Cryptophyta: A class of EUKARYOTA (traditionally algae), characterized by biflagellated cells and found in both freshwater and marine environments. Pigmentation varies but only one CHLOROPLAST is present. Unique structures include a nucleomorph and ejectosomes.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalApicomplexa: A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)HandbooksHepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Manuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Cartoons as Topic: Images used to comment on such things as contemporary events, social habits, or political trends; usually executed in a broad or abbreviated manner.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.RussiaCiliophora: A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.Octopodiformes: A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.Cyclic CMP: A cyclic nucleotide formed from CYTIDINE TRIPHOSPHATE by the action of cytidylate cyclase. It is a potential cyclic nucleotide intracellular mediator of signal transductions.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Algal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of algae.Stramenopiles: A common name (but used formally) for a group of organisms that are mostly kinds of algae including BACILLARIOPHYTA; OOMYCETES; PHAEOPHYCEAE; and CHRYSOPHYCEAE. They all contain CHLOROPLASTS that are thought to have been derived from the endosymbiosis of ancient RED ALGAE.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Echinodermata: A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)Exhibits as Topic: Discussions, descriptions or catalogs of public displays or items representative of a given subject.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.Life: The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Biogenesis: The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.Microalgae: A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Scenedesmus: A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Scenedesmaceae. It forms colonies of usually four or eight cylindrical cells that are widely distributed in freshwater and SOIL.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Peptide Initiation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-2: The largest of the three prokaryotic initiation factors with a molecular size of approximately 80 kD. It functions in the transcription initiation process by promoting the binding of formylmethionine-tRNA to the P-site of the 30S ribosome and by preventing the incorrect binding of elongator tRNA to the translation initiation site.Epigenomics: The systematic study of the global gene expression changes due to EPIGENETIC PROCESSES and not due to DNA base sequence changes.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.

Diatom genomics: genetic acquisitions and mergers. (1/58)

Diatom algae arose by two-step endosymbiosis. The complete genome of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana has now been sequenced, allowing us to reconstruct the remarkable intracellular gene transfers that occurred during this convoluted cellular evolution.  (+info)

On the monophyly of chromalveolates using a six-protein phylogeny of eukaryotes. (2/58)

A global phylogeny of major eukaryotic lineages is a significant and ongoing challenge to molecular phylogenetics. Currently, there are five hypothesized major lineages or 'supergroups' of eukaryotes. One of these, the chromalveolates, represents a large fraction of protist and algal diversity. The chromalveolate hypothesis was originally based on similarities between the photosynthetic organelles (plastids) found in many of its members and has been supported by analyses of plastid-related genes. However, since plastids can move between eukaryotic lineages, it is important to provide additional support from data generated from the nuclear-cytosolic host lineage. Genes coding for six different cytosolic proteins from a variety of chromalveolates (yielding 68 new gene sequences) have been characterized so that multiple gene analyses, including all six major lineages of chromalveolates, could be compared and concatenated with data representing all five hypothesized supergroups. Overall support for much of the phylogenies is decreased over previous analyses that concatenated fewer genes for fewer taxa. Nevertheless, four of the six chromalveolate lineages (apicomplexans, ciliates, dinoflagellates and heterokonts) consistently form a monophyletic assemblage, whereas the remaining two (cryptomonads and haptophytes) form a weakly supported group. Whereas these results are consistent with the monophyly of chromalveolates inferred from plastid data, testing this hypothesis is going to require a substantial increase in data from a wide variety of organisms.  (+info)

Unique genetic compartmentalization of the SUF system in cryptophytes and characterization of a SufD mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana. (3/58)

The mobilization of sulfur (SUF) system is one of three systems involved in iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis and maintenance. In eukaryotes the SUF system is specific for the plastid and therefore of symbiotic origin. Analyses in cryptophytes showed a unique genetic compartmentalization of the SUF system, which evolved by at least two different gene transfer events. We analyzed one of the components, SufD, in the cryptophyte Guillardia theta and in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrated that SufD fulfils house keeping functions during embryogenesis and in adult plants in A. thaliana.  (+info)

Unique tRNA introns of an enslaved algal cell. (4/58)

