Crystallins: A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).beta-Crystallins: A class of crystallins that provides refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Beta-crystallins are similar in structure to GAMMA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both contain Greek key motifs. Beta-crystallins exist as oligomers formed from acidic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits.beta-Crystallin B Chain: The basic subunit of beta-crystallins.gamma-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins that found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of VERTEBRATES. Gamma-crystallins are similar in structure to BETA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both form into a Greek key-like structure. They are composed of monomeric subunits.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.beta-Crystallin A Chain: The acidic subunit of beta-crystallins.alpha-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins that provides the majority of refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Alpha-crystallins also act as molecular chaperones that bind to denatured proteins, keep them in solution and thereby maintain the translucency of the lens. The proteins exist as large oligomers that are formed from ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN and ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN subunits.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.alpha-Crystallin A Chain: One of the subunits of alpha-crystallins. Unlike ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN the expression of ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN is limited primarily to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.alpha-Crystallin B Chain: One of the alpha crystallin subunits. In addition to being expressed in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE), alpha-crystallin B chain has been found in a variety of tissues such as HEART; BRAIN; MUSCLE; and KIDNEY. Accumulation of the protein in the brain is associated with NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES such as CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME and ALEXANDER DISEASE.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Lens Nucleus, Crystalline: The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Octopodiformes: A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Titrimetry: The determination of the concentration of a given component in solution (the analyte) by addition of a liquid reagent of known strength (the titrant) until an equivalence point is reached (when the reactants are present in stoichiometric proportions). Often an indicator is added to make the equivalence point visible (e.g., a change in color).Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Deamination: The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.KynurenineSingle-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Eye ProteinsRecombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-maf: Maf proto-oncogene protein is the major cellular homolog of the V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It was the first of the mammalian MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS identified, and it is induced in activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of INTERLEUKIN-4. c-maf is frequently translocated to an immunoglobulin locus in MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Maillard Reaction: One of a group of nonenzymatic reactions in which aldehydes, ketones, or reducing sugars react with amino acids, peptides, or proteins. Food browning reactions, such as those that occur with cooking of meats, and also food deterioration reactions, resulting in decreased nutritional value and color changes, are attributed to this reaction type. The Maillard reaction is studied by scientists in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and carbohydrate chemistry fields.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Poecilia: A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Lens Cortex, Crystalline: The portion of the crystalline lens surrounding the nucleus and bound anteriorly by the epithelium and posteriorly by the capsule. It contains lens fibers and amorphous, intercellular substance.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Calpain: Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 220.127.116.11.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.DucksModels, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 18.104.22.168.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Ranidae: The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
The molecular mass of crystallin and ubiquitin based Affilin proteins is only one eighth or one sixteenth of an IgG antibody, ... They resemble antibodies in their affinity and specificity to antigens but not in structure, which makes them a type of ... In both types, the binding region is typically located in a beta sheet structure, whereas the binding regions of antibodies, ... Two proteins, gamma-B crystallin and ubiquitin, have been described as scaffolds for Affilin proteins. Certain amino acids in ...
"Mass spectrometry of Lens Crystallins: Bovine β-crystallins." Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry (1996) 10,123-129 G. ... "Monitoring papain digestion of a monoclonal antibody by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry" Analytical Biochemistry ( ... lens crystallin" Protein Science (1997) 6, 909-912 K.L. Bennett, S.V. Smith, R.M. Lambrecht, R.J.W. Truscott and M.M. Sheil* " ...
Muto, A (2004). "The transcriptional programme of antibody class switching involves the repressor Bach2". Nature. 429 (6991): ... "Compound mouse mutants of bZIP transcription factors Mafg and Mafk reveal a regulatory network of non-crystallin genes ...
September 2007). "Affilin-novel binding molecules based on human gamma-B-crystallin, an all beta-sheet protein". J. Mol. Biol. ... but not artificial antibodies, antibody fragments and fusion proteins composed from these. Common advantages over antibodies ... Antibody mimetics are organic compounds that, like antibodies, can specifically bind antigens, but that are not structurally ... Antibodies are ~150 kDa.) Nucleic acids and small molecules are sometimes considered antibody mimetics as well, ...
This helped identify genes required for vision and pigmentation, such as crystallins and the melanocortin 1 receptor. Similarly ... such as modified enzymes or new antibodies, in a process called directed evolution. Antibiotic resistance can be a result of ...
... alpha-crystallin b chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.100 - beta-crystallin a chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.200 - beta-crystallin ... antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.071 - antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.107 - antibodies, ... antibodies, bispecific MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.143 - antibodies, blocking MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.167 - antibodies, ... antibodies, helminth MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.191 - antibodies, heterophile MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.224 - antibodies, ...
