The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Diagnostic aid in pancreas function determination.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobin in which lysine replaces a glutamic acid residue at the sixth position of the beta chains. It results in reduced plasticity of erythrocytes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.
Anaerobic hyperthermophilic species of ARCHAEA, isolated from hydrothermal fluid samples. It is obligately heterotrophic with coccoid cells that require TRYPTOPHAN for growth.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Technique by which phase transitions of chemical reactions can be followed by observation of the heat absorbed or liberated.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.
A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A family of anaerobic METHANOCOCCALES whose organisms are motile by means of flagella. These methanogens use carbon dioxide as an electron acceptor.
Enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of aldose and ketose compounds.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.
Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.

Probing interactions between HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and its DNA substrate with backbone-modified nucleotides. (1/7757)

BACKGROUND: To gain a molecular understanding of a biochemical process, the crystal structure of enzymes that catalyze the reactions involved is extremely helpful. Often the question arises whether conformations obtained in this way appropriately reflect the reactivity of enzymes, however. Rates that characterize transitions are therefore compulsory experiments for the elucidation of the reaction mechanism. Such experiments have been performed for the reverse transcriptase of the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 RT). RESULTS: We have developed a methodology to monitor the interplay between HIV-1 RT and its DNA substrate. To probe the protein-DNA interactions, the sugar backbone of one nucleotide was modified by a substituent that influenced the efficiency of the chain elongation in a characteristic way. We found that strand elongation after incorporation of the modified nucleotide follows a discontinuous efficiency for the first four nucleotides. The reaction efficiencies could be correlated with the distance between the sugar substituent and the enzyme. The model was confirmed by kinetic experiments with HIV-1 RT mutants. CONCLUSIONS: Experiments with HIV-1 RT demonstrate that strand-elongation efficiency using a modified nucleotide correlates well with distances between the DNA substrate and the enzyme. The functional group at the modified nucleotides acts as an 'antenna' for steric interactions that changes the optimal transition state. Kinetic experiments in combination with backbone-modified nucleotides can therefore be used to gain structural information about reverse transcriptases and DNA polymerases.  (+info)

Crystal structure of an MHC class I presented glycopeptide that generates carbohydrate-specific CTL. (2/7757)

T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of nonpeptidic and modified peptide antigens has been recently uncovered but is still poorly understood. Immunization with an H-2Kb-restricted glycopeptide RGY8-6H-Gal2 generates a population of cytotoxic T cells that express both alpha/beta TCR, specific for glycopeptide, and gamma/delta TCR, specific for the disaccharide, even on glycolipids. The crystal structure of Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 now demonstrates that the peptide and H-2Kb structures are unaffected by the peptide glycosylation, but the central region of the putative TCR binding site is dominated by the extensive exposure of the tethered carbohydrate. These features of the Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 structure are consistent with the individual ligand binding preferences identified for the alpha/beta and gamma/delta TCRs and thus explain the generation of a carbohydrate-specific T cell response.  (+info)

Structural basis of Rab effector specificity: crystal structure of the small G protein Rab3A complexed with the effector domain of rabphilin-3A. (3/7757)

The small G protein Rab3A plays an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. The crystal structure of activated Rab3A/GTP/Mg2+ bound to the effector domain of rabphilin-3A was solved to 2.6 A resolution. Rabphilin-3A contacts Rab3A in two distinct areas. The first interface involves the Rab3A switch I and switch II regions, which are sensitive to the nucleotide-binding state of Rab3A. The second interface consists of a deep pocket in Rab3A that interacts with a SGAWFF structural element of rabphilin-3A. Sequence and structure analysis, and biochemical data suggest that this pocket, or Rab complementarity-determining region (RabCDR), establishes a specific interaction between each Rab protein and its effectors. RabCDRs could be major determinants of effector specificity during vesicle trafficking and fusion.  (+info)

Phe161 and Arg166 variants of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase. Implications for NADPH recognition and structural stability. (4/7757)

Phe161 and Arg166 of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas fluorescens belong to a newly discovered sequence motif in flavoprotein hydroxylases with a putative dual function in FAD and NADPH binding [1]. To study their role in more detail, Phe161 and Arg166 were selectively changed by site-directed mutagenesis. F161A and F161G are catalytically competent enzymes having a rather poor affinity for NADPH. The catalytic properties of R166K are similar to those of the native enzyme. R166S and R166E show impaired NADPH binding and R166E has lost the ability to bind FAD. The crystal structure of substrate complexed F161A at 2.2 A is indistinguishable from the native enzyme, except for small changes at the site of mutation. The crystal structure of substrate complexed R166S at 2.0 A revealed that Arg166 is important for providing an intimate contact between the FAD binding domain and a long excursion of the substrate binding domain. It is proposed that this interaction is essential for structural stability and for the recognition of the pyrophosphate moiety of NADPH.  (+info)

Identification of 17-methyl-18-norandrosta-5,13(17-dien-3beta-ol, the C19 fragment formed by adrenal side chain cleavage of a 20-aryl analog of (20S)-20-hydroxycholesterol. (5/7757)

Incubation of (20R)-20-phenyl-5-pregnene-3beta,20-diol, an aromatic analog of (23S)-20-hydroxycholesterol, with an adrenal mitochondrial preparation leads to the formation of four compounds: pregnenolone, phenol, a C8 ketone, acetophenone, and a nonpolar C19 compound. This latter compound has now been identified by reverse isotope dilution analysis and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as 17-methyl-18-norandrosta-5,13(17)-dien-3beta-ol. From these results it is evident that enzymatic fission of the C-17,20 bond of this synthetic derivative occurs. On the other hand, when (20S)-20-hydroxy[21-14C]cholesterol was used as substrate, the analogous cleavage did not take place. Thus, substitution of an aromatic group on C-20 facilitates side chain cleavage between that carbon atom and the nucleus whereas neither of the naturally occuring precursors, cholesterol or its 20-hydroxylated counterpart, are metabolized to a C8 fragment.  (+info)

Relationship between supersaturation and calcium oxalate crystallization in normals and idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. (6/7757)

BACKGROUND: In an earlier study on recurrent CaOx stone formers with no detectable abnormalities, we found that the urine of these subjects had a lower tolerance to oxalate load than controls and that the removal of urinary macromolecules with a molecular weight greater than 10,000 D improved their tolerance to oxalate. METHODS: The effects on CaOx crystallization of reduced urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate (CaOx), induced by night water load, were studied in 12 normal males and in 15 male OxCa stone formers who were free from urinary metabolic abnormalities. The effect of the macromolecules, purified and retrieved from the natural and diluted urine, were analyzed in a metastable solution of CaOx. RESULTS: The water load caused an increase in urine volume (from 307 +/- 111 to 572 +/- 322 ml/8 hr, P = 0.014 in normal subjects, and from 266 +/- 92 to 518 +/- 208 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in the stone formers) and a concomitant reduction of the relative CaOx supersaturation (from 8.7 +/- 2.5 to 5.1 +/- 2.5 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in normal subjects, and from 10.4 +/- 3.5 to 5.0 +/- 2.7 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in the stone formers). The decrease in CaOx supersaturation was accompanied by an increase of the permissible increment in oxalate, both in normal subjects (from 43.8 +/- 10.1 to 67.2 +/- 30. 3 mg/liter, P = 0.018) and in the stone formers (from 25.7 +/- 9.4 to 43.7 +/- 17.1 mg/liter, P = 0.0001), without any significant variations of the upper limit of metastability for CaOx (from 21.6 +/- 5.3 to 20.5 +/- 4.2 mg/liter in normal subjects, and from 18.7 +/- 4.5 to 17.1 +/- 3.7 mg/liter in the stone formers). The inhibitory effect of urinary macromolecules with molecular weight greater than 10,000 Daltons did not undergo any change when the latter were recovered from concentrated or diluted urine, either in normal subjects or in the stone formers. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced CaOx supersaturation by means of water load has a protective effect with regards to CaOx crystallization in subjects who do not present any of the common urinary stone risk factors.  (+info)

Cryoelectron microscopy of a nucleating model bile in vitreous ice: formation of primordial vesicles. (7/7757)

Because gallstones form so frequently in human bile, pathophysiologically relevant supersaturated model biles are commonly employed to study cholesterol crystal formation. We used cryo-transmission electron microscopy, complemented by polarizing light microscopy, to investigate early stages of cholesterol nucleation in model bile. In the system studied, the proposed microscopic sequence involves the evolution of small unilamellar to multilamellar vesicles to lamellar liquid crystals and finally to cholesterol crystals. Small aliquots of a concentrated (total lipid concentration = 29.2 g/dl) model bile containing 8.5% cholesterol, 22.9% egg yolk lecithin, and 68.6% taurocholate (all mole %) were vitrified at 2 min to 20 days after fourfold dilution to induce supersaturation. Mixed micelles together with a category of vesicles denoted primordial, small unilamellar vesicles of two distinct morphologies (sphere/ellipsoid and cylinder/arachoid), large unilamellar vesicles, multilamellar vesicles, and cholesterol monohydrate crystals were imaged. No evidence of aggregation/fusion of small unilamellar vesicles to form multilamellar vesicles was detected. Low numbers of multilamellar vesicles were present, some of which were sufficiently large to be identified as liquid crystals by polarizing light microscopy. Dimensions, surface areas, and volumes of spherical/ellipsoidal and cylindrical/arachoidal vesicles were quantified. Early stages in the separation of vesicles from micelles, referred to as primordial vesicles, were imaged 23-31 min after dilution. Observed structures such as enlarged micelles in primordial vesicle interiors, segments of bilayer, and faceted edges at primordial vesicle peripheries are probably early stages of small unilamellar vesicle assembly. A decrease in the mean surface area of spherical/ellipsoidal vesicles was correlated with the increased production of cholesterol crystals at 10-20 days after supersaturation by dilution, supporting the role of small unilamellar vesicles as key players in cholesterol nucleation and as cholesterol donors to crystals. This is the first visualization of an intermediate structure that has been temporally linked to the development of small unilamellar vesicles in the separation of vesicles from micelles in a model bile and suggests a time-resolved system for further investigation.  (+info)

Purification and properties of a low-molecular-weight, high-alkaline pectate lyase from an alkaliphilic strain of Bacillus. (8/7757)

A low-molecular-weight, high-alkaline pectate lyase (pectate transeliminase, EC 4.2.2.2) was found in an alkaline culture of Bacillus sp. strain KSM-P15, purified to homogeneity, and crystallized. The enzyme had a relative molecular weight of approximately 20,300 as measured by sedimentation equilibrium, with a sedimentation coefficient (s20,w0) of 1.73 S. It was a basic protein with an isoelectric point of pH 10.3, and the alpha-helical content was only 6.6%. In the presence of Ca2+ ions, the enzyme degraded polygalacturonic acid in a random manner to yield 4,5-unsaturated oligo-galacturonides and had its optimal activity around pH 10.5 and 50-55 degrees C. It also had a protopectinase-like activity on cotton fibers. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the intact protein (28 amino acids) and its two lysyl endopeptidase-cleaved peptide fragments (8 and 12 amino acids) had very low sequence similarity with pectate lyases reported to date. These results strongly suggest that the pectate lyase of Bacillus sp. strain KSM-P15 may be a novel enzyme and belongs in a new family.  (+info)

