Crystallins: A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.beta-Crystallins: A class of crystallins that provides refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Beta-crystallins are similar in structure to GAMMA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both contain Greek key motifs. Beta-crystallins exist as oligomers formed from acidic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits.beta-Crystallin B Chain: The basic subunit of beta-crystallins.gamma-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins that found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of VERTEBRATES. Gamma-crystallins are similar in structure to BETA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both form into a Greek key-like structure. They are composed of monomeric subunits.beta-Crystallin A Chain: The acidic subunit of beta-crystallins.alpha-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins that provides the majority of refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Alpha-crystallins also act as molecular chaperones that bind to denatured proteins, keep them in solution and thereby maintain the translucency of the lens. The proteins exist as large oligomers that are formed from ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN and ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN subunits.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)alpha-Crystallin A Chain: One of the subunits of alpha-crystallins. Unlike ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN the expression of ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN is limited primarily to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE).alpha-Crystallin B Chain: One of the alpha crystallin subunits. In addition to being expressed in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE), alpha-crystallin B chain has been found in a variety of tissues such as HEART; BRAIN; MUSCLE; and KIDNEY. Accumulation of the protein in the brain is associated with NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES such as CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME and ALEXANDER DISEASE.Lens Nucleus, Crystalline: The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.Octopodiformes: A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Titrimetry: The determination of the concentration of a given component in solution (the analyte) by addition of a liquid reagent of known strength (the titrant) until an equivalence point is reached (when the reactants are present in stoichiometric proportions). Often an indicator is added to make the equivalence point visible (e.g., a change in color).Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.KynurenineDeamination: The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-maf: Maf proto-oncogene protein is the major cellular homolog of the V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It was the first of the mammalian MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS identified, and it is induced in activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of INTERLEUKIN-4. c-maf is frequently translocated to an immunoglobulin locus in MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Poecilia: A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.Maillard Reaction: One of a group of nonenzymatic reactions in which aldehydes, ketones, or reducing sugars react with amino acids, peptides, or proteins. Food browning reactions, such as those that occur with cooking of meats, and also food deterioration reactions, resulting in decreased nutritional value and color changes, are attributed to this reaction type. The Maillard reaction is studied by scientists in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and carbohydrate chemistry fields.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Eye ProteinsAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lens Cortex, Crystalline: The portion of the crystalline lens surrounding the nucleus and bound anteriorly by the epithelium and posteriorly by the capsule. It contains lens fibers and amorphous, intercellular substance.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Calpain: Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 126.96.36.199.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 188.8.131.52.Ranidae: The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.DucksProtein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Molecular chaperones: small heat shock proteins in the limelight. (1/1309)Small heat shock proteins have been the Cinderellas of the molecular chaperone world, but now the crystal structure of a small heat shock protein has been solved and mutation of two human homologues implicated in genetic disease. Intermediate filaments appear to be one of the key targets of their chaperone activity. (+info)
Site-directed spin labeling study of subunit interactions in the alpha-crystallin domain of small heat-shock proteins. Comparison of the oligomer symmetry in alphaA-crystallin, HSP 27, and HSP 16.3. (2/1309)Site-directed spin labeling was used to investigate quaternary interactions along a conserved sequence in the alpha-crystallin domain of alphaA-crystallin, heat-shock protein 27 (HSP 27), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat-shock protein (HSP 16.3). In previous work, it was demonstrated that this sequence in alphaA-crystallin and HSP 27 forms a beta-strand involved in subunit contacts. In this study, the symmetry and geometry of the resulting interface were investigated. For this purpose, the pattern of spin-spin interactions was analyzed, and the number of interacting spins was determined in alphaA-crystallin and HSP 27. The results reveal a 2-fold symmetric interface consisting of two beta-strands interacting near their N termini in an antiparallel fashion. Remarkably, subunit interactions along this interface persist when the alpha-crystallin domains are expressed in isolation. Because this domain in alphaA-crystallin forms dimers and tetramers, it is inferred that interactions along this interface mediate the formation of a basic dimeric unit. In contrast, in HSP 16.3, spin-spin interactions are observed at only one site near the C terminus of the sequence. Furthermore, cysteine substitutions at residues flanking the N terminus resulted in the dissociation of the oligomeric structure. Analysis of the spin-spin interactions and size exclusion chromatography indicates a 3-fold symmetric interface. Taken together, our results demonstrate that subunit interactions in the alpha-crystallin domain of mammalian small heat-shock proteins assemble a basic building block of the oligomeric structure. Sequence divergence in this domain results in variations in the size and symmetry of the quaternary structure between distant members of the small heat-shock protein family. (+info)
Isolation and characterization of drosocrystallin, a lens crystallin gene of Drosophila melanogaster. (3/1309)We have cloned the drosocrystallin gene (dcy) of Drosophila melanogaster, which encodes a major protein of the corneal lens, previously described in part by Komori et al. (1992, J. Cell Sci. 102, 191-201). Synthesis of the DCY protein starts weakly in 2-day-old pupae, reaches a peak at day 3 and day 4 of pupal development, and decreases very fast in young adults. The dcy mRNA is detected in the compound eyes as well as in the ocelli. The presence of a putative signal peptide and the extracellular location of DCY suggest that DCY is a secreted protein. Interestingly, the dcy gene shows sequence similarities to some insect cuticular proteins and is detected as well in two closely related Drosophila species, D. sechellia and D. simulans, and in one more distantly related species, D. virilis. This finding supports the hypothesis that Drosophila used the same strategy as vertebrates and mollusks, namely, recruiting a multifunctional protein for refraction in the lens, by a gene-sharing mechanism. Furthermore, it supports our intercalary evolution hypothesis, which suggests that the development of an elaborate structure (for example, a compound eye) from an original primitive form (an ancestral photoreceptor organ) can be achieved by recruiting novel genes into the original developmental pathway. (+info)
The synthesis of a small heat shock/alpha-crystallin protein in Artemia and its relationship to stress tolerance during development. (4/1309)Fertilized oocytes of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana undergo either ovoviviparous or oviparous development, yielding free-swimming larvae (nauplii) or encysted gastrulae (cysts), respectively. Encystment is followed by diapause, wherein metabolism is greatly reduced; the resulting cysts are very resistant to extreme stress, including desiccation and long-term anoxia. The synthesis of p26, a small heat shock/alpha-crystallin protein produced only in oviparously developing Artemia, is shown in this paper to be transcriptionally regulated. A p26 mRNA of about 0.7 kb was detected on Northern blots in the second day after oocyte fertilization. It peaked as embryos encysted and declined rapidly when activated cysts resumed development. The appearance of p26 protein, as indicated by immunoprobing of Western blots, followed mRNA by 1 day; it also increased as encystment occurred but remained constant during postgastrula development of cysts. However, p26 underwent a marked reduction during emergence of nauplii and could not be detected in cell-free extracts of second-instar larvae. p26 entered nuclei of encysting embryos soon after synthesis and was localized therein as late as instar II, when it was restricted to a small set of salt gland nuclei. First-instar larvae derived from cysts were more thermotolerant than larvae that had developed ovoviviparously, but synthesis of p26 was not induced by heat under the experimental conditions employed. Additionally, transformed bacteria synthesizing p26 were more thermotolerant than bacteria that lacked the protein. The results support the proposal that p26, a developmentally regulated protein synthesized during embryo encystment, has chaperone activity in vivo and protects the proteins of encysted Artemia from stress-induced denaturation. (+info)
Glucose metabolism in Neurospora is altered by heat shock and by disruption of HSP30. (5/1309)We compared the metabolism of [1-13C]glucose by wild type cells of Neurospora crassa at normal growth temperature and at heat shock temperatures, using nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of cell extracts. High temperature led to increased incorporation of 13C into trehalose, relative to all other metabolites, and there was undetectable synthesis of glycerol, which was a prominent metabolite of glucose at normal temperature (30 degrees C). Heat shock strongly reduced formation of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, approximately 10-fold, and mannitol synthesis was severely depressed at 46 degrees C, but only moderately reduced at 45 degrees C. A mutant strain of N. crassa that lacks the small alpha-crystallin-related heat shock protein, Hsp30, shows poor survival during heat shock on a nutrient medium with restricted glucose. An analysis of glucose metabolism of this strain showed that, unlike the wild type strain, Hsp30-deficient cells may accumulate unphosphorylated glucose at high temperature. This suggestion that glucose-phosphorylating hexokinase activity might be depressed in mutant cells led us to compare hexokinase activity in the two strains at high temperature. Hexokinase was reduced more than 35% in the mutant cell extracts, relative to wild type extracts. alpha-Crystallin and an Hsp30-enriched preparation protected purified hexokinase from thermal inactivation in vitro, supporting the proposal that Hsp30 may directly stabilize hexokinase in vivo during heat shock. (+info)
Deamidation of alpha-A crystallin from nuclei of cataractous and normal human lenses. (6/1309)PURPOSE: To quantitate the extent of deamidation of asparagine-101, glutamine-50, and glutamine-6 of alpha-A crystallin in the nucleus from human cataractous and normal lenses. METHODS: Reverse phase chromatography was used to prepare alpha-A crystallin from total proteins of the nucleus from cataractous and age-matched normal human lenses. Synthetic peptides were made corresponding to the expected amidated and deamidated tryptic fragments containing asparagine-101, glutamine-50, and glutamine-6. The peptides were used to identify and quantitate amidated and deamidated forms of tryptic fragments from alpha-A crystallin eluting from a reverse phase column. RESULTS: Significant amounts of deamidation of asparagine-101 and glutamine-50, but not glutamine-6, were present in alpha-A crystallin from nuclear sections of both cataractous and age-matched normal lenses. Quantitative analysis of tryptic peptides containing these residues indicated no statistical difference in deamidation in cataractous versus normal lenses. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in the extent of deamidation of asparagine-101, glutamine-50, and glutamine-6 for alpha-A crystallin, purified from the nucleus of cataractous versus age-matched normal lenses. These results strongly suggest that deamidation of these residues does not play a role in the biogenesis of human nuclear cataract. (+info)
Human lens epithelial layer in cortical cataract. (7/1309)Normal and cataractous human eye lenses were studied by morphology and protein analysis. A marked decrease in protein sulfhydryl (PSH) and nonprotein sulfhydryl (NSPH) was observed in nuclear and cortical cataractous epithelia. Moreover, decrease in PSH contents and an increase in insoluble proteins were found to be correlated only in cortical cataractous epithelium which is also accompanied by various morphological abnormalities. In nuclear cataractous epithelium, however, there was very little insolubilisation of proteins. The epithelial morphology in nuclear cataracts was almost similar to normal lens epithelium. Hence, it is assumed that the protein insolubilisation and various morphological abnormalities are characteristics of cortical cataractous epithelium. This leads us to believe that opacification in cortical cataract might initiate in the epithelial layer. (+info)
Domain exchange experiments in duck delta-crystallins: functional and evolutionary implications. (8/1309)Delta-crystallin, the major soluble protein component of the avian and reptilian eye lens, is homologous to the urea cycle enzyme argininosuccinate lyase (ASL). In duck lenses there are two delta crystallins, denoted delta1 and delta2. Duck delta2 is both a major structural protein of the lens and also the duck orthologue of ASL, an example of gene recruitment. Although 94% identical to delta2/ASL in the amino acid sequence, delta1 is enzymatically inactive. A series of hybrid proteins have been constructed to assess the role of each structural domain in the enzymatic mechanism. Five chimeras--221, 122, 121, 211, and 112, where the three numbers correspond to the three structural domains and the value of 1 or 2 represents the protein of origin, delta1 or delta2, respectively--were constructed and thermodynamically and kinetically analyzed. The kinetic analysis indicates that only domain 1 is crucial for restoring ASL activity to delta1 crystallin, and that amino acid substitutions in domain 2 may play a role in substrate binding. These results confirm the hypothesis that only one domain, domain 1, is responsible for the loss of catalytic activity in delta1. The thermodynamic characterization of human ASL (hASL) and duck delta1 and delta2 indicate that delta crystallins are slightly less stable than hASL, with the delta1 being the least stable. The deltaGs of unfolding are 57.25, 63.13, and 70.71 kcal mol(-1) for delta1, delta2, and hASL, respectively. This result was unexpected, and we speculate that delta crystallins have adapted to their structural role by adopting a slightly less stable conformation that might allow for enhanced protein-protein and protein-solvent interactions. (+info)
... has been shown to interact with desmoplakin and αB-crystallin. ... Bennardini F, Wrzosek A, Chiesi M (August 1992). "Alpha B-crystallin in cardiac tissue. Association with actin and desmin ...
Lens (anatomy) - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
lens crystallin. MeSH. D007908. TA. A15.2.05.001. FMA. 58241. Anatomical terminology. [edit on Wikidata] ...
