A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.
A birth defect due to malformation of the URETHRA in which the urethral opening is below its normal location. In the male, the malformed urethra generally opens on the ventral surface of the PENIS or on the PERINEUM. In the female, the malformed urethral opening is in the VAGINA.
A surgical procedure in which an undescended testicle is sutured inside the SCROTUM in male infants or children to correct CRYPTORCHIDISM. Orchiopexy is also performed to treat TESTICULAR TORSION in adults and adolescents.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Accumulation of serous fluid between the layers of membrane (tunica vaginalis) covering the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its organs and on the male or female genitalia.
An oxidation product of HEPTACHLOR formed by many plants and animals, including humans, after exposure to HEPTACHLOR. It has been shown to remain in soil treated with HEPTACHLOR for over fifteen years and is toxic to animals and humans. (From ATSDR Public Heath Statement, April 1989)
Pathological processes of the TESTIS.
Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
A highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide. The EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.
Organic compounds which contain tin in the molecule. Used widely in industry and agriculture.
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A number of syndromes with defective gonadal developments such as streak GONADS and dysgenetic testes or ovaries. The spectrum of gonadal and sexual abnormalities is reflected in their varied sex chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOMES) constitution as shown by the karyotypes of 45,X monosomy (TURNER SYNDROME); 46,XX (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46XX); 46,XY (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY); and sex chromosome MOSAICISM; (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, MIXED). Their phenotypes range from female, through ambiguous, to male. This concept includes gonadal agenesis.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Organometallic compounds which contain tin and three alkyl groups.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
A childhood counterpart of abdominal or extra-abdominal desmoid tumors, characterized by firm subcutaneous nodules that grow rapidly in any part of the body but do not metastasize. The adult form of abdominal fibromatosis is FIBROMATOSIS, ABDOMINAL. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.
The tunnel in the lower anterior ABDOMINAL WALL through which the SPERMATIC CORD, in the male; ROUND LIGAMENT, in the female; nerves; and vessels pass. Its internal end is at the deep inguinal ring and its external end is at the superficial inguinal ring.
The processes of anatomical and physiological changes related to sexual or reproductive functions during the life span of a human or an animal, from FERTILIZATION to DEATH. These include SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES; SEX DIFFERENTIATION; SEXUAL MATURATION; and changes during AGING.
A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.
The twisting of the SPERMATIC CORD due to an anatomical abnormality that left the TESTIS mobile and dangling in the SCROTUM. The initial effect of testicular torsion is obstruction of venous return. Depending on the duration and degree of cord rotation, testicular symptoms range from EDEMA to interrupted arterial flow and testicular pain. If blood flow to testis is absent for 4 to 6 h, SPERMATOGENESIS may be permanently lost.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A contiguous gene syndrome associated with hemizygous deletions of chromosome region 11p13. The condition is marked by the combination of WILMS TUMOR; ANIRIDIA; GENITOURINARY ABNORMALITIES; and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY.
A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.
Books designed to give factual information or instructions.
A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.
Hospitals controlled by the city government.
Practice of a health profession by an individual, offering services on a person-to-person basis, as opposed to group or partnership practice.
Educational institutions.
Collections of related records treated as a unit; ordering of such files.
A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Hospital department which is responsible for the administration and provision of x-ray diagnostic and therapeutic services.

International trends in rates of hypospadias and cryptorchidism. (1/499)

Researchers from seven European nations and the United States have published reports of increasing rates of hypospadias during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Reports of increasing rates of cryptorchidism have come primarily from England. In recent years, these reports have become one focus of the debate over endocrine disruption. This study examines more recent data from a larger number of countries participating in the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS) to address the questions of whether such increases are worldwide and continuing and whether there are geographic patterns to any observed increases. The ICBDMS headquarters and individual systems provided the data. Systems were categorized into five groups based on gross domestic product in 1984. Hypospadias increases were most marked in two American systems and in Scandinavia and Japan. The increases leveled off in many systems after 1985. Increases were not seen in less affluent nations. Cryptorchidism rates were available for 10 systems. Clear increases in this anomaly were seen in two U.S. systems and in the South American system, but not elsewhere. Since 1985, rates declined in most systems. Numerous artifacts may contribute to or cause upward trends in hypospadias. Possible "real" causes include demographic changes and endocrine disruption, among others.  (+info)

Management of the impalpable testis: the role of laparoscopy. (2/499)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of laparoscopy in the management of the impalpable testis. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of the clinical findings, interventions, and outcome in 87 consecutive boys undergoing laparoscopy for 97 impalpable testes. RESULTS: Fifty seven testes were either absent (n = 35) or present as a small remnant (n = 22), which was removed at contemporaneous groin exploration. There were 27 intra-abdominal testes, including four hypoplastic testes, which were removed laparoscopically. The 13 remaining viable testes were located in the groin. Conventional orchidopexy followed laparoscopy for 21 testes, and was successful in 17 cases. Two stage laparoscopically assisted Fowler Stevens orchidopexies were performed for 13 intra-abdominal testes, with eight satisfactory results. Ultrasound evaluation significantly reduced the number of conventional orchidopexies following laparoscopy. IMPLICATIONS: Laparoscopy is a rational and safe approach for precise localisation of the impalpable testis. Laparoscopically assisted two stage orchidopexy is a successful treatment procedure for intra-abdominal testes.  (+info)

Experimental cryptorchidism induces a change in the pattern of expression of LH receptor mRNA in rat testis after selective Leydig cell destruction by ethylene dimethane sulfonate. (3/499)

In the rat, the cytotoxic drug ethylene dimethane sulfonate (EDS) selectively eliminates mature Leydig cells (LCs) from testicular interstitium, activating a complex process of proliferation and differentiation of pre-existing LC precursors. We observed previously that after EDS treatment, the early LC precursors persistently express a truncated 1.8 kb form of LH receptor (LHR) mRNA. This prompted us to study whether experimental cryptorchidism, known to alter the process of LC repopulation, can influence the pattern of testicular LHR mRNA expression after EDS administration. EDS treatment completely eliminated mature LCs both in control and unilaterally cryptorchid (UC) rats. This response was followed by gradual reappearance of newly formed, functionally active LCs, as evidenced by the recovery in testicular LHR content and plasma testosterone levels in both experimental groups. Noteworthy, the rate of LC repopulation was higher in the abdominal testes of UC rats, in keeping with previous findings. Interestingly, the 1.8 kb LHR transcript was persistently expressed in scrotal testes at all time-points, but undetectable upon Northern hybridization in abdominal testes at early stages after EDS administration, when low levels of expression of truncated LHR transcripts could only be detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. In addition, the faster LC repopulation in cryptorchid testes was associated with precocious recovery of the complete array of LHR mRNA transcripts, including the 1.8 kb species. These changes appeared acutely and irreversibly, as unilateral positioning of scrotal testes into the abdomen resulted in a rapid loss of expression of the 1.8 kb LHR transcript, whereas scrotal relocation of the UC testes failed to alter the pattern of LHR gene expression. In conclusion, experimental cryptorchidism changes the pattern of LHR mRNA expression in rat testis after selective LC destruction by EDS. This change, i.e. repression of the 1.8 kb LHR transcript after EDS administration, is acute and irreversible, and likely related to the impairment of testicular microenvironment following cryptorchidism. However, even though at low levels, the expression of truncated forms of LHR mRNA appears to be a universal feature of proliferating LC precursors. The UC testis may represent a good model for analysis of the regulatory signals involved in the control of LHR gene expression.  (+info)

Ooplasmic injections of rabbit round spermatid nuclei or intact round spermatids from fresh, cryopreserved and cryostored samples. (4/499)

We compared the outcome of ooplasmic round spermatid nuclear injections (ROSNI) versus intact round spermatid injections (ROSI). Rabbit round spermatid nuclei and intact round spermatids were recovered and injected into rabbit oocytes (groups A and B, respectively). Fertilization, cleavage and embryonic development rates were compared. In additional studies, five protocols for cryopreservation of round spermatids and two protocols for cryostorage of round spermatids were applied. The outcome of ROSNI techniques using frozen-thawed or cryostored-warmed round spermatids was evaluated. The cleavage rate and the overall morula plus blastocyst development rate were significantly larger in group A than group B. ROSNI procedures are superior to ROSI techniques in the rabbit. The largest fertilization, cleavage and embryonic development rates after ROSNI techniques using cryopreserved or cryostored round spermatids were demonstrated in groups of round spermatids in which a mixture of seminal plasma plus test yolk buffer was employed as an extender, and dimethyl sulphoxide plus a high concentration of glycerol served as cryoprotectants. It appears that the seminal plasma contains factors protecting round spermatids during cryopreservation or cryostorage, and/or the employment of two cryoprotectants has a beneficial role in the maintenance of round spermatid reproductive capacity.  (+info)

Risk factors for testicular cancer: a case-control study in twins. (5/499)

Early life and anthropometric risk factors for testicular cancer were examined in a case-control study in England and Wales in which affected male twins were compared with their unaffected male co-twins. Questionnaire data was obtained for 60 twin pairs. Significantly raised risk of testicular cancer occurred in twins who had longer arms and legs than their co-twin. There was a significant excess of testicular cancer reported in non-twin brothers, as well as in twin brothers, of cases. Risk was also significantly raised in relation to cryptorchidism. The results on limb length suggest that factors, perhaps nutritional, affecting growth before puberty, may be causes of testicular cancer. The results on risk in brothers add to evidence of a large genetic component in aetiology of the tumour. The risk associated with cryptorchidism in the twins accords with the hypothesis that cryptorchidism is causally associated with testicular cancer because it is a cause of the malignancy, rather than because the same maternal factors experienced in utero cause both conditions.  (+info)

Improvement of spermatogenesis in adult cryptorchid rat testis by intratesticular infusion of lactate. (6/499)

In order to test the hypothesis that a lack of energy could be a cause of germ cell death at high temperatures, cryptorchid rats testes were infused with lactate, delivered by osmotic pumps over 3-15 days. In cryptorchid testes, the spermatids and spermatocytes were lost between 3 and 8 days. In cryptorchid testes supplemented with lactate, elongated spermatids persisted in a few seminiferous tubules at Day 15. Elimination of round spermatids occurred progressively between 3 and 15 days, mostly at stage VIII. The loss of spermatocytes increased after 8 days, and 30% of seminiferous tubules still contained meiotic or meiotic plus spermiogenetic cells at Day 15. After 8 days, the chromatin of step 8 round spermatids was abnormal and nuclear elongation did not commence. The Sertoli cell cytoplasm that was retracted toward the basal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium could not hold the germ cells of the adluminal compartment. Therefore, attachment of germ cells to Sertoli cells and the supply of lactate seem necessary for the development of germ cells at high temperatures. The improvement in spermatogenesis in cryptorchid supplemented testes for several days is a new finding.  (+info)

Incidence of testicular cancer in the United States: has the epidemic begun to abate? (7/499)

In response to a report that testicular cancer incidence in non-Hispanic White males in Los Angeles county had fallen in the 1990s, particularly in young men, the authors analyzed data collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program from 1973 to 1995. While the incidence rate of testicular cancer in US White males ages 15-64 years did stabilize in the first half of the 1990s, after a number of years of a steady increase, there was no indication of an actual decline.  (+info)

Arrest of spermatogonial differentiation in jsd/jsd, Sl17H/Sl17H, and cryptorchid mice. (8/499)