... , in addition, functions as a structural lens protein (tau-crystallin) in the monomeric form. Alternative splicing ... "Human alpha-enolase from endothelial cells as a target antigen of anti-endothelial cell antibody in Behçet's disease". ... "Measurement and evaluation of isotypes of anti-citrullinated fibrinogen and anti-citrullinated alpha-enolase antibodies in ... identified it as an autoantigen associated with severe asthma and a putative target antigen of anti-endothelial cell antibody ...
"Protein antigen-monoclonal antibody contact sites investigated by limited proteolysis of monoclonal antibody-bound antigen: ... Shum, Wai-Kei; Maleknia, Simin D.; Downard, Kevin M. (2005). "Onset of oxidative damage in α-crystallin by radical probe mass ... "Homology-modelled structure of the βB2B3-crystallin heterodimer studied by ion mobility and radical probe MS". FEBS Journal. ... was originally coined in reference to the use of limited proteolysis to investigate contact sites within a monoclonal antibody ...
All teeth are in use by 8 years. The lenses of the eyes contain crystallin, which constitutes 8 to 13% of the protein ... dromedaries were found to have natural antibodies against the rinderpest and ovine rinderpest viruses. ... Garland, D.; Rao, P.V.; Del Corso, A.; Mura, U.; Zigler Jr., J.S. (1991). "zeta-Crystallin is a major protein in the lens of ... "Detection of antibodies of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses (Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus) during a new ...
In this process antibodies to Aβ are used to decrease cerebral plaque levels. This is accomplished by promoting microglial ... "Monitoring the prevention of amyloid fibril formation by alpha-crystallin. Temperature dependence and the nature of the ... One sensitive method is ELISA which is an immunosorbent assay which utilizes a pair of antibodies that recognize amyloid beta. ... This stimulates the host immune system to recognize and attack Aβ, or provide antibodies that either prevent plaque deposition ...
... and antibody response of active Aβ immunotherapy with CAD106 in patients with Alzheimer's disease: randomised, double-blind, ... "Monitoring the prevention of amyloid fibril formation by alpha-crystallin. Temperature dependence and the nature of the ...
... and alpha B crystallin. Tau proteins may also be present, and Lewy bodies may occasionally be surrounded by neurofibrillary ... Stains used: mouse monoclonal alpha-synuclein antibody; counterstained with Mayer's haematoxylin. Lewy bodies ...
241-250 Wistow, Graeme (August 1993). "Lens crystallins: gene recruitment and evolutionary dynamism". Trends in Biochemical ... for example modified enzymes and new antibodies) in a process called directed evolution. Understanding the changes that have ... "Recruitment of enzymes and stress proteins as lens crystallins". In Jansson, Bengt; Jörnvall, Hans; Rydberg, Ulf; et al. Toward ... is the recruitment of enzymes from glycolysis and xenobiotic metabolism to serve as structural proteins called crystallins ...
High levels of anti-nuclear antibodies are found normally in patients with MS. Antibodies against Neurofascins ... Bsibsi M, Holtman IR, Gerritsen WH, Eggen BJ, Boddeke E, van der Valk P, van Noort JM, Amor S (Sep 2013). "Alpha-B-Crystallin ... Currently antibodies to lipids and peptides in sera, detected by microarrays, can be used as markers of the pathological ... The anti-MOG antibody has been investigated and finally led to the description of a new disease, AntiMOG associated ...
Rabbit polyclonal Alpha B Crystallin antibody. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Mouse, Human, Pig. Immunogen corresponding to ... Anti-Alpha B Crystallin antibody. See all Alpha B Crystallin primary antibodies. ... Anti-Alpha B Crystallin antibody (ab231268) at 2 µg/ml + Recombinant human Alpha B Crystallin protein.. Predicted band size: 20 ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and ...
Rabbit polyclonal Alpha B Crystallin antibody. Validated in WB, IP, IHC, ICC and tested in Mouse, Rat, Chicken, Cow, Human, Pig ... Anti-Alpha B Crystallin antibody. See all Alpha B Crystallin primary antibodies. ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and ... Anti-Alpha B Crystallin antibody (ab13497) at 1/1000 dilution + Human spinal cord tissue lysate - total protein (ab29188) at 10 ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-AlphaA Crystallin/CRYAA Antibody (1H3.B8). Validated: WB, ELISA, IB, ICC/IF. Tested Reactivity: Human. ... Home » AlphaA Crystallin/CRYAA » AlphaA Crystallin/CRYAA Antibodies » AlphaA Crystallin/CRYAA Antibody (1H3.B8) ... PTMs for AlphaA Crystallin/CRYAA Antibody (NBP2-12875). Learn more about PTMs related to AlphaA Crystallin/CRYAA Antibody (NBP2 ... Reviews for AlphaA Crystallin/CRYAA Antibody (NBP2-12875) (0) There are no reviews for AlphaA Crystallin/CRYAA Antibody (NBP2- ...
