The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Diagnostic aid in pancreas function determination.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobin in which lysine replaces a glutamic acid residue at the sixth position of the beta chains. It results in reduced plasticity of erythrocytes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
Anaerobic hyperthermophilic species of ARCHAEA, isolated from hydrothermal fluid samples. It is obligately heterotrophic with coccoid cells that require TRYPTOPHAN for growth.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Technique by which phase transitions of chemical reactions can be followed by observation of the heat absorbed or liberated.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.
A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A family of anaerobic METHANOCOCCALES whose organisms are motile by means of flagella. These methanogens use carbon dioxide as an electron acceptor.
Enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of aldose and ketose compounds.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The surface of a structure upon which one stands or walks.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Persistent, unwanted idea or impulse which is considered normal when it does not markedly interfere with mental processes or emotional adjustment.

Probing interactions between HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and its DNA substrate with backbone-modified nucleotides. (1/7757)

BACKGROUND: To gain a molecular understanding of a biochemical process, the crystal structure of enzymes that catalyze the reactions involved is extremely helpful. Often the question arises whether conformations obtained in this way appropriately reflect the reactivity of enzymes, however. Rates that characterize transitions are therefore compulsory experiments for the elucidation of the reaction mechanism. Such experiments have been performed for the reverse transcriptase of the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 RT). RESULTS: We have developed a methodology to monitor the interplay between HIV-1 RT and its DNA substrate. To probe the protein-DNA interactions, the sugar backbone of one nucleotide was modified by a substituent that influenced the efficiency of the chain elongation in a characteristic way. We found that strand elongation after incorporation of the modified nucleotide follows a discontinuous efficiency for the first four nucleotides. The reaction efficiencies could be correlated with the distance between the sugar substituent and the enzyme. The model was confirmed by kinetic experiments with HIV-1 RT mutants. CONCLUSIONS: Experiments with HIV-1 RT demonstrate that strand-elongation efficiency using a modified nucleotide correlates well with distances between the DNA substrate and the enzyme. The functional group at the modified nucleotides acts as an 'antenna' for steric interactions that changes the optimal transition state. Kinetic experiments in combination with backbone-modified nucleotides can therefore be used to gain structural information about reverse transcriptases and DNA polymerases.  (+info)

Crystal structure of an MHC class I presented glycopeptide that generates carbohydrate-specific CTL. (2/7757)

T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of nonpeptidic and modified peptide antigens has been recently uncovered but is still poorly understood. Immunization with an H-2Kb-restricted glycopeptide RGY8-6H-Gal2 generates a population of cytotoxic T cells that express both alpha/beta TCR, specific for glycopeptide, and gamma/delta TCR, specific for the disaccharide, even on glycolipids. The crystal structure of Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 now demonstrates that the peptide and H-2Kb structures are unaffected by the peptide glycosylation, but the central region of the putative TCR binding site is dominated by the extensive exposure of the tethered carbohydrate. These features of the Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 structure are consistent with the individual ligand binding preferences identified for the alpha/beta and gamma/delta TCRs and thus explain the generation of a carbohydrate-specific T cell response.  (+info)

Structural basis of Rab effector specificity: crystal structure of the small G protein Rab3A complexed with the effector domain of rabphilin-3A. (3/7757)

The small G protein Rab3A plays an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. The crystal structure of activated Rab3A/GTP/Mg2+ bound to the effector domain of rabphilin-3A was solved to 2.6 A resolution. Rabphilin-3A contacts Rab3A in two distinct areas. The first interface involves the Rab3A switch I and switch II regions, which are sensitive to the nucleotide-binding state of Rab3A. The second interface consists of a deep pocket in Rab3A that interacts with a SGAWFF structural element of rabphilin-3A. Sequence and structure analysis, and biochemical data suggest that this pocket, or Rab complementarity-determining region (RabCDR), establishes a specific interaction between each Rab protein and its effectors. RabCDRs could be major determinants of effector specificity during vesicle trafficking and fusion.  (+info)

Phe161 and Arg166 variants of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase. Implications for NADPH recognition and structural stability. (4/7757)

Phe161 and Arg166 of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas fluorescens belong to a newly discovered sequence motif in flavoprotein hydroxylases with a putative dual function in FAD and NADPH binding [1]. To study their role in more detail, Phe161 and Arg166 were selectively changed by site-directed mutagenesis. F161A and F161G are catalytically competent enzymes having a rather poor affinity for NADPH. The catalytic properties of R166K are similar to those of the native enzyme. R166S and R166E show impaired NADPH binding and R166E has lost the ability to bind FAD. The crystal structure of substrate complexed F161A at 2.2 A is indistinguishable from the native enzyme, except for small changes at the site of mutation. The crystal structure of substrate complexed R166S at 2.0 A revealed that Arg166 is important for providing an intimate contact between the FAD binding domain and a long excursion of the substrate binding domain. It is proposed that this interaction is essential for structural stability and for the recognition of the pyrophosphate moiety of NADPH.  (+info)

Identification of 17-methyl-18-norandrosta-5,13(17-dien-3beta-ol, the C19 fragment formed by adrenal side chain cleavage of a 20-aryl analog of (20S)-20-hydroxycholesterol. (5/7757)