The nature of the spermatogenic arrest in cryptorchid C57Bl mice and in jsd/jsd and Sl17H/Sl17H mutant mice was identified by studying whole mounts of seminiferous tubules. In all three types of mice, virtually only A spermatogonia were found, topographically arranged in clones of 1 to 16 (rarely more) cells. These clonal sizes are typical for undifferentiated spermatogonia. The proportion of these cells lying in chains of more than 2 cells (50-70%) was comparable to that seen in epithelial stages VII-VIII in the normal epithelium. It is concluded that in all three types of mice, spermatogenesis is arrested at the point where the undifferentiated A spermatogonia, specifically A(al) spermatogonia, differentiate into the first generation of the differentiating-type spermatogonia, the A1 spermatogonia. The remaining A spermatogonia were proliferating, but no accumulation of spermatogonia was present, as spermatogonial apoptosis also took place. Spermatogonial clones of all sizes were seen to undergo apoptosis, but there were relatively many large apoptotic clones, indicating that the clones became more vulnerable when they became larger. In contrast to what is seen in the normal epithelium, odd-numbered clones, not composed of 2(n) cells, were present, as well as clumps of 2 or more spermatogonial nuclei in the same cytoplasm, in all three types of mice. This indicates a lack of integrity of spermatogonial clones, also observed in other situations with a relative paucity of cells on the basal membrane. It is concluded that the differentiation of the undifferentiated spermatogonia, affected in all three types of mice as well as in vitamin A-deficient animals, is a rather vulnerable point in the spermatogenic developmental pathway.  (+info)