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Cytochrome c peroxidase was isolated from Paracoccus denitrificans and purified to homogeneity in three steps prior to crystallization. Two different diffraction-quality crystal forms were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using a number of screening conditions. The best (needle-shaped) crystal form is suitable for structural studies and was grown from solutions containing 20% PEG 8000, 0.1 M Tris pH 8.5 and 0.2 M MgCl(2). Crystals grew to a maximum length of approximately 0.7 mm and belong to the primitive monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 78.3, b = 51.0, c = 167.2 A, beta = 97.9 degrees. After a dehydration step and extensive optimization of the cryocooling conditions, a complete data set was collected to 2.2 A from a native crystal of the fully oxidized form of the enzyme using synchrotron radiation.
The quality of a crystallization process greatly influences the quality of the final product. Our new white paper introduces you to the fundamentals of crystallization and provides guidance for the design of a high quality crystallization process.
Cable bacteria of the family Desulfobulbaceae form centimeter-long filaments comprising thousands of cells. They occur worldwide in the surface of aquatic sediments, where they connect sulfide oxidation with oxygen or nitrate reduction via long-distance electron transport. In the absence of pure cultures, we used single-filament genomics and metagenomics to retrieve draft genomes of 3 marine Candidatus Electrothrix and 1 freshwater Ca. Electronema species. These genomes contain ,50% unknown genes but still share their core genomic makeup with sulfate-reducing and sulfur-disproportionating Desulfobulbaceae, with few core genes lost and 212 unique genes (from 197 gene families) conserved among cable bacteria. Last common ancestor analysis indicates gene divergence and lateral gene transfer as equally important origins of these unique genes. With support from metaproteomics of a Ca. Electronema enrichment, the genomes suggest that cable bacteria oxidize sulfide by reversing the canonical sulfate ...
Purification, circular dichroism analysis, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the F plasmid CcdB killer protein ...
The transformation from a fluid to a crystal can be complicated and involve one or more precursors. Such multistep crystallization pathways occur in many chemical and physical systems, and the driving force for the appearance of the precursors has been explained by unique characteristics of the interactions among the systems building blocks. We investigated multistep crystallization pathways in hard particles, where interaction is dictated solely by building-block shape and thus entropy. We categorized multistep crystallization pathways based on the dimension of the prenucleation motifs, and discuss possible comparisons to other crystallization processes.. ...
My research into crystallization processes in magma chambers has involved investigation of both natural and artificial magmatic systems. Artifical magmas, such as those produced by In-Situ Vitrification allow a unique window into the crystallization processes of magma, as does investigation of crystals forming in the active lava lake of Mount Erebus, Antarctica REFERENCES:. DUNBAR, N.W., CASHMAN, K.V., AND DUPRE, R., 1994. Crystallization processes of anorthoclase phenocrysts in the Mt. Erebus magmatic system: Evidence from crystal composition, crystal size distributions and volatile contents of melt inclusions. In: Volcanological Studies of Mount Erebus. Antarctic Research Series, 66, 129-146. ABSTRACT. DUNBAR, N.W., JACOBS, G.K. AND NANEY, M.T., 1995. Crystallization processes in an artificial magma: variations in crystal shape, growth rate and composition with melt cooling history. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 120, 412-425. ABSTRACT. JACOBS, G.K., DUNBAR, N.W., NANEY, M.T., and WILLIAMS, R.T., ...
Anni presents a wealth of insight and information on the Crystallization Process and how it can potentially impact us on the journey to becoming fully fledged Crystal Humans. There is also real magic and crystal energy at work through the pages of The Crystal Human and the Crystallization Part I and The Crystal Human and the Crystallization Part II. Reviewing these two books triggered my own crystallisation journey, and fortunately the relevant guidance was to hand as I worked my way through the books.. June McGuire - Management Consultant and Holistic Therapist. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular dynamics study on external field induced crystallization of amorphous argon structure. AU - Park, Seungho. AU - Cho, Sung San. AU - Lee, Joon Sik. AU - Choi, Young Ki. AU - Kwon, Ohmyoung. PY - 2004/11. Y1 - 2004/11. N2 - A molecular dynamics study has been conducted on an external-force-field- induced isothermal crystallization process of amorphous structures as a new low-temperature athermal crystallization process. An external cyclic-force field with a dc bias is imposed on molecules selected randomly in an amorphous-phase of argon. Multiple peaks smoothed out in the radial distribution functions for amorphous states appear very clearly during the crystallization process that cannot be achieved otherwise. When the amorphous material is locally exposed to an external force field, crystallization starts and propagates from the interfacial region and crystallization growth rates can be estimated.. AB - A molecular dynamics study has been conducted on an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystallization Behavior of Some Melt Spun Nd-Fe-B Alloys. AU - Clavaguera-Mora, M. T.. AU - Baró, M. D.. AU - Clavaguera, N.. AU - Suriñach, S.. PY - 1990/1/1. Y1 - 1990/1/1. N2 - The kinetics of crystallization of four amorphous (or partially amorphous) melt spun Nd-Fe-B alloys induced by thermal treatment is studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. In the range of temperatures explored experimentally, the crystallization process is thermally activated and generally proceeds in various stages. The Curie temperature and the crystallization behavior have been measured. The apparent activation energy of crystallization of most of the crystallization stages has been determined for each melt spun alloy. The explicit form of the kinetic equation that best describes the first stage of crystallization has been found. It follows in general the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Erofeev model, but clear deviations to that model occur for one alloy. ...
The study of proteins involved in de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides is central in the development of antibiotics and anticancer drugs. In view of this, a protein from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 was isolated, purified and crystallized using the microbatch method. Its primary structure was found to be similar to that of SAICAR synthetase, which catalyses the seventh step of de novo purine biosynthesis. A diffraction-quality crystal was obtained using Hampton Research Crystal Screen II condition No. 34, consisting of 0.05 M cadmium sulfate hydrate, 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 and 1.0 M sodium acetate trihydrate, with 40%(v/v) 1,4-butanediol as an additive. The crystal belonged to space group P3(1), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 95.62, c = 149.13 angstrom. Assuming the presence of a hexamer in the asymmetric unit resulted in a Matthews coefficient (V-M) of 2.3 angstrom(3) Da(-1), corresponding to a solvent content of about 46%. A detailed study of this protein will ...
Adherent and pin-hole free amorphous Sb2Te3 thin films have been obtained by vacuum evaporation at substrate temperatures ≤25 °C. The films have been crystallized by thermal and laser annealing, and the crystallization processes monitored as a function of annealing temperature and laser scan speed. A comparative study of topography reveals disk-shaped crystallized areas in thermal crystallization and dendrite growth in the laser induced process. The crystallized films in both cases contain a single Sb2Te3 phase. Activation energy of 2 eV for crystallization, determined using differential scanning calorimetery indicates good room temperature stability of the amorphous states ...
Journal Article: Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of CfaA, a molecular chaperone essential for the assembly of CFA/I fimbriae of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli ...
Pengju Pan, Jianna Bao, Xiaohua Chang, Ruoxing Chang, Guorong Shan, Yongzhong Bao. State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, P. R. China.. Supramolecular polymers (SMPs) have different crystallization behavior from conventional polymers. Crystallization of SMPs occurs in a confined and dynamic manner. Because of the reversible and stimuli-responsive natures of non-covalent bonds in SMPs, crystalline structure and crystallization kinetics of SMPs depend strongly on crystallization conditions (e.g., crystallization temperature, Tc). This offers a feasible way to tune the physical properties and functions of SMPs in processing. We first selected the 2-ureido-4[1H]-pyrimidione (UPy)-bonded poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) as a model SMP and investigated the crystallization kinetics, polymorphic crystalline structure, and phase transition of supramolecular PLLAs (SM-PLLAs). Crystallization rate and ...
The laboratory of Chemistry of Biological Processes is equipped with state of the art devices for the crystallization of biological macromolecules. The laboratory houses a Mosquito® Crystal (TTPLabtech) that allows the automated screening of crystallization conditions using low sample volumes and zero cross-contaminations. The robot allows the setup of sitting and hanging drop vapor diffusion trials and can perform microbatch under oil if desired. Our laboratory also owns a 5-head Dragonfly® (TTPLabtech) as a companion for the Mosquito®, which allows the setup of crystallizations screens for crystal optimization. To check the crystallization experiments, two stereomicroscopes are available including a LEICA M205C equipped with a camera IC80 HD. ...
The nonisothermal crystallization kinetics was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry for the nylon 6/graphene composites prepared by in situ polymerization. The Avrami theory modified by Jeziorny, Ozawa equation, and Mo equation was used to describe the nonisothermal crystallization kinetics. The analysis based on the Avrami theory modified by Jeziorny shows that, at lower cooling rates (at 5, 10, and 20 K/min), the nylon 6/graphene composites have lower crystallization rate than pure nylon 6. However, at higher cooling rates (at 40 K/min), the nylon 6/graphene composites have higher crystallization rate than pure nylon 6. The values of Avrami exponent m and the cooling crystallization function F(T) from Ozawa plots indicate that the mode of the nucleation and growth at initial stage of the nonisothermal crystallization may be as follows: two-dimensional (2D), then one-dimensional (1D) for all samples at 5-10 °C/min; three-dimensional (3D) or complicated than 3D, then 2D and 1D at ...
Title: Crystallization and Preliminary Diffraction Studies of Nudix Hydrolase YmfB from Escherichia coli K-1. VOLUME: 16 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Myoung-Ki Hong, Jin-Kwang Kim, Yeh-Jin Ahn and Lin-Woo Kang. Affiliation:Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Republic of Korea.. Keywords:Nudix hydrolase, YmfB, nucleoside triphosphatase, crystallization. Abstract: Nudix hydrolases are a family of proteins that contains the Nudix signature of the characteristic amino-acid sequence Gx5Ex5[UA]xREx2EExGU, where x represents any amino acid and U usually a bulky hydrophobic amino acid, such as Leu, Val, or Ile. They ubiquitously exist in more than 200 species. YmfB, a novel Nudix hydrolase found in Escherichia coli, is a nonspecific nucleoside tri- and di-phosphatase, which atypically releases inorganic orthophosphate from triphosphates instead of pyrophosphate. In this study, YmfB was cloned, overexpressed, and crystallized. Two different crystals, one belonging to an ...
20Li(2)O-80TeMO(2) glasses were heat annealed at different temperatures between T-g and T-x and studied by using XRD, FTIR spectroscopy and DSC techniques to understand the crystallization kinetics in this glass matrix. The infrared band structure of this glass is similar to what was observed in glassy TeO2. XRD results reveal the presence of three distinct crystalline gamma-TeO2, alpha-TeO2 and Li2Te2O5 phases during the crystallization process. This is a first report of gamma-TeO2 phase crystallization in this glass matrix. DSC results confinn the crystallization of three distinct structures in the glass. In summary, our results suggest a crystallization hierarchy on this glass matrix since the gamma-TeO2 and alpha-TeO2 phases crystallization occurs before the Li2Te2O5 phase crystallization. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.. ...
Vol 70: Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of Rv3705c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The Czochralski (CZ) crystallization process is used to produce monocrystalline silicon. Monocrystalline silicon is used in solar cell wafers and in computers and electronics. The CZ process is a batch process, where multicrystalline silicon is melted in a crucible and later solidi es on a monocrystalline seed crystal. The crucible is heated using a heating element where the power is manipulated using a triode for alternating current (TRIAC). As the electric resistance of the heating element increases by increased temperature, there are signi cant dynamics from the TRIAC input signal (control system output) to the actual (measured) heating element power. The present paper focuses on empirical modeling of these dynamics. The modeling is based on a dataset logged from a real-life CZ process. Initially the dataset is preprocessed by detrending and handling outliers. Next, linear ARX, ARMAX, and output error (OE) models are identi ed. As the linear models do not fully explain the process behavior, ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Duncan Johnstone.. The lecture will highlight three experimental strategies that we have developed for exploring crystallization pathways and structural properties of solids: (i) in-situ solid-state NMR techniques for understanding the time-evolution of crystallization processes, (ii) the study of X-ray birefringence for spatially resolved mapping of the distribution of molecular orientations in materials, and (iii) structure determination of organic materials when single crystals cannot be prepared.. Our in-situ solid-state NMR technique [1-3] for studying crystallization pathways exploits the ability of NMR to selectively detect the solid phase in heterogeneous solid/liquid systems of the type that exist during crystallization from solution. We have shown that this technique can establish the sequence of solid phases formed during crystallization processes [1] and can be exploited in the discovery of new polymorphs [2]. Our most recent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an Escherichia coli purine repressor-hypoxanthine-DNA complex. AU - Schumacher, Maria A.. AU - Choi, Kang Yell. AU - Zalkin, Howard. AU - Brennan, Richard G.. PY - 1994/9/22. Y1 - 1994/9/22. N2 - The purine repressor (PurR) is a DNA-binding protein, which together with a purine corepressor serves to regulate de novo purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. PurR belongs to the structurally homologous lac repressor family of transcription regulators. A PurR-hypoxanthine-DNA complex has been crystallized, with DNA encompassing the high affinity purF operator site and which is 16 base-pairs long with 5-deoxynucleoside overhangs on each complementary strand. The crystals diffract to better than 2.6 AÅ and take the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit cell dimensions a = 175.9 AÅ, b = 94.8 AÅ and c = 81.8 AÅ. The structure determination of this PurR-hypoxanthine-DNA complex will provide the first high resolution ...
View Notes - GEOL101 - Slideshow 101.10 Magma from GEOL 101 at Central Washington University. Magma Magma Melting Crystallization Processes that impact composition Magma Creation of
Crystallization processes are used across the chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries. In the chemical industry, the potash and caustic...
An initial tranche of results from day-to-day use of a robotic system for setting up 100 nl-scale vapour-diffusion sitting-drop protein crystallizations has been surveyed. The database of over 50 unrelated samples represents a snapshot of projects currently at the stage of crystallization trials in Oxford research groups and as such encompasses a broad range of proteins. The results indicate that the nanolitre-scale methodology consistently identifies more crystallization conditions than traditional hand-pipetting-style methods; however, in a number of cases successful scale-up is then problematic. Crystals grown in the initial 100 nl-scale drops have in the majority of cases allowed useful characterization of X-ray diffraction, either in-house or at synchrotron beamlines. For a significant number of projects, full X-ray diffraction data sets have been collected to 3 Šresolution or better (either in-house or at the synchrotron) from crystals grown at the 100 nl scale. To date, five structures ...
The protozoan parasites of the Apicomplexa phylum are devastating global pathogens. Their success is largely due to phylum-specific proteins found in specialized organelles and cellular structures. The inner membrane complex (IMC) is a unique apicomplexan structure that is essential for motility, invasion and replication. The IMC subcompartment proteins (ISP) have recently been identified in Toxoplasma gondii and shown to be critical for replication, although their specific mechanisms are unknown. Structural characterization of TgISP1 was pursued in order to identify the fold adopted by the ISPs and to generate detailed insight into how this family of proteins functions during replication. An N-terminally truncated form of TgISP1 was purified from Escherichia coli, crystallized and subjected to X-ray diffraction analysis. Two crystal forms of TgISP1 belonging to space groups P4(1)32 or P4(3)32 and P2(1)2(1)2(1) diffracted to 2.05 and 2.1 Å resolution, respectively ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystallization kinetics of sol-gel-derived (1-x)SrBi2Ta2O9-xBi3 TiTaO9 ferroelectric thin films. AU - Kwak, Woo Chul. AU - Sung, Yun Mo. PY - 2002/6. Y1 - 2002/6. N2 - The crystallization kinetics of Sr0.7Bi2.3Ta2O9 (SBT) and 0.7SrBi2Ta2O9-0.3Bi3 TiTaO9 (SBT-BTT) thin films formed by the sol-gel and spin coating techniques were studied. Phase formation and crystal growth are greatly affected by the film composition and crystallization temperature. Isothermal kinetic analysis was performed on the x-ray diffraction results of the thin films heated in the range of 730 to 760 °C at 10 °C intervals. Activation energy and Avrami exponent values were determined for the fluorite-to-Aurivillus phase transformation. A reduction of approximately 51 kJ/mol in activation energy was observed for the SBT-BTT thin films, and an Avrami exponent value of approximately 1.0 was obtained for both the SBT and SBT-BTT. A comparison is made, and the possible crystallization mechanism is ...
