A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that reversibly catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine to D-alanine. EC
Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.
The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. Abnormalities in its metabolism occur in some human diseases, notably HYPOPHOSPHATASIA and pseudogout (CHONDROCALCINOSIS).
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The use of a quartz crystal microbalance for measuring weights and forces in the micro- to nanogram range. It is used to study the chemical and mechanical properties of thin layers, such as polymer coatings and lipid membranes; and interactions between molecues.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
A rod-shaped bacterium surrounded by a sheath-like structure which protrudes balloon-like beyond the ends of the cell. It is thermophilic, with growth occurring at temperatures as high as 90 degrees C. It is isolated from geothermally heated marine sediments or hot springs. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Diagnostic aid in pancreas function determination.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
Excretion of an excessive amount of OXALATES in the urine.
An enzyme that activates alanine with its specific transfer RNA. EC
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A species of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family BACILLACEAE, found in soil, hot springs, Arctic waters, ocean sediments, and spoiled food products.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Scattering of a beam of electromagnetic or acoustic RADIATION, or particles, at small angles by particles or cavities whose dimensions are many times as large as the wavelength of the radiation or the de Broglie wavelength of the scattered particles. Also know as low angle scattering. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed) Small angle scattering (SAS) techniques, small angle neutron (SANS), X-ray (SAXS), and light (SALS, or just LS) scattering, are used to characterize objects on a nanoscale.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
A computer simulation technique that is used to model the interaction between two molecules. Typically the docking simulation measures the interactions of a small molecule or ligand with a part of a larger molecule such as a protein.
A genus of anaerobic coccoid METHANOCOCCACEAE whose organisms are motile by means of polar tufts of flagella. These methanogens are found in salt marshes, marine and estuarine sediments, and the intestinal tract of animals.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The protein components of enzyme complexes (HOLOENZYMES). An apoenzyme is the holoenzyme minus any cofactors (ENZYME COFACTORS) or prosthetic groups required for the enzymatic function.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Anaerobic hyperthermophilic species of ARCHAEA, isolated from hydrothermal fluid samples. It is obligately heterotrophic with coccoid cells that require TRYPTOPHAN for growth.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genetic disorder characterized by excretion of large amounts of OXALATES in urine; NEPHROLITHIASIS; NEPHROCALCINOSIS; early onset of RENAL FAILURE; and often a generalized deposit of CALCIUM OXALATE. There are subtypes classified by the enzyme defects in glyoxylate metabolism.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Proteins that bind to ice and modify the growth of ice crystals. They perform a cryoprotective role in a variety of organisms.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
Lamotte JL, Oleksyn B, Dupont L, Dideberg O, Campsteyn H, Vermiere M (1978). "The crystal and molecular structure of 3-[(5S)-5- ... The amino acid lycoperdic acid (chemical name 3-(5(S)-carboxy-2-oxotetrahydrofuran-5(S)-yl)-2(S)-alanine) was isolated from the ... carboxy-2-oxotetrahydrofur-5-yl]-(2S)-alanine (lycoperdic acid)". Acta Crystallographica Section B. 34 (12): 3635-8. doi: ...
The crystal structure of the glycerol facilitator of E. coli (TC# 1.A.8.1.1) was solved at 2.2 Å resolution (PDB: 1FX8​). ... A common amino acyl motif in these transporters is an asparagine-proline-alanine (NPA) motif. Aquaporins generally have the NPA ... Other resolved crystal structures for AqpZ include: PDB: 3NK5 ​, 3NKC​, 1RC2​. The 3-D structures of the open and closed forms ... Several other more recently resolved crystal structures are available in RCSB, including but not limited to: PDB: 4CSK​, 1H6I​ ...
The first crystal structure of a pentapeptide repeat protein was the MfpA protein solved by Hegde and colleagues. It showed ... Position i-2 is usually an alanine. The two subsequent positions are denoted i+1 and i+2. The side chains of positions i-2 and ... Ni S, Sheldrick GM, Benning MM, Kennedy MA (January 2009). "The 2 Å resolution crystal structure of HetL, a pentapeptide repeat ... crystal structure of Rfr23 from Cyanothece 51142". J. Struct. Biol. 162 (1): 184-92. doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2007.11.008. PMID ...
This has two alanine[contradictory] molecules attached. Aspergillomarasmine B differs in that the last alanine is replaced by ... Aspergillomarasmine A takes the form of colourless crystals. The chemical is insoluble in common organic solvents, but can ...
AFGPs do not eliminate all internal ice crystals and can instead fill fish with inactivated ice crystals. This can pose as a ... They consist of repeating amino acids alanine-alanine-threonine to effectively bind to ice molecules and render them as non- ... AFGPs are created in the pancreas and are released into the digestive tract to wrap around ice crystals so they can be safely ...
To date one crystal structure of a glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (Thermus thermophilus) has been solved. The molecule has the form ... The synthetases specific for alanine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, ... "The 2.0 A crystal structure of Thermus thermophilus methionyl-tRNA synthetase reveals two RNA-binding modules". Structure. 8 (2 ...
Members of the Alanine or Glycine:Cation Symporter (AGCS) Family (TC# 2.A.25) transport alanine and/or glycine in symport with ... As of early 2016, there does not appear to be any 3D crystal structure data available for these proteins. Members of the AGCS ... The generalized transport reaction catalyzed by the AGCS family is: alanine or glycine (out) + Na+ or H+ (out) → alanine or ... Biology portal As of this edit, this article uses content from "2.A.25 The Alanine or Glycine:Cation Symporter (AGCS) Family", ...
Guan R, Malchiodi EL, Wang Q, Schuck P, Mariuzza RA (July 2004). "Crystal structure of the C-terminal peptidoglycan-binding ... December 2003). "Human peptidoglycan recognition protein-L is an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase". The Journal of Biological ... Guan R, Wang Q, Sundberg EJ, Mariuzza RA (April 2005). "Crystal structure of human peptidoglycan recognition protein S (PGRP-S ... Guan R, Brown PH, Swaminathan CP, Roychowdhury A, Boons GJ, Mariuzza RA (May 2006). "Crystal structure of human peptidoglycan ...
Once nucleation begins on the matrix, the calcium carbonate turns into crystals. While crystals grow, some of the acidic ... The silk gel is part of the protein portion and is mainly composed of glycine and alanine. It is not an ordered structure. The ... Each of the spicules is a single crystal of mineral calcite. The latter is a result of the transformation of amorphous CaCO3 to ... Fratzl, P.; Fratzl-Zelman, N.; Klaushofer, K.; Vogl, G.; Koller, K. (1991). "Nucleation and growth of mineral crystals in bone ...
Several crystal structures are available on RCSB for members of the SWEET/SemiSWEET/PQ-loop/Saliva/MtN3 family. Solute carrier ... point mutations of these residues to alanine destroys the hexose transport function of SemiSWEET. The SWEET family is a member ...
Schmitt E, Moulinier L, Fujiwara S, Imanaka T, Thierry JC, Moras D (September 1998). "Crystal structure of aspartyl-tRNA ... This enzyme participates in alanine and asparagine metabolism. Ibba M, Soll D (2000). "Aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis". Annual Review ...
Following their initial identification and characterization, co-crystal structures with the E. coli signal peptidase were ... arylomycins binds to the signal peptidase with the alanine residue in the macrocyclic ring taking the place of the P3 alanine ...
In an ordinary experiment the amount of L crystals collected equals the amount of D crystals (corrected for statistical effects ... Because it might be possible that alanine was L and phenylalanine was D. It was reported in 2004 that excess racemic D,L- ... When sodium chlorate is allowed to crystallize from water and the collected crystals examined in a polarimeter, each crystal ... In 32 consecutive crystallization experiments 14 experiments deliver D-crystals and 18 others L-crystals. The explanation for ...
As an ice crystal forms, it stays pure: only molecules of water join the growing crystal, while impurities like salt or cyanide ... as the studies of the amino acids on the Murchison meteorite showed that L-alanine is more than twice as frequent as its D form ... "Mother" crystals with imperfections were cleaved and used as seeds to grow "daughter" crystals from solution. They then ... Various chiral crystal surfaces can also act as sites for possible concentration and assembly of chiral monomer units into ...
Solved crystal structures of the catalytic domain indicate that the active site consists of an open and spacious pocket lined ... L-alanine, and its implications for the mechanism of catalysis and substrate activation". Journal of Molecular Biology. 320 (5 ... Inclusion of a Phe analogue in the crystal structure changes both iron from a six- to a five-coordinated state involving a ... Andersen OA, Flatmark T, Hough E (July 2002). "Crystal structure of the ternary complex of the catalytic domain of human ...
