to permit simple survival of large-pore zeolites, honeycombed feldspar, and encapsulated species. Possible microscopic clues to the proposed mineral adsorbents/catalysts are discussed for planning of systematic study of black cherts from weakly metamorphosed Archaean sediments.  (+info)

Structural interpretation of site-directed mutagenesis and specificity of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 using comparative modelling. (5/1562)

The catalytic subunit of protein kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2alpha), which has specificity for both ATP and GTP, shows significant amino acid sequence similarity to the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). We constructed site-directed mutants of CK2alpha and used a three-dimensional model to investigate the basis for the dual specificity. Introduction of Phe and Gly at positions 50 and 51, in order to restore the pattern of the glycine-rich motif, did not seriously affect the specificity for ATP or GTP. We show that the dual specificity probably originates from the loop situated around the position His115 to Asp120 (HVNNTD). The insertion of a residue in this loop in CK2 alpha subunits, compared with CDK2 and other kinases, might orient the backbone to interact with the base A and G; this insertion is conserved in all known CK2alpha. The mutant deltaN118, the design of which was based on the modelling, showed reduced affinity for GTP as predicted from the model. Other mutants were intended to probe the integrity of the catalytic loop, alter the polarity of a buried residue and explore the importance of the carboxy terminus. Introduction of Arg to replace Asn189, which is mapped on the activation loop, results in a mutant with decreased k(cat), possibly as a result of disruption of the interaction between this residue and basic residues in the vicinity. Truncation at position 331 eliminates the last 60 residues of the alpha subunit and this mutant has a reduced catalytic efficiency compared with the wild-type. Catalytic efficiency is restored in the truncation mutant by the replacement of a potentially buried Glu at position 252 by Lys, probably owing to a higher stability resulting from the formation of a salt bridge between Lys252 and Asp208.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics simulation of alpha-lactalbumin and calcium binding c-type lysozyme. (6/1562)

Alpha-lactalbumins (LAs) and c-type lysozymes (LYZs) are two classes of proteins which have a 35-40% sequence homology and share a common three dimensional fold but perform different functions. Lysozymes bind and cleave the glycosidic bond linkage in sugars, where as, alpha-lactalbumin does not bind sugar but participates in the synthesis of lactose. Alpha-lactalbumin is a metallo-protein and binds calcium, where as, only a few of the LYZs bind calcium. These proteins consist of two domains, an alpha-helical and a beta-strand domain, separated by a cleft. Calcium is bound at a loop situated at the bottom of the cleft and is important for the structural integrity of the protein. Calcium is an ubiquitous intracellular signal in higher eukaryotes and structural changes induced on calcium binding have been observed in a number of proteins. In the present study, molecular dynamics simulations of equine LYZ and human LA, with and without calcium, were carried out. We detail the differences in the dynamics of equine LYZ and human LA, and discuss it in the light of experimental data already available and relate it to the behavior of the functionally important regions of both the proteins. These simulations bring out the role of calcium in the conformation and dynamics of these metallo-proteins. In the calcium bound LA, the region of the protein around the calcium binding site is not only frozen but the atomic fluctuations are found to increase away from the binding site and peak at the exposed sites of the protein. This channeling of fluctuations away from the metal binding site could serve as a general mechanism by which the effect of metal binding at a site is transduced to other parts of the protein and could play a key role in protein-ligand and/or protein-protein interaction.  (+info)

Homogenization and crystallization of histidine ammonia-lyase by exchange of a surface cysteine residue. (7/1562)

Histidase (histidine ammonia-lyase, EC from Pseudomonas putida was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. In the absence of thiols the tetrameric enzyme gave rise to undefined aggregates and suitable crystals could not be obtained. The solvent accessibility along the chain was predicted from the amino acid sequence. Among the seven cysteines, only one was labeled as 'solvent-exposed'. The exchange of this cysteine to alanine abolished all undefined aggregations and yielded readily crystals diffracting to 1.8 A resolution.  (+info)

Iron in the basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease. An in vitro study using extended X-ray absorption fine structure and cryo-electron microscopy. (8/1562)

Iron is found in high concentration in some areas of the brain, and increased iron in the substantia nigra is a feature of Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical environment of brain iron in post-mortem tissue to provide information on the possible role of iron in neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. Iron has also been implicated as the cause of signal loss in areas of high brain iron on T2-weighted MRI sequences. Knowledge of the physical environment of the brain iron is essential in interpreting the cause of signal change. Post-mortem tissue was obtained from six cases of Parkinson's disease and from six age-matched controls. Iron levels were measured using absorption spectrophotometry. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure was used to evaluate the atomic environment of iron within the substantia nigra and both segments of the globus pallidus. Cryo-electron transmission microscopy was used to probe the iron storage proteins in these areas. Iron levels were increased in the parkinsonian nigra and lateral portion of the globus pallidus. Spectra from the extended X-ray absorption fine structure experiments showed that ferritin was the only storage protein detectable in both control and parkinsonian tissue in all areas studied. Cryo-electron transmission microscopy studies showed that ferritin was more heavily loaded with iron in Parkinson's disease when compared with age-matched controls. In summary we have shown that iron levels are increased in two areas of the brain in Parkinson's disease including the substantia nigra, the site of maximal neurodegeneration. This produces increased loading of ferritin, which is the normal brain iron storage protein. It is possible that increased loading of ferritin may increase the risk of free radical-induced damage. Differences in ferritin loading may explain regional differences in iron's effect on the T2 signal.  (+info)

The basic principle of electron crystallography is to calculate a 3D density map by combining the amplitudes obtained from electron diffraction patterns with the experimental phases calculated from images of two-dimensional crystals of membrane or soluble proteins. This technology is very well developed and has produced a number of atomic models of membrane proteins in a lipid environment. Focused on comprehensive experimental protocols, Electron Crystallography of Soluble and Membrane Proteins: Methods and Protocols covers the entire range of techniques used in electron crystallography, including protein sample preparation, 2D crystallization, and screening in negative stain over electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) and data processing, as well as modeling of conformational changes. Additional chapters provide perspective on past, present, and future challenges as well as complementary methods. Written for the popular Methods in Molecular Biology™ series, the work contains the kind of detailed ...
This patterns more hydrologic download electron crystallography novel approaches for structure determination of nanosized materials nato science series ii mathematics physics and Pages for pharmaceutical service updates. 8 ( 120x173mm) fine to a national suited download electron crystallography novel approaches for structure determination of nanosized materials nato science way with those apps and deposition movies. 9600 and the datasets think predetermined organized.
In the era of nanoscience, the size of particles to be investigated gets smaller and smaller but the traditional techniques used for characterization of materials are becoming inadequate. Electron Crystallography (EC) is a powerful and sometimes the unique tool to study crystal structure and properties of nano sized materials. It is a broad branch of science comprising both academic research and industrial needs. Materials studied using EC methods vary in size and nature, ranging from inorganic nanoparticles to biological samples. Exciting developments such as aberration correctors, dedicated specimen-holders, highly sensitive cameras, new data acquisition techniques, automated routines for data collection and new data processing softwares allow electron crystallographers to solve crystal structures from nano particles at atomic resolution.. The Course intends to review the structure solution using electron crystallography methods as well as novel applications; it will be divided into three ...
Electron crystallography is a method to determine the arrangement of atoms in solids using an electron microscope. It can complement X-ray crystallography on proteins, such as membrane proteins, that cannot easily form the large 3-dimensional crystals required for that process. Structures are usually determined from either 2-dimensional crystals (sheets or helices), polyhedrons such as viral capsids, or dispersed individual proteins. Electrons can be used in these situations, whereas X-rays cannot, because electrons interact more strongly with atoms than X-rays do. Thus, X-rays will travel through a thin 2-dimensional crystal without diffracting significantly, whereas electrons can be used to form an image. Conversely, the strong interaction between electrons and proteins makes thick (e.g. 3-dimensional) crystals impervious to electrons, which only penetrate short distances. One of the main difficulties in X-ray crystallography is determining phases in the diffraction pattern. Because no X-ray ...
In cases where ultra-flat cryo-preparations of well-ordered two-dimensional (2D) crystals are available, electron crystallography is a powerful method for the determination of the high-resolution structures of membrane and soluble proteins. However, crystal unbending and Fourier-filtering methods in electron crystallography three-dimensional (3D) image processing are generally limited in their performance for 2D crystals that are badly ordered or non-flat. Here we present a single particle image processing approach, which is implemented as an extension of the 2D crystallographic pipeline realized in the 2dx software package, for the determination of high-resolution 3D structures of membrane proteins. The algorithm presented, addresses the low single-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 2D crystal images by exploiting neighborhood correlation between adjacent proteins in the 2D crystal. Compared with conventional single particle processing for randomly oriented particles, the computational costs are greatly ...
Examples of technology (hardware and software) developed for electron crystallogarphy by TEMIMPS Transcontinental Electron Microscopy Initiative for Membrane Protein Structure
Examples of technology (hardware and software) developed for electron crystallography by TEMIMPS Transcontinental Electron Microscopy Initiative for Membrane Protein Structure
PDB 2B6O, EMDB 2973 - 1.9Å resolutuion electron crystallography structure of the water channel Aquaporin-0 in its closed state. ...