Incubation of (20R)-20-phenyl-5-pregnene-3beta,20-diol, an aromatic analog of (23S)-20-hydroxycholesterol, with an adrenal mitochondrial preparation leads to the formation of four compounds: pregnenolone, phenol, a C8 ketone, acetophenone, and a nonpolar C19 compound. This latter compound has now been identified by reverse isotope dilution analysis and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as 17-methyl-18-norandrosta-5,13(17)-dien-3beta-ol. From these results it is evident that enzymatic fission of the C-17,20 bond of this synthetic derivative occurs. On the other hand, when (20S)-20-hydroxy[21-14C]cholesterol was used as substrate, the analogous cleavage did not take place. Thus, substitution of an aromatic group on C-20 facilitates side chain cleavage between that carbon atom and the nucleus whereas neither of the naturally occuring precursors, cholesterol or its 20-hydroxylated counterpart, are metabolized to a C8 fragment.  (+info)

Relationship between supersaturation and calcium oxalate crystallization in normals and idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. (6/7757)

BACKGROUND: In an earlier study on recurrent CaOx stone formers with no detectable abnormalities, we found that the urine of these subjects had a lower tolerance to oxalate load than controls and that the removal of urinary macromolecules with a molecular weight greater than 10,000 D improved their tolerance to oxalate. METHODS: The effects on CaOx crystallization of reduced urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate (CaOx), induced by night water load, were studied in 12 normal males and in 15 male OxCa stone formers who were free from urinary metabolic abnormalities. The effect of the macromolecules, purified and retrieved from the natural and diluted urine, were analyzed in a metastable solution of CaOx. RESULTS: The water load caused an increase in urine volume (from 307 +/- 111 to 572 +/- 322 ml/8 hr, P = 0.014 in normal subjects, and from 266 +/- 92 to 518 +/- 208 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in the stone formers) and a concomitant reduction of the relative CaOx supersaturation (from 8.7 +/- 2.5 to 5.1 +/- 2.5 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in normal subjects, and from 10.4 +/- 3.5 to 5.0 +/- 2.7 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in the stone formers). The decrease in CaOx supersaturation was accompanied by an increase of the permissible increment in oxalate, both in normal subjects (from 43.8 +/- 10.1 to 67.2 +/- 30. 3 mg/liter, P = 0.018) and in the stone formers (from 25.7 +/- 9.4 to 43.7 +/- 17.1 mg/liter, P = 0.0001), without any significant variations of the upper limit of metastability for CaOx (from 21.6 +/- 5.3 to 20.5 +/- 4.2 mg/liter in normal subjects, and from 18.7 +/- 4.5 to 17.1 +/- 3.7 mg/liter in the stone formers). The inhibitory effect of urinary macromolecules with molecular weight greater than 10,000 Daltons did not undergo any change when the latter were recovered from concentrated or diluted urine, either in normal subjects or in the stone formers. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced CaOx supersaturation by means of water load has a protective effect with regards to CaOx crystallization in subjects who do not present any of the common urinary stone risk factors.  (+info)

Cryoelectron microscopy of a nucleating model bile in vitreous ice: formation of primordial vesicles. (7/7757)

Because gallstones form so frequently in human bile, pathophysiologically relevant supersaturated model biles are commonly employed to study cholesterol crystal formation. We used cryo-transmission electron microscopy, complemented by polarizing light microscopy, to investigate early stages of cholesterol nucleation in model bile. In the system studied, the proposed microscopic sequence involves the evolution of small unilamellar to multilamellar vesicles to lamellar liquid crystals and finally to cholesterol crystals. Small aliquots of a concentrated (total lipid concentration = 29.2 g/dl) model bile containing 8.5% cholesterol, 22.9% egg yolk lecithin, and 68.6% taurocholate (all mole %) were vitrified at 2 min to 20 days after fourfold dilution to induce supersaturation. Mixed micelles together with a category of vesicles denoted primordial, small unilamellar vesicles of two distinct morphologies (sphere/ellipsoid and cylinder/arachoid), large unilamellar vesicles, multilamellar vesicles, and cholesterol monohydrate crystals were imaged. No evidence of aggregation/fusion of small unilamellar vesicles to form multilamellar vesicles was detected. Low numbers of multilamellar vesicles were present, some of which were sufficiently large to be identified as liquid crystals by polarizing light microscopy. Dimensions, surface areas, and volumes of spherical/ellipsoidal and cylindrical/arachoidal vesicles were quantified. Early stages in the separation of vesicles from micelles, referred to as primordial vesicles, were imaged 23-31 min after dilution. Observed structures such as enlarged micelles in primordial vesicle interiors, segments of bilayer, and faceted edges at primordial vesicle peripheries are probably early stages of small unilamellar vesicle assembly. A decrease in the mean surface area of spherical/ellipsoidal vesicles was correlated with the increased production of cholesterol crystals at 10-20 days after supersaturation by dilution, supporting the role of small unilamellar vesicles as key players in cholesterol nucleation and as cholesterol donors to crystals. This is the first visualization of an intermediate structure that has been temporally linked to the development of small unilamellar vesicles in the separation of vesicles from micelles in a model bile and suggests a time-resolved system for further investigation.  (+info)

