The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Diagnostic aid in pancreas function determination.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobin in which lysine replaces a glutamic acid residue at the sixth position of the beta chains. It results in reduced plasticity of erythrocytes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.
Anaerobic hyperthermophilic species of ARCHAEA, isolated from hydrothermal fluid samples. It is obligately heterotrophic with coccoid cells that require TRYPTOPHAN for growth.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Technique by which phase transitions of chemical reactions can be followed by observation of the heat absorbed or liberated.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.
A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A family of anaerobic METHANOCOCCALES whose organisms are motile by means of flagella. These methanogens use carbon dioxide as an electron acceptor.
Enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of aldose and ketose compounds.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.
Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.

Probing interactions between HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and its DNA substrate with backbone-modified nucleotides. (1/7757)

BACKGROUND: To gain a molecular understanding of a biochemical process, the crystal structure of enzymes that catalyze the reactions involved is extremely helpful. Often the question arises whether conformations obtained in this way appropriately reflect the reactivity of enzymes, however. Rates that characterize transitions are therefore compulsory experiments for the elucidation of the reaction mechanism. Such experiments have been performed for the reverse transcriptase of the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 RT). RESULTS: We have developed a methodology to monitor the interplay between HIV-1 RT and its DNA substrate. To probe the protein-DNA interactions, the sugar backbone of one nucleotide was modified by a substituent that influenced the efficiency of the chain elongation in a characteristic way. We found that strand elongation after incorporation of the modified nucleotide follows a discontinuous efficiency for the first four nucleotides. The reaction efficiencies could be correlated with the distance between the sugar substituent and the enzyme. The model was confirmed by kinetic experiments with HIV-1 RT mutants. CONCLUSIONS: Experiments with HIV-1 RT demonstrate that strand-elongation efficiency using a modified nucleotide correlates well with distances between the DNA substrate and the enzyme. The functional group at the modified nucleotides acts as an 'antenna' for steric interactions that changes the optimal transition state. Kinetic experiments in combination with backbone-modified nucleotides can therefore be used to gain structural information about reverse transcriptases and DNA polymerases.  (+info)

Crystal structure of an MHC class I presented glycopeptide that generates carbohydrate-specific CTL. (2/7757)

T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of nonpeptidic and modified peptide antigens has been recently uncovered but is still poorly understood. Immunization with an H-2Kb-restricted glycopeptide RGY8-6H-Gal2 generates a population of cytotoxic T cells that express both alpha/beta TCR, specific for glycopeptide, and gamma/delta TCR, specific for the disaccharide, even on glycolipids. The crystal structure of Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 now demonstrates that the peptide and H-2Kb structures are unaffected by the peptide glycosylation, but the central region of the putative TCR binding site is dominated by the extensive exposure of the tethered carbohydrate. These features of the Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 structure are consistent with the individual ligand binding preferences identified for the alpha/beta and gamma/delta TCRs and thus explain the generation of a carbohydrate-specific T cell response.  (+info)

Structural basis of Rab effector specificity: crystal structure of the small G protein Rab3A complexed with the effector domain of rabphilin-3A. (3/7757)

The small G protein Rab3A plays an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. The crystal structure of activated Rab3A/GTP/Mg2+ bound to the effector domain of rabphilin-3A was solved to 2.6 A resolution. Rabphilin-3A contacts Rab3A in two distinct areas. The first interface involves the Rab3A switch I and switch II regions, which are sensitive to the nucleotide-binding state of Rab3A. The second interface consists of a deep pocket in Rab3A that interacts with a SGAWFF structural element of rabphilin-3A. Sequence and structure analysis, and biochemical data suggest that this pocket, or Rab complementarity-determining region (RabCDR), establishes a specific interaction between each Rab protein and its effectors. RabCDRs could be major determinants of effector specificity during vesicle trafficking and fusion.  (+info)

Phe161 and Arg166 variants of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase. Implications for NADPH recognition and structural stability. (4/7757)

Phe161 and Arg166 of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas fluorescens belong to a newly discovered sequence motif in flavoprotein hydroxylases with a putative dual function in FAD and NADPH binding [1]. To study their role in more detail, Phe161 and Arg166 were selectively changed by site-directed mutagenesis. F161A and F161G are catalytically competent enzymes having a rather poor affinity for NADPH. The catalytic properties of R166K are similar to those of the native enzyme. R166S and R166E show impaired NADPH binding and R166E has lost the ability to bind FAD. The crystal structure of substrate complexed F161A at 2.2 A is indistinguishable from the native enzyme, except for small changes at the site of mutation. The crystal structure of substrate complexed R166S at 2.0 A revealed that Arg166 is important for providing an intimate contact between the FAD binding domain and a long excursion of the substrate binding domain. It is proposed that this interaction is essential for structural stability and for the recognition of the pyrophosphate moiety of NADPH.  (+info)

Identification of 17-methyl-18-norandrosta-5,13(17-dien-3beta-ol, the C19 fragment formed by adrenal side chain cleavage of a 20-aryl analog of (20S)-20-hydroxycholesterol. (5/7757)

Incubation of (20R)-20-phenyl-5-pregnene-3beta,20-diol, an aromatic analog of (23S)-20-hydroxycholesterol, with an adrenal mitochondrial preparation leads to the formation of four compounds: pregnenolone, phenol, a C8 ketone, acetophenone, and a nonpolar C19 compound. This latter compound has now been identified by reverse isotope dilution analysis and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as 17-methyl-18-norandrosta-5,13(17)-dien-3beta-ol. From these results it is evident that enzymatic fission of the C-17,20 bond of this synthetic derivative occurs. On the other hand, when (20S)-20-hydroxy[21-14C]cholesterol was used as substrate, the analogous cleavage did not take place. Thus, substitution of an aromatic group on C-20 facilitates side chain cleavage between that carbon atom and the nucleus whereas neither of the naturally occuring precursors, cholesterol or its 20-hydroxylated counterpart, are metabolized to a C8 fragment.  (+info)

Relationship between supersaturation and calcium oxalate crystallization in normals and idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. (6/7757)

BACKGROUND: In an earlier study on recurrent CaOx stone formers with no detectable abnormalities, we found that the urine of these subjects had a lower tolerance to oxalate load than controls and that the removal of urinary macromolecules with a molecular weight greater than 10,000 D improved their tolerance to oxalate. METHODS: The effects on CaOx crystallization of reduced urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate (CaOx), induced by night water load, were studied in 12 normal males and in 15 male OxCa stone formers who were free from urinary metabolic abnormalities. The effect of the macromolecules, purified and retrieved from the natural and diluted urine, were analyzed in a metastable solution of CaOx. RESULTS: The water load caused an increase in urine volume (from 307 +/- 111 to 572 +/- 322 ml/8 hr, P = 0.014 in normal subjects, and from 266 +/- 92 to 518 +/- 208 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in the stone formers) and a concomitant reduction of the relative CaOx supersaturation (from 8.7 +/- 2.5 to 5.1 +/- 2.5 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in normal subjects, and from 10.4 +/- 3.5 to 5.0 +/- 2.7 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in the stone formers). The decrease in CaOx supersaturation was accompanied by an increase of the permissible increment in oxalate, both in normal subjects (from 43.8 +/- 10.1 to 67.2 +/- 30. 3 mg/liter, P = 0.018) and in the stone formers (from 25.7 +/- 9.4 to 43.7 +/- 17.1 mg/liter, P = 0.0001), without any significant variations of the upper limit of metastability for CaOx (from 21.6 +/- 5.3 to 20.5 +/- 4.2 mg/liter in normal subjects, and from 18.7 +/- 4.5 to 17.1 +/- 3.7 mg/liter in the stone formers). The inhibitory effect of urinary macromolecules with molecular weight greater than 10,000 Daltons did not undergo any change when the latter were recovered from concentrated or diluted urine, either in normal subjects or in the stone formers. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced CaOx supersaturation by means of water load has a protective effect with regards to CaOx crystallization in subjects who do not present any of the common urinary stone risk factors.  (+info)

Cryoelectron microscopy of a nucleating model bile in vitreous ice: formation of primordial vesicles. (7/7757)

Because gallstones form so frequently in human bile, pathophysiologically relevant supersaturated model biles are commonly employed to study cholesterol crystal formation. We used cryo-transmission electron microscopy, complemented by polarizing light microscopy, to investigate early stages of cholesterol nucleation in model bile. In the system studied, the proposed microscopic sequence involves the evolution of small unilamellar to multilamellar vesicles to lamellar liquid crystals and finally to cholesterol crystals. Small aliquots of a concentrated (total lipid concentration = 29.2 g/dl) model bile containing 8.5% cholesterol, 22.9% egg yolk lecithin, and 68.6% taurocholate (all mole %) were vitrified at 2 min to 20 days after fourfold dilution to induce supersaturation. Mixed micelles together with a category of vesicles denoted primordial, small unilamellar vesicles of two distinct morphologies (sphere/ellipsoid and cylinder/arachoid), large unilamellar vesicles, multilamellar vesicles, and cholesterol monohydrate crystals were imaged. No evidence of aggregation/fusion of small unilamellar vesicles to form multilamellar vesicles was detected. Low numbers of multilamellar vesicles were present, some of which were sufficiently large to be identified as liquid crystals by polarizing light microscopy. Dimensions, surface areas, and volumes of spherical/ellipsoidal and cylindrical/arachoidal vesicles were quantified. Early stages in the separation of vesicles from micelles, referred to as primordial vesicles, were imaged 23-31 min after dilution. Observed structures such as enlarged micelles in primordial vesicle interiors, segments of bilayer, and faceted edges at primordial vesicle peripheries are probably early stages of small unilamellar vesicle assembly. A decrease in the mean surface area of spherical/ellipsoidal vesicles was correlated with the increased production of cholesterol crystals at 10-20 days after supersaturation by dilution, supporting the role of small unilamellar vesicles as key players in cholesterol nucleation and as cholesterol donors to crystals. This is the first visualization of an intermediate structure that has been temporally linked to the development of small unilamellar vesicles in the separation of vesicles from micelles in a model bile and suggests a time-resolved system for further investigation.  (+info)

Purification and properties of a low-molecular-weight, high-alkaline pectate lyase from an alkaliphilic strain of Bacillus. (8/7757)

A low-molecular-weight, high-alkaline pectate lyase (pectate transeliminase, EC 4.2.2.2) was found in an alkaline culture of Bacillus sp. strain KSM-P15, purified to homogeneity, and crystallized. The enzyme had a relative molecular weight of approximately 20,300 as measured by sedimentation equilibrium, with a sedimentation coefficient (s20,w0) of 1.73 S. It was a basic protein with an isoelectric point of pH 10.3, and the alpha-helical content was only 6.6%. In the presence of Ca2+ ions, the enzyme degraded polygalacturonic acid in a random manner to yield 4,5-unsaturated oligo-galacturonides and had its optimal activity around pH 10.5 and 50-55 degrees C. It also had a protopectinase-like activity on cotton fibers. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the intact protein (28 amino acids) and its two lysyl endopeptidase-cleaved peptide fragments (8 and 12 amino acids) had very low sequence similarity with pectate lyases reported to date. These results strongly suggest that the pectate lyase of Bacillus sp. strain KSM-P15 may be a novel enzyme and belongs in a new family.  (+info)