The work presented in this thesis represents the study of the polymorphism exhibited by several molecular, organic solid-state systems. In-situ techniques are used to explore aspects of the polymorphism and crystallization behaviour displayed by these systems. The crystal structures of new polymorphs and other solid phases are determined directly from powder X-ray diffraction data. Chapter 1 provides background information on the phenomenon of polymorphism and the importance of its study. In addition, the range of in-situ techniques that have been used to study crystallization and solid-state systems is described. Chapter 2 gives details on the experimental techniques used in the work presented in this thesis. These include powder X-ray diffraction (including the methodology behind structure determination from powder X-ray diffraction data), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal analysis techniques and dynamic vapour sorption. ...
A metal induced crystallization process is provided which employs an amorphous silicon film precursor deposited by physical vapor deposition, wherein the precursor film does not readily undergo crystallization by partial solid phase crystallization. Using this physical vapor deposition amorphous silicon precursor film, the amorphous silicon film is transformed to polysilicon by metal induced crystallization wherein the crystalline growth occurs fastest at regions that have been augmented with a metal catalyst and proceeds extremely slowly, practically zero, at regions which bear no metal catalyst. Accordingly, by use of the physical vapor deposition amorphous silicon precursor film in the process of the present invention, the metal induced crystallization process may take place at higher annealing temperatures and shorter annealing times without solid phase crystallization taking place. The process has a faster throughput than previous metal induced crystallization processes, results in a polysilicon
Crystallization from lipidic mesophase matrices is a promising route to diffraction-quality crystals and structures of membrane proteins. The microfluidic approach reported here eliminates two bottlenecks of the standard mesophase-based crystallization protocols: (i) manual preparation of viscous mesophases and (ii) manual harvesting of often small and fragile protein crystals. In the approach reported here, protein-loaded mesophases are formulated in an X-ray transparent microfluidic chip using only 60 nL of the protein solution per crystallization trial. The X-ray transparency of the chip enables diffraction data collection from multiple crystals residing in microfluidic wells, eliminating the normally required manual harvesting and mounting of individual crystals. In addition, we validated our approach by on-chip crystallization of photosynthetic reaction center, a membrane protein from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, followed by solving its structure to a resolution of 2.5 Å using X-ray ...
Author: Zhao, G. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2010; Keywords: Two-dimensional crystallization; Membrane protein; Eukaryotic; Structure; Electron crystallography; Cryo-EM; Title: Two-dimensional crystallization conditions of human leukotriene C4 synthase requiring adjustment of a particularly large combination of specific parameters
Glutathione synthetases catalyze the ATP-dependent synthesis of glutathione from L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteine and glycine. Although these enzymes have been sequenced and characterized from a variety of biological sources, their exact catalytic mechanism is not fully understood and nothing is known about their adaptation at extremophilic environments. Glutathione synthetase from the Antarctic eubacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis (PhGshB) has been expressed, purified and successfully crystallized. An overall improvement of the crystal quality has been obtained by adapting the crystal growth conditions found with vapor diffusion experiments to the without-oil microbatch method. The best crystals of PhGshB diffract to 2.34 Å resolution and belong to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 83.28 Å, b = 119.88 Å, c = 159.82 Å. Refinement of the model, obtained using phases derived from the structure of the same enzyme from Escherichia coli by molecular replacement, is in progress. The
Large crystals of the Escherichia coli F plasmid CcdB killer protein were grown from solutions containing 32% ammonium sulphate. The crystals belong to space group P4(2)2(1)2 with a = b = 104.52 A and c = 88.45 A or P2(1)2(1)2(1) with a = 77.62 A, b = 93.28 A and c = 141.44 A. Both crystal forms diffract to 2.6 A resolution. Structure determination by multiple isomorphous replacement is under way.. ...
Direct tabletting technique has been widely used successfully for various drugs. But it strongly depends upon the quality of the crystals used. Crystals could be generated employing any of the available techniques like sublimation, solvent evaporation, vapor diffusion, thermal treatment and crystallization from melt precipitation by change in pH, growth in presence of additives or the grinding. Thus the novel agglomeration technique that transforms crystals themselves directly into a compacted spherical form during crystallization process has been desired. The use of spherical crystallization as a technique appears to be efficient alternative for obtaining suitable particles for direct compression. Spherical crystallization is a particle design technique, by which crystallization and agglomeration can be carried out simultaneously in one step and which has been successfully utilized for improvement of flowability and compactability of crystalline drugs.
Given by Dr Fabric Gorrec, LMB, Cambridge, UK. Advances in macromolecular X-ray crystallography depends upon solving structures from samples containing purified and concentrated protein, DNA, RNA, and their complexes. Novel samples are however increasingly challenging to produce and crystallize hence innovations which enhance the process of structure determination are urgently required, especially to increase the yield of quality diffraction crystals.. Experienced researchers from related fields, students and non-experts alike will find this webinar essential as it provides both theoretical and experimental evidence-based aspects of macromolecular X-ray crystallography. Delegates will leave with a better understanding about the underlying reasons why it is necessary to formulate novel crystallization screens with relatively complex conditions, such as the ones found in the MORPHEUS screens.. ...
PLA (Poly Lactic Acid) is a bio-sourced and biodegradable polymer. It represents an alternative for polymers issued from petrochemical synthesis. Unfortunately, the crystallization kinetics of PLA is very slow and limits the possibility to extend its application in several industrials domains. The enhancement of the PLA crystallization kinetic can be obtained by addition of nucleating agents of by ordering the molecular chains during flow, as in processing conditions. During processing of thermoplastic polymer experiences several thermomechanical conditions influencing drastically its final properties and mechanical behavior. During injection molding process, macromolecules are oriented and ordered due to the shear and elongation imposed by the melt flow in the mold during the filling step. As a consequence, supplementary nucleation is created in the polymer, leading to the acceleration of the crystallization kinetics. In this work, we propose to analyze and to quantify the role of the flow, the ...
The main objective of this work is to propose a mechanism for the transfer of impurities into the sucrose crystal. To this end the transfer of impurities into the sucrose crystal was investigated, under crystallisation conditions similar to those found industrially. Most of the impurities, namely, colour bodies, potassium, calcium and starch, were selected on the basis of their industrial importance, but some exotic species, namely lithium and nickel, were chosen to represent other mono- and di-valent ions respectively, and dyes, such as methylene blue, which have been used in work with single crystal sucrose crystallisation, were included to make the results more general. A parameter to measure the rate at which impurities are transferred into the sucrose crystal was proposed. Experiments, carried out in a pilot plant evaporative crystalliser, were performed to establish the effect of selected factors on both the concentrations of impurities found in the sucrose crystal, and on the rate at ...
Javier Navarro, Ehud M. Landau, Karim Fahmy. Biolpoymers 67, 2002, pp 167-177.. Abstract: The primary step in cellular signaling by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is the interaction of the agonist-activated transmembrane receptor with an intracellular G-protein. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms requires the structural determination of receptor G-protein complexes that are not yet achieved. The crystal structure of the bovine photoreceptor rhodopsin, a prototypical GPCR, was solved recently and the structures of different states of engineered G-proteins were reported. Posttranslational hydrophobic modifications of G-proteins are in most cases removed for crystallization but play functional roles for interactions among G-protein subunits with receptors, as well as membranes. Bovine rhodopsin is reconstituted into lipidic cubic phases to assess their potential for crystallization of receptor G-protein complexes under conditions that may preserve the structural and functional ...
The facility provides low volume crystallisation services and screen making. Our customers can also order custom built premixed crystallisation solutions. Full crystallisation service includes composition of the crystallisation setup and scheduled imaging of the experiment for up to four months. The crystallisation droplets are set up using our Mosquito LCP or Oryx nanodrop robots, which can use as little as 100 nl protein per experiment and are suitable for membrane proteins and for air-sensitive samples. Scientists can examine the maturation of the project over time and can pick up the crystallisation plate for an X-ray experiment. The facility is equipped with a dedicated imaging station for combined visible/UV epifluorescence imaging of very small protein crystals (2μm ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystallization kinetics in liquid crystals with hexagonal precursor phases by calorimetry. AU - Padmaja, Sunkara. AU - Ajita, Narayanan. AU - Srinivasulu, Maddasani. AU - Girish, Sriram Ramchandra. AU - Pisipati, Venkata Gopala Krishna Murthy. AU - Potukuchi, Dakshina Murthy. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Design and characterization of Schiff based liquid crystalline nO.m compounds exhibiting hexagonal smectic phases are reported. Crystallization kinetics investigations are carried out in the liquid crystals (LCs) exhibiting hexagonal ordered orthogonal and tilted precursor LC phases by calorimetry. The Avrami theory is referred and results are analyzed. Influence of molecular ordering, structure, and dimensionality of the LC precursor phase on kinetics is studied. Effect of shape and flexibility of the molecule for nucleation and growth processes is investigated. Varying rate of kinetics reflects upon the transit of the system from constant type to independent type of nucleation. ...
Nonisothermal crystallization, melting behavior, and morphology of polypropylene (PP)/Easy processing polyethylene (EPPE) blends were studied by differential scanning alorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that PP and EPPE are miscible, and there is no obvious phase separation in microphotographs of the blends. The modified Avrami analysis, Ozawa equation, and also Mo Z.S. method were used to analyze the nonisothermal crystallization kinetics of the blends. Values of Avrami exponent indicated the crystallization nucleation of the blends is homogeneous, the growth of spherulites is tridimensional, and crystallization mechanism of PP is not affected much by EPPE. The crystallization activation energy was estimated by Kissinger method. The result obtained from modified Avrami analysis, Mo Z.S. method, and Kissinger methods were well agreed. The addition of minor EPPE phase favored to decrease the overall crystallization rate of PP, showing some dilution effect ...
Puppo, C., Martini, S., Cerdeira, M., Hartel, R.W., and Herrera, M.L. 2002. Effect of Processing Conditions on Crystallization Kinetics and Rheology of Milk Fat/Sunflower Oil Blends Formulated with and without the Addition of Emulsifiers. 93rd AOCS Annual Meeting & Expo, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (oral presentation). ...
Malonyl-CoA:acyl-carrier protein transacylase (MCAT), encoded by the fabd gene, is a key enzyme in type II fatty-acid biosynthesis. It is responsible for transferring the malonyl group from malonyl-CoA to the holo acyl-carrier protein (ACP). Since the type II system differs from the type I system that mammals use, it has received enormous attention as a possible antibiotic target. In particular, only a single isoform of MCAT has been reported and a continuous coupled enzyme assay has been developed. MCAT from Staphylococcus aureus was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the protein was purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 1.2 A ° resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.608, b = 86.717, c = 43.163 A ° , α = γ = 90, β = 106.330 °. The asymmetric unit contains one SaMCAT molecule ...
MyCrystals is designed as a user-friendly program to display crystal images and list crystallization conditions. The crystallization conditions entry fields can be customized to suit the experiments. MyCrystals is also able to sort the images by the entered crystallization conditions, which presents a unique opportunity to easily assess the effect of, for example, changing pH or concentration and thus establish the best conditions to be used for optimization ...
Our most popular line of protein crystallography screens - the Wizard Crystallization Screen Series. Shop now www.emeraldbiosystems.com.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystallization behaviors of laser induced Ge2 Sb2 Te5 in different amorphous states. AU - Do, Kihoon. AU - Lee, Dokyu. AU - Sohn, Hyunchul. AU - Cho, Mann Ho. AU - Ko, Dae Hong. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - We examined the crystallization behavior of Ge2 Sb2 Te5 in different amorphous states in the context of the kinetic approach using a laser heating method. We measured the changes in reflectance values after varying the applied laser pulse power and duration time and estimated the fraction of the crystalline phase of Ge2 Sb2 Te5 with a nanosecond time scale. The modification of the laser pulse sequence allowed a comparison between the crystallization behaviors of the as-deposited and melt-quenched amorphous states. We determined crystallization kinetics, such as nucleation and growth mechanisms, by combining the results from reflectance measurements and transmission electron microscopy. We observed the different crystallization behaviors between the as-deposited and ...
In this paper, we reported on the influence of PCL on the cold crystallization behaviour of PLA in different PLA/PCL blends, and on the influence of blending with PLA on the PCL crystallization behaviour and kinetics. The presence of PCL in the blends had a strong influence on PLA cold crystallization, and the extent of this influence was determined by the blend morphology. Successive self-nucleation and annealing (SSA) analysis of PCL crystallization in the blends showed that the presence and amount of PLA in the blends had a strong influence on the crystal size distribution in the main crystalline fraction of PCL. A kinetic analysis of the crystallization of neat PCL and PCL in the blends showed that the crystallization mechanism of the neat PCL changed from instantaneous/heterogeneous nucleation and two-dimensional growth to sporadic/homogeneous nucleation and two-dimensional growth with decreasing crystallization temperature, while for PCL in the blends, the mechanism over the whole ...
|jats:p|Human rhinoviruses, the major cause of mild recurrent infections of the upper respiratory tract, are small icosahedral particles. Over 100 different serotypes have been identified. The majority (91 serotypes) use intercellular adhesion molecule 1 as the cell-attachment site; ten serotypes (the minor group) bind to members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Three different crystal forms of the minor-group human rhinovirus serotype 2 (HRV2) were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique using ammonium sulfate and sodium/potassium phosphate as precipitants. Monoclinic crystals, space group |jats:italic|P|/jats:italic|2|jats:sub|1|/jats:sub|, diffracted at least to 2.8 Å resolution, and two complete virus particles were located in the crystal asymmetric unit. A second type of crystals had a compact cubic like morphology and diffracted beyond 2.5 Å resolution. These crystals belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group, with unit-cell parameters |jats:italic|a|/jats:italic| =
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of GMP reductase 2 from human. AU - Ji, Chao Neng. AU - Ying, Gang. AU - Deng, Ying Feng. AU - Chen, Shu. AU - Zhang, Wen Hong. AU - Shu, Guang. AU - Xie, Yi. AU - Mao, Yu Min. PY - 2003/6/1. Y1 - 2003/6/1. N2 - GMP reductase 2 from human has been expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 110.6, c = 209.8 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Diffraction data were collected to 3.0 Å with a completeness of 100% (100% for the last shell), an Rmerge value of 0.089 (0.189) and an I/σ(I) value of 7.3 (3.2).. AB - GMP reductase 2 from human has been expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 110.6, c = 209.8 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Diffraction data were collected to 3.0 Å with a completeness of 100% (100% for the last shell), an Rmerge value of ...
the space group was given incorrectly. The crystal belonged to the monoclinic space group P21 instead of the orthorhombic space group P212121. In Table 1, the average multiplicity should be 4.0 (3.2) instead of 2.1 (1.8); the number of unique reflections should be 22686 (1159) instead of 26108; and the total number of reflections should be 90744 (3709) instead of 435550. ...
V.M. Kiselev, O.A. Golovanova. Dostoevsky Omsk State University, Omsk, Russia. DOI: 10.26456/pcascnn/2019.11.307. Abstract: The paper considers the possibility of using the fractal analysis method for brushite-based samples, including modified with organic and inorganic additives. The dependencies between fractal parameters and properties of samples are determined. The results of the study can be used to develop the express methods used for analysis of synthetic biomaterials based on calcium phosphates.. Keywords: brushite, fractal analysis, precipitation, calcium phosphates, fractal dimension, biomaterials, drying drops.. Bibliography link:. Kiselev, V.M. Application of the fractal theory for studying brushit crystallization process in the presence of additives / V.M. Kiselev, O.A. Golovanova // Physical and chemical aspects of the study of clusters, nanostructures and nanomaterials: Interuniversity collection of proceedings / Ed. by V.M. Samsonov, N.Yu. Sdobnyakov. - Tver: TSU, 2019. - I. 11. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Novel crystallization process for germanium thin films: Surfactant-crystallization method. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The effects of Nb addition on crystallization kinetics and giant magneto impedance (GMI) properties of Fe39Co39Si8B14 amorphous wires prepared by in-water quenching system have been investigated. Thermal behaviors of the wires have been investigated by thermal electrical resistivity measurement and differential scanning calroimetry. The substitution of 4 at% Nb for Fe and Co increases crystallization temperature and merges two crystallization peaks into one peak, leading to a significant increase in thermal stability against crystallization for Fe37Co37Nb4Si8B14 wire. The formation of Fe2Nb phase due to addition of Nb increases the activation energy for crystallization from 425 to 550 kJ/mol. The GMI properties of the alloys are evaluated at driving current amplitude of 10 mA and a frequency of 400 kHz. The alloys show the single peak behavior in the GMI profile. The change in GMI properties increases from 10% at 0 at% Nb to 25% at 4 at% Nb. ...