The production of testicular androgen-binding protein (ABP), as a measure of Sertoli cell function, was studied after unilateral or bilateral experimental cryptorchidism in adult rats. Two or 4 weeks after the testis had been translocated to the abdomen, no major changes were found in the concentration of ABP per mg protein, although there was a marked and progressive decrease in ABP content per testis. However, the rate of ABP production was greatly decreased, as measured by the accumulation of ABP during 16-h ligation of the efferent ducts or by the production of ABP by testis mince in an in vitro system. This indicates that the Sertoli cell function is severly impaired by the intra-abdominal position. ...
Men with Downs syndrome (DS) have an increased risk of cryptorchidism, but the mechanisms causing its onset are not clear. Cryptorchidism causes a primary testiculopathy responsible for infertility. SPAG5 mRNA is predominantly expressed in testis in pachytene spermatocytes. This observation prompted us to evaluate the expression of SPAG5 gene in five DS men with cryptorchidism and five normal healthy men (controls) by quantitative real-time PCR in peripheral blood leukocytes. We found that SPAG5 is over expressed in the five men with DS and cryptorchidism compared with five age- and sex-matched normal controls. This finding suggests that the increased expression of this gene may play a pathogenic role durin testicular development in subjects with DS and cryptorchidism.. Men with Downs syndrome (DS) have an increased risk of cryptorchidism, but the mechanisms causing its onset are not clear. Cryptorchidism causes a primary testiculopathy responsible for infertility. SPAG5 mRNA is predominantly ...
Undescended Testicle in New Delhi Gurgaon Noida Faridabad NCR or Online Treatment of Undescended Testicle Contact Us or Fill Up Form Contact Us
Patients with cryptorchidism are at an increased risk for germ cell testicular cancer. OCT 4 has been shown to be a sensitive and specific marker for some types of germ cell testicular cancer. We undertook this study to establish whether OCT 4 immunohistochemistry is a useful tool in the pathohistologic evaluation of postpubertal patients with cryptorchidism. Seventeen postpubertal patients underwent orchidectomy for cryptorchidism at our center since 1997. Immunohistochemical staining with OCT 4 was performed on these samples. Characteristic OCT 4 nuclear staining was positive in two patients. One patient was correctly diagnosed on previous pathohistological evaluation, while OCT4 immunohistochemical staining revealed previously unidentified intratubular germ cell neoplasia in the other patient. OCT 4 immunohistochemistry can be useful in diagnosing a testicular germ cell tumor in patients with cryptorchidism. If we consider a low number of postpubertal patients with cryptorchidism a benefit of ...
The environmental niche of the spermatogonial stem cell pool is critical to ensure the continued generation of the germ cell population. To study the consequences of an aberrant testicular environment in cryptorchidism we used a mouse model with a deletion of Rxfp2 gene resulting in a high intra-abdominal testicular position. Mutant males were infertile with the gross morphology of the cryptorchid testis progressively deteriorating with age. Few spermatogonia were identifiable in 12 month old cryptorchid testes. Gene expression analysis showed no difference between mutant and control testes at postnatal day 10. In three month old males a decrease in expression of spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) markers Id4, Nanos2, and Ret was shown. The direct counting of ID4+ cells supported a significant decrease of SSCs. In contrast, the expression of Plzf, a marker for undifferentiated and differentiating spermatogonia was not reduced, and the number of PLZF+ cells in the cryptorchid testis was higher in three month
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Undescended testicles (cryptorchidism) is the most significant risk factor for testicular cancer.. About 3-5% of boys are born with their testicles inside their abdomen. They usually descend into the scrotum during the first year of life, but in some boys the testicles dont descend. In most cases, testicles that dont descend by the time a boy is one year old descend at a later stage. If the testicles dont descend naturally, an operation known as an orchidopexy can be carried out to move the testicles into the correct position inside the scrotum.. Its important that undescended testicles move down into the scrotum during early childhood because boys with undescended testicles have a higher risk of developing testicular cancer than boys whose testicles descend normally. Its also much easier to observe the testicles when theyre in the scrotum.. Men with undescended testicles are about three times more likely to develop testicular cancer than men whose testicles descend at birth or shortly ...
Cortes D, Thorup J, Petersen BL. Testicular neoplasia in undescended testes of cryptorchid boys-does surgical strategy have an impact on the risk of invasive testicular neoplasia? Turk J Pediatr 2004; 46 (supplement): -42.. We investigated whether or not surgical strategy has an impact on the risk of invasive testicular neoplasia in cases of cryptorchidism. We made a database study of the incidence of testicular neoplasia at surgery for cryptorchidism in childhood, and evaluated if such abnormalities were found in special categories of patients, and also of the incidence of testicular neoplasia after orchiopexy with a simultaneous testicular biopsy in childhood.. At surgery for cryptorchidism the risk of testicular neoplasia was 7/182 (4%) in cases with intra-abdominal testis, abnormal external genitalia other than cryptorchidism, or diagnosed abnormal karyotype, versus no case in the 1281 patients without these characteristics (Fisher\s exact test, ...
Looking for abdominal testis? Find out information about abdominal testis. or , one of a pair of glands that produce the male reproductive cells, or sperm sperm or spermatozoon , in biology, the male gamete , corresponding to the... Explanation of abdominal testis
Undescended testicles, also known as cryptorchidism, is a fairly common condition in which a babies testicles have not moved into the proper position. Learn more from Boston Childrens Hospital.
Cryptorchidism is the congenital abnormality in which the testicle has not descended into the scrotum.. Testicles are formed in the fetal abdomen and migrate through the groin into the scrotum in the 6th month of pregnancy. If this doent happen, cryptorchidism appears.. Cryptorchidism due to testicular overheating (temperature, 34 ° C) when the testis is outside the scrotum, causes atrophy of the cells that produce the spermatozoa. Testicular overheating also increases the incidence of malignant tumors. For these reasons, in case of persistent cryptorchidism, it is preferable to operate in a young age (about 1.5 years old). It has been shown that men who havent performed a surgery till the age of two, show problems with the quality of semen in their adult life.. ...
Cryptorchidism (or undescended testes) is a condition seen in newborns when one or both of the male testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. About 10% of cases involve both testes. Cryptorchidism is more commonly seen in premature males because the testes do not descend from the abdomen to the scrotal sac until the seventh month of fetal development. ...
Complications in the urinary tract related to congenital Zika syndrome have recently been reported. One complication, cryptorchidism, has been reported by the Microcephaly Epidemic Research Group/MERG, in Pernambuco/Brazil. The present article describes for the first time the surgical findings in a case series of boys with Zika-related microcephaly and cryptorchidism, who underwent surgical testicular exploration as a contribution to better understand the possible mechanisms involved in gonads formation and descent. A total of 7 children (11 testicular units), aged 3 to 4 years, were submitted to inguinal or scrotal orchidopexy for the treatment of palpable cryptorchidism between August 2019 and January 2020. Characteristics of the gonads and its annexes related to appendixes, testis-epididymis dissociation, gubernacular insertion, and associated hydroceles and/or hernias were described. Measures in centimetres were taken for volume calculate. We found a low prevalence of testicular and epididymal
Does your child have an undescended testicle? Learn more about their condition including DOs and DONTs for how to manage their health / treatment.
Impact of L-carnitine and Selenium Treatment on Testicular Apoptosis in Rats Exposed to 2.45 GHz Microwave Energy. Saygin, M.; Caliskan, S.; Ozguner, M. F.; Gumral, N.; Comlekci, S.; Karahan, N. // West Indian Medical Journal;Mar2015, Vol. 64 Issue 2, p56 Objective: It has been suggested that electromagnetic radiation (EMR) by wireless devices (2.45 GHz) induces testicular apoptosis. We investigated if supplemental selenium (Se) and L-carnitine may reduce this adverse effect. Material: Twelve-week old maleWistar albino rats were used in this... ...
Cryptorchidism or undescended testicles involves the failure of the testes to descend permanently in their terminal scrotal position [80]. The estimated incidence at birth is 2-3.4% [7,17,81], although up to one-third of the cases resolve spontaneously during the first 3 months [81]. Seventy-five percent of the cases are usually unilateral and the undescended testes can be palpated in the inguinal canal [82]. Etiology is not clear, although a variety of risk factors such as defects in specific genes, prematurity, low birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction, alcohol consumption, and maternal smoking have been suggested [26,80,81,83-86]. The main complications include reduced fertility, an increased risk of testicular cancer, and the possibility of associated abnormalities. Evidence suggests that both the location and the time of cryptorchidism correlate with the loss of germ cells and Leydig cells [87]. Paternity rates are similar in case of unilateral cryptorchidism, but significantly ...
Non-visible Testis (Cryptorchidism). External genitals in a toddler with a non-visible testis of the right side. The left testis is visible and palpable in the corresponding scrotum. The right testis is neither visible nor palpable in the scrotum. The diagnosis is cryptorchidism of the right side. First of all, the history and the clinical examination can possibly tell which type of cryptorchidism is present. Because the right scrotum is smaller than the left, the right testis must (if present at all) always lie above the scrotum. Notice the relatively high position of the left testis within the left scrotum. ...
Normally testicles develop in the abdomen, near the kidney, and descend through the abdominal wall, then through the inguinal canal, and enter the scrotum. Cryptorchidism (or undescended testes) is a condition seen in newborns when one or both of the male testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. Thirty percent of cases are bilateral (involve both testes).. Undescended testes may occur for several reasons. Known causes may include hormonal disorders, abdominal wall disorders, and chromosomal defects. Retractile testes can occur in boys where the testicle descended completely but a muscle reflex causes a testicle to move back and forth from the scrotum to the groin.. ...
The majority of undescended testicles - i.e. those that can be found and palpated in the groin - are brought down by a simple day case operation called an orchidopexy. The procedure takes about 45 minutes, and involves moving the testicle into the scrotum and fixing a small hernia, which is often associated with an undescended testicle.. If the testicle cannot be felt, it primarily needs to be located. This is achieved with laparoscopy, placing a telescope into the abdomen via the belly button, and seeking out the testicle in a higher position. When located, it may be possible, usually through a 2 step laparoscopic approach, to bring the testicle down into the scrotum. If it is an abnormal testicle, or has failed to completely develop, it would be necessary to protect the remaining testicle on the other side, by performing a fixation of this testicle, within the scrotum. This prevents the possibility of twisting and/or damage, later in life.. ...
Combined Anomalies 2 (Cryptorchidism). Operative findings in a toddler with right cryptorchidism. Below, the testis, and above, the epididymis is visible. The distance between the two organs is twice the width of the testis corresponding to 1.5 to 2.0 cm. This anomaly is called testicular-epididymal fusion abnormality. The sperm which is produced later in life has no connection to the epididymis and spermatic cord. The latter may be interrupted, too, as an additional combined malformation. Both anomalies may be detrimental to the fertility which is often already diminished by the cryptorchidism, and must be described in the protocol of the surgeon. ...
MONDAY, June 17 (HealthDay News) -- Fetal exposure to the chemical bisphenol A (BPA) has been linked to low levels of a key developmental hormone in newborn boys with undescended testicles, according to an early new study.. The research adds to the list of growing health concerns related to BPA, which is widely used in food packaging. Government studies have shown that 92 percent of Americans have detectable levels of BPA in their bodies.. This study focused on boys with cryptorchidism, the medical term for undescended testicles. The condition occurs in 2 percent to 5 percent of newborn boys, according to the authors, and requires surgery to bring the testes out of the abdominal cavity. Boys born with cryptorchidism have an increased risk of fertility problems and testicular cancer in adulthood.. The researchers found that boys with cryptorchidism who had high levels of BPA in their fetal cord blood also had low levels of the hormone insulin-like 3, or INSL3, one of two hormones that regulate ...
Undescended Testes and Retractile Testes - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version.
Beyond Pesticides, September 17, 2008) A new study has found a link between total chemical contamination in the bodies of pregnant women and the risk of cryptorchidism in their male babies. Mothers whose babies were born with the defect had the highest concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), mostly organochlorines like PCB and DDE, in their breast milk.. The study, entiltled Cryptorchidism at birth in Nice area (France) is associated with higher prenatal exposure to PCBs and DDE, as assessed by colostrum concentrations, and published in the journal Human Reproduction, compared prebirth exposure to chemicals, as measured through their mothers milk, and the risk of undescended testicles or cryptorchidism, during a three-year period. 164 mother/infant pairs were used and within 3-5 days of delivery, the researchers collected samples of colostrums, or first milk from the mother. Colostrum is a form of breast milk that is produced late in pregnancy and immediately after birth ...
Cryptorchidism: A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.
Barthold JS, Hagerty JA. Etiology, diagnosis, and management of the undescended testis. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 148.. Chung DH. Pediatric surgery. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 66.. Elder JS. Disorders and anomalies of the scrotal contents. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 560.. Meyts ER-D, Main KM, Toppari J, Skakkebaek NE. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and testicular tumors. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 137.. ...
Twin boys, both of whom had hypospadias and bilateral cryptorchidism, each developed a left-sided Wilmss tumour. The first twin was found to have an advanced multifocal tumour at the age of 15 months and died with local recurrence and pulmonary metastases. The diagnosis was made in the second twin one month later and at nephrectomy the tumour was found to be encapsulated without metastases; he is disease-free 12-years later. Although the histological appearances were similar in each twin, the tumours did not develop at the same rate and did not show the mirror-image pattern suggested for embryonal tumours in identical twins.. ...
