A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
A class of crystallins that provides refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Beta-crystallins are similar in structure to GAMMA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both contain Greek key motifs. Beta-crystallins exist as oligomers formed from acidic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits.
The basic subunit of beta-crystallins.
A subclass of crystallins that found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of VERTEBRATES. Gamma-crystallins are similar in structure to BETA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both form into a Greek key-like structure. They are composed of monomeric subunits.
The acidic subunit of beta-crystallins.
A subclass of crystallins that provides the majority of refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Alpha-crystallins also act as molecular chaperones that bind to denatured proteins, keep them in solution and thereby maintain the translucency of the lens. The proteins exist as large oligomers that are formed from ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN and ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN subunits.
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
One of the subunits of alpha-crystallins. Unlike ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN the expression of ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN is limited primarily to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE).
One of the alpha crystallin subunits. In addition to being expressed in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE), alpha-crystallin B chain has been found in a variety of tissues such as HEART; BRAIN; MUSCLE; and KIDNEY. Accumulation of the protein in the brain is associated with NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES such as CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME and ALEXANDER DISEASE.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
The determination of the concentration of a given component in solution (the analyte) by addition of a liquid reagent of known strength (the titrant) until an equivalence point is reached (when the reactants are present in stoichiometric proportions). Often an indicator is added to make the equivalence point visible (e.g., a change in color).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
Animals that have no spinal column.
Maf proto-oncogene protein is the major cellular homolog of the V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It was the first of the mammalian MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS identified, and it is induced in activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of INTERLEUKIN-4. c-maf is frequently translocated to an immunoglobulin locus in MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.
One of a group of nonenzymatic reactions in which aldehydes, ketones, or reducing sugars react with amino acids, peptides, or proteins. Food browning reactions, such as those that occur with cooking of meats, and also food deterioration reactions, resulting in decreased nutritional value and color changes, are attributed to this reaction type. The Maillard reaction is studied by scientists in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and carbohydrate chemistry fields.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.
The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.

Molecular chaperones: small heat shock proteins in the limelight. (1/1309)

Small heat shock proteins have been the Cinderellas of the molecular chaperone world, but now the crystal structure of a small heat shock protein has been solved and mutation of two human homologues implicated in genetic disease. Intermediate filaments appear to be one of the key targets of their chaperone activity.  (+info)

Site-directed spin labeling study of subunit interactions in the alpha-crystallin domain of small heat-shock proteins. Comparison of the oligomer symmetry in alphaA-crystallin, HSP 27, and HSP 16.3. (2/1309)

Site-directed spin labeling was used to investigate quaternary interactions along a conserved sequence in the alpha-crystallin domain of alphaA-crystallin, heat-shock protein 27 (HSP 27), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat-shock protein (HSP 16.3). In previous work, it was demonstrated that this sequence in alphaA-crystallin and HSP 27 forms a beta-strand involved in subunit contacts. In this study, the symmetry and geometry of the resulting interface were investigated. For this purpose, the pattern of spin-spin interactions was analyzed, and the number of interacting spins was determined in alphaA-crystallin and HSP 27. The results reveal a 2-fold symmetric interface consisting of two beta-strands interacting near their N termini in an antiparallel fashion. Remarkably, subunit interactions along this interface persist when the alpha-crystallin domains are expressed in isolation. Because this domain in alphaA-crystallin forms dimers and tetramers, it is inferred that interactions along this interface mediate the formation of a basic dimeric unit. In contrast, in HSP 16.3, spin-spin interactions are observed at only one site near the C terminus of the sequence. Furthermore, cysteine substitutions at residues flanking the N terminus resulted in the dissociation of the oligomeric structure. Analysis of the spin-spin interactions and size exclusion chromatography indicates a 3-fold symmetric interface. Taken together, our results demonstrate that subunit interactions in the alpha-crystallin domain of mammalian small heat-shock proteins assemble a basic building block of the oligomeric structure. Sequence divergence in this domain results in variations in the size and symmetry of the quaternary structure between distant members of the small heat-shock protein family.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of drosocrystallin, a lens crystallin gene of Drosophila melanogaster. (3/1309)

We have cloned the drosocrystallin gene (dcy) of Drosophila melanogaster, which encodes a major protein of the corneal lens, previously described in part by Komori et al. (1992, J. Cell Sci. 102, 191-201). Synthesis of the DCY protein starts weakly in 2-day-old pupae, reaches a peak at day 3 and day 4 of pupal development, and decreases very fast in young adults. The dcy mRNA is detected in the compound eyes as well as in the ocelli. The presence of a putative signal peptide and the extracellular location of DCY suggest that DCY is a secreted protein. Interestingly, the dcy gene shows sequence similarities to some insect cuticular proteins and is detected as well in two closely related Drosophila species, D. sechellia and D. simulans, and in one more distantly related species, D. virilis. This finding supports the hypothesis that Drosophila used the same strategy as vertebrates and mollusks, namely, recruiting a multifunctional protein for refraction in the lens, by a gene-sharing mechanism. Furthermore, it supports our intercalary evolution hypothesis, which suggests that the development of an elaborate structure (for example, a compound eye) from an original primitive form (an ancestral photoreceptor organ) can be achieved by recruiting novel genes into the original developmental pathway.  (+info)

The synthesis of a small heat shock/alpha-crystallin protein in Artemia and its relationship to stress tolerance during development. (4/1309)

Fertilized oocytes of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana undergo either ovoviviparous or oviparous development, yielding free-swimming larvae (nauplii) or encysted gastrulae (cysts), respectively. Encystment is followed by diapause, wherein metabolism is greatly reduced; the resulting cysts are very resistant to extreme stress, including desiccation and long-term anoxia. The synthesis of p26, a small heat shock/alpha-crystallin protein produced only in oviparously developing Artemia, is shown in this paper to be transcriptionally regulated. A p26 mRNA of about 0.7 kb was detected on Northern blots in the second day after oocyte fertilization. It peaked as embryos encysted and declined rapidly when activated cysts resumed development. The appearance of p26 protein, as indicated by immunoprobing of Western blots, followed mRNA by 1 day; it also increased as encystment occurred but remained constant during postgastrula development of cysts. However, p26 underwent a marked reduction during emergence of nauplii and could not be detected in cell-free extracts of second-instar larvae. p26 entered nuclei of encysting embryos soon after synthesis and was localized therein as late as instar II, when it was restricted to a small set of salt gland nuclei. First-instar larvae derived from cysts were more thermotolerant than larvae that had developed ovoviviparously, but synthesis of p26 was not induced by heat under the experimental conditions employed. Additionally, transformed bacteria synthesizing p26 were more thermotolerant than bacteria that lacked the protein. The results support the proposal that p26, a developmentally regulated protein synthesized during embryo encystment, has chaperone activity in vivo and protects the proteins of encysted Artemia from stress-induced denaturation.  (+info)

Glucose metabolism in Neurospora is altered by heat shock and by disruption of HSP30. (5/1309)

We compared the metabolism of [1-13C]glucose by wild type cells of Neurospora crassa at normal growth temperature and at heat shock temperatures, using nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of cell extracts. High temperature led to increased incorporation of 13C into trehalose, relative to all other metabolites, and there was undetectable synthesis of glycerol, which was a prominent metabolite of glucose at normal temperature (30 degrees C). Heat shock strongly reduced formation of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, approximately 10-fold, and mannitol synthesis was severely depressed at 46 degrees C, but only moderately reduced at 45 degrees C. A mutant strain of N. crassa that lacks the small alpha-crystallin-related heat shock protein, Hsp30, shows poor survival during heat shock on a nutrient medium with restricted glucose. An analysis of glucose metabolism of this strain showed that, unlike the wild type strain, Hsp30-deficient cells may accumulate unphosphorylated glucose at high temperature. This suggestion that glucose-phosphorylating hexokinase activity might be depressed in mutant cells led us to compare hexokinase activity in the two strains at high temperature. Hexokinase was reduced more than 35% in the mutant cell extracts, relative to wild type extracts. alpha-Crystallin and an Hsp30-enriched preparation protected purified hexokinase from thermal inactivation in vitro, supporting the proposal that Hsp30 may directly stabilize hexokinase in vivo during heat shock.  (+info)

Deamidation of alpha-A crystallin from nuclei of cataractous and normal human lenses. (6/1309)

PURPOSE: To quantitate the extent of deamidation of asparagine-101, glutamine-50, and glutamine-6 of alpha-A crystallin in the nucleus from human cataractous and normal lenses. METHODS: Reverse phase chromatography was used to prepare alpha-A crystallin from total proteins of the nucleus from cataractous and age-matched normal human lenses. Synthetic peptides were made corresponding to the expected amidated and deamidated tryptic fragments containing asparagine-101, glutamine-50, and glutamine-6. The peptides were used to identify and quantitate amidated and deamidated forms of tryptic fragments from alpha-A crystallin eluting from a reverse phase column. RESULTS: Significant amounts of deamidation of asparagine-101 and glutamine-50, but not glutamine-6, were present in alpha-A crystallin from nuclear sections of both cataractous and age-matched normal lenses. Quantitative analysis of tryptic peptides containing these residues indicated no statistical difference in deamidation in cataractous versus normal lenses. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in the extent of deamidation of asparagine-101, glutamine-50, and glutamine-6 for alpha-A crystallin, purified from the nucleus of cataractous versus age-matched normal lenses. These results strongly suggest that deamidation of these residues does not play a role in the biogenesis of human nuclear cataract.  (+info)

Human lens epithelial layer in cortical cataract. (7/1309)

Normal and cataractous human eye lenses were studied by morphology and protein analysis. A marked decrease in protein sulfhydryl (PSH) and nonprotein sulfhydryl (NSPH) was observed in nuclear and cortical cataractous epithelia. Moreover, decrease in PSH contents and an increase in insoluble proteins were found to be correlated only in cortical cataractous epithelium which is also accompanied by various morphological abnormalities. In nuclear cataractous epithelium, however, there was very little insolubilisation of proteins. The epithelial morphology in nuclear cataracts was almost similar to normal lens epithelium. Hence, it is assumed that the protein insolubilisation and various morphological abnormalities are characteristics of cortical cataractous epithelium. This leads us to believe that opacification in cortical cataract might initiate in the epithelial layer.  (+info)

Domain exchange experiments in duck delta-crystallins: functional and evolutionary implications. (8/1309)

Delta-crystallin, the major soluble protein component of the avian and reptilian eye lens, is homologous to the urea cycle enzyme argininosuccinate lyase (ASL). In duck lenses there are two delta crystallins, denoted delta1 and delta2. Duck delta2 is both a major structural protein of the lens and also the duck orthologue of ASL, an example of gene recruitment. Although 94% identical to delta2/ASL in the amino acid sequence, delta1 is enzymatically inactive. A series of hybrid proteins have been constructed to assess the role of each structural domain in the enzymatic mechanism. Five chimeras--221, 122, 121, 211, and 112, where the three numbers correspond to the three structural domains and the value of 1 or 2 represents the protein of origin, delta1 or delta2, respectively--were constructed and thermodynamically and kinetically analyzed. The kinetic analysis indicates that only domain 1 is crucial for restoring ASL activity to delta1 crystallin, and that amino acid substitutions in domain 2 may play a role in substrate binding. These results confirm the hypothesis that only one domain, domain 1, is responsible for the loss of catalytic activity in delta1. The thermodynamic characterization of human ASL (hASL) and duck delta1 and delta2 indicate that delta crystallins are slightly less stable than hASL, with the delta1 being the least stable. The deltaGs of unfolding are 57.25, 63.13, and 70.71 kcal mol(-1) for delta1, delta2, and hASL, respectively. This result was unexpected, and we speculate that delta crystallins have adapted to their structural role by adopting a slightly less stable conformation that might allow for enhanced protein-protein and protein-solvent interactions.  (+info)