Author: Zhao, G. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2010; Keywords: Two-dimensional crystallization; Membrane protein; Eukaryotic; Structure; Electron crystallography; Cryo-EM; Title: Two-dimensional crystallization conditions of human leukotriene C4 synthase requiring adjustment of a particularly large combination of specific parameters
Electron crystallography is a method to determine the arrangement of atoms in solids using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This method works in many cases where X-ray crystallography does not. The latter needs large 3-D crystals to work. Protein structures are usually done from 2-dimensional crystals (sheets or helices), polyhedrons such as viral capsids, or dispersed proteins. Electrons can be used in these situations, whereas X-rays cannot, because electrons interact more strongly with atoms than X-rays do. ...
The workshop will provide hands-on training on practical aspects of 2D crystal data collection on a Titan Krios, and cover in depth the theoretical foundations and the practical image processing of 2D crystal cryo-EM images with the 2DX software package. No previous experience is required ...
Electron crystallographic studies on inorganic crystals using high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) images were first performed by Aaron Klug in 1978[9] and by Sven Hovmöller and coworkers in 1984.[10] HREM images were used because they allow to select (by computer software) only the very thin regions close to the edge of the crystal for structure analysis (see also crystallographic image processing). This is of crucial importance since in the thicker parts of the crystal the exit-wave function (which carries the information about the intensity and position of the projected atom columns) is no longer linearly related to the projected crystal structure. Moreover, not only do the HREM images change their appearance with increasing crystal thickness, they are also very sensitive to the chosen setting of the defocus Δf of the objective lens (see the HREM images of GaN for example). To cope with this complexity Michael OKeefe started in the early 1970s to develop image simulation software ...
Voltage gated potassium channels are transmembrane protein complexes that form a pore specifically allowing the passage of potassium ions. One method to determine the structure of these and other membrane proteins is electron crystallography. For this, purified membrane proteins are mixed with lipids and induced to form two-dimensional crystals. These flat crystal sheets are then imaged by cryo-EM and analysed. There is no potential gradient across them as the protein is surrounded by the same buffer. The gradient required for voltage gated channel proteins to function can be created if they are embedded in a spherical lipid bilayer that encloses liquid, i.e., if they are embedded in the membrane of a liposome. The buffer conditions inside and outside the liposomes dictate whether they are in an open or a closed conformation ...
I was a postdoctoral scientist in Prof. Taylors laboratory from 1998 to 2001. My project was to determine the structure of the inhibited conformation of smooth muscle HMM and myosin. I used electron crystallography of 2-D arrays of dephosphorylated smooth muscle HMM. The protein was expressed by Dr. Kathy Trybus and the crystallography was done using frozen hydrated specimens. This is a unique capability of Prof. Taylor’s laboratory. The 3-D reconstructions showed an unusual interaction between the two myosin heads that explained most of the biochemistry of the inhibited state of this myosin. The result obtained with the HMM fragment was later confirmed using full length smooth muscle myosin and later by work done in the laboratory of Dr. Roger Craig in tarantula myosin filaments.. ...
The Woodlands, Texas (PRWEB) August 30, 2017 -- The latest edition of Crystallography Times, the X-ray crystallography newsletter from Rigaku Oxford
Crystallography: the science that examines crystals, which can be found everywhere in nature-from salt to snowflakes to gemstones. Crystallographers use
Over 4,714 mineral species descriptions are included in this HTML-linked table of crystallography for all known valid mineral species.
9780198717591 Our cheapest price for Crystallography: A Very Short Introduction is $8.68. Free shipping on all orders over $35.00.
Dan, perhaps one reason crystallography isnt more popular in your poll is that the question was what technique is used in fragment screening. I would bet that most, if not all of us use crystallography in FBLD, but not as the upfront screen. At least, thats how I interpreted the question. ...
The structure of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complex, a membrane protein serving as the major antenna of solar energy in plant photosynthesis, has been determined at 6 Å resolution by electron crystallography. Within the complex, three membrane-spanning α helices and 15 chlorophyll molecules are resolved. There is an intramolecular diad relating two of the α helices and some of the chlorophylls. The spacing of the chlorophylls suggests energy transfer by delocalized exciton coupling and Förster mechanisms.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The molecular structure of maleimide. T2 - an electron diffraction study. AU - Harsányi, László. AU - Vajda, Erzsébet. AU - Hargittai, István. PY - 1985/7. Y1 - 1985/7. N2 - The molecular structure of maleimide has been investigated by electron diffraction. The experimental data are consistent with a C2v symmetry model. The following bond lengths (rg) and bond angles (rc) were determined:NC 1.409 = 0.003, CC 1.508 ± 0.003, C=C 1.344 ± 0.004, and C=O 1.206 ± 0.002 A; CNC 112.0 = 0.2, NCC 106.8 ± 0.2, NC=O 123.9 ± 0.3, and CCH 114.7 ± 1.3°. The electron diffraction structure is in agreement with the results of quantum chemical calculations. The bond lengths indicate a somewhat greater delocalization about the N atom than in the OCCCCO skeleton.. AB - The molecular structure of maleimide has been investigated by electron diffraction. The experimental data are consistent with a C2v symmetry model. The following bond lengths (rg) and bond angles (rc) were determined:NC ...
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Les échantillons biologiques ne sarrangent pas toujours en objets ordonnés (cristaux 2D ou hélices) nécessaires pour la microscopie électronique ni en cristaux 3D parfaitement ordonnés pour la cristallographie rayons X alors que de nombreux spécimens sont tout simplement trop Many biological specimens do not arrange themselves in ordered assemblies (tubular or flat 2D crystals) suitable for electron crystallography, nor in perfectly ordered 3D crystals for X-ray diffraction; many other are simply too large to be approached by NMR spectroscopy. Therefore, single-particles analysis has become a progressively more important technique for structural determination of large isolated macromolecules by cryo-electron microscopy. Nevertheless, the low signal-to-noise ratio and the high electron-beam sensitivity of biological samples remain two main resolution-limiting factors, when the specimens are observed in their native state. Cryo-negative staining is a recently developed technique that allows the
In this chapter, the main formulations of the dynamical theory of electron diffraction are outlined. These include the defining equations, forward scattering, the evolution operator, the projection approximation, semi‐reciprocal space, the two‐beam approximation, the eigenvalue approach, translational invariance, dispersion surfaces, the multislice formulation, the Born series and other approximations. ...
The Escherichia coli porin OmpG, which acts as an efficient unspecific channel for mono-, di- and trisaccharides, has been purified and crystallized in two dimensions. Projection maps of two different crystal forms of OmpG at 6 A resolution show that the protein has a beta-barrel structure character …
Exploring ultrafast charge migration is of great importance in biological and chemical reactions. We present a scheme to monitor attosecond charge migration in molecules by electron diffraction with spatial and temporal resolutions from ab initio numerical simulations. An ultraviolet pulse creates a coherent
Ting, V, Liu, Y, Withers, R et al 2004, An electron diffraction and bond valence sum study of the space group symmetries and structures of the photocatalytic 1:1 ordered A2InNbO6 double perovskites (A = Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+), Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol. 177, no. 3, pp. 979-986. ...
The huge interest in two-dimensional crystals for energy applications comes both from their physico-chemical properties, and the possibility of producing and processing them in large quantities, in a cost-effective manner, says Bonaccorso. In this context, the development of functional inks based on two-dimensional crystals is the gateway for the realisation of new generation electrodes in energy storage and conversion devices. Bonaccorso adds that the challenge ahead is to demonstrate a disruptive technology in which two-dimensional materials not only replace traditional electrodes, but more importantly enable whole new device concepts ...
Best wishes, Tracey ------------ Dr Tracey Barrett, Crystallography, Senior Lecturer in Structural Biology, Institute for Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck College, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX Tel: 020 7631 6822 Fax: 020 7631 6803 ...
從圖書館擷取資料! Advancing methods for biomolecular crystallography. [Randy J Read; Alexandre G Urzhumtsev; Vladimir Y Lunin;] -- This work presents a snapshot of the state of the art of modern biomolecular crystallography, from crystallisation through structure determination and even interactive presentation on the web. ...
You searched for: Genre Drafts (documents) Remove constraint Genre: Drafts (documents) Language English Remove constraint Language: English Subject Crystallography, X-Ray Remove constraint Subject: Crystallography, X-Ray ...
National Seminar on Crystallography The National Seminar on Crystallography 43A was held at Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali during 28th and 30th March, 2014 by the Department of Chemical Sciences. This conference was
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!%Bruker AXS%! has launched its Smart X2S crystal-to-structure benchtop x-ray crystallography system for automated 3-D chemical structure determinatio
Pris: 945,-. E-bok, 2015. Leveres direkte via nedlastning . Kjøp boken Symmetry, Spectroscopy, and Crystallography av Robert Glaser (ISBN 9783527684205) hos Fri frakt.
Read independent reviews on RAPID II: Curved imaging plate chemical crystallography system from Rigaku Corporation on SelectScience
MolProbity Validation and Corrections: for Crystallography, PDB, and Biomedicine Summary: The criteria and services of our MolProbity web site a...
We understand that your research may have unique needs. Our engineers, product developers and network of manufacturing partners are at your disposal for timely, competent, and confidential development of custom products to meet your specific needs ...
Structural Chemistry & Crystallography Communication journal publishes open access papers in the field of structural chemistry and crystallography.
The theory of modulated structures and the study of such materials constitute an active and healthy field in crystallography. To view visualizations of over 60 modulated stuctures published in Acta Crystallographica Section B, click on the structure below. ...
The theory of modulated structures and the study of such materials constitute an active and healthy field in crystallography. To view visualizations of over 60 modulated stuctures published in Acta Crystallographica Section B, click on the structure below. ...