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Cytochrome c peroxidase was isolated from Paracoccus denitrificans and purified to homogeneity in three steps prior to crystallization. Two different diffraction-quality crystal forms were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using a number of screening conditions. The best (needle-shaped) crystal form is suitable for structural studies and was grown from solutions containing 20% PEG 8000, 0.1 M Tris pH 8.5 and 0.2 M MgCl(2). Crystals grew to a maximum length of approximately 0.7 mm and belong to the primitive monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 78.3, b = 51.0, c = 167.2 A, beta = 97.9 degrees. After a dehydration step and extensive optimization of the cryocooling conditions, a complete data set was collected to 2.2 A from a native crystal of the fully oxidized form of the enzyme using synchrotron radiation.
The quality of a crystallization process greatly influences the quality of the final product. Our new white paper introduces you to the fundamentals of crystallization and provides guidance for the design of a high quality crystallization process.
Upon release from the stable complex formed with its antitoxin VapB, the toxin VapC (MvpT) of the Gram-negative pathogen Shigella flexneri is capable of globally down-regulating translation by specifically cleaving initiator tRNA(fMet) in the anticodon region. Recombinant Shigella flexneri VapC(D7A) harbouring an active-site mutation was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity and crystallized by the vapour-diffusion technique. A preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis shows that the crystals diffracted to at least 1.9 Å resolution at a synchrotron X-ray source and belonged to the trigonal space group in the hexagonal setting, H3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 120.1, c = 52.5 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. The Matthews coefficient is 2.46 Å(3) Da(-1), suggesting two molecules per asymmetric unit and corresponding to a solvent content of 50.0 ...
Purification, circular dichroism analysis, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the F plasmid CcdB killer protein ...
The transformation from a fluid to a crystal can be complicated and involve one or more precursors. Such multistep crystallization pathways occur in many chemical and physical systems, and the driving force for the appearance of the precursors has been explained by unique characteristics of the interactions among the systems building blocks. We investigated multistep crystallization pathways in hard particles, where interaction is dictated solely by building-block shape and thus entropy. We categorized multistep crystallization pathways based on the dimension of the prenucleation motifs, and discuss possible comparisons to other crystallization processes.. ...
My research into crystallization processes in magma chambers has involved investigation of both natural and artificial magmatic systems. Artifical magmas, such as those produced by In-Situ Vitrification allow a unique window into the crystallization processes of magma, as does investigation of crystals forming in the active lava lake of Mount Erebus, Antarctica REFERENCES:. DUNBAR, N.W., CASHMAN, K.V., AND DUPRE, R., 1994. Crystallization processes of anorthoclase phenocrysts in the Mt. Erebus magmatic system: Evidence from crystal composition, crystal size distributions and volatile contents of melt inclusions. In: Volcanological Studies of Mount Erebus. Antarctic Research Series, 66, 129-146. ABSTRACT. DUNBAR, N.W., JACOBS, G.K. AND NANEY, M.T., 1995. Crystallization processes in an artificial magma: variations in crystal shape, growth rate and composition with melt cooling history. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 120, 412-425. ABSTRACT. JACOBS, G.K., DUNBAR, N.W., NANEY, M.T., and WILLIAMS, R.T., ...
Anni presents a wealth of insight and information on the Crystallization Process and how it can potentially impact us on the journey to becoming fully fledged Crystal Humans. There is also real magic and crystal energy at work through the pages of The Crystal Human and the Crystallization Part I and The Crystal Human and the Crystallization Part II. Reviewing these two books triggered my own crystallisation journey, and fortunately the relevant guidance was to hand as I worked my way through the books.. June McGuire - Management Consultant and Holistic Therapist. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular dynamics study on external field induced crystallization of amorphous argon structure. AU - Park, Seungho. AU - Cho, Sung San. AU - Lee, Joon Sik. AU - Choi, Young Ki. AU - Kwon, Ohmyoung. PY - 2004/11. Y1 - 2004/11. N2 - A molecular dynamics study has been conducted on an external-force-field- induced isothermal crystallization process of amorphous structures as a new low-temperature athermal crystallization process. An external cyclic-force field with a dc bias is imposed on molecules selected randomly in an amorphous-phase of argon. Multiple peaks smoothed out in the radial distribution functions for amorphous states appear very clearly during the crystallization process that cannot be achieved otherwise. When the amorphous material is locally exposed to an external force field, crystallization starts and propagates from the interfacial region and crystallization growth rates can be estimated.. AB - A molecular dynamics study has been conducted on an ...
The study of proteins involved in de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides is central in the development of antibiotics and anticancer drugs. In view of this, a protein from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 was isolated, purified and crystallized using the microbatch method. Its primary structure was found to be similar to that of SAICAR synthetase, which catalyses the seventh step of de novo purine biosynthesis. A diffraction-quality crystal was obtained using Hampton Research Crystal Screen II condition No. 34, consisting of 0.05 M cadmium sulfate hydrate, 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 and 1.0 M sodium acetate trihydrate, with 40%(v/v) 1,4-butanediol as an additive. The crystal belonged to space group P3(1), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 95.62, c = 149.13 angstrom. Assuming the presence of a hexamer in the asymmetric unit resulted in a Matthews coefficient (V-M) of 2.3 angstrom(3) Da(-1), corresponding to a solvent content of about 46%. A detailed study of this protein will ...
Adherent and pin-hole free amorphous Sb2Te3 thin films have been obtained by vacuum evaporation at substrate temperatures ≤25 °C. The films have been crystallized by thermal and laser annealing, and the crystallization processes monitored as a function of annealing temperature and laser scan speed. A comparative study of topography reveals disk-shaped crystallized areas in thermal crystallization and dendrite growth in the laser induced process. The crystallized films in both cases contain a single Sb2Te3 phase. Activation energy of 2 eV for crystallization, determined using differential scanning calorimetery indicates good room temperature stability of the amorphous states ...
Journal Article: Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of CfaA, a molecular chaperone essential for the assembly of CFA/I fimbriae of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli ...
Pengju Pan, Jianna Bao, Xiaohua Chang, Ruoxing Chang, Guorong Shan, Yongzhong Bao. State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, P. R. China.. Supramolecular polymers (SMPs) have different crystallization behavior from conventional polymers. Crystallization of SMPs occurs in a confined and dynamic manner. Because of the reversible and stimuli-responsive natures of non-covalent bonds in SMPs, crystalline structure and crystallization kinetics of SMPs depend strongly on crystallization conditions (e.g., crystallization temperature, Tc). This offers a feasible way to tune the physical properties and functions of SMPs in processing. We first selected the 2-ureido-4[1H]-pyrimidione (UPy)-bonded poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) as a model SMP and investigated the crystallization kinetics, polymorphic crystalline structure, and phase transition of supramolecular PLLAs (SM-PLLAs). Crystallization rate and ...
The laboratory of Chemistry of Biological Processes is equipped with state of the art devices for the crystallization of biological macromolecules. The laboratory houses a Mosquito® Crystal (TTPLabtech) that allows the automated screening of crystallization conditions using low sample volumes and zero cross-contaminations. The robot allows the setup of sitting and hanging drop vapor diffusion trials and can perform microbatch under oil if desired. Our laboratory also owns a 5-head Dragonfly® (TTPLabtech) as a companion for the Mosquito®, which allows the setup of crystallizations screens for crystal optimization. To check the crystallization experiments, two stereomicroscopes are available including a LEICA M205C equipped with a camera IC80 HD. ...
The nonisothermal crystallization kinetics was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry for the nylon 6/graphene composites prepared by in situ polymerization. The Avrami theory modified by Jeziorny, Ozawa equation, and Mo equation was used to describe the nonisothermal crystallization kinetics. The analysis based on the Avrami theory modified by Jeziorny shows that, at lower cooling rates (at 5, 10, and 20 K/min), the nylon 6/graphene composites have lower crystallization rate than pure nylon 6. However, at higher cooling rates (at 40 K/min), the nylon 6/graphene composites have higher crystallization rate than pure nylon 6. The values of Avrami exponent m and the cooling crystallization function F(T) from Ozawa plots indicate that the mode of the nucleation and growth at initial stage of the nonisothermal crystallization may be as follows: two-dimensional (2D), then one-dimensional (1D) for all samples at 5-10 °C/min; three-dimensional (3D) or complicated than 3D, then 2D and 1D at ...
20Li(2)O-80TeMO(2) glasses were heat annealed at different temperatures between T-g and T-x and studied by using XRD, FTIR spectroscopy and DSC techniques to understand the crystallization kinetics in this glass matrix. The infrared band structure of this glass is similar to what was observed in glassy TeO2. XRD results reveal the presence of three distinct crystalline gamma-TeO2, alpha-TeO2 and Li2Te2O5 phases during the crystallization process. This is a first report of gamma-TeO2 phase crystallization in this glass matrix. DSC results confinn the crystallization of three distinct structures in the glass. In summary, our results suggest a crystallization hierarchy on this glass matrix since the gamma-TeO2 and alpha-TeO2 phases crystallization occurs before the Li2Te2O5 phase crystallization. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.. ...
Vol 70: Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of Rv3705c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The Czochralski (CZ) crystallization process is used to produce monocrystalline silicon. Monocrystalline silicon is used in solar cell wafers and in computers and electronics. The CZ process is a batch process, where multicrystalline silicon is melted in a crucible and later solidi es on a monocrystalline seed crystal. The crucible is heated using a heating element where the power is manipulated using a triode for alternating current (TRIAC). As the electric resistance of the heating element increases by increased temperature, there are signi cant dynamics from the TRIAC input signal (control system output) to the actual (measured) heating element power. The present paper focuses on empirical modeling of these dynamics. The modeling is based on a dataset logged from a real-life CZ process. Initially the dataset is preprocessed by detrending and handling outliers. Next, linear ARX, ARMAX, and output error (OE) models are identi ed. As the linear models do not fully explain the process behavior, ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Duncan Johnstone.. The lecture will highlight three experimental strategies that we have developed for exploring crystallization pathways and structural properties of solids: (i) in-situ solid-state NMR techniques for understanding the time-evolution of crystallization processes, (ii) the study of X-ray birefringence for spatially resolved mapping of the distribution of molecular orientations in materials, and (iii) structure determination of organic materials when single crystals cannot be prepared.. Our in-situ solid-state NMR technique [1-3] for studying crystallization pathways exploits the ability of NMR to selectively detect the solid phase in heterogeneous solid/liquid systems of the type that exist during crystallization from solution. We have shown that this technique can establish the sequence of solid phases formed during crystallization processes [1] and can be exploited in the discovery of new polymorphs [2]. Our most recent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an Escherichia coli purine repressor-hypoxanthine-DNA complex. AU - Schumacher, Maria A.. AU - Choi, Kang Yell. AU - Zalkin, Howard. AU - Brennan, Richard G.. PY - 1994/9/22. Y1 - 1994/9/22. N2 - The purine repressor (PurR) is a DNA-binding protein, which together with a purine corepressor serves to regulate de novo purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. PurR belongs to the structurally homologous lac repressor family of transcription regulators. A PurR-hypoxanthine-DNA complex has been crystallized, with DNA encompassing the high affinity purF operator site and which is 16 base-pairs long with 5-deoxynucleoside overhangs on each complementary strand. The crystals diffract to better than 2.6 AÅ and take the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit cell dimensions a = 175.9 AÅ, b = 94.8 AÅ and c = 81.8 AÅ. The structure determination of this PurR-hypoxanthine-DNA complex will provide the first high resolution ...
View Notes - GEOL101 - Slideshow 101.10 Magma from GEOL 101 at Central Washington University. Magma Magma Melting Crystallization Processes that impact composition Magma Creation of
Crystallization processes are used across the chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries. In the chemical industry, the potash and caustic...
An initial tranche of results from day-to-day use of a robotic system for setting up 100 nl-scale vapour-diffusion sitting-drop protein crystallizations has been surveyed. The database of over 50 unrelated samples represents a snapshot of projects currently at the stage of crystallization trials in Oxford research groups and as such encompasses a broad range of proteins. The results indicate that the nanolitre-scale methodology consistently identifies more crystallization conditions than traditional hand-pipetting-style methods; however, in a number of cases successful scale-up is then problematic. Crystals grown in the initial 100 nl-scale drops have in the majority of cases allowed useful characterization of X-ray diffraction, either in-house or at synchrotron beamlines. For a significant number of projects, full X-ray diffraction data sets have been collected to 3 Šresolution or better (either in-house or at the synchrotron) from crystals grown at the 100 nl scale. To date, five structures ...
The protozoan parasites of the Apicomplexa phylum are devastating global pathogens. Their success is largely due to phylum-specific proteins found in specialized organelles and cellular structures. The inner membrane complex (IMC) is a unique apicomplexan structure that is essential for motility, invasion and replication. The IMC subcompartment proteins (ISP) have recently been identified in Toxoplasma gondii and shown to be critical for replication, although their specific mechanisms are unknown. Structural characterization of TgISP1 was pursued in order to identify the fold adopted by the ISPs and to generate detailed insight into how this family of proteins functions during replication. An N-terminally truncated form of TgISP1 was purified from Escherichia coli, crystallized and subjected to X-ray diffraction analysis. Two crystal forms of TgISP1 belonging to space groups P4(1)32 or P4(3)32 and P2(1)2(1)2(1) diffracted to 2.05 and 2.1 Å resolution, respectively ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystallization kinetics of sol-gel-derived (1-x)SrBi2Ta2O9-xBi3 TiTaO9 ferroelectric thin films. AU - Kwak, Woo Chul. AU - Sung, Yun Mo. PY - 2002/6. Y1 - 2002/6. N2 - The crystallization kinetics of Sr0.7Bi2.3Ta2O9 (SBT) and 0.7SrBi2Ta2O9-0.3Bi3 TiTaO9 (SBT-BTT) thin films formed by the sol-gel and spin coating techniques were studied. Phase formation and crystal growth are greatly affected by the film composition and crystallization temperature. Isothermal kinetic analysis was performed on the x-ray diffraction results of the thin films heated in the range of 730 to 760 °C at 10 °C intervals. Activation energy and Avrami exponent values were determined for the fluorite-to-Aurivillus phase transformation. A reduction of approximately 51 kJ/mol in activation energy was observed for the SBT-BTT thin films, and an Avrami exponent value of approximately 1.0 was obtained for both the SBT and SBT-BTT. A comparison is made, and the possible crystallization mechanism is ...