Nucleomorphs are remnant nuclei of eukaryotic, secondary endosymbionts exclusively found in cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes. The nucleomorph of the cryptophyte Guillardia theta codes for 36 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 15 of them predicted to contain introns and 1 pseudo-tRNA. Some of the predicted intervening sequences are manifested at positions not known in Eukarya, even tRNAs with more than one intron were suggested. By isolating reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction products of the spliced tRNAs we verify the processing of all predicted intron-harboring tRNAs and demonstrate the splicing of the smallest introns (3 nt) investigated so far. However, the spliced intervening sequences are in some cases shifted in respect to the predicted ones. Moreover, we show that introns, if inserted into the B-box of tRNA genes in the nucleomorph of cryptophytes, mimic promoter regions and do not abolish transcription by RNA polymerase III. Consequently, internal nucleomorph-encoded tRNA promoter regions are in some cases dissected from the sequence of the mature tRNAs. By reanalyzing tRNA introns of a recently sequenced red algae we furthermore show that splicing of introns at unusual positions may be introduced in cryptophytes by its secondary endosymbiont. However, in contrast to the rest of the symbiont genome, introns are not minimized in quantity but are instead scattered along the tRNA genes.  (+info)

A high frequency of overlapping gene expression in compacted eukaryotic genomes. (5/58)

The gene density of eukaryotic nuclear genomes is generally low relative to prokaryotes, but several eukaryotic lineages (many parasites or endosymbionts) have independently evolved highly compacted, gene-dense genomes. The best studied of these are the microsporidia, highly adapted fungal parasites, and the nucleomorphs, relict nuclei of endosymbiotic algae found in cryptomonads and chlorarachniophytes. These systems are now models for the effects of compaction on the form and dynamics of the nuclear genome. Here we report a large-scale investigation of gene expression from compacted eukaryotic genomes. We have conducted EST surveys of the microsporidian Antonospora locustae and nucleomorphs of the cryptomonad Guillardia theta and the chlorarachniophyte Bigelowiella natans. In all three systems we find a high frequency of mRNA molecules that encode sequence from more than one gene. There is no bias for these genes to be on the same strand, so it is unlikely that these mRNAs represent operons. Instead, compaction appears to have reduced the intergenic regions to such an extent that control elements like promoters and terminators have been forced into or beyond adjacent genes, resulting in long untranslated regions that encode other genes. Normally, transcriptional overlap can interfere with expression of a gene, but these genomes cope with high frequencies of overlap and with termination signals within expressed genes. These findings also point to serious practical difficulties in studying expression in compacted genomes, because many techniques, such as arrays or serial analysis of gene expression will be misleading.  (+info)

The Rhodomonas salina mitochondrial genome: bacteria-like operons, compact gene arrangement and complex repeat region. (6/58)

To gain insight into the mitochondrial genome structure and gene content of a putatively ancestral group of eukaryotes, the cryptophytes, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA of Rhodomonas salina. The 48 063 bp circular-mapping molecule codes for 2 rRNAs, 27 tRNAs and 40 proteins including 23 components of oxidative phosphorylation, 15 ribosomal proteins and two subunits of tat translocase. One potential protein (ORF161) is without assigned function. Only two introns occur in the genome; both are present within cox1 belong to group II and contain RT open reading frames. Primitive genome features include bacteria-like rRNAs and tRNAs, ribosomal protein genes organized in large clusters resembling bacterial operons and the presence of the otherwise rare genes such as rps1 and tatA. The highly compact gene organization contrasts with the presence of a 4.7 kb long, repeat-containing intergenic region. Repeat motifs approximately 40-700 bp long occur up to 31 times, forming a complex repeat structure. Tandem repeats are the major arrangement but the region also includes a large, approximately 3 kb, inverted repeat and several potentially stable approximately 40-80 bp long hairpin structures. We provide evidence that the large repeat region is involved in replication and transcription initiation, predict a promoter motif that occurs in three locations and discuss two likely scenarios of how this highly structured repeat region might have evolved.  (+info)

Rhodopsin-mediated photoreception in cryptophyte flagellates. (7/58)