Ultracold Electron Source for Single-Shot, Ultrafast Electron Diffraction - Volume 15 Issue 4 - S.B. van der Geer, M.J. de Loos, E.J.D. Vredenbregt, O.J. Luiten
Present-day electron microscopy enables sub-Angstrom spatial resolution, i.e. a single atom may be resolved, but only at exposure times of the order of seconds. The time scale of atomic motion, however, can be as short as 100 fs. The next challenge is therefore to realize both atomic spatial and temporal resolution, i.e. 0.1 nm and 0.1 ps, thus enabling the study of structural dynamics at the shortest time scales. For reasons of process repeatability, reproducibility, and radiation damage considerations single-shot operation would be ideal. Because of stringent beam requirement single-shot, 100 fs electron microscopy is completely impossible. Electron diffraction, however, is much less demanding, requiring much less charge for recording a high-quality diffraction patter and only a modest beam quality. We have developed a setup for doing single-shot, 100 fs electron diffraction. Key ingredients are creation of waterbag bunches by femtosecond photoemission and compression of bunches (inversion of ...
Scientists at the University of Toronto have employed femtosecond electron diffraction to study the ultrafast melting of aluminum under illumination b
Post-doctoral Positions in X-ray Crystallography and Computational Biology Two post-doctoral positions are available immediately, one in experimental and one in computational aspects of protein crystallography. Applicants for the first position should be experienced in practical aspects of protein crystallography and structure determination. Experience in cloning and protein expression is also desirable. Crystals are already in hand for one novel carotenoid-binding protein. Subsequent projects will diversify to include work on self-assembling proteins and other proteins with repetitive or otherwise unusual architectures. The second position is in the area of computational crystallography, but may also include other aspects of computational biology such as genomics or protein structure analysis. The successful applicant should have a strong background in scientific programming, an understanding of numerical methods, and an ability to solve complex problem. Familiarity with crystallographic and ...
The Protein crystallography core facility of Biocenter Oulu has the infrastructure for protein structural studies from crystallization to x-ray data collection and structure determination.
Scientists have made a significant advance toward making movies of extremely fast atomic processes with potential applications in energy production, chemistry, medicine, materials science and more. Using a superfast, high-resolution electron camera, a new instrument for ultrafast electron diffraction (UED), researchers have captured the worlds fastest UED images of nitrogen molecules rotating in a gas, with a record shutter speed of 100 quadrillionths of a second ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Orientation imaging microscopy in two-dimensional crystals via undersampled microscopy. AU - Angelescu, D. E.. AU - Harrison, C. K.. AU - Trawick, M. L.. AU - Chaikin, P. M.. AU - Register, Richard Alan. AU - Adamson, D. H.. PY - 2004/2/1. Y1 - 2004/2/1. N2 - A novel microscopy analysis technique is presented, with applications in imaging two-dimensional grains and grain boundaries. The method allows the identification of grain shapes and orientations from large area micrographs, via the moire pattern obtained in a raster image. The observed moire pattern originates from the aliasing between a micrographs regular sampling raster and the inherent periodicity of the elements forming the grain under study. The technique presented is very general, allowing grain analysis via many types of microscopy. We demonstrate it in this paper by using Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy on diblock copolymer thin films.. AB - A novel microscopy analysis ...
Almenningen, Arne Helgaker, Trygve Haaland, Arne Samdal, Svein . The molecular structures of dimethyl-, diethyl- and dipropylzinc determined by gas phase electron diffraction. Normal coordinate analysis and ab initio molecular orbital calculations on dimethylzinc. Acta Chemica Scandinavica. 1982, A36, 159- ...
An investigation of some molecular structures by the method of electron diffraction and a preliminary design of a new apparatus for measuring scattered electron intensities ...
Publishers Accepted Manuscript: Complex oxide growth using simultaneous in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and x-ray reflectivity: When is one layer complete? ...
Protein Crystallization & Crystallography Market by Technology (Ion-Exchange Chromatography, HPLC, Gel-Electrophoresis, NMR, X-Ray Crystallography), Products (Reagents & Instruments) & End-Users
X-ray crystallography is the major method for structure determination of macromolecules. About 85% of all known structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Knowing the structure of a protein helps in understanding better how the protein works, how it interacts with other proteins and small molecules in the cell and what kind of conformational changes it undergoes to exert its function. Even subtle changes in protein structures can have tremendous consequences on human health, causing serious diseases. A major application therefore of X-ray crystallography is in the design of new drugs.. A crystal structure determination is not a trivial task. It mainly involves five steps with the first two being the most difficult (bottlenecks):. ...
[251 Pages Report] Protein Crystallization Market categories the Global Market by Product (Instruments, Services & Software), Technology (Chromatography, Electrophoresis, Protein Crystallization, Protein Crystal Mounting, Reagents/Consumables) & End Users & by Geography
(EMAILWIRE.COM, January 12, 2018 ) Protein crystallization is a process of formation of protein crystals, which are used for industrial or scientific purposes, such as X-Ray Crystallography. Increasing R&D by pharmaceuticals and biotechnology companies is one of the major driver driving the growth...
The Crystallography Times newsletter from Rigaku Oxford Diffraction focuses on single crystal X-ray diffraction and is available from the companys website October 30, 2017 - The Woodlands, Texas. The latest edition of Crystallography Times, the X-ray crystallography newsletter from Rigaku Oxford Diffraction, is now available to view on the companys global website. 1600181092
Crystallography Made Crystal Clear makes crystallography accessible to readers who have no prior knowledge of the field or its mathematical basis. This is the most comprehensive and concise reference for beginning Macromolecular crystallographers, written by a leading expert in the field. Rhodes uses visual and geometric models to help readers understand the mathematics that form the basis of x-ray crystallography. He has invested a great deal of time and effort on World Wide Web tools for users of models, including beginning-level tutorials in molecular modeling on personal computers. Rhodes personal CMCC Home Page also provides access to tools and links to resources discussed in the text. Most significantly, the final chapter introduces the reader to macromolecular modeling on personal computers-featuring SwissPdbViewer, a free, powerful modeling program now available for PC, Power Macintosh, and Unix computers. This updated and expanded new edition uses attractive four-color art, web tool access
Fior Markets introduces the latest market research study on Global Protein Crystallization & Crystallography Market 2020 clarifies the definition
The following companies as the key players in the global protein crystallization and crystallography market: Anatrace, Bruker, Formulatrix, Jena Bioscience, and Rigaku
The facility provides low volume crystallisation services and screen making. Our customers can also order custom built premixed crystallisation solutions. Full crystallisation service includes composition of the crystallisation setup and scheduled imaging of the experiment for up to four months. The crystallisation droplets are set up using our Mosquito LCP or Oryx nanodrop robots, which can use as little as 100 nl protein per experiment and are suitable for membrane proteins and for air-sensitive samples. Scientists can examine the maturation of the project over time and can pick up the crystallisation plate for an X-ray experiment. The facility is equipped with a dedicated imaging station for combined visible/UV epifluorescence imaging of very small protein crystals (2μm ...
1 as = 0.000000000000000001 sec. Attosecond science is a branch of strong field physics that investigates ultrafast phenomena in nature. An attosecond (1 as = 10-18 sec) is a characteristic time scale for the description of electron dynamics. The electron plays a key role in many phenomena: it determines molecular structure and bond formation; it relays information and is used in calculations in electronic devices, and it absorbs and emits radiation. The control of chemical processes, revolutions in communications and computing, and generation of novel light sources are areas of research that benefit from the study of ultrafast electron dynamics. The goal of attosecond science is to understand and manipulate ultrafast electron dynamics in a variety of materials such as atoms, molecules, and solids with the purpose of future applications ...
Modern electron microscope can provide information at the atomic scale in the spatial dimemsion. The next generation of instruments will also provide temporal resolutions in the fs regime. This project will investigate solutions to providng temporal resoltuions from the ms to micro s timescale to bridge the gap between the limits imposed by current detectors and possible future pulsed electron sources.. ...
The ultrafast CT scanner is located in a large room. Your child will lie on a narrow table that slides into the hollow tube-shaped scanner.. Your child will have an intravenous (IV) line if contrast medication is being used. The contrast medication may be injected prior to the procedure or during the procedure.. The CT technologist will be in an adjacent room where the equipment controls are located. However, they will be able to see your child through a large window and will be monitoring him or her constantly during the procedure. If your child is not sedated, he or she will be given a call bell device to let the staff know if he or she needs anything during the procedure. Speakers are located inside the scanner so that your child can hear instructions from the CT staff and they can hear your child respond.. Once the procedure begins, your child will need to be remain very still at all times so that movement will not adversely affect the quality of the images. At intervals, he or she will be ...
The ultrafast CT scanner is located in a large room. Your child will lie on a narrow table that slides into the hollow tube-shaped scanner.. Your child will have an intravenous (IV) line if contrast medication is being used. The contrast medication may be injected prior to the procedure or during the procedure.. The CT technologist will be in an adjacent room where the equipment controls are located. However, they will be able to see your child through a large window and will be monitoring him or her constantly during the procedure. If your child is not sedated, he or she will be given a call bell device to let the staff know if he or she needs anything during the procedure. Speakers are located inside the scanner so that your child can hear instructions from the CT staff and they can hear your child respond.. Once the procedure begins, your child will need to be remain very still at all times so that movement will not adversely affect the quality of the images. At intervals, he or she will be ...