Abstract: : Purpose: The purpose of these experiments was to create mice that would be useful for gene deletion experiments in the lens. The ability of a single inserted Pax-6 consensus site within the αA-crystallin promoter was systematically tested for its ability to influence the expression pattern of Cre recombinase driven by this promoter. Methods: Transgenic mice were generated with constructs that use two different αA-crystallin promoters to drive Cre expression. One construct used the CPV2 promoter that contains the short (-290/+43) αA-crystallin promoter. The other construct (CPV14) was identical with the exception of a single Pax6 consensus binding site inserted within the promoter fragment. The constructs were injected either alone or together with tyrosinase minigene cassette into fertilized one-cell FVB mouse embryos to produce transgenic mice. The tyrosinase minigene cassette was co-injected to facilitate the identification of potential transgenic founders via correction of ...
1. The effects of free radicals on the capacity of beta L-crystallin to act as a substrate for the enzyme transglutaminase were investigated. 2. beta L-Crystallin was exposed to defined radical species that were generated radiolytically, and transglutaminase activity, using the modified protein as substrate, was subsequently measured by monitoring the incorporation of [14C]putrescine. 3. Exposure of beta L-crystallin to hydroxyl radicals, thymine peroxyl radicals and acetone peroxyl radicals at concentrations of up to 135 microM increased the capacity of the protein to incorporate putrescine. With higher concentrations of these radicals this capacity of beta L-crystallin to act as a transglutaminase substrate declined to control levels or lower. 4. Superoxide radicals were inactive in this regard; hydroperoxyl radicals were active only at high concentrations. 5. It has previously been suggested that changes in the crystallins that occur during aging and with cataract may be due to oxidative ...
Abstract: : Purpose: Pax6, Prox1 and Mafs are transcription factors important for crystallin gene expression and eye development. We previously showed that, in transfection assays, MafB and Prox1 could synergistically activate the chicken betaB1 crystallin promoter (-432/+30), however, both MafB and Prox1 mediated transactivation could be blocked when Pax6 was co-transfected. This study investigates how these transcription factors cooperate to regulate betaB1-crystallin gene expression. Methods: Distribution of MafB was investigated in mouse lens and lens cell lines by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. GST-tagged MafB, Prox1 and Pax6 were generated by using pET or pGEX recombinant protein expression system. Their DNA binding abilities were tested in electrophoresis mobility shift assays (EMSA). Results: MafB was differentially expressed in lens fiber cells and lens epithelial cells: in lens epithelial cells, MafB is not evenly distributed in nuclei but concentrated in a single large ...
The chaperone-like protein alpha-crystallin is a approximately 35 subunit hetero-oligomer consisting of alphaA and alphaB subunits in a 3:1 molar ratio and has the function of maintaining eye lens transparency. We studied the thermal denaturation of alpha-crystallin by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), circular dichroism (CD), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) as a function of pH. Our results show that between pH 7 and 10 the protein undergoes a reversible thermal transition. However, the thermodynamic parameters obtained by DSC are inconsistent with the complete denaturation of an oligomeric protein of the size of alpha-crystallin. Accordingly, the CD data suggest the presence of extensive residual secondary structure above the transition temperature. Within the pH range from 4 to 7 the increased aggregation propensity around the isoelectric point (pI approximately 6) precludes observation of a thermal transition. As pH decreases below 4 the protein undergoes a substantial unfolding. ...
Results. Effect of [alpha]-crystallin on restriction enzyme digestion. To determine whether the partially purified [alpha]-crystallin had inhibitory effects on restriction digestion of DNA, we assayed several commonly used restriction enzymes for activity in the presence of [alpha]-crystallin. The commonly used restriction enzymes, Bam HI, Hind III, Nde I, Pst I and Sst I all remained active in the presence of [alpha]-crystallin. For this experiment, a 5 fold excess of each enzyme (5 units) was incubated for 1 hour with 1 µg of plasmid DNA using manufacturers supplied buffer. Each reaction also contained 1 µl of the purified [alpha]-crystallin (10 mg/ml), final concentration, 1 mg/ml. Each selected enzyme digested the plasmid to completion indicating that [alpha]-crystallin had no major detrimental effects on restriction enzyme digestion (data not shown).. To assay the ability of [alpha]-crystallin to protect restriction enzymes from heat inactivation, we chose the enzyme Nde I. Unlike the ...
The optical properties of the lens are dependent upon the integrity of proteins within the fiber cells. During aging, crystallins, the major intra-cellular structural proteins of the lens, aggregate and become water-insoluble. Modifications to crystallins and the lens intermediate filaments have been implicated in this phenomenon. In this study, we examined changes to, and interactions between, human lens crystallins and intermediate filament proteins in lenses from a variety of age groups (0-86 years). Among the lens-specific intermediate filament proteins, filensin was extensively cleaved in all postnatal lenses, with truncated products of various sizes being found in both the lens cortical and nuclear extracts. Phakinin was also truncated and was not detected in the lens nucleus. The third major intermediate filament protein, vimentin, remained intact in lens cortical fiber cells across the age range except for an 86 year lens, where a single ~ 49 kDa breakdown product was observed. An ¿B-crystallin
The lens in the dyl mutant mice shows a persistent lens-ectodermal connection as well as degeneration and extrusion of lens materials after the initial differentiation of the fibres. Immunohistochemical investigation of the ontogeny of the lens crystallins in this developing mutant lens has been carried out using the indirect immunofluorescence ... read more staining method with antiserum to adult mouse lens total soluble proteins. The results have been compared with those for coisogenic normal lens used as a control. In both, the first positive reaction was detectable at identical stages of lens development. A rapid increase in the intensity of fluorescence, most marked in the elongating fibre progressing through the equatorial region to the epithelium, was recorded in the mutant as well as in the normal lens. However, the stalk leading to the lens epithelium did not show any reaction. Appearance of vacuoles in the lens nucleus and cortex marked the beginning of degeneration of fibres which ...
Alpha-crystallin B chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAB gene. It is part of the small heat shock protein family and functions as molecular chaperone that primarily binds misfolded proteins to prevent protein aggregation, as well as inhibit apoptosis and contribute to intracellular architecture. Post-translational modifications decrease the ability to chaperone. Defects in this gene/protein have been associated with cancer and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons disease. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and ...
Dr. Mason Posner has students use molecular biology techniques to understand how eye lens proteins adapt to changes in environmental temperature.. We are currently investigating the evolution and biological role of lens proteins called crystallins. These proteins are responsible for making the lens transparent and refracting light so that focused images fall on the retina. Amazingly, one family of crystallins, the alpha crystallins, also protect other proteins from the harmful effects of aging that can lead to lens cataracts, one of the leading causes of blindness in humans. Alpha crystallins are also involved in the original development of the lens in vertebrate embryos, and they have been linked to many diseases of the nervous system, heart, skeletal muscle, and are now known to be involved in many cancers.. Most research into alpha crystallins is done with mammals. However, by studying how this protein has evolved in a number of fish species that live at different environmental temperatures, ...
Abstract: β-Crystallins are the major structural proteins existing in the vertebrate lens, and their conformational stability is critical in maintaining the life-long transparency and refraction index of the lens. Seven subunits of β-crystallins naturally assemble into various heteroge-neous oligomers with different sizes. Here, we systematically investigated the thermal sta-bility of the different secondary structures present in β-crystallins and then the dynamic process for the thermal-induced unfolding of β-crystallins by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-monitored thermal titration and temperature-jump nanosecond time-resolved IR difference absorbance spectra. Our results show that the N-terminal anti-parallel β-sheets in β-crystallin are the most unstable with a transition midpoint temperature at 36.0±2.1 oC, leading to the formation of an intermediate consisting vastly of random coil structures. This intermediate structure is temporally assigned to that of the monomer ...
Crystallins are water-soluble proteins that compose about ninety% in the protein inside the lens.[13] The three main crystallin sorts present in the human eye are α-, β-, and γ-crystallins. Crystallins have a tendency to variety soluble, high-molecular pounds aggregates that pack tightly in lens fibers, Therefore raising the index of refraction of the lens while protecting its transparency. β and γ crystallins are found mostly during the lens, while subunits of α -crystallin happen to be isolated from other areas of the eye and the human body ...
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A method for expressing proteins as a fusion chimera with a domain of p26 or alpha crystallin type proteins to improve the protein stability and solubility when over expressed in bacteria such as E. coli is provided. Genes of interest are cloned into the multiple cloning site of the Vector System just downstream of the p26 or alpha crystallin type protein and a thrombin cleavage site. Protein expression is driven by a strong bacterial promoter (TAC). The expression is induced by the addition of 1 mM IPTG that overcomes the lac repression (lac Iq). The soluble recombinant protein is purified using a fusion tag.
Buy our Recombinant Human beta Crystallin protein. Ab117029 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA, SDS-PAGE…
Discussion. The data presented here indicate that heat incubation produces structural and functional changes in renatured a-, aA-, and aB-crystallins as well as in the native a-crystallin. The chain like structures observed in the 65 °C transmission electron micrographs may indicate the particles formed after heat incubation have a greater propensity to interact with each other than the native particles. These chains could also be artifacts of the negative staining process, however.. There are major differences in the heat-induced secondary structural transitions that separate the native a-crystallin from the other a-crystallins. Renatured a-crystallin exhibits more severe structural changes that are observable at lower incubation temperatures than the native a-crystallin. The effects of heat incubation on chaperone-like activity are also completely opposite, with the native a-crystallin samples showing an improvement and renatured a-crystallin samples showing a progressive decline in activity ...
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11- Zafaranchi zadeh moghadam S, Khoshaman K, Masoudi R, Hemmateenejad B, Yousefi R (2017) The structural alteration and aggregation propensity of glycated lens crystallins in the presence of calcium; importance of lens calcium homeostasis in development of diabetic cataracts. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molec Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectroscopy 170:174-183 ...
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Contributes to the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Has chaperone-like activity, preventing aggregation of various proteins under a wide range of stress conditions.
rat Tcf8 protein: a human homolog of chicken delta EF1 protein; binds T3-response elements; has 2 isoforms Zfhep-1 & Zfhep-2; amino acid sequence given in first source
gamma C Crystallin products available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our gamma C Crystallin product catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
References for Abcams Recombinant Human Beta crystallin S protein (ab111642). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
The cellular basisofcornealtransparencyevidence for corneal crystallins JCell Sci. Robinson LJ, Roberts WK, Ling TT, Lamming D, Sternberg SS, and Roepe PD.
Tetsuji NAKANO, Kazufumi HIRAMATSU, Norio HIRATA, Junko MURAKAMI, Tomoku ICHIMIYA, Issei TOKIMATSU, Eiji YAMAGATA, Yuriko YAMAKAMI, Tohru YAMASAKI, Hiroyuki NAGAI, Jun-ichi KADOTA, Masaru NASU, Tadao NAKANO & Tetsunori ...
Thats really all that needs to be said, right? I mean, regardless of how correct they were, people thought Quayle was an idiot. No way theyre putting him in the co-pilots seat again. 12 years later, and what have we got? An idiot for a president (who I voted for, and will vote for again) being piloted by the man behind the curtain, Uncle D1ck. Watching shrub speak reminds me of a Beevis and Butthead cartoon. I keep waiting for someone to call Cheney by his first name and have GW say Huh huh. You said D1ck. huh huh. But I will take the Republican vision of this country over the Democratic vision any day. Uncle D1ck is the one making sure it stays at the fore. Well, him and cousin Carl ...
A quantitative analysis of cell division and cell elongation was carried out during lens morphogenesis in the rat. At 13 days of development elongating cells in the posterior part of the lens vesicle (presumptive fibre cells) have a lower mitotic activity than cells in the anterior vesicle. By 14 days these elongating cells do not divide. Thus at 14 days of development the lens can be separated into two compartments; a proliferation compartment in the anterior lens and an elongation compartment in the posterior lens.. The three main groups of lens-specific proteins, α-,β- and γ-crystallins, were localized by immunofiuorescence. Alpha-crystallin is the first crystallin to be detected and is localized in some lens pit cells at 12 days of development. By 14 days all lens cells contain α-crystallin. Beta- and β-crystallins are detected later at 12½ days and are localized in some cells situated primarily in the posterior part of the lens vesicle. At later stages of development these crystallins ...
α-Crystallin, a member of small heat shock protein (sHsp) family, is comprised of αA and αB subunits and acts as a molecular chaperone by interacting with unfolding proteins to prevent their aggregation. The αA-crystallin homopolymer consists of 30-40 subunits that are undergoing dynamic exchange. α-Crystallin and αA-crystallin are poorer chaperones in the presence of the crowding agent, dextran. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, it is shown that the αAcrystallin subunit exchange rate strongly increased with temperature. Binding of reduced ovotransferrin to αA-crystallin markedly decreases the rate of subunit exchange, as does the presence of dextran. In addition, in the presence of dextran the effect of reduced ovotransferrin on decreasing the rate of subunit exchange of αA-crystallin is stronger than in the absence of dextran. Under the conditions of molecular crowding, the αA-crystallin subunit exchange rate is not temperature-dependent. The exchange rate of αA-crystallin