Gamma-crystallin B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYGB gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon- ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Four gamma-crystallin genes (gamma-A through gamma-D) and three pseudogenes (gamma-E, gamma-F, gamma-G) are tandemly organized ... 1991). "Human gamma-crystallin genes. A gene family on its way to extinction". J. Mol. Biol. 216 (3): 519-32. doi:10.1016/0022- ...
Beta-crystallin S is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYGS gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon- ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... 1991). "Human gamma-crystallin genes. A gene family on its way to extinction". J. Mol. Biol. 216 (3): 519-32. doi:10.1016/0022- ... 2006). "Gamma-S crystallin gene (CRYGS) mutation causes dominant progressive cortical cataract in humans". J. Med. Genet. 42 (9 ...
Crystallin, gamma C, also known as CRYGC, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CRYGC gene. Crystallins are separated ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Four gamma-crystallin genes (gamma-A through gamma-D) and three pseudogenes (gamma-E, gamma-F, gamma-G) are organized in a ... 1991). "Human gamma-crystallin genes. A gene family on its way to extinction". J. Mol. Biol. 216 (3): 519-32. doi:10.1016/0022- ...
CRYZ: Crystallin zeta. *CYP4B1 (1p33). *CYR61 (1p22). *DBT: dihydrolipoamide branched chain transacylase E2 ...
Glutathione is an antioxidant that protects crystallins in the eye from reactive oxygen species; denatured crystallins can lead ...
All teeth are in use by 8 years. The lenses of the eyes contain crystallin, which constitutes 8 to 13% of the protein ... Garland, D.; Rao, P.V.; Del Corso, A.; Mura, U.; Zigler Jr., J.S. (1991). "zeta-Crystallin is a major protein in the lens of ...
α-crystallin, a process which may be sped up by higher temperatures. ...
All teeth are in use by 8 years. The lenses of the eyes contain crystallin, which constitutes 8 to 13% of the protein ... Garland, D.; Rao, P.V.; Del Corso, A.; Mura, U.; Zigler Jr., J.S. (1991). "zeta-Crystallin is a major protein in the lens of ...
... precipitation or aggregation of crystallins causes cataracts. Crystallins are present in the lens at extremely high ... A particularly striking example of the importance of crowding effects involves the crystallins that fill the interior of the ... The large crowding effect adds to the thermal stability of the crystallins, increasing their resistance to denaturation. This ... December 1989). "A differential scanning calorimetric study of the bovine lens crystallins". Biochemistry. 28 (25): 9653-8. doi ...
241-250 Wistow, Graeme (August 1993). "Lens crystallins: gene recruitment and evolutionary dynamism". Trends in Biochemical ... "Recruitment of enzymes and stress proteins as lens crystallins". In Jansson, Bengt; Jörnvall, Hans; Rydberg, Ulf; et al. Toward ... is the recruitment of enzymes from glycolysis and xenobiotic metabolism to serve as structural proteins called crystallins ...
The three main crystallin types found in the human eye are α-, β-, and γ-crystallins. Crystallins tend to form soluble, high- ... β and γ crystallins are found primarily in the lens, while subunits of α -crystallin have been isolated from other parts of the ... α-crystallin proteins belong to a larger superfamily of molecular chaperone proteins, and so it is believed that the crystallin ... The chaperone functions of α-crystallin may also help maintain the lens proteins, which must last a human for his/her entire ...
He called it Crystallin. In 1834, Friedlieb Runge isolated a substance from coal tar that turned a beautiful blue color when ...
... was first isolated in 1826 by Otto Unverdorben by destructive distillation of indigo. He called it Crystallin. In ...
Ubiquitous α -crystallins and bird δ -crystallins are two examples. The α-crystallins, which contributed to the discovery of ... η-crystallin, α-enolase/τ-crystallin, and lactic dehydrogenase/ -crystallin. Also, the anuran corneal epithelium, which can ... The α-crystallins provide a convincing case for a lens crystallin using its non-refractive ability within the lens to prevent ... β/γ-crystallins are different from α-crystallins in that they are a large multigene family. Other proteins like bacterial spore ...
SAMIR K. BRAHMA1 (1978). "Ontogeny of lens crystallins in marine cephalopods" (PDF). Embryol. Exp. Morph. 46 (1): 111-118. PMID ...
Crystallins expressed by human keratocytes are ALDH1A1, ALDH3A1, ALDH2 and TKT. Different sets of crystallins are typical to ... Quiescent keratocytes synthesize the so-called crystallins, known primarily for their role in the lens. Corneal crystallins, ... Lassen N, Black WJ, Estey T, Vasiliou V (April 2008). "The role of corneal crystallins in the cellular defense mechanisms ... Jester JV (April 2008). "Corneal crystallins and the development of cellular transparency". Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 19 (2): 82- ...
Gamma-crystallin A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYGA gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon- ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Four gamma-crystallin genes (gamma-A through gamma-D) and three pseudogenes (gamma-E, gamma-F, gamma-G) are tandemly organized ... 1991). "Human gamma-crystallin genes. A gene family on its way to extinction". J. Mol. Biol. 216 (3): 519-32. doi:10.1016/0022- ...
Ecroyd, H.; Carver, John A. (22 September 2008). "Crystallin proteins and amyloid fibrils". Cellular and Molecular Life ...
He called his discovery Crystallin. Aniline is important in the manufacture of dyes, plastics, and pharmaceuticals. In 1829 he ...
MP26 and alpha-crystallin are palmitoylated". FEBS Lett. 262 (2): 356-8. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(90)80228-B. PMID 2335219. ... Prabhakaram M, Katz ML, Ortwerth BJ (1997). "Glycation mediated crosslinking between alpha-crystallin and MP26 in intact lens ... 1991). "Lens protein gene expression: alpha-crystallins and MIP". Lens and eye toxicity research. 8 (2-3): 319-44. PMID 1911643 ...
The former class is also called phylogenetically-restricted crystallins. This gene encodes a taxon-specific crystallin protein ... Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major ... Gonzalez P, Rao PV, Zigler JS (1993). "Molecular cloning and sequencing of zeta-crystallin/quinone reductase cDNA from human ... Goenka S, Raman B, Ramakrishna T, Rao CM (2001). "Unfolding and refolding of a quinone oxidoreductase: alpha-crystallin, a ...
Mu-crystallin homolog also known as NADP-regulated thyroid-hormone-binding protein (THBP) is a protein that in humans is ... "Entrez Gene: CRYM crystallin, mu". Hallen A, Cooper AJ, Jamie JF, Haynes PA, Willows RD (February 2011). "Mammalian forebrain ... Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific and ubiquitous. The former class is also called phylogenetically- ... Segovia L, Horwitz J, Gasser R, Wistow G (1998). "Two roles for mu-crystallin: a lens structural protein in diurnal marsupials ...
Beta-crystallin B2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYBB2 gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... 2005). "Unfolding crystallins: The destabilizing role of a β-hairpin cysteine in BetaB2-crystallin by simulation and experiment ... Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension (present in the basic group, none ...
Beta-crystallin B3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYBB3 gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension (present in the basic group, none ... "Entrez Gene: CRYBB3 crystallin, beta B3". Human CRYBB3 genome location and CRYBB3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser ...
Influences on the Expression Pattern of Cre Recombinase Driven by the -290/+43 alpha A-Crystallin Promoter | IOVS | ARVO...
Abstract: : Purpose: The purpose of these experiments was to create mice that would be useful for gene deletion experiments in the lens. The ability of a single inserted Pax-6 consensus site within the αA-crystallin promoter was systematically tested for its ability to influence the expression pattern of Cre recombinase driven by this promoter. Methods: Transgenic mice were generated with constructs that use two different αA-crystallin promoters to drive Cre expression. One construct used the CPV2 promoter that contains the short (-290/+43) αA-crystallin promoter. The other construct (CPV14) was identical with the exception of a single Pax6 consensus binding site inserted within the promoter fragment. The constructs were injected either alone or together with tyrosinase minigene cassette into fertilized one-cell FVB mouse embryos to produce transgenic mice. The tyrosinase minigene cassette was co-injected to facilitate the identification of potential transgenic founders via correction of ...
Exposure of βL-crystallin to oxidizing free radicals enhances its susceptibility to transglutaminase activity | Biochemical...
1. The effects of free radicals on the capacity of beta L-crystallin to act as a substrate for the enzyme transglutaminase were investigated. 2. beta L-Crystallin was exposed to defined radical species that were generated radiolytically, and transglutaminase activity, using the modified protein as substrate, was subsequently measured by monitoring the incorporation of [14C]putrescine. 3. Exposure of beta L-crystallin to hydroxyl radicals, thymine peroxyl radicals and acetone peroxyl radicals at concentrations of up to 135 microM increased the capacity of the protein to incorporate putrescine. With higher concentrations of these radicals this capacity of beta L-crystallin to act as a transglutaminase substrate declined to control levels or lower. 4. Superoxide radicals were inactive in this regard; hydroperoxyl radicals were active only at high concentrations. 5. It has previously been suggested that changes in the crystallins that occur during aging and with cataract may be due to oxidative ...
MafB is Expressed in Developing Lens and Cooperates With Pax6 and Prox1 to Regulate Chicken Beta B1 Crystallin Gene Expression ...
Abstract: : Purpose: Pax6, Prox1 and Mafs are transcription factors important for crystallin gene expression and eye development. We previously showed that, in transfection assays, MafB and Prox1 could synergistically activate the chicken betaB1 crystallin promoter (-432/+30), however, both MafB and Prox1 mediated transactivation could be blocked when Pax6 was co-transfected. This study investigates how these transcription factors cooperate to regulate betaB1-crystallin gene expression. Methods: Distribution of MafB was investigated in mouse lens and lens cell lines by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. GST-tagged MafB, Prox1 and Pax6 were generated by using pET or pGEX recombinant protein expression system. Their DNA binding abilities were tested in electrophoresis mobility shift assays (EMSA). Results: MafB was differentially expressed in lens fiber cells and lens epithelial cells: in lens epithelial cells, MafB is not evenly distributed in nuclei but concentrated in a single large ...
The chaperone-like protein alpha-crystallin is a approximately 35 subunit hetero-oligomer consisting of alphaA and alphaB subunits in a 3:1 molar ratio and has the function of maintaining eye lens transparency. We studied the thermal denaturation of alpha-crystallin by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), circular dichroism (CD), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) as a function of pH. Our results show that between pH 7 and 10 the protein undergoes a reversible thermal transition. However, the thermodynamic parameters obtained by DSC are inconsistent with the complete denaturation of an oligomeric protein of the size of alpha-crystallin. Accordingly, the CD data suggest the presence of extensive residual secondary structure above the transition temperature. Within the pH range from 4 to 7 the increased aggregation propensity around the isoelectric point (pI approximately 6) precludes observation of a thermal transition. As pH decreases below 4 the protein undergoes a substantial unfolding. ...
Results. Effect of [alpha]-crystallin on restriction enzyme digestion. To determine whether the partially purified [alpha]-crystallin had inhibitory effects on restriction digestion of DNA, we assayed several commonly used restriction enzymes for activity in the presence of [alpha]-crystallin. The commonly used restriction enzymes, Bam HI, Hind III, Nde I, Pst I and Sst I all remained active in the presence of [alpha]-crystallin. For this experiment, a 5 fold excess of each enzyme (5 units) was incubated for 1 hour with 1 µg of plasmid DNA using manufacturers supplied buffer. Each reaction also contained 1 µl of the purified [alpha]-crystallin (10 mg/ml), final concentration, 1 mg/ml. Each selected enzyme digested the plasmid to completion indicating that [alpha]-crystallin had no major detrimental effects on restriction enzyme digestion (data not shown).. To assay the ability of [alpha]-crystallin to protect restriction enzymes from heat inactivation, we chose the enzyme Nde I. Unlike the ...
"Truncation, cross-linking and interaction of crystallins and intermedi" by Roger J. Truscott, Jason D. McArthur et al.
The optical properties of the lens are dependent upon the integrity of proteins within the fiber cells. During aging, crystallins, the major intra-cellular structural proteins of the lens, aggregate and become water-insoluble. Modifications to crystallins and the lens intermediate filaments have been implicated in this phenomenon. In this study, we examined changes to, and interactions between, human lens crystallins and intermediate filament proteins in lenses from a variety of age groups (0-86 years). Among the lens-specific intermediate filament proteins, filensin was extensively cleaved in all postnatal lenses, with truncated products of various sizes being found in both the lens cortical and nuclear extracts. Phakinin was also truncated and was not detected in the lens nucleus. The third major intermediate filament protein, vimentin, remained intact in lens cortical fiber cells across the age range except for an 86 year lens, where a single ~ 49 kDa breakdown product was observed. An ¿B-crystallin
The lens in the dyl mutant mice shows a persistent lens-ectodermal connection as well as degeneration and extrusion of lens materials after the initial differentiation of the fibres. Immunohistochemical investigation of the ontogeny of the lens crystallins in this developing mutant lens has been carried out using the indirect immunofluorescence ... read more staining method with antiserum to adult mouse lens total soluble proteins. The results have been compared with those for coisogenic normal lens used as a control. In both, the first positive reaction was detectable at identical stages of lens development. A rapid increase in the intensity of fluorescence, most marked in the elongating fibre progressing through the equatorial region to the epithelium, was recorded in the mutant as well as in the normal lens. However, the stalk leading to the lens epithelium did not show any reaction. Appearance of vacuoles in the lens nucleus and cortex marked the beginning of degeneration of fibres which ...
