A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.
A birth defect due to malformation of the URETHRA in which the urethral opening is below its normal location. In the male, the malformed urethra generally opens on the ventral surface of the PENIS or on the PERINEUM. In the female, the malformed urethral opening is in the VAGINA.
A surgical procedure in which an undescended testicle is sutured inside the SCROTUM in male infants or children to correct CRYPTORCHIDISM. Orchiopexy is also performed to treat TESTICULAR TORSION in adults and adolescents.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Accumulation of serous fluid between the layers of membrane (tunica vaginalis) covering the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its organs and on the male or female genitalia.
An oxidation product of HEPTACHLOR formed by many plants and animals, including humans, after exposure to HEPTACHLOR. It has been shown to remain in soil treated with HEPTACHLOR for over fifteen years and is toxic to animals and humans. (From ATSDR Public Heath Statement, April 1989)
Pathological processes of the TESTIS.
Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
A highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide. The EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.
Organic compounds which contain tin in the molecule. Used widely in industry and agriculture.
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Denmark" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is a country located in northern Europe. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A number of syndromes with defective gonadal developments such as streak GONADS and dysgenetic testes or ovaries. The spectrum of gonadal and sexual abnormalities is reflected in their varied sex chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOMES) constitution as shown by the karyotypes of 45,X monosomy (TURNER SYNDROME); 46,XX (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46XX); 46,XY (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY); and sex chromosome MOSAICISM; (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, MIXED). Their phenotypes range from female, through ambiguous, to male. This concept includes gonadal agenesis.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Organometallic compounds which contain tin and three alkyl groups.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.

International trends in rates of hypospadias and cryptorchidism. (1/499)

Researchers from seven European nations and the United States have published reports of increasing rates of hypospadias during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Reports of increasing rates of cryptorchidism have come primarily from England. In recent years, these reports have become one focus of the debate over endocrine disruption. This study examines more recent data from a larger number of countries participating in the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS) to address the questions of whether such increases are worldwide and continuing and whether there are geographic patterns to any observed increases. The ICBDMS headquarters and individual systems provided the data. Systems were categorized into five groups based on gross domestic product in 1984. Hypospadias increases were most marked in two American systems and in Scandinavia and Japan. The increases leveled off in many systems after 1985. Increases were not seen in less affluent nations. Cryptorchidism rates were available for 10 systems. Clear increases in this anomaly were seen in two U.S. systems and in the South American system, but not elsewhere. Since 1985, rates declined in most systems. Numerous artifacts may contribute to or cause upward trends in hypospadias. Possible "real" causes include demographic changes and endocrine disruption, among others.  (+info)

Management of the impalpable testis: the role of laparoscopy. (2/499)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of laparoscopy in the management of the impalpable testis. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of the clinical findings, interventions, and outcome in 87 consecutive boys undergoing laparoscopy for 97 impalpable testes. RESULTS: Fifty seven testes were either absent (n = 35) or present as a small remnant (n = 22), which was removed at contemporaneous groin exploration. There were 27 intra-abdominal testes, including four hypoplastic testes, which were removed laparoscopically. The 13 remaining viable testes were located in the groin. Conventional orchidopexy followed laparoscopy for 21 testes, and was successful in 17 cases. Two stage laparoscopically assisted Fowler Stevens orchidopexies were performed for 13 intra-abdominal testes, with eight satisfactory results. Ultrasound evaluation significantly reduced the number of conventional orchidopexies following laparoscopy. IMPLICATIONS: Laparoscopy is a rational and safe approach for precise localisation of the impalpable testis. Laparoscopically assisted two stage orchidopexy is a successful treatment procedure for intra-abdominal testes.  (+info)

Experimental cryptorchidism induces a change in the pattern of expression of LH receptor mRNA in rat testis after selective Leydig cell destruction by ethylene dimethane sulfonate. (3/499)

In the rat, the cytotoxic drug ethylene dimethane sulfonate (EDS) selectively eliminates mature Leydig cells (LCs) from testicular interstitium, activating a complex process of proliferation and differentiation of pre-existing LC precursors. We observed previously that after EDS treatment, the early LC precursors persistently express a truncated 1.8 kb form of LH receptor (LHR) mRNA. This prompted us to study whether experimental cryptorchidism, known to alter the process of LC repopulation, can influence the pattern of testicular LHR mRNA expression after EDS administration. EDS treatment completely eliminated mature LCs both in control and unilaterally cryptorchid (UC) rats. This response was followed by gradual reappearance of newly formed, functionally active LCs, as evidenced by the recovery in testicular LHR content and plasma testosterone levels in both experimental groups. Noteworthy, the rate of LC repopulation was higher in the abdominal testes of UC rats, in keeping with previous findings. Interestingly, the 1.8 kb LHR transcript was persistently expressed in scrotal testes at all time-points, but undetectable upon Northern hybridization in abdominal testes at early stages after EDS administration, when low levels of expression of truncated LHR transcripts could only be detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. In addition, the faster LC repopulation in cryptorchid testes was associated with precocious recovery of the complete array of LHR mRNA transcripts, including the 1.8 kb species. These changes appeared acutely and irreversibly, as unilateral positioning of scrotal testes into the abdomen resulted in a rapid loss of expression of the 1.8 kb LHR transcript, whereas scrotal relocation of the UC testes failed to alter the pattern of LHR gene expression. In conclusion, experimental cryptorchidism changes the pattern of LHR mRNA expression in rat testis after selective LC destruction by EDS. This change, i.e. repression of the 1.8 kb LHR transcript after EDS administration, is acute and irreversible, and likely related to the impairment of testicular microenvironment following cryptorchidism. However, even though at low levels, the expression of truncated forms of LHR mRNA appears to be a universal feature of proliferating LC precursors. The UC testis may represent a good model for analysis of the regulatory signals involved in the control of LHR gene expression.  (+info)

Ooplasmic injections of rabbit round spermatid nuclei or intact round spermatids from fresh, cryopreserved and cryostored samples. (4/499)

We compared the outcome of ooplasmic round spermatid nuclear injections (ROSNI) versus intact round spermatid injections (ROSI). Rabbit round spermatid nuclei and intact round spermatids were recovered and injected into rabbit oocytes (groups A and B, respectively). Fertilization, cleavage and embryonic development rates were compared. In additional studies, five protocols for cryopreservation of round spermatids and two protocols for cryostorage of round spermatids were applied. The outcome of ROSNI techniques using frozen-thawed or cryostored-warmed round spermatids was evaluated. The cleavage rate and the overall morula plus blastocyst development rate were significantly larger in group A than group B. ROSNI procedures are superior to ROSI techniques in the rabbit. The largest fertilization, cleavage and embryonic development rates after ROSNI techniques using cryopreserved or cryostored round spermatids were demonstrated in groups of round spermatids in which a mixture of seminal plasma plus test yolk buffer was employed as an extender, and dimethyl sulphoxide plus a high concentration of glycerol served as cryoprotectants. It appears that the seminal plasma contains factors protecting round spermatids during cryopreservation or cryostorage, and/or the employment of two cryoprotectants has a beneficial role in the maintenance of round spermatid reproductive capacity.  (+info)

Risk factors for testicular cancer: a case-control study in twins. (5/499)