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A nested case-control study of cryptorchidism (i.e. undescended testicles) was undertaken as part of a hospital-based cohort study of 6699 singleton male neonates in New York City. Since some of the cryptorchid infants experienced spontaneous descent of their testes, separate analysis was performed …
Cryptorchism is an established risk factor for testicular cancer, but the role of age at surgical correction is unclear. The authors investigated this relation using information obtained from comprehensive medical records dating to childhood. They conducted a case-control study of 183 Kaiser Permanente members, who were diagnosed with testicular cancer during 1973-1996 and who were 15 years or younger when they first joined the health plan, and 551 controls. Notes pertaining to the testes were reviewed up to the cases diagnosis date or comparable date among the controls. The odds ratio for the association of a history of cryptorchism with testicular cancer risk was 4.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9, 11.8). Compared with no history of cryptorchism, men with a history who had natural descent or successful orchiopexy by the 11th birthday were not at increased risk of testicular cancer (odds ratio = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.08, 5.4). However, successful treatment of cryptorchism only after the 11th ...
Cryptorchidism is a common anomaly that often warrants early surgical management. Preoperative identification and location of testicles can help to determine the optimal type of procedure and allow for appropriate advance planning. On the basis of the imaging findings, the surgeon can appropriately counsel the patient and alter the operative approach as needed. In the case of absent or vanishing testicles, imaging findings could obviate the need for surgical exploration altogether.. Various imaging techniques have been suggested for use in identifying and locating nonpalpable testicles preoperatively in young boys, with varying limitations including expense, invasiveness, technical difficulty, radiation risk, need for contrast medium, effectiveness in particular groups of subjects, and need for sedation. Because ultrasound, which is the least expensive and frequently used technique of all imaging tools, had been shown to have low sensitivity in identifying nonpalpable testicles preoperatively in ...
Doctors for Orchidopexy in Oyster Pearl Hospital, Mumbai. Find Doctors Near You, Book Doctors Appointment, Consult Online, View Cost for Orchidopexy in Oyster Pearl Hospital, Mumbai | Lybrate
A ridgling (also spelled ridgeling), or rig, is a cryptorchid; a male animal with one or both testicles undescended, usually describing a ram, bull, or male horse, but cryptorchidism also can be an issue in dogs and cats. Because the heat inside the body is too high for sperm to survive, an undescended testicle is non-functional. The condition is most often discussed in the horse world, as the health behavioral issues surrounding adult males with the condition are of concern to owners and handlers of such animals. Although the rate that testicles descend varies between individual animals, horses over three years with the condition are generally castrated. Surgery called a cryptorchidectomy is used to remove the retained testicle, but different procedures are used, depending on the location inside the body cavity. An undescended testicle is not a serious or life-threatening condition, though it may cause the animal discomfort at times. This condition can be corrected by surgery to place the ...
MRI is more sensitive than ultrasound in detection of cryptorchidism and its level. Undescended testicle appears typically iso intense in T1 and homogenous hyper intense in T2, T2 fat sat and STIR. Usually contrast is not needed for detection. A...
Although the cause of testicular cancer is unknown, both congenital and acquired factors have been associated with tumor development. The strongest association has been with the cryptorchid testis. Approximately 7-10% of testicular tumors develop in patients who have a history of cryptorchidism; seminoma is the most common form of tumor these patients have. However, 5-10% of testicular tumors occur in the contralateral, normally descended testis. The relative risk of malignancy is highest for the intra-abdominal testis (1 in 20) and is significantly lower for the inguinal testis (1 in 80). Placement of the cryptorchid testis into the scrotum (orchiopexy) lowers the risk of malignancy if it is performed prior to the age of 13 (Pettersson et al, 2007). ...
Research published in Europes leading reproductive medicine journal Human Reproduction today (Monday 8 November) shows that women who took a combination of more than one mild analgesic during pregnancy, or who took the painkillers during the second trimester of pregnancy, had an increased risk of giving birth to sons with undescended testicles (cryptorchidism) - a condition that is known to be a risk factor for poor semen quality and testicular germ cell cancer in later life. [1]. The researchers from Denmark, Finland and France found that women who used more than one painkiller simultaneously (e.g. paracetamol and ibuprofen) had a seven-fold increased risk of giving birth to sons with some form of cryptorchidism compared to women who took nothing.. The second trimester appeared to a particularly sensitive time. Any analgesic use at this point in the pregnancy more than doubled the risk of cryptorchidism. Of the individual painkillers, ibuprofen and aspirin approximately quadrupled the risk of ...
A colour atlas of surgery for undescended Testes , A colour atlas of surgery for undescended Testes , کتابخانه دیجیتال دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of experimental cryptorchism on the isozymes of lactate dehydrogenase in mouse testes. AU - Goldberg, Erwin. AU - Hawtrey, Christopher. PY - 1968/1/1. Y1 - 1968/1/1. N2 - Unilateral cryptorchism produced by experimental retention of one testis in the abdomen of the mouse results in a rapid decrease in the weight of that testis. At the same time the specific activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) decreases to 70% of the normal value. The sperm‐specific isozyme, LDH‐X, declines from 41% of the total activity to only 16% after eleven days in the abdomen. All LDH‐X activity is lost by post‐operative day 24. The relative proportion of the other isozymes of LDH increase following the operation. LDH‐5, absent from the mature testis, is detectable in the cryptorchid testis at post‐operative day 28 and represents 15% of the total LDH activity. These observations provide further support of the suggestion that LDH‐X is only found in the testes when meiosis is ...
The objective of this study was to assess macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the testes in unilaterally cryptorchid dogs (n=16 and n=13, respectively). An additional goal was to measure and compare plasma levels of testosterone between the cryptoid (n=13) and control dogs (n=16). The size and weight of the retained tested were lower (P ,0.01) compared with the descended testes in the unilaterally cryptoid dogs of different breeds, but there was no difference between the inguinal and abdominal cryptoid testes (P ,0.01). Spermatogenesis was significantly suppressed in the cryptorchid testes compared with the contralateral testes of the unilaterally cryptorchid dogs. The number of Leydig cells was higher (P ,0.01) in the cryptorchid than in scrotal testes. Plasma concentration of testosterone did not vary (P ,0.1) between the cryptoid and control dogs. Normal endocrine function could be maintained in the cryptorchid dogs, despite the smaller testicular size of the retained testes ...
Parents should have their newborn boy testicular high-rise treated in good time. (08/24/2010) Infants who have a testicular high-level should before the first
I have been running non stop since Friday night. The holiday parties and errands for our foster son. I was bone tired last night and looking forward to some rest but Titus decided to have a fussy night. I slept in 40 minute intervals and was awoken for good at 4:45. I know, its a high class problem to have. I grumbled but treasured the hour of snuggle time he allowed me before he decided to play. Titus saw the pediatric urologist for his final post op checkup. He did spring a leak mid shaft. This is called a fistula and there was a 20% chance of it occurring. He will have a second surgery in February. He also has an undescended testicle. I suppose they will correct that within a couple of months of the fistula repair. Hypospadias and undescended testicles are on the same gene and often go together. If we get everything corrected Titus should have normal sexual function as an adult. The urologist really wants him to see the pediatric endocrinologist. Titus is still so very small. He is 13 months ...
A distinctive feature of gonadal maturation in mammals is the movement to an extraabdominal location. Testicular descent is a complex, multistage process whereby the embryonic gonads migrate from their initial abdominal position to the scrotum. Failure in this process results in cryptorchidism, a fr …
Unlike an undescended testicle, a retractile testicle has descended fully at birth but rises out of the scrotum when the cremaster muscle contracts. The
Cryptorchidism is the failure of one or both of the testicles to descend into the scrotum. Symptoms typically include the lack of a testicle. Treatment includes neuter surgery.
During operation for a right inguinal hernia, a baby boy aged 3 months was discovered to have internal female genitalia. Biopsies were taken from the gonads and blood was sent for karyotyping. The biopsies showed normal testicular tissue and the karyotyping result was 46XY, so the diagnosis of persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) was made. Recovery was uneventful. At the age of 2 he underwent bilateral orchidopexy. PMDS is a rare disorder of the MIF synthesis or receptor. Patients present with cryptorchism, inguinal herniation of Mullerian structures, or problems related to the abnormal urinary tract, such as infection or stone formation. In cryptorchism, orchidopexy and life-long palpatory follow-up are advised. If urological symptoms occur, surgical removal of the Mullerian remnants may be considered. The prognosis for fertility is poor ...
According to a new study, boys whose testes have not descended into the scrotum at birth, may be nearly three times more likely to develop testicular cancer later in life.. Previous studies of the condition called cryptorchidism (undescended testes) have shown that in 5 to 10 percent of testicular cancer patients undescended testes were present.. However, it has remained unclear exactly how much a boys risk of testicular cancer is increased if he was born with undescended testes.. The new study was designed to answer that question and concluded that boys with undescended testes were 2.9 times more likely to develop testicular cancer. About 6 percent of newborn boys are born with undescended testes.. Researchers must now consider whether this degree of increased cancer risk means that boys born with the condition should undergo heightened surveillance for testicular cancer in addition to current close followup.. The study was published in the journal Archives of Disease in Childhood.. ...
This is a complete physical exam of the groin and the genitals, which are the penis, scrotum, and testicles. Your doctor will feel the organs and check them for lumps, swelling, shrinking, and other signs of a problem. A genital exam is an important part of a routine physical exam for every teenage boy and man. Baby boys should also have their genitals checked for problems they were born with, such as an undescended testicle. An undescended testicle is more common in premature babies than in full-term babies.. Testicular cancer is rare, but it is the most common cancer in men younger than age 35. It often appears as a painless lump or swollen testicle. In the early stages of the cancer, the lump may be about the size of a pea. In many cases, this cancer is found by the man himself or by his sex partner. The chance of cure is very high when this cancer is found early and treated right away.. ...
Alström syndrome (AS) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive cone-rod dystrophy, childhood obesity, sensorineural hearing impairment, type 2 diabetes, hypogonadism, and additional abnormalities. Herein we report a 29-year-old man with progressive cone-rod dystrophy, hearing impairment, liver cirrhosis, bilateral cryptorchidism with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and type2 diabetes. He had severe insulin resistance and required high-dose insulin to treat his hyperglycemia. Genetic testingrevealed a mutation in exon 8 (c.4746C | A) of the Alström syndrome protein 1 (ALMS1) gene and this is the first report of this mutation in AS. It is difficult to lead to correct diagnosis without genetic test, and physicians should suspect AS when patients show early onset visual dysfunction, obesity, or type 2 diabetes.
Undescended Testes - To all Concerned Moms, I hope you are all well. My son had a surgery (Orchiopexy) when he was 14months old (now he is 8)....
Orchiopexy, also known as orchidopexy, is a surgical technique that can correct cryptorchidism and was successfully performed for one of the first times in 1877 in Scotland. Cryptorchidism, a condition where one or both of the testicles fail to descend before birth, is one of the most common male genital birth defects, affecting approximately 2 to 8 percent of full-term male infants, and around 33 percent of premature infants. Typically in the womb, male testes form within the abdomen, then descend into the scrotal area between twenty-five to thirty-five weeks gestation.. Format: Articles Subject: Technologies, Disorders, Reproduction ...
Orchiopexy, also known as orchidopexy, is a surgical technique that can correct cryptorchidism and was successfully performed for one of the first times in 1877 in Scotland. Cryptorchidism, a condition where one or both of the testicles fail to descend before birth, is one of the most common male genital birth defects, affecting approximately 2 to 8 percent of full-term male infants, and around 33 percent of premature infants. Typically in the womb, male testes form within the abdomen, then descend into the scrotal area between twenty-five to thirty-five weeks gestation.. Format: Articles Subject: Technologies, Disorders, Reproduction ...
Introduction Frequent reporting of cases of the coexistence of a Spigelian hernia (SH) with an undescended testis (UT) suggests that this phenomenon may be a syndrome. In this article, four pediatric cases in which an UT accompanies a congenital SH have been discussed in light of the literature. ...
Several biological problems affecting the male testicles have been occurring with greater frequency over the past 50 years. The summary of the problem, which appeared in the 1993 journal, Environmental Health Perspectives(13), discussed the observed rise in testicular cancer and the medical conditions hypospadias and cryptorchidism, as well as the apparent declining sperm count among the overall male population. Hypospadias is when the testicles do not descend and cryptorchidism is when the opening to the penis appears on the underside of the penis.. According to the researchers at the Statistical Research Unit, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, cancer of the male testicles has increased over 3-fold from 1940 to 1980. The frequency of hypospadias (the opening of the penis on the underside) in England has doubled from 0.15% in 1964 to 0.36% in 1983. Similar increases were also reported from Sweden and Hungary. Recent British data also detected a near doubling of cryptorchidism. This problem has ...