Purification and properties of a low-molecular-weight, high-alkaline pectate lyase from an alkaliphilic strain of Bacillus. (8/7757)

A low-molecular-weight, high-alkaline pectate lyase (pectate transeliminase, EC was found in an alkaline culture of Bacillus sp. strain KSM-P15, purified to homogeneity, and crystallized. The enzyme had a relative molecular weight of approximately 20,300 as measured by sedimentation equilibrium, with a sedimentation coefficient (s20,w0) of 1.73 S. It was a basic protein with an isoelectric point of pH 10.3, and the alpha-helical content was only 6.6%. In the presence of Ca2+ ions, the enzyme degraded polygalacturonic acid in a random manner to yield 4,5-unsaturated oligo-galacturonides and had its optimal activity around pH 10.5 and 50-55 degrees C. It also had a protopectinase-like activity on cotton fibers. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the intact protein (28 amino acids) and its two lysyl endopeptidase-cleaved peptide fragments (8 and 12 amino acids) had very low sequence similarity with pectate lyases reported to date. These results strongly suggest that the pectate lyase of Bacillus sp. strain KSM-P15 may be a novel enzyme and belongs in a new family.  (+info)

Types of Urinary Calculi:

1. Calcium oxalate stones: These are the most common type of kidney stone and are often caused by excess calcium and oxalate in the urine.
2. Uric acid stones: These stones are often associated with gout or a diet high in meat and seafood.
3. Cystine stones: These stones are rare and usually occur in people with a genetic disorder that affects the transport of cystine in the kidneys.
4. Struvite stones: These stones are often associated with urinary tract infections.

Causes and Risk Factors:

1. Dehydration: Not drinking enough water can cause a decrease in urine production, which can increase the concentration of minerals in the urine and increase the risk of stone formation.
2. Diet: A diet high in animal protein, sodium, and sugar can increase the risk of stone formation.
3. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as gout, kidney disease, and inflammatory bowel disease can increase the risk of developing urinary calculi.
4. Genetics: A family history of kidney stones can increase an individual's risk.
5. Other factors: Other factors that can increase the risk of developing urinary calculi include a high body mass index (BMI), a sedentary lifestyle, and certain medications such as certain antibiotics and diuretics.


1. Severe pain in the side or back, below the ribs
2. Pain that radiates to the lower abdomen or groin
3. Nausea and vomiting
4. Blood in the urine (hematuria)
5. Cloudy or strong-smelling urine
6. Frequent urination or a burning sensation during urination


1. Medical history and physical examination
2. Urinalysis to check for blood, protein, and white blood cells in the urine
3. Imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or ultrasound to confirm the presence of calculi
4. Laboratory tests to check for underlying medical conditions such as kidney disease or infection


1. Drinking plenty of water to help flush out small calculi
2. Pain management with medication
3. Medical expulsive therapy with medication to help pass larger calculi
4. Shock wave lithotripsy to break down larger calculi into smaller pieces that can be passed more easily
5. Surgery to remove large or unbreakable calculi


1. Drinking plenty of water to stay hydrated and help prevent the formation of calculi
2. Limiting the intake of animal protein, sodium, and sugar
3. Managing underlying medical conditions such as gout, kidney disease, and inflammatory bowel disease
4. Maintaining a healthy weight and exercise regularly
5. Avoiding certain medications that can increase the risk of calculus formation.

There are several types of kidney calculi, including:

1. Calcium oxalate calculi: These are the most common type of calculus and are often associated with conditions such as hyperparathyroidism or excessive intake of calcium supplements.
2. Uric acid calculi: These are more common in people with gout or a diet high in meat and sugar.
3. Cystine calculi: These are rare and usually associated with a genetic disorder called cystinuria.
4. Struvite calculi: These are often seen in women with urinary tract infections (UTIs).

Symptoms of kidney calculi may include:

1. Flank pain (pain in the side or back)
2. Pain while urinating
3. Blood in the urine
4. Cloudy or strong-smelling urine
5. Fever and chills
6. Nausea and vomiting

Kidney calculi are diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or ultrasound. Treatment options for kidney calculi depend on the size and location of the calculus, as well as the severity of any underlying conditions. Small calculi may be treated with conservative measures such as fluid intake and medication to help flush out the crystals, while larger calculi may require surgical intervention to remove them.

Preventive measures for kidney calculi include staying hydrated to help flush out excess minerals in the urine, maintaining a balanced diet low in oxalate and animal protein, and avoiding certain medications that can increase the risk of calculus formation. Early detection and treatment of underlying conditions such as hyperparathyroidism or gout can also help prevent the development of kidney calculi.