We show that phototaxis in cryptophytes is likely mediated by a two-rhodopsin-based photosensory mechanism similar to that recently demonstrated in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and for the first time, to our knowledge, report spectroscopic and charge movement properties of cryptophyte algal rhodopsins. The marine cryptophyte Guillardia theta exhibits positive phototaxis with maximum sensitivity at 450 nm and a secondary band above 500 nm. Variability of the relative sensitivities at these wavelengths and light-dependent inhibition of phototaxis in both bands by hydroxylamine suggest the involvement of two rhodopsin photoreceptors. In the related freshwater cryptophyte Cryptomonas sp. two photoreceptor currents similar to those mediated by the two sensory rhodopsins in green algae were recorded. Two cDNA sequences from G. theta and one from Cryptomonas encoding proteins homologous to type 1 opsins were identified. The photochemical reaction cycle of one Escherichia-coli-expressed rhodopsin from G. theta (GtR1) involves K-, M-, and O-like intermediates with relatively slow (approximately 80 ms) turnover time. GtR1 shows lack of light-driven proton pumping activity in E. coli cells, although carboxylated residues are at the positions of the Schiff base proton acceptor and donor as in proton pumping rhodopsins. The absorption spectrum, corresponding to the long-wavelength band of phototaxis sensitivity, makes this pigment a candidate for one of the G. theta sensory rhodopsins. A second rhodopsin from G. theta (GtR2) and the one from Cryptomonas have noncarboxylated residues at the donor position as in known sensory rhodopsins.  (+info)

Lineage-specific variations of congruent evolution among DNA sequences from three genomes, and relaxed selective constraints on rbcL in Cryptomonas (Cryptophyceae). (8/58)

BACKGROUND: Plastid-bearing cryptophytes like Cryptomonas contain four genomes in a cell, the nucleus, the nucleomorph, the plastid genome and the mitochondrial genome. Comparative phylogenetic analyses encompassing DNA sequences from three different genomes were performed on nineteen photosynthetic and four colorless Cryptomonas strains. Twenty-three rbcL genes and fourteen nuclear SSU rDNA sequences were newly sequenced to examine the impact of photosynthesis loss on codon usage in the rbcL genes, and to compare the rbcL gene phylogeny in terms of tree topology and evolutionary rates with phylogenies inferred from nuclear ribosomal DNA (concatenated SSU rDNA, ITS2 and partial LSU rDNA), and nucleomorph SSU rDNA. RESULTS: Largely congruent branching patterns and accelerated evolutionary rates were found in nucleomorph SSU rDNA and rbcL genes in a clade that consisted of photosynthetic and colorless species suggesting a coevolution of the two genomes. The extremely accelerated rates in the rbcL phylogeny correlated with a shift from selection to mutation drift in codon usage of two-fold degenerate NNY codons comprising the amino acids asparagine, aspartate, histidine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. Cysteine was the sole exception. The shift in codon usage seemed to follow a gradient from early diverging photosynthetic to late diverging photosynthetic or heterotrophic taxa along the branches. In the early branching taxa, codon preferences were changed in one to two amino acids, whereas in the late diverging taxa, including the colorless strains, between four and five amino acids showed changes in codon usage. CONCLUSION: Nucleomorph and plastid gene phylogenies indicate that loss of photosynthesis in the colorless Cryptomonas strains examined in this study possibly was the result of accelerated evolutionary rates that started already in photosynthetic ancestors. Shifts in codon usage are usually considered to be caused by changes in functional constraints and in gene expression levels. Thus, the increasing influence of mutation drift on codon usage along the clade may indicate gradually relaxed constraints and reduced expression levels on the rbcL gene, finally correlating with a loss of photosynthesis in the colorless Cryptomonas paramaecium strains.  (+info)

*Komma caudata

Gianfranco Novarino (2002). "Phylum Cryptophyta". In D. M. John; Brian A. Whitton; Alan J. Brook. The freshwater algal flora of ...

*Cryptomonad

"Cryptophyta - the cryptomonads". Archived from the original on 2011-06-10. Retrieved 2009-06-02. Graham, L. E.; Graham, J. M.; ... Later, botanists treated them as a separate algae group, class Cryptophyceae or division Cryptophyta, while zoologists treated ... Tree of Life: Cryptomonads Phylum Cryptophyta at AlgaeBase. ... have been considered as part of the Cryptophyta since ...

*Geminigeraceae

"A revised classification of Cryptophyta". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 131: 131-151. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1999. ...