Cryptorchidism is one of the few identifiable risk factors for the development of GCTs, although representing at most about 10% of cases. When present, cryptorchidism imparts a relative risk between 2.5 and 17.1 (7,8). This increased risk includes the contralateral testicle, even if descended normally or via orchiopexy. It is unclear if orchiopexy reduces the lifetime risk of GCTs, although data showing increased incidence even in the contralateral testicle support the theory that the etiology of GCTs lies in abnormal gonadal development rather than anatomic malposition (9,10). Men with a prior history of GCTs also have an increased risk of GCTs in the contralateral testicle, suggesting a genetic predisposition, although men with a family history of GCTs account for only 1.5% of patients with new diagnosis (11). A personal history of GCT carries an increased lifetime risk of secondary cancers, irrespective of histologic type (12). ...
Background: Cryptorchidism, or retained testicles, is one of the common congenital problems in dogs. The testes of cryptorchids are more prone to testicular cancer and infertility. Therefore, cryptorchids and animals carrying genes for cryptorchidism should be eliminated from the breeding population. Some evidence exists to suggest that it appears to be a multigenic trait but single genes with large effects may exist. In earlier studies, the researchers utilized a candidate gene approach using 50 polymorphisms (called SNPs) in 22 candidate genes and found that collagen 2A1 (COL2A1) was significantly associated with cryptorchidism in Siberian Huskies. Now, they need to use the whole genome association analysis which typically provides more comprehensive analyses of chromosomal regions associated with a particular trait. This will then allow them to confirm previous findings or suggest other contributing regions or genes. Objective: The researchers will utilize a new tool called the canine SNP chip
1 Cancer Research UK Testicular cancer statistics www.cancerresearchuk.org/health-professional/cancer-statistics/statistics-by-cancer-type/testicular-cancer [Last accessed 17 April 2021]. 2 Akre O, Pettersson A, Richiardi L. Risk of contralateral testicular cancer among men with unilaterally undescended testis: a meta analysis. Int J Cancer 2009;124(3):687-89. 3 Lip SZ, Murchison LE, Cullis PS et al. A meta-analysis of the risk of boys with isolated cryptorchidism developing testicular cancer in later life. Arch Dis Child 2013;98(1):20-26. 4 Pettersson A, Richiardi L, Nordenskjold A et al. Age at surgery for undescended testis and risk of testicular cancer. N Engl J Med 2007;356(18):1835-41. 5 Hemminki K, Li X. Familial risk in testicular cancer as a clue to a heritable and environmental aetiology. Br J Cancer 2004;90(9):1765-70. 6 Walsh TJ, Croughan MS, Schembri M et al. Increased risk of testicular germ cell cancer among infertile men. Arch Intern Med 2009;169(4):351-56. 7 Manecksha RP, ...
Recent studies have revealed that testicular cancer is more common in men whove had an undescended testicle as a child and have a higher chance of getting testicular cancer; however it is treatable by surgery. Cancer in the testicles is called testicular cancer, which is part of the male reproductive system. It may be hereditary. People who suffer from infertility are at a major risk. After being treated for testicular cancer in one testis there is a risk of the other being affected, precautions must be taken after the first treatment is over and regular checkups is a must. Men who are taller have a higher risk of testicular cancer for some unknown reason. People who suffer with HIV or AIDS have a risk of developing testicular cancer. ...
Testicular descent, which beings during the early foetal period, has been an area of research from the 1700s, when anatomists such as John Hunter began to notice the origin and development of the testicles and their location [10] [11] [12] [13]. The mechanisms behind testicular descent has been debated for at least two centuries, beginning with anatomical dissections on both human and animal foetuses during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries [12] [14], then enhancing with endocrinological discoveries during the twentieth century [10] [11]. Many theories were proposed and revoked since the discovery of testicular descent. One of the earliest debates was between John Hunter and Albretch von Haller, who concluded that the foetal testis is intra-abdominal and the processus vaginalis remains opened, contrary to the results published by Hunter [10] [13]. Hunters description of the gubernaculum, as a vascular and fibrous foetal structure, and the covering cremaster muscle led to further research ...
FGFR2 Cryptorchidism, bilateral; 219050; LGR8 Cryptorchidism, idiopathic; 219050; INSL3 Currarino syndrome; 176450; MNX1 Cutis ...
Individuals diagnosed with cryptorchidism are often at risk of testicular cancer and infertility due to dysfunction in the ... Cryptorchidism, also known as undescended testis, is a common birth defect affecting male genital formation. ... Loebenstein, Moshe; Thorup, Jorgen; Cortes, Dina; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Hutson, John M; Li, Ruili (2019). "Cryptorchidism, ... Leslie, Stephen W.; Sajjad, Hussain; Villanueva, Carlos A. (2020), "Cryptorchidism", StatPearls, StatPearls Publishing, PMID ...
"Cryptorchidism in the horse". equine-reproduction.com. Retrieved 2015-08-12. McDonnell, Sue (3 April 2013). "Castrated and ... "Cryptorchidism (Undescended Testicles) in Horses ACVS". www.acvs.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12. Paulick, Ray (5 November 2004). " ... When a male horse thought to be a gelding exhibits aggressive or sexual behavior, cryptorchidism is suspected. Sometimes, a ... but cryptorchidism also can be an issue in dogs and cats. Because the heat inside the body is too high for sperm to survive, an ...
Cryptorchidism Orchiopexy Stevenson, Roger; Hall, Judith (2006). Human malformations and related anomalies. Oxford New York: ...
In Cryptorchidism a diagnosis is made from a physical examination which is performed when the baby is lacking one or both ... The risk factors for Cryptorchidism are: A family history of the condition Low birth weight Prematurity Poor semen quality is ... Risk factors for TC include: Cryptorchidism Family history Previous testicular cancer The diagnosis is confirmed in different ... The downstream disorders of such abnormalities can include both genital malformations (e.g. hypospadias and cryptorchidism) and ...
Dada R, Gupta NP, Kucheria K (2003). "Cryptorchidism and AZF microdeletion". Asian J. Androl. 4 (2): 148. PMID 12085107. Dada R ... Gupta NP, Kucheria K (2003). "AZF microdeletions associated with idiopathic and non-idiopathic cases with cryptorchidism and ...
Cryptorchidism (undescended testicles) at birth. Low levels of the gonadotropins LH and FSH. Hypogonadism due to low levels of ... cryptorchidism) in males. Measuring testicular volume. Checking for breast development and age at menarche in females. Checking ...
Additional research published in Finland in 2012 has further confirmed an increased risk of cryptorchidism among males exposed ... Virtanen HE, Adamsson A (May 2012). "Cryptorchidism and endocrine disrupting chemicals". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. ... such as cryptorchidism and hypospadias. Research published in the U.S. by Palmer et al. in 2009 further confirmed evidence of ... "Association of diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero with cryptorchidism, testicular hypoplasia and semen abnormalities". The ...
In males, cryptorchidism is common. Abnormal genitalia in females is not a common feature. Renal abnormalities have been ...
Cryptorchidism; Delayed puberty; Diagnostic agent (pituitary disorders); Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; Veterinary medicine ( ...
The mutations in this gene may lead to, but not a frequent cause of, cryptorchidism. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Nef S, Parada LF (July 1999). "Cryptorchidism in mice mutant for Insl3". Nature Genetics. 22 (3): 295-9. doi:10.1038/10364. ... no relationship with cryptorchidism". Pediatric Research. 47 (4 Pt 1): 538-41. doi:10.1203/00006450-200004000-00020. PMID ... "Insulin-like 3/relaxin-like factor gene mutations are associated with cryptorchidism". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology ...
Cryptorchidism is reported in some individuals. Individuals with XLI appear at increased risk of developmental disorders such ...
Cryptorchidism, the failure of one or both of the testes to descend to the scrotum, has been known to lead to sexual identity ... Galifer, R. B.; Kalfa, N.; Guibal, M. P. (2004). "What a hidden testicle can hide?...or the clinical traps of cryptorchidism". ... Symptoms visible at or shortly after birth include: cryptorchidism strabismus seizures Some other symptoms that become more ... such as cryptorchidism, strabismus, learning disabilities, and myopathy, tend to have an added psychological effect on the ...
Cryptorchidism or "undescended testicles", when the testicle does not descend into the scrotum of the infant boy. ... In most other cases, only one testis fails to descend (cryptorchidism) and that will probably express itself within a year. ...
... cryptorchidism, and infertility. Unlike other GnRH analogues, it is not used to suppress sex hormone production. Gonadorelin is ...
By his teens, Blount suffered from cryptorchidism. It left him with a nearly constant discomfort that sometimes flared into ...
Cryptorchidism: prepubertal orchidopexy may prevent testis cancer J Urol. 178:1440-6; discussion 1446, 2007 , Walsh TJ, Davies ...
... cryptorchidism). A small minority of those affected have had congenital joint contractures such as club foot. Those with ...
Some common complications of this distinct syndrome cryptorchidism are testicular torsion, and its link to testicular cancer. ... Raveenthiran V (Dec 2005). "Congenital Spigelian hernia with cryptorchidism: probably a new syndrome". Hernia. 9 (4): 378-80. ... Raveenthiran described a new syndrome in which Spigelian hernia and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) occur together. ... Obstructed indirect Component and Direct Component with Cryptorchidism". Case Reports in Surgery. 2011: 1461425. doi:10.1155/ ...
Hypospadias and cryptorchidism are conditions which may be induced in males with short AGD. Other problems in males include ... Hsieh MH, Breyer BN, Eisenberg ML, Baskin LS (March 2008). "Associations among hypospadias, cryptorchidism, anogenital distance ... disruption of which leads to hypospadias and cryptorchidism". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 118 (4): 1479-1490. doi: ...
Cryptorchidism is said to be related to health and behavior problems. Affected horses are more expensive to castrate. There are ... Hereditary cryptorchidism exists within the Akhal-Teke breed and affected stallions can be traced through multiple generations ... Some national Akhal Teke associations, however, ban Cryptorchidism from breeding. The Akhal-Teke is one of many light riding ... Breeders balance the risk of cryptorchidism against propagating other desirable qualities. ...
Hip dysplasia, hypothyroidism, and cryptorchidism have also been reported occasionally. Progressive neuronal abiotrophy (PNA) ...
As mentioned above, males with distal 18q- may have cryptorchidism. Hypospadias and chordee have also been reported. Also, a ... Boys with distal 18q- may have genital anomalies, the most frequent being cryptorchidism and hypospadias.[citation needed] ...
Hypospadias, chordee (a downward-curving penis), and undescended testes (cryptorchidism). ureter stenosis or ureteric atresia ...
Birth defects of the male reproductive system, including cryptorchidism, were also more prevalent in the study group. The ... 2006). "Persistent Pesticides in Human Breast Milk and Cryptorchidism" (PDF). Environ. Health Perspect. 114 (7): 1133-1138. doi ... Increased incidences of cryptorchidism have been observed in other studies of endosulfan exposed populations. A 2007 study by ...
Cryptorchidism (undescended testes) are observed in Insl3-null male mice. This implicates Insl3 as a key hormone in the growth ... Higher testicular temperatures associated with cryptorchidism is associated with reduced fertility. The gubernaculum has two ... CRYPTORCHIDISM", Pediatric Urology (Second Edition), Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, pp. 563-576, ISBN 978-1-4160-3204-5, ...
Surgery is used to treat cryptorchidism and cleft palate, whereas medication is used to treat epilepsy that may result from the ... The genitourinary system is also affected by BFLS; the testes of affected children often show hypogonadism and cryptorchidism. ...
The low testosterone levels of the brother were probably related to his cryptorchidism, this symptom having not been previously ... Consistent with the brother's phenotype, cryptorchidism has been described in ERα knockout mice. Because of the brother's low ... Further, there is a greater incidence of cryptorchidism (undescended/retracted testes). There is complete infertility, which is ...
2009). "EGR4 is a master gene responsible for fertility in cryptorchidism". Sex Dev. 3 (5): 253-63. doi:10.1159/000249147. PMID ...
Media in category "Cryptorchidism". The following 11 files are in this category, out of 11 total. ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Cryptorchidism&oldid=199199546" ...
Cryptorchidism may develop after infancy, sometimes as late as young adulthood, but that is exceptional. Cryptorchidism is ... In horses, cryptorchidism is sufficiently common that affected males (ridglings) are routinely gelded. Rarely, cryptorchidism ... Cryptorchidism is common in male dogs, occurring at a rate up to 10%. This condition is one of the most common congenital ... Cryptorchidism is the absence of one or both testes from the scrotum. The word is from the Greek κρυπτός (kryptos), meaning " ...
Cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both of a boys testicles (testes) have not moved into their proper place in the ... Cryptorchidism (krip-TOR-kih-diz-um), also known as undescended testis, is a condition in which one or both of a boys ... If this does not happen, the baby is born with cryptorchidism, also called undescended testis. Most cases involve one testicle ...
Cryptorchidism often corrects itself within a few months of birth, but doctors sometimes recommend surgery. Learn more here. ... Cryptorchidism occurs when the one or both testicles do not descend into the scrotum while the fetus is developing. It is about ... Cryptorchidism is a common and treatable condition in which one or both testicles does not drop into the scrotal sac while a ... "What is cryptorchidism, or an undescended testicle?." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 24 Sep. 2018. Web.. 21 Apr. 2019 ...
Cryptorchidism is the most common abnormality of male sexual development. In this condition, the testis is not located in the ... encoded search term (Pediatric Cryptorchidism Surgery) and Pediatric Cryptorchidism Surgery What to Read Next on Medscape. ... Pediatric Cryptorchidism Surgery Medication. Updated: Aug 09, 2017 * Author: Marcos Perez-Brayfield, MD; Chief Editor: Marc ... Cryptorchidism: A practical review for all community healthcare providers. Can Urol Assoc J. 2017 Jan-Feb. 11 (1-2Suppl1):S26- ...
Cryptorchidism may increase the risk for development of testicular cancer. Also called undescended testicles, is clearly ... Cryptorchidism - A condition in which one or both testicles fail to move from the abdomen, where they develop before birth, ... Medical Word - Cryptorchidism. Ans : A condition in which one or both testicles fail to move from the abdomen, where they ... Cryptorchidism - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical Review Team ...
Cryptorchidism represents the most common endocrine disease in boys, with infertility more frequently observed in bilateral ... Cryptorchidism represents the most common endocrine disease in boys, with infertility more frequently observed in bilateral ... Undescended testis or cryptorchidism is the most common genital abnormality in boys. The prevalence of cryptorchidism in full- ... Hormonal and Surgical Treatment of Cryptorchidism. The goals of treatment of cryptorchidism are mainly two: preserve fertility ...