Early life and anthropometric risk factors for testicular cancer were examined in a case-control study in England and Wales in which affected male twins were compared with their unaffected male co-twins. Questionnaire data was obtained for 60 twin pairs. Significantly raised risk of testicular cancer occurred in twins who had longer arms and legs than their co-twin. There was a significant excess of testicular cancer reported in non-twin brothers, as well as in twin brothers, of cases. Risk was also significantly raised in relation to cryptorchidism. The results on limb length suggest that factors, perhaps nutritional, affecting growth before puberty, may be causes of testicular cancer. The results on risk in brothers add to evidence of a large genetic component in aetiology of the tumour. The risk associated with cryptorchidism in the twins accords with the hypothesis that cryptorchidism is causally associated with testicular cancer because it is a cause of the malignancy, rather than because the same maternal factors experienced in utero cause both conditions.  (+info)

Improvement of spermatogenesis in adult cryptorchid rat testis by intratesticular infusion of lactate. (6/499)

In order to test the hypothesis that a lack of energy could be a cause of germ cell death at high temperatures, cryptorchid rats testes were infused with lactate, delivered by osmotic pumps over 3-15 days. In cryptorchid testes, the spermatids and spermatocytes were lost between 3 and 8 days. In cryptorchid testes supplemented with lactate, elongated spermatids persisted in a few seminiferous tubules at Day 15. Elimination of round spermatids occurred progressively between 3 and 15 days, mostly at stage VIII. The loss of spermatocytes increased after 8 days, and 30% of seminiferous tubules still contained meiotic or meiotic plus spermiogenetic cells at Day 15. After 8 days, the chromatin of step 8 round spermatids was abnormal and nuclear elongation did not commence. The Sertoli cell cytoplasm that was retracted toward the basal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium could not hold the germ cells of the adluminal compartment. Therefore, attachment of germ cells to Sertoli cells and the supply of lactate seem necessary for the development of germ cells at high temperatures. The improvement in spermatogenesis in cryptorchid supplemented testes for several days is a new finding.  (+info)

Incidence of testicular cancer in the United States: has the epidemic begun to abate? (7/499)

In response to a report that testicular cancer incidence in non-Hispanic White males in Los Angeles county had fallen in the 1990s, particularly in young men, the authors analyzed data collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program from 1973 to 1995. While the incidence rate of testicular cancer in US White males ages 15-64 years did stabilize in the first half of the 1990s, after a number of years of a steady increase, there was no indication of an actual decline.  (+info)

Arrest of spermatogonial differentiation in jsd/jsd, Sl17H/Sl17H, and cryptorchid mice. (8/499)

The nature of the spermatogenic arrest in cryptorchid C57Bl mice and in jsd/jsd and Sl17H/Sl17H mutant mice was identified by studying whole mounts of seminiferous tubules. In all three types of mice, virtually only A spermatogonia were found, topographically arranged in clones of 1 to 16 (rarely more) cells. These clonal sizes are typical for undifferentiated spermatogonia. The proportion of these cells lying in chains of more than 2 cells (50-70%) was comparable to that seen in epithelial stages VII-VIII in the normal epithelium. It is concluded that in all three types of mice, spermatogenesis is arrested at the point where the undifferentiated A spermatogonia, specifically A(al) spermatogonia, differentiate into the first generation of the differentiating-type spermatogonia, the A1 spermatogonia. The remaining A spermatogonia were proliferating, but no accumulation of spermatogonia was present, as spermatogonial apoptosis also took place. Spermatogonial clones of all sizes were seen to undergo apoptosis, but there were relatively many large apoptotic clones, indicating that the clones became more vulnerable when they became larger. In contrast to what is seen in the normal epithelium, odd-numbered clones, not composed of 2(n) cells, were present, as well as clumps of 2 or more spermatogonial nuclei in the same cytoplasm, in all three types of mice. This indicates a lack of integrity of spermatogonial clones, also observed in other situations with a relative paucity of cells on the basal membrane. It is concluded that the differentiation of the undifferentiated spermatogonia, affected in all three types of mice as well as in vitamin A-deficient animals, is a rather vulnerable point in the spermatogenic developmental pathway.  (+info)

Cryptorchidism is a medical condition in which one or both of a male infant's testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum before birth or within the first year of life. Normally, the testicles descend from the abdomen into the scrotum during fetal development in the second trimester. If the testicles do not descend on their own, medical intervention may be necessary to correct the condition.

Cryptorchidism is a common birth defect, affecting about 3-5% of full-term and 30% of preterm male infants. In most cases, the testicle will descend on its own within the first six months of life. If it does not, treatment may be necessary to prevent complications such as infertility, testicular cancer, and inguinal hernia.

Treatment for cryptorchidism typically involves surgery to bring the testicle down into the scrotum. This procedure is called orchiopexy and is usually performed before the age of 2. In some cases, hormonal therapy may be used as an alternative to surgery. However, this approach has limited success and is generally only recommended in certain situations.

Overall, cryptorchidism is a treatable condition that can help prevent future health problems if addressed early on. Regular check-ups with a pediatrician or healthcare provider can help ensure timely diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

Hypospadias is a congenital condition in males where the urethral opening (meatus), which is the end of the urethra through which urine exits, is not located at the tip of the penis but instead appears on the underside of the penis. The severity of hypospadias can vary, with some cases having the meatus located closer to the tip and others further down on the shaft or even at the scrotum or perineum (the area between the scrotum and the anus). This condition affects about 1 in every 200-250 male newborns. The exact cause of hypospadias is not fully understood, but it's believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Surgical correction is usually recommended during infancy or early childhood to prevent complications such as difficulty urinating while standing, problems with sexual function, and psychological issues related to body image.

Orchiopexy is a surgical procedure in which the testicle (or testicles) that have descended into the scrotum incompletely or not at all (undescended or retractile testes) are fixed into their normal position within the scrotum. This procedure is typically performed on boys, often between the ages of 6 and 12 months, to correct cryptorchidism, a condition where one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum.

The main goals of orchiopexy are to:

1. Place the testicle in its proper anatomical location within the scrotum.
2. Fix the testicle in a stable position to prevent retractile testes from moving back into the inguinal canal.
3. Preserve the testicular blood supply and innervation, ensuring normal testicular function and development.
4. Lower the risk of testicular torsion (twisting of the spermatic cord) and malignancy in later life.

Orchiopexy can be performed through an open or laparoscopic approach, depending on the location of the undescended testicle(s). The choice of surgical technique depends on factors such as the patient's age, associated conditions, and surgeon's preference.

The testis, also known as the testicle, is a male reproductive organ that is part of the endocrine system. It is located in the scrotum, outside of the abdominal cavity. The main function of the testis is to produce sperm and testosterone, the primary male sex hormone.

The testis is composed of many tiny tubules called seminiferous tubules, where sperm are produced. These tubules are surrounded by a network of blood vessels, nerves, and supportive tissues. The sperm then travel through a series of ducts to the epididymis, where they mature and become capable of fertilization.

Testosterone is produced in the Leydig cells, which are located in the interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules. Testosterone plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It also supports sperm production and sexual function.

Abnormalities in testicular function can lead to infertility, hormonal imbalances, and other health problems. Regular self-examinations and medical check-ups are recommended for early detection and treatment of any potential issues.

A testicular hydrocele is a type of fluid-filled sac that forms around the testicle (testis), typically in the scrotum. This sac, known as the tunica vaginalis, normally contains a small amount of fluid that helps to lubricate and protect the testicle. However, when an excessive amount of fluid accumulates in this sac, it results in the formation of a hydrocele.