Alanine aminopeptidase Carboxypeptidase PDB: 3QNF​: Kochan G, Krojer T, Harvey D, Fischer R, Chen L, Vollmar M, von Delft F, ... cDNA sequences are available for several aminopeptidases and a crystal structure of the open state of human endoplasmic ... Kavanagh KL, Brown MA, Bowness P, Wordsworth P, Kessler BM, Oppermann U (May 2011). "Crystal structures of the endoplasmic ...
Crystal engineering Crystal growth Crystal optics Crystal system Crystallization processes Crystallographic database ... Frequently, problematic cysteine residues can be replaced by alanine to avoid disulfide-mediated aggregation, and residues such ... McPherson, Alexander (March 1991). "A brief history of protein crystal growth". Journal of Crystal Growth. 110 (1-2): 1-10. ... at which point protein crystals may form. Microdialysis can produce crystals by salting out, employing high concentrations of ...
Ziegler GA, Schulz GE (2000). "Crystal structures of adrenodoxin reductase in complex with NADP+ and NADPH suggesting a ... the NADPH binding site consensus sequence differs from the FAD-binding site by the substitution of an alanine instead of the ... last Gly (Gly-x-Gly-x-x-Ala). The location of these FAD and NADP binding sites were confirmed by the crystal structure of the ...
Its crystal structure is published. The GluDH activity in P.vivax, P.ovale and P. malariae has never been tested, but given the ... The histidine-rich protein II (HRP II) is a histidine- and alanine-rich, water-soluble protein, which is localized in several ... Its crystal structure has been published. The presence of antibodies against p41 in the sera of human adults partially immune ... Kim H, Certa U, Döbeli H, Jakob P, Hol WG (1998). "Crystal structure of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from the human ...
Tripathi SM, Ramachandran R (August 2008). "Crystal structures of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis secretory antigen alanine ... L-alanine dehydrogenase, NAD+-linked alanine dehydrogenase, alpha-alanine dehydrogenase, NAD+-dependent alanine dehydrogenase, ... alanine oxidoreductase, and NADH-dependent alanine dehydrogenase. T Alanine dehydrogenase contains both a N-terminus and C- ... Alanine dehydrogenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-alanine + H2O + NAD+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ...
This is shown in Figure 3. Based on the crystal structures of N-(5'-phosphopyridoxyl) L- alanine (PKP-L-Ala ( and N-(5'- ... This enzyme is also called L-alanine racemase. This enzyme participates in alanine and aspartate metabolism and D-alanine ... D-alanine Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, L-alanine, and one product, D-alanine. This enzyme belongs to the family of ... The D-alanine produced by alanine racemase is used for peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Peptidoglycan is found in the cell walls of ...
This model has been confirmed by the determination of the crystal structure of a helical domain of keratins. Fibrous keratin ... The connective tissue protein elastin also has a high percentage of both glycine and alanine. Silk fibroin, considered a β- ...
In 2014, his lab, in collaboration with Eva Wolf's lab, published a paper that revealed an X-ray crystal structure of CRY1:PER2 ... and was unable to bind as effectively to PER2 when mutated to an alanine (C414A). The findings suggest that the Zn2+ ion ... Research into Cysteine414-Alanine Mutant CRY1". Journal of Diabetes Research. 2016: 3459246. doi:10.1155/2016/3459246. ISSN ...
Glutamic acid and glutamine both have a slightly larger amount than normal, alanine is slightly below normal, and glycine is ... There are no known crystal structures for this protein. The tertiary structure is mainly composed of coiled-coil regions. ... The unusual amounts of amino acids are found as alanine, glutamic acid, glycine, and glutamine. ...
The structure and mechanism of action of AChE have been elucidated from the crystal structure of the enzyme. The anionic ... Among the aromatic amino acids, tryptophan 84 is critical and its substitution with alanine results in a 3000-fold decrease in ... "Crystal structures of aged phosphonylated acetylcholinesterase: nerve agent reaction products at the atomic level". ...
... crystal structure of D-alanyl-D-lactate ligase (VanA)". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (16): 8921-5. Bibcode:2000PNAS... ... In enzymology, a D-alanine-D-alanine ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + 2 D-alanine ... D-alanine ligase (ADP-forming). Other names in common use include alanine:alanine ligase (ADP-forming), and alanylalanine ... The N-terminal region of the D-alanine-D-alanine ligase is thought to be involved in substrate binding, while the C-terminus is ...
Though there are no crystal structures with a LPA molecule in the substrate pocket, the crystal structure with malonate shows ... When any of these residues were mutated to alanine, the catalytic activity of the enzyme was greatly reduced. This is evidence ... PDB: 4JOC​; Li J, Dong Y, Lü X, Wang L, Peng W, Zhang XC, Rao Z (July 2013). "Crystal structures and biochemical studies of ...
D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving-peptidase, D-alanine carboxypeptidase, D-alanyl carboxypeptidase, and serine-type D-Ala-D-Ala ... Gordon E, Mouz N, Duée E, Dideberg O (June 2000). "The crystal structure of the penicillin-binding protein 2x from ... The first step involves the cleavage of the D-alanyl-D-alanine bond of a peptide unit precursor acting as carbonyl donor, the ... Fonzé E, Vermeire M, Nguyen-Distèche M, Brasseur R, Charlier P (July 1999). "The crystal structure of a penicilloyl-serine ...
The co-crystal structures for PDE4B, PDE4D and PDE5A have revealed two common features of inhibitor binding to PDEs. One is a ... The Asp811 mutation to alanine increased IC50 value for EHNA 6-fold and the Ile826 mutation to valine leads to a 7-fold ... The crystal structure of the active site of the PDE2 enzyme has been reported. Even though amino acid sequences, for members of ... There is a lack of co-crystal structures of inhibitors bound in the active site of PDE2. However, a computerized docking model ...
For example, the amino acid alanine comes in a right-handed (D-alanine) and a left-handed (L-alanine) form. Living cells are ... Finger, Larry W. (1982). Comparative crystal chemistry : temperature, pressure, composition, and the variation of crystal ... Hazen cleaned large calcite crystals and dipped them into aspartic acid. They found that each face of the crystal had a small ... By the mid-1990s, Hazen felt that his research had reached a "respectable plateau" where the main principles of how crystals ...
Löwe J, Stock D, Jap B, Zwickl P, Baumeister W, Huber R (April 1995). "Crystal structure of the 20S proteasome from the ... Long sequences of alternating glycine and alanine have been shown to inhibit substrate unfolding, decreasing the efficiency of ... Such glycine-alanine repeats are also found in nature, for example in silk fibroin; in particular, certain Epstein-Barr virus ... "Glycine-alanine repeats impair proper substrate unfolding by the proteasome". The EMBO Journal. 25 (8): 1720-9. doi:10.1038/sj ...
crystal structure of cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase binary complex with tRNACys. Identifiers. ...
Haskell, Crystal F.; Kennedy, David O.; Milne, Anthea L.; Wesnes, Keith A.; Scholey, Andrew B. (2008). "The effects of l- ... Theanine; Glycine site agonists: β-Fluoro-D-alanine. *ACBD. *ACC (ACPC). *ACPD ...
The crystal structure of the chaperonin, a huge protein complex. A single protein subunit is highlighted. Chaperonins assist ... Chemical structure of the peptide bond (bottom) and the three-dimensional structure of a peptide bond between an alanine and an ... especially for two-dimensional crystals of membrane proteins.[59] Solved structures are usually deposited in the Protein Data ... "Lipid-protein interactions in double-layered two-dimensional AQP0 crystals". Nature. 438 (7068): 633-38. Bibcode:2005Natur.438 ...
It forms brick red crystals with a melting point of 285 °C. ... Theanine; Glycine site agonists: β-Fluoro-D-alanine. *ACBD. * ...
Some jewellery features beads made from crystals, glass, stone, wood and bones. The hemp twine varies in thickness and comes in ... Alanine. 1.528 g. Aspartic acid. 3.662 g. Glutamic acid. 6.269 g. Glycine. 1.611 g. ...
White crystals Odor Odourless log P −1.373 Acidity (pKa) 2.508 ... β-Alanine. *β-Leucine. Antibiotic. *2-Aminoisobutyric acid (AIB ...
Under stress conditions (e.g. water deficit) oxalate released from calcium oxalate crystals is converted to CO2 by an oxalate ... showed a variation of photosynthesis where calcium oxalate crystals function as dynamic carbon pools, supplying carbon dioxide ... Alanine Branched-chain. amino acids Aspartate. group Homoserine. group. & lysine Glutamate. group. & proline ... "Alarm Photosynthesis: Calcium Oxalate Crystals as an Internal CO 2 Source in Plants". Plant Physiology. 171 (4): 2577-2585. ...