Crystallization is the major bottleneck to 3D structure determination using X-ray crystallography. In this workshop we will discuss many tenets of successful crystallization for both conventional and serial crystallography. Many topics will be covered including fundamentals of crystal growth, strategies to sample crystallization space, identifying crystal hits, electron microscopy applications of crystal analysis, practical considerations for data analysis, difficult crystallization problems, virus crystallography, and an overview of serial crystallography.
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Ultra-fast detection of light lies at the heart of optical communication systems nowadays. Driven by the internet of things and 5G, data communication bandwidth is growing exponentially, thus requiring even faster optical ...
Scientists working with Europes Graphene Flagship provide a wide-ranging review of the potential for 2D crystals in energy conversion and storage.
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Title: Journal of Applied Crystallography, Description: Journal of Applied Crystallography covers a wide range of crystallographic topics from the viewpoints of both techniques and theory. The journal presents articles on the application of crystallographi, By: Feedage Forager, ID: 29619, Grade: 88, Type:
The development of cancer is a complex process, which can result from minor mistakes in an otherwise well-functioning network of cellular processes. As such, it is essential that scientists have a clear picture of biochemical processes at an atomic level in order to gain an in-depth understanding of how various cancers occur and develop. One technique starting to gain recognition as a powerful tool is neutron crystallography.
Using neutron crystallography, a team of researchers unequivocally mapped the active site of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an enzyme necessary for nucleotide biosynthesis and a classical drug target.
Nokia sites use cookies to improve and personalize your experience and to display advertisements. The sites may also include cookies from third parties. By using this site, you consent to the use of cookies. Learn more ...
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This book is the first book dealing with structural crystallography of inorganic oxysalts in general. A special emphasis is placed upon structural topology and methods of its description. The latter include graph theory, nets, 2-D and 3-D tilings, polyhedra, etc. The structures considered range from minerals to organically templated oxysalts, for all of which this book provides a unified approach to structure interpretation and classification.
International Tables for Crystallography () pe Pret: 1198.99 lei. Presents a systematic treatment of the maximal subgroups and minimal supergroup
Using X-ray crystallography to determine the 3D structure of a protein is a costly and time-consuming process. One of the major reasons is that the protein
In 1929 Linus Pauling came up with Paulings Rules to describe the principles governing the structure of complex ionic crystals. These rules essentially describe how the arrangement of atoms in a crystal is critically dependent on the size of the atoms, their charge and type of bonding.
The repeating group of a crystal is called the A. nucleus. B. unit cell. C. net. D. crystal system.
X-ray crystallography is currently the most accurate technology for determining 3D structure of protein. It uses the ability of proteins to form crystals under specific conditions. Molecules in the crystal form a very regular three-dimensional pattern, which upon being e...
The actual atomic arrangements of solid material, which may be classified as single crystal, poly crystal, and amorphous. In which, the single crystal has many types, such as SC, BCC, FCC and DIA etc.
Using X-ray crystallography, we are determining the high-resolution structures of enzymes that contribute to the oxidative folding of substrate proteins.. ...
As a solid, Cr adopts a body-centered cubic unit cell. How many unit cells are present per cubic centimeter of Cr?The density of Cr is 7.15g/cm^3 so:...
আয়নীয় যৌগ সাধারণত ধাতব ও অধাতব পদার্থ দ্বারা গঠিত হয়। ধাতব মৌল হতে উৎপন্ন বিচ্ছিন্ন গ্যাসীয় ক্যাটায়ন এবং অধাতব মৌল হতে উৎপন্ন বিচ্ছিন্ন গ্যাসীয় অ্যানায়ন তাড়িতিক আকর্ষণ বলে যুক্ত হয়ে বিচ্ছিন্ন আয়নযুগল গঠন করার পরিবর্তে বহুসংখ্যক ক্যাটায়ন ও অ্যানায়ন একত্রিত হয়ে ত্রিমাত্রিক নির্দিষ্ট জ্যামিতিক আকৃতি বিশিষ্ট কেলাস জালক (Three) dimensional Crystal Lattice) গঠন করে। এই সময় প্রচুর ...
Crystallography is the science that examines the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids. Crystallography is a useful tool ... Giacovazzo, C; Monaco HL; Viterbo D; Scordari F; Gilli G; Zanotti G; Catti M (1992). Fundamentals of Crystallography. Oxford: ... Oxford: Oxford University Press & International Union of Crystallography. ISBN 978-0-19-855577-3. .. ...
Crystallography[edit]. Further information on crystallographic indices: Crystal system. Steno gave the first accurate ... Molčanov, K.; Stilinović, V. (2014). "Chemical Crystallography before X-ray Diffraction". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53 (3): 638-652 ... or Steno's law of constant angles or the first law of crystallography,[35] states that the angles between corresponding faces ... "De solido intra solidum naturaliter contento".[34] The principle in crystallography, known simply as Steno's law, ...
Optics and crystallography[edit]. CLSM is used as the data retrieval mechanism in some 3D optical data storage systems and has ...
Crystallography. Mineralogy 55 Earth sciences. Geological sciences 56 Paleontology 57 Biological sciences in general 58 Botany ... Crystallography. Mineralogy 542 Practical laboratory chemistry. Preparative and experimental chemistry 543 Analytical chemistry ...
On May 31, 2011, The BBC World Service broadcast Bök reading "The Xenotext." Crystallography. Coach House (1994) ISBN 978-1- ... In 1994, Bök published Crystallography, "a pataphysical encyclopaedia that misreads the language of poetics through the ... Crystallography was reissued in 2003, and was nominated for a Gerald Lampert Award. Bök is a sound poet and has performed an ...
Twinning can often be a problem in X-ray crystallography, as a twinned crystal does not produce a simple diffraction pattern. ... Macle Tin cry Icosahedral twins Spencer, Leonard James (1911). "Crystallography" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). pp. ... twins Mathematical and Theoretical Crystallography Quartz Crystals - Twinning Grain Boundary Twinning. ...
In geometry and crystallography, a glide plane (or transflection) is a symmetry operation describing how a reflection in a ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Walter Borchardt-Ott (1995). Crystallography. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-59478-7.. ...
Crystallography. Molecular biology, microbiology and synthetic biology methodologies. Advantages of solar fuel production ... A case study for metalloprotein crystallography". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 102 (34): 12047-12052. ...
"Crystallography." Mineralogy Tutorials. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. CD-ROM. Herwig, S. , Hawthorne F.C. (2006) The Topology of ...
Spencer, Leonard James (1911). "Crystallography" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge ...
In crystallography, a screw axis symmetry is a combination of rotation about an axis and a translation parallel to that axis ... Crystallography. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-59478-7. J. M. McCarthy and G. S. Soh, Geometric Design of Linkages, 2nd Edition, ...
"Scattering and diffraction". Crystallography. International Union of Crystallography.. ... Optical diffraction pattern ( laser), (analogous to X-ray crystallography) Colors seen in a spider web are partially due to ...
Various authors (2010). "Crystallography". Spanish National Research Council, Department of Crystallography. Retrieved 2010-01- ... Crystallography is the science of measuring the crystal structure (in other words, the atomic arrangement) of a crystal. One ... International Union of Crystallography (1992). "Report of the Executive Committee for 1991". Acta Crystallogr. A. 48 (6): 922- ... See diagram on right.) One of the oldest techniques in the science of crystallography consists of measuring the three- ...
Her interests include in-situ crystallisation of liquids, ultra-low temperature crystallography, high pressure crystallography ... "Crystallography". In Our Time. 29 November 2012. BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 18 January 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link ... Howard has created instruments that allow scientists to help advance and prove theories in the field of X-ray crystallography. ... In 1991 Howard moved to become Professor of Crystallography at Durham University. She has co-authored over 1,500 scientific ...
Crystallography Reports. 63 (7): 1110-1115. Bibcode:2018CryRp..63.1110Z. doi:10.1134/s1063774518070283.. ...
V.M. Fridkin (2001). "Bulk photovoltaic effect in noncentrosymmetric crystals". Crystallography Reports. 46 (4): 654-658. ...
Crystallography Reports. 65 (3): 22-427.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Gerasimovskii, V. I. "Lomonosovite, a ...
Crystallography Reports. 50 (3): 379-381. doi:10.1134/1.1927593. ISSN 1063-7745. Rastsvetaeva, Ramiza K.; Chukanov, Nikita V.; ...
Crystallography Reviews. 17 (2): 153-155. doi:10.1080/0889311X.2010.520013. S2CID 97934253. "Yr Athro Syr John Meurig Thomas". ... Crystallography Reviews. 15 (2): 147-150. doi:10.1080/00343400802667749. S2CID 97637525. Somorjai, G. A.; Roberts, M. W. (2003 ...
History of the Crystallography Laboratory Of Crystal-optics of the Institute of Crystallography of the Russian Academy of ... She was noted for development and design of instruments to improve the methods of optical crystallography. She was the last ... Пахомова 2004, p. 2. Crystallography 2010. Burgin 1994, p. 194. Burgin 1994, pp. 270-271. Burgin 2002, p. 48. Burgin 1994, p. ... Пахомова 2004, p. 3. Пахомова 2004, p. 4. Crystallography 2010. Пахомова 2004, p. 6. Burgin, Diana Lewis (2002). "Sophia Parnok ...
Beznosikov, B.V.; Aleksandrov, K.S. (2000). "Perovskite-like crystals of the Ruddlesden-Popper series". Crystallography Reports ...
Crystallography Reports. 53 (4): 553-556. doi:10.1134/S1063774508040044. "Norra Kärr mine" (PDF). 2012. ...
Crystallography Reports. 52 (4): 639-646. Bibcode:2007CryRp..52..639S. doi:10.1134/S1063774507040116. S2CID 95018505. ...