Testicular hydroceles can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired later in life due to various reasons such as injury, inflammation, or infection in the scrotal area. They are usually painless but may cause discomfort or a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum, especially when they become large. In some cases, hydroceles may resolve on their own without treatment, while others may require surgical intervention to drain the fluid and repair the underlying issue.

It is essential to differentiate between hydroceles and other conditions with similar symptoms, such as hernias or tumors, which may require more urgent medical attention. A healthcare professional can perform a physical examination and possibly recommend further testing, like an ultrasound, to confirm the diagnosis of a testicular hydrocele.

"Male genitalia" refers to the reproductive and sexual organs that are typically present in male individuals. These structures include:

1. Testes: A pair of oval-shaped glands located in the scrotum that produce sperm and testosterone.
2. Epididymis: A long, coiled tube that lies on the surface of each testicle where sperm matures and is stored.
3. Vas deferens: A pair of muscular tubes that transport sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.
4. Seminal vesicles: Glands that produce a fluid that mixes with sperm to create semen.
5. Prostate gland: A small gland that surrounds the urethra and produces a fluid that also mixes with sperm to create semen.
6. Bulbourethral glands (Cowper's glands): Two pea-sized glands that produce a lubricating fluid that is released into the urethra during sexual arousal.
7. Urethra: A tube that runs through the penis and carries urine from the bladder out of the body, as well as semen during ejaculation.
8. Penis: The external organ that serves as both a reproductive and excretory organ, expelling both semen and urine.

Urogenital surgical procedures refer to surgeries that are performed on the urinary and genital systems. The urinary system includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, while the genital system includes the reproductive organs such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, prostate, and penis.

Urogenital surgical procedures can be performed for various reasons, including the treatment of diseases, injuries, or congenital abnormalities. Some examples of urogenital surgical procedures include:

1. Cystectomy: the removal of the bladder.
2. Nephrectomy: the removal of a kidney.
3. Prostatectomy: the removal of all or part of the prostate gland.
4. Hysterectomy: the removal of the uterus and sometimes the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
5. Vasectomy: a surgical procedure for male sterilization, in which the vas deferens is cut and tied.
6. Vaginoplasty: a surgical procedure to construct or repair a vagina.
7. Urethroplasty: a surgical procedure to reconstruct or repair the urethra.
8. Pyeloplasty: a surgical procedure to correct a congenital or acquired narrowing of the renal pelvis, the area where urine collects before flowing into the ureter.

These procedures can be performed using various surgical techniques, including open surgery, laparoscopic surgery, and robotic-assisted surgery. The choice of technique depends on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and extent of the disease or injury, and the surgeon's expertise.

Heptachlor epoxide is a metabolite and environmental breakdown product of heptachlor, which is a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide. It is an organochlorine compound that was widely used in the past for agricultural and residential pest control purposes, including termite treatments and crop protection.

Heptachlor epoxide is formed through the oxidation of heptachlor by various biological and environmental processes. It is more stable and persistent in the environment compared to heptachlor, making it a significant contaminant in soil, water, and air. Heptachlor epoxide has been classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It can accumulate in the fatty tissues of living organisms, including humans, and poses potential risks to human health and the environment.

Testicular diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the testicles, the male reproductive organs located in the scrotum. These diseases can affect either one or both testicles and may cause pain, swelling, or impact fertility. Here are some examples of testicular diseases:

1. Testicular cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the testicle. It is a relatively rare cancer but is highly treatable if detected early.
2. Testicular torsion: A surgical emergency that occurs when the spermatic cord, which supplies blood to the testicle, becomes twisted, cutting off the blood flow.
3. Epididymitis: An infection or inflammation of the epididymis, a coiled tube that stores and carries sperm from the testicle.
4. Orchitis: An infection or inflammation of the testicle itself. It can occur on its own or as a complication of mumps.
5. Hydrocele: A fluid-filled sac that forms around the testicle, causing swelling.
6. Varicocele: Enlarged veins in the scrotum that can cause pain and affect fertility.
7. Inguinal hernia: A condition where a portion of the intestine or fat protrudes through a weakened area in the abdominal wall, often appearing as a bulge in the groin or scrotum.
8. Testicular trauma: Injury to the testicle, which can result from accidents, sports injuries, or other causes.
9. Undescended testicles: A condition where one or both testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum before birth.

It is essential for men to perform regular self-examinations to check for any unusual lumps, swelling, or pain in the testicles and seek medical attention if they notice any changes.

Leydig cells, also known as interstitial cells of Leydig or interstitial cell-stroma, are cells in the testes that produce and release testosterone and other androgens into the bloodstream. They are located in the seminiferous tubules of the testis, near the blood vessels, and are named after Franz Leydig, the German physiologist who discovered them in 1850.

Leydig cells contain cholesterol esters, which serve as precursors for the synthesis of testosterone. They respond to luteinizing hormone (LH) released by the anterior pituitary gland, which stimulates the production and release of testosterone. Testosterone is essential for the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It also plays a role in sperm production and bone density.

In addition to their endocrine function, Leydig cells have been shown to have non-hormonal functions, including phagocytosis, antigen presentation, and immune regulation. However, these functions are not as well understood as their hormonal roles.

Chlordane is a man-made chlorinated hydrocarbon compound that was widely used as a pesticide, particularly for termite control, from the 1940s until it was banned in the United States in 1988 due to its toxicity and persistence in the environment. It is a colorless or light brown liquid with a mild, aromatic odor.

Chlordane is an extremely toxic compound to insects and has been shown to have negative effects on human health as well. Exposure to chlordane can cause a range of adverse health effects, including neurological damage, liver toxicity, and an increased risk of cancer. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Chlordane is highly persistent in the environment and can accumulate in the food chain, posing a particular risk to wildlife and humans who consume contaminated food or water. It can also volatilize from soil and water into the air, where it can be transported long distances and contribute to air pollution. As a result, chlordane continues to pose a significant environmental and health hazard, even though its use has been banned for several decades.

Seminiferous tubules are the long, convoluted tubes within the testicles that are responsible for producing sperm in males. They are lined with specialized epithelial cells called Sertoli cells, which provide structural support and nourishment to developing sperm cells. The seminiferous tubules also contain germ cells, which divide and differentiate into spermatozoa (sperm) through the process of spermatogenesis.

The seminiferous tubules are surrounded by a thin layer of smooth muscle called the tunica albuginea, which helps to maintain the structure and integrity of the testicle. The tubules are connected to the rete testis, a network of channels that transport sperm to the epididymis for further maturation and storage before ejaculation.

Damage or dysfunction of the seminiferous tubules can lead to male infertility, as well as other reproductive health issues.

Male infertility is a condition characterized by the inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. It is typically defined as the failure to achieve a pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.

The causes of male infertility can be varied and include issues with sperm production, such as low sperm count or poor sperm quality, problems with sperm delivery, such as obstructions in the reproductive tract, or hormonal imbalances that affect sperm production. Other factors that may contribute to male infertility include genetic disorders, environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions or treatments.

It is important to note that male infertility can often be treated or managed with medical interventions, such as medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies (ART). A healthcare provider can help diagnose the underlying cause of male infertility and recommend appropriate treatment options.

Urogenital abnormalities refer to structural or functional anomalies that affect the urinary and genital systems. These two systems are closely linked during embryonic development, and sometimes they may not develop properly, leading to various types of congenital defects. Urogenital abnormalities can range from minor issues like a bifid scrotum (a condition where the scrotum is split into two parts) to more severe problems such as bladder exstrophy (where the bladder develops outside the body).