The work presented in this thesis represents the study of the polymorphism exhibited by several molecular, organic solid-state systems. In-situ techniques are used to explore aspects of the polymorphism and crystallization behaviour displayed by these systems. The crystal structures of new polymorphs and other solid phases are determined directly from powder X-ray diffraction data. Chapter 1 provides background information on the phenomenon of polymorphism and the importance of its study. In addition, the range of in-situ techniques that have been used to study crystallization and solid-state systems is described. Chapter 2 gives details on the experimental techniques used in the work presented in this thesis. These include powder X-ray diffraction (including the methodology behind structure determination from powder X-ray diffraction data), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal analysis techniques and dynamic vapour sorption. ...
A metal induced crystallization process is provided which employs an amorphous silicon film precursor deposited by physical vapor deposition, wherein the precursor film does not readily undergo crystallization by partial solid phase crystallization. Using this physical vapor deposition amorphous silicon precursor film, the amorphous silicon film is transformed to polysilicon by metal induced crystallization wherein the crystalline growth occurs fastest at regions that have been augmented with a metal catalyst and proceeds extremely slowly, practically zero, at regions which bear no metal catalyst. Accordingly, by use of the physical vapor deposition amorphous silicon precursor film in the process of the present invention, the metal induced crystallization process may take place at higher annealing temperatures and shorter annealing times without solid phase crystallization taking place. The process has a faster throughput than previous metal induced crystallization processes, results in a polysilicon
Crystallization from lipidic mesophase matrices is a promising route to diffraction-quality crystals and structures of membrane proteins. The microfluidic approach reported here eliminates two bottlenecks of the standard mesophase-based crystallization protocols: (i) manual preparation of viscous mesophases and (ii) manual harvesting of often small and fragile protein crystals. In the approach reported here, protein-loaded mesophases are formulated in an X-ray transparent microfluidic chip using only 60 nL of the protein solution per crystallization trial. The X-ray transparency of the chip enables diffraction data collection from multiple crystals residing in microfluidic wells, eliminating the normally required manual harvesting and mounting of individual crystals. In addition, we validated our approach by on-chip crystallization of photosynthetic reaction center, a membrane protein from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, followed by solving its structure to a resolution of 2.5 Å using X-ray ...
Author: Zhao, G. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2010; Keywords: Two-dimensional crystallization; Membrane protein; Eukaryotic; Structure; Electron crystallography; Cryo-EM; Title: Two-dimensional crystallization conditions of human leukotriene C4 synthase requiring adjustment of a particularly large combination of specific parameters
Glutathione synthetases catalyze the ATP-dependent synthesis of glutathione from L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteine and glycine. Although these enzymes have been sequenced and characterized from a variety of biological sources, their exact catalytic mechanism is not fully understood and nothing is known about their adaptation at extremophilic environments. Glutathione synthetase from the Antarctic eubacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis (PhGshB) has been expressed, purified and successfully crystallized. An overall improvement of the crystal quality has been obtained by adapting the crystal growth conditions found with vapor diffusion experiments to the without-oil microbatch method. The best crystals of PhGshB diffract to 2.34 Å resolution and belong to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 83.28 Å, b = 119.88 Å, c = 159.82 Å. Refinement of the model, obtained using phases derived from the structure of the same enzyme from Escherichia coli by molecular replacement, is in progress. The
Large crystals of the Escherichia coli F plasmid CcdB killer protein were grown from solutions containing 32% ammonium sulphate. The crystals belong to space group P4(2)2(1)2 with a = b = 104.52 A and c = 88.45 A or P2(1)2(1)2(1) with a = 77.62 A, b = 93.28 A and c = 141.44 A. Both crystal forms diffract to 2.6 A resolution. Structure determination by multiple isomorphous replacement is under way.. ...
Direct tabletting technique has been widely used successfully for various drugs. But it strongly depends upon the quality of the crystals used. Crystals could be generated employing any of the available techniques like sublimation, solvent evaporation, vapor diffusion, thermal treatment and crystallization from melt precipitation by change in pH, growth in presence of additives or the grinding. Thus the novel agglomeration technique that transforms crystals themselves directly into a compacted spherical form during crystallization process has been desired. The use of spherical crystallization as a technique appears to be efficient alternative for obtaining suitable particles for direct compression. Spherical crystallization is a particle design technique, by which crystallization and agglomeration can be carried out simultaneously in one step and which has been successfully utilized for improvement of flowability and compactability of crystalline drugs.
Given by Dr Fabric Gorrec, LMB, Cambridge, UK. Advances in macromolecular X-ray crystallography depends upon solving structures from samples containing purified and concentrated protein, DNA, RNA, and their complexes. Novel samples are however increasingly challenging to produce and crystallize hence innovations which enhance the process of structure determination are urgently required, especially to increase the yield of quality diffraction crystals.. Experienced researchers from related fields, students and non-experts alike will find this webinar essential as it provides both theoretical and experimental evidence-based aspects of macromolecular X-ray crystallography. Delegates will leave with a better understanding about the underlying reasons why it is necessary to formulate novel crystallization screens with relatively complex conditions, such as the ones found in the MORPHEUS screens.. ...
PLA (Poly Lactic Acid) is a bio-sourced and biodegradable polymer. It represents an alternative for polymers issued from petrochemical synthesis. Unfortunately, the crystallization kinetics of PLA is very slow and limits the possibility to extend its application in several industrials domains. The enhancement of the PLA crystallization kinetic can be obtained by addition of nucleating agents of by ordering the molecular chains during flow, as in processing conditions. During processing of thermoplastic polymer experiences several thermomechanical conditions influencing drastically its final properties and mechanical behavior. During injection molding process, macromolecules are oriented and ordered due to the shear and elongation imposed by the melt flow in the mold during the filling step. As a consequence, supplementary nucleation is created in the polymer, leading to the acceleration of the crystallization kinetics. In this work, we propose to analyze and to quantify the role of the flow, the ...
The main objective of this work is to propose a mechanism for the transfer of impurities into the sucrose crystal. To this end the transfer of impurities into the sucrose crystal was investigated, under crystallisation conditions similar to those found industrially. Most of the impurities, namely, colour bodies, potassium, calcium and starch, were selected on the basis of their industrial importance, but some exotic species, namely lithium and nickel, were chosen to represent other mono- and di-valent ions respectively, and dyes, such as methylene blue, which have been used in work with single crystal sucrose crystallisation, were included to make the results more general. A parameter to measure the rate at which impurities are transferred into the sucrose crystal was proposed. Experiments, carried out in a pilot plant evaporative crystalliser, were performed to establish the effect of selected factors on both the concentrations of impurities found in the sucrose crystal, and on the rate at ...
The facility provides low volume crystallisation services and screen making. Our customers can also order custom built premixed crystallisation solutions. Full crystallisation service includes composition of the crystallisation setup and scheduled imaging of the experiment for up to four months. The crystallisation droplets are set up using our Mosquito LCP or Oryx nanodrop robots, which can use as little as 100 nl protein per experiment and are suitable for membrane proteins and for air-sensitive samples. Scientists can examine the maturation of the project over time and can pick up the crystallisation plate for an X-ray experiment. The facility is equipped with a dedicated imaging station for combined visible/UV epifluorescence imaging of very small protein crystals (2μm ...
Nonisothermal crystallization, melting behavior, and morphology of polypropylene (PP)/Easy processing polyethylene (EPPE) blends were studied by differential scanning alorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that PP and EPPE are miscible, and there is no obvious phase separation in microphotographs of the blends. The modified Avrami analysis, Ozawa equation, and also Mo Z.S. method were used to analyze the nonisothermal crystallization kinetics of the blends. Values of Avrami exponent indicated the crystallization nucleation of the blends is homogeneous, the growth of spherulites is tridimensional, and crystallization mechanism of PP is not affected much by EPPE. The crystallization activation energy was estimated by Kissinger method. The result obtained from modified Avrami analysis, Mo Z.S. method, and Kissinger methods were well agreed. The addition of minor EPPE phase favored to decrease the overall crystallization rate of PP, showing some dilution effect ...
Puppo, C., Martini, S., Cerdeira, M., Hartel, R.W., and Herrera, M.L. 2002. Effect of Processing Conditions on Crystallization Kinetics and Rheology of Milk Fat/Sunflower Oil Blends Formulated with and without the Addition of Emulsifiers. 93rd AOCS Annual Meeting & Expo, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (oral presentation). ...
Malonyl-CoA:acyl-carrier protein transacylase (MCAT), encoded by the fabd gene, is a key enzyme in type II fatty-acid biosynthesis. It is responsible for transferring the malonyl group from malonyl-CoA to the holo acyl-carrier protein (ACP). Since the type II system differs from the type I system that mammals use, it has received enormous attention as a possible antibiotic target. In particular, only a single isoform of MCAT has been reported and a continuous coupled enzyme assay has been developed. MCAT from Staphylococcus aureus was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the protein was purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 1.2 A ° resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.608, b = 86.717, c = 43.163 A ° , α = γ = 90, β = 106.330 °. The asymmetric unit contains one SaMCAT molecule ...
MyCrystals is designed as a user-friendly program to display crystal images and list crystallization conditions. The crystallization conditions entry fields can be customized to suit the experiments. MyCrystals is also able to sort the images by the entered crystallization conditions, which presents a unique opportunity to easily assess the effect of, for example, changing pH or concentration and thus establish the best conditions to be used for optimization ...
Our most popular line of protein crystallography screens - the Wizard Crystallization Screen Series. Shop now www.emeraldbiosystems.com.
2004. Cölfen, Helmut. The investigation of crystallization processes is a long established field of science. Crystals have a smallest unit called the unit cell and all crystal forms can be related to it with the consequence that crystals always exhibit planar surfaces. Crystals are built from ions or molecules. Recently, the investigation of so-called biominerals has revealed that not all crystals fit the classical textbook picture. For example biominerals, which are minerals deposited by living organisms like skeletons of algae, exhibit crystal morphologies with complex form, which even show untypical curvature. Thus they deviate significantly from the classical planar crystal surfaces. Furthermore, biominerals are often highly optimised composite materials like bones, teeth or mussle shells. This is achieved by a control of the crystallization process by structure directing molecules. Furthermore, recent investigations have revealed that these crystals are not always formed according to the ...
Methods are described wherein crystallization conditions determined in a microfluidic device are translated into crystallization conditions in alternati...
Disclosed is a method for the recovery of crystalline therephthalic acid containing less than 150 ppmw p-toluic acid by subjecting a solution of therephthalic acid containing minor amounts of p-toluic acid to crystallization in a crystallization zone comprising a plurality of series-connected crystallizers wherein the solution is subjected to rate-controlled evaporative cooling by sequential reduction in pressure and temperature to cause crystallization of therephthalic acid, wherein the pressure of the solution at the end of the crystallization zone is ambient pressure or less. Solvent which is evaporated from the crystallizers is collected and condensed and the condensed solvent is returned to the crystallization zone at a point subsequent to the crystallizer from which it was obtained.
Escherichia coli ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is post-transcriptionally modified by site-specific enzymes. The role of most modifications is not known and little is known about how these enzymes recognize their target substrates. In this thesis, we have structurally and functionally characterized two S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) dependent 23S rRNA methyltransferases (MTases) that act during the early stages of ribosome assembly in E. coli.. RlmM methylates the 2O-ribose of C2498 in 23S rRNA. We have solved crystal structures of apo RlmM at 1.9Å resolution and of an RlmM-SAM complex at 2.6Å resolution. The RlmM structure revealed an N-terminal THUMP domain and a C-terminal catalytic Rossmann-fold MTase domain. A continuous patch of conserved positive charge on the RlmM surface is likely used for RNA substrate recognition. The SAM-binding site is open and shallow, suggesting that the RNA substrate may be required for tight cofactor binding. Further, we have shown RlmM MTase activity on in vitro ...
In this paper, we reported on the influence of PCL on the cold crystallization behaviour of PLA in different PLA/PCL blends, and on the influence of blending with PLA on the PCL crystallization behaviour and kinetics. The presence of PCL in the blends had a strong influence on PLA cold crystallization, and the extent of this influence was determined by the blend morphology. Successive self-nucleation and annealing (SSA) analysis of PCL crystallization in the blends showed that the presence and amount of PLA in the blends had a strong influence on the crystal size distribution in the main crystalline fraction of PCL. A kinetic analysis of the crystallization of neat PCL and PCL in the blends showed that the crystallization mechanism of the neat PCL changed from instantaneous/heterogeneous nucleation and two-dimensional growth to sporadic/homogeneous nucleation and two-dimensional growth with decreasing crystallization temperature, while for PCL in the blends, the mechanism over the whole ...
|jats:p|Human rhinoviruses, the major cause of mild recurrent infections of the upper respiratory tract, are small icosahedral particles. Over 100 different serotypes have been identified. The majority (91 serotypes) use intercellular adhesion molecule 1 as the cell-attachment site; ten serotypes (the minor group) bind to members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Three different crystal forms of the minor-group human rhinovirus serotype 2 (HRV2) were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique using ammonium sulfate and sodium/potassium phosphate as precipitants. Monoclinic crystals, space group |jats:italic|P|/jats:italic|2|jats:sub|1|/jats:sub|, diffracted at least to 2.8 Å resolution, and two complete virus particles were located in the crystal asymmetric unit. A second type of crystals had a compact cubic like morphology and diffracted beyond 2.5 Å resolution. These crystals belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group, with unit-cell parameters |jats:italic|a|/jats:italic| =