Crystallography Reports. 48 (2): 226-232. Bibcode:2003CryRp..48..226Y. doi:10.1134/1.1564200. S2CID 94186620. (subscription ...
Crystallography Reports. 51 (5): 895-901. doi:10.1134/S106377450605021X. ISSN 1063-7745. S2CID 189794019.CS1 maint: multiple ...
"An Earth and Mars mineral - Meridianiite MgSO4.11H2O". Crystallography 365. July 30, 2014. Marion, G.M.; Catling, D.C.; Zahnle ...
... is a member of the eudialyte group, named after the Shubinov Institute of Crystallography of the Russian Academy of ... Crystallography Reports. 48 (5): 717-720. Bibcode:2003CryRp..48..717R. doi:10.1134/1.1612591. Mindat, ...
X-ray crystallography "Set of Beevers Lipson Strips, Sine Set, c.1936". Oxford: Museum of the History of Science. Retrieved 28 ... International Union of Crystallography. Retrieved 28 March 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Cecil Arnold Beevers ... The technique was developed by C. Arnold Beevers (1908-2001), reader in crystallography at the University of Edinburgh, and ... The approach converted the sizable calculations of multi-dimensional Fourier summations needed in crystallography analysis into ...
Bunn, C.W. (1945). Chemical Crystallography. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 88. Williams, R. (1969). "Optical-rotary ...
Crystallography Reports. 63 (3): 349-357. doi:10.1134/s1063774518030240. ISSN 1063-7745.. ...
Comparison with X-ray crystallography[edit]. It can complement X-ray crystallography for studies of very small crystals (,0.1 ... A common problem to X-ray crystallography and electron crystallography is radiation damage, by which especially organic ... T.E. Weirich, X.D. Zou & J.L. Lábár (2006). Electron Crystallography: Novel Approaches for Structure Determination of Nanosized ... Electron crystallography is a method to determine the arrangement of atoms in solids using a transmission electron microscope ( ...
International Tables for Crystallography[edit]. *. Theo Hahn, ed. (2002). International Tables for Crystallography. Volume A, ... Interactive Crystallography Timeline from the Royal Institution. Primary databases[edit]. *Crystallography Open Database (COD) ... 2001). International Tables for Crystallography. Volume F, Crystallography of biological molecules. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic ... Although crystallography can be used to characterize the disorder in an impure or irregular crystal, crystallography generally ...
... the newly discovered x-ray diffraction by crystals made a complete change in crystallography and in the whole science of the ... chemistry crystallography diffraction dynamics electron microscopy materials science thermodynamics Authors and affiliations. * ... Early in this century, the newly discovered x-ray diffraction by crystals made a complete change in crystallography and in the ... Other important factors promoting the development of crystallog- raphy were the elaboration of the theory of crystal growth ( ...
Other articles where Ionic crystal is discussed: chemical bonding: Ionic solids: The structures of ionic solids have already been described in some detail. They consist of individual ions that are stacked together in such a way that the assembly has the lowest possible energy. These ions may be monatomic (as in sodium chloride, which… ...
Other articles where Twinning plane is discussed: twinning: …reflected images along a common twinning plane, repetitions rotated about a common twinning axis, or both. Such twinning planes and axes have simple relations to the crystallographic axes of the crystal and are governed by some fundamental laws; e.g., because the resulting twin would be identical to the original crystal,…
Description of x-ray crystallography research in the Chemical, Physical and Structural Biology Program in the Graduate School ... A number of faculty members in CPSB apply x-ray crystallography in their labs, and these activities are supported by a core x- ... X-ray crystallography allows visualization of macromolecules with the clarity of resolving individual atoms. High-resolution ...
This volume provides methods for modern macromolecular crystallography, including all steps leading to crystal structure ... 1.Macromolecular Crystallography LaboratoryNational Cancer InstituteFrederickUSA. *2.Synchrotron Radiation Research SectionMCL ... Authoritative and practical, Protein Crystallography aims to ensure successful results in the further study of this vital field ... 3.Department of CrystallographyFaculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz UniversityPoznanPoland ...
US DOE Crystallography Research Resources International Union of Crystallography Web Portal of Open Access Crystallography ... Resources Interactive Crystallography Timeline from the Royal Institution Nature Milestones in Crystallography Crystallography ... Hence crystallography applies for the most part only to crystals, or to molecules which can be coaxed to crystallize for the ... Crystallography covers the enumeration of the symmetry patterns which can be formed by atoms in a crystal and for this reason ...
Over 4,714 mineral species descriptions are included in this HTML-linked table of crystallography for all known valid mineral ... Crystallography and Minerals Arranged by Crystal Form. Amorphous. Isometric. Tetragonal. Orthorhombic. Hexagonal. Trigonal. ... Table Crystallography (Mason 68, p18) - The thirty-two crystal classes are summarized by symmetry elements in the following ... Example crystal images within the crystallography group in the yellow columns.. *Stereo crystal images/java example and mineral ...
Expanding the femtosecond crystallography toolkit. Sol M. Gruner. PNAS December 2, 2014 111 (48) 16986-16987; published ahead ... 2014) Serial crystallography on in vivo grown microcrystals using synchrotron radiation. IUCrJ 1(Pt 2):87-94. ... 2014) Goniometer-based femtosecond crystallography with X-ray free electron lasers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111:17122-17127. ... This is the basis for the term "femtosecond crystallography" (FSC), also known as "diffract before destroy" (4). Thus, although ...
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Crystallography is one of the most important techniques in helping to understand the world around us. But what is ... The discovery of crystallography. The story of crystallography dates back to 1912. German physicist Max von Laue and colleagues ... This means crystallography can be used to understand how the immune system fights off viruses. Or it can be used by robotic ... Crystallography reveals why diamonds are hard and shiny and why salt melts in the mouth. But the technique doesnt just look at ...
In crystallography crystals are described as isomorphous if they are closely similar in shape. Historically crystal shape was ...
title = {Neutron protein crystallography}. author = {Niimura, Nobuo}. abstractNote = {X-ray diffraction of single crystal has ... It is difficult to make structural analysis of hydrogen atoms in a protein using X-ray crystallography, whereas neutron ... It is difficult to make structural analysis of hydrogen atoms in a protein using X-ray crystallography, whereas neutron ... 66 PHYSICS; PROTEINS; CRYSTALLOGRAPHY; NEUTRON DIFFRACTION; MONOCHROMATORS; HYDROGEN; LYSOZYME; LAUE METHOD; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ...
X-ray crystallography has become the most common way for structural biologists to obtain the three-dimensional structures of ... Use of homology information is not restricted to X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy: as optical imaging ... X-ray crystallography has become the most common method used by structural biologists to obtain three-dimensional structures of ... Making more of X-ray crystallography. X-ray crystallography has become the most common method used by structural biologists to ...
Crystallography with X-ray Free Electron Lasers. N. A. Zatsepin X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) promise to revolutionize ... This chapter introduces XFELs and focuses on serial femtosecond crystallography. The principles of SFX, radiation damage and ... ... 0 Reviews ...
The January edition of Crystallography Times from Rigaku Corporation is now available on the companys global ... The January edition of the Crystallography Times newsletter is onlinePress Release: The January edition of the Crystallography ... Crystallography Times vol. 13, No. 1, focusing on single crystal X-ray diffraction, is available from the Rigaku global website ... Crystallography Times is an electronic newsletter published by Rigaku. It serves the X-ray analysis community by presenting ...
An introduction to chemical crystallography / by P. H. Groth, Authorised translation by Hugh Marshall. 1906 [Ebook PDF] by P. H ... Chemical Crystallography: An Introduction to Optical and X-Ray Methods (Second Edition) Bunn, C W ... An introduction to chemical crystallography / by P. H. Groth, Authorised translation by Hugh Marshall. 1906 [Ebook PDF] P. H. ... Chemical crystallography;: An introduction to optical and X-ray methods, Bunn, C. W ...
... crystallography in art and cultural heritage crystallography of materials electron crystallography high pressure inorganic and ... crystallography in art and cultural heritage crystallography of materials electron crystallography high pressure inorganic and ... He now is a prominent part of the history of Crystallography in Canada. Early days of protein crystallography in Canada. ... Crystallography in Canada. continued from Volume 17, Number 4. (This is an extended version of the article that appeared in the ...
... physical crystallography, III) applied crystallography, IV) crystal growth and liquid crystals and V) protein crystallography. ... The staff of the Crystallography Laboratory at Warsaw U.. Crystallography Lab., Warsaw U. (K. Wozniak, [email protected] ... of Crystallography, Inst. of Low Temperature and Structural Research, PAN, Wroclaw (A. Pietraszko, [email protected] ... of Crystallography, U. of Gdansk, A. Sikorski, [email protected], metal complexes and small organic molecules (Dept. of ...
The Basics of Crystallography and Diffraction, 2nd ed. Texts on Crystallography, 5. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN ... X-ray crystallography. Notes. *↑ J.C. Kendrew, et al. 1958. A three-dimensional model of the myoglobin molecule obtained by X- ... Notations used in crystallography. *Coordinates in square brackets such as [100] denote a direction vector (in real space). ... The word "crystallography" is derived from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to ...
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DNA Repair X-Ray Crystallography. Scott Williams, Ph.D. Deputy Chief, Genome Integrity and Structural Biology Laboratory and ... The group utilizes a multidisciplinary approach by combining high-resolution (X-ray crystallography) and low-resolution (Small ...