These conditions may affect urination, reproduction, and sexual function. They can also increase the risk of infections and other complications. Urogenital abnormalities can be diagnosed through physical examination, imaging tests, or genetic testing. Treatment options depend on the specific condition but may include surgery, medication, or lifestyle changes.

Organotin compounds are a group of chemical compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and tin. They have the general formula RnSnX4-n, where R represents an organic group (such as a methyl or phenyl group), X represents a halogen or other substituent, and n can range from 1 to 3. These compounds are used in a variety of applications, including as biocides, PVC stabilizers, and catalysts. However, they have also been found to have toxic effects on the immune system, endocrine system, and nervous system, and some organotin compounds have been restricted or banned for use in certain products due to these concerns.

Testicular neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors in the testicle that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They are a type of genitourinary cancer, which affects the reproductive and urinary systems. Testicular neoplasms can occur in men of any age but are most commonly found in young adults between the ages of 15 and 40.

Testicular neoplasms can be classified into two main categories: germ cell tumors and non-germ cell tumors. Germ cell tumors, which arise from the cells that give rise to sperm, are further divided into seminomas and non-seminomas. Seminomas are typically slow-growing and have a good prognosis, while non-seminomas tend to grow more quickly and can spread to other parts of the body.

Non-germ cell tumors are less common than germ cell tumors and include Leydig cell tumors, Sertoli cell tumors, and lymphomas. These tumors can have a variety of clinical behaviors, ranging from benign to malignant.

Testicular neoplasms often present as a painless mass or swelling in the testicle. Other symptoms may include a feeling of heaviness or discomfort in the scrotum, a dull ache in the lower abdomen or groin, and breast enlargement (gynecomastia).

Diagnosis typically involves a physical examination, imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan, and blood tests to detect tumor markers. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these modalities. Regular self-examinations of the testicles are recommended for early detection and improved outcomes.

Sperm count, also known as sperm concentration, is the number of sperm present in a given volume of semen. The World Health Organization (WHO) previously defined a normal sperm count as at least 20 million sperm per milliliter of semen. However, more recent studies suggest that fertility may be affected even when sperm counts are slightly lower than this threshold. It's important to note that sperm count is just one factor among many that can influence male fertility. Other factors, such as sperm motility (the ability of sperm to move properly) and morphology (the shape of the sperm), also play crucial roles in successful conception.

The scrotum is a part of the external male genitalia. It's a sac-like structure made up of several layers of skin and smooth muscle, which hangs down behind and beneath the penis. The primary function of the scrotum is to maintain the testicles at a temperature slightly lower than the core body temperature, which is optimal for sperm production.

The scrotum contains two compartments, each one housing a testicle. It's located in the pubic region and is usually visible externally. The skin of the scrotum is thin and wrinkled, which allows it to expand and contract depending on the temperature, accommodating the shrinking or swelling of the testicles.

Please note that while I strive to provide accurate information, this definition is intended to be a general overview and should not replace professional medical advice.

Spermatogenesis is the process by which sperm cells, or spermatozoa, are produced in male organisms. It occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes and involves several stages:

1. Spermatocytogenesis: This is the initial stage where diploid spermatogonial stem cells divide mitotically to produce more spermatogonia, some of which will differentiate into primary spermatocytes.
2. Meiosis: The primary spermatocytes undergo meiotic division to form haploid secondary spermatocytes, which then divide again to form haploid spermatids. This process results in the reduction of chromosome number from 46 (diploid) to 23 (haploid).
3. Spermiogenesis: The spermatids differentiate into spermatozoa, undergoing morphological changes such as the formation of a head and tail. During this stage, most of the cytoplasm is discarded, resulting in highly compacted and streamlined sperm cells.
4. Spermation: The final stage where mature sperm are released from the seminiferous tubules into the epididymis for further maturation and storage.

The entire process takes approximately 72-74 days in humans, with continuous production throughout adulthood.

I'm not sure I understand your question. "Denmark" is a country located in Northern Europe, and it is not a medical term or concept. It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, and it consists of the Jutland peninsula and several islands in the Baltic Sea. The capital city of Denmark is Copenhagen.

If you are looking for information about a medical condition that may be associated with Denmark, could you please provide more context or clarify your question? I would be happy to help you with more specific information if I can.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Endocrine disruptors are defined as exogenous (external) substances or mixtures that interfere with the way hormones work in the body, leading to negative health effects. They can mimic, block, or alter the normal synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, or elimination of natural hormones in the body responsible for maintaining homeostasis, reproduction, development, and/or behavior.

Endocrine disruptors can be found in various sources, including industrial chemicals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. They have been linked to a range of health problems, such as cancer, reproductive issues, developmental disorders, neurological impairments, and immune system dysfunction.

Examples of endocrine disruptors include bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), and certain pesticides like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and vinclozolin.

It is important to note that endocrine disruptors can have effects at very low doses, and their impact may depend on the timing of exposure, particularly during critical windows of development such as fetal growth and early childhood.

Sertoli cells, also known as sustentacular cells or nurse cells, are specialized cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis in mammals. They play a crucial role in supporting and nurturing the development of sperm cells (spermatogenesis). Sertoli cells create a microenvironment within the seminiferous tubules that facilitates the differentiation, maturation, and survival of germ cells.

These cells have several essential functions:

1. Blood-testis barrier formation: Sertoli cells form tight junctions with each other, creating a physical barrier called the blood-testis barrier, which separates the seminiferous tubules into basal and adluminal compartments. This barrier protects the developing sperm cells from the immune system and provides an isolated environment for their maturation.
2. Nutrition and support: Sertoli cells provide essential nutrients and growth factors to germ cells, ensuring their proper development and survival. They also engulf and digest residual bodies, which are byproducts of spermatid differentiation.
3. Phagocytosis: Sertoli cells have phagocytic properties, allowing them to remove debris and dead cells within the seminiferous tubules.
4. Hormone metabolism: Sertoli cells express receptors for various hormones, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, and estradiol. They play a role in regulating hormonal signaling within the testis by metabolizing these hormones or producing inhibins, which modulate FSH secretion from the pituitary gland.
5. Regulation of spermatogenesis: Sertoli cells produce and secrete various proteins and growth factors that influence germ cell development and proliferation. They also control the release of mature sperm cells into the epididymis through a process called spermiation.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Gonadal dysgenesis is a condition characterized by the abnormal development of the gonads, which are the reproductive organs that produce sex hormones and gametes (sperm or eggs). In individuals with gonadal dysgenesis, the gonads may be underdeveloped, structurally abnormal, or completely absent. This condition can affect people of any gender and is often associated with other genetic disorders, such as Turner or Klinefelter syndromes.

The clinical presentation of gonadal dysgenesis varies widely depending on the severity of the disorder and the presence of other associated conditions. Some individuals may have normal sexual development and fertility, while others may experience delayed puberty, infertility, or ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal dysgenesis can also increase the risk of developing gonadal tumors, particularly in individuals with complete or partial absence of the gonads.

The diagnosis of gonadal dysgenesis is typically made through a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and genetic testing. Treatment may include hormone replacement therapy to support sexual development and prevent complications associated with hormonal imbalances. In some cases, surgical removal of the gonads may be recommended to reduce the risk of tumor development.