... and D-alanine in the case of Escherichia coli (a Gram-negative bacterium) or L-alanine, D-glutamine, L-lysine, and D-alanine ... The peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall is a crystal lattice structure formed from linear chains of two alternating ... Each MurNAc is attached to a short (4- to 5-residue) amino acid chain, containing L-alanine, D-glutamic acid, meso- ... D-alanine.[7] Each of these reactions requires the energy source ATP.[7] This is all referred to as Stage one. ...
Hartsuck JA, Koelsch G, Remington SJ (May 1992). "The high-resolution crystal structure of porcine pepsinogen". Proteins. 13 (1 ...
Alanine and lactate are major gluconeogenic precursors that enter gluconeogenesis as pyruvate. The high NADH/NAD+ ratio shifts ... "The crystal structure of D-lactate dehydrogenase, a peripheral membrane respiratory enzyme". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 ... The noticeable difference between the two subunits that make up LDH's tertiary structure is the replacement of alanine (in the ... "Structural basis of substrate specificity in malate dehydrogenases: crystal structure of a ternary complex of porcine ...
The sulfide in iron-sulfur clusters and in nitrogenase is extracted from cysteine, which is converted to alanine in the process ... white crystals or powder Melting point 240 °C (464 °F; 513 K) decomposes ...
The crystal symmetry is cubic, Pearson symbol cP16, space group P213 No.198, lattice constant 0.5125 nm.[21]. Liquid. Liquid ... and the reaction of ammonia with 2-bromopropanoic acid has been used to prepare racemic alanine in 70% yield. Ethanolamine is ... The interior of Saturn may include frozen crystals of ammonia.[116] It is naturally found on Deimos and Phobos - the two moons ... Hewat, A. W.; Riekel, C. (1979). "The crystal structure of deuteroammonia between 2 and 180 K by neutron powder profile ...
1981). "Crystal and molecular structure of a collagen-like polypeptide (Pro-Pro-Gly)10". J Mol Biol. 152 (2): 427-443. doi: ... Bella, J.; Eaton, M.; Brodsky, B.; Berman, H. M. (1994). "Crystal and molecular structure of a collagen-like peptide at 1.9 A ... fine crystals of the mineral component, which is hydroxylapatite (approximately) Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6.[43] Type I collagen gives ... Alanine. 109. 114 Hydroxyproline. 95. 67 Glutamic acid. 74. 76 Arginine. 49. 52 ...
VIII: the crystal and molecular structure of the β-form of the amino acidl-glutamic acid". Journal of Crystal and Molecular ... Alanine + α-ketoglutarate ⇌ pyruvate + glutamate. Aspartate + α-ketoglutarate ⇌ oxaloacetate + glutamate. Both pyruvate and ... These crystals, when tasted, reproduced the ineffable but undeniable flavor he detected in many foods, most especially in ... In 1908 Japanese researcher Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University identified brown crystals left behind after the ...
Alanine, glycine, and serine bind to the glutamate substrate site. GDP, AMP, ADP bind to the ATP site.[6] L-serine, L-alanine, ... Liaw SH, Eisenberg D (Jan 1994). "Structural model for the reaction mechanism of glutamine synthetase, based on five crystal ... Gill HS, Eisenberg D (February 2001). "The crystal structure of phosphinothricin in the active site of glutamine synthetase ... "Crystal structures of mammalian glutamine synthetases illustrate substrate-induced conformational changes and provide ...
White crystals Melting point 125 °C (257 °F; 398 K) log P 2.041 ... Inhibitors: β-Alanine. *Bafilomycin A1. *Chicago sky blue 6B. *Evans blue. *GABA ...
crystal structure of the biotin carboxylase subunit of pyruvate carboxylase. Identifiers. Symbol. CPSase_L_chain. ...
Crystal structure determination at 2.5 A resolution". FEBS Lett. 299 (2): 135-42. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(92)80232-6. PMID ... RHBDF1 is a homolog of the S54 family rhomboid proteases with an alanine in the place of the nucleophilic serine.[66][67] In ... 1989). "Crystal structures of two engineered thiol trypsins". Biochemistry. 28 (24): 9264-70. doi:10.1021/bi00450a005. PMID ... 1993). "Crystal structure of selenosubtilisin at 2.0-A resolution". Biochemistry. 32 (24): 6157-64. doi:10.1021/bi00075a007. ...
Yasutake Y, Yao M, Sakai N, Kirita T, Tanaka I (November 2004). "Crystal structure of the Pyrococcus horikoshii isopropylmalate ... β-cyclohexyl-L-alanine, 4-amino-L-phenylalanine and L-norleucine.[28] ...
2bgr: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF HIV-1 TAT DERIVED NONAPEPTIDES TAT(1-9) BOUND TO THE ACTIVE SITE OF DIPEPTIDYL PEPTIDASE IV (CD26) ... or alanine)-containing peptides and include growth factors, chemokines, neuropeptides, and vasoactive peptides. DPP4 plays a ... 1r9n: Crystal Structure of human dipeptidyl peptidase IV in complex with a decapeptide (tNPY) at 2.3 Ang. Resolution ... 2g5p: Crystal structure of human dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) complexed with cyanopyrrolidine (C5-pro-pro) inhibitor 21ac ...
Crystal structure of a short peptide L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala (bacterial cell wall precursor, in green) bound to vancomycin (blue) ... The large hydrophilic molecule is able to form hydrogen bond interactions with the terminal D-alanyl-D-alanine moieties of the ... D-alanine, to which vancomycin binds. The D-alanyl-D-lactate variation results in the loss of one hydrogen-bonding interaction ... 4, as opposed to 5 for D-alanyl-D-alanine) possible between vancomycin and the peptide. This loss of just one point of ...
Lima S, Kumar S, Gawandi V, Momany C, Phillips RS (January 2009). "Crystal structure of the Homo sapiens kynureninase-3- ... alanines. Humans express one kynureninase enzyme that is encoded by the KYNU gene located on chromosome 2.[6][7] ... 3e9k: Crystal structure of Homo sapiens kynureninase-3-hydroxyhippuric acid inhibitor complex ... "Crystal structure of Homo sapiens kynureninase". Biochemistry. 46 (10): 2735-44. doi:10.1021/bi0616697. PMC 2531291 . PMID ...
The urine has a low pH, which stops uric acid from dissolving, leading to crystals that act as a nidus for calcium stone ...
... acylates the active site of Bacillus stearothermophilus D-alanine carboxypeptidase". The Journal of Biological ... Gordon, E.; Mouz, N.; Duée, E.; Dideberg, O. (2000). "The crystal structure of the penicillin-binding protein 2x from ...
Blessing, Robert H.; McGandy, Edward L. (1972). "Base stacking and hydrogen bonding in crystals of imidazolium dihydrogen ... Derave, Wim; Everaert, Inge; Beeckman, Sam; Baguet, Audrey (2010-03-01). "Muscle carnosine metabolism and beta-alanine ...
It is used to hold silver halide crystals in an emulsion in virtually all photographic films and photographic papers. Despite ...
Methionine, alanine, leucine, glutamate, and lysine uncharged ("MALEK" in the amino-acid 1-letter codes) all have especially ... Two key developments in the modeling of the modern α-helix were: the correct bond geometry, thanks to the crystal structure ... Side view of an α-helix of alanine residues in atomic detail. Two hydrogen bonds for the same peptide group are highlighted in ... Ribbon diagrams of α-helices are a prominent element in the laser-etched crystal sculptures of protein structures created by ...
Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction Studies. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of pure and Lanthanum doped LAT crystals ... Pure LAT crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique using water as a solvent. Analytical grade (AR) L-Alanine and Tartaric ... Single crystals of pure and Lanthanum doped L-Alanine Tartrate were grown by slow evaporation method. The cell parameters were ... "Single crystal growth and characterization of the nonlinear optical crystal L-arginine hydrofluoride," Journal of Crystal ...
Chain A: ALANINE RACEMASE. Chain Downloadable Files. Download FASTA File. View Sequence & DSSP Image. Download Sequence Chain ...
Crystal Structure of D-alanine--D-Alanine Ligase from Bacillus anthracis complexed with ATP. Kim, Y., Hasseman, J., Anderson, W ... Crystal Structure of D-alanine--D-Alanine Ligase from Bacillus anthracis complexed with ATP. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3R5X/pdb ... D-alanine--D-alanine ligase. A, B, C, D. 307. Bacillus anthracis. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: BAS2435, BA_2610, ddl, ddlB, GBAA_ ...
Polarized light micrograph of alanine crystals, a non-essential amino acid in humans, used in the biosynthesis of proteins and ... Polarized light micrograph of alanine crystals, a non-essential amino acid in humans, used in the biosynthesis of proteins and ... Alanine plays a key role in the glucose-alanine cycle between tissues and the liver. Linked to diabetes and hypertension, it is ...
Home > A-E > Core Nutritionals > Core Nutritionals Co Beta Alanine 200G Crystal Blue Raspberry. ...