Biochemical characterization and kinetic analysis of epsilon-crystallin from the lenses of common ducks were undertaken to elucidate the enzyme mechanism of this unique crystallin with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. Despite the structural similarities between epsilon-crystallin and chicken heart LDH, differences in charge and kinetic properties were revealed by isoenzyme electrophoresis and kinetic studies. Bi-substrate kinetic analysis examined by initial-velocity and product-inhibition studies suggested a compulsory ordered Bi Bi sequential mechanism with NADH as the leading substrate followed by pyruvate. The products were released in the order L-lactate and NAD+. The catalysed reaction is shown to have a higher rate in the formation of L-lactate and NAD+. Substrate inhibition was observed at high concentrations of pyruvate and L-lactate for the forward and reverse reactions respectively. The substrate inhibition was presumably due to the formation of epsilon-crystallin-NAD(+)-pyruvate ...
Expression of small stress proteins (shsp) enhances the survival of mammalian cells exposed to heat or oxidative injuries. Recently, we have shown that the expression of shsp from different species, such as human hsp27, Drosophila hsp27 or human alphaB-crystallin protected murine L929 cells against …
Human alpha-crystallins were separated from fetal, young, senile nondiabetic and diabetic lenses. The effects of aging and diabetes mellitus were studied by fluorescence measurements, including emission maximum, quantum yield and polarization, using both intrinsic probes (tryptophan and non-tryptophan) and extrinsic probes [4-(N-iodoacetoxy)N-methylamino-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (IANBD) and 6-(p-toluidinyl)naphthalene-2-sulfonate (TNS)]. Results indicate that diabetic effects (glycation and aggregation) give fluorescence change to a far greater extent than that of aging. This was demonstrated by a large decrease in tryptophan quantum yield and an increase in non-tryptophan quantum yield, and also by a decrease in polarization of non-tryptophan. The sulfhydryl (SH)-specific probe IANBD shows a blue-shift in emission maximum, a decrease in intensity and an increase in polarization. The hydrophobic probe TNS shows a decrease in both intensity and polarization. These results suggest that tryptophan
Shop Alpha-crystallin ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Alpha-crystallin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
The procedures for culturing Nakano and normal mouse lens epithelium were developed in the NEI laboratory by Dr. Y. Tsunematsu and Dr. Paul Russell. My goals were to grow both kinds of cells in culture and to record the morphological development of the cultures. I also hoped to examine two characteristics of the cultures for significant differences between Nakano and normal cells: the growth characteristics, and the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase/hexokinase ratio, (an indication of the type of cellular metabolism ...
Ed to contribute to its chaperone-like activity , while the N-terminal domains contain phosphorylation sites that are the targets of various protein kinases .
Lens regeneration in monkeys after minimally invasive surgery. Slit-lamp microscopy showed regenerating lens tissue grew from the peripheral to the central
Treatments for Coloboma of eye lens including drugs, prescription medications, alternative treatments, surgery, and lifestyle changes.
An sequential download радиоавтоматика of STASEL serves its employee to relate original analyst Deciphering to the collective plant results of degree and Cabinet. Stephen Regoczei and Graeme Hirst, 1992In: Robert R. Hoffmann( earth), The focus of algorithm: superficial likelihood and tensive AI, New York, Springer-Verlag, poster judgment The focus of frameshifted introduction is given plant to a combinatorial discourse of contrast elitists. These intellectual Scrolls, really located reasoning crystallins, or helpful readers, are physical in that they find, and can write, computation or some expert poster or indifference in the Click of a concert.
CRYM antibody [1G7] (crystallin, mu) for FACS, ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-CRYM mAb (GTX84654) is tested in Human, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Bendazac, as such or in the form of its l-lysine salt, has a protective effect against lens protein denaturation both in vitro… Expand ...
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The overall survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains poor, and the molecular pathogenesis remains incompletely defined in HCC. Here we report that increased expression of αB-Crystallin in human HCC predicts poor survival and disease recurrence after surgery. Multivariate analysis identifies αB-Crystallin expression as an independent predictor for postoperative recurrence and overall survival. We show that elevated expression of αB-Crystallin promotes HCC progression in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrate that αB-Crystallin overexpression fosters HCC progression by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HCC cells through activation of the extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK) cascade, which can counteract the effect of sorafenib. αB-Crystallin complexes with and elevates 14-3-3ζ protein, leading to up-regulation of ERK1/2 activity. Moreover, overexpression of αB-Crystallin in HCC cells induces EMT progression through an ERK1/2/Fra-1/slug signaling ...
Inhibition of advanced glycation end-product formation on eye lens protein by rutin - Br J Nutr. 2011 Aug 25:1-9 - Formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) plays a key role in the several pathophysiologies associated with ageing and diabetes, such as arthritis, atherosclerosis, chronic renal insufficiency, Alzheimers disease, nephropathy, neuropathy and cataract. This raises the possibility of inhibition of AGE formation as one of the approaches to prevent or arrest the progression of diabetic complications. Previously, we have reported that some common dietary sources such as fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices have the potential to inhibit AGE formation. Flavonoids are abundantly found in fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices, and rutin is one of the commonly found dietary flavonols. In the present study, we have demonstrated the antiglycating potential and mechanism of action of rutin using goat eye lens proteins as model proteins. Under in vitro conditions, rutin inhibited ...
The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily is composed of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P)(+))-dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. To date, 24 ALDH gene families have been identified in the eukaryotic genome. In addition to aldehyde metabolizing capacity, ALDHs have additional catalytic (e.g. esterase and reductase) and non-catalytic activities. The latter include functioning as structural elements in the eye (crystallins) and as binding molecules to endobiotics and xenobiotics. Mutations in human ALDH genes and subsequent inborn errors in aldehyde metabolism are the molecular basis of several diseases. Most recently ALDH polymorphisms have been associated with gout and osteoporosis. Aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes also play important roles in embryogenesis and development, neurotransmission, oxidative stress and cancer. This article serves as a comprehensive review of the current state of knowledge regarding ...
Health,...SALT LAKE CITY -- Antioxidants are widely considered an important defe...The findings published in the Aug. 10 issue of Cell indicate a new c...The protein alpha B-Crystallin termed a molecular chaperone normally...In a study of laboratory mice with failing hearts caused by mutant alp...,Reductive,stress,linked,to,heart,disease,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
The ocular lens is one of two lenses in the optical train of a microscope, the other being the objective lens. Located in the eyepiece, the ocular lens is the nearest lens to the observer's eye providing additional magnification and directing the image into the observer's eye.Total MagnificationThe total magnification of a microscope is the product of the magnification of the ocular lens and the objective lens. For example, a 10x ocular lens and a 40x objective lens produce a total magnification of 400x.Monocular vs. Binocular MicroscopesMonocular microscopes have one ocular lens, while binocular microscopes have two ocular lenses--one for...
Mutations in the small heat shock proteins α-crystallins have been linked to autosomal dominant cataracts in humans. Extensive studies in vitro have revealed a spectrum of alterations to the structure and function of these proteins including shifts in the size of the oligomer, modulation of subunit exchange and modification of their affinity to client proteins. Although mouse models of these mutants were instrumental in identifying changes in cellular proliferation and lens development, a direct comparative analysis of their effects on lens proteostasis has not been performed. Here, we have transgenically expressed cataract-linked mutants of αA- and αB-crystallin in the zebrafish lens to dissect the underlying molecular changes that contribute to the loss of lens optical properties. Zebrafish lines expressing these mutants displayed a range of morphological lens defects. Phenotype penetrance and severity were dependent on the mutation even in fish lines lacking endogenous α-crystallin. The ...
My laboratory investigates mammalian eye development with the aim to identify and functionally characterize genes associated with human ocular diseases. Our present efforts are directed towards understanding development of the ocular lens - a transparent tissue that focuses light on the retina for visual acuity. Lens transparency is the outcome of a specialized developmental program involving differentiation of anteriorly localized epithelial cells into posteriorly localized elongated fiber cells that make up bulk of the lens tissue. Terminally differentiated lens fiber cells express high levels of structural proteins termed crystallins and completely degrade their nuclei and organelles - properties that are necessary for rendering the lens transparent. Perturbation of this differentiation program results in opacification of the lens causing an ocular disease termed cataract. We take an integrated approach using systems biology and mouse developmental genetics to identify novel genes associated ...
We had found that expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) on cervical cancer cells increased as it progressed from carcinoma in situ (CIS) to microinvasive cancer, and that tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) recruited at the invasive front also expressed IDO in cervical cancer patients (Cancer Sci 98:874-881 2007). We previously produced homozygous αT3 transgenic mice carrying two copies of αA-SV40Tag transgene (αA denotes murine αA-crystallin promoter) in order to study DNA virus-induced carcinogenesis. The αT3 mice developed undifferentiated cancer of lens epithelium, which tumors showed multi-step carcinogenesis which was similar to cervical cancer (J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 135:1521-1532 2009). We found that homozygous αT3 mice carrying two copies of SV40Tag transgene progressed faster and died earlier than hemizygous αT3 mice carrying one copy of Tag transgene. In this study, in order to examine the relationship between p53 function and tumor progression, αT3 mice were mated ...
Jan. 15, 1974 H QGAWA ETAL 3,786,141 METHOD OF THE PRODUCTION OF ANTI-TUMOR SUBSTANCES Filed Sept. 50, 1971 United States Patent (3 3,786,141 METHOD OF PRODUCTION OF ANTI-TUMOR SUBSTANCES Haruki Ogawa, Fuchu, Akihiro Yamamoto, Higashimurayama, Yutaka Sugawara, Iruma-gun, and Shigeo Suzuki and Yoshio Takagalci, Kodaira, Japan, assignors to Chngai Seiyaku Kabushiki Kaisha, Tokyo, Japan Filed Sept. 30, 1971, Ser. No. 185,112 Claims priority, application Japan, Sept. 30, 1970, 45/ 85,006 Int. Cl. A01n /00 U.S. Cl. 424-95 10 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A water-insoluble anti-tumor active substance is prepared from the living cells of hemolytic streptococci by lysing the cells of hemolytic streptococci with a lytic enzyme and collecting a water-insoluble fraction which corresponds to a protoplast membrane fraction of the cells. The preparation of the anti-tumor substance is far superior in the anti-tumor activity to that of water-soluble fraction and has less inflammation-, feverand paincausing ...
The molecular chaperone alphaB-crystallin has emerged as a target for cancer therapy due to its expression in human tumors and its role in regulating tumor angiogenesis. alphaB-crystallin also reduces neuroinflammation, but its role in other inflammatory conditions has not been investigated. Here, we examined whether alphaB-crystallin regulates inflammation associated with tumors and ischemia. We found that CD45(+) leukocyte infiltration is 3-fold increased in tumors and ischemic myocardium in alphaB-crystallin-deficient mice. Notably, alphaB-crystallin is prominently expressed in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells (IMCs), known as regulators of angiogenesis and immune responses, while lymphocytes and mature granulocytes show low alphaB-crystallin expression. alphaB-Crystallin deficiency results in a 3-fold higher accumulation of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in tumors and a significant rise in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in spleen and bone marrow. Similarly, we noted a 2-fold increase in CD11b(+) ...
Import Data And Price Of FOLDABLE INTRA OCULAR LENS , www.eximpulse.com Eximpulse Services will provide you the latest and relevant market intelligence reports of FOLDABLE INTRA OCULAR LENS Import Data. You can find live data of maximum number of ports of India which is based on updated shipment data of Indian Customs. Only previous two days data will be seen on website. You can use this FOLDABLE INTRA OCULAR LENS import data for multiple kinds of analysis; lets say Import price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. You can go through some of the sample shipment records for FOLDABLE INTRA OCULAR LENS import data mentioned above. Here on Eximpulse Services you will get all kind of free sample as well as detailed reports of Export/ Import data as per your requirement. To get in touch for any kind of enquiry related to free sample or detailed report contact on +91-120-408-4957, +91-120-408-4958,+91-120-428-4019.. Data post 2012 as per Notification No.18/2012 - ...
Contributes to the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Has chaperone-like activity, preventing aggregation of various proteins under a wide range of stress conditions (By similarity).
Eye lens. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of cells from the lens (crystalline lens) of the eye. The cells are in a stacked linear, fibre-like arrangement. The transparency of the lens is thought to arise from this regular interlocking arrangement, as well as the absence of nuclei and the cells mainly containing the protein crystallin. The lens (found at the front of the eye) focuses light on to the light-sensitive cells in the retina at the back of the eye. - Stock Image P424/0246
The long-term objective of this proposal is to determine the molecular mechanisms by which modifications of the ?-crystallins (genetic or age-onset), lead to ca...
J:56095 Kawauchi S, Takahashi S, Nakajima O, Ogino H, Morita M, Nishizawa M, Yasuda K, Yamamoto M, Regulation of lens fiber cell differentiation by transcription factor c-Maf. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jul 2;274(27):19254-60 ...
J:56095 Kawauchi S, Takahashi S, Nakajima O, Ogino H, Morita M, Nishizawa M, Yasuda K, Yamamoto M, Regulation of lens fiber cell differentiation by transcription factor c-Maf. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jul 2;274(27):19254-60 ...