Make research projects and school reports about Crystallography easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... Home Earth and the Environment Minerals, Mining, and Metallurgy Mineralogy and Crystallography Crystallography ... Crystallography is particularly concerned with the internal structure of crystals. X-ray crystallography uses X-rays to ... crystallography A Dictionary of Earth Sciences © A Dictionary of Earth Sciences 1999, originally published by Oxford University ...
The Macromolecular Crystallography SR facility provides PCCR with robotic systems, temperature-controlled rooms, x-ray data ... Macromolecular Crystallography. Overview The ability to determine the structure of proteins using X-ray crystallography has ... As such, X-ray crystallography is an essential tool for the PCCR to carry out its mission - to uncover the fundamental sources ... To enable the research of X-ray crystallography expert and nonexpert PCCR members, the MM-SR provides and maintains in-house ...
Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology have published a review on serial femtosecond crystallography, ... X-ray crystallography. X-ray crystallography is one of the main methods for revealing the 3D structure of biological ... X-ray crystallography produces good results for crystals that are large, stable, and homogeneous -- that is, with no impurities ... Conventional X-ray crystallography involves exposing one crystal to radiation from various angles and analyzing the resulting ...
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All crystallography labs need access to the latest technology. Enable your lab by requesting a free printed catalog of the most ... With the aid of x-ray crystallography, scientist found that an antibody, MR191 neutralizes the virus by binding to receptors, ... Help your lab utilize the best techniques and practices, get a free set of crystallography related lab posters today by ... Be first to hear the latest news and developments in Crystallography & Cryo-EM ...
  • This is the basis for the term "femtosecond crystallography" (FSC), also known as "diffract before destroy" ( 4 ). (
  • This chapter introduces XFELs and focuses on serial femtosecond crystallography. (
  • Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology have published a review on serial femtosecond crystallography, one of the most promising methods for analyzing the tertiary structure of proteins. (
  • Here we present a technique for extruding gel-like LCP with embedded membrane protein microcrystals, providing a continuously renewed source of material for serial femtosecond crystallography. (
  • Nanoflow electrospinning serial femtosecond crystallography. (
  • An electrospun liquid microjet has been developed that delivers protein microcrystal suspensions at flow rates of 0.14-3.1 µl min(-1) to perform serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies with X-ray lasers. (
  • Serial femtosecond crystallography based on X-ray free-electron laser sources (XFELs) provides new opportunities for structural sciences, in particular for the time-resolved investigation of dynamic processes [1-3]. (
  • Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) is a powerful new method for protein structure determination at X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) and synchrotron X-ray sources [1,2]. (
  • High-resolution protein structure determination by serial femtosecond crystallography. (
  • [7] The highest resolution protein structure solved by electron crystallography of 2D crystals is that of the water channel aquaporin -0. (
  • [8] In 2013 electron crystallography was extended to 3D crystals by a new method called microcrystal electron diffraction, or MicroED. (
  • Since many materials can form crystals-such as salts , metals , minerals , semiconductors , as well as various inorganic, organic, and biological molecules-X-ray crystallography has been fundamental in the development of many scientific fields. (
  • Early in this century, the newly discovered x-ray diffraction by crystals made a complete change in crystallography and in the whole science of the atomic structure of matter, thus giving a new impetus to the development of solid-state physics. (
  • Other important factors promoting the development of crystallog- raphy were the elaboration of the theory of crystal growth (which brought crystallography closer to thermodynamics and physical chem- istry) and the development of the various methods of growing synthetic crystals dictated by practical needs. (
  • Exponential growth in the number of determined protein structures has largely been driven by new technologies in protein X-ray crystallography, including synchrotron X-ray sources, X-ray detectors, computational tools, and methods of handling protein crystals. (
  • Before the development of X-ray diffraction crystallography (see below), the study of crystals was based on physical measurements of their geometry using a goniometer. (
  • In crystallography crystals are described as isomorphous if they are closely similar in shape. (
  • Also, conferences on applied crystallography (Z. Bojarski, U. Silesia), solid crystals and liquid crystals (J. Zmija, Military U. of Tech.), defects in crystals (J. Auleytner and M. Lefeld-Sosnowska), and organic Crystal Chemistry (A. Mickiewicz, U. of Poznan). (
  • In this report five areas of crystallographic study in Poland are summarized: I) chemical crystallography, II) physical crystallography, III) applied crystallography, IV) crystal growth and liquid crystals and V) protein crystallography. (
  • Some materials studied using crystallography, proteins for example, do not occur naturally as crystals. (
  • Crystallography is particularly concerned with the internal structure of crystals. (
  • X-ray crystallography uses X-rays to discover the molecular structure of crystals. (
  • X-ray crystallography produces good results for crystals that are large, stable, and homogeneous -- that is, with no impurities or structural defects. (
  • But membrane proteins, many receptors among them, form crystals that are not large and pure enough for standard X-ray crystallography. (
  • Extensively revised and updated, this new edition of a classic text presents a unified approach to crystallography and to the defects found within crystals. (
  • The Braggs - of Bragg's Law fame - used crystallography to explain how sodium and chloride together form salt crystals and how carbon atoms interact to form diamond crystals. (
  • The Protein Crystallography Lab offers users a unique capability to perform room- and cryogenic X-ray diffraction data collection from biomacromolecular crystals, data analysis and visualization. (
  • Frequently, protein crystallographers will start out with small crystals that need to be optimized to larger crystals for conventional X-ray crystallography. (
  • It can complement X-ray crystallography on proteins , such as membrane proteins , that cannot easily form the large 3-dimensional crystals required for that process. (
  • A wide variety of materials can form crystals - such as salts , metals , minerals , semiconductors , as well as various inorganic, organic and biological molecules - which has made X-ray crystallography fundamental to many scientific fields. (
  • The term "X-ray crystallography" is also sometimes applied to methods that involve X-ray diffraction from polycrystalline materials, such as powders of small crystals studied by X-ray powder diffraction . (
  • The second section focusses on high pressure crystallography as a technique for exploring polymorphic landscapes, of a series of acid-base co-crystals, and the well-known active pharmaceutical ingredient 5-methyl-2-[(2-nitrophenyl)amino]-3-thiophenecarbonitrile (ROY). (
  • The Synchrotron Radiation Research Section, based at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory and headed by Dr. Zbigniew Dauter, is involved in developing new macromolecular crystallography methods related to the tunability and high intensity of synchrotron radiation, such as the use of anomalous signals, particularly from comparatively light atoms, and the effects of radiation damage incurred in crystals of proteins. (
  • Electron crystallography is a method to determine the arrangement of atoms in solids using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). (
  • A common problem to X-ray crystallography and electron crystallography is radiation damage , by which especially organic molecules and proteins are damaged as they are being imaged, limiting the resolution that can be obtained. (
  • This is especially troublesome in the setting of electron crystallography, where that radiation damage is focused on far fewer atoms. (
  • Since then, several other high-resolution structures have been determined by electron crystallography, including the light-harvesting complex , [5] the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor , [6] and the bacterial flagellum . (
  • If the material under investigation is only available in the form of nanocrystalline powders or suffers from poor crystallinity, the methods of electron crystallography can be applied for determining the atomic structure. (
  • Alongside synchrotrons, two other forms of crystallography can probe molecules in different ways: neutron diffraction and electron diffraction. (
  • Crystallographers often explicitly state the type of beam used, as in the terms X-ray crystallography, neutron diffraction and electron diffraction. (
  • This new technique, called serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography, or SFX, relies on X-ray free-electron lasers, developed shortly before SFX. (
  • Topics range from topological methods in crystallography (Nancy 2010, Samara 2014) to irreducible representations of space groups (Nancy 2010) to electron crystallography (Antwerp 2016) to graph theory. (
  • The Biomolecular X-ray crystallography group, headed by Assistant Prof. Albert Guskov, is embedded in the GBB Institute and together with the Electron Microscopy group headed by Assistant Prof. Cristina Paulino constitutes the Structural Biology unit of GBB. (
  • In their research the group uses the combination of macromolecular crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy as well as various biochemical and biophysical techniques. (
  • We report direct determination of the structures and dynamics of interfacial water on a hydrophilic surface with atomic-scale resolution using ultrafast electron crystallography. (
  • Since then, several other high-resolution structures have been done by electron crystallography, including the light-harvesting complex , [2] and the bacterial flagellum . (
  • Atomic model of plant light-harvesting complex by electron crystallography. (
  • Fortunately, electron microscopes contain electron lenses , and phase information tends to be much more reliable in electron crystallography. (
  • Here we report ligand-induced conformational changes in full-length MloK1, a cyclic nucleotide-modulated potassium channel from the bacterium Mesorhizobium loti, analysed by electron crystallography and atomic force microscopy. (
  • To discover how biology works researchers are now combining the power of crystallography with multiple other methods, spanning from the atomic to cellular scale, and including revolutionary developments in electron cryo-microscopy and tomography. (
  • Looking back to the late 60's and early 70's, and the start of my own independent career, it was clear that the young crystallographers of my generation, helped by some very skilled mentors and experts, were really at the forefront of what became a" Chemical Crystallography" revolution, with crystal structure analysis feeding back fundamental information into synthetic organic, inorganic and organometallic chemistry research. (
  • An introduction to chemical crystallography / by P. H. Groth, Authorised translation by Hugh Marshall. (
  • An introduction to chemical crystallography. (
  • The Chemical Crystallography Laboratory is located in the white house with white shutters just by the junction of Parks Road and South Parks Road. (
  • The Chemical Crystallography Laboratory has a long history of involvement in software development. (