Optical and Electrical Characterization of L-alanine Single Crystal for Optoelectronic Devices ... Studies on the Effect of L-Alanine on the Structural, Optical and Thermal Properties of Potassium Acid Phthalate Crystals. ... A Study on Growth, Structural, Optical and Electrical Characterization of L-alanine Single Crystal for Optoelectronic Devices. ... A Study on Growth, Structural, Optical and Electrical Characterization of L-alanine Single Crystal for Optoelectronic Devices. ...
Optical and Thermal Properties of Potassium Acid Phthalate Crystals ... Studies on the Effect of L-Alanine on the Structural, ... Crystal growth: The pure KAP (AR grade) and L-alanine (AR grade ... of L-alanine into the KAP crystal. The same result was found in KAP by DL-alanine doping (Uthayarani et al., 2008) and in KDP ... FTIR spectra of pure and L-alanine doped KAP crystals, the shifting to higher energy due to L-alanine doping indicated the ...
Crystal data. Spectral data. UV-Vis. IR. NMR. MS. - Masses of main fragments:. Alanine GC-MS spectrum. ... The complete data for Alanine. General information. Chemical formula: C3H7NO2 Molar mass: 89.1 g·mol−1. Systematic name:. (S)-2 ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alanine_(data_page)&oldid=640072093" ...
Find Complete Details about High Quality Low Price Beta Alanine Powder,Beta Alanine,Beta Alanine Powder,Beta Alanine Powder ... beta alanine powder. MOQ: 0.1 KG. Appearance: white crystal powder. Shelf life: 2 Years ... what is the beta alanine?. Beta Alanine is white crystalline powder,slightly sweet,melting point 200℃,relative density 1.437, ... high quality low price beta alanine powder. keyword: ... high quality low price beta alanine powder. Hot sale products ...
The grown L-Alanine doped KDP crystals were characterized by UV-vis spectrosc.. ... L-Alanine doped KDP crystals were grown from aqueous solution by natural evaporation method. ... L-Alanine doped KDP crystals were grown from aqueous solution by natural evaporation method. The grown L-Alanine doped KDP ... L-alanine doped KDP crystals were grown using a good quality seed crystal at room temperature by solvent evaporation method. ...
Beta-alanine and taurine crystals. Matt Inman/Nikon Small World 30/ Cultured fat cells from a grizzly bear. ...
Ligand/binding/crystal Structure Databases. Metabolic Pathways. Molecular Libraries Screening Center Network. Natural Products ... l]sulfonyl}alanine [ACD/IUPAC Name] N-(2-Acétamidoéthyl. )-N-{[2-(éthoxycarb. onyl)-1-pyrrolidiny. l]sulfonyl}alanine [French] ... ulfonyl}alanine *Molecular FormulaC14H25N3O7S ...
... Davis, Emily ... Cite this item: Davis, E. (2015). The X-ray Crystal Structure of Alanine Racemase from Acinetobacter baumannii (Thesis, Master ... The Vmax and Km for the L-alanine to D-alanine reaction were found to be 220.5 U/mg and 1.56 mM, respectively. The Vmax and Km ... Alanine racemase is a pyridoxal 5-phosphate dependent enzyme, responsible for racemisation between enantiomers of alanine. As ...
Alanine crystal,Terahertz absorption spectrum,Terahertz Raman spectrum,Hydrogen bond,Density functional theory ... Key words: Alanine crystal, Terahertz absorption spectrum, Terahertz Raman spectrum, Hydrogen bond, Density functional theory ... The terahertz absorption and Raman scattering spectra of an alanine crystal in the range of 0.2-2.6 THz were obtained using ... Experimental and Theoretical Investigations on the Terahertz Vibrational Spectroscopy of Alanine Crystal WANG Guo1, WANG Wei- ...
Formation of the new crystal has been confirmed by single crystal XRD and FTIR spectra. The grown crystals have been subjected ... Single crystal X-ray diffractometer was utilized to measure unit cell parameters and to confirm the crystal structure. BAO ... Transmission spectrum reveals that the crystal has low UV cut-off of 205 nm and has a good transmittance in the entire visible ... Transparent, colourless crystals of size upto 11 × 9 × 4 mm3 were obtained. ...
The crystal structure of E. coli UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl:L-alanine ligase (MurC) has been determined at 2.6 Å resolution by MAD. ... Structure of Escherichia coli UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl:L-alanine ligase (MurC). T. Deva, E. N. Baker, C. J. Squire and C. A. Smith ... The crystal structure of NovR, a non-haem iron oxygenase from S. spheroides, was solved by molecular replacement with native X- ... The crystal structure of the mouse UNC5H2 death domain at 2.1 Å resolution is reported. The UNC5H2 death domain is a dimer in ...
Amino acid crystals may be present. Crystals will re-dissolve upon dilution during admixture compounding. Evaluate the ... ALANINE (UNII: OF5P57N2ZX) (ALANINE - UNII:OF5P57N2ZX) ALANINE. 2.76 g in 100 mL. ... Alanine 27.6 MG/ML / Arginine 19.6 MG/ML / Aspartate 6 MG/ML / Glutamate 10.2 MG/ML / Glycine 20.6 MG/ML / Histidine 11.8 MG/ML ... Alanine 27.6 MG/ML / Arginine 19.6 MG/ML / Aspartate 6 MG/ML / Glutamate 10.2 MG/ML / Glycine 20.6 MG/ML / Histidine 11.8 MG/ML ...
s-2-amino-3-pyridin-4-yl propanoic acid dihydrochloride, 3-4-pyridyl-l-alanine dihydrochloride, 2s-2-amino-3-pyridin-4-yl ... s-2-amino-3-pyridin-4-yl propanoic acid dihydrochloride, 3-4-pyridyl-l-alanine dihydrochloride, 2s-2-amino-3-pyridin-4-yl ... Crystal-Powder at 20°C. Color. White-Yellow. Quantity. 1g. Molecular Formula. C8H12Cl2N2O2. ... propanoic acid dihydrochloride, 3-pyridin-4-yl-l-alanine-hydrogen chloride 1/2, s-2-amino-3-pyridin-4-yl propanoic acid 2hcl, s ...
From the proboscis of a butterfly and the foot of a beetle to espresso coffee crystals, the pictures below give us a whole new ...
This vibrant panorama is a crystallized mixture of L-Glutamine and Beta-Alanine. A perfect colorful conversation starter for ... L-Glutamine and Beta Alanine 21 Crystal Microscopy - Panoramic Canvas Wrap Print. Regular price $72.50 Sale ... Beta-Alanine is commonly used as an endurance and performance supplement while L-Glutamine is often prescribed to counter the ... This vibrant panorama is a crystallized mixture of L-Glutamine and Beta-Alanine. The are both amino acids naturally occurring ...
... β-alanine, b-alanine CAS NO.: 107-95-9 Molecular formula: C3H7NO2 Molecular weight: 89.09 Appearance :White crystal powder ... Synonyms: β-alanine, b-alanine CAS NO.: 107-95-9 Molecular formula: C3H7NO2 Molecular weight: 89.09 Appearance :White crystal ... Beta-Alanine/107-95-9 (Offer to Sell). Wuhan Sincere-star Chemical Co., Ltd. ... More Beta-Alanine/107-95-9 Trade Leads. Related Site Sections:. * Company Directory: Chemicals - Organic Chemicals. * Biz ...
The enzymology of alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) isoforms from Hordeum vulgare and other organisms, and the HvAlaAT crystal ... Alanine aminotransferase catalyses the breakdown of alanine after hypoxia in Arabidopsis thaliana. . Plant J. 49, 1108-1121 ( ... Other constitutive alanine aminotransferases catalyse α-ketoglutarate+alanine↔glutamate+pyruvate pathway ubiquitously. Embryo ... Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley. *Kazuhiro Sato1. *, Miki Yamane1. *, Nami Yamaji1. *, Hiroyuki ...
ALANINE (UNII: OF5P57N2ZX) (ALANINE - UNII:OF5P57N2ZX). ALANINE. 844 mg in 100 mL. ... f Magnesium Chloride, USP is chemically designated magnesium chloride, hexahydrate, MgCl2 • 6H2O, deliquescent crystals very ... Alanine 8.44 MG/ML / Arginine 8.65 MG/ML / Aspartate 5.95 MG/ML / Glutamate 6.27 MG/ML / Glycine 4.25 MG/ML / Histidine 2.55 MG ... Alanine 8.44 MG/ML / Arginine 8.65 MG/ML / Aspartate 5.95 MG/ML / Glutamate 6.27 MG/ML / Glycine 4.25 MG/ML / Histidine 2.55 MG ...