*Cryptomonas

I. Cryptomonas Ovata (cryptophyta)1". Journal of Phycology. 20 (4): 590-599. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3646.1984.00590.x. ISSN 1529- ... "Taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus Cryptomonas (Cryptophyceae, Cryptophyta) from Korea". ALGAE. 28 (4): 307-330. doi:10.4490/ ...

*Chromalveolata

... the other comprises the Cryptophyta and the Haptophyta. A 2010 paper splits the Cryptophyta and Haptophyta; the former are a ... Hacrobia The other two groups originally included in Chromalveolata, the Haptophyta and the Cryptophyta, were related in some ... Cryptophyta Haptophyta Stramenopiles (or Heterokontophyta) Alveolata Other groups that may be included within, or related to, ... the ejectisome of the Cryptophyta, and the two different flagella of the Heterokontophyta. However, none of these features are ...

*Hacrobia

Though the heterokonts are now split out, Cryptophyta and Haptophyta are considered in some studies to be closely related (and ... Several recent studies have concluded that Haptophyta and Cryptophyta do not form a monophyletic group. The former are a sister ... standing for Cryptophyta, Centrohelida, Telonemia and Haptophyta); and "Eukaryomonadae". As of February 2012[update], it is ... are sometimes simply referred to as the "Cryptophyta+Haptophyta" group). A 2009 paper suggested that the Telonemia and ...

*Eukaryote

In some analyses, the Hacrobia group (Haptophyta + Cryptophyta) is placed next to Archaeplastida, but in other ones it is ... However, several recent studies have concluded that Haptophyta and Cryptophyta do not form a monophyletic group. The former ... 2012 and Burki 2014/2016 with the Cryptophyta and picozoa having emerged within the Archaeplastida. A similar inclusion of ... Cryptophyta, Centrohelida, Telonemia, Picozoa, Apusomonadida, Ancyromonadida, Breviatea, and the genus Collodictyon. Overall, ...

*Cryptomonadales

... is an order of Cryptophyta containing the four families Campylomonadaceae, Cryptomonadaceae, Hemiselmidaceae ...

*List of sequenced protist genomes

Haptophyta and Cryptophyta. Members of this group are mostly studied for evolutionary interest. Excavata is a group of related ...

*Monas (heterokont)

Cryptophyta, Excavata), and even to prokaryotic lineages. The genus was also included in other groups, as in Mastigophora or ...

*Hemiselmis

"Phylogenetic Relationships among the Cryptophyta: Analyses of Nuclear-Encoded SSU rRNA Sequences Support the Monophyly of ... 1955 Empire Eukaryota Kingdom Chromista Phylum Cryptophyta Class Cryptophyceae Order Pyrenomonadales Family Chroomonadaceae ...

*Katablepharid

Noriko Okamoto; Isao Inouye (2005). "The Katablepharids are a Distant Sister Group of the Cryptophyta: A Proposal for ... The katablepharids, a group of heterotrophic flagellates, have been considered as part of the Cryptophyta since katablepharids ...

*Plants+HC clade

2008). It includes: Plants Hacrobia (the "HC" refers to Cryptophyta and Haptophyta, the two major members of this group) ...

*Biological life cycle

Bacteria and archaea exhibit a life cycle like this, and some eukaryotes apparently do too (e.g., Cryptophyta, Choanoflagellata ...

*Thomas Cavalier-Smith

Cryptophyta, and Euglenozoa. In 1993, he revised his system particularly in the light of the general acceptance of ...

*Katablepharis

Okamoto, N; Inouye, I (Aug 2005). "The katablepharids are a distant sister group of the Cryptophyta: A proposal for ...

*Chloroplast

Haptophyta Cryptophyta Heterokontophyta Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliatea Possible cladogram of chloroplast evolution Circles ...

*Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien

Hyphochytridiomycetes Peronosporomycetes Cryptophyta [Part 2/1] Cryptophyceae Goniomonadea Dinophyta/Dinozoa (Dinoflagellata) [ ...

*Trichoplax

Cryptophyta) of the genera Cryptomonas and Rhodomonas, and blue-green bacteria (Cyanobacteria) such as Phormidium inundatum, ...

*Protista taxonomy

Division Cryptophyta Pascher, 1914 Class Cryptophyceae Pascher, 1913 Order Cryptomonadales Pascher, 1913 Family ...

*Photosynthetic picoplankton

Prasinophyceae Haptophyta Cryptophyta In temperate coastal environment, the genus Micromonas (Prasinophyceae) seems dominant. ...