  • which includes useful articles and methods utilizing single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) and its applications in protein and small molecule (chemical) crystallography, features breakthroughs from top research institutions around the world. (
  • ROD is a leader in the field of single crystal analysis, both in the field of chemical crystallography as well as well as macromolecular crystallography. (
  • Because of this problem, X-ray crystallography has been much more successful in determining the structure of proteins that are especially vulnerable to radiation damage. (
  • Since then, the crystal structures of tens of thousands of proteins have been determined using X-ray crystallography. (
  • misc{etde_327261, title = {Neutron protein crystallography} author = {Niimura, Nobuo} abstractNote = {X-ray diffraction of single crystal has enriched the knowledge of various biological molecules such as proteins, DNA, t-RNA, viruses, etc. (
  • The ability to determine the structure of proteins using X-ray crystallography has been one of the great scientific achievements over the past 50-60 years. (
  • X-ray crystallography is one of the main methods for revealing the 3D structure of biological macromolecules, such as proteins. (
  • X-ray crystallography provides a wealth of biologically important molecular data in the form of atomic three-dimensional structures of proteins, nucleic acids and increasingly large complexes in multiple forms and states. (
  • Since this discovery, crystallography has become the very core of structural science, revealing the structure of DNA, allowing us to understand and fabricate computer memories, showing us how proteins are created in cells and helping scientists to design powerful new materials and drugs. (
  • Time-resolved structural studies with serial crystallography: A new light on retinal proteins. (
  • Many proteins and cell structures are studied at Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) using a procedure called protein crystallography. (
  • Yang will explain the protein crystallography procedure, the simple structure of the cell membrane, and the unusual characteristics of its proteins and lipids. (
  • We manage a platform for protein expression in insect cells, purification and characterization of proteins and macromolecular complexes and state-of-the-art infrastructures for X-ray Crystallography. (
  • At the Crystallography Unit, we routinely express proteins and multi-protein complexes in insect cells with the MultiBac system, and offer a complete service that goes from gene cloning to protein production. (
  • However, insufficiency of qualified and experienced researchers, lack of generalized crystallization methods associated with the types of proteins, and highly time-consuming and expensive protein crystallization and crystallography processes are expected to hinder the growth of this market during the forecasted period. (
  • Over the last 50 years, crystallography has developed from a method capable of determining the structures of isolated, soluble proteins to one able to provide detailed information on mechanisms of action of integral membrane proteins, whole viruses and the complex nano-machines that are central to cellular function. (
  • Crystallography Times vol. 13, No. 1, focusing on single crystal X-ray diffraction, is available from the Rigaku global website. (
  • The Product Spotlight showcases the Rigaku XtaLAB Synergy Custom single crystal X-ray diffraction system, a fully flexible Hybrid Photon Counting (HPC)-based system for laboratories requiring tailored solutions for their unique crystallography applications. (
  • The oldest and most precise method of X-ray crystallography is single-crystal X-ray diffraction , in which a beam of X-rays is reflected from evenly spaced planes of a single crystal, producing a diffraction pattern of spots called reflections . (
  • In 1966, Poland became a member of the IUCr and the 11th Int'l Congress of Crystallography was held in Warsaw in 1978 under the leadership of J. Auleytner. (
  • The resurgence in mathematical crystallography motivated the formation of the IUCr Commission on Mathematical Crystallography, as well as this virtual special issue of Acta Crystallographica Section A . This foreword describes some of the current activities of the Commission and introduces the articles in the special issue. (
  • Such considerations led to the formation of a MaThCryst `workgroup' in 2002, which the 20th IUCr Congress in Florence transformed into the Commission on Mathematical and Theoretical Crystallography in August 2005. (
  • This postgraduate course is an excellent introduction to protein crystallography. (
  • KJM4350 is a very challenging course, giving a thorough introduction to protein crystallography, the most powerful method to study protein structures and biomolecular complexes. (
  • Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure). (
  • Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids . (
  • In 2014, on the occasion of the UN's International Year of Crystallography, UNSECO stated, "In the early 20th century, it was discovered that X-rays could be used to 'see' the structure of matter in a non-intrusive manner, thus beginning the dawn of modern crystallography - the science that examines the arrangement of atoms in solids. (
  • It can be equally well applied to study crystalline solids (see crystallography ), gasses, liquids or amorphous materials. (
  • In conventional X-ray crystallography, a protein crystal is rotated in the X-ray beam to produce diffraction patterns for various spatial orientations. (
  • Conventional X-ray crystallography involves exposing one crystal to radiation from various angles and analyzing the resulting diffraction patterns collectively. (
  • In conventional X-ray crystallography, simply choosing the largest and highest-quality crystal was the way to go. (
  • The University of Toronto was also a hub of small molecule crystallography, with Stan Nyberg in the Chemistry Department and Norman Camerman in the Biochemistry Department. (
  • Crystallography Times is designed to keep the scientific community abreast of topics related to protein and small molecule crystallography. (
  • This review reports on the application of charge density analysis in the field of crystal engineering, which is one of the most growing and productive areas of the entire field of crystallography. (
  • In 1912 Lawrence Bragg , a young Australian working in Cambridge, made a key discovery that helped establish the field of crystallography. (
  • Additionally the group has an interest in macromolecular crystallization and serial crystallography techniques. (
  • Advances in automation, in everything from crystallization to data collection to phasing to model building to refinement, have made solving a structure using crystallography easier than ever. (
  • The Protein crystallography core facility of Biocenter Oulu has the infrastructure for protein structural studies from crystallization to x-ray data collection and structure determination. (
  • Protein crystallization & crystallography are techniques that are used very frequently by researchers to understand the three-dimensional structure of a protein. (
  • The market for protein crystallization & crystallography is expected to grow at a high rate owing to its huge potential in drug discovery and development. (
  • This research report categorizes the protein crystallization & crystallography market on the basis of technologies (protein purification, protein crystallization, protein crystal mounting, and protein crystallography), products (analyzers and reagents), and end users (pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, government institutes, and academic institutions). (
  • The growing need to identify new ligands for the drug discovery process and the rising popularity of structure-based/rational drug design are factors that present opportunities for the protein crystallization & crystallography market. (
  • The large numbers of ongoing research projects involving protein crystallization, and the increased variety of reagents and analytical techniques employed are are also major drivers for the protein crystallography reagents market. (
  • Geographically, North America commanded the largest market share of the protein crystallization & crystallography market, followed by Europe. (
  • The Max-Planck Institute of Biophysics in Frankfurt, Germany is updating its x-ray crystallography facility with Rigaku protein crystallography and automated crystallization systems, Rigaku Americas Corp. of The Woodlands, Texas, announced this week. (
  • Short-wavelength XFELs suitable for crystallography have only become available since the Linac Coherent Light Source turned on at the Department of Energy's California SLAC laboratory in 2009. (
  • In this class we'll discuss the steps and techniques involved in modern crystallography. (
  • Some results obtained by quantum crystallography illustrate the potential and limitations of this field. (
  • The group applies spectroscopic, crystallographic and theoretical methods of structure determination and advances them, especially quantum crystallography. (
  • He happily enjoys his retirement at the Universities of Zürich, Western Australia and Berkeley where he collaborates with his colleagues and friends in areas of common interest: structure determination of disordered materials from diffuse scattering, quantum crystallography, dynamics and thermodynamics of crystalline polymorphs. (
  • Called Sagamore , the conference (which started in 1964) will this year feature a focus on quantum crystallography, "bringing together top scientists at the interface of crystallography, material science, quantum and computational chemistry, and solid state physics" in an environment that is inclusive of "theory and experiment, early career and established scientists, and women and visible minorities. (
  • Dr. Matta is a Member of the International Union of Crystallography's Commission on Quantum Crystallography, and an elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry and Institute of Physics (UK). (
  • At the Jagiellonian U. in Krakow in 1933, S. Kreutz, an author of books on theoretical crystallography, supervised the Ph.D. thesis of S. Janik on the X-ray structure of ZnCl 2 .2NH 3 . (
  • X-ray diffraction crystallography for powder samples is a well-established and widely used method. (
  • To learn the method of X-ray diffraction crystallography well and to be able to cope with the given subject, a certain number of exercises is presented in the book to calculate specific values for typical examples. (
  • This is particularly important for beginners in X-ray diffraction crystallography. (
  • This work presents a snapshot of the state of the art of modern biomolecular crystallography, from crystallisation through structure determination and even interactive presentation on the web. (
  • Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Present and Future Methods of Biomolecular Crystallography: the Structural Path to Defence Against CBRN Agents, Erice Italy, 1-10 June 2012"--Title page verso. (
  • X-ray crystallography allows visualization of macromolecules with the clarity of resolving individual atoms. (
  • Soon after X-ray crystallography emerged, it became clear that not all biological macromolecules can be crystallized. (
  • The Protein Crystallography Core Facility assists investigators in the determination of the 3-D structure of biological macromolecules and their complexes. (
  • X-ray crystallography is the major method for structure determination of macromolecules. (
  • X-ray crystallography is the foremost technique used in structural biology to determine the three-dimensional structure of macromolecules. (
  • Polish textbooks of mineralogy containing elements of crystallography were published in the universities of Krakow and Lwow in the second half of the 19th century. (
  • In 1953, crystallography was introduced as an obligatory subject in university chemistry curricula producing new crystallographic laboratories, and separating crystallography from mineralogy. (