Nakano, A; Maeda, M; Nishijima, M; and Akamatsu, Y, Phospholipid modification retards intracellular transport and secretion of immunoglobulin g1 by mouse mopc-31c plasmacytoma cells. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 1526 ...
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As you can see these lenses are rather big and they have a really prominent thick black limbal ring that gives you a cute dolly and/or animated look. ^.^ The lenses have a really unique star-shaped design and I think its really cool! Ive never come across other lenses with a similar print so I do like it a lot! What makes it even better is that the blue shade is really beautiful and it shows up well and does, in fact, blend rather nicely with my light blue-gray eyes; I didnt expect them to fit in with my eyes as well as they did, considering how vibrant the color is and how artistic and unnatural the design is ...
CRYBB1 Recombinant Human produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 260 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 29.1 kDa.
Ayano, M. ; Tsukamoto, H. ; Tanaka, A. ; Nakano, S. ; Ueki, N. ; Ueda, S. ; Hisamoto, S. ; Ota, S.-I. ; Akahoshi, M. ; Arinobu, Y. ; Niiro, H. ; Horiuchi, T. ; Akashi, K ...
Isolation and characterization of a gene expressed mainly in the gastric epithelium, a novel member of the ep37 family that belongs to the βγ-crystallin superfamily (1998 ...
Crystallin gene expression was further explored in a detailed series of studies using long-term cell culture models in which ... Crystallin sequence similarities with, or in some cases their identity to particular enzymes or heat shock proteins led to the ... Beta B2-crystallin in the mammalian retina. Exp Eye Res. 1995 Oct;61(4):423-8. PubMed PMID 8549683. Wistow G, Piatigorsky J. ... The complexity of crystallin protein composition and expression were explored by early adoption of a wide range of innovative ...
... precipitation or aggregation of crystallins causes cataracts. Crystallins are present in the lens at extremely high ... A particularly striking example of the importance of crowding effects involves the crystallins that fill the interior of the ... The large crowding effect adds to the thermal stability of the crystallins, increasing their resistance to denaturation. This ... December 1989). "A differential scanning calorimetric study of the bovine lens crystallins". Biochemistry. 28 (25): 9653-8. doi ...
The three main crystallin types found in the human eye are α-, β-, and γ-crystallins. Crystallins tend to form soluble, high- ... β and γ crystallins are found primarily in the lens, while subunits of α -crystallin have been isolated from other parts of the ... α-crystallin proteins belong to a larger superfamily of molecular chaperone proteins, and so it is believed that the crystallin ... The chaperone functions of α-crystallin may also help maintain the lens proteins, which must last a human for their entire ...
He called it Crystallin. In 1834, Friedlieb Runge isolated a substance from coal tar that turned a beautiful blue color when ...
Ubiquitous α -crystallins and bird δ -crystallins are two examples. The α-crystallins, which contributed to the discovery of ... η-crystallin, α-enolase/τ-crystallin, and lactic dehydrogenase/ -crystallin. Also, the anuran corneal epithelium, which can ... The α-crystallins provide a convincing case for a lens crystallin using its non-refractive ability within the lens to prevent ... β/γ-crystallins are different from α-crystallins in that they are a large multigene family. Other proteins like bacterial spore ...
SAMIR K. BRAHMA1 (1978). "Ontogeny of lens crystallins in marine cephalopods" (PDF). Embryol. Exp. Morph. 46 (1): 111-118. PMID ...
Crystallins expressed by human keratocytes are ALDH1A1, ALDH3A1, ALDH2 and TKT. Different sets of crystallins are typical to ... Quiescent keratocytes synthesize the so-called crystallins, known primarily for their role in the lens. Corneal crystallins, ... Lassen N, Black WJ, Estey T, Vasiliou V (April 2008). "The role of corneal crystallins in the cellular defense mechanisms ... Jester JV (April 2008). "Corneal crystallins and the development of cellular transparency". Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 19 (2): 82- ...
Ecroyd H, Carver JA (January 2009). "Crystallin proteins and amyloid fibrils". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 66 (1): 62 ...
He called his discovery Crystallin. Aniline is important in the manufacture of dyes, plastics, and pharmaceuticals. In 1829 he ...
The molecular mass of crystallin and ubiquitin based Affilin proteins is only one eighth or one sixteenth of an IgG antibody, ... Two proteins, gamma-B crystallin and ubiquitin, have been described as scaffolds for Affilin proteins. Certain amino acids in ... Historically, Affilin molecules were based on gamma crystallin, a family of proteins found in the eye lens of vertebrates, ... Affilin proteins are structurally derived from human ubiquitin (historically also from gamma-B crystallin). Affilin proteins ...
These crystallins belong to two major families, the α-crystallins and the βγ-crystallins. Both categories of proteins were ... Removing the machinery means the lens is composed of dead cells, packed with crystallins. These crystallins are special because ... Slingsby, C.; Wistow, G. J.; Clark, A. R. (2013). "Evolution of crystallins for a role in the vertebrate eye lens". Protein ... The refractive index gradient which makes the lens useful is caused by the radial shift in crystallin concentration in ...
The lens is made of the protein crystallin; the cornea is made of the protein collagen. Other structures cannot be made ...
Alan Ko as A-tai (Chen Yong-tai) Alien Huang as A-hsien Crystal Lin as Min Min Chen Po-cheng as Uncle Da Samantha Ko as Aunt Da ... Crystal Lin debuted from talent show One Million Star. All these young actors had to live with the real Jiu-tian Group in ... The troupe is composed of one young woman Min-min (Crystal Lin) and three young men: Li-Zi is autistic, A-Xin is abused by his ... Crystal Lin, Chen Po-cheng, Samantha Ko, and Liao Jun. It is directed by Feng Kai, and produced by the Taiwan branch of 20th ...
The lens structure of box jellyfish appears very similar to those of other organisms, but the crystallins are distinct in both ... Weak reactions were seen within the sera and there were very weak sequence similarities within the crystallins among vertebrate ... PaxB functions by binding to crystallin promoters and activating them. PaxB in situ hybridization resulted in PaxB expression ... lenses and crystallin composition, synapses, and Pax genes and their implied evidence for shared primordial (ancestral) genes ...
... alphaB-crystallin, and HSPB3". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 337 (3): 1006-11. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc. ...
"The novel αB-crystallin (CRYAB) mutation p.D109G causes restrictive cardiomyopathy". Human Mutation. 38 (8): 947-952. doi: ... alpha B Crystallin, HSPB5) FLNC (filamin C) Infiltrative Amyloidosis Sarcoidosis Primary hyperoxaluria Storage diseases Fabry ... crystallin ( CRYAB ) mutation p.D109G causes restrictive cardiomyopathy". Human Mutation. 38 (8): 947-952. doi:10.1002/humu. ...
DeJong, W.W.; J.A.M. Leunissen & G.J. Wistow (1993). "Eye lens crystallins and the phylogeny of placental orders: evidence for ... DeJong W.W.; Zweers A.; Goodman M. (1981). "Relationship of aardvark to elephants, hyraxes and sea cows from alpha-crystallin ...
Shum WK, Maleknia SD, Downard KM (September 2005). "Onset of oxidative damage in alpha-crystallin by radical probe mass ... Downard KM, Kokabu Y, Ikeguchi M, Akashi S (November 2011). "Homology-modelled structure of the βB2B3-crystallin heterodimer ...
... "αB-crystallin: a novel regulator of breast cancer metastasis to the brain". Clinical Cancer Research. 20 (1): 56-67. doi: ... "AlphaB-crystallin is a novel oncoprotein that predicts poor clinical outcome in breast cancer". The Journal of Clinical ... "ERK-regulated αB-crystallin induction by matrix detachment inhibits anoikis and promotes lung metastasis in vivo". Oncogene. 34 ... Cryns lab also showed that the metastasis of breast cancer to the brain and lungs is dependent upon the protein αB-crystallin ...
Phosphorescence measurements of calf gamma-II, III, and IV crystallins at 77 and 293 K. Exp Eye Res. 1989 May;48(5):627-39. 35 ... The anaerobic photolysis of lens alpha-crystallin: evidence for triplet state mediated photodamage. Photochem Photobiol. 1990 ... Characterization of lens alpha-crystallin tryptophan microenvironments by room temperature phosphorescence spectroscopy. ...
"Acrylamide and iodide fluorescence quenching as a structural probe of tryptophan microenvironment in bovine lens crystallins". ...
... has been shown to interact with desmoplakin[14] and αB-crystallin.[15] ... Bennardini F, Wrzosek A, Chiesi M (August 1992). "Alpha B-crystallin in cardiac tissue. Association with actin and desmin ...
This helped identify genes required for vision and pigmentation, such as crystallins and the melanocortin 1 receptor. Similarly ...
Berns, A. J. M.; Kraaikamp, M. Van; Bloemendal, H.; Lane, C. D. (1972). "Calf Crystallin Synthesis in Frog Cells: The ...
September 2007). "Affilin-novel binding molecules based on human gamma-B-crystallin, an all beta-sheet protein". J. Mol. Biol. ...
lens crystallin. MeSH. D007908. TA. A15.2.05.001. FMA. 58241. Anatomical terminology. [edit on Wikidata] ...
"Solid-state NMR and SAXS studies provide a structural basis for the activation of alphaB-crystallin oligomers". Nat. Struct. ...
CRYZ: Crystallin zeta. *CYP4B1 (1p33). *CYR61 (1p22). *DBT: dihydrolipoamide branched chain transacylase E2 ...
... crystallins (lens proteins), renin and HIV protease. He has contributed 235 crystal structures to the worldwide Protein Data ...
Term: beta/gamma crystallins. ID: PIRSF002281 Mouse Protein Superfamily Annotations. Select one or more mouse PIRSF members to ...
XTALbg; Beta/gamma crystallins. pfam00030. Location:90 → 171. Crystall; Beta/Gamma crystallin. ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... The alphaB-crystallin oligomers formed long-lived stable complexes with their gammaD-crystallin substrates. Title: Partially ... In gammaD-crystallin, methylation is exclusively at Cys 110, whereas in gammaC- and gammaB-crystallins, the principal ...
Regulation of αB-crystallin. Jirka Peschek, Nathalie Braun, Julia Rohrberg, Katrin Christiane Back, Thomas Kriehuber, Andreas ... Regulation of αB-crystallin. Jirka Peschek, Nathalie Braun, Julia Rohrberg, Katrin Christiane Back, Thomas Kriehuber, Andreas ... Regulated structural transitions unleash the chaperone activity of αB-crystallin Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Data deposition: The cryo-EM density map of the αB-crystallin-3E (S19/45/59E) hexamer has been deposited in the Electron ...
Alpha-crystallins (α-crystallins) are major protein components of the vertebrate eye lens. The α-crystallins and especially αB- ... a, b) Transgenic flies coexpressing α-synuclein and αB-crystallin (gmr-gal4/+; uas-αB-crystallin-HA/+; uas-α-synuclein/+). (c, ... c, f) Transgenic flies coexpressing Q92 peptides and αB-crystallin (gmr-gal4; gmr-Q92/+; uas-αB-crystallin-HA). (b, e) ... Only gmr-gal4; uas-αB-crystallin flies showed ectopic αB-crystallin-HA signals from the morphogenetic furrow to the posterior ...
CRYGGP crystallin gamma G, pseudogene [Homo sapiens] CRYGGP crystallin gamma G, pseudogene [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:1424 ... crystallin gamma G, pseudogeneprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:2414 Gene type. pseudo. RefSeq status. INFERRED. ... Human gamma-crystallin genes. A gene family on its way to extinction. Brakenhoff RH, et al. J Mol Biol, 1990 Dec 5. PMID ... CRYGGP crystallin gamma G, pseudogene [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 1424, updated on 17-Jun-2019 ...
Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all ... Gao Q, Xiang Y, Zeng L, Ma XT, Lee WH, Zhang Y. Characterization of the ß?-crystallin domains of ß?-CAT, a non-lens ß?- ... "Crystallins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Crystallins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, ...
... αB-crystallin was also associated with worse survival (3.0 versus 4.7 months, P=0.007). αB-crystallin is a promising biomarker ... In addition, αB-crystallin positive protein expression were linked to poorer survival and early spread to the brain. The ... We examined αB-crystallin expression in primary breast carcinomas with metastatic data to evaluate its association with ... αB-crystallin gene (CRYAB) expression was examined using publically available global-gene expression data (n=855 breast tumors ...
Buy our Recombinant Human beta Crystallin protein. Ab117029 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been ... Belongs to the beta/gamma-crystallin family.. Contains 4 beta/gamma crystallin Greek key domains. ...
Crystallin will accelerate adoption of Micro and Mini LEDs in laptops, automotive and display applications. ... But with Crystallin PDC films, most if not all blue Micro and Mini LEDs in this startup period can be used along with a LCD ... "Since our manufacturing process is water based, Crystallin films are environmentally friendly to manufacture and can be ... The Crystallin Performance PDC 100 phosphor down-conversion film is laminated to a substrate of blue Micro or Mini LEDs and ...
... a comparison of the X-ray structures of two high Tc gamma-crystallins, gammaE and gammaF, with two low Tc gamma-crystallins, ...
... a comparison of the X-ray structures of two high Tc gamma-crystallins, gammaE and gammaF, with two low Tc gamma-crystallins, ... gamma-Crystallin-like gamma-Crystallin-like Crystallins/Ca-binding development proteins beta-Crystallin Rat (Rattus norvegicus ... gamma-Crystallin-like gamma-Crystallin-like Crystallins/Ca-binding development proteins beta-Crystallin Rat (Rattus norvegicus ... gamma-Crystallin-like gamma-Crystallin-like Crystallins/Ca-binding development proteins beta-Crystallin Rat (Rattus norvegicus ...
Browse our Pan Beta Crystallins product catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Pan Beta Crystallins products available through Novus Biologicals. ...
IPR002068 A-crystallin/Hsp20_dom. IPR001436 Alpha-crystallin/HSP. IPR012274 Alpha-crystallin_A. IPR003090 Alpha-crystallin_N. ... IPR002068 A-crystallin/Hsp20_dom. IPR001436 Alpha-crystallin/HSP. IPR012274 Alpha-crystallin_A. IPR003090 Alpha-crystallin_N. ... AlphaA-crystallinImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a ... tr,Q6EWI1,Q6EWI1_SPHPU AlphaA-crystallin (Fragment) OS=Sphenodon punctatus OX=8508 GN=cryaA PE=2 SV=1 ...
IPR002068 A-crystallin/Hsp20_dom. IPR001436 Alpha-crystallin/HSP. IPR012274 Alpha-crystallin_A. IPR003090 Alpha-crystallin_N. ... IPR002068 A-crystallin/Hsp20_dom. IPR001436 Alpha-crystallin/HSP. IPR012274 Alpha-crystallin_A. IPR003090 Alpha-crystallin_N. ... Crystallin alpha AImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a ... tr,B4Z7V1,B4Z7V1_9FALC Crystallin alpha A (Fragment) OS=Daptrius ater OX=56348 GN=CRYAA PE=3 SV=1 ...
Rabbit polyclonal Alpha B Crystallin antibody. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Mouse, Human, Pig. Immunogen corresponding to ... Anti-Alpha B Crystallin antibody (ab231268) at 2 µg/ml + Recombinant human Alpha B Crystallin protein.. Predicted band size: 20 ... Anti-Alpha B Crystallin antibody. See all Alpha B Crystallin primary antibodies. ... Primary - Rabbit Anti-Alpha B Crystallin antibody (ab231268) WB, IHC-P Secondary - Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) (ab205718) ...
View mouse Crybb3 Chr5:113075839-113081584 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
... and found that the 22-kDa protein was a α-crystallin B chain with a 95% homology to bovine αB-crystallin. Further we ... These results suggest that the expression of αB-crystallin is dynamically related to the muscle plasticity. ... demonstrated that αB-crystallin did not decrease in passively stretched slow muscle even under HS, and did markedly increase in ...