*Tylihul Estuary

Cryptophyta - 6 species, Euglenophyta - 2 species. There are 20 taxa of zooplankton are registered in the estuary at this time ...

*Nucleomorph

According to GenBank release 164 (Feb 2008), there are 13 Cercozoa and 181 Cryptophyta entries (an entry is the submission of a ... for present taxonomy Endosymbiont Insight into the Diversity and Evolution of the Cryptomonad Nucleomorph Genome Cryptophyta at ...

*Cryptophyte

... a single-celled organism of the phylum Cryptophyta or class Cryptophyceae, most of which are photosynthetic fossil plants that ...

*Bikont

While Haptophyta, Cryptophyta, Glaucophyta, Rhodophyta, the SAR supergroup and viridiplantae are usually considered ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
ID L1JYA3_GUITH Unreviewed; 2741 AA. AC L1JYA3; DT 06-MAR-2013, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 06-MAR-2013, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 30. DE SubName: Full=Uncharacterized protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EKX53561.1, ECO:0000313,EnsemblProtists:EKX53561}; GN ORFNames=GUITHDRAFT_160866 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EKX53561.1}; OS Guillardia theta CCMP2712. OC Eukaryota; Cryptophyta; Pyrenomonadales; Geminigeraceae; Guillardia. OX NCBI_TaxID=905079 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EKX53561.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000011087}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EKX53561.1, ECO:0000313,EnsemblProtists:EKX53561, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000011087} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE. RC STRAIN=CCMP2712 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EKX53561.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000011087}; RX PubMed=23201678; DOI=10.1038/nature11681; RG DOE Joint Genome Institute; RA Curtis B.A., Tanifuji G., Burki F., Gruber A., Irimia M., Maruyama S., RA Arias M.C., Ball S.G., Gile G.H., Hirakawa Y., Hopkins J.F., Kuo A., RA Rensing S.A., Schmutz J., Symeonidi ...
Goniomonas is a genus of Cryptomonads and contains five species. It is a genus of single-celled eukaryotes, including both freshwater and marine species. It lacks plastids, which is very unusual among all of the Cryptophyte genera. It may reflect one of only a small number of times that the Cryptophytes evolved into freshwater habitats. Goniomonas seems to have a number of freshwater relatives which have not yet been cultured and named. Goniomonas means angled small flagellates, combining "goni" and "monas". It was established by German biologist Samuel Friedrich Stein in 1878. This genus contains species that are free-swimming, flattened, biflagellate monads. They are oval in lateral view with an obliquely truncate anterior. A furrow extends along the middle of the anterior margin and for a short distance down the ventral margin and is surrounded by a single lateral row of ejectisomes. They lack chloroplasts, pyrenoids, nucleomorphs and starch. Further ResearchThey have periplast with ...
ABSTRACT: We examined the possibility that dinoflagellates belonging to genus Dinophysis acquire plastids from certain species of cryptophytes. We measured the abundance of cryptophytes over a 3 yr period in Okkirai Bay, northern Japan by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), using an oligonucleotide probe that specifically binds to the Dinophysis plastid small subunit ribosomal RNA. A high density of FISH-probed cryptophytes always occurred prior to peak occurrences of D. fortii, although the density of FISH-probed cryptophytes did not correlate well with the density of D. fortii. Although further investigation is needed, monitoring of these cryptophyte species may be useful for predicting Dinophysis growth and subsequent outbreaks of diarrheic shellfish poisoning. ...
Synonym(s): Rhodomonas amphioxeia Conrad 1939 , Chroomonas amphioxeia (Conrad) Butcher 1967. Life-form: Solitary with two flagella. Size: 8-11 µm long and 4-6 µm wide. Resting spore:. Note: Together with Plagioselmis prolonga its one of the most common species of Cryptophyceae on the swedish west coast. Distinctive features: The shape of the cell, the longer ventral flagellum and a long ventral furrow. Similar species: Teleaulax acuta. Distribution: Gulf of Finland, western Baltic, Skagerrak, Atlantic coast of Belgium, east coast of America, Japan. Literature: ...