Overall, kidney calculi are a common condition that can be managed with proper diagnosis and treatment. However, they can cause significant discomfort and potentially lead to complications if left untreated, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Tank crystallization is an old method still used in some specialized cases. Saturated solutions, in tank crystallization, are ... In chemical engineering, crystallization occurs in a crystallizer. Crystallization is therefore related to precipitation, ... Crystallization is the process by which solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known ... Crystallization occurs in two major steps. The first is nucleation, the appearance of a crystalline phase from either a ...
This journey or crystallization process, shown above, was detailed by Stendhal on the back of a playing card while speaking to ... Crystallization is a concept, developed in 1822 by the French writer Stendhal, which describes the process, or mental ... Stripped of its leaves by the winter it was certainly anything but dazzling until the crystallization of the salt covered its ... Here they discovered the phenomenon of salt "crystallization" and used it as a metaphor for human relationships. "In the salt ...
Crystallization can also be observed indirectly through its effects on stress-strain and fatigue behavior. Crystallization of ... Strain crystallization's effect on the micro-structure greatly increases the strength of the polymer or elastomer it is induced ... Strain-induced crystallization of natural rubber as detected real-time by wide-angle X-ray diffraction technique. ISSN 0032- ... Strain crystallization is a phenomenon in which an initially amorphous solid material undergoes a phase transformation due to ...
Look up crystallization in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) formation of highly ... Crystallization or Crystallize may also refer to: Crystallization (love), a concept defined by Stendhal "Crystallize" (Kylie ... a song by Haken from the EP Restoration This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Crystallization. If ...
During the crystallization period, adolescents begin to form their own ideas about what is appropriate work for them and learn ... Therefore, the crystallization of career opportunities is more likely to occur in adolescents given the chance to explore and ... Adolescent crystallization, as defined by Laurence Steinberg, is a stage during adolescence in which individuals, typically ... Both the males and the females showed stability in their choices and crystallization increased with age. The study showed the ...
A crystallization adjutant is a material used to promote crystallization, normally in a context where a material does not ... 1991). Crystallization of membrane proteins. CRC Press. M Caffrey (2003). "Membrane protein crystallization". J. Struct. Biol. ... Crystallization adjutants are considered additives when they are effective at relatively low concentrations. The distinction ... Additives for protein crystallization and concentration range Quantitative structure-activity relationship of human neutrophil ...
... may refer to: Fractional crystallization (chemistry), a process to separate different solutes from a ... solution Fractional crystallization (geology), a natural process occurring in igneous rocks during which precipitation of ... minerals takes place This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Fractional crystallization. If an ...
If the appropriate crystallization solutions are used for a given protein, crystal growth occurs in the drop. This method is ... Sitting-drop crystallization apparatus place the drop on a pedestal that is separated from the reservoir. Both of these methods ... Robotic crystallization systems use the same components described above, but carry out each step of the procedure quickly and ... Protein crystallization is the process of formation of a regular array of individual protein molecules stabilized by crystal ...
Fractional crystallization in silicate melts (magmas) is complex compared to crystallization in chemical systems at constant ... Fractional crystallization is also important in the formation of sedimentary evaporite rocks. Fractional crystallization is the ... as in near-solidus crystallization of magmas of granite composition. The crystallization sequence of oxide minerals such as ... One example concerns crystallization of melts that form mafic and ultramafic rocks. MgO and SiO2 concentrations in melts are ...
Fractional crystallization can be used to separate solid-solid mixtures. An example of this is separating KNO3 and KClO3. Cold ... In chemistry, fractional crystallization is a method of refining substances based on differences in their solubility. It ... fractionates via differences in crystallization (forming of crystals). If a mixture of two or more substances in solution are ... Water Extraction Fractional crystallization (geology) Fractional freezing Laser-heated pedestal growth Pumpable ice technology ...
Recently metal-induced crystallization has been coupled with microwave-assisted crystallization lowering the crystallization ... Upon annealing, crystallization starts from the portion of a-Si which is covered by metal and proceeds laterally. Unlike MIC ... The crystallization speed is low, but is adequate for applications such as fabrication of thin film transistors. In this case, ... Metal-induced crystallization (MIC) is a method by which amorphous carbon (a-C), amorphous silicon (a-Si), amorphous oxides and ...
The most basic model for polymer crystallization kinetics comes from Hoffman nucleation theory. The crystallization process of ... induces interaction between molecular chains and a possible crystallization as in the crystallization from the melt. ... presence of straight chains with regularly spaced side groups facilitates crystallization. For example, crystallization occurs ... Another type of crystallization occurs upon extrusion used in making fibers and films. In this process, the polymer is forced ...