... read details of BioLegend antibodies in the SelectScience.net Antibody products and suppliers directory ... Alpha-crystallin B chain, alpha B crystallin, heat shock protein beta-5, rosenthal fiber component, heat-shock 20 kD like- ... Purified anti-Alpha Crystallin B. Be the first to review this product ... Purified anti-Alpha Crystallin B; Clone: Poly9079; Reactivity: Human, Mouse; Apps: IHC, WB; Size: 200 μl ...
... is replaced by a more specific monoclonal antibody, αB-crystallin (F-10) that gives a stronger signal & consistent results ... α A-crystallin, α B-crystallin, α C-crystallin, β-crystallin, β B1-crystallin, β B2-crystallin, β B3-crystallin, γ-crystallin, ... γ B-crystallin and γ D-crystallin * Learn more about our ImmunoCruz® Antibody Conjugates and Cruz Marker™ MW Standards ... αB-crystallin (K-20) has been discontinued and replaced by αB-crystallin (F-10): sc-137129.. ...
Primary Antibodies. Catalog No.. Host. Iso.. Clone. Pres.. React.. Applications. TA344266. Lambda-crystallin homolog antibody. ... Background of Lambda-crystallin homolog antibody. Kit Component:. - KN212304G1, CRYL1 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector. - ... Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-CRYL1 Antibody - N-terminal region. Rabbit. IgG. Purified. Can, Eq, GP, Hu, Ms, Rt, Ye. WB. 50 µg / € ... Acris Antibodies Inc. (North America) Choose this store if you are located in… *America (e.g. United-States, Canada, Mexico, ...
Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major ... Rabbit Polyclonal antibody to Beta crystallin A4 (crystallin, beta A4). Rabbit. Aff - Purified. Hu, Ms. ICC/IF, WB. 0.1 ml / € ... Primary Antibodies. Catalog No.. Host. Iso.. Clone. Pres.. React.. Applications. TA308870. Beta-crystallin A4 (1-185) antibody ... Background of Beta-crystallin A4 antibody. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ...
Shop QEDs high-quality Alpha B Crystallin antibodies, for use in WB & ELISA applications. With 20+ years of expertise, you can ... It does not cross-react with alpha A crystallin, beta- L crystallin, beta-H crystallin, gamma crystallin, Hsp25, Hsp27, or ... Antibody Class: IgG1. Preservatives: None. SPECIFICITY. This antibody recognizes human and bovine alpha B crystallin. ... Anti-Alpha B Crystallin Monoclonal Antibody. ORDERING INFORMATION. Catalog No.: 11083 (clone 3A10.C9). Size: 100ug in PBS, pH ...
Recombinant Protein and Alpha-crystallin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are ... Alpha-crystallin. Alpha-crystallin ELISA Kit. Alpha-crystallin Recombinant. Alpha-crystallin Antibody. Also known as Alpha- ... Custom Antibody. Antibody Matched Pairs. Antibody Peptide Pairs. Phospho Antibodies. Products by Disease. Products by Pathway. ... Alpha-crystallin A chain ELISA Kit. Alpha-crystallin A chain Recombinant. Alpha-crystallin A chain Antibody. CRYA1: a major ...
Antibodies. Anti-Caspase-3 antibody and anti-VDAC were obtained from Calbiochem and anti-activated caspase-3 from Abcam, Inc. ... Expression of R120G-alphaB-crystallin causes aberrant desmin and alphaB-crystallin aggregation and cardiomyopathy in mice. Circ ... Mutations in desmin, α-B-crystallin (CryAB), and other genes result in the desmin-related myopathies (DRM).1,2 The ... Golenhofen N, Htun P, Ness W, Koob R, Schaper W, Drenckhahn D. Binding of the stress protein alpha B-crystallin to cardiac ...
Rat A crystallin A Monoclonal Antibody (Clone c9F2)-NP_000385 (MBS200007) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies ... LIMP2 (SCARB2) Antibody. • IFT52 Antibody. • PPP4R1 Antibody. • ILK Antibody. • HAO2 Antibody. • RGS4 ELISA Kit. more .... ... Custom Antibody. Antibody Matched Pairs. Antibody Peptide Pairs. Phospho Antibodies. Products by Disease. Products by Pathway. ... This antibody is not shown cross-activity about Crystallin alpha B. A : Crystallin-alpha A recombinant protein B : Crystallin- ...
... αB-crystallin was also associated with worse survival (3.0 versus 4.7 months, P=0.007). αB-crystallin is a promising biomarker ... In addition, αB-crystallin positive protein expression were linked to poorer survival and early spread to the brain. The ... We examined αB-crystallin expression in primary breast carcinomas with metastatic data to evaluate its association with ... αB-crystallin gene (CRYAB) expression was examined using publically available global-gene expression data (n=855 breast tumors ...