the space group was given incorrectly. The crystal belonged to the monoclinic space group P21 instead of the orthorhombic space group P212121. In Table 1, the average multiplicity should be 4.0 (3.2) instead of 2.1 (1.8); the number of unique reflections should be 22686 (1159) instead of 26108; and the total number of reflections should be 90744 (3709) instead of 435550. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Novel crystallization process for germanium thin films: Surfactant-crystallization method. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The effects of Nb addition on crystallization kinetics and giant magneto impedance (GMI) properties of Fe39Co39Si8B14 amorphous wires prepared by in-water quenching system have been investigated. Thermal behaviors of the wires have been investigated by thermal electrical resistivity measurement and differential scanning calroimetry. The substitution of 4 at% Nb for Fe and Co increases crystallization temperature and merges two crystallization peaks into one peak, leading to a significant increase in thermal stability against crystallization for Fe37Co37Nb4Si8B14 wire. The formation of Fe2Nb phase due to addition of Nb increases the activation energy for crystallization from 425 to 550 kJ/mol. The GMI properties of the alloys are evaluated at driving current amplitude of 10 mA and a frequency of 400 kHz. The alloys show the single peak behavior in the GMI profile. The change in GMI properties increases from 10% at 0 at% Nb to 25% at 4 at% Nb. ...
We have introduced an in-situ Raman monitoring technique to investigate the crystallization process inside protein drops. In addition to a conventional vapour-diffusion process, a novel procedure which actively stimulates the evaporation from a protein drop during crystallization was also evaluated, with lysozyme as a model protein. In contrast to the conventional vapour-diffusion condition, the evaporation-stimulated growth of crystals was initiated in a simple dehydration scheme and completed within a significantly shorter time. To gain an understanding of crystallization behaviours under the conditions with and without such evaporation stimulation, confocal Raman spectroscopy combined with linear regression analysis was used to monitor both lysozyme and HEPES buffer concentrations in real time. The confocal measurements having a high spatial resolution and good linear response revealed areas of local inhomogeneity in protein concentration when the crystallization started. The acquired ...
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase catalyzes the first and rate-limiting reaction in pyrimidine catabolism. The enzyme contains one FMN, one FAD and four Fe-S clusters per subunit of 1025 amino acids as prosthetic groups. It is also the major determinant of bioavailability and toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in the treatment of solid tumors. Crystals of this enzyme diffracting to at least 2.5 A have been obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and belong to space group P2(1) (unit-cell parameters a = 82.0, b = 159.3, c = 163.6 A, beta = 96.1 degrees ), with two homodimers per asymmetric unit.. ...
Foot-and-mouth disease virus has been crystallized with the objectives of (1) determining the composition and conformation of the major immunogenic site(s) and (2) comparing its structure with those of the related polio, rhino and Mengo viruses, representing the other three genera of the picornaviruses. Most of the work has been done with virus strain O1BFS 1860, which crystallized as small rhombic dodecahedra of maximum dimension 0.3 mm. Virus recovered from crystals was infectious, and was indistinguishable from native virus both in protein composition and buoyant density. The stability of the crystals in the X-ray beam was comparable with that of other picornavirus crystals and they diffracted to a resolution of better than 2.3 A. Initial analysis of the X-ray diffraction data shows the virus to be positioned on a point of 23 symmetry in a close-packed array so that examples of all the icosahedral symmetry elements, except the 5-fold axes, are expressed crystallographically. The cell dimensions are a
p, Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the predominant mode of DNA double strand break (DSB) repair pathway in mammalian cells. At the heart of this repair pathway is Xrcc4-DNA ligase IV complex, which mediates ligation of the broken DNA strands. The C-terminal tandem BRCT repeats of human DNA ligase IV spanning residues 654-911 in complex with the functional fragment of Xrcc4 comprised of residues 1-203 were crystallized by the hanging drop vapour diffusion method at 20°C. Generation of single, well-packed, diffraction quality crystals suitable for structure determination involved usage of an Xrcc4 point mutant (A60E). Arriving at the crystallization condition included optimization of pH, variation of the precipitant concentration, investigation of the effects of small molecules, and alteration of the amount of crystal seed used as initial nuclei. A Crystal of selenomethionine-derived protein complex was grown using the above optimization steps and diffracted to 2.4 A resolution. Data ...
Infectivity of rotavirus is dramatically enhanced by proteolytic cleavage of its outer layer VP4 spike protein into two function domains, VP8* and VP5*. The carbohydrate-recognising domain VP8* is proposed to bind sialic acid-containing host cell-surface glycans, followed by a series of subsequent virus-cell interactions. Live attenuated human and bovine rotavirus vaccine candidates to prevent gastroenteritis have been derived from bovine rotavirus strain NCDV. The NCDV VP8*64-224 was over-expressed, purified to homogeneity and crystallized in the presence of a N-acetylneuraminic acid derivative. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.0 Šand the crystallographic structure of NCDV VP8*64-224 determined by molecular replacement ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glass forming ability and crystallization behavior in amorphous Ti50Cu32-xNi15Sn3Bex (x = 0, 1, 3, 7) alloys. AU - Kim, Yu Chan. AU - Kim, Won Tae. AU - Kim, Do Hyang. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - The thermal stability and crystallization behavior of melt spun Ti50Cu32-xNi15Sn3Bex (x = 0, 1, 3, 7) amorphous alloys were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry(XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). With increasing Be content, x from 0 to 7, ΔTx gradually decreased from 73 to 45 K, but Trg increased from 0.53 to 0.57. With increasing Be content, crystallization behavior changes from two exothermic events (x = 0, 1) to three exothermic events (x = 3, 7). Amorphous Ti50Cu32Ni15Sn3 phase crystallizes by transforming into Ti(Ni,Cu) and Ti2Ni phases, followed by transformation into a mixture of Ti(Ni,Cu), TiCu, and Ti3Sn phases. Amorphous Ti50Cu25Ni15Sn3Be7 phase crystallizes by precipitation of a few nanometer scale crystalline ...
Abstract: The crystallization kinetics of goethite were studied colorimetrically under highly alkaline conditions (pH 10.1-12.2) at temperatures from 40° to 85°C. Color changes during crystallization from fresh precipitates, plotted on a*-b* colorimetric diagrams, were used to discriminate between pure goethite and mixtures of goethite and hematite. Only the b* value increased as goethite crystallization proceeded, and even a minor increase in the a* value revealed the existence of hematite. The rate of goethite crystallization, estimated from the b* value, could be modeled by a pseudo-first-order rate law. This rate depended both on pH and on temperature. Apparent activation energies for the reactions of 56.1 kJ/mol at pH 11.7 and 48.2 kJ/mol at pH 12.2 were estimated from Arrhenius plots.. ...
Two myotoxins isolated from B. asper (myotoxin II) and B. nummifer (myotoxin I) snake venoms have been crystallized and their diffraction properties are described. These myotoxins are phospholipase A2 variants which lack enzymatic activity; B. asper myotoxin II is a lysine-49 phospholipase. Crystals were obtained at room temperature by standard hanging-drop vapour diffusion methods. Crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.8 and 2.3 A, respectively ...
United States Patent 3,207,739 POLYMER CRYTALLlZATl0N METHOD Michael Wales, Walnut Creek, Calif, assignor to Shell Oil Company, New York, N.Y., a corporation of Delaware No Drawing. Filed Apr. 26, 1962, Ser. No. 190,244 18 Claims. (Cl. 26093.7) This invention relates to an improved crystallization method for the production of composites of solid crystalline polymers with crystallization modifying additives. The method leads to the production of modified polymers having improved physical properties. The invention relates more specifically to an improvement in a crystallization method for the production of shaped articles, and of resin composites suitable for use in producing shaped articles, from resins consisting substantially of crystallizable polymers, particularly those produced in the presence of low pressure catalysts of the Zeigler-Natta type. The invention is of outstanding advantage when used with isotactic polypropylene and will be illustrated largely with reference thereto. Solid ...
Crystallization of the Lunar Magma Ocean has been empirically modeled and its products inferred from sample observations, but it has never been fully tested experimentally. Presented in this study is the first experimental simulation of lunar differentiation. Two end-member bulk Moon compositions are considered: one enriched in refractory lithophile elements relative to Earth and one with no such enrichment. A two-stage model of magma ocean crystallization based on geophysical models is simulated and features early crystal suspension and equilibrium crystallization followed by fractional crystallization of the residual liquid. An initially entirely molten Moon is assumed. The study presented below focuses on the early cumulates formed by equilibrium crystallization, differences in mantle mineralogy resulting from different bulk Moon compositions and the implications for the source regions for secondary lunar magmatism. There are significant differences in the crystallization sequence between the two
The recombinant expression of Sa-iPGM was performed by growing transformed cells in Luria-Bertani broth at 37°C containing ampicillin (100 µg ml−1) and kanamycin (25 µg ml−1). Recombinant cell mass was induced with 100 µM IPTG when the OD600 reached 0.6 and was grown for 4 h at the same temperature. Harvested cells from 2 l culture were resuspended and lysed by ultrasonication in buffer A (10 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, 10 mM imidazole, 300 mM NaCl) containing leupeptin, pepstatin, aprotinin (0.1 µM each) and 0.2 µM phenylmethylsulfonyl chloride (PMSF) as protease inhibitors. The lysate was centrifuged at 22 000g at 4°C for 40 min. The supernatant was loaded onto Ni-NTA Sepharose High Performance affinity matrix (GE Healthcare Biosciences) pre-equilibrated with buffer A. The column was then washed extensively with buffer A to remove bound contaminants. Recombinant His6-tagged Sa-iPGM was finally eluted with buffer B (10 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, 300 mM NaCl, 50 mM imidazole). The eluted protein was ...
The present invention relates to a process for continuously crystallizing fructose anhydride using a seed crystallization tank and a crystallization tank separated from each other, comprising feeding an aqueous fructose solution containing at least 90% of fructose and containing at least 87 W/W % of solid and an aqueous solution containing a great deal of crystals in an amount of 0.5 to 5 times that of said fructose solution into a seed crystallization tank equipped with a high speed agitator, mixing the mixture at 40 to 50 C. at a high speed, introducing the obtained mixture into a crystallization tank and gradually cooling the mixture under condition under which new crystals do not form spontaneously to thereby grow the crystals. The present invention can realize the crystallization at a low temperature of 40 to 50 C. or below and prevents the decomposition and the polymerization of fructose which often occur above 50 C. by mixing an aqueous fructose solution and a great deal of crystals at a
As an alternative to conventional Group I and II separation methods (such as adding a chemical agent and ion exchange), melt crystallization processes, zone freezing, and layer melt crystallization were tested for the separation (or concentration) of cesium and strontium fission products in a LiCl waste salt generated from an electrolytic reduction process of a spent oxide fuel. In these melt crystallization processes, impurities (CsCl and SrCl2) are concentrated in a small fraction of the LiCl salt by the solubility difference between the melt phase and the crystal phase. As experimental variables, initial molten salt temperature, crucible rising velocity in the zone freezing case, and cooling air flow rate in the layer crystallization case were used. In the zone freezing process, although the operating time is long (1.7 mm/h of crucible rising velocity) when assuming a LiCl salt reuse rate of 90 wt%, ,90% separation efficiency for both CsCl and SrCl2 was shown. In the layer crystallization ...
Crystallization behavior of amorphous Mg65Cu25Y10 alloy is reviewed in this paper, including the effect of the charac-teristic of DSC curve, preparation condition and alloying on Crystallization behavior, and the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystalline forming. It has been proposed that the brittleness of melt - spun amorphous Mg65Cu25Y10 alloy results from the nanodispersion of Mg2Cu intermetallic phase.
Authors: Rachel A North, Sarah A Kessans, Sarah C Atkinson, Hironori Suzuki, Andrew JA Watson, Benjamin R Burgess, Lauren M Angley, Andre O Hudson, Arvind Varsani, Michael DW Griffin, Antony J Fairbanks, Renwick CJ Dobson
Degree of crystallinity, crystal morphology, and crystallite size affect many physical properties of semi-crystalline polyesters, including mechanical strength, optical clarity, and biodegradability. Inspired by the literature related to solvent vapor annealing (SVA) in block copolymer films and solvent-induced crystallization in semi-crystalline polymers, we are studying how SVA treatments impact crystal morphology. Using poly(ε-caprolactone) as a model polymer for our studies, we have conducted in-situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments to determine when/if polymer crystals dissolve during solvent uptake and at what solvent concentrations recrystallization occurs during solvent removal. Additionally, we have examined polymer morphology across multiple length scales using a combination of optical microscopy, profilometry, and atomic force microscopy ...
Time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses were used to study the isothermal crystallization and remelting of poly(ethylene isophthalate-co-terephthalate)s containing 0-10 mol % isophthalate unit. For each of the polymers considered, evidence of the formation of both primary and secondary crystals was found in the SAXS pattern and its invariant Q, as well as in the DSC thermogram, which showed multiple melting endotherms. The melting of secondary crystals was found to shift significantly toward the high-temperature region with increasing crystallization time, indicating that the secondary crystals become thick and perfect over time. The thickness of the lamellar crystals was found to be very sensitive to the crystallization temperature, but no thickening was observed throughout the entire crystallization run, regardless of composition. The formation of secondary crystals, which favorably occurs during the later stages of ...
Changes in the molecular structure of striated muscle during contraction can be determined owing to corresponding changes in X-ray diffraction data. The work presented in this thesis analyses X-ray diffraction patterns obtained from frog sartorius muscles using Synchrotron Radiation at two distinctly different stages of the contractile cycle; rest and peak of isometric plateau.;Two-dimensional theoretical diffraction patterns were produced from a three-dimensional computer model of striated muscle and compared with experimental X-ray diffraction data. Modifications were made to both the thick and thin filaments situated within a hexagonal lattice, within the model, however the emphasis of the work was upon the protein myosin. In particular, the configuration, orientation and axial distribution of the myosin heads were analysed until the meridional intensity profile was comparable with experiment. Additionally, the dominant equatorial and row line reflections were modelled to fully define the ...