"Prenatal exposure delayed effects" refer to the adverse health outcomes or symptoms that become apparent in an individual during their development or later in life, which are caused by exposure to certain environmental factors or substances while they were still in the womb. These effects may not be immediately observable at birth and can take weeks, months, years, or even decades to manifest. They can result from maternal exposure to various agents such as infectious diseases, medications, illicit drugs, tobacco smoke, alcohol, or environmental pollutants during pregnancy. The delayed effects can impact multiple organ systems and may include physical, cognitive, behavioral, and developmental abnormalities. It is important to note that the risk and severity of these effects can depend on several factors, including the timing, duration, and intensity of the exposure, as well as the individual's genetic susceptibility.

Trialkyltin compounds are a category of organotin (oceanic) chemicals, characterized by the presence of three alkyl groups bonded to a tin atom. The general formula for these compounds is (CnH2n+1)3Sn, where n represents the number of carbon atoms in each alkyl group.

These compounds have been used in various industrial applications such as biocides, heat stabilizers, and PVC plasticizers. However, due to their high toxicity, environmental persistence, and potential bioaccumulation, their use has been restricted or banned in many countries.

Examples of trialkyltin compounds include tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT). TBT was widely used as an antifouling agent in marine paints to prevent the growth of barnacles, algae, and other organisms on ship hulls. However, due to its detrimental effects on marine life, particularly on shellfish and mollusks, its use has been largely phased out.

Trialkyltin compounds can have toxic effects on both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, including humans. They can cause neurological damage, impaired immune function, reproductive issues, and developmental abnormalities in various species.

"Maternal exposure" is a medical term that refers to the contact or interaction of a pregnant woman with various environmental factors, such as chemicals, radiation, infectious agents, or physical environments, which could potentially have an impact on the developing fetus. This exposure can occur through different routes, including inhalation, ingestion, dermal contact, or even transplacentally. The effects of maternal exposure on the fetus can vary widely depending on the type, duration, and intensity of the exposure, as well as the stage of pregnancy at which it occurs. It is important to monitor and minimize maternal exposure to potentially harmful substances or environments during pregnancy to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and developing fetus.