A missense mutation in the alphaB-crystallin chaperone gene causes a desmin-related myopathy.. Vicart P1, Caron A, Guicheney P ... AlphaB-crystallin is a member of the small heat shock protein (shsp) family and possesses molecular chaperone activity. We ... This region contains the alphaB-crystallin gene (CRYAB), a candidate gene encoding a 20-kD protein that is abundant in lens and ... lines transfected with the mutant CRYAB cDNA showed intracellular aggregates that contain both desmin and alphaB-crystallin as ...
Antibodies. , Anti-mu Crystallin Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody. Anti-mu Crystallin Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody. Supplier: ... mu Crystallin(thiomorpholine-carboxylate dehydrogenase) is also named as THBP, CRYM, ketimine reductase and belongs to the ... Antigen: mu Crystallin. Clonality: Polyclonal. Clone: Conjugation: Unconjugated. Epitope: Host: Rabbit. Isotype: IgG. ...
Supporting Information Table 3. Primary antibodies for western blot, IHC and co-IP. ... Chuanbing Shi, Xiaojun Yang, Xiaodong Bu, Ning Hou, Pingsheng Chen, Alpha B-crystallin promotes the invasion and metastasis of ... αB-Crystallin complexes with and elevates 14-3-3ζ protein, leading to up-regulation of ERK1/2 activity. Moreover, ... αB-crystallin complexes with 14-3-3ζ to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition and resistance to sorafenib in hepatocellular ...
Fluorescent Antibody Technique * Genes * Lens, Crystalline / analysis * Lens, Crystalline / cytology * Lens, Crystalline / ... alpha-crystallin is the first crystallin to be detected and is localized in some lens pit cells at 12 days of development. By ... beta- and gamma-crystallins are detected later at 12 1/2 days and are localized in some cells situated primarily in the ... Cell Division, Cell Elongation and the Co-Ordination of Crystallin Gene Expression During Lens Morphogenesis in the Rat J ...
Browse our Pan Beta Crystallins product catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Pan Beta Crystallins products available through Novus Biologicals. ... Antibodies*Primary Antibodies*Conjugated Antibodies. *Sample Size Antibodies. *Antibody Sampler Packs. *Antibody Pairs ...
g) The anti-HA antibody specifically recognized αB-crystallin-HA in the Western Blot of the eye imaginal discs of gmr-gal4; uas ... Alpha-crystallins (α-crystallins) are major protein components of the vertebrate eye lens. The α-crystallins and especially αB- ... a, b) Transgenic flies coexpressing α-synuclein and αB-crystallin (gmr-gal4/+; uas-αB-crystallin-HA/+; uas-α-synuclein/+). (c, ... c, f) Transgenic flies coexpressing Q92 peptides and αB-crystallin (gmr-gal4; gmr-Q92/+; uas-αB-crystallin-HA). (b, e) ...
Primary anti-CRYAA antibody (1:1000, ab5595; Abcam plc, Cambridge, UK) and secondary anti-rabbit polyclonal antibodies (1:600, ... Results: We found αA-crystallin gene mutations in all 19 F0-generation pups (100%) with indel mutations in the αA-crystallin ... Production of the αA-crystallin protein was determined to be dramatically reduced in αA-crystallin gene knockout rabbits. We ... αA-crystallin gene (CRYAA) and αB-crystallin gene (CRYAB), which have been shown to be associated with autosomal dominant or ...
Learn more about Anti-gamma crystallin S Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Cy5®). We enable science by offering product choice, ... Gamma-Crystallin S, rncat, AI327013, Gamma S Crystallin, Crystallin, Gamma Crystallin S, CRBS_HUMAN, crygs, gamma S, gamma ... Opacity due to poor secondary fiber cell junction, gamma 8, Opj., recessive nuclear cataract, Beta-Crystallin S, ...
Learn more about Anti-gamma crystallin S Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Cy5®). We enable science by offering product choice, ... Home , Antibodies , Anti-gamma crystallin S Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Cy5®). Anti-gamma crystallin S Rabbit Polyclonal ... Î³S-crystallin (Gamma-crystallin S), also known as Beta-crystallin S, is a 178 amino acid protein that exists as a monomer ... recessive nuclear cataract, Gamma Crystallin S, Gamma-S-Crystallin, CRBS_HUMAN, AI327013, Crystallin, CRYG8, gamma polypeptide ...
Compare 37 different HSPB6 ELISA Kits & buy the right one directly at antibodies-online.com! ... Top Heat Shock Protein, alpha-Crystallin-Related, B6 ELISA Kits at antibodies-online.com. Showing 7 out of 37 products:. ... heat shock protein, alpha-crystallin-related, B6 (Hspb6) antibody * heat shock protein family B (small) member 6 L homeolog ( ... Additionally we are shipping Heat Shock Protein, alpha-Crystallin-Related, B6 Antibodies (122) and Heat Shock Protein, alpha- ...