We have introduced an in-situ Raman monitoring technique to investigate the crystallization process inside protein drops. In addition to a conventional vapour-diffusion process, a novel procedure which actively stimulates the evaporation from a protein drop during crystallization was also evaluated, with lysozyme as a model protein. In contrast to the conventional vapour-diffusion condition, the evaporation-stimulated growth of crystals was initiated in a simple dehydration scheme and completed within a significantly shorter time. To gain an understanding of crystallization behaviours under the conditions with and without such evaporation stimulation, confocal Raman spectroscopy combined with linear regression analysis was used to monitor both lysozyme and HEPES buffer concentrations in real time. The confocal measurements having a high spatial resolution and good linear response revealed areas of local inhomogeneity in protein concentration when the crystallization started. The acquired ...
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase catalyzes the first and rate-limiting reaction in pyrimidine catabolism. The enzyme contains one FMN, one FAD and four Fe-S clusters per subunit of 1025 amino acids as prosthetic groups. It is also the major determinant of bioavailability and toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in the treatment of solid tumors. Crystals of this enzyme diffracting to at least 2.5 A have been obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and belong to space group P2(1) (unit-cell parameters a = 82.0, b = 159.3, c = 163.6 A, beta = 96.1 degrees ), with two homodimers per asymmetric unit.. ...
Foot-and-mouth disease virus has been crystallized with the objectives of (1) determining the composition and conformation of the major immunogenic site(s) and (2) comparing its structure with those of the related polio, rhino and Mengo viruses, representing the other three genera of the picornaviruses. Most of the work has been done with virus strain O1BFS 1860, which crystallized as small rhombic dodecahedra of maximum dimension 0.3 mm. Virus recovered from crystals was infectious, and was indistinguishable from native virus both in protein composition and buoyant density. The stability of the crystals in the X-ray beam was comparable with that of other picornavirus crystals and they diffracted to a resolution of better than 2.3 A. Initial analysis of the X-ray diffraction data shows the virus to be positioned on a point of 23 symmetry in a close-packed array so that examples of all the icosahedral symmetry elements, except the 5-fold axes, are expressed crystallographically. The cell dimensions are a
p, Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the predominant mode of DNA double strand break (DSB) repair pathway in mammalian cells. At the heart of this repair pathway is Xrcc4-DNA ligase IV complex, which mediates ligation of the broken DNA strands. The C-terminal tandem BRCT repeats of human DNA ligase IV spanning residues 654-911 in complex with the functional fragment of Xrcc4 comprised of residues 1-203 were crystallized by the hanging drop vapour diffusion method at 20°C. Generation of single, well-packed, diffraction quality crystals suitable for structure determination involved usage of an Xrcc4 point mutant (A60E). Arriving at the crystallization condition included optimization of pH, variation of the precipitant concentration, investigation of the effects of small molecules, and alteration of the amount of crystal seed used as initial nuclei. A Crystal of selenomethionine-derived protein complex was grown using the above optimization steps and diffracted to 2.4 A resolution. Data ...
Infectivity of rotavirus is dramatically enhanced by proteolytic cleavage of its outer layer VP4 spike protein into two function domains, VP8* and VP5*. The carbohydrate-recognising domain VP8* is proposed to bind sialic acid-containing host cell-surface glycans, followed by a series of subsequent virus-cell interactions. Live attenuated human and bovine rotavirus vaccine candidates to prevent gastroenteritis have been derived from bovine rotavirus strain NCDV. The NCDV VP8*64-224 was over-expressed, purified to homogeneity and crystallized in the presence of a N-acetylneuraminic acid derivative. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.0 Šand the crystallographic structure of NCDV VP8*64-224 determined by molecular replacement ...
Abstract: The crystallization kinetics of goethite were studied colorimetrically under highly alkaline conditions (pH 10.1-12.2) at temperatures from 40° to 85°C. Color changes during crystallization from fresh precipitates, plotted on a*-b* colorimetric diagrams, were used to discriminate between pure goethite and mixtures of goethite and hematite. Only the b* value increased as goethite crystallization proceeded, and even a minor increase in the a* value revealed the existence of hematite. The rate of goethite crystallization, estimated from the b* value, could be modeled by a pseudo-first-order rate law. This rate depended both on pH and on temperature. Apparent activation energies for the reactions of 56.1 kJ/mol at pH 11.7 and 48.2 kJ/mol at pH 12.2 were estimated from Arrhenius plots.. ...
Two myotoxins isolated from B. asper (myotoxin II) and B. nummifer (myotoxin I) snake venoms have been crystallized and their diffraction properties are described. These myotoxins are phospholipase A2 variants which lack enzymatic activity; B. asper myotoxin II is a lysine-49 phospholipase. Crystals were obtained at room temperature by standard hanging-drop vapour diffusion methods. Crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.8 and 2.3 A, respectively ...
United States Patent 3,207,739 POLYMER CRYTALLlZATl0N METHOD Michael Wales, Walnut Creek, Calif, assignor to Shell Oil Company, New York, N.Y., a corporation of Delaware No Drawing. Filed Apr. 26, 1962, Ser. No. 190,244 18 Claims. (Cl. 26093.7) This invention relates to an improved crystallization method for the production of composites of solid crystalline polymers with crystallization modifying additives. The method leads to the production of modified polymers having improved physical properties. The invention relates more specifically to an improvement in a crystallization method for the production of shaped articles, and of resin composites suitable for use in producing shaped articles, from resins consisting substantially of crystallizable polymers, particularly those produced in the presence of low pressure catalysts of the Zeigler-Natta type. The invention is of outstanding advantage when used with isotactic polypropylene and will be illustrated largely with reference thereto. Solid ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impacts of alkaline on the defects property and crystallization kinetics in perovskite solar cells. AU - Chen, Yihua. AU - Li, Nengxu. AU - Wang, Ligang. AU - Li, Liang. AU - Xu, Ziqi. AU - Jiao, Haoyang. AU - Liu, Pengfei. AU - Zhu, Cheng. AU - Zai, Huachao. AU - Sun, Mingzi. AU - Zou, Wei. AU - Zhang, Shuai. AU - Xing, Guichuan. AU - Liu, Xinfeng. AU - Wang, Jianpu. AU - Li, Dongdong. AU - Huang, Bolong. AU - Chen, Qi. AU - Zhou, Huanping. PY - 2019/12/1. Y1 - 2019/12/1. N2 - Further minimizing the defect state density in the semiconducting absorber is vital to boost the power conversion efficiency of solar cells approaching Shockley-Queisser limit. However, it lacks a general strategy to control the precursor chemistry for defects density reduction in the family of iodine based perovskite. Here the alkaline environment in precursor solution is carefully investigated as an effective parameter to suppress the incident iodine and affects the crystallization kinetics during film ...
Crystallization of the Lunar Magma Ocean has been empirically modeled and its products inferred from sample observations, but it has never been fully tested experimentally. Presented in this study is the first experimental simulation of lunar differentiation. Two end-member bulk Moon compositions are considered: one enriched in refractory lithophile elements relative to Earth and one with no such enrichment. A two-stage model of magma ocean crystallization based on geophysical models is simulated and features early crystal suspension and equilibrium crystallization followed by fractional crystallization of the residual liquid. An initially entirely molten Moon is assumed. The study presented below focuses on the early cumulates formed by equilibrium crystallization, differences in mantle mineralogy resulting from different bulk Moon compositions and the implications for the source regions for secondary lunar magmatism. There are significant differences in the crystallization sequence between the two
The recombinant expression of Sa-iPGM was performed by growing transformed cells in Luria-Bertani broth at 37°C containing ampicillin (100 µg ml−1) and kanamycin (25 µg ml−1). Recombinant cell mass was induced with 100 µM IPTG when the OD600 reached 0.6 and was grown for 4 h at the same temperature. Harvested cells from 2 l culture were resuspended and lysed by ultrasonication in buffer A (10 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, 10 mM imidazole, 300 mM NaCl) containing leupeptin, pepstatin, aprotinin (0.1 µM each) and 0.2 µM phenylmethylsulfonyl chloride (PMSF) as protease inhibitors. The lysate was centrifuged at 22 000g at 4°C for 40 min. The supernatant was loaded onto Ni-NTA Sepharose High Performance affinity matrix (GE Healthcare Biosciences) pre-equilibrated with buffer A. The column was then washed extensively with buffer A to remove bound contaminants. Recombinant His6-tagged Sa-iPGM was finally eluted with buffer B (10 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, 300 mM NaCl, 50 mM imidazole). The eluted protein was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic data analysis of filamin a repeats 14-16. AU - Aguda, Adeleke Halilu. AU - Sakwe, Amos Malle. AU - Rask, Lars. AU - Robinson, Robert Charles. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - Human filamin A is a 280 kDa protein involved in actin-filament cross-linking. It is structurally divided into an actin-binding headpiece (ABD) and a rod domain containing 24 immunoglobulin-like (Ig) repeats. A fragment of human filamin A (Ig repeats 14-16) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified protein was crystallized in 1.6 M ammonium sulfate, 2% PEG 1000 and 100 mM HEPES pH 7.5. The crystals diffracted to 1.95 Å and belong to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 50.63, b = 52.10, c = 98.46 Å, α = β = γ = 90°.. AB - Human filamin A is a 280 kDa protein involved in actin-filament cross-linking. It is structurally divided into an actin-binding ...
The present invention relates to a process for continuously crystallizing fructose anhydride using a seed crystallization tank and a crystallization tank separated from each other, comprising feeding an aqueous fructose solution containing at least 90% of fructose and containing at least 87 W/W % of solid and an aqueous solution containing a great deal of crystals in an amount of 0.5 to 5 times that of said fructose solution into a seed crystallization tank equipped with a high speed agitator, mixing the mixture at 40 to 50 C. at a high speed, introducing the obtained mixture into a crystallization tank and gradually cooling the mixture under condition under which new crystals do not form spontaneously to thereby grow the crystals. The present invention can realize the crystallization at a low temperature of 40 to 50 C. or below and prevents the decomposition and the polymerization of fructose which often occur above 50 C. by mixing an aqueous fructose solution and a great deal of crystals at a
As an alternative to conventional Group I and II separation methods (such as adding a chemical agent and ion exchange), melt crystallization processes, zone freezing, and layer melt crystallization were tested for the separation (or concentration) of cesium and strontium fission products in a LiCl waste salt generated from an electrolytic reduction process of a spent oxide fuel. In these melt crystallization processes, impurities (CsCl and SrCl2) are concentrated in a small fraction of the LiCl salt by the solubility difference between the melt phase and the crystal phase. As experimental variables, initial molten salt temperature, crucible rising velocity in the zone freezing case, and cooling air flow rate in the layer crystallization case were used. In the zone freezing process, although the operating time is long (1.7 mm/h of crucible rising velocity) when assuming a LiCl salt reuse rate of 90 wt%, ,90% separation efficiency for both CsCl and SrCl2 was shown. In the layer crystallization ...
In this paper we study the crystallisation processes of Cu-Fe-Ni-S quaternary system which is the basis for nickel-copper sulphide ores. Experimental sample of the initial bulk composition (% mol): Cu = 17.19, Fe = 19.05, Ni = 19.66, S = 44.10 was synthesized using the quazi-equilibrium directional crystallization method. The results of the microscopy study have shown that the produced ingot consists of 6 zones with different phase and chemical compositions. The main part of the ingot is zone IV. The samples extracted from this zone were examined by methods of differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-tay spectrometry (EDS). Microscopic studies suggest that the ingot in this zone is characterised by the coexistence of tenite and bornite solid solutions (tss and bnss correspondingly), but upon further cooling tss is subject to decomposition into daughter phases. The obtained data, though, can also be interpreted as the crystallization of the ...
Crystallization behavior of amorphous Mg65Cu25Y10 alloy is reviewed in this paper, including the effect of the charac-teristic of DSC curve, preparation condition and alloying on Crystallization behavior, and the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystalline forming. It has been proposed that the brittleness of melt - spun amorphous Mg65Cu25Y10 alloy results from the nanodispersion of Mg2Cu intermetallic phase.
Authors: Rachel A North, Sarah A Kessans, Sarah C Atkinson, Hironori Suzuki, Andrew JA Watson, Benjamin R Burgess, Lauren M Angley, Andre O Hudson, Arvind Varsani, Michael DW Griffin, Antony J Fairbanks, Renwick CJ Dobson
Degree of crystallinity, crystal morphology, and crystallite size affect many physical properties of semi-crystalline polyesters, including mechanical strength, optical clarity, and biodegradability. Inspired by the literature related to solvent vapor annealing (SVA) in block copolymer films and solvent-induced crystallization in semi-crystalline polymers, we are studying how SVA treatments impact crystal morphology. Using poly(ε-caprolactone) as a model polymer for our studies, we have conducted in-situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments to determine when/if polymer crystals dissolve during solvent uptake and at what solvent concentrations recrystallization occurs during solvent removal. Additionally, we have examined polymer morphology across multiple length scales using a combination of optical microscopy, profilometry, and atomic force microscopy ...
Time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses were used to study the isothermal crystallization and remelting of poly(ethylene isophthalate-co-terephthalate)s containing 0-10 mol % isophthalate unit. For each of the polymers considered, evidence of the formation of both primary and secondary crystals was found in the SAXS pattern and its invariant Q, as well as in the DSC thermogram, which showed multiple melting endotherms. The melting of secondary crystals was found to shift significantly toward the high-temperature region with increasing crystallization time, indicating that the secondary crystals become thick and perfect over time. The thickness of the lamellar crystals was found to be very sensitive to the crystallization temperature, but no thickening was observed throughout the entire crystallization run, regardless of composition. The formation of secondary crystals, which favorably occurs during the later stages of ...
Changes in the molecular structure of striated muscle during contraction can be determined owing to corresponding changes in X-ray diffraction data. The work presented in this thesis analyses X-ray diffraction patterns obtained from frog sartorius muscles using Synchrotron Radiation at two distinctly different stages of the contractile cycle; rest and peak of isometric plateau.;Two-dimensional theoretical diffraction patterns were produced from a three-dimensional computer model of striated muscle and compared with experimental X-ray diffraction data. Modifications were made to both the thick and thin filaments situated within a hexagonal lattice, within the model, however the emphasis of the work was upon the protein myosin. In particular, the configuration, orientation and axial distribution of the myosin heads were analysed until the meridional intensity profile was comparable with experiment. Additionally, the dominant equatorial and row line reflections were modelled to fully define the ...
The thermodynamically stable Form II of the antidiabetic drug tolbutamide exhibits a thin fiber needle shape which renders it intractable for isolation and downstream processing. This work implements two in situ process analytical technology (PAT) methods, namely, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) with orthogonal partial least-squares- principal component analysis (OPLS-PCA) for monitoring solute concentration, and Raman spectroscopy with dynamic PCA based multivariate statistical process monitoring (MSPM) for detection of solid form purity, to derive the robust design space for cooling crystallization of the desired Form IL. © 2011 American Chemical Society ...
This study utilizes differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to characterize the thermodynamics, kinetics and crystallization b processes of a new Pt₅₇.₃Cu₁₄.₆Ni₅.₃P₂₂.₈ bulk metallic glass forming alloy. The heat capacity of the alloy is measured for the crystalline, glassy, and supercooled liquid phases. This data is used to obtain thermodynamic driving forces for crystallization and quantify the thermodynamic fragility. Kinetic properties of the alloy are investigated by observing the glass transition under different heating rates. The heating rate dependence of the glass transition is then used to calculate the kinetic fragility and estimate how the materials viscosity varies with temperature. DSC is also used to observe the crystallization event at variety of temperatures and generate a Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT) diagram for crystallization. The crystallization results and TTT diagram are compared with thermodynamic and kinetic data using classical ...