Alpha-crystallin B chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAB gene. It is part of the small heat shock protein family and functions as molecular chaperone that primarily binds misfolded proteins to prevent protein aggregation, as well as inhibit apoptosis and contribute to intracellular architecture. Post-translational modifications decrease the ability to chaperone. Defects in this gene/protein have been associated with cancer and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons disease. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and ...
Crystallins are water-soluble proteins that compose about ninety% in the protein inside the lens. The three main crystallin sorts present in the human eye are α-, β-, and γ-crystallins. Crystallins have a tendency to variety soluble, high-molecular pounds aggregates that pack tightly in lens fibers, Therefore raising the index of refraction of the lens while protecting its transparency. β and γ crystallins are found mostly during the lens, while subunits of α -crystallin happen to be isolated from other areas of the eye and the human body ...
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Patent US7282572 - Method and device for improving protein stability and solubility - Google Patents
A method for expressing proteins as a fusion chimera with a domain of p26 or alpha crystallin type proteins to improve the protein stability and solubility when over expressed in bacteria such as E. coli is provided. Genes of interest are cloned into the multiple cloning site of the Vector System just downstream of the p26 or alpha crystallin type protein and a thrombin cleavage site. Protein expression is driven by a strong bacterial promoter (TAC). The expression is induced by the addition of 1 mM IPTG that overcomes the lac repression (lac Iq). The soluble recombinant protein is purified using a fusion tag.
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Discussion. The data presented here indicate that heat incubation produces structural and functional changes in renatured a-, aA-, and aB-crystallins as well as in the native a-crystallin. The chain like structures observed in the 65 °C transmission electron micrographs may indicate the particles formed after heat incubation have a greater propensity to interact with each other than the native particles. These chains could also be artifacts of the negative staining process, however.. There are major differences in the heat-induced secondary structural transitions that separate the native a-crystallin from the other a-crystallins. Renatured a-crystallin exhibits more severe structural changes that are observable at lower incubation temperatures than the native a-crystallin. The effects of heat incubation on chaperone-like activity are also completely opposite, with the native a-crystallin samples showing an improvement and renatured a-crystallin samples showing a progressive decline in activity ...
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11- Zafaranchi zadeh moghadam S, Khoshaman K, Masoudi R, Hemmateenejad B, Yousefi R (2017) "The structural alteration and aggregation propensity of glycated lens crystallins in the presence of calcium; importance of lens calcium homeostasis in development of diabetic cataracts. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molec " Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectroscopy 170:174-183 ...
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rat Tcf8 protein: a human homolog of chicken delta EF1 protein; binds T3-response elements; has 2 isoforms Zfhep-1 & Zfhep-2; amino acid sequence given in first source
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References for Abcams Recombinant Human Beta crystallin S protein (ab111642). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
The cellular basisofcornealtransparencyevidence for corneal crystallins JCell Sci. Robinson LJ, Roberts WK, Ling TT, Lamming D, Sternberg SS, and Roepe PD.
Tetsuji NAKANO, Kazufumi HIRAMATSU, Norio HIRATA, Junko MURAKAMI, Tomoku ICHIMIYA, Issei TOKIMATSU, Eiji YAMAGATA, Yuriko YAMAKAMI, Tohru YAMASAKI, Hiroyuki NAGAI, Jun-ichi KADOTA, Masaru NASU, Tadao NAKANO & Tetsunori ...
Thats really all that needs to be said, right? I mean, regardless of how correct they were, people thought Quayle was an idiot. No way theyre putting him in the co-pilots seat again. 12 years later, and what have we got? An idiot for a president (who I voted for, and will vote for again) being piloted by the man behind the curtain, Uncle D1ck. Watching shrub speak reminds me of a Beevis and Butthead cartoon. I keep waiting for someone to call Cheney by his first name and have GW say Huh huh. You said D1ck. huh huh. But I will take the Republican vision of this country over the Democratic vision any day. Uncle D1ck is the one making sure it stays at the fore. Well, him and cousin Carl ...
Cell division, cell elongation and the co-ordination of crystallin gene expression during lens morphogenesis in the rat |...
A quantitative analysis of cell division and cell elongation was carried out during lens morphogenesis in the rat. At 13 days of development elongating cells in the posterior part of the lens vesicle (presumptive fibre cells) have a lower mitotic activity than cells in the anterior vesicle. By 14 days these elongating cells do not divide. Thus at 14 days of development the lens can be separated into two compartments; a proliferation compartment in the anterior lens and an elongation compartment in the posterior lens.. The three main groups of lens-specific proteins, α-,β- and γ-crystallins, were localized by immunofiuorescence. Alpha-crystallin is the first crystallin to be detected and is localized in some lens pit cells at 12 days of development. By 14 days all lens cells contain α-crystallin. Beta- and β-crystallins are detected later at 12½ days and are localized in some cells situated primarily in the posterior part of the lens vesicle. At later stages of development these crystallins ...
α-Crystallin, a member of small heat shock protein (sHsp) family, is comprised of αA and αB subunits and acts as a molecular chaperone by interacting with unfolding proteins to prevent their aggregation. The αA-crystallin homopolymer consists of 30-40 subunits that are undergoing dynamic exchange. α-Crystallin and αA-crystallin are poorer chaperones in the presence of the crowding agent, dextran. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, it is shown that the αAcrystallin subunit exchange rate strongly increased with temperature. Binding of reduced ovotransferrin to αA-crystallin markedly decreases the rate of subunit exchange, as does the presence of dextran. In addition, in the presence of dextran the effect of reduced ovotransferrin on decreasing the rate of subunit exchange of αA-crystallin is stronger than in the absence of dextran. Under the conditions of molecular crowding, the αA-crystallin subunit exchange rate is not temperature-dependent. The exchange rate of αA-crystallin
Kinetic analysis of duck ε-crystallin, a lens structural protein with lactate dehydrogenase activity | Biochemical Journal
Biochemical characterization and kinetic analysis of epsilon-crystallin from the lenses of common ducks were undertaken to elucidate the enzyme mechanism of this unique crystallin with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. Despite the structural similarities between epsilon-crystallin and chicken heart LDH, differences in charge and kinetic properties were revealed by isoenzyme electrophoresis and kinetic studies. Bi-substrate kinetic analysis examined by initial-velocity and product-inhibition studies suggested a compulsory ordered Bi Bi sequential mechanism with NADH as the leading substrate followed by pyruvate. The products were released in the order L-lactate and NAD+. The catalysed reaction is shown to have a higher rate in the formation of L-lactate and NAD+. Substrate inhibition was observed at high concentrations of pyruvate and L-lactate for the forward and reverse reactions respectively. The substrate inhibition was presumably due to the formation of epsilon-crystallin-NAD(+)-pyruvate ...
Fluorescence study of the effects of aging and diabetes mellitus on human lens alpha-crystallin. - Semantic Scholar
Human alpha-crystallins were separated from fetal, young, senile nondiabetic and diabetic lenses. The effects of aging and diabetes mellitus were studied by fluorescence measurements, including emission maximum, quantum yield and polarization, using both intrinsic probes (tryptophan and non-tryptophan) and extrinsic probes [4-(N-iodoacetoxy)N-methylamino-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (IANBD) and 6-(p-toluidinyl)naphthalene-2-sulfonate (TNS)]. Results indicate that diabetic effects (glycation and aggregation) give fluorescence change to a far greater extent than that of aging. This was demonstrated by a large decrease in tryptophan quantum yield and an increase in non-tryptophan quantum yield, and also by a decrease in polarization of non-tryptophan. The sulfhydryl (SH)-specific probe IANBD shows a blue-shift in emission maximum, a decrease in intensity and an increase in polarization. The hydrophobic probe TNS shows a decrease in both intensity and polarization. These results suggest that tryptophan
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CACHE . Cultured Mouse Lens Epithelium: Methods of Cultivation and Characteristics of the Cultures . Kalamazoo College
The procedures for culturing Nakano and normal mouse lens epithelium were developed in the NEI laboratory by Dr. Y. Tsunematsu and Dr. Paul Russell. My goals were to grow both kinds of cells in culture and to record the morphological development of the cultures. I also hoped to examine two characteristics of the cultures for significant differences between Nakano and normal cells: the growth characteristics, and the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase/hexokinase ratio, (an indication of the type of cellular metabolism ...
Ed to contribute to its chaperone-like activity , while the N-terminal domains | Caspase1-Inhibitors caspase1inhibitor.com
Ed to contribute to its chaperone-like activity , while the N-terminal domains contain phosphorylation sites that are the targets of various protein kinases .
Lens regeneration in monkeys after minimally invasive surgery. Slit-lamp microscopy showed regenerating lens tissue grew from the peripheral to the central
Treatments for Coloboma of eye lens including drugs, prescription medications, alternative treatments, surgery, and lifestyle changes.
An sequential download радиоавтоматика of STASEL serves its employee to relate original analyst Deciphering to the collective plant results of degree and Cabinet. Stephen Regoczei and Graeme Hirst, 1992In: Robert R. Hoffmann( earth), The focus of algorithm: superficial likelihood and tensive AI, New York, Springer-Verlag, poster judgment The focus of frameshifted introduction is given plant to a combinatorial discourse of contrast elitists. These intellectual Scrolls, really located reasoning crystallins, or helpful readers, are physical in that they find, and can write, computation or some expert poster or indifference in the Click of a concert.
CRYM antibody [1G7] (crystallin, mu) for FACS, ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-CRYM mAb (GTX84654) is tested in Human, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Bendazac, as such or in the form of its l-lysine salt, has a protective effect against lens protein denaturation both in vitro… Expand ...
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αB-crystallin complexes with 14-3-3ζ to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition and resistance to sorafenib in hepatocellular...
The overall survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains poor, and the molecular pathogenesis remains incompletely defined in HCC. Here we report that increased expression of αB-Crystallin in human HCC predicts poor survival and disease recurrence after surgery. Multivariate analysis identifies αB-Crystallin expression as an independent predictor for postoperative recurrence and overall survival. We show that elevated expression of αB-Crystallin promotes HCC progression in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrate that αB-Crystallin overexpression fosters HCC progression by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HCC cells through activation of the extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK) cascade, which can counteract the effect of sorafenib. αB-Crystallin complexes with and elevates 14-3-3ζ protein, leading to up-regulation of ERK1/2 activity. Moreover, overexpression of αB-Crystallin in HCC cells induces EMT progression through an ERK1/2/Fra-1/slug signaling ...
Inhibition of advanced glycation end-product formation on eye lens protein by rutin - Br J Nutr. 2011 Aug 25:1-9 - Formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) plays a key role in the several pathophysiologies associated with ageing and diabetes, such as arthritis, atherosclerosis, chronic renal insufficiency, Alzheimers disease, nephropathy, neuropathy and cataract. This raises the possibility of inhibition of AGE formation as one of the approaches to prevent or arrest the progression of diabetic complications. Previously, we have reported that some common dietary sources such as fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices have the potential to inhibit AGE formation. Flavonoids are abundantly found in fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices, and rutin is one of the commonly found dietary flavonols. In the present study, we have demonstrated the antiglycating potential and mechanism of action of rutin using goat eye lens proteins as model proteins. Under in vitro conditions, rutin inhibited ...
Health,...SALT LAKE CITY -- Antioxidants are widely considered an important defe...The findings published in the Aug. 10 issue of Cell indicate a new c...The protein alpha B-Crystallin termed a molecular chaperone normally...In a study of laboratory mice with failing hearts caused by mutant alp...,Reductive,stress,linked,to,heart,disease,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
The ocular lens is one of two lenses in the optical train of a microscope, the other being the objective lens. Located in the eyepiece, the ocular lens is the nearest lens to the observer's eye providing additional magnification and directing the image into the observer's eye.Total MagnificationThe total magnification of a microscope is the product of the magnification of the ocular lens and the objective lens. For example, a 10x ocular lens and a 40x objective lens produce a total magnification of 400x.Monocular vs. Binocular MicroscopesMonocular microscopes have one ocular lens, while binocular microscopes have two ocular lenses--one for...