The protective effect of a-crystallin is due to transition of the aggregation process to the regime of reaction-limited cluster ... summarizes experimental data illuminating the mechanism of suppression of heat-induced protein aggregation by a-crystallin, one ... Keywords: Chaperones; protein aggregation; α-crystallin Chaperones; protein aggregation; α-crystallin ►▼ Show Figures Graphical ... Markossian, K.A.; Yudin, I.K.; Kurganov, B.I. Mechanism of Suppression of Protein Aggregation by α-Crystallin. Int. J. Mol. Sci ...
Crystallin, zeta (CRYZ) Antigen-Profil Protein Überblick Crystallins are separated into two classes taxon-specific, or enzyme, ... Mouse (Murine) Crystallin, zeta (CRYZ) Interaktionspartner * induction of zeta-crystallin by an acid pH plays an important role ... Weitere Antikörper gegen Crystallin, zeta Interaktionspartner. Human Crystallin, zeta (CRYZ) Interaktionspartner * Our results ... anti-Crystallin, zeta (CRYZ) Antikörper. Crystallins are separated into two classes taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. ...
... crystallin, alpha B), Authors: Aysegul Ilhan, Ludwig Wagner, Wolfgang Gartner. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol ... A-crystallin/Hsp20_dom Alpha-crystallin/HSP Alpha-crystallin_B Alpha-crystallin_N HSP20 HSP20-like_chaperone ... Crystallins are a highly conserved protein family consisting of three classes, alpha, beta and gamma. The alpha crystallins are ... Expression of alpha B-crystallin in human brain tumors.. Aoyama A, Steiger RH, Frohli E, Schafer R, von Deimling A, Wiestler OD ...
... Dev Neurobiol. 2015 May; ... For the best crystallin candidates, we tested a potential causal role in CF lens apoptosis. Crybgx, crybb1c (not expressed in ... We reasoned that crystallins, the major lens structural proteins, could be defective or misregulated. We surveyed the CF and SF ... Altogether, these data suggest that crystallin sequence evolution and expression defects may contribute to the loss of eyes in ...
Browse our gamma C Crystallin product catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... gamma C Crystallin products available through Novus Biologicals. ... gamma C Crystallin Antibodies (5). gamma C Crystallin Lysate (1 ... Diseases related to gamma C Crystallin. Discover more about diseases related to gamma C Crystallin.. Cataract. Nuclear Cataract ... Bioinformatics Tool for gamma C Crystallin. Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to gamma C Crystallin. Need help? ...
Identification of the human beta A2 crystallin gene (CRYBA2): localization of the gene on human chromosome 2 and of the ... By using primers synthesized on the basis of the bovine beta A2 crystallin gene sequence, we amplified exons 5 and 6 of the ...
The αB-crystallin adopts in the 24-mer two different conformations. (A) The αB-crystallin hexamer (ribbon diagram) viewed along ... Lenticular α-crystallin is composed of two homologous polypeptides, αA- and αB-crystallin, which comprise 173 and 175 amino ... 2009) Crystal structures of α-crystallin domain dimers of αB-crystallin and Hsp20. J Mol Biol 392:1242-1252. ... Of the two constituents of α-crystallin, αB-crystallin is the more widespread chaperone with versatile functions: Besides the ...
Here we report that the small heat shock protein α-basic-crystallin (αB-crystallin) was commonly expressed in basal-like tumors ... Invasive breast carcinomas were scored as positive or negative for αB-crystallin expression (left), or αB-crystallin staining ... Representative immunostaining of normal human breast tissue for αB-crystallin expression. (. E. ) αB-Crystallin IHC of 3 ... while silencing αB-crystallin by RNA interference inhibited these abnormalities. αB-Crystallin overexpression also induced EGF ...
show that the DC5 fragment is active in the Drosophila compound eye, specifically in the cone cells that secrete Crystallin. ... Since PAX6 and PAX2 derive from the same ancestor, this indicates that while Pax6 took over Crystallin regulation in ... In chick, lens-specific regulation of the δ1-crystallin gene is achieved by the cooperative binding of the transcription ...
Alpha-Crystallins and Tumorigenesis. Author(s): P. Chen, W. Ji, F.-Y. Liu, H.-Z. Tang, S. Fu, X. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Gong, M. ... αA- and αB-crystallins, the major lens structure proteins and members of the small heat-shock proteins (sHSPs) family, play ... Abstract:αA- and αB-crystallins, the major lens structure proteins and members of the small heat-shock proteins (sHSPs) family ... In addition, recent studies have revealed that the abnormal expressions and functions of both α-crystallins are associated with ...
The crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of γβ-crystallin with its four-residue C-terminal extension shows that the ... domain does not form a symmetric homodimer analogous to the two-domain pairing in γ-crystallins. Instead the C-terminal ... We use protein engineering and crystallography to simulate aspects of the early evolution of βγ-crystallins by observing how a ... The X-ray structures of two mutant crystallin domains shed light on the evolution of multi-domain proteins. *B.V. Norledge1. , ...
The cleavage sites produced in α-crystallin by Lp82 and m-calpain in vitro were then compared to truncated α-crystallins from ... this study showed that insolubilization of crystallins and cataract may result in animal lenses from uncontrolled crystallin ... Analysis of truncated α-crystallins isolated from both normal and cataractous rat lens indicated that Lp82 was more active in ... Lp82 specifically removed 5 residues from the C-terminus of αA-crystallin. This αA degradation product was far more abundant in ...
Human [gamma]D-crystallin (H[gamma]D-Crys) and human [gamma]S-crystallin (H[gamma]S-Crys) are both very stable eye lens protein ... In crystallin proteins, these Trps will Tr56 be absorbing UV radiation that reaches the lens. The dispersal of the excited ... Mechanism of the efficient quenching of tryptophan fluorescence in human gamma crystallin. Research and Teaching Output of the ... Mechanism of the efficient quenching of tryptophan fluorescence in human gamma crystallin. Download ...
  • Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Gamma-crystallins are a homogeneous group of highly symmetrical, monomeric proteins typically lacking connecting peptides and terminal extensions. (nih.gov)
  • The small heat shock protein αB-crystallin is an oligomeric molecular chaperone that binds aggregation-prone proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, the modulation of the structural flexibility of the NTD, as described here for phosphorylation, appears to regulate the chaperone activity of αB-crystallin rendering the NTD a conformational sensor for nonnative proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Small heat-shock proteins, such as α B-crystallin, act as chaperones to prevent protein aggregation and play a key role in the prevention of such protein disorganisation diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, α B-crystallin can bind to the unfolded proteins and inhibit nonspecific aggregation [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This review summarizes experimental data illuminating the mechanism of suppression of heat-induced protein aggregation by a-crystallin, one of the small heat shock proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • CRYAB as well as alpha-A crystallin contribute to ~35% of all vertebrate lens proteins. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • We reasoned that crystallins, the major lens structural proteins, could be defective or misregulated. (nih.gov)
  • Gamma-crystallin C has been linked to eye development and visual perception, and interacts with proteins such as CRYAA, CRYBB2, CRYAB, and HSPB1. (novusbio.com)
  • The molecular chaperone αB-crystallin, the major player in maintaining the transparency of the eye lens, prevents stress-damaged and aging lens proteins from aggregation. (pnas.org)
  • Both proteins possess a three-domain organization consisting of the α-crystallin domain (ACD), a consensus sequence of approximately 90 amino acids common to all sHsps, flanked by a diverse N-terminal region and a moderately conserved C-terminal extension ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • αA- and αB-crystallins, the major lens structure proteins and members of the small heat-shock proteins (sHSPs) family, play essential roles in maintaining normal cellular structure and physiology of both ocular and some non-ocular tissues. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Wistow, G.J. & Piatigorsky, J. Lens crystallins: The evolution and expression of proteins for a highly specialized tissue. (nature.com)
  • X-ray analysis of βB2-crystallin and evolution of oligomeric lens proteins. (nature.com)
  • Lubsen, N.H., Aarts, H.J.M. & Schoenmakers, J.G.G. The evolution of lenticular proteins: the β- and γ-crystallin super gene family. (nature.com)
  • Wistow, G. Evolution of a protein superfamily: relationships between vertebrate lens crystallins and microorganism dormancy proteins. (nature.com)
  • Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to separate crystallins, the major proteins of the lens, and the modifications to these proteins were then determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Lenses from mice of increasing age were used for these studies. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In crystallin proteins, these Trps will Tr56 be absorbing UV radiation that reaches the lens. (mit.edu)
  • The roles that crystallin proteins play during lens development are not well understood. (molvis.org)
  • A key to understanding lens function and disease is defining the roles of the diverse lens crystallins, a group of proteins expressed at high concentrations to produce the transparency and refractive properties needed to focus light on the retina. (molvis.org)
  • Much less attention has been paid to the non-refractive roles of the other major families of vertebrate lens proteins, the β- and γ-crystallins [ 9 - 11 ], and little is known about the possible roles of these crystallins in lens development. (molvis.org)
  • Alpha crystallins have features of molecular chaperones, but do not renature and release proteins like true chaperones. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ultraviolet-radiation-induced damage to and aggregation of human lens crystallin proteins are thought to be a significant pathway to age-related cataract. (rsc.org)
  • Additionally we are shipping Heat Shock Protein, alpha-Crystallin-Related, B6 Antibodies (122) and Heat Shock Protein, alpha-Crystallin-Related, B6 Proteins (14) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The solubility and stability of crystallin proteins play critical roles in maintaining the optical transparency of the lens during the life span. (plos.org)
  • It has been reported that about half of mutations in crystallins and a quarter in connexins (gap junction proteins), with the remainder divided among the genes for heat shock transcription factor-4 (HSF4), aquaporin-0 (AQP0, MIP), and beaded filament structural protein-2 (BFSP2) [2] , [3] . (plos.org)
  • Crystallin proteins, including α-, β- and γ-crystallins, represent about 90% of lens soluble proteins in human. (plos.org)
  • β-crystallins are the most abundant water-soluble proteins in the lens and most expressed in lens cortical fiber cells. (plos.org)
  • The alpha-crystallins are major water-soluble lens structural proteins of the vertebrate eye that are related to the small heat shock protein family. (biovendor.com)
  • In the lens, alpha-crystallin primarily functions to maintain proper refractive index, however it can also function as a molecular chaperone that binds to the denatured proteins, keeping them in solution and thereby maintaining the translucency of the lens. (biovendor.com)
  • In addition to their interaction with proteins, alpha-crystallins also interact with native molecules such as membrane proteins, Golgi matrix protein, structural proteins, nuclear proteins and DNA (3-7). (biovendor.com)
  • During aging, crystallins, the major intra-cellular structural proteins of the lens, aggregate and become water-insoluble. (edu.au)
  • In this study, we examined changes to, and interactions between, human lens crystallins and intermediate filament proteins in lenses from a variety of age groups (0-86 years). (edu.au)
  • γD-crystallin is one of the major structural proteins in human eye lens. (ebscohost.com)
  • Cataract, a major cause of visual impairment worldwide, is the opacification of the eye’s crystalline lens due to aggregation of the crystallin proteins. (ebscohost.com)
  • The research reported here is aimed at investigating the aggregating behavior of γ-crystallin proteins in various incubation. (ebscohost.com)
  • These data indicate that elevated levels of transition metal ions in aging lenses can enhance the loss of protective UV filter compounds, and contribute to the formation of high-molecular-mass dysfunctional crystallin proteins in a light-independent manner. (figshare.com)
  • α-Crystallin, a member of small heat shock protein (sHsp) family, is comprised of αA and αB subunits and acts as a molecular chaperone by interacting with unfolding proteins to prevent their aggregation. (edu.au)
  • Our results suggest that the lens-specific alpha A-crystallin, MHC class I, beta interferon and other genes have a similar cis-acting DNA regulatory motif that shares alpha A-CRYBPI, MBP-1, PRDII-BF1, HIV-EP1, or other closely related proteins as trans-acting factors. (asm.org)
  • The refractive properties of the lens are dependent on the accumulation of high concentrations of water-soluble proteins known collectively as crystallins ( 2 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • However, it is clear that crystallin genes are regulated by a complex network of transcription factors ( 11 ) and that Pax-6 is only one of the many proteins involved. (asm.org)
  • Our study indicated that chaperone property of α-crystallin and soluble protein levels were reduced in the selenite induced group.Damage of lenticular membrane and abnormal fiber structure were observed by electron microscopy.The results of this study suggest that FVN modulated selenite induced cataractogensis in rat pups by preventing loss of chaperone property, various changes in lens proteins, and lens structure, further strengthening its protective role. (nih.gov)
  • The prevalent eye disease age-onset cataract is associated with aggregation of human γD-crystallins, one of the longest-lived proteins of the body. (jbsdonline.com)
  • The crystallins: genes, proteins and diseases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mouse eye extracts and recombinant proteins (Crystallin-alpha A and B) were resolved by electrophoresis, transferred to PVDF membrane and probed with anti-Crystallin alpha A (1:1000). (mybiosource.com)
  • Based on structural topology, these proteins are considered to be evolutionarily related to lens crystallins, suggesting their origin from a common ancestor. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Crystallins are the major structural proteins of the eye lens. (nih.gov)
  • The capacity of α-crystallins to efficiently trap aggregation-prone denatured proteins is thought to delay age-related cataract in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using recombinant proteins, αA and αB-crystallin have been shown to interact with many partially denatured substrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • however, once all the α-crystallin in lens fiber cells has been depleted, the concentration of irreversibly denatured proteins could increase, resulting in cataract. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The well-characterized small heat-shock protein, αB-crystallin, acts as a molecular chaperone by interacting with unfolding proteins to prevent their aggregation and precipitation. (edu.au)