Recombinant Crystallin, alpha A (CRYAA) Protein (His tag). Species: Sheep (Ovine). Source: Yeast. Order product ABIN1630960. ... proteins produced by yeast expression system has been used as raw materials for downstream preparation of monoclonal antibodies ... Crystallin, alpha A (CRYAA) (AA 1-173) protein (His tag) Crystallin, alpha A (CRYAA) (AA 1-173) protein (His tag). Details for ... Crystallin, alpha A (CRYAA) Background Recommended name: Alpha-crystallin A chain Cleaved into the following chain: 1.. Alpha- ...
... recognizes alpha A crystallin, a 20 kDa water-soluble major structural protein and member of the heat shock protein family, de… ... strong,Mouse anti Human Alpha A Crystallin antibody, clone c9F2,/strong, ... Custom Antibody Services Recombinant Antibody Generation Bulk Catalog Antibody Production Antibody Conjugation Service Antibody ... Denosumab Antibodies Anti-Eculizumab Antibodies Anti-Etanercept Antibodies Anti-Golimumab Antibodies Anti-Infliximab Antibodies ...
Learn more about Anti-gamma crystallin S Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Alexa Fluor® 350). We enable science by offering product ...
Polyclonal antibodyAntigenCRYABReactivityMouse monoclonal antibodyWater-solubleHeat shock pHSP27SerumWestern BlotSpeciesPeptidesCRYAAGenesDilutionAntigensPeptideImmunofluorescenceCatalogPolypeptideMonoclonal antibodiesChaperonesIgG1ImmunoblotHuman Crystallin alphaHSP25Gene in inducing cStructuralDatasheetExpressionSecondary antibody conjugatedSpecificityLysatesDetectionLens epithelial cellsVertebrate eyeEpithelialAffinity
- The following antibody was used in this experiment: HSP20 Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # PA5-89649. (thermofisher.com)
- Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human HSPB9 protein. (abnova.com)
- Western Blot analysis of HSPB9 expression in transfected 293T cell line ( H00094086-T01 ) by HSPB9 MaxPab polyclonal antibody. (abnova.com)
- Immunoblot analysis using a polyclonal antibody against CryAB detected a single protein with molecular mass of 21kDa in Syrian hamster left ventricle. (go.jp)
- Also known as Alpha-crystallin (Acr) (14 kDa antigen) (16 kDa antigen) (HSP 16.3) (Nox16). (mybiosource.com)
- Mouse anti Human alpha B crystallin antibody recognizes alpha B crystallin, also known as heat shock protein beta-5, heat-shock 20 kD like-protein and renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-27, rosenthal fiber component. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
- The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (labome.org)
- Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (abgent.com)
- Expression of α-crystallin, the antigen 85 complex, PstS-1, L-alanine dehydrogenase and the 65 kDa antigen was analysed by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, using mouse monoclonal antibodies. (degruyter.com)
- the sample is added to the well, and the immobilized antibody binds to the protein antigen. (thermofisher.com)
- Antibodies to alphaB-Crystallin, Vimentin, and Heat Shock Protein 70 in Aqueous Humor of patients with Normal Tension Glaucoma and IgG Antibody Patterns Against Retinal Antigen in Aqueous Humor. (vision-research.eu)
- The stress protein αB-crystallin is an immunodominant antigen in multiple sclerosis (MS)-affected myelin for human T cells and is expressed at elevated levels in MS lesions. (tudelft.nl)
- Defects in CRYAB are the cause of myofibrillar alpha-B crystallin-related (MFM-CRYAB) [MIM: (abcam.com)
- An R120G missense mutation in the small heat shock protein α-B-crystallin (CryAB) causes desmin-related cardiomyopathy. (ahajournals.org)
- Mutations in desmin, α-B-crystallin (CryAB), and other genes result in the desmin-related myopathies (DRM). (ahajournals.org)
- In the 855Met data set, αB-crystallin gene ( CRYAB) expression was an independent predictor of brain as the first distant site of relapse (hazards ratio, HR=1.2, (95% confidence interval, CI 1.0-1.4), P =0.021). (nature.com)
- This region contains the alphaB-crystallin gene (CRYAB), a candidate gene encoding a 20-kD protein that is abundant in lens and is also present in a number of non-ocular tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle. (nih.gov)
- Muscle cell lines transfected with the mutant CRYAB cDNA showed intracellular aggregates that contain both desmin and alphaB-crystallin as observed in muscle fibers from DRM patients. (nih.gov)
- Alpha B-Crystallin (CRYAB) is purported to be a metastasis suppressor protein, and lack or lower CRYAB expression is a prognostic biomarker for several types of cancer, such as that of the prostate and head and neck. (cdc.gov)
- αB-Crystallin (CryAB) is a major stress protein in cardiac myocytes. (go.jp)
- N.B. Antibody reactivity and working conditions may vary between species. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
- Van Noort and colleagues ( 2 , 3 ) first proposed the protein to be an autoantigen in 1995 based on the reactivity of PBMCs from MS patients and healthy control subjects to proliferate in response to a fraction of myelin from MS brains containing α B-crystallin. (jimmunol.org)
- When bovine serum albumin was incubated with various concentrations of fructose, the reactivity of thee antibody increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. (nii.ac.jp)