We had found that expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) on cervical cancer cells increased as it progressed from carcinoma in situ (CIS) to microinvasive cancer, and that tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) recruited at the invasive front also expressed IDO in cervical cancer patients (Cancer Sci 98:874-881 2007). We previously produced homozygous αT3 transgenic mice carrying two copies of αA-SV40Tag transgene (αA denotes murine αA-crystallin promoter) in order to study DNA virus-induced carcinogenesis. The αT3 mice developed undifferentiated cancer of lens epithelium, which tumors showed multi-step carcinogenesis which was similar to cervical cancer (J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 135:1521-1532 2009). We found that homozygous αT3 mice carrying two copies of SV40Tag transgene progressed faster and died earlier than hemizygous αT3 mice carrying one copy of Tag transgene. In this study, in order to examine the relationship between p53 function and tumor progression, αT3 mice were mated ...
Jan. 15, 1974 H QGAWA ETAL 3,786,141 METHOD OF THE PRODUCTION OF ANTI-TUMOR SUBSTANCES Filed Sept. 50, 1971 United States Patent (3 3,786,141 METHOD OF PRODUCTION OF ANTI-TUMOR SUBSTANCES Haruki Ogawa, Fuchu, Akihiro Yamamoto, Higashimurayama, Yutaka Sugawara, Iruma-gun, and Shigeo Suzuki and Yoshio Takagalci, Kodaira, Japan, assignors to Chngai Seiyaku Kabushiki Kaisha, Tokyo, Japan Filed Sept. 30, 1971, Ser. No. 185,112 Claims priority, application Japan, Sept. 30, 1970, 45/ 85,006 Int. Cl. A01n /00 U.S. Cl. 424-95 10 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A water-insoluble anti-tumor active substance is prepared from the living cells of hemolytic streptococci by lysing the cells of hemolytic streptococci with a lytic enzyme and collecting a water-insoluble fraction which corresponds to a protoplast membrane fraction of the cells. The preparation of the anti-tumor substance is far superior in the anti-tumor activity to that of water-soluble fraction and has less inflammation-, feverand paincausing ...
alphaB-Crystallin regulates expansion of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells during tumor progression
The molecular chaperone alphaB-crystallin has emerged as a target for cancer therapy due to its expression in human tumors and its role in regulating tumor angiogenesis. alphaB-crystallin also reduces neuroinflammation, but its role in other inflammatory conditions has not been investigated. Here, we examined whether alphaB-crystallin regulates inflammation associated with tumors and ischemia. We found that CD45(+) leukocyte infiltration is 3-fold increased in tumors and ischemic myocardium in alphaB-crystallin-deficient mice. Notably, alphaB-crystallin is prominently expressed in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells (IMCs), known as regulators of angiogenesis and immune responses, while lymphocytes and mature granulocytes show low alphaB-crystallin expression. alphaB-Crystallin deficiency results in a 3-fold higher accumulation of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in tumors and a significant rise in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in spleen and bone marrow. Similarly, we noted a 2-fold increase in CD11b(+) ...
Import Data And Price Of FOLDABLE INTRA OCULAR LENS , www.eximpulse.com Eximpulse Services will provide you the latest and relevant market intelligence reports of FOLDABLE INTRA OCULAR LENS Import Data. You can find live data of maximum number of ports of India which is based on updated shipment data of Indian Customs. Only previous two days data will be seen on website. You can use this FOLDABLE INTRA OCULAR LENS import data for multiple kinds of analysis; lets say Import price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. You can go through some of the sample shipment records for FOLDABLE INTRA OCULAR LENS import data mentioned above. Here on Eximpulse Services you will get all kind of free sample as well as detailed reports of Export/ Import data as per your requirement. To get in touch for any kind of enquiry related to free sample or detailed report contact on +91-120-408-4957, +91-120-408-4958,+91-120-428-4019.. Data post 2012 as per Notification No.18/2012 - ...
Contributes to the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Has chaperone-like activity, preventing aggregation of various proteins under a wide range of stress conditions (By similarity).
Eye lens. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of cells from the lens (crystalline lens) of the eye. The cells are in a stacked linear, fibre-like arrangement. The transparency of the lens is thought to arise from this regular interlocking arrangement, as well as the absence of nuclei and the cells mainly containing the protein crystallin. The lens (found at the front of the eye) focuses light on to the light-sensitive cells in the retina at the back of the eye. - Stock Image P424/0246
The long-term objective of this proposal is to determine the molecular mechanisms by which modifications of the ?-crystallins (genetic or age-onset), lead to ca...
J:56095 Kawauchi S, Takahashi S, Nakajima O, Ogino H, Morita M, Nishizawa M, Yasuda K, Yamamoto M, Regulation of lens fiber cell differentiation by transcription factor c-Maf. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jul 2;274(27):19254-60 ...
J:56095 Kawauchi S, Takahashi S, Nakajima O, Ogino H, Morita M, Nishizawa M, Yasuda K, Yamamoto M, Regulation of lens fiber cell differentiation by transcription factor c-Maf. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jul 2;274(27):19254-60 ...
"Phospholipid modification retards intracellular transport and secretio" by A Nakano, M Maeda et al.
Nakano, A; Maeda, M; Nishijima, M; and Akamatsu, Y, "Phospholipid modification retards intracellular transport and secretion of immunoglobulin g1 by mouse mopc-31c plasmacytoma cells." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 1526 ...
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As you can see these lenses are rather big and they have a really prominent thick black limbal ring that gives you a cute dolly and/or animated look. ^.^ The lenses have a really unique star-shaped design and I think its really cool! Ive never come across other lenses with a similar print so I do like it a lot! What makes it even better is that the blue shade is really beautiful and it shows up well and does, in fact, blend rather nicely with my light blue-gray eyes; I didnt expect them to fit in with my eyes as well as they did, considering how vibrant the color is and how artistic and unnatural the design is ...
Ayano, M. ; Tsukamoto, H. ; Tanaka, A. ; Nakano, S. ; Ueki, N. ; Ueda, S. ; Hisamoto, S. ; Ota, S.-I. ; Akahoshi, M. ; Arinobu, Y. ; Niiro, H. ; Horiuchi, T. ; Akashi, K ...
Isolation and characterization of a gene expressed mainly in the gastric epithelium, a novel member of the ep37 family that belongs to the βγ-crystallin superfamily （1998 ...
Ablation Of Cataractous Lens Tissue With Carbon Dioxide Laser Radiation | (1989) | Kukreja | Publications | Spie
Ablation of cataractous human eye lens tissue with carbon dioxiqe laser beam of wave-length 10.6 μm is investigated at power densities upto 20 KW/cm2 with interaction time in the rnge of 4-20 msec. It is found that the ablation initiates at a fluence of about 26 J/cm2 and thereafter the ablated volume of the tissue increases with the laser fluence with a decreasing slope. A well defined zone of coagulation necrosis borders the laser ablated region and its width increases with the power density and interaction time of the laser beam. From the thermal behaviour of the cataractous lens tissue, it is found that at the onset of ablation, tissue attains a temperature of about 270°C. To confine this temperature to a reasonably small volume, short duration laser pulses will be ideal for ablating the cataractous lens ...
Cataract is a clouding of the eye lens, and is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Current treatments for glaucoma surgery the clouded eye lens of the eye by removing its support from the capsule and replace it with an artificial eye lens is included. Over 20 million glaucoma patients worldwide undergo this procedure every year.. Zhang noted that only 4 in 10,000 cataract patients are infants. However, "In theory, this approach for any age, because the eye lens stem cells exist through life, should work," he said. Older patients stem cells to regenerate the lenses may need a bit of a boost, he said.. Current treatment for cataract artificial eye lens implantation, which is about 6 millimeters wide eye lens capsule needs to be a cut. Treatment can cause inflammation and destruction of LECs, which normally helps protect the eye lens from damage. Or a patients line of sight, which can result in the Cloud - Also, the scars of surgery or eye lens can lead to abnormal growth of cells.. In ...
Contact Eye Lenses, Colored Eye Lenses, Eye Contact Lens, clean and care eye lenses accurately Contact Eye Lenses | Colored Eye Lenses | Eye Contact Lens Contact Eye Lenses | Colored Eye Lenses | Eye Cont contacteyelenses.info
TY - JOUR. T1 - λ-crystallin related to dehydroascorbate reductase in the rabbit lens. AU - Suzuki, Takahiro. AU - Bando, Masayasu. AU - Oka, Mikako. AU - Tsukamoto, Hideo. AU - Akatsuka, Ichiko. AU - Kawai, Kenji. AU - Obazawa, Hajime. AU - Kobayashi, Shizuko. AU - Takehana, Makoto. PY - 2003/9. Y1 - 2003/9. N2 - Purpose: To evaluate the relationship of λ-crystallin to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent dehydroascorbate (DHA) reductase found specifically in the rabbit lens. Methods: DHA reductase Fractions I-IV were separated from the λ/βL1-crystallin fraction of rabbit lens soluble protein by diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose ion-exchange column chromatography, and then the enzyme was partially purified from Fraction II by rechromatography on the same ion-exchange column. The isolated DHA reductase fractions were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blotting, native isoelectric focusing and two-dimensional ...
The major purpose of this research was to characterize partially degraded proteins appearing in the ocular lens during aging and cataract, and to identify the responsible proteolytic activities. This research is significant, because increased protein degradation is associated with lens opacification and cataract. Determining the sites where lens proteins become truncated and identification of the responsible proteases is important because this information could be used to develop anticataract agents, such as new protease inhibitors. The methods used in this research include the application of several techniques employed in the field of proteomics. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to separate crystallins, the major proteins of the lens, and the modifications to these proteins were then determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Lenses from mice of increasing age were used for these studies. Lp82 and m-calpain, the proteases hypothesized to cause the observed ...
The pattern that we developed to detect this class of enzymes is based on a conserved region that includes a histidine residue which is the second ligand of the catalytic zinc atom. This family also includes NADP-dependent quinone oxidoreductase (EC 184.108.40.206), an enzyme found in bacteria (gene qor), in yeast and in mammals where, in some species such as rodents, it has been recruited as an eye lens protein and is known as zeta-crystallin . The sequence of quinone oxidoreductase is distantly related to that other zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenases and it lacks the zinc-ligand residues. The torpedo fish and mammlian synaptic vesicle membrane protein vat-1 is realted to qor. We have developed a specific pattern for this subfamily. Expert(s) to contact by email: Joernvall H ...
At first glance, the eyes of chicks and Drosophila have little in common. However, on p. 1895, Blanco and co-workers report that at least one of the genetic regulatory circuits involved in eye development has been largely conserved during evolution. In chick, lens-specific regulation of the δ1-crystallin gene is achieved by the cooperative binding of the transcription factors PAX6 and SOX2 to the 30 bp DC5 fragment within the genes enhancer. Using reporter genes, Blanco et al. show that the DC5 fragment is active in the Drosophila compound eye, specifically in the cone cells that secrete Crystallin. Other studies, including a loss-of-function analysis, indicate that the DC5 element in Drosophila is regulated by the cooperative binding of D-PAX2 and SOXN. Since PAX6 and PAX2 derive from the same ancestor, this indicates that while Pax6 took over Crystallin regulation in vertebrates during evolution, Pax2 retained this function in flies.. ...
BAB IA.docx cdc_21153_DS1 imun.pdf Immunochemistry Principles 1 tranlest ketik ABO Grouping (Forward) 92878181 Anaplastic Meningioma Versus Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma Antibody Biochemistry Introduction to Western Blotting Introduction to Antibody Mala Ranjan Et.al 2008 Immunochemical Detection of Glycated Lens Crystallins and Their Circulating Autoantibodies in Human Serum During Aging
Although multidomain proteins predominate the proteome of all organisms and are expected to display complex folding behaviors and significantly greater structural dynamics as compared with single-domain proteins, their conformational heterogeneity and its impact on their interaction with ligands are poorly understood due to a lack of experimental techniques. The multidomain calcium-binding βγ-crystallin proteins are particularly important because their deterioration and misfolding/aggregation are associated with melanoma tumors and cataracts. Here we investigate the mechanical stability and conformational dynamics of a model calcium-binding βγ-crystallin protein, Protein S, and elaborate on its interactions with calcium. We ask whether domain interactions and calcium binding affect Protein S folding and potential structural heterogeneity. Our results from single-molecule force spectroscopy show that the N-terminal (but not the C-terminal) domain is in equilibrium with an alternative ...
US3645852A - Method of binding water-soluble proteins and water-soluble peptides to water-insoluble polymers using cyanogen...
Cyanogen halides are employed for binding water-soluble proteins and water-soluble peptides containing a primary or secondary amino group to a water-insoluble polymer containing one or more hydroxyl and/or primary and/or secondary amino groups. The invention is useful, among other things, for binding watersoluble enzymes to water-insoluble polymers while preserving the activity of the enzyme.
Today, we know that we are talking about a family of nine different isoenzymes in the human body. Although transglutaminases have one basic common feature - the formation of high molecular weight aggregates by covalent protein cross-linking - they fulfill a plentitude of other catalytic and physiological functions ...