The thermodynamically stable Form II of the antidiabetic drug tolbutamide exhibits a thin fiber needle shape which renders it intractable for isolation and downstream processing. This work implements two in situ process analytical technology (PAT) methods, namely, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) with orthogonal partial least-squares- principal component analysis (OPLS-PCA) for monitoring solute concentration, and Raman spectroscopy with dynamic PCA based multivariate statistical process monitoring (MSPM) for detection of solid form purity, to derive the robust design space for cooling crystallization of the desired Form IL. © 2011 American Chemical Society ...
1. The present invention uses the aluminum-induced crystallization process to convert the amorphous germanium layer into a P-type polycrystalline silicon-germanium layer. Therefore, the present invention has a simple, reliable and low-cost fabrication process. 2. The obtained P-type polycrystalline silicon-germanium layer can convert sunlight of longer wavelengths into electric energy. Therefore, the present invention can apply to fabricate a solar cell of high photoelectric conversion efficiency. 3. The aluminum layer is formed on the bottom of the solar cell through the aluminum-induced crystallization process and exempts the present invention from fabricating additional bottom electrodes. Therefore is further reduced the fabrication cost of the present invention. 4. The N-type amorphous silicon-germanium layer, the P-type monocrystalline silicon substrate, and the P-type polycrystalline silicon-germanium layer can respectively extract the energies of the light having shorter wavelengths, the ...
Kokobera virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging, like West Nile virus, to the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex. The flavivirus genus is characterized by a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. The unique open reading frame of the viral RNA is transcribed and translated as a single polyprotein which is post-translationally cleaved to yield three structural and seven nonstructural proteins, one of which is the NS3 gene that encodes a C-terminal helicase domain consisting of 431 amino acids. Helicase inhibitors are potential antiviral drugs as the helicase is essential to viral replication. Crystals of the Kokobera virus helicase domain were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P3121 (or P3221), with unit-cell parameters a = 88.6, c = 138.6 Å, and exhibit a diffraction limit of 2.3 Å.. ...
Outer membrane proteins are structurally distinct from those that reside in the inner membrane and play important roles in bacterial pathogenicity and human metabolism. X-ray crystallography studies on |40 different outer membrane proteins have revealed that the transmembrane portion of these proteins can be constructed from either beta-sheets or less commonly from alpha-helices. The most common architecture is the beta-barrel, which can be formed from either a single anti-parallel sheet, fused at both ends to form a barrel or from multiple peptide chains. Outer membrane proteins exhibit considerable rigidity and stability, making their study through x-ray crystallography particularly tractable. As the number of structures of outer membrane proteins increases a more rational approach to their crystallization can be made. Herein we analyse the crystallization data from 53 outer membrane proteins and compare the results to those obtained for inner membrane proteins. A targeted sparse matrix screen for
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We are pleased to announce an upcoming themed issue focussing on ionic liquids, with guest editors Mark Muldoon, Peter Nockemann and Cristina Lagunas-Castedo based at Queens University, Belfast. It is our pleasure to invite you to contribute to this themed issue.. The unique physical and chemical properties of ionic liquids as solvents and the potential to tune and control these properties by selecting the appropriate cations and anions, make ionic liquids remarkably versatile for many applications. Recent publications demonstrate their increasing impact on crystal engineering, on materials and nanoscale synthesis, as well as for crystallisation processes.. Contributions in both experimental and theoretical aspects are most welcome. Ideally, contributions should be within the scope of a) the use of ionic liquids as solvents for crystallisation processes; b) ionic liquids for the synthesis of nanocrystalline materials and porous materials; c) the use of ionic liquids for co-crystallisation or ...
The crystallisation kinetics of AO-Al(2)O(3)-SiO(2)-B(2)O(3) glasses (A = Ba, Ca, Mg) was investigated using DTA, XRD, and microstructural studies. Moreover, the influence of nucleating agents such as TiO(2), ZrO(2), Cr(2)O(3), and Ni on MgO base glasses was elucidated. The glasses are of interest for the development of sealants in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). The activation energy of crystal growth, E(a), was evaluated for the different glasses using the modified Kissinger equation. The preparation method of the glasses seems to determine whether surface or bulk nucleation is the dominant mechanism. The E(a) values vary between 330 and 622 kJ/mol. The nucleating agents tend to enhance E(a) except ZrO(2). An increase of the Al(2)O(3) concentration induces phase separation and decreases E(a). The results are discussed on the basis of the structural role and chemical properties of the Al ions as well as with respect to the possible use of the glasses in SOFC. (C) 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers ...
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Commingled biocomposites based on polypropylene/jute yarns were prepared using commingling technique. The thermal and calorimetric behaviour of these commingled composites were studied with respect to fibre content and various chemical treatments. The thermal stability of the composites was found to be in between that of jute fibre and neat polypropylene (PP). Different chemical treatments increased the thermal stability of the composites due to increased interfacial adhesion between the matrix and reinforcement. Jute yarn acts as nucleating agents and favours the process of crystallisation thereby increasing the crystallisation temperature. Chemical treatments further increased the crystallisation temperature as a result of better interfacial adhesion between jute yarn and PP matrix. The close proximity of jute yarns weakens the mechanical bonds between PP molecules resulting in marginal lowering of melting temperatures. Polarized optical microscopic studies revealed the formation of ...
2-(Adamantan-1-yl)-2H-isoindole-1-carbonitrile (1) has been identified as a neurobiological fluorescent ligand that may be used to develop receptor and enzyme binding affinity assays. Compound 1 was synthesised using an optimised microwave irradiation reaction and crystallised from ethanol. Crystallization occurred in the orthorhombic space group P212121 with unit cell parameters: a = 6.4487(12) Å, b = 13.648(3) Å, c = 16.571(3) Å, V = 1458(5) Å3, Z = 4. Density functional theory (DFT) (B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p)) calculations of 1 were carried out. Results showed that the optimised geometry is similar to the crystal structure parameters with a root-mean-squared deviation of 0.143 Å. Frontier molecular orbital energies and net atomic charges are discussed with a focus on potential biological interactions. Docking experiments within the active site of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) protein crystal structure were carried out and analysed. Important binding interactions between the DFT optimised
Is the Ideal Protein Weight Loss Method safe for people on blood pressure and fluid medication?Is the Ideal Protein Weight Loss Method safe for people on blood pressure and fluid medication?Is the Ideal Protein Weight Loss Method safe for people on blood pressure and fluid medication?Is the Ideal Protein Weight Loss Method safe for people on blood pressure and fluid medication?Is the Ideal Protein Weight Loss Method safe for people on blood pressure and fluid medication?Is the Ideal Protein Weight Loss Method safe for people on blood pressure and fluid medication?. ...
Glass transition and crystallization behavior of several Mg-Ni-Nd metallic glasses has been systematically studied by temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC). The glass transition transformation of alloys Mg75Ni10Nd15 and Mg77Ni 18Ni5, which cannot be detected in conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) heating scans, was observed through TMDSC measurements. It was concluded that the signal of the glass transition on the DSC scans overlapped with the relatively large heat release from the primary crystallization of either intermetallic Mg3Nd phase in glassy Mg75Ni10Nd15 alloy or Mg2Ni phase in amorphous alloy Mg77Ni18Ni5. Increasing the content of Ni in alloy Mg75Ni10Nd 15 can suppress the precipitation processes of Mg3Nd, and results in the appearance of glass transition transformation on DSC heating curves. This confirmed and verified our TMDSC measurements. Clear observation of glass transition and understanding of crystallization micro-mechanism in such ...
A new route for fast crystallization of LTA zeolite by using highly efficient NaY seed solution as a silica source was demostrated. Compared with water glass, NaY seed solution used in the synthesis of LTA zeolite shows obvious advantages including relatively short crystallization time, low crystallization temperature, small crystal size and low alkalinity. Characterization of NaY seed solution by Si-29 NMR and UV Raman techniques suggests that zeolite primary building units such as six-membered ring contained in NaY seed solution possibly promote the nucleation and growth of LTA zeolite ...
0052]Crystalline form refers to a solid chemical compound that provides a pattern of peaks when analyzed by x-ray powder diffraction; this includes polymorphs, solvates, hydrates, and desolvated solvates; crystallization refers to a process wherein a chemical compound that is dissolved or suspended in a solvent system becomes a crystalline form; solvent system refers to a solvent or mixture of solvents; for purposes of the present invention crystallization and recrystallization are used interchangeably; isolating refers to separating a chemical compound (e.g., a crystalline form) from a reaction mixture (e.g., a solvent system); according to the present invention, an isolated compound typically has a purity of at least about 90% (w/w); batch size refers to the amount of a product compound (e.g., a crystalline form) produced during a chemical manufacturing step (e.g., a crystallization step); rolling crystallization refers to a solvent-mediated transformation of a solid compound ...
Some key ideas, and experimental finding concerning the probability that crystallization of a liquid or its binary solutions will occur at moderate cooling rates are discussed, with emphasis on the case of aqueous solutions. The use of cryoprotectants and of pressure to dimimish these probabilities, hence to promote vitrification, is rationalized. Some new data on crystallization of bulk and emulsified aqueous solutions of the cryoprotectant glycerol are presented to illustrate the principles. (Keywords:) crystallization, cryproltection, nucleation, vitrification.*NUCLEATION
We, s r chemicals is one of the ISO 9001:2008 certified prominent leading Manufacturer, Supplier and Exporter of Tri Sodium Phosphate Crystals,The Tri Sodium Phosphate Crystals are widely used by the patrons and comprehended for their purity features, availability in different colors, crystalline, powdered and liquid form and reasonable boiling point
Poly(chloroprene) is a synthetic crystallizable polymer used in several applications, including rubber gloves. The film formation of poly(chloroprene) latex offers opportunities to define structures at length scales between the molecular and macroscopic, thereby adjusting the elastomers mechanical properties. However, the connections between processing and the resultant film properties are not fully understood. Here, we investigate the competition between the coalescence of latex particles to build cohesive strength and their crystallization to raise the elastic modulus. We demonstrate that when coalescence precedes crystallization, the elastomer has greater extensibility and a higher tensile strength compared to when crystallization occurs during coalescence. The mechanical properties of poly(chloroprene) were tuned by blending two colloids with differing gel contents and crystallizabilities. Heating above poly(chloroprene)s melting temperature allows increased particle interdiffusion and ...
CO2 direct crystallization method to prepare ammonium paratungstate (APT) is introducing carbon dioxide (CO2) to form CO2 - sodium tungstate - ammonia system, and controlling temperature to directly crystallize crude APT, then get APT by solid-liquid separation, washing.
SMOLIK, Marek. COCRYSTALLIZATION OF LOW AMMOUNTS OF M2+ IONS DURING CoSO47H2O CRYSTALLIZATION. J. Chil. Chem. Soc. [online]. 2003, vol.48, n.3, pp.13-18. ISSN 0717-9707. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-97072003000300002.. The equilibrium cocrystallization coefficients DM/CoSO4.7H2O of low amounts (10-3- 10-1%w/w) of M2+ ions (M2+ = {Ni2+, Mg2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Cd2+, Ca2+}) with CoSO47H2O have been determined with the method of long-time stirring of crushed CoSO47H2O crystals in their saturated solution at 20oC and compared with coefficients determined by means of the method of isothermal decreasing of supersaturation during 3 - 360 hours of stirring. This enabled the time needed to reach equilibrium to be found. It is different for different microcomponents. The determined cocrystallization coefficients are diverse: from ,0.008 for Ca2+ to 1.20 for Fe2+. Their dependence on some physicochemical and crystal-chemical properties of both sulfate hydrates (CoSO47H2O and MSO4nH2O) and metal ...
Research - Publications by Area:. Lateral Capillary Forces and Two-Dimensional Crystallization of Colloids. 2018. 1. Hardening of Particle/Oil/Water Suspensions Due to Capillary Bridges: Experimental Yield Stress and Theoretical Interpretation. K.D. Danov, M.T. Georgiev, P.A. Kralchevsky, G.M. Radulova, T.D. Gurkov, S.D. Stoyanov, E.G. Pelan. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., 251 (2018) 80-96; doi: 10.1016/j.cis.2017.11.004. 2. Rheology of Particle/Water/Oil Three-Phase Dispersions: Electrostatic vs. Capillary Bridge Forces. M.T. Georgiev, K.D. Danov, P.A. Kralchevsky, T.D. Gurkov, D.P. Krusteva, L.N. Arnaudov, S.D. Stoyanov, E.G. Pelan. J. Colloid Interface Sci., 513 (2018) 515-526. doi: 10.1016/j.jcis.2017.11.057. 2017. 1. Universal Emulsion Stabilization from the Arrested Adsorption of Rough Particles at Liquid-Liquid Interfaces. M. Zanini, C. Marschelke, S.E. Anachkov, E. Marini, A. Synytska, L. Isa. Nature Comm. 8 (2017) 15701; doi:10.1038/ncomms15701 2016. 1. Monolayers from Charged Particles ...
We present results from recent crystallization studies on marginal binary suspensions of colloidal particles. As small amounts of the second component are added, crystallization slows, and in some cases may cease altogether. The results support a growth mechanism whereby crystallization occurs in conjunction with a local fractionation process near the crystal-fluid interface, significantly altering the kinetics of crystallite nucleation and growth ...
Larsson, A. M. (2009). "Preparation and crystallization of selenomethionine protein". Protein Crystallization. IUL ...
Abraham, E. P.; Robinson, R. (1937). "Crystallization of Lysozyme". Nature. 140 (3531): 24. doi:10.1038/140024a0. S2CID 4114004 ...
The resulting organic matrix serves as framework for the crystallization of the teeth themselves. The first mineral to be ... Weiner, Steve; Addadi, Lia (4 August 2011). "Crystallization Pathways in Biomineralization". Annual Review of Materials ...
Crystallization, absorption spectra, isoionic point". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ...
Crystallization requires an initiation step. This can be spontaneous or can be done by adding a small amount of the pure ... Craig tube, an apparatus for small-scale recrystallization Crystal structure Crystallization and engineering aspects Fractional ... The crystallization process requires an initiation step, such as the addition of a "seed" crystal. In the laboratory a ... it is recommended that the crystals are kept in a sealed vessel with some of the liquid of crystallisation to prevent the ...