Benson TE, Prince DB, Mutchler VT, Curry KA, Ho AM, Sarver RW, Hagadorn JC, Choi GH, Garlick RL (August 2002). "X-ray crystal ... N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(N6-glycyl)-D-alanyl-D-alanine-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine ... N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(N6-glycyl)-D-alanyl-D-alanine-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine+ ... D-alanyl-D-alanine-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine. Berger-Bächi B, Barberis-Maino L, Strässle A, Kayser FH (October ...
supply beta-Alanine, FOB Price: ,Port: ,Minimum Order Quantity: ,Supply Ability: ,Payment Terms:, Updatetime:Sep 20 2017, ... beta alanine, beta-alanine, Fmoc-beta-Alanine, beta-alanine price, alanine, L-Alanine, D-Alanine, methyl alanine, DL-Alanine, β ... Appearance:White crystals. Only naturally occurring beta amino acid. *usage:. Rate-limiting precursor of carnosine. ... Related Searches: beta alanine, beta-alanine, Fmoc-beta-Alanine, beta-alanine price, alanine, View all ...
Crystal structure Is the Subject Area "Crystal structure" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Alanine Is the Subject Area "Alanine" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
The genetically encoded amino acids are glycine and the L-isomers of alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, serine, methionine, ... crystals of wild type SYKKD, crystals of mutated SYKKD, native crystals, heavy-atom derivative crystals, and crystals of SYKKD ... The term "crystal" includes native crystals, heavy-atom derivative crystals and co-crystals, as defined herein. ... Diffraction quality crystals include native crystals, heavy-atom derivative crystals, and co-crystals. ...
X-Ray Crystal Structure for Sp-4 (Form 1) Figure 11. X-Ray Crystal (Isotropic) Structure for ^-4-CH 2 Cl 2 (Form 2) Figure 12. ... Single Crystal X-ray Crystallography of Sp-4 and its solvates Example 22-1. Single Crystal X-Ray Crystallography of S P -4 ( ... X-Ray Crystal Structure for 8 (Sp-isomer) (molecule no. 1 of the asymmetric unit). Figure 2OB. X-Ray Crystal Structure for 8 ( ... Figure 12 depicts an X-ray Crystal Structure (ORTEP - anisotropic) S ? -4 (Form 2). A crystal structure of the methylene ...
The crystal structure shows that the additional methyl group from Ala96 protrudes into the active site of the enzyme. While the ... How the mutation glycine96 to alanine confers glyphosate insensitivity to 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase from ...
Browse fuzing.com to find D-Alanine/338-69-2 sellers, suppliers, wholesalers, companies, manufacturers, exporters, factories. ... Appearance White fine crystals Assay 98.0 to 101.0% Specific Rotation [(Alpha) ]20/D -14.0110(c=5%. in5MHcl) Chloride (Cl) Not ... D-Alanine/338-69-2. You May Also Be Interested In: alanine mandelic acid on stock now. if you want to know more about the ... Product Name: D-Alanine. Synonyms:H-D-Ala-OH. Molecular Formula:C3H7NO2. CAS #:338-69-2. Test Items Standard ...
  • what is the beta alanine? (alibaba.com)
  • This vibrant panorama is a crystallized mixture of L-Glutamine and Beta-Alanine. (geniuslabgear.com)
  • Beta-Alanine is commonly used as an endurance and performance supplement while L-Glutamine is often prescribed to counter the side effects of cancer chemotherapy, digestive disorders and ADHD. (geniuslabgear.com)
  • beta-Alanine ( Zhangjiagang Huachang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (guidechem.com)
  • I just received bulk powders of Acetyl-L-Carnitine Powder, Creatine Ethyl Ester HCl, Beta-Alanine, BCAA s powder, Citrulline Malate, L-Tyrosine Powder, Arginine Ethyl Ester Powder. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Pantoate-beta-alanine ligase (pantothenate synthase) participates in pantothenate biosynthesis pathway by catalyzing the formation of (R)-pantothenate from D-pantoate and beta-alanine. (csgid.org)
  • The crystal structure of Pantoate-beta-alanine ligase complexed with AMP from Francisella tularensis subsp. (csgid.org)
  • Abstract B100: Structure-based design of AZ7732 a novel in vivo active beta-alanine-derived pan-IAP inhibitor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Applying this strategy, we report on the successful transfer of a beta-alanine warhead to a number of monomeric scaffolds. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We report here the first co-crystal structure of xIAP baculoviral IAP repeat 3 domain (BIR3) with a beta-alanine derived monomer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Herein we describe the synthesis, SAR and SPR of this novel warhead and the discovery of beta-alanine derived pan-IAP inhibitors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Crystal structure of an Udp-n-acetylmuramate-alanine ligase MurC (TM0231) from Thermotoga maritima at 2.3 A resolution. (ox.ac.uk)
  • L -alanine ligase (MurC) has been determined at 2.6 Å resolution by MAD. (iucr.org)
  • Crystal strucutre of D-alanine-D-alanine ligase from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. (expasy.org)
  • In enzymology, a D-alanine-D-alanine ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + 2 D-alanine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + phosphate + D-alanyl-D-alanine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and D-alanine, whereas its 3 products are ADP, phosphate, and D-alanyl-D-alanine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-alanine:D-alanine ligase (ADP-forming). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other names in common use include alanine:alanine ligase (ADP-forming), and alanylalanine synthetase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal region of the D-alanine-D-alanine ligase is thought to be involved in substrate binding, while the C-terminus is thought to be a catalytic domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2] S. Sampthkrishnan, N. Balamurugan, R. Kumutha, Y. Vidyalakshmi and S. Muthu, "Growth and Characterization of New Non Linear Optical Bis-Glycine Hydro Bro- mide (BGHB) Single Crystal," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 6, 2012, pp. 597-607. (scirp.org)
  • 10] D. Philip and G. Aruldhas, "Vibrational Spectra of Alanine and Glycine Phosphates," Acta Chimica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, Vol. 127, 1990, pp. 717-723. (scirp.org)
  • 13] P. Selvarajan, J. Glorium Arul Raj and S. Perumal, "Characterization of Pure and Urea-Doped γ-Glycine Single Crystals Grown by Solution Method," Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 311, No. 15, 2009, pp. 3835-3840. (scirp.org)
  • Undoped and glycine-doped L-alanine cadmium chloride (LACC) crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. (journalcra.com)
  • N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(N6-glycyl)-D-alanyl-D-alanine-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine glycyltransferase (EC, femA (gene)) is an enzyme with systematic name N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(N6-glycyl)-D-alanyl-D-alanine-ditrans,octacis-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine glycyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The next step is catalysed by EC (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(N6-triglycine)-D-alanyl-D-alanine-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine glycyltransferase). (brenda-enzymes.org)
  • Deconstructing collagen piezoelectricity using alanine-hydroxyproline-glycine building blocks. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Albrecht, G. and R. B. Corey: The Crystal Structure of Glycine. (springer.com)
  • On the Ni {11O} surface, these final decomposition products coexist until -700 K whereas on Ni {Ill} only atomic species exist on the surface after 450 K, for both alanine and glycine. (bl.uk)
  • Aspergillomarasmine B differs in that the last alanine is replaced by glycine. (wikipedia.org)
  • We used an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance to measure adsorption directly and demonstrated that adsorption of glycine onto copper increases markedly with increasingly cathodic potentials, forming layers several tens of monolayers thick. (epa.gov)
  • Alanine racemase is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent enzyme, responsible for racemisation between enantiomers of alanine. (otago.ac.nz)
  • In this study, A. baumannii alanine racemase (AlrAba) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. (otago.ac.nz)
  • The structure was initially solved to 1.9 Å resolution via molecular replacement using the monomer of Pseudomonas aeruginosa alanine racemase as the search model. (otago.ac.nz)
  • The crystal structure of Picrophilus aspartate racemase was almost the same as that of other pyridoxal 5′-phosphate -independent aspartate racemases. (springer.com)
  • In an effort to discover new drugs to treat tuberculosis (TB) we chose alanine racemase as the target of our drug discovery efforts. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the causative agent of TB, alanine racemase plays an essential role in cell wall synthesis as it racemizes L-alanine into D-alanine, a key building block in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To obtain non-substrate alanine racemase inhibitors, we developed a high-throughput screening platform and screened 53,000 small molecule compounds for enzyme-specific inhibitors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We identified seventeen novel non-substrate alanine racemase inhibitors that are structurally different than any currently known enzyme inhibitors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This study highlights the feasibility of obtaining novel alanine racemase inhibitor lead compounds by high-throughput screening for development of new anti-TB agents. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Due to its essential nature, coupled with the absence of a human homolog, alanine racemase has long been an attractive drug target. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We have previously reported the crystal structure of the M. tuberculosis alanine racemase [17] . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Residues Asp164 and Glu165 at the substrate entryway function potently in substrate orientation of alanine racemase from E. coli: Enzymatic characterization with crystal structure analysis. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • L-Alanine, FCC is included in the 20 amino acids encoded by the genetic code and often used in cases of hypoglycemia. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • L-Alanine is also known as 2-Aminopropanoic acid and alanine, and is abbreviated as Ala. It is included in the 20 amino acids encoded by the genetic code. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Bernal, J. D.: The Crystal Structure of the Natural Amino Acids and Related Compounds. (springer.com)