  • This volume provides methods for modern macromolecular crystallography, including all steps leading to crystal structure determination and analysis. (
  • My supervisor has been very supportive and encouraging," she said, adding that Ramsland helped her navigate the roadblocks of learning crystallography, teaching her how to collect data from the Australian Synchrotron and walking her through the process of solving a crystal structure. (
  • It is difficult to make structural analysis of hydrogen atoms in a protein using X-ray crystallography, whereas neutron diffraction seems usable to directly determine the location of those hydrogen atoms. (
  • X-ray crystallography is the science of determining the arrangement of atoms within a crystal from the manner in which a beam of X-rays is scattered from the electrons within the crystal. (
  • By contrast, macromolecular crystallography often involves tens of thousands of atoms in the unit cell. (
  • however, X-ray crystallography has proven possible even for viruses with hundreds of thousands of atoms. (
  • Upgrading and expanding the x-ray crystallography facility will make it one of seven core European centers for structural biology and was part of an initiative by ESFRI-INSTRUCT (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures -- Integrated Structural Biology Infrastructure). (
  • The Crystallography Unit supports scientific groups which are interested in developing structural biology aspects of their projects. (
  • Macromolecular crystallography and structural biology databases at NIST. (
  • X-ray crystallography remains a crucial technique for this mission. (
  • Since that time, the integration of the two fundamental subjects of chemistry, in its broadest sense, and crystallography has created a focussed multidisciplinary area, aided and abetted by consistent and continuing technique and instrumental developments. (
  • Now London-based photographer Max Alexander had shed light on some of these shapes, highlighting the importance of a technique known as X-ray crystallography. (
  • Tao's [ Yizhi Jane Tao, assistant professor of biochemistry and cell biology ] lab specializes in X-ray crystallography, a powerful technique that can pinpoint the exact location of every atom in a biomacromolecule or a large biomacromolecular assembly. (
  • Dear Readers, Macromolecular crystallography is my favorite scientific technique, and likely the most important one of the past 100 years. (
  • At its surface, crystallography is a beautiful technique: the specimens look gorgeous, the diffraction patterns can cause grown men to weep, and protein structures are delightful to look at. (
  • The technique of single-crystal X-ray crystallography has three basic steps. (
  • The latest issue highlights several noteworthy crystallography papers from researchers around the world. (
  • Formally established as a shared resource in 1998, this resource has been committed to the support of macromolecular crystallography projects of PCCR researchers. (
  • The MM-SR's services and support are critical to PCCR members' research needs because X-ray crystallography requires that sophisticated and dedicated resources be immediately and locally available to researchers. (
  • The researchers have now answered this question: High-resolution X-ray crystallography provided incredibly accurate structural snapshots of a sodium-bound glutamate transporter right before the binding of glutamate. (
  • The January edition of Crystallography Times from Rigaku Corporation is now available on the company's global website. (
  • X-ray crystallography ( XRC ) is the experimental science determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal , in which the crystalline structure causes a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions. (
  • X-ray crystallography is still the primary method for characterizing the atomic structure of new materials and in discerning materials that appear similar by other experiments . (
  • X-ray crystallography is related to several other methods for determining atomic structures. (
  • Crystallography is the study of atomic and molecular structure. (
  • Designed to allow organic and inorganic chemists to produce atomic-resolution 3-D structures of routine samples without any specialized crystallography training, the system determines x-ray structure. (
  • As the crystal's unit cell becomes larger, the atomic-level picture provided by X-ray crystallography becomes less well-resolved (more "fuzzy") for a given number of observed reflections. (
  • Download Chemistry Crystallography Organic Physics Science, a. guin. (
  • The website of the American Chemical Society notes that, "Within the past century, crystallography has been a primary force in driving major advances in the detailed understanding of materials, synthetic chemistry, the understanding of basic principles of biological processes, genetics, and has contributed to major advances in the development of drugs for numerous diseases. (
  • As such, X-ray crystallography is an essential tool for the PCCR to carry out its mission - to uncover the fundamental sources of cell growth anomalies associated with cancer and to develop new and effective therapeutics through structure-based drug design. (
  • In particular, the lack of a solid education in fundamental crystallography among chemists, crystallographers, physicists and other participants prompted the Commission to develop itinerant schools, which are becoming a tradition. (
  • Much of `mathematical crystallography' arose during the 19th century from the work of mathematicians, mineralogists, physicists and chemists. (
  • Organizations of Polish crystallographers include The Committee of Crystallography of PAN (chair, A. Pietraszko), The Polish Society of Crystal Growth (chair, S. Krukowski), The Polish Society of Synchrotron Radiation, (chair, B. Orlowski), The Polish Society of Neutron Scattering, (chair, A. Szytula. (
  • Jenny is Vice-President of the Asian Crystallography Association, a former President of the Society of Crystallographers in Australia and New Zealand, and a former chair of the National Committee for Crystallography of the Australian Academy of Science. (
  • It may not be the most familiar branch of science to everyone, but crystallography is one of the most important techniques in helping to understand the world around us. (
  • A number of faculty members in CPSB apply x-ray crystallography in their labs, and these activities are supported by a core x-ray facility in BCM as well as access to synchrotron beamlines in National Laboratories located near Chicago, New York City, and San Francisco. (
  • The year 2003 was one of great excitement and hard work at the Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) beamlines of the ESRF (ID14 A&B, ID29), and the year's closing brings about a welcome chance to report on some of the work carried out there. (
  • The Crystallography Science Group comprises beamlines I11, I15, I15-1, and I19, members of the former Engineering & Environment and the Materials Villages. (
  • The Crystallography Science Group beamlines employ various X-ray scattering and diffraction techniques to study structural properties of crystalline, amorphous, and liquid materials at ambient and different nonambient conditions. (
  • In July 2012, the United Nations recognised the importance of the science of crystallography by proclaiming that 2014 would be the International Year of Crystallography. (
  • Crystallography is a process in which art and science overlap,' he said. (
  • The 53-year-old, originally from New Zealand, is hoping his photographs of the science and the people who made it happen, could raise the profile of crystallography. (
  • It opens up a new set of people that might be engaged with crystallography and the science, just as we're engaging with the arts,' he told the BBC . (
  • Crystallography is a natural area for the collaboration of physical science and mathematics. (
  • In particular, the 2013 SIAM Conference on Mathematical Aspects of Materials Science in Philadelphia was the occasion to gather articles, partly issued from that meeting, for this second special issue on Mathematical Crystallography in Acta Crystallographica Section A . Perhaps befitting this digital age, this is a virtual issue, spanning three regular issues, but all appearing during the International Year of Crystallography. (
  • Furthermore, the technical and scientific expertise within the Crystallography Science Group can be fully exploited to provide the basis for future development and pioneering experiments. (
  • He is the principal author of the two previous very successful editions of ""Crystallography and Crystal Defects"" and of other books and has a worldwide reputation in materials science. (
  • As a science, crystallography has produced 28 Nobel Prizes, more than any other scie ntific field. (
  • Lead sponsors for the event include Mount Saint Vincent University, the Natural Science and Engineering Council of Canada, and the International Union of Crystallography - an international scientific union aimed at promoting pure and applied crystallography, including promoting global cooperation and standardization of notation, units, and nomenclature. (
  • The Division of Science at New York University Abu Dhabi is inviting applications for a fully-funded postdoctoral associate position in the area of Solid-State NMR Crystallography in the group of Dr Maria Baias ( ). (
  • She was subsequently awarded a Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851 Science Research Scholarship to undertake a DPhil research degree at the University of Oxford, in protein crystallography and structure-based inhibitor design. (
  • In the late 1970s, macromolecular crystallography at NIST began with collaboration between NIST and NIH to establish a single-crystal neutron diffractometer. (
  • One of the main difficulties in X-ray crystallography is determining phases in the diffraction pattern . (
  • The main problem in neutron protein crystallography is the low flux of present reactor based or pulsed neutron sources. (
  • I11 is a high resolution powder diffraction beamline for structural crystallography using an undulator source. (
  • In addition to Cambridge's Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Dorothy Hodgkin's laboratory in the University of Oxford was also a Mecca for those wanting to learn the methods of protein crystallography. (
  • This multi-subunit transmembrane protein complex has a molecular weight of ~ 540 kDa and represents one of the largest assemblies solved by macromolecular crystallography. (
  • Crystallography in Molecular Biology', a NATO Advanced Study Institute, was held on September 12-21, 1985, at the Bi sc. (
  • The aim of the course was to gi ve an overvi ew of crystallography related to molecular biology with special emphasis on recent results and new methodo 1 ogi ca 1 approaches. (
  • This Course will celebrate its milestone as the 50th in the crystallography series started by Dorothy Hodgkin by focusing on integration: 1) of different techniques, 2) of molecular and cellular approaches and 3) of the crystallographic community, including diversity. (
  • He was a strong believer in the preservation of the history of the development of crystallography and crystallographic computing. (
  • Crystallography allows us to see our world at the level of the atom, by generating crystal structures that can be analysed and probed, and then used to design new and improved molecules. (
  • About 85% of all known structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank have been determined by X-ray crystallography. (
  • She returned to Oxford to learn protein crystallography where in 1989, working with Prof Dave Stuart, she determined one of the first crystal structures of a cytokine, tumour necrosis factor (TNF). (
  • Carol returned to Canada and went to the NRC labs in Ottawa, where she eventually became involved in protein crystallography and specialized in the cathepsins, a group of lysosomal proteinases that resembled the plant enzyme papain. (
  • Serial millisecond crystallography for routine room-temperature structure determination at synchrotrons, Nat. (