Classically, "water of crystallization" refers to water that is found in the crystalline framework of a metal complex or a salt ... Water of crystallization can generally be removed by heating a sample but the crystalline properties are often lost. Compared ... In some contexts, water of crystallization is the total mass of water in a substance at a given temperature and is mostly ... Upon crystallization from water, or water-containing solvents, many compounds incorporate water molecules in their crystalline ...
The urea extraction crystallization is a process for separating linear paraffins (n-paraffins, n-alkanes) from hydrocarbon ...
"Virtual Issue 7 - 13th International Conference on the Crystallization of Biological Macromolecules (ICCBM13)". " ... The International Organization for Biological Crystallization (IOBCr) is a non-profit, scientific organization for scientists ... The last International Conferences on Crystallization of Biological Macromolecules ICCBM15 was held in Hamburg, Germany. ... who study the crystallization of biological macromolecules and develop crystallographic methodologies for their study. It was ...
"Crystallization". Acta Crystallogr. F. 61 (Pt 10): 945-8. doi:10.1107/S1744309105029246. PMC 1991305. PMID 16511203. Chikwana, ...
Crystallization. Finally, norm crystallization refers to how much variance exists within the curve; translated from the ... A group norm like how many cups of coffee first years should drink would probably have low crystallization since a lot of ... Showing the overall group norm, the return potential model in Figure 1 does not indicate the crystallization. However, a return ... the norm of not plagiarizing another student's work would likely have high crystallization, as people uniformly agree on the ...
Mullin, J. W. (1997). Crystallization. Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-3759-6. CHORI CO., LTD. :https://chori-mukifine. ...
Mechanics of rubber spring systems; viscoelastic behavior of polymers; stress relaxation; failure processes; crystallization. A ...
Cold crystallization plant I: the cold crystallization plant is independent of the hot leach facility. It is operated under ... drying Cold crystallization plant II: a second cold crystallization plant (II) came into operation in September 2010 to give a ... The new plant is much similar to the cold crystallization plant I, but it encompasses certain areas of modified processes and ... It includes the following processes: carnallite receiving; flotation; crystallization; cold leaching; ...
Because it has a high crystallization temperature (about 4,400 °C (7,950 °F)), diamond was probably the first mineral to form. ... Early mineralogy was determined by crystallization of igneous rocks and further bombardments. This phase was then replaced by ... These rocks were repeatedly recycled by fractional melting, fractional crystallization and separation of magmas that refuse to ... fractional crystallization; and partial melting. Allowable combinations of elements in minerals are determined by ...
Larsson, A. M. (2009). "Preparation and crystallization of selenomethionine protein". Protein Crystallization. IUL ...
It was shown that the crystallization of a supersaturated solution does not simply come from its agitation, (the previous ... "1 Introduction to protein crystallisation". Retrieved 2015-04-21. Conkin, Johnny; Norcross, Jason R.; ... Mullin, J. (1976). Mullin, J. W (ed.). Industrial Crystallization. Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-7258-9. ISBN 978-1-4615- ... Coquerel, Gérard (2014-03-10). "Crystallization of molecular systems from solution: phase diagrams, supersaturation and other ...
Evaporation/Crystallization; The next step with thermal processes or evaporation, evaporates all the leftover water, collect it ...
The most common crystallisation process on Earth is the formation of ice. Liquid water does not freeze at 0 °C unless there is ... For the crystallization of hard spheres the classical theory is a very reasonable approximate theory. So for the simple models ... A simple model for crystallisation in that case, that combines nucleation and growth is the KJMA or Avrami model. The time ... Particularly in the study of crystallisation, secondary nucleation can be important. This is the formation of nuclei of a new ...
The crystallization of jack bean seed proteins has been studied extensively since the early 20th century and was of particular ... Canavalin has since been used as a model system for studying protein crystallization, most notably in the study of protein ... McPherson, Alexander; DeLucas, Lawrence James (2015-09-03). "Microgravity protein crystallization". npj Microgravity. 1 (1): ... though Sumner's group never fully characterized canavalin and it remained of little interest until its crystallization ...
ISBN 978-0-7167-0174-3. McPherson A, DeLucas LJ (2015). "Microgravity protein crystallization". npj Microgravity. 1: 15010. doi ...
... as a normal constituent of boar seminal plasma; purification and crystallization; site of formation and function ...
McPherson, Alexander; Delucas, Lawrence James (2015). "Microgravity protein crystallization". npj Microgravity. 1: 15010. doi: ...
... purification and crystallization". Biochem. J. 71 (3): 492-9. PMC 1196822. PMID 13638255. Appleby CA, Morton RK (November 1959 ...
Crystallization games and much more for Android on the biggest independent app store -! ... Find and download the best free Crystallization apps, ... Find the Best Crystallization APK Mobile Android Apps and Games ...
Produktinformationen zu „Industrial Crystallization Process Monitoring and Control (ePub)". Crystallization is an important ... 0 Gebrauchte Artikel zu „Industrial Crystallization Process Monitoring and Control" Zustand. Preis. Porto. Zahlung. Verkäufer. ... Crystallization is an important technique for separation and purification of substances as well as for product design in ... Inhaltsverzeichnis zu „Industrial Crystallization Process Monitoring and Control (ePub)". PART I: Monitoring CRYSTAL SIZE ...
Crystallization of Feline Coronavirus Mpro With GC376 Reveals Mechanism of Inhibition. Jimmy Lu1,2, Sizhu Amelia Chen1,2, ... Crystallization of Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus Mpro With GC373 and GC376. Purified FIPV Mpro was dialyzed against 5 mM ... FIPV Mpro was incubated with GC373 or GC376 (5× molar excess) at 4°C for 2 h prior to crystallization. The protein was ... JL, SAC, MK, HY, and MJL contributed to crystallization and structure determination. TL contributed to FRET-substrate synthesis ...