  • F.B. Brahim, A. Bulou, Growth and spectroscopy studies of ADP single crystals with l -glutamine and l -cysteine amino acids. (springer.com)
  • Crystal structure of alanine: Glyoxylate aminotransferase and the relationship between genotype and enzymatic phenotype in primary hyperoxaluria type 1. (icr.ac.uk)
  • A deficiency of the liver-specific enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) is responsible for the potentially lethal hereditary kidney stone disease primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1). (icr.ac.uk)
  • Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). (nature.com)
  • We have identified a gene that defines a major dormancy trait in wild ancestral forms of barley and show that it encodes alanine aminotransferase, which has not previously been linked with dormancy in plants. (nature.com)
  • The most common and the most severe one is PH1 accounting for approximately 80% of all patients, caused by insufficiency or loss of activity of liver-specific peroxisomal alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) 2 , which is a compact homodimer and belongs to the aspartate aminotransferase family of pyridoxal-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzymes 3 . (nature.com)
  • We found that the aspartic acid and alanine in our Tagish Lake samples were highly enriched in carbon 13, indicating they were probably created by non-biological processes in the parent asteroid,' said Dr. Jamie Elsila of NASA Goddard, a co-author on the paper who performed the isotopic analysis. (dailygalaxy.com)
  • The structure of pure LA crystal has been examined by powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD) study. (scialert.net)
  • Powder XRD analysis confirms the orthorhombic structure of the grown crystals. (scialert.net)
  • The structure of pure and L-alanine doped KAP crystals have been examined by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. (scialert.net)
  • A theoretical investigation on the periodic structure of alanine was performed using a self-consistent field crystal orbital method based on the B3LYP hybrid density functional. (pku.edu.cn)
  • Single crystal X-ray diffractometer was utilized to measure unit cell parameters and to confirm the crystal structure. (scirp.org)
  • 6] D. Godzisz, M. IIczyszym and M. M. Iczyszym, "β-Alanine-Oxalic Acid (1:1) Hemihydrate Crystal: Structure, 13CNMR and Vibrational Properties, Protonation Character," Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, Vol. 59, No. 4, 2003, pp. 681- 683. (scirp.org)
  • 7] S. Yamaguchi, M. Goto, H. Takayanagi and H. Ogura, "The Crystal Structure of Phenanthrene: Picric Acid Molecular Complex," Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, Vol. 61, No. 3, 1988, pp. 1026-1028. (scirp.org)
  • 8] I. Nemec, I. Cisarova and Z. Micka, "The Crystal Structure, Vibrational Spectra and DSC Measurement of Mono-L-Alaninium Nitrate," Journal of Molecular Structure, Vol. 476, No. 1-3, 1999, pp. 243-253. (scirp.org)
  • Is the Subject Area "Crystal structure" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • XRD studies have been carried out to identify the crystal structure. (journalcra.com)
  • In order to gain further insights into the mechanistic link between genotype and enzymatic phenotype in PH1, we have determined the crystal structure of normal human AGT complexed to the competitive inhibitor amino-oxyacetic acid to 2.5 Angstrom. (icr.ac.uk)
  • The 1.3 Å resolution crystal structure of M. tuberculosis thioredoxin C is reported, demonstrating a novel packing of five C-terminal residues in the active-site groove. (iucr.org)
  • Crystals of native Cerezyme ® (acid-β-glucosidase), the enzyme used in enzyme-replacement therapy in Gaucher disease, were obtained and the threee-dimensional structure solved. (iucr.org)
  • Here we describe the crystal structure of cone arrestin at 2.3A resolution. (nih.gov)
  • The overall structure of cone visual arrestin is similar to the crystal structures of rod visual and the non-visual arrestin-2, consisting of two domains, each containing ten beta-sheets. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, one can perform serial crystallography experiments, by collecting data from multiple crystals, to achieve complete data sets that can be used for structure solution. (rigaku.com)
  • in which the crystal under investigation is considered to be an inversion twin in which the reference domain has the absolute structure of the current refinement model, and the other domain is inverted. (iucr.org)
  • The Flack parameter has a physically meaningful value in the range of 0-1, and represents the fraction of the inverted structure present in the crystal. (iucr.org)
  • The crystal structure shows that the additional methyl group from Ala96 protrudes into the active site of the enzyme. (nih.gov)
  • Synthesis, growth, structure and characterization of a new semiorganic crystal tris (allylthiourea) silver(I) nitrate. (springer.com)
  • Crystal structure of AICAR transformylase IMP cyclohydrolase (TM1249) from Thermotoga maritima at 1.88 A resolution. (nih.gov)
  • We investigated the mechanism by which these channels sense cell membrane voltage by determining the x-ray crystal structure of a mammalian Shaker family potassium ion (K + ) channel. (sciencemag.org)
  • Crystal structure analysis of collagen model peptide (Pro-pro-Gly)10. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Crystal structure of the collagen triple helix model [(Pro-Pro-Gly)(10)](3). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Wyckoff, R. W. G.: The Structure of Crystals. (springer.com)
  • Carpenter, G. B. and J. Donohue: The Crystal Structure of N -Acetylglycine. (springer.com)
  • Corey, R. B.: The Crystal Structure of Diketopiperazine. (springer.com)
  • Dahl, T. (1993) Crystal Structure of N(6), N(6)-Dimethyladaninium Hemisulfate Hydrate. (scirp.org)
  • Examination of the binding site contacts in the co-crystal structure provided further insight into the optimization of the warhead. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, the crystal structure of PPAF‐II reveals that the clip domain adopts a novel fold containing a central cleft, which is distinct from the structures of defensins with a similar arrangement of cysteine residues. (embopress.org)
  • Robin A , Cobessi D, Curien G, Robert-Genthon M. Ferrer J-L, and Dumas R, "A new mode of dimerization of allosteric enzymes with ACT domains revealed by the crystal structure of the aspartate kinase from Cyanobacteria", JMB 399 (2010), 283-293. (ibs.fr)
  • The crystal structure of CD27L 1-179 confirms that the enzyme is a zinc-dependent N -acetylmuramoyl- l -alanine amidase. (asm.org)
  • The crystal structure of 3-hydroxydecanoyl-(acyl carrier protein) dehydratase from Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar El Tor str. (csgid.org)
  • Crystal structure of spermidine/spermine N-acetyltransferase SpeG from Yersinia pestis. (csgid.org)
  • 2.05 Angstrom Resolution Crystal Structure of C-terminal Domain (DUF2156) of Putative Lysylphosphatidylglycerol Synthetase from Agrobacterium fabrum. (csgid.org)
  • 1.73 Angstrom Resolution Crystal Structure of Dihydropteroate Synthase (folP-SMZ_B27) from Soil Uncultured Bacterium. (csgid.org)
  • Crystal structure of dihydroorotase pyrC from Vibrio cholerae in complex with zinc at 1.95 A resolution. (csgid.org)
  • Crystal structure of the competence damage-inducible protein A (ComA) from Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. (csgid.org)
  • Crystal structure of a potassium ion transporter, TrkH. (rostlab.org)
  • Here we present the crystal structure of a TrkH from Vibrio parahaemolyticus. (rostlab.org)
  • The crystal structure of the D-alanyl-alanine synthetase A from Salmonella enterica subsp. (cathdb.info)
  • To gain insight into the molecular function of VanT, the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of VanT G from VanG-type resistant Enterococcus faecalis BM4518 was determined. (asm.org)
  • The structure showed significant similarity to type III pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent alanine racemases, which are essential for peptidoglycan synthesis. (asm.org)
  • We determined the crystal structure of the carboxy-terminal domain of human SRAP and found that it does not have the postulated RRM (RNA recognition motif). (stanford.edu)
  • Pure LAT crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique using water as a solvent. (hindawi.com)
  • A new organic single crystal of β-Alanine Oxalate (BAO) has been grown from solution by slow evaporation technique. (scirp.org)
  • The pure and 0.1 wt% dl -methionine doped ADP crystals are grown using slow solvent evaporation technique at room temperature. (springer.com)
  • Single crystals of pure and Lanthanum doped L-Alanine Tartrate were grown by slow evaporation method. (hindawi.com)
  • ICP studies confirm the presence of Lanthanum in the grown LAT crystal. (hindawi.com)
  • Single crystal X-ray diffraction study has been carried out to confirm the grown pure and doped crystals. (hindawi.com)
  • ICP studies have been carried out to confirm the presence of Lanthanum in the grown crystal. (hindawi.com)
  • FT-IR, UV-VIS-NIR, microhardness, dielectric analysis and NLO property were studied for grown pure and doped crystals. (hindawi.com)