Infection Biology of a Novel α-Crystallin of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Acr2 | The Journal of Immunology
We have investigated the gene expression, effect of deletion from the genome, and the immune response to Acr2, a novel α-crystallin of MTB. MTB has two members of the α-crystallin family of molecular chaperones. Although neither is absolutely required for growth in vivo or in vitro (32), Acr1 has been extensively characterized in the context of its role in the bacterial response to hypoxia/NO and as an immunodominant Ag. Our study demonstrates that Acr2 also makes a contribution to pathogen biology but more so to the host immune response. We found that acr2 gene expression was up-regulated shortly after entry into cells in response to exposure to host reactive oxygen. As a consequence, Acr2 is a prominent immune target, especially of T cells in individuals who are asymptomatic but recently exposed to infectious tuberculosis.. Expression of the acr2 gene is controlled by the heat shock regulator, HspR (5), and by the alternative ς factor, ςE, which is itself regulated by heat shock and by ...
Until recently, cataracts have typically been associated with older individuals - and for good reason: its one of the most common age-related eye diseases, currently affecting nearly 22 million Americans. Cataracts are so common, in fact, that its estimated by the age of 80, almost half of Americans will have a cataract or go through cataract surgery.. However, theres a new and alarming health trend on the horizon - a significant number of younger people are being diagnosed with cataracts.. Cataracts occur when theres a significant build-up of protein, which forms a cloud over the eye lens. This cloud can make it difficult for people to see, as it prevents light from entering the lens. Cataracts can typically be treated by changing the prescription of a persons eye glasses or, in more severe cases, replacing the damaged eye lens with an artificial one.. Cloudiness usually builds up over time, which is why cataracts are generally aged-related; however, more young people than ever are being ...
The major components of the lens are highly stable and water-soluble crystallin proteins. Once deposed, the proteins remain in the lens and create a structure providing unique transparency and accommodation properties . In spite of the high stability, molecular changes accumulate in the proteins over time caused by chemical, photochemical, environmental factors or by ageing and concomitant diseases, e.g. diabetes [13,14]. The changes lead to protein misfolding, denaturation and aggregation and hence structural defects . Currently, cataract diagnostics based on light scattering only detect defects comparable in size to the wavelength so that detection of the impact of photochemical change is hardly possible at the stage when a cataract is currently diagnosed. Thus, surgical treatment is the only currently possible method.. Although cataract surgery is generally recognized as being one of the safest operations, and there is a significant complication rate . Furthermore, there is ...
During development of the mammalian eye, nourishment of the immature lens, inner retina and vitreous is provided by the hyaloid vascular system. One of the cong...
How are cataracts diagnosed? Cataracts are detected by the finding of lens opacification during a medical eye examination by an eye-care professional. The
Lens adapters, lens converters, front lens caps, rear lens caps, lens cases, lens filters, lens hoods and other lens accessories.
Previously, the researchers were not able to address the genes possible role in mouse eye formation because inactivation of Six3 significantly disrupted development of the area of the brain where the eye normally forms. The St. Jude team overcame this problem by taking advantage of Cre/loxP-technology, which allowed them to choose the time and place in which to remove Six3 function from specific cells. This permitted the investigators to remove Six3 activity from the presumptive lens ectoderm (PLE)--the area of the developing head where the lens will ultimately form in response to a series of biochemical signals. Following this systematic approach, the St. Jude team demonstrated that Six3 plays its important role in the PLE. The investigators also showed that a key consequence of removing Six3 during early development is that the PLE fails to undergo its normal thickening, an initial critical step in lens formation.. "Our discovery helps to better unravel the regulatory pathway that controls ...
Small child, no eye lens, brain problems, chromosomal gene defects. Precautions for next pregnancy? - Doctor's insight on...
Question - Small child, no eye lens, brain problems, chromosomal gene defects. Precautions for next pregnancy?. Ask a Doctor about when and why Genetic testing is advised, Ask a Pediatrician
Purified anti-Alpha Crystallin B - read details of BioLegend antibodies in the SelectScience.net Antibody products and suppliers directory
Extraction of Soluble and Insoluble Protein Fractions from Mouse Brains and Spinal Cords -BIO-PROTOCOL
The current protocol details the preparation of soluble and insoluble protein lysates from mouse brain or spinal cord samples. In detail, tissue homogenization and sequential protein extraction are described. This procedure yields soluble and insoluble protein extracts that can be further processed in down-stream applications like ELISA or Western blotting.
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Cataracts are the most common cause of vision loss, especially for people 60+ and causes the eye lens to become cloudy, which makes your vision blurry or dim.
CRYGD - CRYGD - Human, 4 unique 29mer shRNA constructs in retroviral untagged vector shRNA available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Quenching of the fluorescence of buried tryptophans (Trps) is an important reporter of protein conformation. Human [gamma]D-crystallin (H[gamma]D-Crys) and human [gamma]S-crystallin (H[gamma]S-Crys) are both very stable ...
Michitaka Nakano is part of Stanford Profiles, official site for faculty, postdocs, students and staff information (Expertise, Bio, Research, Publications, and more). The site facilitates research and collaboration in academic endeavors.
TAKAHASHI Norio , FUJIBAYASHI Yasuhisa , YONEKURA Yoshiharu , WELCH Michael J. , WAKI Atsuo , TSUCHIDA Tatsuro , SADATO Norihiro , SUGIMOTO Katsuya , NAKANO Akira , LEE Jong-Dae , ITOH Harumi Annals of nuclear medicine 15(3), 293-296, 2001-06 医中誌Web 参考文献18件 被引用文献1件 ...
Fujioka, Masayuki; Nakano, Takafumi; Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Irie, Keiichi; Akitake, Yoshiharu; Sakamoto, Yuya; Mishima, Kenichi; Muroi, Carl; Yonekawa, Yasuhiro; Banno, Fumiaki; Kokame, Koichi; Miyata, Toshiyuki; Nishio, Kenji; Okuchi, Kazuo; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Fujiwara, Michihiro; Siesjö, Bo K. ...
"The Small Heat Shock Protein B-crystallin Is a Novel Inhibitor of TRAI" by Merideth Krevosky, M. Lu et al.
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor α family of cytokines that preferentially induces apoptosis in transformed cells, making it a promising cancer therapy. However, many neoplasms are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by mechanisms that are poorly understood. We demonstrate that the expression of the small heat shock protein αB-crystallin (but not other heat shock proteins or apoptosis-regulating proteins) correlates with TRAIL resistance in a panel of human cancer cell lines. Stable expression of wild-type αB-crystallin, but not a pseudophosphorylation mutant impaired in its assembly and chaperone function, protects cancer cells from TRAIL-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, selective inhibition of αB-crystallin expression by RNA interference sensitizes cancer cells to TRAIL. In addition, wild-type αB-crystallin promotes xenograft tumor growth and inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis in vivo in nude
Previous studies have shown that lenticular levels of Fe and Cu are elevated in age-related cataract. However, it is not known if these metals are present in a state that is permissive for redox reactions that may lead to the formation of free radicals. In addition, there is little data available concerning the concentration and lenticular distribution of ferritin, the major intracellular Fe-sequestering protein, in the lens. The aim of the present work was therefore to determine the distribution of ferritin and the redox-availability of Fe and Cu in healthy and cataractous lenses. Lens ferritin distribution was assessed by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. A modified ELISA detected ferritin in an insoluble lens protein fraction. Ferritin levels were not significantly different in the cortex vs nucleus of healthy lenses. In contrast, ferritin levels in the cataractous lens nuclei appeared to be 70 % lower compared to the cortex. This was at least partially due to the presence of ferritin within ...
Characterization of the bovine lens plasma membrane substrates for cAMP‐dependent protein kinase<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of the bovine lens plasma membrane substrates for cAMP‐dependent protein kinase. AU - LOUIS, Charles F.. AU - JOHNSON, Ross. AU - JOHNSON, Keith. AU - TURNQUIST, Janet. PY - 1985/7. Y1 - 1985/7. N2 - cAMP‐dependent protein kinase, derived from either calf lens or bovine heart, promotes the phosphorylation of three lens plasma membrane proteins of molecular mass 28 kDa, 26 kDa and 18 kDa. Correlation of the maximal level of phosphorylation of these components with the Coomassie blue staining intensity of fractionated lens membranes suggests that the phosphorylation of the 28 kDa and 18 kDa components may be approximately stoichiometric. The protein kinase substrates could be dephosphorylated by a cardiac sarcoplasmic‐reticulum‐bound protein phosphatase activity. The 26 kDa component comigrated with MP26, the major lens membrane component that has been localized to the lens fiber cell junction. Treatment of phosphorylated lens membranes with chymotrypsin ...
Cataract Formation after Bone Marrow Transplantation | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians
Results:. Three and one half years after single-dose TBI, 51 of the 74 patients (69%) were alive and cataracts had developed in all of these 51 patients. Cataracts developed in 18 of the 90 (20%) patients treated with fractionated TBI, with an 83% (95% CI, 63% to 100%) risk for lens opacification at 6 years\f. Cataracts developed in only 1 of the 33 (3%) patients treated with chemotherapy alone. Incidence of cataracts is higher and lens opacification occurs earlier after single-dose TBI than after fractionated TBI (P , 0.01). With Cox regression analysis, the use of irradiation (relative risk, 21.0), the mode of irradiation (relative risk, 7.4), and the use of steroid treatment (relative risk, 2.9) for more than 3 months after bone marrow transplantation increased the risk for cataract formation. In contrast, age, sex, and chronic graft-versus-host disease did not influence the rate of cataract development. The probability of requiring cataract surgery after 6 years was 85% (CI, 75% to 95%) for ...
Transcriptional regulator which is important for the differentiation and maintenance of meso-diencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) neurons during development. In addition to its importance during development, it also has roles in the long-term survival and maintenance of the mdDA neurons. Activates NR4A2/NURR1-mediated transcription of genes such as SLC6A3, SLC18A2, TH and DRD2 which are essential for development of mdDA neurons. Acts by decreasing the interaction of NR4A2/NURR1 with the corepressor NCOR2/SMRT which acts through histone deacetylases (HDACs) to keep promoters of NR4A2/NURR1 target genes in a repressed deacetylated state. Essential for the normal lens development and differentiation. Plays a critical role in the maintenance of mitotic activity of lens epithelial cells, fiber cell differentiation and in the control of the temporal and spatial activation of fiber cell-specific crystallins. Positively regulates FOXE3 expression and negatively regulates PROX1 in the anterior lens epithelium,
βA3/A1-crystallin is required for proper astrocyte template formation and vascular remodeling in the retina<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - βA3/A1-crystallin is required for proper astrocyte template formation and vascular remodeling in the retina. AU - Sinha, Debasish. AU - Valapala, Mallika. AU - Bhutto, Imran. AU - Patek, Bonnie. AU - Zhang, Cheng. AU - Hose, Stacey. AU - Yang, Fang. AU - Cano, Marisol. AU - Stark, Walter J.. AU - Lutty, Gerard A.. AU - Zigler, J. Samuel. AU - Wawrousek, Eric F.. PY - 2012/9/1. Y1 - 2012/9/1. N2 - Nuc1 is a spontaneous rat mutant resulting from a mutation in the Cryba1 gene, coding for βA3/A1-crystallin. Our earlier studies with Nuc1 provided novel evidence that astrocytes, which express βA3/A1-crystallin, have a pivotal role in retinal remodeling. The role of astrocytes in the retina is only beginning to be explored. One of the limitations in the field is the lack of appropriate animal models to better investigate the function of astrocytes in retinal health and disease. We have now established transgenic mice that overexpress the Nuc1 mutant form of Cryba1, specifically in ...
Thank you for visiting OcluVet.com. Thousands of pet owners have experienced the benefits of using OcluVet Eye Drops for their dogs, cats, birds and other companion animals. OcluVet contains critical ingredients utilized by the ocular lens to aid in the repair and maintenance of lens crystallin proteins.. Cataracts and lenticular sclerosis are two of the most common eye problems seen in dogs over the age of 9. Some estimates show the prevalence at 50% in dogs over 9 and 100% in dogs over the age of 13.. In a multi-veterinary hospital clinical study of cataract and lenticular sclerosis conditions in several animal species, 83% showed a measurable reduction in opacity and/or improved acuity. Administration of one drop per eye TID was given for 8 weeks followed by a one drop per day administration for maintenance.. It is necessary for your pet to be evaluated by a veterinarian to assess the nature of your pets eye problems. Therefore, OcluVet is only available through licensed veterinary ...