Russian doll in the form of an alga Unlike traditional eukaryotic cells - i.e. all cells with a nucleus - cryptophyte cells resemble a Russian doll in the form of an alga within an alga. They originated from a eukaryotic cell that engulfed and integrated a red alga. Thus, cryptophytes have acquired the ability to perform photosynthesis. Just like their red algal ancestors, cryptophytes utilise not only the green pigment chlorophyll for harvesting light, but have also the capability to use green light being missed by chlorophyll. This is due to blue or red-tinted proteins - so-called phycobiliproteins. After integrating the red alga, its genome was reduced over time and combined with the host cells genome. During this process, a number of modifications on genetic, biochemical and physiological levels took place, which facilitated adaptation to new ecological niches. Although the algae maintained the basic principle of photosynthesis, their light-harvesting phycobiliproteins were largely modified ...
Nature. 2012 Dec 6;492(7427):59-65. doi: 10.1038/nature11681. Epub 2012 Nov 28. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.
The water-soluble antenna chromoprotein phycocyanin-645 from a Chroomonas species (Cryptophyceae) has been crystallized. X-ray precession photographs prove space groups P3121 (or the enantiomorphic P3
Members of the marine dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium are known to exude allelochemicals, unrelated to well-known neurotoxins (PSP-toxins, spirolides), with negative effects on other phytoplankton and marine grazers. Physico/chemical characterization of extracellular lytic compounds of A. tamarense, quantified by Rhodomonas salina bioassay, showed that the lytic activity, and hence presumably the compounds were stable over wide ranges of temperatures and pH and were refractory to bacterial degradation. Two distinct lytic fractions were collected by reversed-phase solid-phase extraction. The more hydrophilic fraction accounted for about 2% of the whole lytic activity of the A. tamarense culture supernatant, while the less hydrophilic one accounted for about 98% of activity. Although temporal stability of the compounds is high, substantial losses were evident during purification. Lytic activity was best removed from aqueous phase with chloroform-methanol (3:1). A
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) to the plant mitochondrial genome has recently been shown to occur at a surprisingly high rate; however, little evidence has been found for HGT to the plastid genome, despite extensive sequencing. In this study, we analyzed all genes from sequenced plastid genomes to unearth any neglected cases of HGT and to obtain a measure of the overall extent of HGT to the plastid. Although several genes gave strongly supported conflicting trees under certain conditions, we are confident of HGT in only a single case beyond the rubisco HGT already reported. Most of the conflicts involved near neighbors connected by long branches (e.g. red algae and their secondary hosts), where phylogenetic methods are prone to mislead. However, three genes - clpP, ycf2, and rpl36 - provided strong support for taxa moving far from their organismal position. Further taxon sampling of clpP and ycf2 resulted in rejection of HGT due to long-branch attraction and a serious error in the published plastid
A global phylogeny of major eukaryotic lineages is a significant and ongoing challenge to molecular phylogenetics. Currently, there are five hypothesized major lineages or supergroups' of eukaryotes. One of these, the chromalveolates, represents a large fraction of protist and algal diversity. The chromalveolate hypothesis was originally based on similarities between the photosynthetic organelles (plastids) found in many of its members and has been supported by analyses of plastid-related genes. However, since plastids can move between eukaryotic lineages, it is important to provide additional support from data generated from the nuclear-cytosolic host lineage. Genes coding for six different cytosolic proteins from a variety of chromalveolates (yielding 68 new gene sequences) have been characterized so that multiple gene analyses, including all six major lineages of chromalveolates, could be compared and concatenated with data representing all five hypothesized supergroups. Overall support for
We continue to explore the genomes of all life forms using the tools of bioinformatics. Following our introduction using fungi in the previous chapter we now arrive at the eukaryotes, from parasites to plants to primates. This page offers web documents and resources that are referred to in Chapter 19. Figure 19.1 presents a tree by Baldauf et al. showing the relationships of the eukaryotes, and in the chapter we follow this tree from bottom up. Topics include the protozoans (Trichomonas, Giardia); unicellular pathogens (trypanosomes and Leishmania); the Chromalveolates (the malaria parasite P. falciparum and other apicomplexans; the ciliophora Paramecium and Tetrahymena; nucleomorphs; Stramenopiles such as diatoms); the plants; and slime molds. When we arrive at the metazoans (animals) we divide these into the great groups of nematodes (such as the worm C. elegans), insects (e.g. fruitfly, mosquito, honeybee), and