  • The second harmonic generation (SHG) studies had been carried out for the grown pure and doped crystals. (hindawi.com)
  • The grown crystal was further studied by various characterization techniques. (hindawi.com)
  • The photographs of grown pure and Lanthanum doped crystals are shown in Figure 1 . (hindawi.com)
  • The chemical composition of the grown crystals was determined by Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. (scialert.net)
  • Optical properties of the grown crystal were studied using UV-Visible spectroscopy at room temperature. (scialert.net)
  • Optically transparent, large size and electrically conducting LA crystal were grown successfully in a laboratory for useful application in optoelectronic devices. (scialert.net)
  • Optical properties of the grown crystals were studied using UV-visible specrtroscopy. (scialert.net)
  • Powder XRD study on grown crystals showed that they belong to an orthorhombic system. (scialert.net)
  • Optically transparent, large size and thermally stable L-alanine doped KAP crystals were grown successfully in a laboratory for useful application in opto-electronic devices. (scialert.net)
  • L-Alanine doped KDP crystals were grown from aqueous solution by natural evaporation method. (rroij.com)
  • The grown L-Alanine doped KDP crystals were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy powder X-ray diffraction studies and Second harmonic generation efficiency measurements. (rroij.com)
  • The experimental results evidence the suitability of the grown crystal for optoelectronic applications. (rroij.com)
  • The grown crystals were characterized by UV-VIS, PXRD and FT-IR analysis and NLO measurements. (rroij.com)
  • L-alanine doped KDP crystals were grown using a good quality seed crystal at room temperature by solvent evaporation method. (rroij.com)
  • The grown crystals were found colourless and transparent. (rroij.com)
  • The optical transmission spectra of the grown crystal were carried out in the range of 200 nm to 2200 nm covering the entire near-ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared region using SHIMADZU UV-160 Spectrometer to find the transmission range about the suitability of this grown crystal for optical applications. (rroij.com)
  • A strong absorption and the UV cut off wavelength lies at 268 nm for L-Alanine doped KDP crystal, and it reveals the good optical quality of the grown crystal. (rroij.com)
  • High transmission in the entire visible region for L-Alanine doped KDP crystal proves the suitability of grown crystal as UV tunable laser and in second harmonic generation (SHG) device applications. (rroij.com)
  • The grown crystals have been subjected to powder X-ray diffraction studies to identify the crystalline nature. (scirp.org)
  • Optical transmission spectra revealed the optical properties of the grown crystal. (scirp.org)
  • UV-visible transmittance and microhardness were measured to find the suitability of the grown crystals for device fabrication. (journalcra.com)
  • Single crystals of potassium hydrogen oxalate (KHO), a semiorganic nonlinear optical material, were grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. (springer.com)
  • Single crystals of (Pro-Pro-Gly)10 were grown by the hanging drop method. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The powder XRD study shows single phase nature of both grown crystals with tetragonal structural symmetry. (springer.com)
  • The complex modulus spectroscopy helps to discriminate the grain and grain boundary in grown crystals clearly. (springer.com)
  • In contrast, both d -proline and d -alanine were observed. (springer.com)
  • The functional groups of pure and doped LAT crystals were analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy. (hindawi.com)
  • Dielectric studies of pure and doped LAT single crystals were carried out. (hindawi.com)
  • Photographs of pure and doped LAT crystals. (hindawi.com)
  • Both the pure and doped LAT crystals belong to monoclinic crystal system with the space group P2 1 . (hindawi.com)
  • The Nyquist plots of pure and doped ADP crystals represent presence of grain and grain boundary. (springer.com)
  • The Jonscher's powder law is successfully applied to the conductivity phenomena in pure and doped ADP crystals. (springer.com)
  • This paper analyzes structural organization and pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) binding properties of Sc Alt1 and Sc Alt2 indicating functional diversification could have determined loss of Sc Alt2 alanine transaminase activity and thus its role in alanine metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
  • This enzyme catalyzes the racemization of L-alanine to D-alanine, which is an essential precursor for the pentapeptide cross-bridge of the peptidoglycan layer in bacterial cell wall [15] , [16] . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This enzyme participates in d-alanine metabolism and peptidoglycan biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal part of the endolysin commonly houses the catalytic domain, which attacks one or more of the various bonds within the peptidoglycan layer, for example, N -acetylmuramoyl- l -alanine amidase, N -acetyl-β- d -glucosaminidase, N -acetyl-β- d -muramidase, or endopeptidases ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Vancomycin resistance in Gram-positive bacteria results from the replacement of the d -alanyl- d -alanine target of peptidoglycan precursors with d -alanyl- d -lactate or d -alanyl- d -serine ( d -Ala- d -Ser), to which vancomycin has low binding affinity. (asm.org)
  • They are a natural result from the optical properties of the crystal structures while viewing these microcrystals under polarized light. (geniuslabgear.com)
  • Crystal structures of MW1337R and lin2004: representatives of a novel protein family that adopt a four-helical bundle fold. (nih.gov)
  • Crystal Structures. (springer.com)
  • Using the molecular modeling software SuperStar(2), we investigated the publically available co-crystal structures of Smac-mimetics with cIAP1 and hypothesized that homologating the basic amine might be tolerated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A model of the TCR-SAG- MHC complex constructed from the crystal structures of the TCR-β-SEC3 complex (( 6 )), of a TCR Vα domain (( 11 )), and of the complex between staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and an MHC class II molecule (( 12 )) suggests that the SAG acts like a wedge between the TCR and MHC molecules to displace the antigenic peptide away from the TCR combining site. (rupress.org)
  • Threonine, Crystal, USP is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • L-Threonine, Crystal, FCC - The FCC grade meets the requirements of the Food Chemical Codex indicates and is suitable for all food, beverage and nutritional supplement applications. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • L-Threonine, Crystal, also known as 2-Amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid, is an essential amino acid that is classified as polar. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • J.H. Joshi, S. Kalainathan, D.K. Kanchan, M.J. Joshi, K.D. Parikh, Effect of l -threonine on growth and properties of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate crystal. (springer.com)
  • Alanine, USP is a non-essential alpha-amino acid and appears as a white powder. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • M. Parthasarathy, M. Ananthraja, R. Gopalkrishnan, Growth and characterization of large single crystal of l -serine methyl ester hydrocholoride. (springer.com)
  • This analysis also suggested that VanT racemases evolved from regular alanine racemases by acquiring additional selectivity toward serine while preserving that for alanine. (asm.org)
  • However, bacteria have evolved a sophisticated mechanism which remodels the drug target, the d -alanine ending precursors in cell wall synthesis, into precursors terminating with d -lactate or d -serine, to which vancomycin has less affinity. (asm.org)
  • Transparent, colourless crystals of size upto 11 × 9 × 4 mm3 were obtained. (scirp.org)
  • Aspergillomarasmine A takes the form of colourless crystals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polarized light micrograph of alanine crystals, a non-essential amino acid in humans, used in the biosynthesis of proteins and involved in the metabolism of tryptophan and vitamin pyridoxine. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The cell parameters were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction method. (hindawi.com)
  • Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of pure and Lanthanum doped LAT crystals were carried out using MESSRS ENRAF NONIUS CAD4-F, single X-ray diffractometer. (hindawi.com)
  • With your success utmost in our minds, we have developed the XtaLAB Synergy-S X-ray diffractometer for single crystal X-ray diffraction. (rigaku.com)
  • The cell parameters of KHO were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction and the crystal system was identified as monoclinic. (springer.com)
  • Among them L-alanine (LA), with chemical formula (CH 3 CH NH 2 COOH) is the smallest, naturally occurring chiral amino acid with a non-reactive hydrophobic methyl group (-CH 3 ) as a side chain. (scialert.net)
  • Haja Hammeed AS, Ravi G, Ilangovan R, Nixon Azariah A, Ramasamy P. Growth and characterization of deuterated analog of l -arginine phosphate single crystals. (springer.com)
  • Substituting the arginine with an alanine significantly increases the rate of K(+) flux. (rostlab.org)
  • Comparison of AlrAba with alanine racemases from closely related bacteria demonstrated a conserved overall fold, substrate entryway and active site. (otago.ac.nz)
  • VanT is composed of two domains, an N-terminal membrane-bound domain, likely involved in l -Ser uptake, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic catalytic domain which is related to bacterial alanine racemases. (asm.org)