Connexins in Lens Development and Cataractogenesis, The Journal of Membrane Biology | 10.1007/s00232-007-9033-0 | DeepDyve
Read "Connexins in Lens Development and Cataractogenesis, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Authors: Sghaier, Haïtham , Ai, Thuy Le Huyen , Horiike, Tokumasa , Shinozawa, Takao Article Type: Research Article Abstract: Molecular chaperones are a wide group of unrelated protein families whose role is to assist others proteins. Comparably, under environmental stress, stress proteins behave as biocatalysts of protein stabilization. Stress proteins include a large class of proteins that were originally termed heat shock proteins (HSPs) due to their initial discovery in tissues exposed to elevated temperatures. Many, but not all, stress proteins and HSPs are molecular chaperones. Moreover, not all HSPs are derivable from stress. HSPs …are structurally diversified by the contribution of various domains having specific roles. HSPs have been grouped, mainly on the basis of their molecular masses, into specific families that include small HSPs (sHSPs)/α-crystallins, HSP10s, HSP40s, HSP60s, HSP70s, HSP90s, HSP100s and HSP110s. The names of these major families are historical artefacts with ...
Ophthalmic Care in the Developing World | Cataract and Other Lens Disorders | JAMA Ophthalmology | The JAMA Network
Sommer and colleagues summarized the presentations regarding reducing the prevalence of blindness globally from the 2013 Knapp symposium at the American Ophthal
1HDF: Crystal Structure of the Calcium-Loaded Spherulin 3A Dimer Sheds Light on the Evolution of the Eye Lens Betagamma-Crystallin Domain Fold
Expression of insoluble protein - posted in Protein Expression and Purification: Hi AllI am facing a serious problem in expression of a protein in soluble fractionI have a full-length gene (approx. 1.6kb) cloned in pExp5 TOPO/ CT vector.Sequencing of the clones revealed that the gene is in-frame. I have expressed it in Rosetta-BL21(DE3)pLys-S cells at 18 C in an autoinduction media. I could see the clear expression in lysed cell pellate (~64KDa) when SDS-PAGE was done, whereas the final el...
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Huang, W., Wu, S., Gu, X., Li, Y., Okazawa, A., Kojima, N., Hayami, S., Baker, M. L., Bencok, P., Noguchi, M., Miyazaki, Y., Nakano, M., Nakanishi, T., Kanegawa, S., Inagaki, Y., Kawae, T., Zhuang, G. L., Shiota, Y., Yoshizawa, K., Wu, D. および1人, Sato, O., 12 1 2019, ： : Nature communications. 10, 1, 5510.. 研究成果: ジャーナルへの寄稿 › 記事 ...
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Comparing using the XL and Century, Im more apt to use the Century indoors for still life/close-up shots focusing on the ground glass, but when Im heading outside I choose the XL with a normal lens and usually the Grandagon, and maybe a tele, as well. Being able to quickly change lenses and have RF coupling, parallax correction, brightlines, etc, is very nice. I started out using 35mm, and Im still partial to using different focal lengths, shooting quickly, etc, and the XL beats the Century in this area. By the way, I do have the Graflex grip for the Century, which makes it very easy to hold, but the separate viewfinder & rangefinder, and inability to quickly adjust the RF for different lenses relegates it to mostly a house camera for me ...
A cataract signifies the clouding of the eye lens which naturally affects the clarity of vision. In most cases, cataracts develop slowly and may not affect eyesight very significantly. However, this condition will soon begin impacting perception and if left untreated.
Structural and Mechanical Hierarchies in the α-Crystallin Domain Dimer of the Hyperthermophilic Small Heat Shock Protein Hsp16...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural and Mechanical Hierarchies in the α-Crystallin Domain Dimer of the Hyperthermophilic Small Heat Shock Protein Hsp16.5. AU - Bertz, Morten. AU - Chen, Jin. AU - Feige, Matthias J.. AU - Franzmann, Titus M.. AU - Buchner, Johannes. AU - Rief, Matthias. PY - 2010/7. Y1 - 2010/7. N2 - In biological systems, proteins rarely act as isolated monomers. Association to dimers or higher oligomers is a commonly observed phenomenon. As an example, small heat shock proteins form spherical homo-oligomers of mostly 24 subunits, with the dimeric α-crystallin domain as the basic structural unit. The structural hierarchy of this complex is key to its function as a molecular chaperone. In this article, we analyze the folding and association of the basic building block, the α-crystallin domain dimer, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Methanocaldococcus jannaschii Hsp16.5 in detail. Equilibrium denaturation experiments reveal that the α-crystallin domain dimer is highly stable against ...
A case of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. II: The sterol content of a cataractous lens. | British Journal of Ophthalmology
The cholestanol content of a cataractous lens nucleus from a patient with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) was quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and found to be 0.27 micrograms per mg freeze-dried lens tissue. The cholestanol-cholesterol ratio of 1.7% in the lens nucleus was similar to that in the serum of the CTX patient. The cholestanol content and cholestanol-cholesterol ratio in the CTX lens were approximately four-fold and six-fold greater respectively than the mean levels found in three senile cataractous lens nuclei analysed simultaneously for comparative purposes. ...
Next-generation sequencing for D47N mutation in Cx50 analysis associated with autosomal dominant congenital cataract in a six...
In the current study, we confirmed a missense mutation c. 139 G , A in Cx50 (GJA8) in a six-generation Chinese pedigree with congenital cataract. This mutation resulted in an asparagine substitution for aspartic at amino acid residue 47 (D47N).. Cataracts are defined as opacification of the normally transparent crystalline lens, and are the leading cause of vision loss in the world. Congenital cataract is a type of cataract that emerges at birth or during early childhood [5, 18]. The abnormality of lens can interfere with normal development of eyes [5, 19]. Congenital cataracts can be inherited or familial, either as an isolated lens phenotype or as part of a genetic/metabolic disorder, commonly with full penetrance and autosomal dominant transmission . Genetic factors play an important role in congenital cataract . Gene mutations that affecting the lens development during embryonic period are considered to be the main cause . Up to now, more than 39 genes and loci have been ...
Molecular characterization of the gene encoding an 18-kilodalton small heat shock protein associated with the membrane of...
In Leuconostoc oenos, different stresses such as heat, ethanol, and acid shocks dramatically induce the expression of an 18-kDa small heat shock protein called Lo 18. The corresponding gene (hsp18) was cloned from a genomic library of L. oenos constructed in Escherichia coli. A 2.3-kb DNA fragment carrying the hsp18 gene was sequenced. The hsp18 gene encodes a polypeptide of 148 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 16,938 Da. The Lo18 protein has a significant identity with small heat shock proteins of the alpha-crystallin family. The transcriptional start site was determined by primer extension. This experiment allowed us to identify the promoter region exhibiting high similarity to consensus promoter sequences of gram-positive bacteria, as well as E. coli. Northern blot analysis showed that hsp18 consists of a unique transcription unit of 0.6 kb. Moreover, hsp18 expression seemed to be controlled at the transcriptional level. This small heat shock protein was found to be ...
alphaB-Crystallin regulates expansion of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells during tumor progression
... while lymphocytes and mature granulocytes show low alphaB-crystallin expression. alphaB-Crystallin deficiency results in a 3- ... alphaB-Crystallin regulates expansion of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells during tumor progression. Dieterich, L. C. ... Notably, alphaB-crystallin is prominently expressed in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells (IMCs), known as regulators of ... alphaB-crystallin also reduces neuroinflammation, but its role in other inflammatory conditions has not been investigated. Here ...http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:865888
Understanding the molecular genetics of congenital cataract may have wider implications for age related cataract | British...
The γ-crystallin gene cluster on chromosome 2q33-35 encompasses genes γA to D but only γC (CRYGC) and γD(CRYGD) are highly ... Heon E, Priston M, Schorderet DF, et al. The gamma-crystallins and human cataracts: a puzzle made clearer. Am J Hum Genet 1999; ... Crystallin genes: specialization by changes in gene regulation may precede gene duplication. Genomics 2003;3:131-7. ... Vicart P, Caron A, Guicheney P, et al. A missense mutation in the alpha B-crystallin chaperone gene causes a desmin-related ...http://bjo.bmj.com/content/88/1/2
beta/gamma crystallins Protein Superfamily Detail
Term: beta/gamma crystallins. ID: PIRSF002281 Mouse Protein Superfamily Annotations. Select one or more mouse PIRSF members to ...http://www.informatics.jax.org/vocab/pirsf/PIRSF002281
CRYGB crystallin gamma B [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
XTALbg; Beta/gamma crystallins. pfam00030. Location:90 → 171. Crystall; Beta/Gamma crystallin. ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... The alphaB-crystallin oligomers formed long-lived stable complexes with their gammaD-crystallin substrates. Title: Partially ... In gammaD-crystallin, methylation is exclusively at Cys 110, whereas in gammaC- and gammaB-crystallins, the principal ...https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/1419
Crystallin - Wikipedia
... whereas gamma crystallin is a simpler monomer. List of Human Crystallins Jester JV (2008). "Corneal crystallins and the ... and thus have been grouped together as a protein superfamily called βγ-Crystallins. The α-crystallin family and βγ-crystallins ... Beta and gamma- crystallin form a separate family. Structurally, beta and gamma crystallins are composed of two similar domains ... Crystallins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) alpha-Crystallins at the US National Library ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystallin
Effect of αB-Crystallin on Protein Aggregation in Drosophila
Alpha-crystallins (α-crystallins) are major protein components of the vertebrate eye lens. The α-crystallins and especially αB- ... a, b) Transgenic flies coexpressing α-synuclein and αB-crystallin (gmr-gal4/+; uas-αB-crystallin-HA/+; uas-α-synuclein/+). (c, ... c, f) Transgenic flies coexpressing Q92 peptides and αB-crystallin (gmr-gal4; gmr-Q92/+; uas-αB-crystallin-HA). (b, e) ... Only gmr-gal4; uas-αB-crystallin flies showed ectopic αB-crystallin-HA signals from the morphogenetic furrow to the posterior ...https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2012/252049/
Crystallin, gamma D - Wikipedia
Gamma-crystallin D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYGD gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon- ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... CRYGD crystallin, gamma D". Graw J (1998). "The crystallins: genes, proteins and diseases". Biol. Chem. 378 (11): 1331-48. doi: ... Four gamma-crystallin genes (gamma-A through gamma-D) and three pseudogenes (gamma-E, gamma-F, gamma-G) are tandemly organized ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystallin,_gamma_D
CRYGGP crystallin gamma G, pseudogene [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
CRYGGP crystallin gamma G, pseudogene [Homo sapiens] CRYGGP crystallin gamma G, pseudogene [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:1424 ... crystallin gamma G, pseudogeneprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:2414 Gene type. pseudo. RefSeq status. INFERRED. ... Human gamma-crystallin genes. A gene family on its way to extinction. Brakenhoff RH, et al. J Mol Biol, 1990 Dec 5. PMID ... CRYGGP crystallin gamma G, pseudogene [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 1424, updated on 17-Jun-2019 ...https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene?term=1424
αB-crystallin expression in breast cancer is associated with brain metastasis | npj Breast Cancer
... αB-crystallin was also associated with worse survival (3.0 versus 4.7 months, P=0.007). αB-crystallin is a promising biomarker ... In addition, αB-crystallin positive protein expression were linked to poorer survival and early spread to the brain. The ... We examined αB-crystallin expression in primary breast carcinomas with metastatic data to evaluate its association with ... αB-crystallin gene (CRYAB) expression was examined using publically available global-gene expression data (n=855 breast tumors ...https://www.nature.com/articles/npjbcancer201514?error=cookies_not_supported&code=931dc029-47c4-41d9-ac5e-577f0fc6d053
Recombinant Human beta Crystallin protein (ab117029)
Buy our Recombinant Human beta Crystallin protein. Ab117029 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been ... Belongs to the beta/gamma-crystallin family.. Contains 4 beta/gamma crystallin Greek key domains. ...http://www.abcam.com/recombinant-human-beta-crystallin-protein-ab117029.html
Crystallin® Micro and Mini LED Application Technology Announced by Light Polymers | Business Wire
Crystallin will accelerate adoption of Micro and Mini LEDs in laptops, automotive and display applications. ... But with Crystallin PDC films, most if not all blue Micro and Mini LEDs in this startup period can be used along with a LCD ... "Since our manufacturing process is water based, Crystallin films are environmentally friendly to manufacture and can be ... The Crystallin Performance PDC 100 phosphor down-conversion film is laminated to a substrate of blue Micro or Mini LEDs and ...https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20180524006122/en/Crystallin%C2%AE-Micro-Mini-LED-Application-Technology-Announced