Scientific Video Article | Les protocoles décrivent les étapes essentielles pour obtenir des cristaux par diffraction de la qualité dune protéine membranaire ...
Explore the research topics touched on by this project. These labels are generated based on the underlying awards/grants. Together they form a unique fingerprint ...
We quantify the extent of crystallization using appropriate order parameters, and gain insights in the rate of crystallization ... Flow induced crystallization is a process with significant industrial interest in the field of polymer processing and ... Abstract: N00.00079 : Molecular weight distribution effects on flow induced crystallization of model polymer.*. ... Despite the significant practical relevance, the initial stages of the flow induced crystallization remain unclear, and it is ...
... with respect to Perlucin functional regulation by demonstrating that Perlucin splice variants modulate the crystallisation of ...
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... on rheological and mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of PLA/CNC nanocomposites. Download Prime PubMed App to ... CelluloseCrystallizationLactic AcidMicroscopy, Electron, ScanningMicroscopy, Electron, TransmissionNanocompositesPolyesters ... TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on rheological and mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of ... Effect of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on rheological and mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of PLA/CNC ...
Tel: +44 (0) 1904 431 402 · Email: [email protected]. Address: Bioquote Ltd, The Raylor Centre, James Street, York, YO10 3DW, United Kingdom ...
Title:Finite crystallization and Wulff shape emergence for ionic compounds in the square lattice. Authors:Manuel Friedrich, ... Download a PDF of the paper titled Finite crystallization and Wulff shape emergence for ionic compounds in the square lattice, ... Finally, for this specific net charge we prove a crystallization result and identify a diamond-like Wulff-shape of energy ... Download a PDF of the paper titled Finite crystallization and Wulff shape emergence for ionic compounds in the square lattice, ...
Crystallization kinetics of Cu47Zr47Al6 and (Cu47Zr47Al6)99Sn1 bulk metallic glasses. Reza Rashidi, Mehdi Malekan, Reza ... Crystallization kinetics of Cu47Zr47Al6 and (Cu47Zr47Al6)99Sn1 bulk metallic glasses in the non-isothermal and isothermal ... Crystallization kinetics of Cu47Zr47Al6 and (Cu47Zr47Al6)99Sn1 bulk metallic glasses, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 498 ( ... According to Avramis model, these numbers indicate that the crystallization of both glassy alloys is governed by three- ...
TitleCrystallization and dissolution studies of calcium oxalate monohydrate. NameNkuba, Magata (author); George, Kumi (chair); ... Crystallization and dissolution studies of calcium oxalate monohydrate. Retrieved from ...
Shear-Enhanced Crystallization in Isotactic Polypropylene. 1. Correspondence between in Situ Rheo-Optics and ex Situ Structure ... Shear-Enhanced Crystallization in Isotactic Polypropylene. 1. Correspondence between in Situ Rheo-Optics and ex Situ Structure ... Imposition of brief intervals of shear (0.25−20 s, less than a thousandth of the quiescent crystallization time) can reduce the ... Kumaraswamy, Guruswamy and Issaian, Ani M. and Kornfield, Julia A. (1999) Shear-Enhanced Crystallization in Isotactic ...
crystallisation. As membrane proteins have to be inserted into the membrane, recombinant expression yields are often low. In ... crystallisation of membrane proteins. An approach to overcome the challenges of membrane protein structural biology is to work ... crystallisation studies, the expression of membrane proteins requires screening for the best expression conditions. ... Development of a high throughput screen for the expression of membrane proteins and their purification and crystallisation ...
In situ crystallization and transformation kinetics of polymorphic forms of saturated-unsaturated-unsaturated triacylglycerols ... We examined the influence of dynamic thermal treatment (variation of cooling/heating rates) on the polymorphic crystallization ...
Here, we present the results of a series of crystallization experiments conducted at 1-atm confining pressure and in a ... We therefore conclude that crystallization and diffusion are extremely fast processes in the natrocarbonatitic system and that ... We show that during crystallization of natrocarbonatites at atmospheric pressure, gregoryite is the first mineral to ... As the crystallization is a continuous process at this pressure, the composition of the residual melt changes in response to ...
... Hellweg T, Dewhurst C, Eimer W, Kratz K (2003) In: Coloides e Interfases. ... "Properties and Crystallization of PNIPAM microgels". In Coloides e Interfases, ed. Luis Liz-Marzan, Pablo Herves, J. C. Mejuto ... Properties and Crystallization of PNIPAM microgels. In L. Liz-Marzan, et al., eds. Coloides e Interfases. Vigo, Spain: ... "Properties and Crystallization of PNIPAM microgels". Coloides e Interfases. Ed. Luis Liz-Marzan, Pablo Herves, J. C. Mejuto, ...
Crystallization method. Approximately 5.0 mg of 1 or 2 was placed in a polyspring glass insert with 10 μl of MeOH and 30 μl of ... Owing to the difficulties in determining the absolute stereochemistry of 2 by crystallization, efforts were focused toward ...
... The Drunken Housewife writes:. Basically she WILL pick her two best friends over her husband. Thats ...
Crystallization and Preliminary X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of PD-L4, a Ribosome Inactivating Protein from Phytolacca dioica L. ... Crystallization and Preliminary X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of PD-L4, a Ribosome Inactivating Protein from Phytolacca dioica L. ...