  • Comparative structural analysis between VanT G and alanine racemases as well as site-directed mutagenesis identified three specific active site positions centered around Asn 696 which are responsible for the l -amino acid specificity. (asm.org)
  • The UV transmission and absorption spectra for L-Alanine doped KDP are shown in Figure. (rroij.com)
  • The terahertz absorption and Raman scattering spectra of an alanine crystal in the range of 0.2-2.6 THz were obtained using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and low-frequency Raman spectroscopy. (pku.edu.cn)
  • Formation of the new crystal has been confirmed by single crystal XRD and FTIR spectra. (scirp.org)
  • 9] V. D. Gupta and M. V. Krishnan, "Low-Frequency Spectra of L-Alanine," Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1970, p. 572. (scirp.org)
  • In recent years organic nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have attracted much attention for their large nonlinear coefficient, high laser damage threshold [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Recently, L-Alanine crystals have increased attention for photoinduced nonlinear optical effects and dispersion of the linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities. (hindawi.com)
  • Photoinduced nonlinear optical effects of L-Alanine single crystals show that the increasing time of illuminations leads to slight changes in the absorption backgrounds without changes in the spectral features [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Dispersion of the linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities of L-Alanine single crystals was reported [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemla DS, Zyss J. Nonlinear optical properties of organic molecules and crystals, vol. 1. (springer.com)
  • Rao RH, Kalainathan S. Growth and characterization of semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal Urea thiourea cadmium sulfate. (springer.com)
  • Investigation on the growth and characterization of nonlinear optical single crystal of bis thiourea iron(II) sulphate. (springer.com)
  • Senthil A, Ramasamy P. Synthesis, growth and characterization of strontium bis (hydrogen l -malate) hexahydrate bulk single crystal: a promising semi-organic nonlinear optical material. (springer.com)
  • The nonlinear optical properties such as second harmonic generation efficiency and third order susceptibility are improved on doping the dl -methionine in ADP crystal. (springer.com)
  • C.S. Girisun, S. Dhanuskodi, Linear and nonlinear optical properties of tris tihourea zince sulphate single crystals. (springer.com)
  • The ELement ANalyzer can be used for confirmation the presence of central metal(s) in a mononuclear or polynuclear complex or solvent in a crystal for small molecule X-ray crystallography. (rigaku.com)
  • The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.8 A. In the crystals the polypeptides form triple helices that aggregate end-to-end mediated by the solvent molecules, with the basic repeat being 20 A along the helical axis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the present work, a systematic study has been carried out on the growth of pure and Lanthanum doped L-Alanine Tartrate (LAT) crystals. (hindawi.com)
  • Echo-detected electron paramagnetic resonance (echoEPR) profiles for irradiated deuterated ammonium tartrate single crystals depend strongly on the delays between pulses of the echo sequence. (diva-portal.org)
  • β-Alanine is a naturally occurring beta amino acid. (lookchem.com)
  • KAP is a non centrosymmetric molecular ionic crystal. (scialert.net)
  • S.H. Wemple, M. DiDomenic Jr., Behaviour of electronic dielectric constant in covalent and ionic crystal. (springer.com)
  • Experimental and Theoretical Investigations on the Terahertz Vibrational Spectroscopy of Alanine Crystal[J].Acta Phys. (pku.edu.cn)
  • The UV-Vis transmittance spectroscopy shows improvement in optical transmittance, energy band, and low refractive index of doped ADP crystal compare to pure ADP crystal. (springer.com)
  • Tight recognition of alanine at the substrate-binding site of ToCDS. (hindawi.com)
  • How the mutation glycine96 to alanine confers glyphosate insensitivity to 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli. (nih.gov)
  • Analytical grade (AR) L-Alanine and Tartaric acid was taken in equimolar ratio. (hindawi.com)
  • Potassium acid phthalate (KAP) crystals are promising materials as good monochromator for the qualitative and quantitative X-ray analysis of light elements like Fe, Al, Mg, F, Si, etc. in a long and middle range. (scialert.net)
  • L-alanine is an efficient organic non Linear Optical (NLO) compound under the amino acid group. (scialert.net)
  • Amino acid family crystals are playing an important role in the field of non-linear optical organic molecular crystal. (scialert.net)
  • L-Alanine, also known as 2-Aminopropanoic acid, is classified as a non-polar amino acid. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Dado and Gellman (1994) Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding in Derivatives of β-Alanine and γ-Amino Butyris Acid: Model Studies for the Folding of Unnatural Polypeptide Backbones, J. Am. Chem. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Behind Falcon's idea is the observation that crystals of the amino acid l-alanine are ever so slightly bigger than crystals of d-alanine. (technologyreview.com)
  • Interestingly, the same meteorite sample showed only a slight left-hand excess (no more than eight percent) for alanine, another amino acid used by life. (dailygalaxy.com)
  • CD27L is a 270-amino-acid protein and shows homology to N -acetylmuramoyl- l -alanine amidases in the N-terminal part of the protein (residues 2 to 143), while the C-terminal portion (residues 180 to 270) has no identifiable domains. (asm.org)
  • 5] M. S. Nandhini, R. V. Krishnakumar, K. Sivakumar and S. Natarajan, "Poly Cadmium(II)-μ-β-Alanine-Di-μ-Chloro," Acta Crystallographica and Journal of Applied Crystallography, Vol. E58, 2002, pp. 307-309. (scirp.org)
  • KAP crystal exhibits a rare blend of ionic and molecular properties and has wide application by virtue of their polar nature. (scialert.net)
  • Look at J-couplings in the molecular crystal Alanine (take the cell file from the shielding example). (castep.org)
  • Structural illucidation of XIAP bound to IAP inhibitors has revealed a critical role for the alanine with dense hydrogen bonding, electrostatic and hydrophibic complementarity with the protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, most of organic NLO materials have poor mechanical and thermal properties, resulting in the damage of crystal during processing. (hindawi.com)
  • The transmission in the visible region and the thermal stability of the crystal was found to increase with the doping concentration of L-alanine into the KAP crystal. (scialert.net)
  • The thermal stability of the crystal was analyzed by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. (springer.com)
  • Crystal growth, spectral, optical, and thermal characterization of glycl- l -alanine hydrochloride (GLAH) single crystal. (springer.com)
  • Falcon imagines the following scenario in which d and l-alanine is dissolved in water with a thermal gradient, perhaps close to a geothermal vent for example. (technologyreview.com)
  • Thermal currents carry the alanine up to cooler waters where it precipitates in crystalline form. (technologyreview.com)
  • Diversification analysis of Sc Alt1/ Sc Alt2 indicated that while Sc Alt1 is an alanine transaminase, Sc Alt2 lost this activity, constituting an example in which one of the members of the gene pair lacks the apparent ancestral physiological role. (frontiersin.org)
  • Good quality crystals were obtained by successively recrystallization method. (hindawi.com)
  • Good quality crystals were obtained in a period of three weeks. (hindawi.com)
  • The rapid growth of good quality crystals and various studies of organic and inorganic impurities doped KDP crystals have been reported by various investigators [6-16]. (rroij.com)
  • LA has the zwitterionic form (+NH 3 -C 2 H 4 -COO-) both in crystal and in aqueous solution over a wide range of pH, which favors crystal hardness for device application ( Nicoud and Twieg, 1986 ). (scialert.net)
  • The incorporation of dopant into the pure solution has improved the growth rate and the quality of the crystals. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, an attempt has been made to grow large size optically transparent LA single crystals by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. (scialert.net)
  • In this paper an attempt has been made to grow large size optically transparent L-alanine doped KAP crystals by slow evaporation solution growth technique and to see the effects of L-alanine into the pure KAP crystals. (scialert.net)
  • In this paper an attempt has been made to grow large size optically transparent L-alanine doped KDP crystal by slow evaporation solution growth technique. (rroij.com)
  • S. Ponmani, P. Selvarajan, N. Balasundari and D. Jencylin, "Growth and Characterization of β-Alanine Oxalate-A New Organic Single Crystal," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering , Vol. 11 No. 11, 2012, pp. 1069-1074. (scirp.org)
  • Vickers microhardness test was carried out on the growth crystal to assess its mechanical stability. (springer.com)
  • The growth and characterization of a metal organic crystal, potassium thiourea thiocyanide. (springer.com)
  • Gopinath S, Barathan S, Rajasekaran R. Growth and characterization of semiorganic crystal. (springer.com)
  • The growth of zwitterionc multi layer alanine is also observed for both systems but on Ni{11O} the multi layer is shown to segregate into alanine crystallites with a Stranskiy-Krastanov-like morphology at 240 K. On Ni {111}, the tilt angle of the carboxylate group from the surface is 45' compared to 55' on the Ni {Il O}, determined by angle resolved NEXAFS. (bl.uk)
  • K.D. Parikh, D.J. Dave, M.J. Joshi, Growth and Characterization of l -alanine doped KDP crystals. (springer.com)