1. The present invention uses the aluminum-induced crystallization process to convert the amorphous germanium layer into a P-type polycrystalline silicon-germanium layer. Therefore, the present invention has a simple, reliable and low-cost fabrication process. 2. The obtained P-type polycrystalline silicon-germanium layer can convert sunlight of longer wavelengths into electric energy. Therefore, the present invention can apply to fabricate a solar cell of high photoelectric conversion efficiency. 3. The aluminum layer is formed on the bottom of the solar cell through the aluminum-induced crystallization process and exempts the present invention from fabricating additional bottom electrodes. Therefore is further reduced the fabrication cost of the present invention. 4. The N-type amorphous silicon-germanium layer, the P-type monocrystalline silicon substrate, and the P-type polycrystalline silicon-germanium layer can respectively extract the energies of the light having shorter wavelengths, the ...
Kokobera virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging, like West Nile virus, to the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex. The flavivirus genus is characterized by a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. The unique open reading frame of the viral RNA is transcribed and translated as a single polyprotein which is post-translationally cleaved to yield three structural and seven nonstructural proteins, one of which is the NS3 gene that encodes a C-terminal helicase domain consisting of 431 amino acids. Helicase inhibitors are potential antiviral drugs as the helicase is essential to viral replication. Crystals of the Kokobera virus helicase domain were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P3121 (or P3221), with unit-cell parameters a = 88.6, c = 138.6 Å, and exhibit a diffraction limit of 2.3 Å.. ...
Outer membrane proteins are structurally distinct from those that reside in the inner membrane and play important roles in bacterial pathogenicity and human metabolism. X-ray crystallography studies on |40 different outer membrane proteins have revealed that the transmembrane portion of these proteins can be constructed from either beta-sheets or less commonly from alpha-helices. The most common architecture is the beta-barrel, which can be formed from either a single anti-parallel sheet, fused at both ends to form a barrel or from multiple peptide chains. Outer membrane proteins exhibit considerable rigidity and stability, making their study through x-ray crystallography particularly tractable. As the number of structures of outer membrane proteins increases a more rational approach to their crystallization can be made. Herein we analyse the crystallization data from 53 outer membrane proteins and compare the results to those obtained for inner membrane proteins. A targeted sparse matrix screen for
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We are pleased to announce an upcoming themed issue focussing on ionic liquids, with guest editors Mark Muldoon, Peter Nockemann and Cristina Lagunas-Castedo based at Queens University, Belfast. It is our pleasure to invite you to contribute to this themed issue.. The unique physical and chemical properties of ionic liquids as solvents and the potential to tune and control these properties by selecting the appropriate cations and anions, make ionic liquids remarkably versatile for many applications. Recent publications demonstrate their increasing impact on crystal engineering, on materials and nanoscale synthesis, as well as for crystallisation processes.. Contributions in both experimental and theoretical aspects are most welcome. Ideally, contributions should be within the scope of a) the use of ionic liquids as solvents for crystallisation processes; b) ionic liquids for the synthesis of nanocrystalline materials and porous materials; c) the use of ionic liquids for co-crystallisation or ...
The crystallisation kinetics of AO-Al(2)O(3)-SiO(2)-B(2)O(3) glasses (A = Ba, Ca, Mg) was investigated using DTA, XRD, and microstructural studies. Moreover, the influence of nucleating agents such as TiO(2), ZrO(2), Cr(2)O(3), and Ni on MgO base glasses was elucidated. The glasses are of interest for the development of sealants in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). The activation energy of crystal growth, E(a), was evaluated for the different glasses using the modified Kissinger equation. The preparation method of the glasses seems to determine whether surface or bulk nucleation is the dominant mechanism. The E(a) values vary between 330 and 622 kJ/mol. The nucleating agents tend to enhance E(a) except ZrO(2). An increase of the Al(2)O(3) concentration induces phase separation and decreases E(a). The results are discussed on the basis of the structural role and chemical properties of the Al ions as well as with respect to the possible use of the glasses in SOFC. (C) 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers ...
Azevedo, S.F., Chorao, J., Goncalves and M.J., Bento., L.S.M. 1994, Monitoring crystallization, Part II, International Sugar Journal, 96, (1141): 18-26. Belhami, R. and Mathlouti, M. 2004, The effect of impurities on sucrose crystal shape and growth, Current Topics in Crystal Growth Research, .7: 63-70.. Chen, J.C.P. and Chou, C.C. 1993, Cane sugar handbook, 12th Edition, J. Wiley & Sons Inc.. Georgieva, P., Meireles, M.J. and Azevedo, S.F. 2003, Knowledge-based hybrid modeling of batch crystallization when accounting for nucleation, growth and agglomeration phenomena, Chemical Engineering Science, 58: 3699-3713. Heffels, S.K., de Jong, E.J. and Sinke, D.J. 1987, Growth rate of small crystals at 70ºC., Zuckerindustrie, 112 (.6). McCabe, W.L., Smith J.C, 2004, Unit operations of chemical engineering, 7th edn., McGraw-Hill.. Pot, A. 1983, Industrial sucrose crystallization, Thesis, Technical University, Delft.. Rodrigez, M. 1980, Descripcion matematica y control automatico del ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ti-in-zircon thermometry and crystallization modeling support hot grenville granite hypothesis. AU - Moecher, D. P.. AU - McDowell, S. M.. AU - Samson, S. D.. AU - Miller, C. F.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Quantitative modeling of crystallization histories using the program rhyolite-MELTS indicates that zircon crystallization in 1.0 to 1.2 Ga Grenville granitoids with Zr concentrations of 300-1200 ppm begins at 930-1000 °C, and always after onset of crystallization of most other phases (pyroxenes, feldspars, quartz, apatite, ilmenite). Zircon saturation temperatures, calculated from whole-rock compositions and Zr concentrations for modeled samples, range from 835 to 997 °C. Zircon in the two samples with the highest Zr (1201 and 829 ppm) analyzed by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) yielded Ti contents of 10-77 ppm, corresponding to Ti-in-zircon temperatures as high as 1035 °C and 915 °C, respectively. These are among the highest Ti-in-zircon temperatures ...
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Commingled biocomposites based on polypropylene/jute yarns were prepared using commingling technique. The thermal and calorimetric behaviour of these commingled composites were studied with respect to fibre content and various chemical treatments. The thermal stability of the composites was found to be in between that of jute fibre and neat polypropylene (PP). Different chemical treatments increased the thermal stability of the composites due to increased interfacial adhesion between the matrix and reinforcement. Jute yarn acts as nucleating agents and favours the process of crystallisation thereby increasing the crystallisation temperature. Chemical treatments further increased the crystallisation temperature as a result of better interfacial adhesion between jute yarn and PP matrix. The close proximity of jute yarns weakens the mechanical bonds between PP molecules resulting in marginal lowering of melting temperatures. Polarized optical microscopic studies revealed the formation of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystallization kinetics of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) thin films on various materials. AU - Fondren, Zachary T.. AU - Fondren, Nadia S.. AU - McKenna, Gregory. AU - Weeks, Brandon. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. M3 - Article. JO - Applied Surface Science. JF - Applied Surface Science. SN - 0169-4332. ER - ...
2-(Adamantan-1-yl)-2H-isoindole-1-carbonitrile (1) has been identified as a neurobiological fluorescent ligand that may be used to develop receptor and enzyme binding affinity assays. Compound 1 was synthesised using an optimised microwave irradiation reaction and crystallised from ethanol. Crystallization occurred in the orthorhombic space group P212121 with unit cell parameters: a = 6.4487(12) Å, b = 13.648(3) Å, c = 16.571(3) Å, V = 1458(5) Å3, Z = 4. Density functional theory (DFT) (B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p)) calculations of 1 were carried out. Results showed that the optimised geometry is similar to the crystal structure parameters with a root-mean-squared deviation of 0.143 Å. Frontier molecular orbital energies and net atomic charges are discussed with a focus on potential biological interactions. Docking experiments within the active site of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) protein crystal structure were carried out and analysed. Important binding interactions between the DFT optimised
Is the Ideal Protein Weight Loss Method safe for people on blood pressure and fluid medication?Is the Ideal Protein Weight Loss Method safe for people on blood pressure and fluid medication?Is the Ideal Protein Weight Loss Method safe for people on blood pressure and fluid medication?Is the Ideal Protein Weight Loss Method safe for people on blood pressure and fluid medication?Is the Ideal Protein Weight Loss Method safe for people on blood pressure and fluid medication?Is the Ideal Protein Weight Loss Method safe for people on blood pressure and fluid medication?. ...
Glass transition and crystallization behavior of several Mg-Ni-Nd metallic glasses has been systematically studied by temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC). The glass transition transformation of alloys Mg75Ni10Nd15 and Mg77Ni 18Ni5, which cannot be detected in conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) heating scans, was observed through TMDSC measurements. It was concluded that the signal of the glass transition on the DSC scans overlapped with the relatively large heat release from the primary crystallization of either intermetallic Mg3Nd phase in glassy Mg75Ni10Nd15 alloy or Mg2Ni phase in amorphous alloy Mg77Ni18Ni5. Increasing the content of Ni in alloy Mg75Ni10Nd 15 can suppress the precipitation processes of Mg3Nd, and results in the appearance of glass transition transformation on DSC heating curves. This confirmed and verified our TMDSC measurements. Clear observation of glass transition and understanding of crystallization micro-mechanism in such ...
Crystallization[edit]. Main article: Crystallization (love). In Stendhal's 1822 classic On Love he describes or compares the " ... This journey or crystallization process (shown above) was detailed by Stendhal on the back of a playing card while speaking to ... In a word, in Bologna "crystallization" has not yet begun. When the journey begins, love departs. One leaves Bologna, climbs ...
Crystallization[edit]. There are four ways in which a racemate can be crystallized, depending on the substance; three of which ... There are various methods, including crystallization, chromatography, and the use of enzymes. The first successful resolution ...
Crystallization[edit]. Main article: Crystallization. Most liquids freeze by crystallization, formation of crystalline solid ... Crystallization consists of two major events, nucleation and crystal growth. "Nucleation" is the step wherein the molecules ... In spite of the second law of thermodynamics, crystallization of pure liquids usually begins at a lower temperature than the ...
Crystallization[edit]. Further information: Crystallization, Recrystallization (chemistry) § Single perfect crystals (for X-ray ... Impurities in the molecules or in the crystallization solutions are often inimical to crystallization. Conformational ... 1999). Crystallization of Nucleic Acids and Proteins: A Practical Approach (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0- ... Rupp B, Wang J (November 2004). "Predictive models for protein crystallization". Methods. 34 (3): 390-407. doi:10.1016/j.ymeth. ...
Crystallization and melting. Thermal transitions in (A) amorphous and (B) semicrystalline polymers, represented as traces from ... Instead, crystallization and melting refer to the phase transitions between two solid states (i.e., semi-crystalline and ... Whereas crystallization and melting are first-order phase transitions, the glass transition is not.[51] The glass transition ... In polymers, crystallization and melting do not suggest solid-liquid phase transitions, as in the case of water or other ...
Phase change (crystallization and condensation)[edit]. Supersaturated solutions will also undergo crystallization under ... Crystallization will occur to allow the solution to reach a lower energy state.(Keep in mind that this process can be ... "1 Introduction to protein crystallisation". www.xray.bioc.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 2015-04-21.. ... If a string or stick is present in the solution as it cools, the crystallization will occur on that solid and create a candy. ...
Crystallization is the process of forming a crystalline structure from a fluid or from materials dissolved in a fluid. (More ... In practice, large salt crystals can be created by solidification of a molten fluid, or by crystallization out of a solution. ... Crystallization is a complex and extensively-studied field, because depending on the conditions, a single fluid can solidify ... The vast majority of igneous rocks are formed from molten magma and the degree of crystallization depends primarily on the ...
Crystallization. Finally, norm crystallization refers to how much variance exists within the curve; translated from the ... A group norm like how many cups of coffee first years should drink would probably have low crystallization since a lot of ... Showing the overall group norm, the return potential model in Figure 1 does not indicate the crystallization. However, a return ... the norm of not plagiarizing another student's work would likely have high crystallization, as people uniformly agree on the ...
Fractional crystallization. Fractional freezing Hydrothermal synthesis. Kyropoulos process. Laser-heated pedestal growth. Micro ...
For the crystallization of hard spheres the classical theory is a very reasonable approximate theory.[8] So for the simple ... The most common crystallisation process on Earth is the formation of ice. Liquid water does not freeze at 0 °C unless there is ... Experimental observations on the nucleation times for the crystallisation of small volumes[edit]. It is typically difficult to ... Botsaris, GD (1976). "Secondary Nucleation - A Review". In Mullin, J (ed.). Industrial Crystallization. Springer. pp. 3-22. doi ...
Crystallization of thaumatinEdit. Since thaumatin crystallizes rapidly and easily in the presence of tartrate ions, thaumatin- ... McPherson A, Delucas LJ (2015). "Microgravity protein crystallization". Npj Microgravity. 1: 15010. doi:10.1038/npjmgrav. ... "Effects of Protein Purity and Precipitant Stereochemistry on the Crystallization of Thaumatin". Crystal Growth & Design. 8 (12 ... tartrate mixtures are frequently used as model systems to study protein crystallization. The solubility of thaumatin, its ...
Crystallization and meltingEdit. Thermal transitions in (A) amorphous and (B) semicrystalline polymers, represented as traces ... Instead, crystallization and melting refer to the phase transitions between two solid states (i.e., semi-crystalline and ... Whereas crystallization and melting are first-order phase transitions, the glass transition is not.[47] The glass transition ... However, semicrystalline polymers (B) undergo crystallization and melting (at temperatures Tc and Tm, respectively). ...
CrystallizationEdit. Ostwald studied the crystallization behavior of solids, especially those solids that are capable of ... Related to solubility and crystallization was Ostwald's finding that dissolution of a solid depends on the size of the crystal ... In certain circumstances, the result of this periodic crystallization behavior is easily visually observed, for example, in ... Ostwald recognized that substances can crystallize in a periodic fashion wherein the crystallization behavior follows a spatial ...
"Crystallization". Acta Crystallogr. F. 61 (Pt 10): 945-8. doi:10.1107/S1744309105029246. PMC 1991305. PMID 16511203. Chikwana, ...
Mechanics of rubber spring systems; viscoelastic behavior of polymers; stress relaxation; failure processes; crystallization. A ...
Cold Crystallization Plant I: The cold crystallization plant is independent of the hot leach facility. It is operated under ... Drying Cold Crystallization Plant II: A second Cold Crystallization Plant (II) came into operation in September 2010 to give a ... The new plant is much similar to the Cold Crystallization Plant I, but it encompasses certain areas of modified processes and ... It includes the following processes: Carnallite Receiving; Flotation; Crystallization; Cold Leaching; ...
McPherson A, Delucas LJ (2015). "Microgravity protein crystallization". Npj Microgravity. 1: 15010. doi:10.1038/npjmgrav. ...
Methane hydrate crystallization. *High grade water recycling. *Seawater greenhouse. Multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) is a ...
Methane hydrate crystallization. *High grade water recycling. *Wave-powered desalination. Desalination is a process that takes ...
Because it has a high crystallization temperature (about 4,400 °C (7,950 °F)), diamond was probably the first mineral to form. ... Early mineralogy was determined by crystallization of igneous rocks and further bombardments. This phase was then replaced by ... These rocks were repeatedly recycled by fractional melting, fractional crystallization and separation of magmas that refuse to ... fractional crystallization; and partial melting. Allowable combinations of elements in minerals are determined by ...
Larsson, A. M. (2009). "Preparation and crystallization of selenomethionine protein". Protein Crystallization. IUL ...
Evaporation/Crystallization; The next step with thermal processes or evaporation, evaporates all the leftover water, collect it ...
See water of crystallization.[17]. *Linkage isomerism occurs with ambidentate ligands that can bind in more than one place. For ...
The crystallization of jack bean seed proteins has been studied extensively since the early 20th century and was of particular ... Canavalin has since been used as a model system for studying protein crystallization, most notably in the study of protein ... McPherson, Alexander; DeLucas, Lawrence James (2015-09-03). "Microgravity protein crystallization". NPJ Microgravity. 1 (1): ... though Sumner's group never fully characterized canavalin and it remained of little interest until its crystallization ...
... as a normal constituent of boar seminal plasma; purification and crystallization; site of formation and function ...