... "field crystallization". Field crystallization is the major reason for degradation and catastrophic failures of solid tantalum ... Field crystallization followed by a dielectric breakdown is characterized by a sudden rise in leakage current, within a few ... Field crystallization may occur, however. In this case, the polymer layer is selectively heated and burned away by the ... This is done for safety reasons to avoid shorts coming from field crystallization. For this reason the real differences of ...
... and not behaving as is typical for waters of crystallisation. A related structure with calcium ions was reported in 1994, and ... Handbook of Industrial Crystallization (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 37. ISBN 9780080533513. Alcock, Nathaniel W.; Tracy ...
... is used as an electrically conductive solvent in electrochemistry and as a protein crystallization agent ... a protein crystallization reagent". Acta Crystallographica D. 55 (12): 2037-8. doi:10.1107/S0907444999011774. PMID 10666583. M ...
The crystallization vessels used are autoclaves. These are usually thick-walled steel cylinders with a hermetic seal which must ... In this technique, crystallization takes place without a temperature gradient between the growth and dissolution zones. The ... The solution becomes supersaturated in the upper part as the result of the reduction in temperature and crystallization sets in ...
The same technique was used to evaluate the crystallization process near the edge of a glass tube. The former might be ... Kinetics of colloidal crystallization have been measured quantitatively, with nucleation rates being depending on the ... Equilibrium phase transitions (e.g. order/disorder), an equation of state, and the kinetics of colloidal crystallization have ... doi:10.1209/epl/i2002-00322-3. Sogami, I. S.; Yoshiyama, T. (1990). "Kossel line analysis on crystallization in colloidal ...
"2004 PSI Protein Production and Crystallization Workshop". National Institute of General Medical Sciences. 2004. Archived from ...
Section F, Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications. 66 (Pt 10): 1148-52. doi:10.1107/S1744309110001685. PMC ...
Adolescent crystallization Claudia Dreifus (November 30, 2009). "Developmental Psychologist Says Teenagers Are Different". The ...
After crystallization, the crystals were carried in the collapsing margins and formed the layers of chromitite and PGE. The ... Yet the nature of crystallization is complex. The Merensky Reef is composed of five different layers. The first layer is ... However, there is also another theory that the crystallization originated from emplaced magma merging with roof-rock melts. In ... There are several theories that suggest how the crystallization on the Merensky Reef occurred. The first accepted hypothesis of ...
Cúñez, Fernando David; Franklin, Erick M. (2020-08-01). "Crystallization and jamming in narrow fluidized beds". Physics of ...
Recent research is now suggesting that the use of spray-drying techniques may be an alternative method for crystallization of ... ISBN 978-93-8002-608-4. Onwulata pp.389-430 Onwulata p.268 Chiou, D.; Langrish, T. A. G. (2007). "Crystallization of Amorphous ...
Thomas Coburn (2002), Devī-Māhātmya: The Crystallization of the Goddess Tradition, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120805576, ... The Crystallization of the Goddess Tradition. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 22-23. ISBN 978-81-208-0557-6. Gregory Bailey 2003, p. ...
ISBN 0-7661-7589-8. Coburn, Thomas B. (1988). Devī-Māhātmya: The Crystallization of the Goddess Tradition. Motilal Banarsidass ... ISBN 978-81-208-0557-6. Coburn, Thomas B. (1988). Devī-Māhātmya: The Crystallization of the Goddess Tradition. Motilal ...
... the crystallization rate increases, and the degree of crystallization decreases. Both the diol and acid influence the melting ... The degree of crystallization should be as high as possible but within limits of allowed shrinkage. The melt viscosity and the ... Faster crystallization rate usually implies higher bond strength. To reach the properties of semicrystalline polymers, ... They are highly elastic and soft, with wide possible crystallization and melting point ranges. Polyurethanes consist of long ...
Sumner JB (1926). "The isolation and crystallization of the enzyme urease. Preliminary paper" (PDF). Journal of Biological ...
Another method to synthesize cocrystals is to conduct the crystallization in a slurry. As with any crystallization, solvent ...
Crystallization and colour changing when mixed with other liquids. Varieties include: Aquavit, a liquor popular in Scandinavia ...
Lambe, Robert Noah (18 February 2018). Crystallization and petrogenesis of the southern portion of the Boulder Batholith, ... Lofgren, G.E.; Gooley, R. (1977). "Simultaneous crystallization of feldspar intergrowths from the melt" (PDF). American ...
Marble is a metamorphosed limestone formed by re-crystallization. It is available in different colours and textures. Marble ...
Slow evaporation and crystallization results in the monoclinic form. But fast crystallization results in a mixture of the two ... At 150 °C the hexahydrate loses water of crystallization to make a trihydrate, which itself decomposes above 200 °C. Cerous ...
The runaway crystallization of amorphous ice can produce the energy needed to power outbursts such as those observed for ... Cooling rates above 104 K/s are required to prevent crystallization of the droplets. At liquid nitrogen temperature, 77 K, HGW ... This is thought to be the result of competing forces: the thermal crystallization of amorphous ice versus the conversion of ... Jenniskens P.; Blake D. F. (1996). "Crystallization of amorphous water ice in the solar system". Astrophysical Journal. 473 (2 ...
This tends to reduce intermolecular chain entanglement and crystallization. A related architecture, the dendritic polymer, are ...
Matsumoto K, Funaba M (February 2008). "Factors affecting struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O) crystallization in feline urine". Biochimica ...
A. E. Rubin (1997). "Sinoite (Si2N2O): Crystallization from EL chondrite impact melts" (PDF). American Mineralogist. 82 (9-10 ...
... crystallisation, chemistry and occurrence. There are over a thousand specimens here, including a display of glowing rocks. ...
Crystallization of the protein solution in the micro-chambers is effected. Protein crystal growth in the micro-chambers is then ... In batch crystallization, the two solutions are mixed together. If vapor diffusion crystallization is desired, the two ... Protein crystallisation method. WO2005037424A1 *. 4. Okt. 2004. 28. Apr. 2005. Solvias Ag. Process for the parallel detection ... Crystallization of the protein solution in the micro-chambers is effected. Protein crystal growth in the micro-chambers is then ...
Crystallization processes in an artificial magma: variations in crystal shape, growth rate and composition with melt cooling ... My research into crystallization processes in magma chambers has involved investigation of both natural and artificial magmatic ... Crystallization processes of anorthoclase phenocrysts in the Mt. Erebus magmatic system: Evidence from crystal composition, ... Artifical magmas, such as those produced by In-Situ Vitrification allow a unique window into the crystallization processes of ...
Home , calendar , events , types , Other , IUCr Webinar: Formulation of the MORPHEUS protein crystallization screens ... will leave with a better understanding about the underlying reasons why it is necessary to formulate novel crystallization ...
Crystallization processes are used across the chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries. In the chemical industry, ... Using Computational Modeling to Control and Optimize the Crystallization Process - White Paper. Crystallization processes are ... In the chemical industry, the potash and caustic industries use crystallization as a means to produce bulk chemicals and also ... The fine chemical and specialty chemical industries use crystallization processes to pro-duce various high-value organic ...
Protein Crystallization, Protein Crystal Mounting, Reagents/Consumables) & End Users & by Geography ... 251 Pages Report] Protein Crystallization Market categories the Global Market by Product (Instruments, Services & Software), ... Protein Crystallization *Instruments *Liquid-handling Systems & Robots *Crystallization Plates/Microplates *Others *Reagents/ ... 5.3 Protein Crystallization. 5.3.1 Protein Crystallization Occupies The Largest Share. 5.3.2 Instruments. 5.3.2.1 Liquid- ...
A seed crystal is dropped into an unstable supersaturatedsolution of sodium acetate NaC2H3O2 and it completelycrystallized in front of your eyes. This chemistry more... demonstration is prepared by heating 700 grams of sodiumacetate in 50mL of water in a flask until all the soliddissolves. The solution is then cooled back to roomtemperature. Drop a seed crystal and see the very coolresults.
Crystallization and precipitation: Crystallization is a technique that has long been used in the purification of substances. ... Other articles where Crystallization is discussed: separation and purification: ... crystallizationUnit cells cluster together to form crystals in a process called crystallization.. Created and produced by QA ... In separation and purification: Crystallization and precipitation. Crystallization is a technique that has long been used in ...
... polymer crystallization from solution and melt, driven assembly, confined crystallization, polymer crystal structure-property ... 621i) Uniqure Crystallization Behavior of Isotactic Polypropylene in the Presence of L-Isoleucine and Its Inhibition and ... This session will focus on the crystallization of polymers for myriad applications. Theoretical, computational, and ... as well as research investigating emerging technologies through the exploitation of macromolecular crystallization. ***Note to ...
Tank crystallization is an old method still used in some specialized cases. Saturated solutions, in tank crystallization, are ... In chemical engineering, crystallization occurs in a crystallizer. Crystallization is therefore related to precipitation, ... In crystallization Nucleation is the step where the solute molecules or atoms dispersed in the solvent start to gather into ... Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly ...
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B12 riboswitch Fluoride riboswitch RNA secondary structure Crystallization This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ... Price SR, Ito N, Oubridge C et al (1995) Crystallization of RNA-protein complexes. I. Methods for the large-scale preparation ... Peselis A., Gao A., Serganov A. (2016) Preparation and Crystallization of Riboswitches. In: Ennifar E. (eds) Nucleic Acid ... Pikovskaya O, Serganov AA, Polonskaia A et al (2009) Preparation and crystallization of riboswitch-ligand complexes. Methods ...
This journey or crystallization process, shown above, was detailed by Stendhal on the back of a playing card while speaking to ... Crystallization is a concept, developed in 1822 by the French writer Stendhal, which describes the process, or mental ... Stripped of its leaves by the winter it was certainly anything but dazzling until the crystallization of the salt covered its ... Here they discovered the phenomenon of salt "crystallization" and used it as a metaphor for human relationships. "In the salt ...
Strain crystallization is a phenomenon in which an initially amorphous solid material undergoes a phase transformation due to ... Strain crystallization occurs in natural rubber and some other elastomers. The phenomenon has important effects on strength and ... Crystallization can also be observed indirectly through its effects on stress-strain and fatigue behavior. Natural rubber ( ... ISBN 3-446-17010-3. B. Huneau, STRAIN-INDUCED CRYSTALLIZATION OF NATURAL RUBBER: A REVIEW OF X-RAY DIFFRACTION INVESTIGATIONS, ...
While different crystallizations of a construct imbue specificity, this specificity may come at a cost of being seen as ... Writing destined for peer review likely contains more specific language that refers to a given crystallization of the broader ... Each facet of the construct brings with it certain inherent assumptions; assumptions for this crystallization include that ... This crystallization is reflected in the specificity of the language I use to describe the construct of interest-here, I view ...
Here, we report experimental observations of a crystallization front propagating in a supercooled region of a three-dimensional ... 1, where the crystallization progress is shown at two different times. Freezing starts at the bottom, then the crystallization ... Figure 2: Series of colour-coded images of the crystallization process.. Consecutive images are 1/15 s apart. The colour ... Figure 3: Fractal structure of the crystallization front.. The plot shows how the fractal dimension of the 2D contour of the ...
Intensified Separation through Continuous Crystallisation comes with its own set of unique challenges. TNO has extensive ... Continuous Crystallisation. Intensified separation through continuous crystallisation comes with its own set of unique ... Of all the forms of intensified separation, TNO has the most knowledge and experience in the field of crystallisation. With a ... New advancements in the crystallisation process can reduce costs and increase quality and control during the production of ...
Crystallization of honey.. Artificial methods. For artificial crystallization of a solute from solution, the conditions must be ... Crystallization Process Systems. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0750655200. *Mullin, J. W. 2001. Crystallization, 4th ... Thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization. The nature of a crystallization process is governed by both thermodynamic and ... Acid-base extraction · Chromatography · Crystallization · Dissolved air flotation · Distillation · Drying · ...
The classical view on polymer crystallization basically focused on the expla- tion of a few macroscopically observable ... Polymer Crystallization Viewed in the General Context of Particle Formation and Crystallization ... Polymer Crystallization. Obervations, Concepts and Interpretations. Editors: Reiter, Günter, Sommer, Jens-Uwe (Eds.) ... A Comparative Study of the Mechanisms of Initial Crystallization and Recrystallization after Melting in Syndiotactic ...
A relatively small amount of a catalyst element for promoting crystallization is added to an amorphous silicon film, and an ... The amorphous silicon film is annealed at a temperature which is lower than a crystallization temperature of usual amorphous ... A film containing a catalyst element for promoting crystallization is closely contacted with the impurity region, or a ... the lower the temperature of crystallization is and the shorter the time of crystallization is. By the study of this inventors ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
The present invention can realize the crystallization at a low temperature of 40 to 50 C. or below and prevents the ... introducing the obtained mixture into a crystallization tank and gradually cooling the mixture under condition under which new ... containing a great deal of crystals in an amount of 0.5 to 5 times that of said fructose solution into a seed crystallization ... The present invention relates to a process for continuously crystallizing fructose anhydride using a seed crystallization tank ...
United States MITs Self-Assembly Lab has exhibited the Fluid Crystallization project as part of the 2013 Architectural League ... Fluid Crystallization / Skylar Tibbits + Arthur Olson Fluid Crystallization / Skylar Tibbits + Arthur Olson *01:00 - 28 July, ... Fluid Crystallization was made possible by support from the Department of Architecture, MIT and the Architectural League of New ... The Fluid Crystallization installation - a collaboration between MIT Self-Assembly Lab director Skylar Tibbits and The ...
For example, when in the absence of crystallization modifying additives the temperature of crystallization of a given ... This uniform distribution remains substantially unaffected during the crystallization, both when crystallization progresses ... Polymer crystallization method. US3332926 *. 21 Feb 1964. 25 Jul 1967. Allied Chem. Thermal degradation of polyolefins in the ... to 2 percent by weight, of a crystallization modifying salt Na X where m is the valence of X, and X is the anion of a ...
We are aware of an issue with certificate availability and are working diligently with the vendor to resolve. The vendor has indicated that, while users are unable to directly access their certificates, results are still being stored. Certificates will be available once the issue is resolved. Thank you for your patience.. ...
... Author(s). Hillmann, William C. (William Carmen) ... Before crystallization, the enzymes were expressed and tested for activity. Once active preparations of protein were available ... To better understand the structural features that impart binding selectivity, crystallization studies of this enzyme were ... The native enzyme and several interesting mutants were studied; co-crystallization experiments with inhibitors and substrates ...