- This antibody is predicted to have no cross-reactivity to Aldh3A2. (prosci-inc.com)
- Mouse anti Human Alpha A Crystallin antibody, clone c9F2 recognizes alpha A crystallin, a 20 kDa water-soluble major structural protein and member of the heat shock protein family, designated HSPB4, which acts as a molecular chaperone and is believed to play a role in the maintenance of ocular lens transparency/refractive index. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
- Aleinikova, K. 2004-10-13 00:00:00 The major water-soluble polypeptide with molecular weight of approximately 23 kDa (the 23 kDa polypeptide) was identified in the lens of common frog Rana temporaria L. According to the gel filtration data, the peptide is a part of an oligomeric protein with molecular weight over than 300 kDa (α-crystallin fraction). (deepdyve.com)
- alpha-crystallins can be induced by heat shock and are members of the small heat shock protein (sHSP). (mybiosource.com)
- Alpha crystallins can be induced by heat shock and are members of the small heat shock protein (HSP20) family. (mybiosource.com)
- αB-crystallin is a widely expressed member of the small heat shock protein family that protects cells from stress by its dual function as a molecular chaperone to preserve proteostasis and as a cell death antagonist that inhibits caspase-3 activation and oxidative stress. (nature.com)
- AlphaB-crystallin is a member of the small heat shock protein (shsp) family and possesses molecular chaperone activity. (nih.gov)
- The α B-crystallin protein is a member of the small heat shock protein family, and it has a chaperone-like function [ 12 - 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
- peptides in heat-shock protein Hsp20 (G71HFSVLLDVKHFSPEEIAVK91) and Hsp27 (D93RWRVSLDVNHFAPDELTVK113) with sequence homology to alpha-crystallin also have robust chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities. (antibodies-online.com)
- For 15 y, α B-crystallin (heat shock protein [Hsp] B5) has been labeled an autoantigen in multiple sclerosis (MS) based on humoral and cellular responses found in humans and animal models. (jimmunol.org)
- The association of α B-crystallin (heat shock protein [Hsp] B5) with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been a puzzling story ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
- HSP27 and alphaB-crystallin are both members of the small heat shock protein family. (wikigenes.org)
- αB-Crystallin is a member of the small heat shock protein family. (bioportfolio.com)
- The alpha-crystallins possess structural and functional similarities with Hsp25 and Hsp27 (1). (biovendor.com)
- Correlative immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy showed that two small HSPs (HSP27 and αB-crystallin) and the ATP-dependent chaperone HSP90 translocated to the titin springs in myopathy. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- HSP27 antibody revealed that HSP27 was not detectable in cultured kidney epithelial cells. (uwaterloo.ca)
- The alpha-crystallin-related heat shock (stress) protein hsp27 is expressed in absence of heat shock during Drosophila melanogaster development. (rupress.org)
- A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. (labome.org)
- Serum samples were collected and analyzed with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique for antibodies to myelin basic protein, myelin-associated glycoprotein, ganglioside GM1, sulfatide, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, alpha-B-crystallin, chondroitin sulfate, tubulin, and neurofilament. (ei-resource.org)
- Almost every tested serum with high levels of antibodies against modified food antigens showed very high levels of antibodies against myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. (biomedcentral.com)
- Serum antibody responses to i.p. immunisation with chicken gama globulin in BALB/c mice are also modulated by oral application of Lactobacillus. (tudelft.nl)
- Product Description:Bovine Beta- crystallin B2, CRYBB2 ELISA KIT allows for the in vitro quantitative determination of Bovine Beta-crystallin B2, CRYBB2 concentrations in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids. (lifescience-market.com)
- The present study was performed to elucidate the roles of serum anti-Sm antibodies in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (bioportfolio.com)
- Western blot analysis of whole cell lysates probed with alpha B crystallin antibody followed by detection with HRP conjugated Goat anti Mouse IgG (1/10,000, STAR207P ) and visualized on the ChemiDoc MP with 4 second exposure. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
- Western blot analysis of extracts (35ug) from 9 different cell lines by using anti-CRYM monoclonal antibody. (genetex.com)
- Western blot analysis of Aldh3A1 in human stomach lysate with Aldh3A1 antibody at (A) 1 and (B) 2 μg/mL. (prosci-inc.com)
- Aldh3A1 antibody can be used for detection of Aldh3A1 by Western blot at 1 - 2 μg/mL. (prosci-inc.com)
- Antibody validated: Western Blot in human samples. (prosci-inc.com)
- Abgent's experienced staff custom validates more than 1,000 antibodies each month in Western Blot (WB), Immunofluorescence (IF), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Flow Cytometry (FC) and additional applications. (abgent.com)