McPherson, Alexander; Delucas, Lawrence James (2015). "Microgravity protein crystallization". NPJ Microgravity. 1: 15010. doi: ...
... purification and crystallization". Biochem. J. 71 (3): 492-9. PMC 1196822. PMID 13638255. Appleby CA, Morton RK (November 1959 ...
Opinion still remains open, but most geologists now agree that in-place crystallization and density currents… ... produced by such phenomena as in-place crystallization of monomineralic layers on the floor of a magma chamber or density ... Other articles where In-place crystallization is discussed: mineral deposit: Magmatic cumulates: … ... produced by such phenomena as in-place crystallization of monomineralic layers on the floor of a magma chamber or density ...
A seed crystal is dropped into an unstable supersaturatedsolution of sodium acetate NaC2H3O2 and it completelycrystallized in front of your eyes. This chemistry more... demonstration is prepared by heating 700 grams of sodiumacetate in 50mL of water in a flask until all the soliddissolves. The solution is then cooled back to roomtemperature. Drop a seed crystal and see the very coolresults.
Crystallization and precipitation: Crystallization is a technique that has long been used in the purification of substances. ... Other articles where Crystallization is discussed: separation and purification: ... crystallizationUnit cells cluster together to form crystals in a process called crystallization.. Created and produced by QA ... In separation and purification: Crystallization and precipitation. Crystallization is a technique that has long been used in ...
High throughput crystallization techniques are frequently employed to generate the large numbers of high purity protein ... Which scientific fields use protein crystallization screening?. High-throughput protein crystallization screening is useful for ... High throughput crystallization techniques are frequently employed to generate the large numbers of high purity protein ... Crystallization screening: the influence of history on current practice - doi.org/0.1107/S2053230X1401262X. ...
... polymer crystallization from solution and melt, driven assembly, confined crystallization, polymer crystal structure-property ... 621i) Uniqure Crystallization Behavior of Isotactic Polypropylene in the Presence of L-Isoleucine and Its Inhibition and ... This session will focus on the crystallization of polymers for myriad applications. Theoretical, computational, and ... as well as research investigating emerging technologies through the exploitation of macromolecular crystallization. ***Note to ...
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B12 riboswitch Fluoride riboswitch RNA secondary structure Crystallization This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ... Price SR, Ito N, Oubridge C et al (1995) Crystallization of RNA-protein complexes. I. Methods for the large-scale preparation ... Peselis A., Gao A., Serganov A. (2016) Preparation and Crystallization of Riboswitches. In: Ennifar E. (eds) Nucleic Acid ... Pikovskaya O, Serganov AA, Polonskaia A et al (2009) Preparation and crystallization of riboswitch-ligand complexes. Methods ...
Crystallization or crystallisation is the process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized ... Tank crystallization is an old method still used in some specialized cases. Saturated solutions, in tank crystallization, are ... In chemical engineering, crystallization occurs in a crystallizer. Crystallization is therefore related to precipitation, ... In crystallization Nucleation is the step where the solute molecules or atoms dispersed in the solvent start to gather into ...
While different crystallizations of a construct imbue specificity, this specificity may come at a cost of being seen as ... Writing destined for peer review likely contains more specific language that refers to a given crystallization of the broader ... Each facet of the construct brings with it certain inherent assumptions; assumptions for this crystallization include that ... This crystallization is reflected in the specificity of the language I use to describe the construct of interest-here, I view ...
This journey or crystallization process, shown above, was detailed by Stendhal on the back of a playing card while speaking to ... Crystallization is a concept, developed in 1822 by the French writer Stendhal, which describes the process, or mental ... Stripped of its leaves by the winter it was certainly anything but dazzling until the crystallization of the salt covered its ... Here they discovered the phenomenon of salt "crystallization" and used it as a metaphor for human relationships. "In the salt ...
Crystallization can also be observed indirectly through its effects on stress-strain and fatigue behavior. Crystallization of ... Strain crystallizations effect on the micro-structure greatly increases the strength of the polymer or elastomer it is induced ... Strain-induced crystallization of natural rubber as detected real-time by wide-angle X-ray diffraction technique. ISSN 0032- ... Strain crystallization is a phenomenon in which an initially amorphous solid material undergoes a phase transformation due to ...
Crystallization from surfactant-free, monodisperse emulsions was investigated as a method for controlling the crystal size ... The CV of the size of crystals produced by emulsion crystallization was as low as 14%, compared with 40% for seeded bulk ...
Here, we report experimental observations of a crystallization front propagating in a supercooled region of a three-dimensional ... 1, where the crystallization progress is shown at two different times. Freezing starts at the bottom, then the crystallization ... Figure 2: Series of colour-coded images of the crystallization process.. Consecutive images are 1/15 s apart. The colour ... Figure 3: Fractal structure of the crystallization front.. The plot shows how the fractal dimension of the 2D contour of the ...
Intensified Separation through Continuous Crystallisation comes with its own set of unique challenges. TNO has extensive ... Continuous Crystallisation. Intensified separation through continuous crystallisation comes with its own set of unique ... Of all the forms of intensified separation, TNO has the most knowledge and experience in the field of crystallisation. With a ... New advancements in the crystallisation process can reduce costs and increase quality and control during the production of ...
Crystallization of honey.. Artificial methods. For artificial crystallization of a solute from solution, the conditions must be ... Crystallization Process Systems. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0750655200. *Mullin, J. W. 2001. Crystallization, 4th ... Thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization. The nature of a crystallization process is governed by both thermodynamic and ... Acid-base extraction · Chromatography · Crystallization · Dissolved air flotation · Distillation · Drying · ...
The classical view on polymer crystallization basically focused on the expla- tion of a few macroscopically observable ... Polymer Crystallization Viewed in the General Context of Particle Formation and Crystallization ... Polymer Crystallization. Obervations, Concepts and Interpretations. Editors: Reiter, Günter, Sommer, Jens-Uwe (Eds.) ... A Comparative Study of the Mechanisms of Initial Crystallization and Recrystallization after Melting in Syndiotactic ...
A relatively small amount of a catalyst element for promoting crystallization is added to an amorphous silicon film, and an ... The amorphous silicon film is annealed at a temperature which is lower than a crystallization temperature of usual amorphous ... A film containing a catalyst element for promoting crystallization is closely contacted with the impurity region, or a ... the lower the temperature of crystallization is and the shorter the time of crystallization is. By the study of this inventors ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
The present invention can realize the crystallization at a low temperature of 40 to 50 C. or below and prevents the ... introducing the obtained mixture into a crystallization tank and gradually cooling the mixture under condition under which new ... containing a great deal of crystals in an amount of 0.5 to 5 times that of said fructose solution into a seed crystallization ... The present invention relates to a process for continuously crystallizing fructose anhydride using a seed crystallization tank ...
United States MITs Self-Assembly Lab has exhibited the Fluid Crystallization project as part of the 2013 Architectural League ... Fluid Crystallization / Skylar Tibbits + Arthur Olson Fluid Crystallization / Skylar Tibbits + Arthur Olson *01:00 - 28 July, ... Fluid Crystallization was made possible by support from the Department of Architecture, MIT and the Architectural League of New ... The Fluid Crystallization installation - a collaboration between MIT Self-Assembly Lab director Skylar Tibbits and The ...
For example, when in the absence of crystallization modifying additives the temperature of crystallization of a given ... This uniform distribution remains substantially unaffected during the crystallization, both when crystallization progresses ... Polymer crystallization method. US3332926 *. 21 Feb 1964. 25 Jul 1967. Allied Chem. Thermal degradation of polyolefins in the ... to 2 percent by weight, of a crystallization modifying salt Na X where m is the valence of X, and X is the anion of a ...
Crystallization - Download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation ... Heat of crystallisation.56 kg/s of a 40 per cent aqueous solution of the salt at 353 K? The and the required product rate of ... CRYSTALLIZATION. Student No:________ A hot solution of Ba(NO3)2 from an evaporator contains 30. For a feed solution of 100 kg ... heat of crystallization of (NH4)2SO4 is 75. . Calculate the cooling consist of the deca-hydrate (molecular mass = 322 kg/kmol ...
The foundation for the new method was laid in the 1990s with the method called "in meso crystallisation": the proteins are ... "Our procedure not only improved the crystallisation, but also produced extremely compact crystals belonging to a new ... and in meso crystallization of GLIC protein in a highly swollen... view more ... Design of ultra-swollen lipidic mesophases for the crystallization of membrane proteins with large extracellular domains. ...
and normalized by the area under the APAP diffraction peaks when crystallization was complete (. ) [4, 12, 21-24].. ... Impact of Additives on Heterogeneous Crystallization of Acetaminophen. Hsinyun Hsu,1 Lynne S. Taylor,2 and Michael T. Harris1 ... it would be interesting to investigate their combinational effects on crystallization. In this study, crystallization of ... At the crystallization temperature, 40°C, which is much lower than the melting point of APAP, crystal growth of APAP is under ...
Crystallization of the Complex of D-Amino-Acid Oxidase and Benzoate. *KUNIO YAGI1. , ... YAGI, K., OZAWA, T. & HARADA, M. Crystallization of the Complex of D-Amino-Acid Oxidase and Benzoate. Nature 188, 745-746 (1960 ...
Crystallisation definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up ... crystallisation. *. You can play at crystallisation there as much as you please. ... crystalli-, crystalliferous, crystallin, crystalline, crystalline lens, crystallisation, crystallite, crystallization, ... This crystallisation begins early, and makes the ice very dangerous and uncertain. ...
Results for crystallization equipment from Specac, AMETEK PI, Specac Gateway and other leading brands. Compare and contact a ... Any kind of crystallization and mechanical dewatering equipment can be replaced by an SGS type fluid bed. The final product ... Further applications are the supervision of crystallization or phase separation processes for a proper product identification. ...
Results for crystallization equipment from Environnement S.A. - ENVEA, Specac, NIRMaster and other leading brands. Compare and ... Further applications are the supervision of crystallization or phase separation processes for a proper product identification. ...
In an antisolvent crystallization, the solvent addition rate, addition location and mixing impact local supersaturation in a ... In an antisolvent crystallization, the solvent addition rate, addition location and mixing impact local supersaturation in a ... Seeding Studies For Crystallization Seeding is one of the most critical steps in optimizing crystallization behavior. When ... Seeding a Crystallization Process. Seeding is a key step in optimizing a crystallization process, ensuring a consistent ...
... they made possible the crystallization of these proteins. To further simplify the production and crystallization experiments we ... Alpha repeat proteins (αRep) as expression and crystallization helpers.. Chevrel A1, Mesneau A1, Sanchez D1, Celma L1, ... Artificial repeat proteins; Crystallization helper; Fusion protein; Protein complementation assay; Protein library ... these fusions cannot usually be used for crystallization. With specific expression partners like a cognate αRep this is no ...
  • The freezing process, also called crystallization, involves cooling salt water to form crystals of pure ice. (britannica.com)
  • High throughput crystallization techniques are frequently employed to generate the large numbers of high purity protein crystals needed for protein crystallography. (news-medical.net)
  • High-throughput protein crystallization screening is useful for any academic or industrial application for which the creation of well-refracting protein crystals is essential, most commonly for the purpose of accurately determining the structure of that protein. (news-medical.net)
  • Crystallization from surfactant-free, monodisperse emulsions was investigated as a method for controlling the crystal size distribution (CSD) of lactose crystals. (aiche.org)
  • The CV of the size of crystals produced by emulsion crystallization was as low as 14%, compared with 40% for seeded bulk crystallization. (aiche.org)
  • Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process of formation of solid crystals from a homogeneous solution or melt , or more rarely directly from a gas . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • One of the superlative properties of all metals is crystallization, and on the exact condition of the crystals in any metal often hangs every degree of usefulness. (chestofbooks.com)
  • The present invention can realize the crystallization at a low temperature of 40 to 50 C. or below and prevents the decomposition and the polymerization of fructose which often occur above 50 C. by mixing an aqueous fructose solution and a great deal of crystals at a high speed, whereby large and uniform crystals of fructose anhydride can be obtained in an enhanced yield. (google.com)
  • 2. A process according to claim 1, wherein said mixture removed from the lower portion of the seed crystallization tank and fed to the upper crystallization chamber is heated to dissolve fine crystals in said removed mixture. (google.com)
  • 4. A process according to claim 1 which comprises providing said crystallization tank with a low speed agitator which prevents crystals from being damaged. (google.com)
  • Once active preparations of protein were available, crystallization studies were performed and crystals were obtained. (mit.edu)
  • Our procedure not only improved the crystallisation, but also produced extremely compact crystals belonging to a new crystallographic group for this protein," says Mezzenga. (eurekalert.org)
  • Therefore, foreign surfaces can be used to dictate crystallization of molecules and form crystals with the desired properties. (hindawi.com)
  • Subsequently, the crystallization time has been reduced to two days, and the crystals now isolated have retained their full enzymatic activity. (pnas.org)
  • Finally, MIPT's scientists found a way to transfer membrane proteins embedded in nanodiscs directly to the lipid based crystallization matrix and grow membrane protein crystals suitable for high resolution X-ray diffraction studies. (eurekalert.org)
  • Industrial Fractional Melt Crystallization features generation of crystals by nucleation, crystal growth and the recovery of crystals from residual mother liquor. (sulzer.com)
  • In layer crystallization the crystals grow onto a cooled surface. (sulzer.com)
  • At the start of a crystallization process, the surface area of crystals present in the slurry is low - meaning nucleation can dominate over growth, regardless of other kinetic factors. (mt.com)
  • All you need for taking part in the global experiment - The art of crystallisation: What are the best conditions for growing the biggest crystals? (rsc.org)
  • It is known that crystallization of such ChG can improve their physical, mechanical, and thermal properties considerably, but it is difficult to produce IR-transmitting glass-ceramics properly because growing crystals is generally out of control during heat treatment, which makes the material opaque [ 5 , 6 ]. (degruyter.com)
  • In addition, not only is heterogeneous nucleation typically dominant in the formation of bulk crystals, but it is also, of course, crucial in the ever-growing field of crystallisation in confinement. (cecam.org)
  • Crystallization experiments were performed in hanging drops by vapor diffusion technique at 37 ° C, 19 ° C and 4 ° C. Crystals were grown in 20 µl droplets applied to the inside of the lid of sterile plastic Petri dish. (scripps.edu)
  • Created as part of her Spring/Summer 2010 collection called Crystallization, the designs were inspired by the transformation of liquid into crystals. (dezeen.com)
  • The technology offers compelling advantages in low-nanolitre crystallization trials by providing significant reagent savings and presenting seamless scalability for those crystals that require larger volume optimization experiments using the same vapor-diffusion format. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Continue these evaporations and crystallizations , till no more crystals will shoot in the liquor. (thesaurus.com)
  • Online and offline monitoring during crystallization may also provide valuable insight into nucleation and growth of the crystals as well as the polymorphic form. (amriglobal.com)
  • Supersaturation is the driving force of the crystallization process-the rates of nucleation and growth are driven by supersaturation within the solution. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In recent years, there are somewhat contradictory reports on the early stage of crystallisation, deviating from the classical nucleation and growth mechanism. (esrf.eu)
  • Previous work [13] shows that crystallization processes like nucleation and growth is also responsible for AE, but this will not be included in this work. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Of all the forms of intensified separation, TNO has the most knowledge and experience in the field of crystallisation. (tno.nl)
  • The aim of this BBSRC-funded post is to develop a novel methodology for membrane protein crystallisation that utilises NMR-derived information and very high magnetic fields. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Candidates with experience in membrane protein crystallisation and/or NMR are particularly encouraged to apply. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The Protein Crystallisation Diagnostics Facility (PCDF) is a multi-user instrument for the fundamental study of the processes of nucleation and crystallisation of biological macro-molecules, and specifically, how these processes are influenced by gravity. (esa.int)