  • Immobilized αB-crystallin exhibited a significant enhancement (up to 5000-fold, when compared with the equivalent activity of αB-crystallin in solution) of its chaperone activity against various proteins undergoing both amorphous and amyloid fibril forms of aggregation. (edu.au)
  • The enhanced molecular chaperone activity of immobilized αB-crystallin has potential applications in preventing protein misfolding, including against amyloid disease processes, such as dialysis-related amyloidosis, and for biodiagnostic detection of misfolded proteins. (edu.au)
  • CRYAB(Crystallin alpha B), Human, Recombinant, E.coli Source Recombinant recombinant proteins Most stable storage is at - 81 C or lower but some lyophilised proteins can be stored at +4C. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • GENTAUR suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and ELISA kits to Human proteins as well as CRYAB(Crystallin alpha B), Human, Recombinant, E.coli Source Recombinant. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The eye in general and in particular the abundant proteins of the eye lens, which are termed crystallins provided Clayton and her colleague DES Truman with an ideal system in which to investigate the link between gene expression and cell differentiation during embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four homologous motifs, a connecting peptide, and N- and C-terminal extensions. (nih.gov)
  • The small heat shock protein αB-crystallin functions as an archetypical and ubiquitous molecular chaperone. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we have explored the potential for chaperone activity of α B-crystallin to suppress the formation of protein aggregates. (hindawi.com)
  • We tested the ability of α B-crystallin to suppress the aggregation of a polyQ protein and α -synuclein in Drosophila . (hindawi.com)
  • Alpha-crystallins ( α -crystallins) are major protein components of the vertebrate eye lens. (hindawi.com)
  • The α B-crystallin protein is found to be overexpressed in many neurological diseases, and mutations in α A- or α B-crystallin can cause cataracts and myopathy [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The α B-crystallin protein is a member of the small heat shock protein family, and it has a chaperone-like function [ 12 - 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • αB-crystallin protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry using the clinically annotated British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) tissue microarray ( n =3,987 breast tumors). (nature.com)
  • In the BCCA series, αB-crystallin protein expression was an independent prognostic marker of poor breast cancer-specific survival (HR=1.3, (95% CI 1.1-1.6), P =0.014). (nature.com)
  • αB-crystallin is a widely expressed member of the small heat shock protein family that protects cells from stress by its dual function as a molecular chaperone to preserve proteostasis and as a cell death antagonist that inhibits caspase-3 activation and oxidative stress. (nature.com)
  • Recombinant full length protein (His-T7-tag) corresponding to Human Alpha B Crystallin aa 1-175. (abcam.com)
  • We purified this protein, determined the partial amino acid sequence using its proteolytic fragment, and found that the 22-kDa protein was a α-crystallin B chain with a 95% homology to bovine αB-crystallin. (go.jp)
  • Kurganov, B.I. Mechanism of Suppression of Protein Aggregation by α-Crystallin. (mdpi.com)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Crystallin, zeta Proteine (11) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • zeta-Crystallin is a bcl-2 (zeige BCL2 Antikörper ) mRNA binding protein involved in bcl-2 (zeige BCL2 Antikörper ) overexpression in T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • This gene encodes a taxon-specific crystallin protein which has NADPH-dependent quinone reductase activity distinct from other known quinone reductases. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Crystallins are a highly conserved protein family consisting of three classes, alpha, beta and gamma. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The most prominent member of the small heat-shock protein (sHsp) family, α-crystallin, is expressed at high concentrations in the vertebrate eye lens ( 1 ) where it plays a major role in maintaining lens transparency ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Crystallographic and NMR studies on truncated forms of human αB-crystallin ( 21 - 23 ) as well as on the full-length protein ( 23 ) revealed the structures of ACD dimers, their pH-dependent architectures, and gave hints on intersubunit interactions. (pnas.org)
  • Here we report that the small heat shock protein α-basic-crystallin (αB-crystallin) was commonly expressed in basal-like tumors and predicted poor survival in breast cancer patients independently of other prognostic markers. (jci.org)
  • We use protein engineering and crystallography to simulate aspects of the early evolution of βγ-crystallins by observing how a single domain oligomerizes in response to changes in a sequence extension. (nature.com)
  • Structure of the bovine eye lens protein γB(gll)-crystallin at 1.47 Å. (nature.com)
  • Alpha-crystallins comprised less than 1% of total lens protein in 4.5-day lenses and increased to less than 7% in adult lenses. (molvis.org)
  • Rv0251c encodes a protein with 30% amino acid sequence identity to the well-characterized 16-kDa α-crystallin homolog Acr (encoded by Rv2031c , and referred to as acr or hsp X) ( 6 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 11q22.3-q23.1 that encodes alpha crystallin B, a protein induced by heat shock that belongs to the small heat shock protein (sHSP, or HSP20) family. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here we demonstrate the induction of Heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) and the small heat shock protein Crystallin-αB (CryAB) during cisplatin nephrotoxicity in mice. (medworm.com)
  • Gamma crystallin can improve the expression and solubility of your target protein. (addgene.org)
  • An R120G missense mutation in the small heat shock protein α-B-crystallin (CryAB) causes desmin-related cardiomyopathy. (ahajournals.org)
  • The protein has a 2-domain, predominantly beta-sheet structure typical of the gamma crystallins. (arvojournals.org)
  • Cys residues or protein dipole moment do not have a special role in determining stability or solubility, and HGC is as souble as other crystallins. (arvojournals.org)
  • Background Mutations in αB-crystallin result in proteotoxic cardiomyopathy with desmin mislocalization to protein aggregates. (nih.gov)
  • Methods and Results Mice overexpressing the R120G mutant of αB-crystallin in cardiomyocytes ( Myh6-Cry ABR 120G) were subjected to IF or ad-lib feeding, or transduced with adeno-associated virus- TFEB or adeno-associated virus-green fluorescent protein after development of advanced proteotoxic cardiomyopathy. (nih.gov)
  • Cry ABR 120G-expressing hearts demonstrated increased interaction of desmin with αB-crystallin and reduced interaction with chaperone protein, HSPB 8, compared with wild type, which was reversed by both IF and TFEB transduction. (nih.gov)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Heat Shock Protein, alpha-Crystallin-Related, B6 Antikörper (120) und Heat Shock Protein, alpha-Crystallin-Related, B6 Proteine (14) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • peptides in heat-shock protein Hsp20 (G71HFSVLLDVKHFSPEEIAVK91) and Hsp27 (D93RWRVSLDVNHFAPDELTVK113) with sequence homology to alpha-crystallin also have robust chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Stationary phase-associated protein expression in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: function of the mycobacterial alpha-crystallin homolog. (asm.org)
  • N-terminal amino acid sequencing and immunoreactivity identified this protein as the 16-kDa alpha-crystallin-like small heat shock protein. (asm.org)
  • Collectively, these results suggest that the mycobacterial alpha-crystallin protein may play a role in enhancing long-term protein stability and therefore long-term survival of M. tuberculosis. (asm.org)
  • For 15 y, α B-crystallin (heat shock protein [Hsp] B5) has been labeled an autoantigen in multiple sclerosis (MS) based on humoral and cellular responses found in humans and animal models. (jimmunol.org)
  • The association of α B-crystallin (heat shock protein [Hsp] B5) with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been a puzzling story ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Van Noort and colleagues ( 2 , 3 ) first proposed the protein to be an autoantigen in 1995 based on the reactivity of PBMCs from MS patients and healthy control subjects to proliferate in response to a fraction of myelin from MS brains containing α B-crystallin. (jimmunol.org)
  • The α-crystallins are large protein complexes in the lens composed of αA- and αB-crystallins. (plos.org)
  • In addition to their structural roles, α-crystallins are members of the small heat shock protein family and exhibit important molecular chaperone activity within the lens [4] . (plos.org)
  • The aggregation of the α-crystallin protein is the pathological hallmark of cataract. (rsc.org)
  • When cellular stress occurs, alpha-crystallin enters its' phosphorylated state and may serve a structural control function and play a role in protein maintenance (2). (biovendor.com)
  • Time-dependent BSI traces are directly fit using a global analysis approach to characterize the interaction of the small heat-shock protein α-crystallin with two substrates: destabilized mutants of T4 lysozyme and the in vivo target βB1-crystallin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • An ¿B-crystallin fusion protein (maltose-binding protein-¿B-crystallin) was found to readily exchange subunits with endogenous ¿-crystallin, and following mild heat stress, to bind to filensin, phakinin and vimentin and to several of their truncated products. (edu.au)
  • Conclusion: The replacement of valine in position 42 by the longer and bulkier methionine in human γS-crystallin perturbs the compact β-sheet core packing topology in the N-terminal domain of the molecule, exposes nonpolar residues thereby increasing the surface hydrophobicity and weakens the stability of the protein, thus promoting self-aggregation leading to light scattering particles. (ebscohost.com)
  • alphaB-crystallin, a major component of the mammalian eye lens, is a small heat shock protein and molecular chaperone that is also abundant in the mammalian kidney. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • In normal rat kidney, the expression of alphaB-crystallin mRNA and protein were both close to the detection limit in cortex, but increased steeply from the outer to the inner medulla where alphaB-crystallin constitutes approximately 2% of total tissue protein. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • In agreement with the results obtained in vivo, in Madine-Darby canine kidney cells, alphaB-crystallin mRNA and protein were induced significantly by elevating the medium osmolality to 500 mosm/kg H(2)O by the addition of NaCl and raffinose, and also by urea. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The significance and the interrelationship of duck epsilon-crystallin with other well-known LDHs are discussed with special regard to its role as a structural protein with some enzymic function in lens metabolism. (biochemj.org)
  • 2. beta L-Crystallin was exposed to defined radical species that were generated radiolytically, and transglutaminase activity, using the modified protein as substrate, was subsequently measured by monitoring the incorporation of [14C]putrescine. (biochemj.org)
  • 3. Exposure of beta L-crystallin to hydroxyl radicals, thymine peroxyl radicals and acetone peroxyl radicals at concentrations of up to 135 microM increased the capacity of the protein to incorporate putrescine. (biochemj.org)
  • The current study introduces a novel expression and purification system for human insulin production using the molecular chaperone αB-crystallin (αB-Cry) as a fusion partner protein. (jascoinc.com)
  • Regulation of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene: isolation of a cDNA encoding a protein that binds to a cis sequence motif shared with the major histocompatibility complex class I gene and other genes. (asm.org)
  • Gel retardation experiments with synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides revealed a mouse lens nuclear protein which bound specifically to the palindromic sequence 5'-GGGAAATCCC-3' at positions -66 to -57 in the alpha A-crystallin promoter. (asm.org)
  • Pax-6 constructs lacking the C-terminal activation domain repressed βB1-crystallin promoter activity as effectively as the full-length protein, but the PD alone or Pax-6 (5a), a splice variant with an altered PD affecting its DNA binding specificity, did not. (asm.org)
  • A) Expression levels of αB-crystallin protein in the heart from 2-month-old wild-type (WT), Des −/− and αΒ-crystallin-overexpressing (des−/−αBCry4 and des−/−αBCry6) transgenic mice. (biologists.org)
  • C) Cardiac protein levels of (a) desmin and (b) αB-crystallin under normal and stressed (swimming) conditions, and (c) the protein levels of αB-crystallin located in the cytosol (cyt) and mitochondria (mit). (biologists.org)
  • Protection by αΒ-crystallin overexpression is linked to maintenance of proper mitochondrial protein levels, inhibition of abnormal mitochondrial permeability transition pore activation and maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ m ). (biologists.org)
  • αB-crystallin (αB-C) is a subunit of α-crystallin, a major protein component of the vertebrate lens, and αB-C expression has been reported in extra-lenticular tissues. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In response to cellular stress, alpha crystallin is phosphorlyated and may serve a structural control function and play a role in protein maintenance. (qedbio.com)
  • AlphaB-crystallin, a major lens protein, is found in the central nervous system (CNS) and is a major protein component of Rosenthal fibers (RF), intracytoplasmic inclusions within astrocytes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Sequencing of the promoter and coding regions of the alphaB-crystallin genes in two patients revealed them to be of normal sequence, suggesting the accumulation of alphaB-crystallin in those brains is not due to any abnormality of the primary structure of the protein. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Tomokane,N.: 'Rosenthal fibers share epitopes with αB-crystallin,glial fibrillary acidic protein,and ubiquitin,but not with vimentin.Immunoelectron microscopy with colloidal gold. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In vitro breast cancer cell-stimulated activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) of the endothelial cells contributes to maintenance of the intracrine VEGF levels in the endothelial cells through the upregulation of a previous undescribed downstream effector- αB-crystallin (CRYAB). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our study indicated that chaperone property of α-crystallin and soluble protein levels were reduced in the selenite induced group. (nih.gov)
  • Using large-scale atomistic simulations (6), we have shown that the isolated N-terminal domain (N-td) of γD-crystallin is less stable than its isolated C-terminal domain (C-td), in addition to being the less stable domain in the full-length protein (Figure 1A and 1B), in agreement with biochemical experiments. (jbsdonline.com)
  • alpha-crystallins, a major protein of the ocular lens, are thought to play a role in maintaining lens transparency, which are composed of two gene products alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. (mybiosource.com)
  • alpha-crystallins can be induced by heat shock and are members of the small heat shock protein (sHSP). (mybiosource.com)