... may develop after infancy, sometimes as late as young adulthood, but that is exceptional. Cryptorchidism is ... In horses, cryptorchidism is sufficiently common that affected males (ridglings) are routinely gelded. Rarely, cryptorchidism ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cryptorchidism. Kidshealth.org: Cryptorchidism (CS1 maint: location missing publisher, ... Cryptorchidism, also known as undescended testis, is the failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum. The word is ...
... is a rare multi-systemic genetic disorder of unknown prevalence ... "Cryptorchidism-arachnodactyly-intellectual disability syndrome (Concept Id: C4707233) - MedGen - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. ... "Orphanet: Cryptorchidism arachnodactyly intellectual disability syndrome". www.orpha.net. Retrieved 2022-05-30. "Van Benthem- ... cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and testicular agenesis. No new cases have been reported since 1970. RESERVED, INSERM US14-- ALL ...
ISBN 978-0-443-06612-2. "Cryptorchidism". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 20 July 2021. Mellick LB, Mowery ML, ... this reflex may be exaggerated which can occasionally lead to a misdiagnosis of cryptorchidism. The cremasteric reflex may be ...
FGFR2 Cryptorchidism, bilateral; 219050; LGR8 Cryptorchidism, idiopathic; 219050; INSL3 Currarino syndrome; 176450; MNX1 Cutis ...
Another common disorder in male Pomeranians is cryptorchidism. This is when either one or both of the testicles do not descend ... Ward, Ernest (2009). "Cryptorchidism in Dogs". Shores Animal Clinic. Lifelearn. Retrieved 21 January 2011. "Pomeranian Care: ...
Individuals diagnosed with cryptorchidism are often at risk of testicular cancer and infertility due to dysfunction in the ... Cryptorchidism, also known as undescended testis, is a common birth defect affecting male genital formation. ... Loebenstein, Moshe; Thorup, Jorgen; Cortes, Dina; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Hutson, John M; Li, Ruili (2019). "Cryptorchidism, ... Leslie, Stephen W.; Sajjad, Hussain; Villanueva, Carlos A. (2020), "Cryptorchidism", StatPearls, StatPearls Publishing, PMID ...
"Cryptorchidism in the horse". equine-reproduction.com. Retrieved 2015-08-12. McDonnell, Sue (3 April 2013). "Castrated and ... "Cryptorchidism (Undescended Testicles) in Horses ACVS". www.acvs.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12. Paulick, Ray (5 November 2004). " ... When a male horse thought to be a gelding exhibits aggressive or sexual behavior, cryptorchidism is suspected. Sometimes, a ... but cryptorchidism also can be an issue in dogs and cats. Because the heat inside the body is too high for sperm to survive, an ...
Cryptorchidism Orchiopexy Stevenson, Roger; Hall, Judith (2006). Human malformations and related anomalies. Oxford New York: ...
This is called cryptorchidism. In most cases of cryptorchidism, the issue will mostly resolve itself within the first half year ... Cryptorchidism, or "undescended testicles", is when the testicle does not descend into the scrotum of an infant boy. Testicular ... Microscopic view of Rabbit testis 100× Testicle Anorchia Bollocks Cryptorchidism (cryptorchismus) Ejaculation Eunuchs Gelding ...
In cryptorchidism a diagnosis is made from a physical examination which is performed when the baby is lacking one or both ... The risk factors for cryptorchidism are: A family history of the condition Low birth weight Prematurity Poor semen quality is ... Risk factors for TC include: Cryptorchidism Family history Previous testicular cancer The diagnosis is confirmed in different ... The downstream disorders of such abnormalities can include both genital malformations (e.g. hypospadias and cryptorchidism) and ...
Dada R, Gupta NP, Kucheria K (2003). "Cryptorchidism and AZF microdeletion". Asian J. Androl. 4 (2): 148. PMID 12085107. Dada R ... Gupta NP, Kucheria K (2003). "AZF microdeletions associated with idiopathic and non-idiopathic cases with cryptorchidism and ...
"Hormonal therapy of cryptorchidism." New England Journal of Medicine 314.8 (1986): 466-470. Ehrlich, R. M. et al. "Laparoscopic ...
Cryptorchidism (undescended testicles) at birth. Low levels of the gonadotropins LH and FSH. Hypogonadism due to low levels of ... cryptorchidism) in males. Measuring testicular volume. Checking for breast development and age at menarche in females. Checking ...
Additional research published in Finland in 2012 has further confirmed an increased risk of cryptorchidism among males exposed ... Virtanen HE, Adamsson A (May 2012). "Cryptorchidism and endocrine disrupting chemicals". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. ... such as cryptorchidism and hypospadias. Research published in the U.S. by Palmer et al. in 2009 further confirmed evidence of ... "Association of diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero with cryptorchidism, testicular hypoplasia and semen abnormalities". The ...
In males, cryptorchidism is common. Abnormal genitalia in females is not a common feature. Renal abnormalities have been ...
The mutations in this gene may lead to, but not a frequent cause of, cryptorchidism. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Nef S, Parada LF (July 1999). "Cryptorchidism in mice mutant for Insl3". Nature Genetics. 22 (3): 295-9. doi:10.1038/10364. ... no relationship with cryptorchidism". Pediatric Research. 47 (4 Pt 1): 538-41. doi:10.1203/00006450-200004000-00020. PMID ... "Insulin-like 3/relaxin-like factor gene mutations are associated with cryptorchidism". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology ...
Cryptorchidism is reported in some individuals. Individuals with XLI appear at increased risk of developmental disorders such ...
Hypospadias and cryptorchidism have been observed. TET3 gene encodes for Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 3 (TET3) which-similar ...
Cryptorchidism, the failure of one or both of the testes to descend to the scrotum, has been known to lead to sexual identity ... Galifer, R. B.; Kalfa, N.; Guibal, M. P. (2004). "What a hidden testicle can hide?...or the clinical traps of cryptorchidism". ... Symptoms visible at or shortly after birth include: cryptorchidism strabismus seizures Some other symptoms that become more ... such as cryptorchidism, strabismus, learning disabilities, and myopathy, tend to have an added psychological effect on the ...
... cryptorchidism, and infertility. Unlike other GnRH analogues, it is not used to suppress sex hormone production. Gonadorelin is ...
By his teens, Blount suffered from cryptorchidism. It left him with a nearly constant discomfort that sometimes flared into ...
These cases were found in patients who also had a history of cryptorchidism, which is a known risk factor for testicular cancer ... The reported cases have occurred in patients with a history of cryptorchidism, which is associated with an elevated risk of ... The most commonly associated malformation is cryptorchidism. When limb abnormalities occur, Splenogonadal Fusion with Limb ... and most commonly cryptorchidism. Terminal limb defects have been documented in at least 25 cases which makes up a separate ...
These include cryptorchidism, hypoplastic scrotum, microphallus, and hypospadias. These men could be diagnosed[clarification ...
Cryptorchidism is associated with tubular atrophy and sterility. In addition, cryptorchid testes carry a three to five times ... The first attempts at surgical correction of cryptorchidism began in the early 1800s. Before this, inguinal testis were managed ... Cryptorchidism is definitively diagnosed after 1 year of age, as testicular descent may occur after birth. Surgical placement ... Early orchiopexy reduces the risks for cancer and sterility in males with cryptorchidism, or undescended testes.[citation ...
Reported findings include micropenis and cryptorchidism (undescended testes). Adults generally have sparse or absent facial ...
Cryptorchidism: prepubertal orchidopexy may prevent testis cancer J Urol. 178:1440-6; discussion 1446, 2007 , Walsh TJ, Davies ...
... cryptorchidism). A small minority of those affected have had congenital joint contractures such as club foot. Those with ...
Some common complications of this distinct syndrome cryptorchidism are testicular torsion, and its link to testicular cancer. ... Raveenthiran V (Dec 2005). "Congenital Spigelian hernia with cryptorchidism: probably a new syndrome". Hernia. 9 (4): 378-80. ... Raveenthiran described a new syndrome in which Spigelian hernia and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) occur together. ... Obstructed indirect Component and Direct Component with Cryptorchidism". Case Reports in Surgery. 2011: 1461425. doi:10.1155/ ...
They can also develop achondroplasia, cryptorchidism, and degenerative myelopathy. The Northern Inuit Society, founded in the ...
Hypospadias and cryptorchidism are conditions which may be induced in males with short AGD. Other problems in males include ... Hsieh MH, Breyer BN, Eisenberg ML, Baskin LS (March 2008). "Associations among hypospadias, cryptorchidism, anogenital distance ... disruption of which leads to hypospadias and cryptorchidism". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 118 (4): 1479-1490. doi: ...
Cryptorchidism may develop after infancy, sometimes as late as young adulthood, but that is exceptional. Cryptorchidism is ... In horses, cryptorchidism is sufficiently common that affected males (ridglings) are routinely gelded. Rarely, cryptorchidism ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cryptorchidism. Kidshealth.org: Cryptorchidism (CS1 maint: location missing publisher, ... Cryptorchidism, also known as undescended testis, is the failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum. The word is ...
Cryptorchidism is the most common abnormality of male sexual development. In this condition, the testis is not located in the ... The rate of infertility is higher in patients with bilateral cryptorchidism than in those with unilateral cryptorchidism or in ... encoded search term (Pediatric Cryptorchidism Surgery) and Pediatric Cryptorchidism Surgery What to Read Next on Medscape ... Theories of pathophysiology of cryptorchidism. Several potential explanations for the pathophysiology of cryptorchidism have ...