RCSB PDB - 1A45: GAMMAF CRYSTALLIN FROM BOVINE LENS Literature Report Page
... a comparison of the X-ray structures of two high Tc gamma-crystallins, gammaE and gammaF, with two low Tc gamma-crystallins, ...http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/litView.do?structureId=1A45
RCSB PDB - 1A5D: GAMMAE CRYSTALLIN FROM RAT LENS Macromolecule Annotations Page
... a comparison of the X-ray structures of two high Tc gamma-crystallins, gammaE and gammaF, with two low Tc gamma-crystallins, ... gamma-Crystallin-like gamma-Crystallin-like Crystallins/Ca-binding development proteins beta-Crystallin Rat (Rattus norvegicus ... gamma-Crystallin-like gamma-Crystallin-like Crystallins/Ca-binding development proteins beta-Crystallin Rat (Rattus norvegicus ... gamma-Crystallin-like gamma-Crystallin-like Crystallins/Ca-binding development proteins beta-Crystallin Rat (Rattus norvegicus ...http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/derivedData.do?structureId=1A5D
Pan Beta Crystallins Research Products: Novus Biologicals
Browse our Pan Beta Crystallins product catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Pan Beta Crystallins products available through Novus Biologicals. ...https://www.novusbio.com/common-name/pan-beta-crystallins
cryaA - AlphaA-crystallin - Sphenodon punctatus (Tuatara) - cryaA gene & protein
IPR002068 A-crystallin/Hsp20_dom. IPR001436 Alpha-crystallin/HSP. IPR012274 Alpha-crystallin_A. IPR003090 Alpha-crystallin_N. ... IPR002068 A-crystallin/Hsp20_dom. IPR001436 Alpha-crystallin/HSP. IPR012274 Alpha-crystallin_A. IPR003090 Alpha-crystallin_N. ... AlphaA-crystallinImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a ... tr,Q6EWI1,Q6EWI1_SPHPU AlphaA-crystallin (Fragment) OS=Sphenodon punctatus OX=8508 GN=cryaA PE=2 SV=1 ...https://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q6EWI1
CRYAA - Crystallin alpha A - Daptrius ater - CRYAA gene & protein
IPR002068 A-crystallin/Hsp20_dom. IPR001436 Alpha-crystallin/HSP. IPR012274 Alpha-crystallin_A. IPR003090 Alpha-crystallin_N. ... IPR002068 A-crystallin/Hsp20_dom. IPR001436 Alpha-crystallin/HSP. IPR012274 Alpha-crystallin_A. IPR003090 Alpha-crystallin_N. ... Crystallin alpha AImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a ... tr,B4Z7V1,B4Z7V1_9FALC Crystallin alpha A (Fragment) OS=Daptrius ater OX=56348 GN=CRYAA PE=3 SV=1 ...https://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/B4Z7V1
Anti-Alpha B Crystallin antibody (ab231268) | Abcam
Rabbit polyclonal Alpha B Crystallin antibody. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Mouse, Human, Pig. Immunogen corresponding to ... Anti-Alpha B Crystallin antibody (ab231268) at 2 µg/ml + Recombinant human Alpha B Crystallin protein.. Predicted band size: 20 ... Anti-Alpha B Crystallin antibody. See all Alpha B Crystallin primary antibodies. ... Primary - Rabbit Anti-Alpha B Crystallin antibody (ab231268) WB, IHC-P Secondary - Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) (ab205718) ...https://www.abcam.com/alpha-b-crystallin-antibody-ab231268.html
Crybb3 MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:102717 - crystallin, beta B3
View mouse Crybb3 Chr5:113075839-113081584 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expressionhttp://www.informatics.jax.org/marker/MGI:102717
Dynamic Expression of αB-Crystallin in Skeletal Muscle
... and found that the 22-kDa protein was a α-crystallin B chain with a 95% homology to bovine αB-crystallin. Further we ... These results suggest that the expression of αB-crystallin is dynamically related to the muscle plasticity. ... demonstrated that αB-crystallin did not decrease in passively stretched slow muscle even under HS, and did markedly increase in ...https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/pjab1977/66/10/66_10_203/_article
Crystallin, zeta (CRYZ) Antikörper
Crystallin, zeta (CRYZ) Antigen-Profil Protein Überblick Crystallins are separated into two classes taxon-specific, or enzyme, ... Mouse (Murine) Crystallin, zeta (CRYZ) Interaktionspartner * induction of zeta-crystallin by an acid pH plays an important role ... Weitere Antikörper gegen Crystallin, zeta Interaktionspartner. Human Crystallin, zeta (CRYZ) Interaktionspartner * Our results ... anti-Crystallin, zeta (CRYZ) Antikörper. Crystallins are separated into two classes taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. ...https://www.antikoerper-online.de/abstract/Crystallin%2C+zeta+
CRYAB (crystallin, alpha B)
... crystallin, alpha B), Authors: Aysegul Ilhan, Ludwig Wagner, Wolfgang Gartner. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol ... A-crystallin/Hsp20_dom Alpha-crystallin/HSP Alpha-crystallin_B Alpha-crystallin_N HSP20 HSP20-like_chaperone ... Crystallins are a highly conserved protein family consisting of three classes, alpha, beta and gamma. The alpha crystallins are ... Expression of alpha B-crystallin in human brain tumors.. Aoyama A, Steiger RH, Frohli E, Schafer R, von Deimling A, Wiestler OD ...http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/GC_CRYAB.html
gamma C Crystallin Research Products: Novus Biologicals
Browse our gamma C Crystallin product catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... gamma C Crystallin products available through Novus Biologicals. ... gamma C Crystallin Antibodies (5). gamma C Crystallin Lysate (1 ... Diseases related to gamma C Crystallin. Discover more about diseases related to gamma C Crystallin.. Cataract. Nuclear Cataract ... Bioinformatics Tool for gamma C Crystallin. Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to gamma C Crystallin. Need help? ...https://www.novusbio.com/common-name/gamma-c-crystallin
WikiGenes - CRYBA2 - crystallin, beta A2
Identification of the human beta A2 crystallin gene (CRYBA2): localization of the gene on human chromosome 2 and of the ... By using primers synthesized on the basis of the bovine beta A2 crystallin gene sequence, we amplified exons 5 and 6 of the ...https://www.wikigenes.org/e/gene/e/1412.html
JCI - αB-Crystallin is a novel oncoprotein that predicts poor clinical outcome in breast cancer
Here we report that the small heat shock protein α-basic-crystallin (αB-crystallin) was commonly expressed in basal-like tumors ... Invasive breast carcinomas were scored as positive or negative for αB-crystallin expression (left), or αB-crystallin staining ... Representative immunostaining of normal human breast tissue for αB-crystallin expression. (. E. ) αB-Crystallin IHC of 3 ... while silencing αB-crystallin by RNA interference inhibited these abnormalities. αB-Crystallin overexpression also induced EGF ...https://www.jci.org/articles/view/25888/figure/1
A Crystallin clear view of eye evolution | Development
show that the DC5 fragment is active in the Drosophila compound eye, specifically in the cone cells that secrete Crystallin. ... Since PAX6 and PAX2 derive from the same ancestor, this indicates that while Pax6 took over Crystallin regulation in ... In chick, lens-specific regulation of the δ1-crystallin gene is achieved by the cooperative binding of the transcription ...http://dev.biologists.org/content/132/8/e805
ProteinsGeneCRYABAntibodyRecombinantLens crystallinMolecular chaperoneAntigenMutationCataract formationComponents of the vertebrate eye lensBovineAggregatesOverexpressionCongenital cataractAlphaB-crystallin expressionCataractsSuperfamilyPeptidesHomologyResiduesSolubilityVitroVertebrate lensAcidicHsp27Crybb2ImmunofluorescenceMutantHuman gammaCRYGDChaperone activitySimilarities
- Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. (nih.gov)
- Gamma-crystallins are a homogeneous group of highly symmetrical, monomeric proteins typically lacking connecting peptides and terminal extensions. (nih.gov)
- More proteins containing βγ-crystallin domains have now been characterized as calcium binding proteins with Greek key motif as a novel calcium-binding motif. (wikipedia.org)
- The crystallins of different groups of organisms are related to a large number of different proteins, with those from birds and reptiles related to lactate dehydrogenase and argininosuccinate lyase, those of mammals to alcohol dehydrogenase and quinone reductase, and those of cephalopods to glutathione S-transferase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
- The α-crystallin family and βγ-crystallins compose the major family of proteins present in the crystalline lens. (wikipedia.org)
- Alpha-crystallin occurs as large aggregates, comprising two types of related subunits (A and B) that are highly similar to the small (15-30kDa) heat shock proteins (HSPs), particularly in their C-terminal halves. (wikipedia.org)
- Alpha-crystallin has chaperone-like properties including the ability to prevent the precipitation of denatured proteins and to increase cellular tolerance to stress. (wikipedia.org)
- Therefore, α B-crystallin can bind to the unfolded proteins and inhibit nonspecific aggregation [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
- CRYAB as well as alpha-A crystallin contribute to ~35% of all vertebrate lens proteins. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Gamma-crystallin C has been linked to eye development and visual perception, and interacts with proteins such as CRYAA, CRYBB2, CRYAB, and HSPB1. (novusbio.com)
- αA- and αB-crystallins, the major lens structure proteins and members of the small heat-shock proteins (sHSPs) family, play essential roles in maintaining normal cellular structure and physiology of both ocular and some non-ocular tissues. (eurekaselect.com)
- Wistow, G.J. & Piatigorsky, J. Lens crystallins: The evolution and expression of proteins for a highly specialized tissue. (nature.com)
- X-ray analysis of βB2-crystallin and evolution of oligomeric lens proteins. (nature.com)
- Lubsen, N.H., Aarts, H.J.M. & Schoenmakers, J.G.G. The evolution of lenticular proteins: the β- and γ-crystallin super gene family. (nature.com)
- Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to separate crystallins, the major proteins of the lens, and the modifications to these proteins were then determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Lenses from mice of increasing age were used for these studies. (oregonstate.edu)
- In crystallin proteins, these Trps will Tr56 be absorbing UV radiation that reaches the lens. (mit.edu)
- The roles that crystallin proteins play during lens development are not well understood. (molvis.org)
- A key to understanding lens function and disease is defining the roles of the diverse lens crystallins, a group of proteins expressed at high concentrations to produce the transparency and refractive properties needed to focus light on the retina. (molvis.org)
- Much less attention has been paid to the non-refractive roles of the other major families of vertebrate lens proteins, the β- and γ-crystallins [ 9 - 11 ], and little is known about the possible roles of these crystallins in lens development. (molvis.org)
- Alpha crystallins have features of molecular chaperones, but do not renature and release proteins like true chaperones. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In the lens, alpha-crystallin primarily functions to maintain proper refractive index, however it can also function as a molecular chaperone that binds to the denatured proteins, keeping them in solution and thereby maintaining the translucency of the lens. (biovendor.com)
- During aging, crystallins, the major intra-cellular structural proteins of the lens, aggregate and become water-insoluble. (edu.au)
- In this study, we examined changes to, and interactions between, human lens crystallins and intermediate filament proteins in lenses from a variety of age groups (0-86 years). (edu.au)
- Î³D-crystallin is one of the major structural proteins in human eye lens. (ebscohost.com)
- Cataract, a major cause of visual impairment worldwide, is the opacification of the eyeâ€™s crystalline lens due to aggregation of the crystallin proteins. (ebscohost.com)
- The research reported here is aimed at investigating the aggregating behavior of Î³-crystallin proteins in various incubation. (ebscohost.com)
- These data indicate that elevated levels of transition metal ions in aging lenses can enhance the loss of protective UV filter compounds, and contribute to the formation of high-molecular-mass dysfunctional crystallin proteins in a light-independent manner. (figshare.com)
- Our results suggest that the lens-specific alpha A-crystallin, MHC class I, beta interferon and other genes have a similar cis-acting DNA regulatory motif that shares alpha A-CRYBPI, MBP-1, PRDII-BF1, HIV-EP1, or other closely related proteins as trans-acting factors. (asm.org)
- The prevalent eye disease age-onset cataract is associated with aggregation of human γD-crystallins, one of the longest-lived proteins of the body. (jbsdonline.com)
- Mouse eye extracts and recombinant proteins (Crystallin-alpha A and B) were resolved by electrophoresis, transferred to PVDF membrane and probed with anti-Crystallin alpha A (1:1000). (mybiosource.com)
- Based on structural topology, these proteins are considered to be evolutionarily related to lens crystallins, suggesting their origin from a common ancestor. (semanticscholar.org)
- The capacity of α-crystallins to efficiently trap aggregation-prone denatured proteins is thought to delay age-related cataract in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
- Using recombinant proteins, αA and αB-crystallin have been shown to interact with many partially denatured substrates. (biomedcentral.com)
- however, once all the α-crystallin in lens fiber cells has been depleted, the concentration of irreversibly denatured proteins could increase, resulting in cataract. (biomedcentral.com)
- Immobilized αB-crystallin exhibited a significant enhancement (up to 5000-fold, when compared with the equivalent activity of αB-crystallin in solution) of its chaperone activity against various proteins undergoing both amorphous and amyloid fibril forms of aggregation. (edu.au)