  • This antibody is not shown cross-activity about Crystallin alpha B. A : Crystallin-alpha A recombinant protein B : Crystallin-alpha B recombinant protein C : Mouse eye lysates The Cell lysates (5ug) were resolved by SDS-PAGE, transferred to PVDF membrane and probed with anti-human Crystallin alpha A antibody (1:3000). (mybiosource.com)
  • Alpha crystallins can be induced by heat shock and are members of the small heat shock protein (HSP20) family. (mybiosource.com)
  • Inhibition of unfolding and aggregation of lens protein human gamma D crystallin by sodium citrate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The early onset oxidative damage within segments of the protein a-crystallin is examined by radical probe mass spectrometry by its treatment with reactive oxygen species under low-, moderate-, and high-oxidizing conditions. (edu.au)
  • Phospho Crystallin, AlphaB (Ser19) pAb;bovine polyclonal antibodies polyclonal antobodies can be directed against a recombinant proteine, the natural protein or an epitope. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • αA-crystallin (CRYAA/HSPB4), a major component of all vertebrate eye lenses, is a small heat shock protein responsible for maintaining lens transparency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The R49C mutation in the αA-crystallin protein is linked with non-syndromic, hereditary human cataracts in a four-generation Caucasian family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, R49C mice in which the neo r gene was deleted by breeding with CreEIIa mice developed lens abnormalities at birth, suggesting that the neo r gene may suppress expression of mutant R49C αA-crystallin protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • α-crystallin is essential for lens transparency and accounts for nearly 50% of the protein mass in human lenses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The complexity of crystallin protein composition and expression were explored by early adoption of a wide range of innovative immunological, biochemical, molecular and cellular techniques then being developed in Edinburgh and elsewhere. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intrinsic programme of crystallin gene expression during this process was found to be non-coordinate within and between crystallin protein classes, tightly controlled and resembled the developmental programme seen in the animal itself, but it could be modified by age, genotype, cellular growth rate, and soluble factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four gamma-crystallin genes (gamma-A through gamma-D) and three pseudogenes (gamma-E, gamma-F, gamma-G) are tandemly organized in a genomic segment as a gene cluster. (nih.gov)
  • In the 855Met data set, αB-crystallin gene ( CRYAB) expression was an independent predictor of brain as the first distant site of relapse (hazards ratio, HR=1.2, (95% confidence interval, CI 1.0-1.4), P =0.021). (nature.com)
  • The hamster alpha-B crystallin (CRYAB) gene, which is highly homologous to that of humans, was cloned at first by Quax-Jeuken and it was demonstrated that the coding region of CRYAB consists of three exons (Quax-Jeuken et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Gamma-crystallin C, or CRYGC for short, contains a 174 amino acid isoform that is 21 kDa, and is involved in supporting the eye lens through its highly symmetrical and organized gene cluster. (novusbio.com)
  • Identification of the human beta A2 crystallin gene (CRYBA2): localization of the gene on human chromosome 2 and of the homologous gene on mouse chromosome 1. (wikigenes.org)
  • B ) αB-Crystallin and ( C ) CK5/6 expression by IHC in the same breast carcinoma that shows a basal-like gene expression and IHC profile. (jci.org)
  • In chick, lens-specific regulation of the δ1-crystallin gene is achieved by the cooperative binding of the transcription factors PAX6 and SOX2 to the 30 bp DC5 fragment within the gene's enhancer. (biologists.org)
  • The gene most strongly induced by heat shock in MTB is Rv0251c , which encodes Acr2, a novel member of the α-crystallin family of molecular chaperones. (jimmunol.org)
  • Here, we identify and validate the mu-crystallin ( crym ) gene as a high-fidelity marker of the CST. (jneurosci.org)
  • Mutation screening of the candidate genes detected a heterozygous c.465G→C change in the exon6 of the βB2-crystallin gene (CRYBB2) in all family members affected with cataracts, resulting in the substitution of a highly conserved Tryptophan to Cystine (p.W151C). (plos.org)
  • Progressive juvenile-onset punctate cataracts caused by mutation of the gammaD-crystallin gene. (harvard.edu)
  • Dafür spricht auch, dass bei der Induktion von αB-Crystallin die JNK MAP-Kinase eine Rolle spielt und nicht die p38 MAP-Kinase, die an der Expression vieler anderer durch Hypertonizität induzierbarer Gene, u.a. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We have shown by site-directed mutagenesis that the sequence between positions -69 and -40 of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene is crucial for tissue-specific gene expression in a transfected mouse lens epithelial cell line transformed with the early region of simian virus 40. (asm.org)
  • We thus suggest that the relatively high concentration of Pax-6 contributes to the absence of βB1-crystallin gene expression in lens epithelial cells and that diminishing amounts of Pax-6 in lens fiber cells during development allow activation of this gene. (asm.org)
  • The 1-Mbp region contained only 13 genes, including 4 genes from the γ-crystallins (Cryg) gene family, which are known to play a role in cataract formation. (deepdyve.com)
  • All of the γ-crystallins were sequenced and a novel point mutation in the start codon (ATG → GTG) of the Crygd gene was identified. (deepdyve.com)
  • A (p.R21Q), in the Crystallin alpha A ( CRYAA ) gene segregating in this three generation family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The work strengthens the genotype-phenotype correlations between this functional mutation in the crystallin alpha A ( CRYAA ) gene and paediatric cataract. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since there is only a single copy of the alphaB-crystallin gene, the two classes of mRNAs are generated by alternative transcriptional initiation from different promoters and their expressions are regulated differentially. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In this study, we perform extensive atomistic molecular dynamics simulations using massively parallel IBM Blue Gene/L supercomputer (5) to characterize unfolding (6) and oligomerization (7) of human gamma D crystallin to advance our current understanding of cataract. (jbsdonline.com)
  • The beta crystallin gene (CRYBB2) is an ocular structural gene and mutation in this gene can cause cataract. (mouseclinic.de)
  • Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene products: alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. (mybiosource.com)
  • This study describes a mouse cataract model generated by insertion of a neomycin-resistant (neo r ) gene into an intron of the gene encoding mutant R49C αA-crystallin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Heterozygous knock-in mice containing one wild type gene and one mutated gene for αA-crystallin (WT/R49C neo ) and homozygous knock-in mice containing two mutated genes (R49C neo /R49C neo ) were compared. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Crystallin gene expression was further explored in a detailed series of studies using long-term cell culture models in which progenitor chick lens cells continuously differentiated into lens fibre cells in controlled laboratory conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defects in CRYAB are the cause of myofibrillar alpha-B crystallin-related (MFM-CRYAB) [MIM:608810]. (abcam.com)
  • This provided the assumption that CRYAB is composed of a highly conserved "alpha crystallin core" domain consisting of about 80 to 100 residues with a beta-sandwich structure (Ghosh et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • CRYAB exhibits a high homology of 56% to alpha-A-crystallin. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Mutations in desmin, α-B-crystallin (CryAB), and other genes result in the desmin-related myopathies (DRM). (ahajournals.org)
  • Please read carefully the data sheet of the CRYAB(Crystallin alpha B), Human, Recombinant, E.coli Source Recombinant. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • CRYAB(Crystallin alpha B), Human, Recombinant, E.coli Source Recombinant Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Pan Beta Crystallins Antibody (3.H. (novusbio.com)
  • Immunofluorescence analysis of paraformaldehyde-fixed HeLa, using Beta-crystallin A4(TA308870) antibody at 1:200 dilution. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • This antibody recognizes human and bovine alpha B crystallin. (qedbio.com)
  • Whether due to aging or mutations in specific genes, gamma-crystallins have been involved in cataract formation. (nih.gov)
  • Polymorphisms of the gamma crystallin A and B genes among Indian patients with pediatric cataract. (nih.gov)
  • Human gamma-crystallin genes. (nih.gov)
  • The alpha crystallins are divided into two groups according to their acidic as well as basic character, namely A and B. The genes encoding the alpha crystallins A and B are located at chromosome 11 and 21, respectively. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to gamma C Crystallin. (novusbio.com)
  • Five mutations in crystallin genes were identified. (molvis.org)
  • These data expand the mutation spectrum in crystallin genes and enhance our understanding of the phenotypes of congenital cataracts. (molvis.org)
  • These genes include lens-related crystallin, connexin, cytoskeleton-related genes, transcription factors, and a variety of other genes. (molvis.org)
  • It has been demonstrated previously that Pax-6, a paired domain (PD)/homeodomain (HD) transcription factor critical for eye development, contributes to the activation of the αB-, αA-, δ1-, and ζ-crystallin genes in the lens. (asm.org)
  • Here we have examined the possibility that the inverse relationship between the expression of Pax-6 and β-crystallin genes within the developing chicken lens reflects a negative regulatory role of Pax-6. (asm.org)
  • The genes encoding crystallins are generally expressed either specifically or preferentially in the lens and are independently regulated at the transcriptional level ( 11 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • Sox1 directly regulates the gamma-crystallin genes and is essential for lens development in mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In our previous work on human recombinant αB-crystallin utilizing negative stain-EM, we characterized the 3D structure of the dominant 24-mer ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • To measure chaperone activity, the heat stability assay was also performed in the presence of recombinant αA-crystallin. (arvojournals.org)
  • Anti-human Crystallin alpha A mAb, clone c9F2, is derived from hybridization of mouse SP2/O myeloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant Crystallin alpha A. (mybiosource.com)
  • The molecular chaperone αB-crystallin is expressed in estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 'triple-negative' breast carcinomas and promotes brain and lung metastasis. (nature.com)
  • The molecular chaperone alphaB-crystallin has emerged as a target for cancer therapy due to its expression in human tumors and its role in regulating tumor angiogenesis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Alpha-crystallin can function as a molecular chaperone. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Novel crystallin gamma B mutations in a Kuwaiti family with autosomal dominant congenital cataracts reveal genetic and clinical heterogeneity. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies have shown that approximately 8.3%∼25% of congenital cataracts are inherited, and mutations in crystallins are the most common. (plos.org)
  • The gamma-crystallins and human cataracts: a puzzle made clearer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • αA-crystallin binds to lens cell membranes and this association is increased in cataracts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • precipitation or aggregation of crystallins causes cataracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-crystallins construct aggregates of various sizes and are able to self-associate to form dimers or to form heterodimers with other beta-crystallins. (prospecbio.com)
  • Wild type (wt) and W151C mutant βB2-crystallin were expressed in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs), and the fluorescence results showed that Wt-βB2-crystallin was evenly distributed throughout the cells, whereas approximately 34.7% of cells transfected with the W151C mutant βB2-crystallin formed intracellular aggregates. (plos.org)
  • The anti-aggregation potential of aspirin was evaluated towards these peptide-generated aggregates as well as towards the α-crystallin aggregate. (rsc.org)
  • Crystallins are the dominant structural components of the vertebrate eye lens. (abcam.com)
  • Crystallins are the principal structural components of the vertebrate eye lens. (prospecbio.com)
  • Beta-crystallin A4 (CRYBA4) is a member of the beta/gamma-crystallin family which are the dominant structural components of the vertebrate eye lens. (prospecbio.com)
  • Interestingly, water-soluble complexes (~ 40 kDa) contained predominantly ¿S- and ßB1-crystallins, suggesting that cross-linking is an alternative pathway for modified ß- and ¿-crystallins in the lens. (edu.au)
  • We also demonstrate that overexpression of αB-crystallin transformed immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (MECs). (jci.org)
  • In 3D basement membrane culture, αB-crystallin overexpression induced luminal filling and other neoplastic-like changes in mammary acini, while silencing αB-crystallin by RNA interference inhibited these abnormalities. (jci.org)
  • αB-Crystallin overexpression also induced EGF- and anchorage-independent growth, increased cell migration and invasion, and constitutively activated the MAPK kinase/ERK (MEK/ERK) pathway. (jci.org)
  • Overexpression of alphaB-crystallin in 293 cells resulted in increased tolerance to acute osmotic stress. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • To address this hypothesis, we investigated the consequences of αΒ-crystallin overexpression in the desmin-deficient ( Des −/− ) mouse model, which possesses a combination of the pathologies found in most cardiomyopathies, with mitochondrial defects as a hallmark. (biologists.org)
  • We demonstrated that cardiac-specific αΒ-crystallin overexpression ameliorates all these defects and improves cardiac function to almost wild-type levels. (biologists.org)
  • In vitro, αB-crystallin prevents the stress-induced aggregation of partially folded polypeptides ( 3 , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • The cleavage sites produced in α-crystallin by Lp82 and m-calpain in vitro were then compared to truncated α-crystallins from normal rat lens, and rat lens with selenite-induced cataract. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Diese Annahme wird durch die vorliegenden in-vitro-Versuche mit MDCK-Zellen unterstützt, die zeigen, dass αB-Crystallin durch hypertonen Stress induzierbar ist. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The present study aimed to characterize more closely the intrarenal expression and regulation of alphaB-crystallin in vivo and in vitro. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Additionally, the effects of αB-crystallin knockdown on VEGF secretion and cell motility were studied in vitro. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Structural perturbation (e.g., partial unfolding) enhances the in vitro chaperone activity of αB-crystallin. (edu.au)
  • α-Crystallin and αA-crystallin are poorer chaperones in the presence of the crowding agent, dextran. (edu.au)