The exact etiology of cryptorchidism is not known. ... Cryptorchidism is defined as failure of the testis to descend ... encoded search term (Cryptorchidism Imaging) and Cryptorchidism Imaging What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and ... Cryptorchidism is defined as failure of the testis to descend from its intra-abdominal location into the scrotum. The exact ... Fertility potential after unilateral and bilateral orchidopexy for cryptorchidism. World J Urol. 2009 Apr 8. [Medline]. ...
... cryptorchidism) is one of the most frequent congenital abnormalities in humans, involving 2% of male births. Cryptorchidism can ... Cryptorchidism in mice mutant for Insl3 Nat Genet. 1999 Jul;22(3):295-9. doi: 10.1038/10364. ... Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for development of germ-cell tumours. Testicular descent from ... Impaired testicular descent (cryptorchidism) is one of the most frequent congenital abnormalities in humans, involving 2% of ...
Failure in this process results in cryptorchidism, a fr … ... A transgenic insertion causing cryptorchidism in mice Genesis. ... Failure in this process results in cryptorchidism, a frequent congenital birth defect in humans. We report here a new mouse ... transgenic insertional mutation, cryptorchidism with white spotting (crsp). Males homozygous for crsp exhibit a high ...
Normal Testicular Descent and the Aetiology of Cryptorchidism. Authors: Hutson, J.M., Terada, M., Zhou, B., Williams, M.P.L. ... New animal models of cryptorchidism are described which shed light on the possible aetiology. A brief summary is given of ... Normal Testicular Descent and the Aetiology of Cryptorchidism. Authors. * John M. Hutson ...
Cryptorchidism or undescended testis (UDT) is one of the most common pediatric disorders of the male endocrine glands and the ... Home Guidelines Clinical Guidelines Cryptorchidism Guideline Evaluation and Treatment of Cryptorchidism (2014). Published 2014 ... John Radcliffe Hospital Cryptorchidism Study Group: Cryptorchidism: a prospective study of 7500 consecutive male births, 1984-8 ... Cromie WJ: Cryptorchidism and malignant testicular disease, in Hadziselimovic F (ed): Cryptorchidism: Management and ...
Figure 1: Cryptorchidism in a 6-week-old male rat.. Case history and photos. History. A weanling Siamese housed with a small ... Unilateral cryptorchidism.. Treatment. Once the rat was old enough, at three months of age, he was neutered. Neither testicle ...
This procedure is highly recommended in all dogs with Cryptorchidism.. Oftentimes, the presence of Cryptorchidism remains ... Cryptorchidism is believed to be congenital. Thus the abnormality could be passed on to the offspring if the dog is allowed to ... The recommended line of treatment for Cryptorchidism involves castration. An incision is made, the location of which, depends ...
Cryptorchidism "Hidden testis". Occurs when a testis is abnormally positioned high in the scrotum - often elevated into the ...
Diagnostic performance of ultrasound in nonpalpable cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.. Tasian GE1, Copp HL ... Re: Diagnostic performance of ultrasound in nonpalpable cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [J Urol. 2012] ... Eliminating the use of ultrasound will not change management of nonpalpable cryptorchidism but will decrease health care ... Diagnostic Performance of Ultrasound in Nonpalpable Cryptorchidism: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis ...
Undescended testes (known medically as cryptorchidism) occur when one or both testicles do not reach the scrotum and remain ... OToole, M.T. (Ed.) (2013). Cryptorchidism. Mosbys Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professions (9th ed.). St Louis, ...
Cryptorchidism is the failure of one or both of the testicles to descend into the scrotum. Symptoms typically include the lack ... Preventing cryptorchidism in cats. Since cryptorchidism is a genetic disease, it is not recommended to breed cats with the ... Diagnosing cryptorchidism in cats. Sometimes, it can be tricky to diagnose a newly adopted kitty with cryptorchidism. How can ... "bilateral cryptorchidism.". Where do the testicles go?. Another way to describe cryptorchidism is by location. There are 2 main ...
Cryptorchidism is the failure of one or both testicles to descend normally from the abdomen into the scrotum of young intact ... Treating Cryptorchidism (Retained Testicles) in Dogs. Source: PetWave, Updated on July 16, 2015 ... Surgical correction of cryptorchidism should involve removal of both testicles, regardless of their location in the scrotum, ...
Cryptorchidism: A practical review for all community healthcare providers.(REVIEW, Report) by Canadian Urological Association ... Definition of cryptorchidism Cryptorchidism means "hidden testis" and is synonymous with UDT. The majority of UDTs are palpable ... are also more likely to have cryptorchidism. (1) Diagnosis of cryptorchidism (1,5,9-14) The following questions should be asked ... or social factors can result in cryptorchidism. (7) One of the main risk factors for cryptorchidism is low birth weight, which ...
Prepubescent males presenting with cryptorchidism or suspected cryptorchidism. Interventions:. *Workup evaluation for treatment ... Prepubescent males presenting with cryptorchidism or suspected cryptorchidism. Interventions:. *Hormones including human ... cryptorchidism incurs direct costs of millions of dollars annually, even by the most modest estimates.6 Cryptorchidism is, ... Cryptorchidism affects an estimated 3 percent of full-term male neonates and up to 30 percent of premature infants, making it ...
However in the case of cryptorchidism one, or both, of the testicles fail to come down into the scrotal sack and remain in the ... Symptoms of Cryptorchidism - What the Cats Owner Sees. The primary sign of cryptorchidism is the absence of one or both ... Effects of Cryptorchidism - From the Cats Point of View. Cryptorchid cats have one or both of their testicles in their abdomen ... Other evidence of cryptorchidism is the failure of a male cat to produce kittens, despite mating with females. However, most ...
Canine Cryptorchidism is the failure of one or both of the testicles to descend into the scrotum in Dogs. Symptoms typically ... Preventing cryptorchidism. Since cryptorchidism is a genetic disease, it is not recommended to breed dogs with this condition, ... Cryptorchidism occurs when one or both of the testicles are not in the scrotum (or sac). This is also called undescended ... Treating cryptorchidism. Occasionally, vets are asked to "tack" the undescended testicle inside the scrotum. This is a ...
Cryptorchidism (Undescended Testes). By Ronald Rabinowitz, MD, Professor of Urology and Pediatrics, University of Rochester ... Cryptorchidism is failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum; it is typically accompanied by inguinal hernia. ... Cryptorchidism affects about 3% of term infants and up to 30% of preterm infants; two thirds of undescended testes descend ... Cryptorchidism affects about 3% of term infants and up to 30% of preterm infants; two thirds of undescended testes ...
Cryptorchidism - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the Merck Manuals - Medical ... Cryptorchidism is failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum; in younger children, it is typically accompanied ... Cryptorchidism affects about 3% of term infants and up to 30% of preterm infants; two thirds of undescended testes ... Cryptorchidism affects about 3% of term infants and up to 30% of preterm infants; two thirds of undescended testes descend ...
Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis. ... Cryptorchidism: A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the ... Unilateral Cryptorchidism; Cryptorchidism, Abdominal; Cryptorchidism, Bilateral; Cryptorchidism, Inguinal; Cryptorchidism, ... Undescended Testes; Abdominal Cryptorchidism; Bilateral Cryptorchidism; Cryptorchism; Inguinal Cryptorchidism; Testes, ...
Results: The prevalence of cryptorchidism was 3.6%. It was higher among children of mothers who were not in school, and among ... The average age of students with cryptorchidism was 9.84 ± 2.33 years, with extremes of 4 and 17 years. 85% of these pupils ... Conclusion: Many school children have cryptorchidism at advanced ages, thus exposing them to the risk of complications ( ... anatomic and clinical characteristics of cryptorchidism in schools in the city of Conakry. Material and Methods: We carried out ...
Cryptorchidism, or undescended testis, is when one or both testes are not present within the dependent portion of the scrotal ... Patients affected with both cryptorchidism and hypospadias should be screened with karyotype for a disorder of sex development ...
... surgery remains the cornerstone of therapy for cryptorchidism. Orchiopexy was apparently first attempted by Rosenmerkel in 1820 ... Woodard J.R., Trulock T.S. (1983) Surgical Treatment of Cryptorchidism. In: Cryptorchidism. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. * DOI ... Lunderquist A, Rafstedt S (1967) Roentgenologic diagnosis of cryptorchidism. J Urol 98:219PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Silber SJ, Cohen R (1980) Laparoscopy for cryptorchidism. J Urol 124:928PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
MRI is more sensitive than ultrasound in detection of cryptorchidism and its level. Undescended testicle appears typically iso ... MRI is more sensitive than ultrasound in detection of cryptorchidism and its level. Undescended testicle appears typically iso ...
  • Cryptorchidism (krip-TOR-kih-diz-um), also known as undescended testis, is a condition in which one or both of a boy's testicles (testes) have not moved into their proper place in the scrotum. (kidshealth.org)
  • If this does not happen, the baby is born with cryptorchidism, also called undescended testis. (kidshealth.org)
  • Undescended testis or cryptorchidism is the most common genital abnormality in boys. (frontiersin.org)
  • Azoospermia is evident in 13% of unilateral cryptorchidism and increase to 89% in untreated bilateral cryptorchid patients ( 8 ), although boys with one undescended testis have a lower fertility rate, they have the same paternity rate as boys with bilateral descended testes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cryptorchidism or undescended testis (UDT) is one of the most common pediatric disorders of the male endocrine glands and the most common genital disorder identified at birth. (auanet.org)
  • Cryptorchidism (or undescended testis [UDT]) is diagnosed in approximately 1% of boys who reach one year of age and is one of the most common congenital anomalies of the male genitalia. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • An estimated 10 percent of all testicular tumors develop from an undescended testis, 9 and the relative risk of incidence of a testicular tumor is about 40 times greater in men with cryptorchidism when compared to the general population. (ahrq.gov)
  • Cryptorchidism, or undescended testis, is when one or both testes are not present within the dependent portion of the scrotal sac. (bmj.com)
  • Cryptorchidism includes the strict definition of an absent or nonpalpable testicle as well as an undescended testis that is palpable in the inguinal canal but fails to reach the scrotum. (abdominalkey.com)
  • Cryptorchidism or undescended testis is the most common disorder of the sexual differentiation, seen in 2-4% of male infants at birth. (lecturio.com)
  • Cryptorchidism, undescended testis" by Nevit Dilmen. (lecturio.com)
  • The fertility reduction after orchiopexy for bilateral cryptorchidism is more marked, about 38%, or six times that of the general population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptorchidism represents the most common endocrine disease in boys, with infertility more frequently observed in bilateral forms. (frontiersin.org)
  • We show here that mice mutant for Insl3 are viable, but exhibit bilateral cryptorchidism due to developmental abnormalities of the gubernaculum, resulting in abnormal spermatogenesis and infertility. (nih.gov)
  • When both testicles are affected, the cat has "bilateral cryptorchidism. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • The diagnosis of bilateral cryptorchidism can be based on the presence of barbs on the penis after 9 months of age. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • However, most cats with bilateral cryptorchidism are sterile. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • Most dogs with bilateral cryptorchidism (meaning that both testicles are retained) are sterile. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • With cryptorchidism, there is a 32x increased risk of developing a testicular germ cell tumor , with an incidence of 1 in 2000 (higher in bilateral cases, and in abdominal cryptorchidism) 7 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Twin boys, both of whom had hypospadias and bilateral cryptorchidism, each developed a left-sided Wilms's tumour. (bmj.com)
  • Synchronous bilateral testicular tumours are rare, and bilateral synchronous testicular tumours in bilateral cryptorchidism extremely rare, probably not reported previously. (scielo.org.za)
  • Computed Tomographic Features in a Case of Bilateral Neoplastic Cryptorchidism with Suspected Torsion in a Dog. (vt.edu)
  • Cryptorchidism can be either bilateral (causing sterility) or unilateral, and inguinal or abdominal (or both). (vetsci.co.uk)
  • Testosterone is decreased in bilateral cryptorchidism , but normal in the unilateral variant. (osmosis.org)
  • However, the co-existence of bilateral cryptorchidism made us to consider the possibility of hypogonadism as well, and it was further explained by concurrent existence of mosaic KS (47,XXY/46,XX). (bioscientifica.com)
  • Presence of bilateral cryptorchidism in such a patient may be due to underlying hypogonadism. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Up to 10% of cases are bilateral ( 2 ), and the incidence of cryptorchidism increases to 30% in premature infants. (abdominalkey.com)
  • Orchiopexy is recommended between 6m-12m of age to decrease the risk of torsion, testicular cancer and infertility which occurs in up to 75% of male children with bilateral cryptorchidism and in 50% of male children with unilateral cryptorchidism. (smartypance.com)
  • Cryptorchidism is the absence of one or both testes from the scrotum. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, about 80% of cryptorchid testes descend by the first year of life (the majority within three months), making the true incidence of cryptorchidism around 1% overall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Undescended testes (known medically as cryptorchidism) occur when one or both testicles do not reach the scrotum and remain inside the abdomen or groin (inguinal canal). (southerncross.co.nz)
  • Induced cryptorchidism (or crimping) involves applying a rubber ring to a male animal's scrotum so that the testes are held against the abdomen. (rspca.org.au)
  • Cryptorchidism refers to an absence of a testis (or testes) in the scrotal sac . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Almost half of children referred for cryptorchidism had retractile testes. (canjurol.com)
  • Cryptorchidism (or undescended testes) is a condition seen in newborns when one or both of the male testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. (columbiaurology.org)
  • Cryptorchidism is more commonly seen in premature males because the testes do not descend from the abdomen to the scrotal sac until the seventh month of fetal development. (columbiaurology.org)
  • Being unable to feel the testes on examination is the most common symptom of cryptorchidism. (columbiaurology.org)
  • Cryptorchidism is a disorder where either one or both testes fail to descend and are therefore absent from the scrotum. (vetsci.co.uk)
  • Dog testes usually descend by ten days of age and it is considered to be cryptorchidism if they do not descend by the age of eight weeks. (vetsci.co.uk)