Crystallization - Download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation ... Heat of crystallisation.56 kg/s of a 40 per cent aqueous solution of the salt at 353 K? The and the required product rate of ... CRYSTALLIZATION. Student No:________ A hot solution of Ba(NO3)2 from an evaporator contains 30. For a feed solution of 100 kg ... heat of crystallization of (NH4)2SO4 is 75. . Calculate the cooling consist of the deca-hydrate (molecular mass = 322 kg/kmol ...
The foundation for the new method was laid in the 1990s with the method called "in meso crystallisation": the proteins are ... "Our procedure not only improved the crystallisation, but also produced extremely compact crystals belonging to a new ... and in meso crystallization of GLIC protein in a highly swollen... view more ... Design of ultra-swollen lipidic mesophases for the crystallization of membrane proteins with large extracellular domains. ...
and normalized by the area under the APAP diffraction peaks when crystallization was complete (. ) [4, 12, 21-24].. ... Impact of Additives on Heterogeneous Crystallization of Acetaminophen. Hsinyun Hsu,1 Lynne S. Taylor,2 and Michael T. Harris1 ... it would be interesting to investigate their combinational effects on crystallization. In this study, crystallization of ... At the crystallization temperature, 40°C, which is much lower than the melting point of APAP, crystal growth of APAP is under ...
Crystallization of the Complex of D-Amino-Acid Oxidase and Benzoate. *KUNIO YAGI1. , ... YAGI, K., OZAWA, T. & HARADA, M. Crystallization of the Complex of D-Amino-Acid Oxidase and Benzoate. Nature 188, 745-746 (1960 ...
Crystallisation definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up ... crystallisation. *. You can play at crystallisation there as much as you please. ... crystalli-, crystalliferous, crystallin, crystalline, crystalline lens, crystallisation, crystallite, crystallization, ... This crystallisation begins early, and makes the ice very dangerous and uncertain. ...
Results for crystallization equipment from Specac, AMETEK PI, Specac Gateway and other leading brands. Compare and contact a ... Any kind of crystallization and mechanical dewatering equipment can be replaced by an SGS type fluid bed. The final product ... Further applications are the supervision of crystallization or phase separation processes for a proper product identification. ...
Results for crystallization equipment from Environnement S.A. - ENVEA, Specac, NIRMaster and other leading brands. Compare and ... Further applications are the supervision of crystallization or phase separation processes for a proper product identification. ...
In an antisolvent crystallization, the solvent addition rate, addition location and mixing impact local supersaturation in a ... In an antisolvent crystallization, the solvent addition rate, addition location and mixing impact local supersaturation in a ... Seeding Studies For Crystallization Seeding is one of the most critical steps in optimizing crystallization behavior. When ... Seeding a Crystallization Process. Seeding is a key step in optimizing a crystallization process, ensuring a consistent ...
... they made possible the crystallization of these proteins. To further simplify the production and crystallization experiments we ... Alpha repeat proteins (αRep) as expression and crystallization helpers.. Chevrel A1, Mesneau A1, Sanchez D1, Celma L1, ... Artificial repeat proteins; Crystallization helper; Fusion protein; Protein complementation assay; Protein library ... these fusions cannot usually be used for crystallization. With specific expression partners like a cognate αRep this is no ...
CRYSTALLIZATION OF A MULTIENZYME COMPLEX: FATTY ACID SYNTHETASE FROM YEAST Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... CRYSTALLIZATION OF A MULTIENZYME COMPLEX: FATTY ACID SYNTHETASE FROM YEAST. D. Oesterhelt, H. Bauer, and F. Lynen ... Subsequently, the crystallization time has been reduced to two days, and the crystals now isolated have retained their full ... The crystallization of purified fatty acid synthetase from yeast is facilitated by seeding techniques. The first seed crystals ...
  • My research into crystallization processes in magma chambers has involved investigation of both natural and artificial magmatic systems. (nmt.edu)
  • Crystallization processes of anorthoclase phenocrysts in the Mt. Erebus magmatic system: Evidence from crystal composition, crystal size distributions and volatile contents of melt inclusions. (nmt.edu)
  • Crystallization processes in an artificial magma: variations in crystal shape, growth rate and composition with melt cooling history. (nmt.edu)
  • However, insufficiency of qualified and experienced researchers, lack of generalized crystallization methods associated with the types of proteins, and highly time-consuming and expensive protein crystallization and crystallography processes are expected to hinder the growth of this market during the forecasted period. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The laboratory of Chemistry of Biological Processes is equipped with state of the art devices for the crystallization of biological macromolecules. (college-de-france.fr)
  • For complex crystallization processes, population balance modelling is capable of predicting the effect of the batch recipe on the particle size distribution (PSD) of the final product. (psenterprise.com)
  • The webinar is aimed at process engineers, scientists and technical management from companies operating crystallization processes, especially in the Chemical and Pharmaceutical industries. (psenterprise.com)
  • Effect of Processing Conditions on Crystallization Kinetics and Rheolo" by C. Puppo, Silvana Martini et al. (usu.edu)
  • 20Li(2)O-80TeMO(2) glasses were heat annealed at different temperatures between T-g and T-x and studied by using XRD, FTIR spectroscopy and DSC techniques to understand the crystallization kinetics in this glass matrix. (unesp.br)
  • This research adopted cluster size distribution kinetics approach to explore the kinetics of polymer crystallization and phase separation within spinodal region. (lsu.edu)
  • The kinetics of polymer crystallization is studied by integrating nucleation, crystal growth and ripening. (lsu.edu)
  • The distribution kinetics approach is also extended to the investigation of crystallization of polymer blends. (lsu.edu)
  • Another challenge comes from the countless surfaces and impurities that complicate nucleation and growth, in industrial crystallization and in the natural environment. (cecam.org)
  • To check the crystallization experiments, two stereomicroscopes are available including a LEICA M205C equipped with a camera IC80 HD. (college-de-france.fr)
  • Experiments on crystallisation are too often qualitative and lack time-resolved information. (cecam.org)
  • Joe Luft discusses the detection of hits in crystallization screening experiments for both macro and nanocrystals. (bioxfel.org)
  • The main intermolecular interactions in all these crystals are weak aromatic CH/π hydrogen bonds, which are responsible for the enantiomeric discrimination in the molecular recognition during crystallization. (csic.es)
  • Crystals could be generated employing any of the available techniques like sublimation, solvent evaporation, vapor diffusion, thermal treatment and crystallization from melt precipitation by change in pH, growth in presence of additives or the grinding. (rjptonline.org)
  • Thus the novel agglomeration technique that transforms crystals themselves directly into a compacted spherical form during crystallization process has been desired. (rjptonline.org)
  • The future growth prospects for the protein crystallization market are optimistic which is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 10.1% to reach a worldwide market of $1,253 million by 2018. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • This research report categorizes the protein crystallization market on the basis of technology, products, and end users. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • To this end, we host a dedicated setup for protein crystallization in anaerobic conditions. (college-de-france.fr)
  • The effect of temperature is also investigated for isothermal and nonisothermal polymer crystallization. (lsu.edu)
  • The melting temperature, activation energy of diffusion, and phase transition enthalpy also depend on polymer blends composition, and lead to characteristic kinetic behavior of crystallization. (lsu.edu)
  • DIGITAL.CSIC: Chiral symmetry breaking and polymorphism in 1,1'-binaphthyl melt crystallization. (csic.es)
  • Chiral symmetry breaking and polymorphism in 1,1'-binaphthyl melt crystallization. (csic.es)
  • Our laboratory also owns a 5-head Dragonfly® (TTPLabtech) as a companion for the Mosquito®, which allows the setup of crystallizations screens for crystal optimization. (college-de-france.fr)
  • The mechanism of polymer crystallization is extensively studied and still far away from consensus. (lsu.edu)
  • Crystallization is a complex process of fundamental importance to materials science, climate science, pharmaceutical production, food science, and beyond. (cecam.org)
  • Crystallisation is important in many scientific and engineering fields but this diversity can dilute effort on solving key fundamental crystallisation problems. (cecam.org)
  • The Czochralski (CZ) crystallization process is used to produce monocrystalline silicon. (bibsys.no)
  • This webinar will present a case study illustrating the application of mechanistic model-based crystallization process analysis, scale-up and optimisation. (psenterprise.com)
  • We find an additional process of vapor crystallization to occur alongside the melt crystallization. (csic.es)
  • This crystallization process comprises of spraying liquid crystallization powder over the marble flooring and carefully buffing it using steel wool properly fitted under the single disc floor machine of standard weight. (manmachinesolutions.com)
  • XRD results reveal the presence of three distinct crystalline gamma-TeO2, alpha-TeO2 and Li2Te2O5 phases during the crystallization process. (unesp.br)
  • The electron-energy band structure of electric Double Layer (DL) between a molten salt and metal electrode (an anode or cathode) is studied for the electrodepositing crystallization process when the width of DL metal part is less than the one in the molten salt. (scirp.org)
  • It is important to minimize the electrodepositing potential for effective component crystallization out of the molten salt and its exchange process including selective extracting of salt components by their crystallization on electrodes of galvanic circuit. (scirp.org)
  • A. Shimkevich, "On Diffusive Confining a Galvanic Crystallization out of Molten Salts," Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology , Vol. 2 No. 4, 2012, pp. 146-151. (scirp.org)
  • Anni presents a wealth of insight and information on the Crystallization Process and how it can potentially impact us on the journey to becoming fully fledged Crystal Humans. (annisennov.com)
  • Dr. Ed Lattman discusses the foundations of crystallography and theoretical and practical considerations including X-ray radiation and production and crystallization nucleation, growth and optimization. (bioxfel.org)
  • Incubation periods introduced in nonisothermal crystallization are studied under different cooling rates and different initial temperatures. (lsu.edu)
  • The workshop will achieve this by focusing on 4 targeted topics: T1) Crystallisation of mixtures, T2) Crystallisation of molecules from solution, T3) Crystallisation in ionic systems, T4) Ice. (cecam.org)
  • The increasing use of crystallization for membrane protein structure elucidation, increasing R&D by big pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms, technological advancements, and increasing government funding are all factors that are expected to fuel the growth of the market in the near future. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The laboratory houses a Mosquito® Crystal (TTPLabtech) that allows the automated screening of crystallization conditions using low sample volumes and zero cross-contaminations. (college-de-france.fr)
  • Many topics will be covered including fundamentals of crystal growth, strategies to sample crystallization space, identifying crystal hits, electron microscopy applications of crystal analysis, practical considerations for data analysis, difficult crystallization problems, virus crystallography, and an overview of serial crystallography. (bioxfel.org)
  • It comprises two glove boxes including one containing an OryxNano (Douglas Instruments) that allows the screening of crystallization conditions with little sample volumes. (college-de-france.fr)
  • T2) Crystallisation of molecules from solution. (cecam.org)
  • We have studied chiral symmetry breaking in the melt crystallization of 1,1'-binaphthyl. (csic.es)
  • Here, we pursue such an explanation for different salts and further demonstrate a way to control salt creeping using crystallization modifiers. (sciencemag.org)
  • This is a first report of gamma-TeO2 phase crystallization in this glass matrix. (unesp.br)
  • In summary, our results suggest a crystallization hierarchy on this glass matrix since the gamma-TeO2 and alpha-TeO2 phases crystallization occurs before the Li2Te2O5 phase crystallization. (unesp.br)
  • This invention relates to an improved crystallization method for the production of composites of solid crystalline polymers with crystallization modifying additives. (google.es)
  • Here, we report that rapid crystallization of a bacterial surface layer protein occurs through a multistep pathway involving a crystalline intermediate. (pnas.org)
  • Observing crystallization using a time course of electron cryo-microscopy (Cryo-EM) imaging reveals a crystalline intermediate wherein N-terminal nucleation domains exhibit motional dynamics with respect to rigid lattice-forming crystallization domains. (pnas.org)
  • X-ray scattering techniques have been widely used in the investigation of different facets of polymer crystallisation but they suffer from the detection limits at such low crystalline fraction. (esrf.eu)
  • SARA PHARM offers specialized crystallization packages, targeted to transform your un-handable API, such as a sticky gum into a nice crystalline and fully handable powdery material. (pharmaceutical-business-review.com)
  • Further applications are the supervision of crystallization or phase separation processes for a proper product identification. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Crystallization kinetics are characterized in terms of two dominant processes, nucleation kinetics and growth kinetics, occurring during crystallization from solution. (mt.com)
  • This technique strikes the right balance between controlling supersaturation and excessive nucleation, while avoiding very long batch times (P. Barrett, B. Smith, J. Worlitschek, V. Bracken, B. O'Sullivan, and D. O'Grady 2005) A Review of the Use of Process Analytical Technology for the Understanding and Optimization of Production Batch Crystallization Processes. (mt.com)
  • Such crystallization processes can be adequately studied at the level of atomistic structural arrangement using numerous experimental measuring techniques, such as IR vibrational and Raman scattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nuclear magnetic resonance, etc. [ 7 - 12 ]. (degruyter.com)
  • My research into crystallization processes in magma chambers has involved investigation of both natural and artificial magmatic systems. (nmt.edu)
  • Crystallization processes of anorthoclase phenocrysts in the Mt. Erebus magmatic system: Evidence from crystal composition, crystal size distributions and volatile contents of melt inclusions. (nmt.edu)
  • Crystallization processes in an artificial magma: variations in crystal shape, growth rate and composition with melt cooling history. (nmt.edu)
  • The Protein Crystallisation Diagnostics Facility (PCDF) is a multi-user instrument for the fundamental study of the processes of nucleation and crystallisation of biological macro-molecules, and specifically, how these processes are influenced by gravity. (esa.int)
  • The second part builds on the basics, exploring how crystallization processes can be developed, either batch-wise or continuous, from solution or from the melt. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Mixing and its influence on the crystallization as well as the mutual interference of down-stream processes with the crystallization are also treated. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Experienced scientists and engineers offer a fit-for-purpose approach to crystallization processes adapted for each stage of pharmaceutical development. (amriglobal.com)
  • The project investigates continuous mixing in pharmaceutical crystallisation and introduce rational design principles into development of mixing-controlled industrial crystallisation processes. (strath.ac.uk)