  • The formation of self-built aspirin nanorods was also explored and their ability to inhibit the aggregation of model cataract peptides and α-crystallin aggregation was validated. (rsc.org)
  • The presence of significant amounts of small peptides derived from ¿S- and ßB1-crystallins in the water-insoluble fraction of the lens indicates that these interact tightly with cytoskeletal or membrane components. (edu.au)
  • Lenticular α-crystallin is composed of two homologous polypeptides, αA- and αB-crystallin, which comprise 173 and 175 amino acid residues, respectively ( 1 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Lp82 specifically removed 5 residues from the C-terminus of αA-crystallin. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The identity increases to 41% based on comparison of residues present in the α-crystallin core. (jimmunol.org)
  • The aromatic residues within the duplicated Greek key domains of γ- and β-crystallins are the main ultraviolet absorbers and are susceptible to direct and indirect ultraviolet damage. (rsc.org)
  • These findings (6) indicate that certain highly conserved charged residues, that is, Glu135 and Arg142, of γD-crystallin are crucial for stabilizing its hydrophobic domain interface in native conformation, and disruption of charges on the γD-crystallin surface might lead to unfolding. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Immobilization was achieved via a plasma-deposited thin polymeric interlayer containing aldehyde surface groups and reductive amination, leading to the covalent binding of αB-crystallin lysine residues to the surface aldehyde groups via Schiff-base linkages. (edu.au)
  • Also known as Alpha-crystallin (Acr) (14 kDa antigen) (16 kDa antigen) (HSP 16.3) (Nox16). (mybiosource.com)
  • Gamma-crystallins are involved in cataract formation. (prospecbio.com)
  • Similarities in the adult crystallin composition of mammalian and zebrafish lenses have made the latter a valuable model for examining lens function. (molvis.org)
  • Similarities with mammalian crystallin expression continue to support the use of the zebrafish as a model for lens crystallin function. (molvis.org)
  • Disability for function: loss of Ca(2+)-binding is obligatory for fitness of mammalian βγ-crystallins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Notably, alphaB-crystallin is prominently expressed in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells (IMCs), known as regulators of angiogenesis and immune responses, while lymphocytes and mature granulocytes show low alphaB-crystallin expression. (diva-portal.org)
  • The NaCl-induced increase in alphaB-crystallin expression was concentration-dependently blunted by SP600125, a specific JNK inhibitor. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We further present the molecular architectures of additional well-defined αB-crystallin assemblies with larger or smaller numbers of subunits, provide the mechanism how "heterogeneity" is achieved by a small set of defined structural variations, and analyze the factors modulating the oligomer equilibrium of αB-crystallin and thus its chaperone activity. (pnas.org)
  • Effect of SkQ1 eye drops on the rat lens metabolomic composition and the chaperone activity of α-crystallin. (ebscohost.com)
  • Chaperone activity of α-crystallin. (nih.gov)
  • Figure 3A shows the relative chaperone activity of α-crystallin isolated from the three groups. (nih.gov)
  • Chaperone activity of α-crystallin isolated from selenite induced group was diminished (Figure 3A, curve 2), but this aggregation was completely suppressed by α crystallin isolated from control rats (Figure 3A, curve 4) compared with standard α crystallin (Figure 3A, curve 5). (nih.gov)
  • αB-crystallin was immobilized onto a range of solid material surfaces, and its characteristics and chaperone activity were assessed. (edu.au)
  • The αB-crystallin assembles into homooligomers with a variable number of subunits, primarily 24-32 ( 14 - 16 ), and the subunits exchange between homooligomers ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • The αA-crystallin homopolymer consists of 30-40 subunits that are undergoing dynamic exchange. (edu.au)
  • The exchange rate of αA-crystallin subunits correlates with its chaperone efficiency i.e. the variation in chaperone ability of αA-crystallin increases with temperature. (edu.au)
  • The results are discussed in the context of available experimental and homology-modeled theoretical structures for the subunits of a-crystallin. (edu.au)
  • The molecular structure and stability of the eye lens: X-ray analysis of γ-crystallin II. (nature.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine how these post-translational modifications affect stability of ßB1 crystallin as measured by urea or heat denaturation. (arvojournals.org)
  • The solubility and stability of γD-crystallin play a crucial role in maintaining the optical properties of the lens during the life span of an individual. (ebscohost.com)
  • The molecular determinants of the unusually high stability and (un)folding/aggregation of γD-crystallin remain to be unidentified. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Those strands comprise the domain-domain interface that is crucial for the unusually high stability of γD-crystallin. (jbsdonline.com)
  • The present results suggest thatγD-crystallin polymerize through successive domain swapping of those three C-terminal Β-strands leading to age-onset cataract, as an evolutionary cost of its very high stability (Figure 1). (jbsdonline.com)
  • The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of truncation of various regions of betaB1-crystallin on its structural properties and stability of heterooligomers formed by wild-type (WT) betaB1 or its deletion mutants with WT betaA3-crystallin. (isharonline.org)
  • The large crowding effect adds to the thermal stability of the crystallins, increasing their resistance to denaturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as a superfamily. (nih.gov)
  • The β- and γ-crystallins are recognized as members of a related β/γ-crystallin superfamily. (plos.org)
  • The lens betagamma-crystallin superfamily has many diverse but topologically related members belonging to various taxa. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Conclusions IF and TFEB activation are clinically relevant therapeutic strategies to rescue advanced R120G αB-crystallin mutant-induced cardiomyopathy by normalizing desmin localization via autophagy-dependent and autophagy-independent mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that an αA-crystallin mutant linked to hereditary cataract has activated binding to βB1-crystallin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Altered aggregation properties of mutant gamma-crystallins cause inherited cataract. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The results demonstrate that despite a failure of lens-ectoderm separation in the mutant mice, the ontogeny of the lens crystallins and differentiation of the lens up to a certain stage of development follow an apparently normal course before the commencement of cataractous degeneration. (uu.nl)
  • We examined αB-crystallin expression in primary breast carcinomas with metastatic data to evaluate its association with prognosis and site-specific metastases. (nature.com)
  • These results suggest that the expression of αB-crystallin is dynamically related to the muscle plasticity. (go.jp)
  • Altogether, these data suggest that crystallin sequence evolution and expression defects may contribute to the loss of eyes in CF. (nih.gov)
  • D ) Representative immunostaining of normal human breast tissue for αB-crystallin expression. (jci.org)
  • F ) Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of breast cancer-specific survival based on αB-crystallin expression. (jci.org)
  • Invasive breast carcinomas were scored as positive or negative for αB-crystallin expression (left), or αB-crystallin staining was graded as weakly positive or strongly positive (right). (jci.org)
  • In this review, we have summarized the current status regarding the expression patterns and functions of αA- and αB-crystallins implicated in tumorigenesis, and discussed the possible mechanisms underlying their functions. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In this study, we describe the changing zebrafish lens proteome during development to identify ontogenetic shifts in crystallin expression that may provide insights into age-specific functions. (molvis.org)
  • The developmental period between 6 weeks and 4 months contained the most dramatic shifts in lens crystallin expression. (molvis.org)
  • Viele verschiedene Stressfaktoren induzieren in den betroffenen Zellen die Expression von αB-Crystallin, das - wie viele andere Hsps - als molekulares Chaperone die Zellen vor sonst letalen Umgebungseinflüssen schützt. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Da die αB-Crystallin Expression parallel zum osmotischen Gradienten vom Nierenkortex zum Innenmark ansteigt und in Diurese im Nierenmark signifikant abfällt, kann man davon ausgehen, dass die αB-Crystallin Expression wesentlich durch die interstitielle Osmolalität reguliert wird. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Die Ergebnisse lassen vermuten, dass αB-Crystallin im Rahmen der Harnkonzentrierung eine bedeutende Funktion für die Zellen im Innenmark der Niere zukommt und dass dessen Expression nicht nur durch hypertonen Stress, sondern auch durch hohe Harnstoffkonzentrationen und vermutlich mehrere andere Stressfaktoren im Nierenmark reguliert wird. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • In rats subjected to sucrose diuresis for 3 days, alphaB-crystallin mRNA expression was reduced by 27 and 46% in outer and inner medulla, respectively. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Publications] Iwaki,T.: 'Preferential expression of αB-crystallin in astrocytic elements of neuroectodermal tumors. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A comprehensive analysis of the expression of crystallins in mouse retina. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We set out to assess whether αB-crystallin expression is correlated with worse prognosis and whether this is related to VEGF secretion and cell motility in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • αB-crystallin expression was determined immunohistochemically in tumor biopsies of 38 HNSCC patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Locoregional control (LRC) and metastasis-free survival (MFS) of the patients were analyzed in relation to αB-crystallin expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data suggest that αB-crystallin expression is associated with distant metastases formation in HNSCC patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • αB-crystallin expression levels were immunohistochemically determined in HNSCC biopsies and correlated with clinicopathological characteristics and outcome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clayton's work showed that although transdifferentiation potential diminishes with age, it involves the expression of authentic lens crystallins according to a precise programme that differs in sequence from that seen during lens differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased αΒ-crystallin levels overcome its desmin-dependent stress-induced relocation. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, we found that both desmin and αΒ-crystallin are localized at sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)-mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), where they interact with VDAC, Mic60 - the core component of mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) complex - and ATP synthase, suggesting that these associations could be crucial in mitoprotection at different levels. (biologists.org)
  • Mitochondrial abnormalities seem to be a common feature of diseases in which desmin and/or αB-crystallin deficiencies are implicated. (biologists.org)
  • Earlier experiments showed that the βB1-crystallin promoter sequence from −120 to −48 contains a cis element (PL2 at −90 to −76) that stimulates the activity of a heterologous promoter in lens cells but not in fibroblasts. (asm.org)
  • Thus, the chaperone action of α-crystallin is vital for maintaining the eye lens transparency. (pnas.org)
  • Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension (present in the basic group, none in the acidic group). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Alpha crystallins are further divided into acidic (Alpha A) and basic (Alpha B) groups. (qedbio.com)
  • Our microseconds of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations (7) uncover the molecular structure of the experimentally detected aggregation-prone folding intermediate species of monomeric native γD-crystallin with a largely folded C-terminal domain and a mostly unfolded N-terminal domain (see Figure 1B). (jbsdonline.com)
  • αA-crystallin knockout mice exhibit increased lens epithelial cell death and reduced cell proliferation [ 26 , 27 ], and αA-crystallin is also expressed in the retina, brain, spleen, and thymus [ 28 ] although its role in these tissues is not fully understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The alpha-crystallins possess structural and functional similarities with Hsp25 and Hsp27 (1). (biovendor.com)
  • Furthermore, accumulation of α B-crystallin is an important mechanism for the prevention of cellular damage associated with heat shock and oxidative stress conditions in the trabecular meshwork [ 19 , 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Heat shock factor 1 induces Crystallin-αB to protect against cisplatin nephrotoxicityα. (medworm.com)
  • Modified ßB1 crystallins were less stable than WT during either urea or heat denaturation. (arvojournals.org)
  • B: Heat induced aggregation of βL-crystallin - absence of α-crystallin (curve 1), α-crystallin from selenite induced group (curve 2), α-crystallin from control (curve 4), standard α-crystallin (curve 5), α-crystallin from FVN treated group (curve 3). (nih.gov)
  • In this regard, αA- and αB-crystallins seem to function differentially or even oppositely during tumorigenesis, and diverse molecular mechanisms have been proposed to explain their roles in cell apoptosis, cell proliferation and tumor metastasis. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The results recapitulate the selectivity of αB-crystallin differentially binding T4L mutants according to their free energies of unfolding. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Aleinikova, K. 2004-10-07 00:00:00 Cell localization of 23 kDa- and 35 kDa-crystallins in the retina of adult common frogs Rana temporaria L. was studied using indirect immunofluorescence. (deepdyve.com)
  • Cell localization of 23 kDa- and 35 kDa-crystallins in the retina of adult common frogs Rana temporaria L. was studied using indirect immunofluorescence. (deepdyve.com)
  • Prediction of possible sites for posttranslational modifications in human gamma crystallins: effect of glycation on the structure of human gamma-B-crystallin as analyzed by molecular modeling. (nih.gov)
  • Despite the structural similarities between epsilon-crystallin and chicken heart LDH, differences in charge and kinetic properties were revealed by isoenzyme electrophoresis and kinetic studies. (biochemj.org)
  • In addition, immortalized human MECs overexpressing αB-crystallin formed invasive mammary carcinomas in nude mice that recapitulated aspects of human basal-like breast tumors. (jci.org)
  • We found that CD45(+) leukocyte infiltration is 3-fold increased in tumors and ischemic myocardium in alphaB-crystallin-deficient mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • Similarly, we noted a 2-fold increase in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in chronically inflamed livers in alphaB-crystallin-deficient mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • The effect of alphaB-crystallin on IMC accumulation is limited to pathological conditions, as CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs are not elevated in naive mice. (diva-portal.org)