  • Cryptorchidism is a condition characterized by one or both testes being undescended. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Although boys with undescended testes do have abnormal attachment of the gubernaculum, the mechanical theories do not consistently explain the testis histology found in cryptorchidism. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Undescended testicles (also known as cryptorchidism ) is a condition in which one or both of a baby boy's testicles (testes) have not moved down into their proper place in the scrotum . (kidshealth.org)
  • Cryptorchidism is found in 1% to 2% of male children after 1 year of age but can be confused with retractile testes that is associated with a strong cremasteric reflex, which requires no treatment. (smartypance.com)
  • Cryptorchidism (Undescended Testes) is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Clinical Consult . (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A study published in Nature's Scientific Reports reported temporal decreases in canine sperm quality as well as increases in cryptorchidism incidence and identified environmental chemicals (ECs) in canine adult testes and semen. (americanveterinarian.com)
  • Cryptorchidism is distinct from monorchism, the condition of having only one testicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is cryptorchidism, or an undescended testicle? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Feline cryptorchidism, also called undescended testicle or retained testicle, is a condition where one or both of the testicles stay in the belly, instead of being in the scrotum or sac. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • If one testicle is undescended, the condition is called "unilateral cryptorchidism. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • Since cryptorchidism is a genetic disease , it is not recommended to breed cats with the unilateral condition (i.e. one testicle only), as they will pass it along. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • In boys under 1 year of age whose testicle is palpable and is close to, but not quite inside, the scrotum, it may be difficult to distinguish between "true" cryptorchidism and a retractile testis. (ahrq.gov)
  • Many school children have cryptorchidism at advanced ages, thus exposing them to the risk of complications (infertility and malignant degeneration of the testicle). (scirp.org)
  • Cryptorchidism is one of the most common congenital anomalies in males, characterized by inability to palpate the testicle in the expected normal anatomical position (i.e., within its respective hemi-scrotum). (evidence.nhs.uk)
  • An undescended testicle (cryptorchidism) is one that remains inside the body and has not moved down into the scrotum. (medicalrecords.com)
  • Cryptorchidism is the congenital abnormality in which the testicle has not descended into the scrotum. (com.gr)
  • The testicle located in ectopic position (in cryptorchidism) at birth, has about a 50% chance to continue his descent, to enter and stabilize in the scrotum, alone, during the first year of life. (zoypanos.gr)
  • Cryptorchidism or undescended testicle is a congenital anomaly , that is to say, a birth defect in which one or both testicles do not descend normally during fetus development. (invitra.com)
  • In 80% of cases cryptorchidism is unilateral, i.e. only one testicle is affected and more frequently the left one. (invitra.com)
  • To understand what cryptorchidism is one must understand how the Testicle forms early in embryonic life and then descends into the scrotum during late foetal life- in the womb or early neonatal life- soon after birth. (stillionsminiaturemiracles.com)
  • Only 6% of the cases of retained testicle or cryptorchidism in dogs belong to pregnancies that ended in full term. (myanimals.com)
  • When testicles to not descend in this way, the result is usually cryptorchidism, with the testicle either hidden in the abdomen, or in the inguinal region. (infopet.co.uk)
  • Cryptorchidism, i.e. failure of the testicle to descend in the scrotal sack, is a frequent condition in male children. (humanitas.net)
  • Cryptorchidism is not reported with other symptoms except for the absence of testicle in the scrotal sack. (humanitas.net)
  • During the first year of life, the testicle will be able to descend on its own, while in other cases it will be necessary to use treatment: "The correction of cryptorchidism - adds Dr. Negri - is currently recommended within the second year of life, even better within the first year and a half. (humanitas.net)
  • The more formal medical term for testicles that do not descend is cryptorchidism. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cryptorchidism occurs when one or both of the testicles do not descend into the scrotum while the fetus is developing. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cryptorchidism is the failure of one or both testicles to descend normally from the abdomen into the scrotum of young intact male dogs. (petwave.com)
  • Surgical correction of cryptorchidism should involve removal of both testicles, regardless of their location in the scrotum, inguinal canal or abdomen. (petwave.com)
  • The primary sign of cryptorchidism is the absence of one or both testicles in the scrotal sacs. (petwave.com)
  • Cryptorchidism occurs when one or both of the testicles are not in the scrotum (or sac). (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • Cryptorchidism is a condition where one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum. (americanmaltese.org)
  • Cryptorchidism is the condition that when one or the two testicles are not located inside the scrotum (bag containing the testicles). (zoypanos.gr)
  • Cryptorchidism in dogs is a genetic disease that is visually detected only in males and occurs due to an abnormality of embryonic development: in a puppy, one or both testicles do not descend from the retroperitoneal space into the scrotum. (mrpetler.com)
  • Right-sided inguinal testicles were most commonly found, followed by right-sided abdominal cryptorchidism. (infopet.co.uk)
  • The reduction with unilateral cryptorchidism is subtle, with a reported infertility rate of about 10%, compared with about 6% reported by the same study for the general population of adult men. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some studies, patients with unilateral cryptorchidism had normal spermatogenesis, suggesting that additive detrimental factors may be responsible for impaired fertility. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unilateral cryptorchidism. (ratguide.com)
  • Although cryptorchidism nearly always refers to congenital absence or maldescent, a testis observed in the scrotum in early infancy can occasionally "reascend" (move back up) into the inguinal canal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impaired testicular descent (cryptorchidism) is one of the most frequent congenital abnormalities in humans, involving 2% of male births. (nih.gov)
  • Failure in this process results in cryptorchidism, a frequent congenital birth defect in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Cryptorchidism is believed to be congenital. (beaglesunlimited.com)
  • Cryptorchidism is one of the most common congenital anomalies of the male genitalia, occurring in 1% of boys by the age of one year. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A boy, born at 37 weeks and 5 days of gestational age with no consanguineous marriage, was admitted to our hospital due to congenital cleft lip, cleft palate, micropenis, cryptorchidism, and a ventricular septal defect. (urotoday.com)
  • They included: 1) congenital malformation, 2) secondary damage to initially normal testis due to persistent malposition, or 3) endocrinopathy leading to defective spermatogenesis.Research into infertility caused by cryptorchidism was greatly influenced by studies of testicular histology. (espu.org)
  • Recently, advances in molecular genetics of cryptorchidism have provided necessary evidence to disprove Hunters more than 220 year old thesis that cryptorchid testis is a congenital abnormality that is ab initio imperfect and incapable of development into normal testicular structure and function. (espu.org)
  • Abstract: Canine cryptorchidism is a congenital defect that results from sex- limited autosomal recessive gene(s). (canaandog.co.uk)
  • In the following list you will find some of the most common rare diseases related to Cryptorchidism and Congenital cataract that can help you solving undiagnosed cases. (mendelian.co)
  • Cryptorchidism, generally referred to a failure of testicular descent into the scrotum, is the most frequent (up to 3-4% at birth) congenital anomaly in newborn boys. (qxmd.com)
  • Prospective clinical studies have suggested that the rate of congenital cryptorchidism has increased since the 1950s. (diethylstilbestrol.co.uk)
  • Cryptorchidism is defined as failure of the testis to descend from its intra-abdominal location into the scrotum. (medscape.com)
  • In general, cryptorchidism is the result of a developmental defect where the testis fails to descend completely into the dependent portion of the scrotum by six months of age. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In cryptorchidism, the testis is not in the scrotum, but may be found in the inguinal canal or in the abdominal cavity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cryptorchidism is the result of failure of normal testicular descent into the scrotum. (stillionsminiaturemiracles.com)
  • Cryptorchidism can be defined as hidden testis or a testis which is not within the scrotum and cannot be manipulated into the scrotum without pain. (lecturio.com)
  • In patients with cryptorchidism, the gubernaculum is not firmly attached to the scrotum, and the testis is not pulled into the scrotum. (lecturio.com)
  • Evaluation and treatment of cryptorchidism. (medscape.com)
  • Thorsson AV, Christiansen P, Ritzen M. Efficacy and safety of hormonal treatment of cryptorchidism: current state of the art. (medscape.com)
  • Ben Dhaou M, Zouari M, Zitouni H, Jallouli M, Mhiri R. [Comparison of the inguinal and scrotal approaches for the treatment of cryptorchidism in children]. (medscape.com)
  • The main reasons for treatment of cryptorchidism include increased risks of impairment of fertility potential, testicular malignancy, torsion and/or associated inguinal hernia. (auanet.org)
  • The primary source of evidence for this guideline was the systematic review conducted as part of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Comparative Effectiveness Review titled Evaluation and Treatment of Cryptorchidism (2012). (auanet.org)
  • Efficacy and safety of hormonal treatment of cryptorchidism: current state of the art. (urology-textbook.com)
  • Kokorowski PJ, Routh JC, Graham AD, Nelson CP (2010) Variations in timing of surgery among boys who underwent orchiopexy for cryptorchidism. (springer.com)
  • Nationwide Danish health registers provided information on birth outcome, cryptorchidism diagnosis and orchiopexy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analysis divided into separate cohorts revealed a significantly increased risk of cryptorchidism in cohort 2: HR 2.58 (1.07;6.20) and increased risk of orchiopexy in cohort 4: HR 2.76 (1.03;7.35), but no significant associations in the other cohorts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At what age is it necessary to perform orchiopexy in a child affected with cryptorchidism? (smartypance.com)
  • Makale Arama kriptorşidism orşiopeksi cryptorchidism orchiopexy. (selcukmedj.org)
  • Approximately 10% of the infertile men have a history of cryptorchidism and orchidopexy ( 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 3. Providers should refer infants with a history of cryptorchidism (detected at birth) who do not have spontaneous testicular descent by six months (corrected for gestational age) to an appropriate surgical specialist for timely evaluation. (auanet.org)
  • The presence of palpable gonads, hypospadias, and prior inguinal herniorrhaphy should be noted as well as a family history of cryptorchidism and other genitourinary anomalies. (abdominalkey.com)
  • In the vast majority of cases, the history of cryptorchidism emerges at a time of difficulty in conceiving. (humanitas.net)
  • Hormonal therapy has been used in Europe for many years as a primary therapy for cryptorchidism. (medscape.com)
  • Despite the current research and renewed enthusiasm for hormones, surgery remains the cornerstone of therapy for cryptorchidism. (springer.com)
  • Docimo SG (1995) The results of surgical therapy for cryptorchidism: a literature review and analysis. (springer.com)
  • The ideal therapy for cryptorchidism is surgical (orchidopexy). (humanitas.net)
  • Lunderquist A, Rafstedt S (1967) Roentgenologic diagnosis of cryptorchidism. (springer.com)
  • For the study, they abstracted data from multiple national registries in Sweden on boys with a diagnosis of cryptorchidism between 2001 and 2014. (aappublications.org)
  • Comparison of the measurement of plasma testosterone and plasma oestrogens for the diagnosis of cryptorchidism in the horse. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The diagnosis of cryptorchidism relies solely on physical examination. (abdominalkey.com)
  • Chua ME, Mendoza JS, Gaston MJ, Luna SL Jr, Morales ML Jr. Hormonal therapy using gonadotropin releasing hormone for improvement of fertility index among children with cryptorchidism: a meta-analysis and systematic review. (medscape.com)
  • Longer term consequences of cryptorchidism include testicular malignancy and infertility/subfertility, with stronger evidence for the etiologic role of cryptorchidism in malignancy than in disordered fertility. (ahrq.gov)
  • Cryptorchidism is closely associated with impaired fertility, and represents an established risk factor for testicular cancer. (qxmd.com)
  • Both anomalies may be detrimental to the fertility which is often already diminished by the cryptorchidism, and must be described in the protocol of the surgeon. (unibe.ch)
  • Cryptorchidism, what is the relationship with fertility? (humanitas.net)
  • Dr. Luciano Negri, Assistant Andrologist of the Fertility Center at Humanitas, describes the relationship between cryptorchidism and male fertility. (humanitas.net)
  • The incidence of testicular tumours is high in cryptorchidism. (scielo.org.za)
  • According to two comparable English studies, the incidence of cryptorchidism in full-term boys approximately doubled between the 1950s and the 1980s. (utu.fi)
  • Regionally there are large differences: e.g. in Finland the incidence of cryptorchidism is clearly lower than in Denmark. (utu.fi)
  • The incidence of testicular cancer is 13 times higher in dogs displaying cryptorchidism. (vetsci.co.uk)
  • Recent warnings coming from industrialized countries have placed emphasis upon an increasing incidence over the last decades in male reproductive abnormalities (cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and testis cancer) and, on the contrary, a reduction in sperm counts. (springerprofessional.de)
  • Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may contribute to cryptorchidism and may account for the increasing incidence rate of cryptorchidism seen in some regions. (lecturio.com)
  • There have been different estimates of the incidence of cryptorchidism in cats and dogs. (infopet.co.uk)
  • Cats showed an incidence of cryptorchidism of between 1% and 1.3%, which was not as high as in other studies where the proportion of pedigree cats was higher. (infopet.co.uk)
  • A research study evaluated temporal changes in sperm quality and cryptorchidism incidence, and the effects of environmental chemicals on sperm quality, in a canine breeding program. (americanveterinarian.com)
  • Cryptorchidism incidence in puppies and the male:female birth ratio from 1995 to 2014 were analyzed. (americanveterinarian.com)
  • Cryptorchidism incidence increased significantly. (americanveterinarian.com)
  • The authors believe the increased cryptorchidism incidence and female morality rates occurred through separate mechanisms. (americanveterinarian.com)
  • Penson D, Krishnaswami S, Jules A, McPheeters ML. Effectiveness of hormonal and surgical therapies for cryptorchidism: a systematic review. (medscape.com)