- It may block above mentioned antibody from binding to its target protein in western blot and/or immunohistochecmistry under proper experimental settings. (absave.com)
- Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence: AlphaA Crystallin/CRYAA Antibody (1H3.B8) [NBP2-- Tissue: Neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-BE. (novusbio.com)
- Small volumes of anti-CRYAA antibody vial(s) may occasionally become entrapped in the seal of the product vial during shipment and storage. (mybiosource.com)
- It has been demonstrated previously that Pax-6, a paired domain (PD)/homeodomain (HD) transcription factor critical for eye development, contributes to the activation of the αB-, αA-, δ1-, and ζ-crystallin genes in the lens. (asm.org)
- Here we have examined the possibility that the inverse relationship between the expression of Pax-6 and β-crystallin genes within the developing chicken lens reflects a negative regulatory role of Pax-6. (asm.org)
- The genes encoding crystallins are generally expressed either specifically or preferentially in the lens and are independently regulated at the transcriptional level ( 11 , 38 ). (asm.org)
- A hallmark of the microarray analysis is that the antagonist seems to be a novel stage-specific regulator of crystallin genes. (molvis.org)
- The late, sustained cluster also contained the upregulated crystallin genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Genes associated with the development of lens include crystallin genes. (bjbms.org)
- Antibody mimetics are organic compounds that, like antibodies, can specifically bind antigens, but that are not structurally related to antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
- They resemble antibodies in their affinity and specificity to antigens but not in structure, which makes them a type of antibody mimetic. (wikipedia.org)
- Patients with documented, measured exposure to molds had elevated titers of antibodies (immunoglobulin [Ig]A, IgM, and IgG) to neural-specific antigens. (ei-resource.org)
- All groups showed significantly increased autoantibody titers for all isotypes (IgA, IgM, and IgG) of antibodies to neural antigens when compared with 500 healthy controls. (ei-resource.org)
- We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens. (biomedcentral.com)
- Compared to raw food antigens, IgE antibodies showed a 3-8-fold increase against processed food antigens in 31% of the patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- Similarly, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against modified food antigens overall were found at much higher levels than antibody reactions against raw food antigens. (biomedcentral.com)
- We conclude that the determination of food allergy, intolerance and sensitivity would be improved by testing IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against both raw and processed food antigens. (biomedcentral.com)
- Retinal ganglion cell loss is accompanied by antibody depositions and increased levels of microglia after immunization with retinal antigens. (vision-research.eu)
- Autoreactive antibodies and loss of retinal ganglion cells in rats induced by immunization with ocular antigens. (vision-research.eu)
- Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four homologous motifs, a connecting peptide, and N- and C-terminal extensions. (acris-antibodies.com)
- The anti-αB-C antibody was made by the injection of a synthet … More ic peptide from the carboxyl terminal of αB-C to rabbits (Tamaoka et al, 1995). (nii.ac.jp)
- Aldh3A1 antibody was raised against a 13 amino acid synthetic peptide near the carboxy terminus of the human Aldh3A1. (prosci-inc.com)
- Aldh3A1 Antibody is affinity chromatography purified via peptide column. (prosci-inc.com)
- This is a synthetic peptide designed for use in combination with anti-CRYGN Antibody (ARP67062_P050), made by Aviva Systems Biology. (absave.com)
- A monoclonal antibody targeted to the functional peptide of αB-crystallin inhibits the chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities. (bioportfolio.com)
- Previous studies have shown that the peptide (DRFSVNLDVKHFSPEELKVKV, hereafter referred to as peptain-1) from the core domain of αB-crystallin exhibits both chaperone and anti-apoptotic properties similar to the parent protein. (bioportfolio.com)
- A highly pure fraction of the 23 kDa polypeptide was isolated by two-step ion-exchange chromatography and SDS electrophoresis and the specific antibodies were obtained. (deepdyve.com)
- Immunochemical analysis showed that the 23 kDa polypeptide was different from all known crystallins of frogs and other animals (bull, mouse, rat, and chicken). (deepdyve.com)
- 0.5 ug/ml was sufficient for detection of 100 ng purified alphaA crystalline by colorimetric immunoblot analysis using Goat Anti-Mouse IgG:HRP as the secondary.Alpha A Crystallin Antibody.Use in Immunoblotting reported in scientific literature (PMID 28546921). (novusbio.com)
- Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that Ang II increased renal expression of HSP70 and HSP25, as well as HO-1, but that expression of αB-crystallin was unaffected by this treatment. (ahajournals.org)
- Immunoblot analysis showed that lens crystallin reacted highly with this antibody. (nii.ac.jp)