Template Assisted Crystallization 0.04 Template assisted crystallization[edit]. Cold hard water passes through a tank ... This process is either called template assisted crystallization (TAC) or nucleation assisted crystallization (NAC). The ...
This marble crystallization process comprises of spraying liquid crystallization powder over the marble flooring that improves ... This crystallization process comprises of spraying liquid crystallization powder over the marble flooring and carefully buffing ... What is marble crystallization?. It is a process of marble polishing that improves the surface aspect of the marble floor. ... What is marble crystallization powder and who uses it?. It is a process of floor surface transformation using chemicals. This ...
Crystallization of Ranasmurfin, a blue-coloured protein fromPolypedates leucomystax Share Share Share ... Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications. Publisher. International Union of ...
... the CMC tanks are ideally adapted to the crystallisation of whey, permeates and lactose juices. ... the product under sterile filtered air preserve the contents from any external contamination throughout the crystallisation ...
... Melt crystallization is an ...
MAchine Recognition of Crystallization Outcomes
Template Assisted Crystallization, or TAC is a media used in water conditioners to treat limescale caused by water hardness. ... Enter template-assisted crystallization (TAC for short). Also referred to as nucleation assisted crystallization, this salt- ... How does Template Assisted Crystallization Treat Hard Water?. To get a little more technical, template assisted crystallization ... Does Template Assisted Crystallization Work?. If youve even done the smallest amount of research into TAC, youll know that ...
Researchers at The University of Tokyo and Fudan University furthered our understanding of the crystallization process in ... Researchers from The University of Tokyo and Fudan University observe the crystallization process in a droplet ... conducted real-time microscopic observations of the assembly of colloidal particles in droplets to clarify the crystallization ...
... by ... The epub Interphases And Mesophases In Polymer Crystallization must vote at least 50 emotions no. look Versprechen von einst ... We figure passed you to an few epub Interphases And Mesophases In Polymer Crystallization on your Open sich where you can hail ... epub Interphases And Mesophases In Polymer Crystallization for before to credit? delivered November 6, 2017. epub and iD user ...
  • Parents provided the data in unavoidably results in crystallization of the case of children. (
  • In 1817, it was pointed out that the alkalinization that attends putrefaction of urine unavoidably results in crystallization of dissolved urinary phosphate [2]. (
  • The results are analyzed to determine CNC network formation, rheological percolation threshold concentrations, mechanical properties in the rubbery and glassy states, and the effect of CNCSFD on crystalline nucleation and crystallization rates of PLA. (
  • According to Avrami's model, these numbers indicate that the crystallization of both glassy alloys is governed by three-dimensional growth with an increasing nucleation rate, while Sn addition decreases the nucleation rate. (
  • Also referred to as nucleation assisted crystallization, this salt-free softening method provides a similar outcome but uses a different method to get there. (
  • To get a little more technical, template assisted crystallization (or nucleation assisted crystallization) units typically consist of a single tank that contains a specially-treated resin bed. (
  • With the goal to establish a comprehensive understanding of the heterogeneous nucleation between these two modifications (cross-nucleation), we monitor the crystallization process of Form II induced by Form I crystals with different type of substrate (spherulitic, hedritic, fiber-like) using a direct investigation technique of optical microscopy. (
  • The different cross-nucleation efficiencies of Form II are tentatively attributed to differences in the Form I lamellar thickness, on the basis of an epitaxial crystallization and secondary nucleation mechanism. (
  • He is one of the two Italian delegates at the European Working Party on Crystallization. (
  • Sponsored by the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr), The Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of Spain, The University of Granada and the Specialized Group of Crystallography and Crystal Growth (GE3C) of the Spanish Royal Society of Chemistry, and it is supported by the Working Party on Crystallization (WPC) of the European Federation of Chemical Engineers and the International Organization of Crystal Growth. (
  • Crystallization kinetics of Cu47Zr47Al6 and (Cu47Zr47Al6)99Sn1 bulk metallic glasses in the non-isothermal and isothermal conditions were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). (
  • We examined the influence of dynamic thermal treatment (variation of cooling/heating rates) on the polymorphic crystallization and transformation pathways of 1-palmitoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO), 1-stearoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (SOO), and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-linoleoyl glycerol (POL), which are major saturated-unsaturated-unsaturated (SUU) triacylglycerols (TAGs) of vegetable oils and animal fats (e.g., palm oil, olive oil, and Iberian ham fat). (
  • However, it is still a challenge to control the polymorphic outcome of the crystallization process. (
  • In this thesis, one typical polymorphic polymer, polybutene-1 (PB-1), was selected for a detailed crystallization study. (
  • As it is rather difficult to obtain direct microscopic evidence of the quality of dispersion of CNC in polymer nanocomposites, it was shown that supporting evidence of the quality and influence of dispersion in a polypropylene (PP)/CNC nanocomposite could be obtained by studying the rheological behavior, mechanical properties and crystallization characteristics of PP/CNC nanocomposites. (
  • In an effort to produce a sustainable, fully biosourced, biodegradable nanocomposite, this manuscript presents the results of a study of the rheological, mechanical and crystallization behavior of PLA/CNCSFD nanocomposites obtained by melt processing. (