  • It is important to differentiate the true cryptorchidism from the retractile testis, which is a normal finding and usually it does not require surgical treatment. (frontiersin.org)
  • 4. Providers should refer boys with the possibility of newly diagnosed (acquired) cryptorchidism after six months (corrected for gestational age) to an appropriate surgical specialist. (auanet.org)
  • Marshall FF, Weissman RM, Jeffs RD (1980) Cryptorchidism : The surgical implications of non-union of the epididymis and testis. (springer.com)
  • Investigators from Lund University, Lund, Sweden, conducted a retrospective study to determine the cumulative prevalence of cryptorchidism among boys 0-18 years old in Sweden, age at surgical repair, type of surgical technique, and postoperative complications. (aappublications.org)
  • The authors compared the age and referral patterns of pediatric patients undergoing surgical intervention for cryptorchidism at a rural, West Virginia University, versus urban, Johns Hopkins University, tertiary center. (springer.com)
  • A retrospective review of patients undergoing surgical evaluation for cryptorchidism was performed. (springer.com)
  • However, there was an apparent decline in the prevalence of surgically corrected cryptorchidism that may reflect a decrease in the prevalence of the condition or may be due to a decrease in the rate of surgical intervention. (bmj.com)
  • Some common problems include the following: (1) anemia, which can be reduced by iron supplementation, (2) cerebral palsy or mental retardation as a result of intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia, (3) respiratory problems, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia and apnea, (4) visual problems, such as those associated with retinopathy of prematurity, (5) gastroesophageal reflux and (6) surgical problems, including inguinal or umbilical hernia and cryptorchidism. (aafp.org)
  • The prevalence of cryptorchidism in full-term newborns range between 1 and 3%, reaching 30% in prematures ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • To report the prevalence, anatomic and clinical characteristics of cryptorchidism in schools in the city of Conakry. (scirp.org)
  • In many countries, cryptorchidism is treated at late ages, due to diagnostic delay, as evidenced by school prevalence surveys. (scirp.org)
  • In Turkey in 1996, Simsek [7] noted a prevalence of 1.43% of cryptorchidism in schools. (scirp.org)
  • In Nigeria in 2001 in Anambra state, Okeke [8] found a 0.82% prevalence of cryptorchidism in elementary school boys. (scirp.org)
  • So we conducted this study in order to report the prevalence and anatomo-clinical characteristics of cryptorchidism in schools in the city of Conakry. (scirp.org)
  • There is much debate as to whether the prevalence rates of cryptorchidism and hypospadias are increasing. (bmj.com)
  • To address this issue we investigated the birth prevalence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in the northern region of England during the period 1993-2000. (bmj.com)
  • Prevalence was 7.6 per 1000 male live births for cryptorchidism and 3.1 per 1000 male live births for hypospadias. (bmj.com)
  • Objectives: To examine associations between organic food consumption during pregnancy and prevalence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism at birth. (criigen.org)
  • There is a 23% prevalence of cryptorchidism in family members of cases compared to 7.5% in relatives of controls. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The exact etiology of cryptorchidism is not known. (medscape.com)
  • Even though the etiology of cryptorchidism is multifactorial, management has evolved with the clear recognition that hormonal treatment is not effective and surgery between 6-18 months of age leads to better testicular outcomes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Although the etiology of cryptorchidism remains poorly understood, management has evolved with the clear recognition that hormonal treatment is largely ineffective and early surgery (prior to 1-2 years of age) leads to better testicular outcomes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The purpose of this guideline is to provide physicians and non-physician providers (primary care and specialists) with a consensus of principles and treatment plans for the management of cryptorchidism. (auanet.org)
  • Rural versus urban compliance in the management of cryptorchidism: is there a difference? (springer.com)
  • Significant referral delay is a challenging issue in the management of cryptorchidism. (springer.com)
  • The rural and urban management of cryptorchidism is not that different. (springer.com)
  • More emphasis should be put on the detection management of cryptorchidism. (springer.com)
  • Cryptorchidism can be intra-abdominal or inguinal depending on the district in which the descent of the organ is interrupted (abdomen or groin). (humanitas.net)
  • Mice with mutation of insulin-like 3 or its receptor show high intra-abdominal cryptorchidism. (qxmd.com)
  • The effect of diethylstilbestrol on inducing abdominal cryptorchidism and relevant genetic expression in rats]. (qxmd.com)
  • Since cryptorchidism is a genetic disease, it is not recommended to breed dogs with this condition, as the father could pass it along to his offspring. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • Cryptorchidism is believed to have a genetic component (as observed in horses and pigs), therefore to protect the health of future breeds, any animal displaying cryptorchidism should be excluded from breeding programs. (vetsci.co.uk)
  • An anatomic and genetic study of canine cryptorchidism. (canaandog.co.uk)
  • Cryptorchidism in dogs: genetic assessment of published data. (canaandog.co.uk)
  • Like other genital defects, cryptorchidism is believed to be caused by either endocrine or genetic abnormalities, or both. (qxmd.com)
  • Although genetic abnormalities can cause cryptorchidism, in the majority of cases, the reasons remain unclear. (springerprofessional.de)
  • Methods Of the 9281 boys in ELFE (French Longitudinal Study of Children), the national French birth cohort, 53 were diagnosed with hypospadias and 137 with cryptorchidism. (bmj.com)
  • Acquired cryptorchidism has been observed when the retractile testis ascent in the inguinal canal during the infancy (ascending testis). (frontiersin.org)
  • Cryptorchidism is commonly confused with a retractile testis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • 1. Providers should obtain gestational history at initial evaluation of boys with suspected cryptorchidism. (auanet.org)
  • Therefore, boys with suspected cryptorchidism often present very early in life, often within the first year. (ahrq.gov)
  • Cryptorchidism affects an estimated 3 percent of full-term male neonates and up to 30 percent of premature infants, making it the most common male genital anomaly identified at birth. (ahrq.gov)
  • Cryptorchidism is the most common genital defect in boys [1]. (scirp.org)
  • In males, genital features such as micropenis and cryptorchidism are found in 48% of CS. (urotoday.com)
  • Testicular cancer, cryptorchidism, hypospadias and poor spermatogenesis are risk factors for each other and it has been hypothesized that they are all signs of a developmental disturbance called testicular dysgenesis syndrome. (springerprofessional.de)
  • Association of epididymal anomalies with patent processus vaginalis in hernia, hydrocele and cryptorchidism. (medscape.com)
  • Cryptorchidism is often associated with a patent processus vaginalis, which predisposes to hydrocele and inguinal hernia formation. (abdominalkey.com)
  • The studied mechanisms of the infertility in cryptorchidism are multiple ( 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for development of germ-cell tumours. (nih.gov)
  • Background: The etiologies of the male urogenital anomalies hypospadias and cryptorchidism remain unclear. (criigen.org)
  • Diagnostic performance of ultrasound in nonpalpable cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Eliminating the use of ultrasound will not change management of nonpalpable cryptorchidism but will decrease health care expenditures. (nih.gov)
  • Twenty percent of boys with cryptorchidism have a nonpalpable testis. (abdominalkey.com)
  • We report a case of a 17-year-old Tunisian male who presented with eunuchoid body proportions, absence of facial, axillary and pubic hair, micropenis and surgically corrected cryptorchidism. (bioscientifica.com)
  • A premature birth increases the risk of cryptorchidism. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Risk of cryptorchidism among exposed horticulture workers compared to the background population and to unexposed horticulture workers was assessed by Cox regression models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The data are compatible with a slightly increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons of women exposed to pesticides by working in horticulture. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In humans, prenatal exposure to potent estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) has been associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism . (diethylstilbestrol.co.uk)
  • The regulation of testicular descent and the effects of cryptorchidism. (medscape.com)
  • The symptoms of cryptorchidism are typically mild to the affected animal, but the condition does carry some risks. (petwave.com)
  • Symptoms of cryptorchidism may look like other conditions or medical problems. (columbiaurology.org)
  • no associations were found between cryptorchidism and any domestic pesticide use. (bmj.com)
  • Associated conditions and consequences of cryptorchidism include hypospadias, hernia, and testicular torsion. (ahrq.gov)
  • The INSL3-LGR8/GREAT ligand-receptor pair in human cryptorchidism. (medscape.com)
  • Using a case-control design, we show that cryptorchidism and hypospadias are both significantly associated with increased amniotic concentration of INSL3 during gestational weeks 13-16, and some, though not all steroid biomarkers. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using a case-control design, we show that cryptorchidism and hypospadias are both significantly associated with increased amniotic concentration of INSL3 during gestational weeks 13 to 16, and some, though not all steroid biomarkers. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Mutation and polymorphism analyses of INSL3 and LGR8/GREAT in 62 Japanese patients with cryptorchidism. (qxmd.com)
  • Disorders in fetal androgen production/action or suppression of Insl3 are mechanisms causing cryptorchidism in rodents. (diethylstilbestrol.co.uk)
  • Abnormalities in HOXA10 , HOXA11 , HOXD13 , ESR1 , INSL3 , and the LGR8/GREAT receptor genes account for only 2-3% of patients with nonsyndromic cryptorchidism. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We tested whether transgenic over expression of Insl3 can reverse inguinoscrotal cryptorchidism in mice deficient in Gnrhr or Hoxa10 genes. (qxmd.com)
  • In animals, the level of evidence for an impact of endocrine disrupters on cryptorchidism is high, and biological pathways by which chemicals may disrupt endocrine balance are better identified: various environmental factors hav demonstrated their ability to mimic, antagonise or interfere with androgens and estrogens, or to disrupt the physiological estrogens/androgens balance. (springerprofessional.de)
  • Even if evidence in humans remains limited, recent epidemiological studies improve the level of evidence for an exposure-outcome relation between endocrine disrupters and the occurrence of cryptorchidism. (springerprofessional.de)
  • It was subsequently determined that exposed offspring of both sexes had increased risk for multiple reproductive disorders, certain cancers, cryptorchidism (boys), and other diseases, although the risk for sons is more controversial . (diethylstilbestrol.co.uk)
  • In horses, cryptorchidism is sufficiently common that affected males (ridgelings) routinely are gelded. (vetsci.co.uk)
  • However theories are that the disease is inherited, although a mechanism for its inheritance is unknown - even still, males expressing cryptorchidism should not be bred. (vetsci.co.uk)
  • Purebred males are more susceptible to cryptorchidism than mongrel dogs. (mrpetler.com)
  • Cryptorchidism often corrects itself within a few months of birth. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Using data from a nationwide birth cohort, we aimed to assess the association between residential sources of prenatal pesticide exposure and the risks of hypospadias and cryptorchidism. (bmj.com)
  • Hypospadias and cryptorchidism diagnoses were retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. (criigen.org)
  • Doctors usually diagnose cryptorchidism during a physical exam at birth or at a checkup shortly after. (kidshealth.org)
  • Low birth weight has also been associated with cryptorchidism, independent of gestational age ( 3 ). (abdominalkey.com)
  • Cryptorchidism - the specialist replies - is associated with an increased risk of hypofertility or sterility. (humanitas.net)
  • That report included rigorous searches of MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and EMBASE for English-language studies published from January 1980 through February 2012 relevant to cryptorchidism. (auanet.org)
  • Silber SJ, Cohen R (1980) Laparoscopy for cryptorchidism. (springer.com)
  • An exaggerated cremasteric reflex can simulate cryptorchidism. (radiopaedia.org)
  • A case of combined 21-hydroxylase deficiency and CHARGE syndrome featuring micropenis and cryptorchidism. (urotoday.com)
  • therefore, it is unknown whether the external genitalia shows penile enlargement or micropenis with/without cryptorchidism. (urotoday.com)
  • His external genitalia demonstrated both cryptorchidism and micropenis, but not penile enlargement. (urotoday.com)
  • Patients affected with both cryptorchidism and hypospadias should be screened with karyotype for a disorder of sex development (DSD). (bmj.com)
  • Patients treated for reasons unrelated to cryptorchidism or referred for multiple urologic diagnoses were excluded. (springer.com)
  • There is an increased risk of (cancer) in patients with cryptorchidism. (osmosis.org)
  • Both conditions are extremely rare, but the findings reinforce that DSD should be considered in patients with cryptorchidism, especially if other clinical signs are present. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • Unilateral anorchia is found in 5% of patients with cryptorchidism. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Cryptorchidism associated with hypospadias should also raise the possibility of a disorder of sex development (DSD), which occurs in 30-40% of patients, mainly due to defects in gonadotropin or testosterone synthesis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Patients with cryptorchidism are at an increased risk for germ cell testicular cancer. (edu.pl)
  • We undertook this study to establish whether OCT 4 immunohistochemistry is a useful tool in the pathohistologic evaluation of postpubertal patients with cryptorchidism. (edu.pl)
  • Seventeen postpubertal patients underwent orchidectomy for cryptorchidism at our center since 1997. (edu.pl)
  • OCT 4 immunohistochemistry can be useful in diagnosing a testicular germ cell tumor in patients with cryptorchidism. (edu.pl)
  • If we consider a low number of postpubertal patients with cryptorchidism a benefit of immunohistochemical staining with OCT4, this could favor the use of OCT 4 staining in work-up of cryptorchidism. (edu.pl)
  • Secondary cryptorchidism can be seen as a complication of inguinal hernia repair in up to 1-2% of the patients, commonly neonates and young infants. (lecturio.com)
  • Being affected by cryptorchidism may therefore be an important element over the years: "Often patients who are very young have a vague memory of the surgery or even don't remember it. (humanitas.net)
  • This indicates that a mild endocrinopathy is responsible, and cryptorchidism may be a variant of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. (unboundmedicine.com)