- Anti-human Crystallin alpha A mAb, clone c9F2, is derived from hybridization of mouse SP2/O myeloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant Crystallin alpha A. (mybiosource.com)
- This antibody is not shown cross-activity about Crystallin alpha B. A : Crystallin-alpha A recombinant protein B : Crystallin-alpha B recombinant protein C : Mouse eye lysates The Cell lysates (5ug) were resolved by SDS-PAGE, transferred to PVDF membrane and probed with anti-human Crystallin alpha A antibody (1:3000). (mybiosource.com)
- E. coli -derived recombinant protein corresponding to full-length (aa1-173) human crystallin alpha A. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
- Here, we investigated the regulation of expression and localization of other HSPs, including HSP70, HSP25, and αB-crystallin, in the kidney of rats undergoing long-term administration of Ang II (0.7 mg · kg −1 · d −1 ). (ahajournals.org)
- Note that in comparison to neurons astrocytes constitutively express high amounts of HSP25 and B-crystallin, while HSP60 and HSC 70 are similarly prominent in both cell types. (hindawi.com)
- In response to cellular stress, alpha crystallin is phosphorlyated and may serve a structural control function and play a role in protein maintenance. (qedbio.com)
- When cellular stress occurs, alpha-crystallin enters its' phosphorylated state and may serve a structural control function and play a role in protein maintenance (2). (biovendor.com)
- Alpha-enolase in addition, functions as a structural lens protein (tau-crystallin) in the monomeric form. (genecards.org)
- Crystallins are the dominant structural components of the vertebrate eye lens. (ptglab.com)
- it encodes alpha-enolase, a homodimeric soluble enzyme, and also encodes a shorter monomeric structural lens protein, tau-crystallin. (avivasysbio.com)
- We examined αB-crystallin expression in primary breast carcinomas with metastatic data to evaluate its association with prognosis and site-specific metastases. (nature.com)
- αB-crystallin protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry using the clinically annotated British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) tissue microarray ( n =3,987 breast tumors). (nature.com)
- In the BCCA series, αB-crystallin protein expression was an independent prognostic marker of poor breast cancer-specific survival (HR=1.3, (95% CI 1.1-1.6), P =0.014). (nature.com)
- We thus suggest that the relatively high concentration of Pax-6 contributes to the absence of βB1-crystallin gene expression in lens epithelial cells and that diminishing amounts of Pax-6 in lens fiber cells during development allow activation of this gene. (asm.org)
- We show that the transcription factor Pax6 expressed in dopaminergic neurons of the olfactory bulb regulates the survival of these neurons by directly controlling the expression of crystallin αA (CryαA), which blocks apoptosis by inhibition of procaspase-3 activation. (nih.gov)
- Also these results suggest that crystallin gene expression can be regulated by pro-inflammatory events in the eye. (molvis.org)
- αB-crystallin (αB-C) is a subunit of α-crystallin, a major protein component of the vertebrate lens, and αB-C expression has been reported in extra-lenticular tissues. (nii.ac.jp)
- Since most of previous studies using this antibody have primarily dealt with ballooned neurons, we investigated such αB-C expression in neuronal abnormalities of various neurological diseases. (nii.ac.jp)
- We set out to assess whether αB-crystallin expression is correlated with worse prognosis and whether this is related to VEGF secretion and cell motility in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). (biomedcentral.com)
- αB-crystallin expression was determined immunohistochemically in tumor biopsies of 38 HNSCC patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- Locoregional control (LRC) and metastasis-free survival (MFS) of the patients were analyzed in relation to αB-crystallin expression. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our data suggest that αB-crystallin expression is associated with distant metastases formation in HNSCC patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- αB-crystallin expression levels were immunohistochemically determined in HNSCC biopsies and correlated with clinicopathological characteristics and outcome. (biomedcentral.com)
- The mechanism of this resistance appears to involve the increased expression of Hsp 27 and alphaB-crystallin. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Characterization of Antibodies to Identify Cellular Expression of Dopamine Receptor 4 Adv Exp Med Biol. (usc.edu)
- The lack of encephalitogenicity of whole protein and dominant epitopes may be due to the low constitutive expression of αB-crystallin in the CNS combined with a state of peripheral tolerance suggested by the constitutive expression of αB-crystallin in secondary lymphoid tissues in ABH mice. (tudelft.nl)
- These findings demonstrate the potential for new-generation antibody-based tests for the early detection of M. bovis infection in cattle. (asm.org)
- In contrast, the poor sensitivity of antibody-based tests has prevented the widespread use of these assays for the early detection of tuberculous cattle ( 14 ). (asm.org)