  • Kamal MR, Khoshkava V. Effect of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on rheological and mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of PLA/CNC nanocomposites. (
  • Understanding the behavior of polymer crystallization is of critical importance due to the significant impact of the crystallization process on the properties of materials. (
  • We show that during crystallization of natrocarbonatites at atmospheric pressure, gregoryite is the first mineral to crystallize at 630°C, followed by nyerereite at 595°C. Crystal size distributions of the gregoryites show that the crystals grow rapidly by textural coarsening (i.e. (
  • The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of gout, because gout results from crystallization of uric acid crystals in joints. (
  • In non-isothermal condition, the crystallization activation energy was determined by various methods, and the Sn-containing glassy alloy showed higher crystallization activation energy than that of the base alloy, that means the Sn addition delayed crystallization transformation. (
  • In the isothermal condition, the Sn-containing BMG shows longer incubation time and wider crystallization transformation peak than that of the Sn free sample alloy, at the same annealing temperature. (
  • The time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram signified that the Sn addition delayed the crystallization and consequently improved the GFA. (
  • We present two-dimensional crystallization results in the square lattice for finite particle systems consisting of two different atomic types. (
  • Here, we present the results of a series of crystallization experiments conducted at 1-atm confining pressure and in a temperature range between 630°C and 300°C. The experiments were set up to characterize the chemistry and growth processes of the phenocryst phases present in natrocarbonatites. (
  • Results of solution purification and crystallization studies are also presented. (
  • The DCB isomers are typically separated by crystallization and distillation. (
  • Characterization, molecular properties, and crystallization of the recombinant di-iron-oxo protein secreted by baculovirus-infected insect cells. (
  • Finally, for this specific net charge we prove a crystallization result and identify a diamond-like Wulff-shape of energy minimizers which illustrates the sensitivity of the macroscopic geometry on the net charge. (
  • Manufacturers of salt-using softeners point out that with template assisted crystallization, there's no way to actually prove that the water treatment process has even worked, as your water still contains calcium & magnesium and is therefore still technically hard. (
  • What is Template Assisted Crystallization (TAC)? (
  • Water conditioners may use various methods to achieve soft water, with the most popular being template-assisted crystallization, or TAC . (
  • Enter template-assisted crystallization (TAC for short). (
  • How does Template Assisted Crystallization Treat Hard Water? (
  • Does Template Assisted Crystallization Work? (
  • There are many reasons why you may choose to go for a template assisted crystallization water conditioner as an alternative to a standard salt-based water softener. (
  • As the crystallization is a continuous process at this pressure, the composition of the residual melt changes in response to the crystallization. (
  • Crystallization is an important technique for separation and purification of substances as well as for product design in chemical, pharmaceutical and biotechnological process industries. (
  • This crystallization process comprises of spraying liquid crystallization powder over the marble flooring and carefully buffing it using steel wool properly fitted under the single disc floor machine of standard weight. (
  • ISBC Granada 2015 will focus on the fundamentals of crystallization from solution and its applications for the crystallization of biological materials. (
  • The most usable ingredient of any crystallization products or chemicals are magnesium fluorosilicate, acid and water. (
  • In general, since high invert sugar and high aconitic acid interfere crystallization of sugar so, it is suggested that to plant Vespa, apply urea 100 kg ha-1 urea at planting, 100 kg ha-1 urea at 4 leaf stage and 100 kg ha-1 urea at booting and harvested before chilling that had lowest aconitic acid and invert sugar. (
  • We provide a characterization for the minimal energy and identify a critical net charge beyond which crystallization in the square lattice fails. (
  • He headed a large number of international multi client, multidisciplinary, research projects on design, monitoring and control of industrial crystallization. (
  • The effects of "short term shearing" on the subsequent crystallization of a polydisperse Ziegler−Natta isotactic polypropylene are observed using in situ optical measurements and ex situ microscopy. (
  • Available in capacities ranging from 10 up to 50 m 3 and entirely made of 316L stainless steel for all product-contact parts, the CMC tanks are ideally adapted to the crystallisation of whey, permeates and lactose juices. (
  • As an option, tanks which are equipped with an ultra-clean vent to keep the product under sterile filtered air preserve the contents from any external contamination throughout the crystallisation phase. (
  • The na2cro4 product is recovered by evaporative crystallization from the aqueous solution. (
  • Herman J. M. Kramer is associate professor at the Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, working on the design, monitoring and control of crystallization and precipitation processes. (
  • The Professional Preferences Crystallization Inventory (PPCI) is an important instrument which evaluates two dimensions: choosing a career and thus promoting professional development. (
  • Interestingly, the long-lived structures generated during flow appear at shorter times with increasing temperature (at fixed shear stress), the opposite of the trend one would expect on the basis of the temperature dependence of quiescent crystallization. (