India Cryptorchidism Surgeons India,Cryptorchidism Surgery India,India Cost Cryptorchidism Surgery Mumbai Delhi. ... India Surgery Cryptorchidism, Cryptorchidism Surgery, Cryptorchidism, Cryptorchidism, Cryptorchidism Surgery, India ... India Cryptorchidism, India Low Cost Cryptorchidism Delhi, India Cryptorchidism Hospital Delhi, India Cryptorchidism Mumbai ... Cryptorchidism - Undescended Testes India offers information on Cryptorchidism - Undescended Testes in India, Cryptorchidism - ...
Cryptorchidism. Cryptorchidism: A condition in which one or both testicles fail to move from the abdomen, where they develop ... Disclaimer: Cryptorchidism definition / meaning should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used ... Boys who have had cryptorchidism that was not corrected in early childhood are at increased risk for developing cancer of the ...
Cryptorchidism - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional ... Cryptorchidism affects about 3% of term infants and up to 30% of preterm infants Preterm Infants An infant born before 37 weeks ... Complications of cryptorchidism Undescended testes may cause subfertility and are associated with testicular carcinoma ... Pathophysiology of Cryptorchidism Normally, the testes develop at 7 to 8 weeks gestation and remain cephalad to the internal ...
What Is Cryptorchidism In Canine?. Cryptorchidism is a situation through which one or each of a canines testes dont drop to ... Does Pet Insurance coverage Cowl Cryptorchidism?. Sure, pet insurance coverage usually covers cryptorchidism so long as no ... Pet insurance coverage covers many circumstances apart from cryptorchidism. As a result of cryptorchidism protection is pretty ... Cryptorchidism may cause confusion for pet dad and mom desirous to know if insurance coverage will cowl it. It is because the ...
cryptorchidism). Females with this condition have normal genitalia.. Missing or underdeveloped patellae is the most common ...
ROTT: Mountain lions were seen with kinked tails; others with something called cryptorchidism. ...
Cryptorchidism (Undescended Testicle). Nguyen V, Ngo L, Jaqua EE. Nguyen V, et al. Among authors: ngo l. Am Fam Physician. 2023 ...
Cryptorchidism. Cryptorchidism is an undescended testicle, meaning that 1 or both testicles do not move down into the scrotum ... Because cryptorchidism is often fixed at a very young age, many people may not know if they had the condition. ... In addition, there are studies underway to look at possible inherited genetic factors leading to cryptorchidism and higher risk ... Some doctors recommend surgery for cryptorchidism between ages 6 months and 15 months to reduce the risk of infertility. ...
Anterior hypopituitarism manifests either in infancy or childhood (micropenis and cryptorchidism in males, and thyroid and ...
Cryptorchidism is one of the most common congenital disorders in boys and it is associated with a higher risk of sub-fertility ... The CAG26 allele alone or in combination with GGN23 was associated with a higher risk of bilateral cryptorchidism. On the other ... A total of 109 cases with idiopathic inguinal cryptorchidism (26 bilateral and 83 unilateral) were studied by polymerase chain ... To determine whether pediatric Chilean individuals with idiopathic inguinal cryptorchidism have a different number of CAG and/ ...
Cryptorchidism Is the Subject Area "Cryptorchidism" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Cryptorchidism. High. $200-$500. 5 Tips to Bring Home a Healthy Pomeranian Puppy. Dont ever, ever, ever buy a puppy from a pet ...
Cryptorchidism and testicular cancer: separating fact from fiction. J Urol 2009;181:452-61. ... Diagnostic performance of ultrasound in nonpalpable cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics 2011;127: ... Evaluation and treatment of cryptorchidism: AUA guideline. Linthicum (MD): American Urological Association; 2014. Available: ... The incidence of disorders of sexual differentiation and chromosomal abnormalities of cryptorchidism and hypospadias stratified ...
Beyond Pesticides, October 1, 2019) Commonly used fungicides induce trophic cascades that can lead to the overgrowth of algae, according to research published in the journal Chemosphere. While the current process for regulating pesticides in the U.S. focuses on the acute toxicity of pesticides, and may consider some chronic impacts, real world complexities as described in the current study are not reviewed. This gap in our assessment can lead to significant adverse effects not just on individual species, but entire ecosystems.. Researchers investigated how fungal parasites known as chytrids control the growth of phytoplankton. While some strains of chytrids are notorious for their impact to frog species, some do in fact provide important stopgaps within ecosystems.. "By infecting cyanobacteria, parasitic fungi limit their growth and thus reduce the occurrence and intensity of toxic algal blooms," says IGB researcher Ramsy Agha, PhD, co-author the study. "Whereas we usually perceive disease as a ...
Beyond Pesticides, February 6, 2024) A study published in Occupational and Environmental Medicine finds that pesticide exposure, especially during puberty, can play a role in ovarian cancer development among female farmers. Although there are many studies that evaluate the risk for cancers among farmers, very few pieces of literature cover the risk of ovarian cancer from pesticide exposure. Additionally, this study notes suggests the role of hormones in ovarian cancer prognosis and development, highlighting an association with endocrine disruption. Exposure to past and current-use endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), like pesticides, has a long history of severe adverse human health effects. Endocrine disruptors are xenobiotics (i.e., chemical substances like toxic pesticides foreign to an organism or ecosystem) present in nearly all organisms and ecosystems. The World Health Organization (WHO), European Union (EU), and endocrine disruptor expert (deceased) Theo Colborn, Ph.D., classify over ...
Cryptorchidism. *Hypospadias. *Simian palm crease. (Note: most individuals with KS will show no physical features during the ...
... is all go and no stop, and as one of the most active dog breeds in the world, needs vigorous exercise every day and often tires out his owner.
Cryptorchidism + Congenital malformations of penis and scrotum + Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) ...
Spigelian hernia with cryptorchidism syndrome 773623000. *Undescended left testicle 1010568002. *Undescended right testicle ...
Cryptorchidism.. *Testicle Conformation.. *Testicular Torsion.. *Testicular Tumours.. *Scrotal Hernia.. *Venereal diseases ( ...
Microdeletion at ESR1 Intron 6 (DEL_6_75504) Is a Susceptibility Factor for Cryptorchidism and Hypospadias. April 03, 2023 ...
The name rubella is derived from a Latin term meaning
Infertility [83,84,85] and cryptorchidism [86,87] are common risk factors for seminomas [15]. Physical examination usually ... history of cryptorchidism, scrotal pain or trauma), the clinical management is more cautious. In fact, these lesions are small ... cryptorchidism or oligo-/azoospermia) are present [1,15]. Hence, either in the case of palpable testicular masses or, ... cryptorchidism). In our opinion, in a few years, the new diagnostic paradigm will be "multiparametric imaging", combining more ...
Cryptorchidism in Dogs. Can you breed a dog with one testicle? Info on cryptorchidism... ...
Glendale Animal Hospital - Veterinary Clinic in Glendale, AZ
... suffers from cryptorchidism. Till date he is not operated. Is it too late to operate? ... Q: My friend, 24 years old, suffers from cryptorchidism. Till date he is not operated. Is it too late to operate? ...
  • The fertility reduction after orchiopexy for bilateral cryptorchidism is more marked, about 38%, or six times that of the general population. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is questionably an increased infertility in unilateral cryptorchidism and almost 100% of men with unrepaired bilateral cryptorchidism will be infertile. (indiasurgerytour.com)
  • 2/3 of bilateral cryptorchidism repaired later in childhood will be infertile. (indiasurgerytour.com)
  • hCG- may be successful with bilateral cryptorchidism, especially if the testes are near the scrotum. (indiasurgerytour.com)
  • Cryptorchidism can be unilateral (only occurring on one side) or bilateral (occurring on both sides). (vin.com)
  • Case report of bilateral cryptorchidism in bikaneri camel Indian Veterinary Journal 73:1080-1081, 1996. (omia.org)
  • A total of 109 cases with idiopathic inguinal cryptorchidism (26 bilateral and 83 unilateral) were studied by polymerase chain reaction amplification from DNA extracted from peripheral blood , followed by fragment size analysis by capillary electrophoresis , which were compared with 140 controls. (bvsalud.org)
  • Regarding the GGN repeats, no differences were observed between cases and controls either when analyzing separately unilateral and bilateral cryptorchidism . (bvsalud.org)
  • The CAG26 allele alone or in combination with GGN23 was associated with a higher risk of bilateral cryptorchidism . (bvsalud.org)
  • The reduction with unilateral cryptorchidism is subtle, with a reported infertility rate of about 10%, compared with about 6% reported by the same study for the general population of adult men. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unilateral cryptorchidism usually involves the right testicle. (vin.com)
  • Cryptorchidism, hypospadias, testicular cancer, and poor semen quality make up the syndrome known as testicular dysgenesis syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several potential explanations for the pathophysiology of cryptorchidism have been proposed, including gubernacular abnormalities, reduced intra-abdominal pressures, intrinsic testicular or epididymal abnormalities, and endocrine abnormalities, as well as anatomic anomalies (eg, fibrous bands within the inguinal canal or abnormal arrangement of the cremasteric muscle fibers). (medscape.com)