  • The Protein Crystallisation Diagnostics Facility consists of a processing unit and an electronics unit. (esa.int)
  • The utilisation scenario for the Protein Crystallisation Diagnostics Facility is based on that of the European Drawer Rack - the host facility. (esa.int)
  • The Protein Crystallisation Diagnostics Facility is run in the European Drawer Rack that was launched into space inside the European Columbus laboratory in February 2008. (esa.int)
  • they require small sample volumes, provide high-throughput screening, and allow control of the protein crystallisation. (qub.ac.uk)
  • On this premise: Innovative "pharma-on-a-chip" continuous microfluidic devices for protein crystallisation will be designed and fabricated in collaboration with engineering in Queen's and protein engineers in Immunocore. (qub.ac.uk)
  • co-crystallization experiments with inhibitors and substrates were also performed. (mit.edu)
  • To further simplify the production and crystallization experiments we have explored the production of chimeric proteins corresponding to covalent association between the targets and their specific binders strengthened by a linker. (nih.gov)
  • Precipitation and crystal formation under these conditions are used to direct efforts for further crystallisation experiments. (els.net)
  • This single day event, presented by a selection of industrialists and academics in their field of expertise, will provide an introduction to this area, specifically initial crystallisation experiments, solid form selection and formulation and how these matters are handled using real industrial examples. (iucr.org)
  • The crystallization experiments were carried out in hanging drops by the vapor diffusion technique at room temperature (20 ° C). The solution in the crystallization drop was prepared by mixing 10 µl of phage solution with 10 µl of 5% ammonium sulfate in 0.04 M TRIS-HCl (pH 8.0), 0.15 M NaCl and 0.02% NaN3. (scripps.edu)
  • We offer different modes of access for different users: we can set up experiments for users who provide macromolecular material, we can provide training in robotic crystallisation screening and imaging for new users who will make regular use of the facility, and we can provide experimental advice to more experienced scientists. (psi.ch)
  • What can we do when high-throughput crystallisation experiments doesn't deliver? (psi.ch)
  • In conclusion, the unprecedented sensitivity realised in SAXS/WAXS experiments allowed us to detect the primary nucleation events in polymer crystallisation from melt. (esrf.eu)
  • In most practical circumstances, crystallization begins with heterogeneous nucleation on foreign substrates [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • By doing this, we believe that our workshop will achieve a step change in research in crystallisation and heterogeneous nucleation. (cecam.org)
  • This session will focus on the crystallization of polymers for myriad applications. (aiche.org)
  • Strain crystallization occurs in natural rubber, as well as other elastomers and polymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strain crystallization occurs when the chains of molecules in a material become ordered during deformation activities in some polymers and elastomers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystallization of polymers Some polymers that strain crystallize Polyethylene Polyethylene Terephthalate Some elastomers that strain crystallize Natural rubber (polyisoprene) Polychloroprene Some elastomers that do not strain crystallize Polybutadiene Styrene-butadiene Rao, I.J. (wikipedia.org)
  • This invention relates to an improved crystallization method for the production of composites of solid crystalline polymers with crystallization modifying additives. (google.es)
  • The invention relates more specifically to an improvement in a crystallization method for the production of shaped articles, and of resin composites suitable for use in producing shaped articles, from resins consisting substantially of crystallizable polymers, particularly those produced in the presence of low pressure catalysts of the Zeigler-Natta type. (google.es)
  • Crystallization is therefore related to precipitation, although the result is not amorphous or disordered, but a crystal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The suppression of crystallization prevents precipitation and sedimentation. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Further applications are the supervision of crystallization or phase separation processes for a proper product identification. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Crystallization kinetics are characterized in terms of two dominant processes, nucleation kinetics and growth kinetics, occurring during crystallization from solution. (mt.com)
  • This technique strikes the right balance between controlling supersaturation and excessive nucleation, while avoiding very long batch times (P. Barrett, B. Smith, J. Worlitschek, V. Bracken, B. O'Sullivan, and D. O'Grady 2005) A Review of the Use of Process Analytical Technology for the Understanding and Optimization of Production Batch Crystallization Processes. (mt.com)
  • Such crystallization processes can be adequately studied at the level of atomistic structural arrangement using numerous experimental measuring techniques, such as IR vibrational and Raman scattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nuclear magnetic resonance, etc. [ 7 - 12 ]. (degruyter.com)
  • My research into crystallization processes in magma chambers has involved investigation of both natural and artificial magmatic systems. (nmt.edu)
  • Crystallization processes of anorthoclase phenocrysts in the Mt. Erebus magmatic system: Evidence from crystal composition, crystal size distributions and volatile contents of melt inclusions. (nmt.edu)
  • Crystallization processes in an artificial magma: variations in crystal shape, growth rate and composition with melt cooling history. (nmt.edu)
  • The second part builds on the basics, exploring how crystallization processes can be developed, either batch-wise or continuous, from solution or from the melt. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Mixing and its influence on the crystallization as well as the mutual interference of down-stream processes with the crystallization are also treated. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Experienced scientists and engineers offer a fit-for-purpose approach to crystallization processes adapted for each stage of pharmaceutical development. (amriglobal.com)
  • The project investigates continuous mixing in pharmaceutical crystallisation and introduce rational design principles into development of mixing-controlled industrial crystallisation processes. (strath.ac.uk)
  • It is well known that many mixing-induced crystallisation processes are strongly dependent on how mixing is performed. (strath.ac.uk)
  • However, there is a very limited understanding of mixing phenomena in crystallisation processes. (strath.ac.uk)
  • This knowledge will help to introduce rational design principles into development of mixing-controlled industrial crystallisation processes. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Through orientation and crystallization processes , thermal properties for the material could be tailored to reach above 500 F. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • By examining the sequences of snapshots, the scientists hope to view a veritable motion picture of polymerization and crystallization processes in space. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The value of the crystallization activation energy [DELTA]E of -72.366 kJ/mol is about the same as that for isothermal crystallization, and this result indicates that the combined Avrami-Ozawa method is correct in describing the isothermal and nonisothermal crystallization processes for the BDIS (IA-12.5%) polyamide. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The increased rate of crystallization also yields reduced postextrusion shrinkage by reducing secondary crystallization processes that can cause further volume reduction and shrinkage in the solid state. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The chemistry involved in crystallization is potentially very complex, though the parameters that are frequently adjusted during optimization are: pH, dielectric constant of the solvent, salt presence in order to adjust the hydrophilic or hydrophobic interactions between the proteins, and the presence and concentration of stabilizing agents. (news-medical.net)
  • The foundation for the new method was laid in the 1990s with the method called "in meso crystallisation": the proteins are isolated and concentrated using stable water-lipid mixtures known as lipidic mesophases. (eurekalert.org)
  • Alpha repeat proteins (αRep) as expression and crystallization helpers. (nih.gov)
  • αReps binding specifically to proteins difficult to crystallize have been selected and in several examples, they made possible the crystallization of these proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Although chimeric proteins with expression partners are classically used to enhance expression, these fusions cannot usually be used for crystallization. (nih.gov)
  • A team of scientists from the Laboratory for Advanced Studies of Membrane Proteins at MIPT, Research Center Jülich (Germany), and Institut de Biologie Structurale (France) have developed a new approach to membrane protein crystallization. (eurekalert.org)
  • Due to their amphipathic nature, membrane proteins must be extracted from the cell membrane and solubilized in an aqueous solution to enable biochemical studies and subsequent crystallization. (eurekalert.org)
  • Direct use of membrane proteins embedded in nanodiscs for crystallization would be of great importance for structural biology, however, despite considerable efforts, researches were not yet able to demonstrate that this was possible. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the newly proposed approach, nanodiscs harboring membrane proteins "dissolve" in the crystallization matrix, after which crystallization is driven by the properties of the lipidic bilayer phase as a whole. (eurekalert.org)
  • Aggarwal A (1990) Crystallization of DNA binding proteins with oligodeoxynucleotides. (els.net)
  • It was shown, using SDS/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, that during the crystallization process the scaffolding proteins B and D dissociated from the procapsid particles and precipitated, leaving the degraded particles to crystallize. (scripps.edu)
  • This technology was applied in protein crystallization, successfully transferring a diverse set of proteins as well as hundreds of precipitant solutions from custom and commercial crystallization screens and achieving crystallization in drop volumes as small as 20 nl. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The acoustic technology was implemented in a workflow, successfully reproducing active crystallization systems and leading to the discovery of crystallization conditions for previously uncharacterized proteins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Crystallization of integral membrane proteins in general continues to be a challenge. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Introducing foreign substrates or additives is the common way to regulate polymorphism or kinetics of crystallization. (hindawi.com)
  • Expert speakers from around the world shared up to date developments on topics such as crystallisation, crystal structure, polymorphism and physical interactions in both model systems and real products. (soci.org)
  • Crystallization is a technique that has long been used in the purification of substances. (britannica.com)
  • Artificial crystallization includes two major groups of applications: crystal production and purification. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Fractional Melt Crystallization is one of the most powerful purification techniques available in process engineering. (sulzer.com)
  • When all conventional purification techniques find their limits, Fractional Melt Crystallization will succeed at giving you the purest product to meet the most demanding specifications. (sulzer.com)
  • Fractional Melt Crystallization features an environmentally friendly, energetically efficient and economically competitive process for separation and purification of organics. (sulzer.com)
  • This research report categorizes the protein crystallization & crystallography market on the basis of technologies (protein purification, protein crystallization, protein crystal mounting, and protein crystallography), products (analyzers and reagents), and end users (pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, government institutes, and academic institutions). (sbwire.com)
  • Major strategic developments take place in the field of protein crystallization and protein purification, which exhibit high-growth potential in the near future. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Dominant market players such as Rigaku, Jena Bioscience, Hampton Research, GE Healthcare, and MiTeGen introduced several automated workstations and purification systems for protein purification and crystallization studies in order to sustain their growth in this market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • After purification dynamic light (DynaPro, Wyatt) scattering enable us to investigate the hydrodynamic behavior of the received sample to judge its suitability for crystallization. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Crystallisation is a cost effective and easily scalable purification technique for the recovery of target products. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Crystallization is used at some stage in nearly all process industries as a method of production, purification or recovery of solid materials. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The book describes the breadth of crystallization operations, from isolation from a reaction broth to purification and finally to tailoring product properties. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • A discussion of the purification during crystallization serves as a link between the two sections, where practical aspects and an insight using theoretical concepts are combined. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Crystallisation is widely used for purification of pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals and advanced materials. (strath.ac.uk)
  • In order to unravel these scenarios of polymer crystallisation, we have reinvestigated the early stage of isotactic polypropylene (i-PP) crystallisation with unprecedented sensitivity and time resolution at the beamline ID02 using combined small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS, respectively). (esrf.eu)
  • Theoretical, computational, and experimental papers are welcome on topics including (but not limited to) polymer crystallization from solution and melt, driven assembly, confined crystallization, polymer crystal structure-property relationship, as well as research investigating emerging technologies through the exploitation of macromolecular crystallization. (aiche.org)
  • Macromolecular crystallisation. (els.net)
  • The Macromolecular Crystallisation Facility at the PSI is maintained by the SLS and the BIO division . (psi.ch)
  • If you are interested in using the facility, or in discussing any aspects of macromolecular crystallisation, we would be very glad to hear from you. (psi.ch)
  • There are many examples of natural process that involve crystallization. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many examples of crystallization in nature, some of which are noted below. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • There are various techniques for measuring crystallization in rubber, including: x-ray diffraction, specific heat changes, and density changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cold' crystallization in 80GeSe 2 -20Ga 2 Se 3 chalcogenide glass nanostructurized due to thermal annealing at 380°C for 10, 25, 50, 80, and 100 h are probed with X-ray diffraction, atomic force, and scanning electron microscopy, as well as positron annihilation spectroscopy performed in positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening of annihilation line modes. (degruyter.com)
  • Supersaturation is one of the driving forces of crystallization, as the solubility of a species is an equilibrium process quantified by Ksp. (wikipedia.org)
  • By plotting temperature vs. solubility, scientists can create the framework needed to develop the desired crystallization process. (mt.com)
  • Once an appropriate solvent is chosen, the solubility curve becomes a critical tool for the development of an effective crystallization process. (mt.com)
  • This theme includes research on understanding and predicting the solubility of drug compunds and their crystallisation behaviour including structure prediction and physical stability. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, the solubility of the substance and its dependences on process conditions and the various techniques of crystallization and their possibilities and limitations are discussed. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Solid form understanding and preliminary solubility data must be gathered to identify possible crystallization techniques and solvent systems for the design of a scalable process. (amriglobal.com)
  • Our scientists have access to specialized equipment for crystallization process development, including controlled laboratory reactors from 50 mL to 2 L, equipment for solubility and metastable zone width determination and in situ or at-line monitoring of crystal form, supersaturation, nucleation, particle size and morphology. (amriglobal.com)
  • The three primary factors that affect strain crystallization are the molecular structure of the polymer or elastomer, the temperature, and the deformation being applied to the material. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a polymer's molecular structure is too irregular, strain crystallization can not be induced because it is impossible to order the chains of molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Fluid Crystallization installation - a collaboration between MIT Self-Assembly Lab director Skylar Tibbits and The Molecular Graphics Lab director Arthur Olson - investigates hierarchical and non-deterministic self-assembly with large numbers of parts in a fluid medium. (archdaily.com)
  • Tailor-made auxiliaries that can have molecular recognition with crystallizing molecules have been used to change crystallization behavior [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However, molecular mechanisms governing rapid protein crystallization in vivo or in vitro are largely unknown. (pnas.org)
  • ii) Crystallisation in confined molecular systems, such as nanoporous materials and microemulsions. (cecam.org)
  • Nevertheless, crystallisation of protein is intrinsically more difficult and uncertain than for small molecules, particularly from complex mixtures, due to their large molecular weights, structural complexities and the presence of impurities. (qub.ac.uk)
  • By designing new molecular building blocks and using polymer self-assembly (crystallization, microphase separation, specific hydrogen bonding, and $\pi -\pi $ and other interactions), ordered structures of modified nanoparticles were assembled in the bulk and at the interface. (aps.org)