  • It is well known that many mixing-induced crystallisation processes are strongly dependent on how mixing is performed. (strath.ac.uk)
  • However, there is a very limited understanding of mixing phenomena in crystallisation processes. (strath.ac.uk)
  • This knowledge will help to introduce rational design principles into development of mixing-controlled industrial crystallisation processes. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Through orientation and crystallization processes , thermal properties for the material could be tailored to reach above 500 F. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • By examining the sequences of snapshots, the scientists hope to view a veritable motion picture of polymerization and crystallization processes in space. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The value of the crystallization activation energy [DELTA]E of -72.366 kJ/mol is about the same as that for isothermal crystallization, and this result indicates that the combined Avrami-Ozawa method is correct in describing the isothermal and nonisothermal crystallization processes for the BDIS (IA-12.5%) polyamide. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The increased rate of crystallization also yields reduced postextrusion shrinkage by reducing secondary crystallization processes that can cause further volume reduction and shrinkage in the solid state. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Crystallization processes are used across the chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries. (ansys.com)
  • The fine chemical and specialty chemical industries use crystallization processes to pro-duce various high-value organic compounds. (ansys.com)
  • In pharmaceutical manufacturing, crystallization processes are frequently used to manufacture active pharmaceutical intermediates (APIs). (ansys.com)
  • The hydrodynamic issues of non-ideal mixing become important in large scale crystallization processes. (ansys.com)
  • However, insufficiency of qualified and experienced researchers, lack of generalized crystallization methods associated with the types of proteins, and highly time-consuming and expensive protein crystallization and crystallography processes are expected to hinder the growth of this market during the forecasted period. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • This tool has also been used in this study for calibration model development and monitoring the cooling and antisolvent crystallization processes for single and muticomponent crystallisations. (bl.uk)
  • This session will focus on the crystallization of polymers for myriad applications. (aiche.org)
  • The invention relates more specifically to an improvement in a crystallization method for the production of shaped articles, and of resin composites suitable for use in producing shaped articles, from resins consisting substantially of crystallizable polymers, particularly those produced in the presence of low pressure catalysts of the Zeigler-Natta type. (google.es)
  • Based on results of the new method we expect to elucidate the mechanisms which govern crystallisation and melting of polymers and their variation upon change of processing parameters. (esrf.eu)
  • co-crystallization experiments with inhibitors and substrates were also performed. (mit.edu)
  • To further simplify the production and crystallization experiments we have explored the production of chimeric proteins corresponding to covalent association between the targets and their specific binders strengthened by a linker. (nih.gov)
  • Precipitation and crystal formation under these conditions are used to direct efforts for further crystallisation experiments. (els.net)
  • This single day event, presented by a selection of industrialists and academics in their field of expertise, will provide an introduction to this area, specifically initial crystallisation experiments, solid form selection and formulation and how these matters are handled using real industrial examples. (iucr.org)
  • The crystallization experiments were carried out in hanging drops by the vapor diffusion technique at room temperature (20 ° C). The solution in the crystallization drop was prepared by mixing 10 µl of phage solution with 10 µl of 5% ammonium sulfate in 0.04 M TRIS-HCl (pH 8.0), 0.15 M NaCl and 0.02% NaN3. (scripps.edu)
  • We offer different modes of access for different users: we can set up experiments for users who provide macromolecular material, we can provide training in robotic crystallisation screening and imaging for new users who will make regular use of the facility, and we can provide experimental advice to more experienced scientists. (psi.ch)
  • What can we do when high-throughput crystallisation experiments doesn't deliver? (psi.ch)
  • In conclusion, the unprecedented sensitivity realised in SAXS/WAXS experiments allowed us to detect the primary nucleation events in polymer crystallisation from melt. (esrf.eu)
  • Introducing foreign substrates or additives is the common way to regulate polymorphism or kinetics of crystallization. (hindawi.com)
  • Expert speakers from around the world shared up to date developments on topics such as crystallisation, crystal structure, polymorphism and physical interactions in both model systems and real products. (soci.org)
  • Theoretical, computational, and experimental papers are welcome on topics including (but not limited to) polymer crystallization from solution and melt, driven assembly, confined crystallization, polymer crystal structure-property relationship, as well as research investigating emerging technologies through the exploitation of macromolecular crystallization. (aiche.org)
  • Polymer crystallization behavior at L/L interface will be compared with solution and bulk crystallization. (aps.org)
  • In order to unravel these scenarios of polymer crystallisation, we have reinvestigated the early stage of isotactic polypropylene (i-PP) crystallisation with unprecedented sensitivity and time resolution at the beamline ID02 using combined small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS, respectively). (esrf.eu)
  • Macromolecular crystallisation. (els.net)
  • The Macromolecular Crystallisation Facility at the PSI is maintained by the SLS and the BIO division . (psi.ch)
  • If you are interested in using the facility, or in discussing any aspects of macromolecular crystallisation, we would be very glad to hear from you. (psi.ch)
  • The article "Morphology selection kinetics of crystallization in a sphere" is published in Nature Physics . (phys.org)
  • Crystallization can occur from a solution, from the melt or via deposition of material from the gas phase (desublimation). (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Yokota, M. , Nakamura, R. and Doki, N. (2016) Organic Melt Crystallization as a Method for Synthesis of Supramolecular Complexes. (scirp.org)
  • Engineers control temperature, composition and other parameters of the melt in order to tailor the product, but the mechanisms behind polymer crystallisation are not yet understood. (esrf.eu)
  • I need some information on how to relate ultrasonic measurements (sound velocity and attenuation) during quiescent crystallization of polypropylene to crystallization characteristics such as crystal growth rate, nucleation, etc. (ndt.net)
  • The amorphous silicon film is annealed at a temperature which is lower than a crystallization temperature of usual amorphous. (google.com)
  • A relatively small amount of a catalyst element for promoting crystallization is added to an amorphous silicon film, and an annealing process is conducted at a temperature which is lower than the distortion temperature of a substrate, thereby crystallizing the amorphous silicon film. (google.com)
  • By plotting temperature vs. solubility, scientists can create the framework needed to develop the desired crystallization process. (mt.com)
  • Azimuthal sectors of SAXS and WAXS patterns recorded simultaneously following a rapid temperature quench to the crystallisation temperature of 145°C (tIso evolves after the sample reached the isothermal condition). (esrf.eu)
  • I am working on the simulation of the salt crystallization process in the steam in a temperature range from 300k to 500k. (cfd-online.com)
  • Cold' crystallization in 80GeSe 2 -20Ga 2 Se 3 chalcogenide glass nanostructurized due to thermal annealing at 380°C for 10, 25, 50, 80, and 100 h are probed with X-ray diffraction, atomic force, and scanning electron microscopy, as well as positron annihilation spectroscopy performed in positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening of annihilation line modes. (degruyter.com)
  • The crystallization process and its associated microstructural evolution are generally studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), or transmission electron microscopy (TEM). (frontiersin.org)
  • These are schematic illustrations of a normal Pn3m cubic mesophase composed of MP :water (left), GLIC protein structure (middle), and in meso crystallization of GLIC protein in a highly swollen. (eurekalert.org)
  • Crystallization trials are set either following the "classical" vapour diffusion approach or in meso (lipidic cubic phase) using an Oryx 4 crystallization robot (Douglas Instruments). (hu-berlin.de)
  • Tailor-made auxiliaries that can have molecular recognition with crystallizing molecules have been used to change crystallization behavior [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • With the increased demand for APIs (active pharmaceutical ingredients) to reach the marketplace, chemists in early stage development are expected to have a greater understanding of solid form and crystallisation. (iucr.org)
  • The increasing use of crystallization for membrane protein structure elucidation, increasing R&D by big pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms, technological advancements, and increasing government funding are all factors that are expected to fuel the growth of the market in the near future. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Initial crystallisation trials are set up using a concentrated stock of protein-DNA complex of interest with premade formulations that sparsely sample crystallisation space. (els.net)
  • To better understand the structural features that impart binding selectivity, crystallization studies of this enzyme were performed. (mit.edu)
  • In vivo protein crystallization opens new routes in structural biology. (nih.gov)
  • Intensified separation through continuous crystallisation comes with its own set of unique challenges. (tno.nl)
  • Of all the forms of intensified separation, TNO has the most knowledge and experience in the field of crystallisation. (tno.nl)
  • By designing new molecular building blocks and using polymer self-assembly (crystallization, microphase separation, specific hydrogen bonding, and $\pi -\pi $ and other interactions), ordered structures of modified nanoparticles were assembled in the bulk and at the interface. (aps.org)
  • Might not this possibly be capable of throwing some light on the phenomena of crystallization? (wikisource.org)
  • TNO applies its extensive knowledge and expertise in this area to provide fine chemical manufacturers with the exact tools needed to get the most out of continuous crystallisation. (tno.nl)
  • In Continuous Crystallisation, TNO leads the industry in technologies and methodologies that create pure, reproducible particles to exact specifications. (tno.nl)
  • Our expertise in the field of Continuous Crystallisation can be put to work to solve any of our partners' challenges. (tno.nl)
  • The aim of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of continuous mixing of miscible liquids involved in mixing-induced crystallisation. (strath.ac.uk)
  • If somebody is familar in this region, could you provide me some information about the NaCl crystallization numerical model and may be the solubility properties of NaCl in supersaturated steam? (cfd-online.com)
  • In addition to substrates, introducing additives is another popular approach to control crystallization. (hindawi.com)
  • Nanocrystallites of Ga 2 Se 3 and/or GeGa 4 Se 8 phases and prevalent GeSe 2 phase extracted mainly at the surface of thermally treated samples with preceding nucleation and void agglomeration in the initial stage of annealing are characteristic features of cold crystallization. (degruyter.com)
  • For artificial crystallization of a solute from solution, the conditions must be adjusted such that the solution becomes supersaturated with the solute. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In most practical circumstances, crystallization begins with heterogeneous nucleation on foreign substrates [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • crystallization 1660s, noun of action from crystallize. (thesaurus.com)
  • The third part of the book is dedicated to accounts of actual developments and of carried-out crystallizations. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Many biomineralization systems start from transient amorphous precursor phases, but the exact crystallization pathways and mechanisms remain largely unknown. (mdpi.com)
  • The value of my lectures would depend altogether upon suggestiveness,-not upon any crystallizations of fact. (thesaurus.com)
  • The Fluid Crystallization installation - a collaboration between MIT Self-Assembly Lab director Skylar Tibbits and The Molecular Graphics Lab director Arthur Olson - investigates hierarchical and non-deterministic self-assembly with large numbers of parts in a fluid medium. (archdaily.com)
  • We have followed identical crystallisation protocols as in the previous studies and in addition we precisely determined the isothermal condition (t Iso =0) from the scattered intensity itself. (esrf.eu)
  • The crystallization of wax from lubricating oil fractions is essential to make oils suitable for use. (britannica.com)
  • Various expression systems are used to obtain a protein sample suitable for crystallization, including the pichia pastoris and insect cell/baculovirus system. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The chapter describes how to design, prepare, and conduct crystallization screening of riboswitch-ligand complexes. (springer.com)
  • Pikovskaya O, Serganov AA, Polonskaia A et al (2009) Preparation and crystallization of riboswitch-ligand complexes. (springer.com)
  • However, molecular mechanisms governing rapid protein crystallization in vivo or in vitro are largely unknown. (pnas.org)
  • To find a production report, enter information about your protein crystallization product below, and press the Search button. (qiagen.com)
  • The large numbers of ongoing research projects involving protein crystallization, and the increased variety of reagents and analytical techniques employed are are also major drivers for the protein crystallography reagents market. (sbwire.com)
  • Mohsin Qasi investigates the physics behind the influence of spatial confinement and crystallization modifying additives on the crystallization of the most commonly used salt, NaCl. (uva.nl)
  • To better understanding the kinetics of the glass crystallization, the activation energy was also determined by applying the Kissinger method. (mdpi.com)
  • 12. The method of Claim 5 wherein the protein solution and precipitate solution are in the same well and said crystallization is effected by batch crystallization. (google.de)
  • The latter method reconstitutes the protein in a bicontinuous lipid mesophase as crystallization matrix. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The C-terminal crystallization domain forms the physiological 2-dimensional (2D) crystal lattice, but full-length protein crystallizes multiple orders of magnitude faster due to the N-terminal nucleation domain. (pnas.org)
  • Would you toss away and not pass along the news about the discovery of the mechanism of crystallization at the nano level? (medgadget.com)
  • Crystallization of soluble salts can result in serious damage to the ceramic structure and the decorative surface, especially if it is glazed. (britannica.com)
  • 4 ], and their results demonstrate the crucial impact of surface morphology on crystallization. (hindawi.com)
  • The evidence for surface crystallization in ionic liquids is scarce. (rsc.org)
  • In this work 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate was studied and its surface crystallization characterized by surface tension, ellipsometry and optical microscopy. (rsc.org)
  • Any kind of crystallization and mechanical dewatering equipment can be replaced by an SGS type fluid bed. (environmental-expert.com)
  • A recent project within the food industry involved we made use of an innovation in which Pulsating Helix Cooling crystallisation was implemented in order to crystallise fat particles into a unique structure and quality. (tno.nl)
  • The effect of these incompressible particles on the crystallization of the polymer block was studied. (aps.org)
  • This allowed the researchers to track the ordering of single particles in real time during crystallization. (phys.org)