  • Males with cryptorchidism have an elevated threat of testicular most cancers and infertility . (insuranceinfonews.com)
  • Cryptorchidism is one of the most common congenital disorders in boys and it is associated with a higher risk of sub-fertility and testicular cancer . (bvsalud.org)
  • Cryptorchidism, also known as undescended testis, is the failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Failure for this event to occur in males leads to an undescended testis (testicle), otherwise known as cryptorchidism. (medscape.com)
  • Although cryptorchidism nearly always refers to congenital absence or maldescent, a testis observed in the scrotum in early infancy can occasionally "reascend" (move back up) into the inguinal canal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptorchidism is a condition in which a male's testicles have not descended (dropped) into the scrotum. (vin.com)
  • Cryptorchidism: A condition in which one or both testicles fail to move from the abdomen, where they develop before birth, down into the scrotum. (definithing.com)
  • Cryptorchidism is a situation through which one or each of a canine's testes don't drop to the scrotum. (insuranceinfonews.com)
  • Infertility is associated with cryptorchidism, and the risk of infertility increases with the degree of maldescent. (medscape.com)
  • CAG and GGN repeat polymorphisms in the androgen receptor gene of a Chilean pediatric cohort with idiopathic inguinal cryptorchidism. (bvsalud.org)
  • To determine whether pediatric Chilean individuals with idiopathic inguinal cryptorchidism have a different number of CAG and/or GGN repeats polymorphisms compared with controls. (bvsalud.org)
  • Congenital abnormalities that have been known to occur simultaneously with cryptorchidism are patellar luxation, shortened tail, kinked tail, tetralogy of Fallot, tarsal deformity, microphthalmia, and upper eyelid agenesis. (vin.com)
  • Cryptorchidism is distinct from monorchism, the condition of having only one testicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonetheless, the need for neutering your canine as a consequence of a cryptorchidism prognosis might make the castration surgical procedure and associated diagnostics eligible for protection by pet insurance coverage. (insuranceinfonews.com)
  • How A lot Is Surgical procedure For Cryptorchidism In Canine? (insuranceinfonews.com)
  • In whole, Georgie's surgical procedure for cryptorchidism price $1,229 . (insuranceinfonews.com)
  • Phthalates are a class of chemicals in plastic - they have been associated with various endocrine disorders in mammals, including cryptorchidism (undescended testicles) in males. (blogspot.com)
  • Cryptorchidism is a fairly common defect in dogs. (vin.com)
  • This survey will help us to further understand cryptorchidism and how to prevent the leading male birth defect. (blogspot.com)
  • Disclaimer: Cryptorchidism definition / meaning should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. (definithing.com)
  • Physical examination is the most important tool in the diagnostic evaluation of cryptorchidism. (medscape.com)
  • Physical examination will diagnose cryptorchidism. (indiasurgerytour.com)
  • [ 1 ] Cryptorchidism is the most common abnormality of male sexual development. (medscape.com)
  • Since cryptorchidism is considered to have a genetic basis, animals with this condition should not be used for breeding. (vin.com)
  • Surgical removal is the only treatment for cryptorchidism. (vin.com)
  • Boys who have had cryptorchidism that was not corrected in early childhood are at increased risk for developing cancer of the testicles. (definithing.com)
  • However, about 80% of cryptorchid testes descend by the first year of life (the majority within three months), making the true incidence of cryptorchidism around 1% overall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptorchidism is mostly recognized round six months previous. (insuranceinfonews.com)
  • You ought to enroll your canine in pet insurance coverage by at the very least 4 months previous to extend your probabilities of having pet insurance coverage protection for the opportunity of cryptorchidism. (insuranceinfonews.com)
  • Georgie, a King Charles Cavalier Spaniel, was recognized with cryptorchidism at six months previous. (insuranceinfonews.com)
  • RESULTS: The prevalence of cryptorchidism at 3 months of age was 6.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.0-12.4]. (cdc.gov)
  • Cryptorchidism , the medical term for undescended testicles, is among the most common birth defects in the United States. (blogspot.com)
  • The embryology of testis development is critical to understanding the most common theories formulated to explain cryptorchidism. (medscape.com)
  • The most common breed associated with cryptorchidism is the Persian. (vin.com)
  • The Masculine Heart: Cryptorchidism (undescended testicles) Is One of the Most Common Birth Defects in the U.S. (blogspot.com)
  • Cryptorchidism may develop after infancy, sometimes as late as young adulthood, but that is exceptional. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the theory based on reduced pressures has not explained most cases of cryptorchidism. (medscape.com)
  • NICHD encourages scientists interested in reproduction to lead the way in determining the genes and their mechanisms of action involved in the development of the gonads, reproductive ducts and genitalia, the processes of gametogenesis, normal and premature reproductive aging, and reproductive disorders such as infertility, cryptorchidism, endometriosis, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). (nih.gov)
  • Failure for this event to occur in males leads to an undescended testis (testicle), otherwise known as cryptorchidism. (medscape.com)
  • This is known as cryptorchidism, more commonly called undescended testicles. (healthychildren.org)
  • The etiology of cryptorchidism is multifactorial. (medscape.com)
  • 18. Targeted disruption of the Insl3 gene causes bilateral cryptorchidism. (nih.gov)
  • Cryptorchidism in dogs is a medical condition explained as a failure of one or both testicles to descend into the scrotum. (worlddogfinder.com)
  • The biggest concern with cryptorchidism in dogs is that retained testicles could develop into cancer and cause additional problems for your dog. (worlddogfinder.com)
  • Cryptorchidism is a condition where one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum, resulting in a retained testicle. (royalpetshospital.com)
  • Although the orchiopexy is recommended for cryptorchidism to preserve male fertility, non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) may occur in adulthood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the United States, the prevalence of cryptorchidism ranges from 3.7% at birth to 1.1% from age 1 year to adulthood. (medscape.com)
  • The prevalence of cryptorchidism is 30% in premature male neonates. (medscape.com)
  • Six hundred male infants with cryptorchidism. (nih.gov)
  • 10. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of cryptorchidism. (nih.gov)
  • Cryptorchidism literally means hidden or obscure testis and generally refers to an undescended or maldescended testis. (medscape.com)
  • Untreated cryptorchidism clearly has deleterious effects on the testis over time. (medscape.com)
  • Assess the possibility of a DSD in cases of increasing severity of hypospadias with cryptorchidism. (medscape.com)
  • Cryptorchidism is the most common genital problem encountered in pediatrics. (medscape.com)
  • Prepubertal cryptorchidism not due to anatomical obstruction. (nih.gov)
  • Cryptorchidism in dogs mostly affects purebred dog breeds , although all dogs are subject to his condition. (worlddogfinder.com)
  • To determine the frequency of genetic alterations in cryptorchidism. (nih.gov)
  • The most common genetic findings in those with cryptorchidism were 8 cases of Klinefelter syndrome and 5 cases of mutations in the INSL3 receptor gene. (nih.gov)
  • Cryptorchidism is a genetic problem and usually will happen if people decide to breed cryptorchid dogs. (worlddogfinder.com)
  • Do not perform ultrasound (US) or other imaging modalities in the evaluation of boys with cryptorchidism prior to referral, as these studies rarely assist in decision making. (medscape.com)
  • Imaging for cryptorchidism is not recommended prior to referral. (medscape.com)
  • Understanding the abnormalities of morphogenesis and the molecular and hormonal milieu associated with cryptorchidism is critical to contemporary diagnosis and treatment of this extremely common entity. (medscape.com)
  • 12. The molecular basis of cryptorchidism. (nih.gov)
  • 75% of cryptorchidism in dogs will cause one retained testicle, and the rest 25% will involve both of them. (worlddogfinder.com)
  • Generally speaking, all dogs could develop this condition if someone from their family tree was diagnosed with cryptorchidism, but some dog breeds are most prone to it. (worlddogfinder.com)
  • Toy and miniature dog breeds are at the most risk of developing this condition, and cryptorchidism was more diagnosed in smaller dogs than large and giant dog breeds. (worlddogfinder.com)
  • What is the correct treatment for cryptorchidism in dogs? (worlddogfinder.com)
  • Obtain gestational history at initial evaluation of boys with suspected cryptorchidism. (medscape.com)
  • One study found that almost 23% of index patients with undescended testes had a positive family history of cryptorchidism, as opposed to 7.5% in control families. (medscape.com)
  • In conclusion, our study suggests that the stepwise mini-incision mTESE could be a promising approach for sperm retrieval in NOA men with a history of cryptorchidism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cryptorchidism is identified in 1.5-4% of fathers and 6.2% of brothers of patients with cryptorchidism. (medscape.com)
  • La présente étude comparative a pour but d' étudier l'efficacité de la mTESE par mini-incision par étapes en comparaison avec la mTESE standard dans le traitement des patients NOA qui ont des antécédents de cryptorchidie. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Referral for cryptorchidism should occur by 6 months of age. (medscape.com)