  • In all of these cases, positive and negative electric charges are produced by the mechanical separation of surfaces and during the crystallization process. (britannica.com)
  • Crystallization is also a chemical solid-liquid separation technique, in which mass transfer of a solute from the liquid solution to a pure solid crystalline phase occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intensified separation through continuous crystallisation comes with its own set of unique challenges. (tno.nl)
  • Fractional Melt Crystallization is a stagewise separation technique that relies upon liquid-solid phase transition and enables multicomponent mixtures to be split into narrow fractions, ultimately leading to top purities of selected components, through the virtue of selectivity found in solid liquid equilibria. (sulzer.com)
  • Fractional Melt Crystallization is most frequently encountered in the separation of organic materials ranging from isomers separations to tar chemical mixtures and from organic acids to Monomers. (sulzer.com)
  • Since the product from suspension crystallization is a slurry, the separation of residual mother liquor from large specific surface area is usually carried out in dedicated Equipment. (sulzer.com)
  • We can design, optimize or troubleshoot your crystallization process for product purity, recovery or solids separation and isolation. (amriglobal.com)
  • TNO applies its extensive knowledge and expertise in this area to provide fine chemical manufacturers with the exact tools needed to get the most out of continuous crystallisation. (tno.nl)
  • In Continuous Crystallisation, TNO leads the industry in technologies and methodologies that create pure, reproducible particles to exact specifications. (tno.nl)
  • Our expertise in the field of Continuous Crystallisation can be put to work to solve any of our partners' challenges. (tno.nl)
  • The aim of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of continuous mixing of miscible liquids involved in mixing-induced crystallisation. (strath.ac.uk)
  • In order to induce strain crystallization, the polymer or elastomer is stretched while its temperature is kept above its glass transition temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amorphous silicon film is annealed at a temperature which is lower than a crystallization temperature of usual amorphous. (google.com)
  • A relatively small amount of a catalyst element for promoting crystallization is added to an amorphous silicon film, and an annealing process is conducted at a temperature which is lower than the distortion temperature of a substrate, thereby crystallizing the amorphous silicon film. (google.com)
  • In suspension crystallization a melt or a solution is cooled below saturation temperature. (sulzer.com)
  • Azimuthal sectors of SAXS and WAXS patterns recorded simultaneously following a rapid temperature quench to the crystallisation temperature of 145°C (tIso evolves after the sample reached the isothermal condition). (esrf.eu)
  • These are schematic illustrations of a normal Pn3m cubic mesophase composed of MP :water (left), GLIC protein structure (middle), and in meso crystallization of GLIC protein in a highly swollen. (eurekalert.org)
  • Crystallization trials are set either following the "classical" vapour diffusion approach or in meso (lipidic cubic phase) using an Oryx 4 crystallization robot (Douglas Instruments). (hu-berlin.de)
  • Crystallization can also be observed indirectly through its effects on stress-strain and fatigue behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computed dependence of rubber's fatigue behavior on strain crystallization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Honey crystallization (nearly all types of honey crystallize). (wikipedia.org)
  • crystallization 1660s, noun of action from crystallize. (thesaurus.com)
  • We demonstrate that a specific domain is responsible for enhancing the rate of self-assembly, unveiling possible evolutionary mechanisms to enhance the kinetics of 2D protein crystallization. (pnas.org)
  • Many biomineralization systems start from transient amorphous precursor phases, but the exact crystallization pathways and mechanisms remain largely unknown. (mdpi.com)
  • The study of a well-defined biomimetic crystallization system is key for elucidating the possible mechanisms of biomineralization and monitoring the detailed crystallization pathways. (mdpi.com)
  • In this review, we focus on amorphous phase mediated crystallization (APMC) pathways and their crystallization mechanisms in bio- and biomimetic-mineralization systems. (mdpi.com)
  • Crystallisation starts with nucleation, and there are two possible mechanisms for nucleation. (cecam.org)
  • Therefore, selection of the chemical composition of the base glasses in combination with the mechanisms of controlled nucleation and crystallization are the driving forces for the design of microstructures of glass-ceramics with special properties not exhibited by glasses or sintered ceramics. (frontiersin.org)
  • The aim of this research topic is to allow young scientist to publish their results on mechanisms of nucleation and crystallization. (frontiersin.org)
  • Initial crystallisation trials are set up using a concentrated stock of protein-DNA complex of interest with premade formulations that sparsely sample crystallisation space. (els.net)
  • Strain crystallization is a phenomenon in which an initially amorphous solid material undergoes a phase transformation due to the application of strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • This volume introduces and reports on the state-of-the-art regarding both theoretical and experimental aspects of phase transitions in polymeric solutions or melts that lead to crystallization. (springer.com)
  • Jin W, Jiang S, Pan H, Tang R. Amorphous Phase Mediated Crystallization: Fundamentals of Biomineralization. (mdpi.com)
  • Because nanoparticles are very small and interact in liquid solutions, verifying their crystallization pathways through direct observation was not possible before liquid-phase electron microscopy, said Chen, who led the experimental portion of the study. (phys.org)
  • What we have observed is an intermediate amorphous phase that occurs along the crystallization pathway for nanoparticles-something not witnessed before this work," Chen said. (phys.org)
  • Nanocrystallites of Ga 2 Se 3 and/or GeGa 4 Se 8 phases and prevalent GeSe 2 phase extracted mainly at the surface of thermally treated samples with preceding nucleation and void agglomeration in the initial stage of annealing are characteristic features of cold crystallization. (degruyter.com)
  • The accepted theory of crystallization, developed in the first half of the previous century, predicts that without impurities, a small solid core generated at random in the interior of the droplet initiates the phase transformation. (medgadget.com)
  • Crystallization can occur from a solution, from the melt or via deposition of material from the gas phase (desublimation). (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The chapter describes how to design, prepare, and conduct crystallization screening of riboswitch-ligand complexes. (springer.com)
  • Pikovskaya O, Serganov AA, Polonskaia A et al (2009) Preparation and crystallization of riboswitch-ligand complexes. (springer.com)
  • A large number of crystal screens are now commercially available, including those designed for crystallisation of protein-nucleic acid complexes. (els.net)
  • Yokota, M. , Nakamura, R. and Doki, N. (2016) Organic Melt Crystallization as a Method for Synthesis of Supramolecular Complexes. (scirp.org)
  • Crystallization or crystallisation is the process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In crystallization Nucleation is the step where the solute molecules or atoms dispersed in the solvent start to gather into clusters, on the microscopic scale (elevating solute concentration in a small region), that become stable under the current operating conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The growing need to identify new ligands for the drug discovery process and the rising popularity of structure-based/rational drug design are factors that present opportunities for the protein crystallization & crystallography market. (sbwire.com)
  • Geographically, North America commanded the largest market share of the protein crystallization & crystallography market, followed by Europe. (sbwire.com)
  • produced by such phenomena as in-place crystallization of monomineralic layers on the floor of a magma chamber or density currents carrying mineral grains from the walls and roof of a magma chamber to the floor. (britannica.com)
  • Might not this possibly be capable of throwing some light on the phenomena of crystallization? (wikisource.org)
  • In addition to substrates, introducing additives is another popular approach to control crystallization. (hindawi.com)
  • Nevertheless, crystallizing without confinement, the additive-APAP interaction is more effective at controlling the crystallization of APAP, and the substrates did not have much effect. (hindawi.com)
  • and crystallisation in confinement. (cecam.org)
  • Mohsin Qasi investigates the physics behind the influence of spatial confinement and crystallization modifying additives on the crystallization of the most commonly used salt, NaCl. (uva.nl)
  • The crystallization of magma is a complex process because magma is a complex substance. (britannica.com)
  • Play media The crystallization process consists of two major events, nucleation and crystal growth which are driven by thermodynamic properties as well as chemical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of strain crystallization directly affects the micro-structure of the material by adding crystalline structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, kinetic measurements (at the individual particle level) of the crystallization process and its dynamics are of great interest. (nature.com)
  • New advancements in the crystallisation process can reduce costs and increase quality and control during the production of ingredients supplied to the pharmaceutical, food and household product industries. (tno.nl)
  • Crystallization is a valuable process for both research and industrial applications. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The solution that remains after a crystallization process is called the mother liquor . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The present invention relates to a process for continuously crystallizing fructose anhydride using a seed crystallization tank and a crystallization tank separated from each other, comprising feeding an aqueous fructose solution containing at least 90% of fructose and containing at least 87 W/W % of. (google.com)
  • However, effective and evidence-based crystallization process development and improvement is more nuanced. (mt.com)
  • Fractional Melt Crystallization is a solvent-free process. (sulzer.com)
  • When a linear cooling rate is applied (as shown on the right) to a crystallization process, it is possible for supersaturation to build up initially when there is no surface area available for growth. (mt.com)
  • In order to try to boost the efficiency of the crystallization process, Joachimiak and his colleagues at the MCSG and SGC inserted a protease-a certain type of enzyme that breaks down the bonds that connect a protein's amino acids. (anl.gov)
  • Our findings could advance the understanding of the freezing process, or 'crystallization,' in many areas of nature and technology," said Eli Sutter, a scientist at Brookhaven's Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) and the lead author of the study. (medgadget.com)
  • Crystallization is a natural occurring process but also a process abundantly used in the industry. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • We take a quality by design approach to crystallization process development, aiming for the consistent preparation of batches with the desired purity, crystal form and particle properties. (amriglobal.com)
  • Crystallization is therefore the process by which a floating charge becomes fixed on to particular assets. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is well to vary the conditions of heat, amount of solvent, and rate of crystallization , to get the best possible results. (thesaurus.com)
  • for a perceptible degree of crystallization to take place, there must be a finite amount of "supercooling" below the freezing point b (which is also the melting point, T m , of the corresponding crystal). (britannica.com)
  • This result shows that by changing supersaturation in a crystallization system, it is possible to modify crystal size, shape, and the degree of agglomeration. (mt.com)
  • Under these conditions crystal growth rate is 10 to 100 times faster than in suspension crystallization. (sulzer.com)
  • The C-terminal crystallization domain forms the physiological 2-dimensional (2D) crystal lattice, but full-length protein crystallizes multiple orders of magnitude faster due to the N-terminal nucleation domain. (pnas.org)
  • Crystallization trials (for BTV 1SA) were carried out by vapor diffusion (sitting drop) using microbridges supplied by Crystal Microsystems. (scripps.edu)
  • Crystallization was by vapor diffusion with AAV at approx. (scripps.edu)
  • Microfluidics is a multidisciplinary field of science based on the manipulation of fluids in sub-millimetre dimensions, and the conditions that microfluidics offer are completely different from those of bulk set-ups, and thus they are very interesting for the study of crystallisation because diffusion, mixing, mass and heat transport, can controlled. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Crystallization is practiced on all scales: from the isolation of the first milligrams of a newly synthesized substance in the research laboratory to isolating products on the mulit-million tonne scale in industry. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • To find a production report, enter information about your protein crystallization product below, and press the Search button. (qiagen.com)
  • The loss of synthetase activity that can result from prolonged exposure during crystallization is attributable specifically to damage of the enzyme component responsible for condensation activity. (pnas.org)
  • Ultra-high purity is the credo of Fractional Melt Crystallization and Sulzer has more than 40 years of experience in supplying suspension, static and falling film crystallization technologies as well as freeze concentration. (sulzer.com)
  • Various other additives are added to encourage stabilization, crystallization, and lattice formation, and discourage protein aggregation. (news-medical.net)
  • The third part of the book is dedicated to accounts of actual developments and of carried-out crystallizations. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The value of my lectures would depend altogether upon suggestiveness,-not upon any crystallizations of fact. (thesaurus.com)
  • Our computer simulations, developed by Northwestern University graduate student Ziwei Wang, allow us to sort out the details of the fundamental driving forces behind nanoparticle motion and crystallization," Luijten said. (phys.org)
  • Crystallisation is a fundamental and complex problem, and it is of importance in fields from materials and pharmaceuticals to climate science and ice-cream production. (cecam.org)
  • However, there are details about crystallization pathways that cannot be measured by imaging alone, the researchers said. (phys.org)
  • Kinetic pathways of crystallization at the nanoscale, Nature Materials (2019). (phys.org)
  • We have followed identical crystallisation protocols as in the previous studies and in addition we precisely determined the isothermal condition (t Iso =0) from the scattered intensity itself. (esrf.eu)
  • Screening provides optimal conditions for crystallization of a particular protein to be determined, and in well-funded research institutions and manufacturing facilities is performed by robots that handle liquids in the nanoliter range. (news-medical.net)
  • For artificial crystallization of a solute from solution, the conditions must be adjusted such that the solution becomes supersaturated with the solute. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • With the increased demand for APIs (active pharmaceutical ingredients) to reach the marketplace, chemists in early stage development are expected to have a greater understanding of solid form and crystallisation. (iucr.org)
  • Controlling crystallization is important in many areas of science and technology, such as manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, production of semiconductors and nonlinear optics, as well as the formation of biominerals. (hindawi.com)
  • Crystallization occurs in two major steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • In chemical engineering, crystallization occurs in a crystallizer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we report that rapid crystallization of a bacterial surface layer protein occurs through a multistep pathway involving a crystalline intermediate. (pnas.org)
  • Cold' crystallization in nanostructurized 80GeSe2-20Ga2Se3 glass, Nanoscale Research Letters . (degruyter.com)
  • The large numbers of ongoing research projects involving protein crystallization, and the increased variety of reagents and analytical techniques employed are are also major drivers for the protein crystallography reagents market. (sbwire.com)
  • A research paper, " In situ proteolysis for protein crystallization and structure determination ," that detailed the study appeared in the December 4 issue of Nature Methods . (anl.gov)
  • In addition to these services, we are active in research to develop crystallisation methods. (psi.ch)
  • In accordance with the philosophy of the journal "Frontiers in Materials", this research topic "Nucleation and Crystallization of Glasses and Glass-ceramics" is focused on the development of products with special properties: for example, high strength, high toughness, good machinability or moldability, or unique electrical/electronic or magnetic properties, exceptional optical or unusual thermal or chemical properties and with the possibility of combining these characteristics. (frontiersin.org)
  • This conference aimed to review the latest research into the crystallisation and physical properties of fats. (soci.org)
  • Here, we report experimental observations of a crystallization front propagating in a supercooled region of a three-dimensional fluid complex plasma. (nature.com)
  • In this paper, we present and discuss the first experimental observations of the propagation of a crystallization front through an undercooled fluid complex plasma. (nature.com)
  • YAGI, K., OZAWA, T. & HARADA, M. Crystallization of the Complex of D -Amino-Acid Oxidase and Benzoate. (nature.com)
  • Delegates will leave with a better understanding about the underlying reasons why it is necessary to formulate novel crystallization screens with relatively complex conditions, such as the ones found in the MORPHEUS screens. (iucr.org)
  • Modern crystallisation screens, which encapsulate the accumulated wisdom of prior investigations, serve as an excellent starting point for experimentation. (els.net)
  • The electrophoresis technology, liquid handling systems & robotics, and reagents (crystallization screens and other reagents & consumables) are the blue-eyed segments for the players to invest in. (marketsandmarkets.com)