- CRYAB(Crystallin alpha B), Human, Recombinant, E.coli Source Recombinant recombinant proteins Most stable storage is at - 81 C or lower but some lyophilised proteins can be stored at +4C. (antibody-antibodies.com)
- GENTAUR suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and ELISA kits to Human proteins as well as CRYAB(Crystallin alpha B), Human, Recombinant, E.coli Source Recombinant. (antibody-antibodies.com)
- Crystallins are water soluble structural proteins found in the vertebrate eye. (vwr.com)
- Four gamma-crystallin genes (gamma-A through gamma-D) and three pseudogenes (gamma-E, gamma-F, gamma-G) are tandemly organized in a genomic segment as a gene cluster. (nih.gov)
- Entrez Gene: CRYGD crystallin, gamma D". Graw J (1998). (wikipedia.org)
- In the 855Met data set, αB-crystallin gene ( CRYAB) expression was an independent predictor of brain as the first distant site of relapse (hazards ratio, HR=1.2, (95% confidence interval, CI 1.0-1.4), P =0.021). (nature.com)
- The hamster alpha-B crystallin (CRYAB) gene, which is highly homologous to that of humans, was cloned at first by Quax-Jeuken and it was demonstrated that the coding region of CRYAB consists of three exons (Quax-Jeuken et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Gamma-crystallin C, or CRYGC for short, contains a 174 amino acid isoform that is 21 kDa, and is involved in supporting the eye lens through its highly symmetrical and organized gene cluster. (novusbio.com)
- Identification of the human beta A2 crystallin gene (CRYBA2): localization of the gene on human chromosome 2 and of the homologous gene on mouse chromosome 1. (wikigenes.org)
- B ) αB-Crystallin and ( C ) CK5/6 expression by IHC in the same breast carcinoma that shows a basal-like gene expression and IHC profile. (jci.org)
- In chick, lens-specific regulation of the δ1-crystallin gene is achieved by the cooperative binding of the transcription factors PAX6 and SOX2 to the 30 bp DC5 fragment within the gene's enhancer. (biologists.org)
- The gene most strongly induced by heat shock in MTB is Rv0251c , which encodes Acr2, a novel member of the α-crystallin family of molecular chaperones. (jimmunol.org)
- Here, we identify and validate the mu-crystallin ( crym ) gene as a high-fidelity marker of the CST. (jneurosci.org)
- Dafür spricht auch, dass bei der Induktion von αB-Crystallin die JNK MAP-Kinase eine Rolle spielt und nicht die p38 MAP-Kinase, die an der Expression vieler anderer durch Hypertonizität induzierbarer Gene, u.a. (uni-muenchen.de)
- We have shown by site-directed mutagenesis that the sequence between positions -69 and -40 of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene is crucial for tissue-specific gene expression in a transfected mouse lens epithelial cell line transformed with the early region of simian virus 40. (asm.org)
- The 1-Mbp region contained only 13 genes, including 4 genes from the γ-crystallins (Cryg) gene family, which are known to play a role in cataract formation. (deepdyve.com)
- All of the γ-crystallins were sequenced and a novel point mutation in the start codon (ATG → GTG) of the Crygd gene was identified. (deepdyve.com)
- A (p.R21Q), in the Crystallin alpha A ( CRYAA ) gene segregating in this three generation family. (biomedcentral.com)
- The work strengthens the genotype-phenotype correlations between this functional mutation in the crystallin alpha A ( CRYAA ) gene and paediatric cataract. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this study, we perform extensive atomistic molecular dynamics simulations using massively parallel IBM Blue Gene/L supercomputer (5) to characterize unfolding (6) and oligomerization (7) of human gamma D crystallin to advance our current understanding of cataract. (jbsdonline.com)
- Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene products: alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. (mybiosource.com)
- This study describes a mouse cataract model generated by insertion of a neomycin-resistant (neo r ) gene into an intron of the gene encoding mutant R49C αA-crystallin. (biomedcentral.com)
- Heterozygous knock-in mice containing one wild type gene and one mutated gene for αA-crystallin (WT/R49C neo ) and homozygous knock-in mice containing two mutated genes (R49C neo /R49C neo ) were compared. (biomedcentral.com)
- Î³S-crystallin contains a two-domain beta structure and belongs to the beta/gamma-crystallin gene family mapping to human chromosome 3. (vwr.com)
- Defects in CRYAB are the cause of myofibrillar alpha-B crystallin-related (MFM-CRYAB) [MIM: (abcam.com)
- This provided the assumption that CRYAB is composed of a highly conserved "alpha crystallin core" domain consisting of about 80 to 100 residues with a beta-sandwich structure (Ghosh et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- CRYAB exhibits a high homology of 56% to alpha-A-crystallin. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Mutations in desmin, α-B-crystallin (CryAB), and other genes result in the desmin-related myopathies (DRM). (ahajournals.org)
- Please read carefully the data sheet of the CRYAB(Crystallin alpha B), Human, Recombinant, E.coli Source Recombinant. (antibody-antibodies.com)
- CRYAB(Crystallin alpha B), Human, Recombinant, E.coli Source Recombinant Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. (antibody-antibodies.com)
- Pan Beta Crystallins Antibody (3.H. (novusbio.com)
- Immunofluorescence analysis of paraformaldehyde-fixed HeLa, using Beta-crystallin A4(TA308870) antibody at 1:200 dilution. (acris-antibodies.com)
- This antibody recognizes human and bovine alpha B crystallin. (qedbio.com)
- Only those wells that contain Bovine Beta-crystallin B2, CRYBB2, biotin-conjugated antibody and enzyme-conjugated Avidin will exhibit a change in color. (lifescience-market.com)
- To measure chaperone activity, the heat stability assay was also performed in the presence of recombinant αA-crystallin. (arvojournals.org)
- Anti-human Crystallin alpha A mAb, clone c9F2, is derived from hybridization of mouse SP2/O myeloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant Crystallin alpha A. (mybiosource.com)
- Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography were used to characterize the lens crystallin content of 4.5-day to 27-month-old zebrafish. (molvis.org)
- The developmental period between 6 weeks and 4 months contained the most dramatic shifts in lens crystallin expression. (molvis.org)
- Similarities with mammalian crystallin expression continue to support the use of the zebrafish as a model for lens crystallin function. (molvis.org)
- This was followed by extrusion of lens crystallin materials through the stalk. (uu.nl)
- The molecular chaperone αB-crystallin is expressed in estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 'triple-negative' breast carcinomas and promotes brain and lung metastasis. (nature.com)
- The molecular chaperone alphaB-crystallin has emerged as a target for cancer therapy due to its expression in human tumors and its role in regulating tumor angiogenesis. (diva-portal.org)
- Alpha-crystallin can function as a molecular chaperone. (semanticscholar.org)
- Crystallins are the dominant structural components of the vertebrate eye lens. (abcam.com)
- Crystallins are the principal structural components of the vertebrate eye lens. (prospecbio.com)
- Beta-crystallin A4 (CRYBA4) is a member of the beta/gamma-crystallin family which are the dominant structural components of the vertebrate eye lens. (prospecbio.com)
- Product Description:Bovine Beta- crystallin B2, CRYBB2 ELISA KIT allows for the in vitro quantitative determination of Bovine Beta-crystallin B2, CRYBB2 concentrations in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids. (lifescience-market.com)
- The enzyme-substrate reaction is terminated by the addition of a sulphuric acid solution and the color change is measured spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 450 nm.The concentration of Bovine Beta-crystallin B2, CRYBB2 in the samples is then determined by comparing the O.D. of the samples to the standard curve. (lifescience-market.com)
- The N-terminal domain of alpha-crystallin is not necessary for dimerisation or chaperone activity, but appears to be required for the formation of higher order aggregates. (wikipedia.org)
- Beta-crystallins construct aggregates of various sizes and are able to self-associate to form dimers or to form heterodimers with other beta-crystallins. (prospecbio.com)
- Crystallins, as the principal components of the lens, function to increase the refractive index of the eye during accommodation by forming high-molecular weight aggregates which maintain transparency. (vwr.com)
- We also demonstrate that overexpression of αB-crystallin transformed immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (MECs). (jci.org)
- In 3D basement membrane culture, αB-crystallin overexpression induced luminal filling and other neoplastic-like changes in mammary acini, while silencing αB-crystallin by RNA interference inhibited these abnormalities. (jci.org)
- αB-Crystallin overexpression also induced EGF- and anchorage-independent growth, increased cell migration and invasion, and constitutively activated the MAPK kinase/ERK (MEK/ERK) pathway. (jci.org)
- Overexpression of alphaB-crystallin in 293 cells resulted in increased tolerance to acute osmotic stress. (uni-muenchen.de)
- To address this hypothesis, we investigated the consequences of αΒ-crystallin overexpression in the desmin-deficient ( Des −/− ) mouse model, which possesses a combination of the pathologies found in most cardiomyopathies, with mitochondrial defects as a hallmark. (biologists.org)
- We demonstrated that cardiac-specific αΒ-crystallin overexpression ameliorates all these defects and improves cardiac function to almost wild-type levels. (biologists.org)
- Notably, alphaB-crystallin is prominently expressed in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells (IMCs), known as regulators of angiogenesis and immune responses, while lymphocytes and mature granulocytes show low alphaB-crystallin expression. (diva-portal.org)
- The NaCl-induced increase in alphaB-crystallin expression was concentration-dependently blunted by SP600125, a specific JNK inhibitor. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Novel crystallin gamma B mutations in a Kuwaiti family with autosomal dominant congenital cataracts reveal genetic and clinical heterogeneity. (nih.gov)
- The gamma-crystallins and human cataracts: a puzzle made clearer. (semanticscholar.org)
- αA-crystallin binds to lens cell membranes and this association is increased in cataracts. (biomedcentral.com)
- Interestingly and perhaps excitingly from an evolutionary perspective, some crystallins are active enzymes, while others lack activity but show homology to other enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
- The results are discussed in the context of available experimental and homology-modeled theoretical structures for the subunits of a-crystallin. (edu.au)
- Lp82 specifically removed 5 residues from the C-terminus of αA-crystallin. (oregonstate.edu)
- The identity increases to 41% based on comparison of residues present in the α-crystallin core. (jimmunol.org)
- These findings (6) indicate that certain highly conserved charged residues, that is, Glu135 and Arg142, of γD-crystallin are crucial for stabilizing its hydrophobic domain interface in native conformation, and disruption of charges on the γD-crystallin surface might lead to unfolding. (jbsdonline.com)
- Immobilization was achieved via a plasma-deposited thin polymeric interlayer containing aldehyde surface groups and reductive amination, leading to the covalent binding of αB-crystallin lysine residues to the surface aldehyde groups via Schiff-base linkages. (edu.au)
- GammaC crystallin (HGC) is one of the three major gamma crystallins in the human lens, yet its 3D-structure remains unsolved, primarily because of its apparent low solubility. (arvojournals.org)
- The solubility and stability of Î³D-crystallin play a crucial role in maintaining the optical properties of the lens during the life span of an individual. (ebscohost.com)
- The cleavage sites produced in α-crystallin by Lp82 and m-calpain in vitro were then compared to truncated α-crystallins from normal rat lens, and rat lens with selenite-induced cataract. (oregonstate.edu)
- Diese Annahme wird durch die vorliegenden in-vitro-Versuche mit MDCK-Zellen unterstützt, die zeigen, dass αB-Crystallin durch hypertonen Stress induzierbar ist. (uni-muenchen.de)
- The present study aimed to characterize more closely the intrarenal expression and regulation of alphaB-crystallin in vivo and in vitro. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Structural perturbation (e.g., partial unfolding) enhances the in vitro chaperone activity of αB-crystallin. (edu.au)
- Aleinikova, K. 2004-10-07 00:00:00 Cell localization of 23 kDa- and 35 kDa-crystallins in the retina of adult common frogs Rana temporaria L. was studied using indirect immunofluorescence. (deepdyve.com)
- Cell localization of 23 kDa- and 35 kDa-crystallins in the retina of adult common frogs Rana temporaria L. was studied using indirect immunofluorescence. (deepdyve.com)
- Furthermore, we demonstrate that an αA-crystallin mutant linked to hereditary cataract has activated binding to βB1-crystallin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The results demonstrate that despite a failure of lens-ectoderm separation in the mutant mice, the ontogeny of the lens crystallins and differentiation of the lens up to a certain stage of development follow an apparently normal course before the commencement of cataractous degeneration. (uu.nl)
- Effect of SkQ1 eye drops on the rat lens metabolomic composition and the chaperone activity of Î±-crystallin. (ebscohost.com)
- Chaperone activity of α-crystallin. (nih.gov)
- Figure 3A shows the relative chaperone activity of α-crystallin isolated from the three groups. (nih.gov)
- αB-crystallin was immobilized onto a range of solid material surfaces, and its characteristics and chaperone activity were assessed. (edu.au)