chordates (Ciona). We conclude with descriptions of fish (diverged from humans ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Light-gated rhodopsin cation channels from chlorophyte algae have transformed neuroscience research through their use as membrane-depolarizing optogenetic tools for targeted photoactivation of neuron firing. Photosuppression of neuronal action potentials has been limited by the lack of equally efficient tools for membrane hyperpolarization. We describe Anion Channel Rhodopsins (ACRs), a family of light-gated anion channels from cryptophyte algae that provide highly sensitive and efficient membrane hyperpolarization and neuronal silencing through light-gated chloride conduction. ACRs strictly conducted anions, completely excluding protons and larger cations, and hyperpolarized the membrane of cultured animal cells with much faster kinetics at less than one-thousandth of the light intensity than required by the most efficient currently available optogenetic proteins. Natural ACRs provide optogenetic inhibition tools with unprecedented light sensitivity and temporal precision. ...
In this study we have investigated whether the carbon isotopic signature differs between different groups and species of marine phytoplankton depending on growth phase, nutrient conditions and salinity. The 15 investigated algal species, representing the Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae and Haptophyceae classes were grown in batch monocultures and analysed for delta(13)C in both exponential and stationary phase. For all the cultured species, delta(13)C signatures ranged from -23.5 parts per thousand (Imantonia sp.) to - 12.3 parts per thousand (Nodulania spumigena) in the exponential phase and from - 18.8 parts per thousand (Amphidinium carterae) to - 8.0 parts per thousand (Anabaena lemmermannii) in the stationary phase. Three species (Dunaliella tertiolecta, Rhodomonas sp.. Heterocapsa triquetra) were also grown under nutrient sufficient and nitrogen or phosphorus deficient conditions. Nitrogen limitation resulted in a more negative delta(13)C ...
Stephen Murray was a globally renowned private equity investor and leading philanthropist. Mr. Murray passed on March 12, 2015, at the age of 52. He was the head of CCMP […]. Read More → ...
Define protoctists. protoctists synonyms, protoctists pronunciation, protoctists translation, English dictionary definition of protoctists. Noun 1. Protoctista - in most modern classifications, replacement for the Protista; includes: Protozoa; Euglenophyta; Chlorophyta; Cryptophyta;...
We have just published a new paper in Scientific Reports describing the role of the cytoskeleton in biomineralisation in haptophyte lgae. The results suggest that mechanisms for scale secretion may be common to both calcifcied coccolithophores and the silicifying haptophyte, Prymnesium neolepis. The work was performed by Grazyna Durak during her PhD studies at the MBA.. ...
Most heterokonts are biflagellated at some stage of their life cycles, usually at least as gametes. The two flagella are structurally distinct, the leading-end flagella ("tinsel") being branched, the lateral or subapical flagellum is smooth and shorter or even rudimentary. Their plastid envelops consist of 4 membrane layers. The innermost 2 layers are derived from the original cyanobacterial endosymbiont. The next layer is the relic of the cell membrane of the red alga from which the stramenopilie acquired the plastid by seconadry endosymbiosis. The outermost layer is actually the host endoplasmic reticulum, inside of which the plastids reside.. Diatoms are the most familiar members of this group, and are perhaps the most abundant and diverse as well. By some estimates, they may be responsible for up to half of marine primary production. Most are unicellular. Gametes are flagellated, but diploids are non-motile or motile by gliding, and are encased in a intricate 2-part silica (glass) shells. ...
Originally Posted by Exo Good luck! I had some, but they have almost all died out...it would appear that they need a very acid PH to survive long term
The Rhizaria are a heterogeneous assemblage encompassing lineages such as Foraminifera, radiolarians and euglyphid testate amoebae, chlorarachniophytes, parasitic groups (Phytomyxea, Haplosporidia), as well as a multitude of other lesser-known flagellates (figure 2b) that emerge as having fundamental ecological roles [13,74-76]. Filamentous pseudopodia are a recurrent morphological feature among amoeboid members of Rhizaria, in contrast to the lobose or broad pseudopodia of many Amoebozoa. Complete sexual life cycles are documented for two lineages (Foraminifera and Gromia); karyogamy or meiosis (direct evidence) has been observed in five lineages (Euglyphida, Thecofilosea, Chlorarachniophyta, Plasmodiophorida and Phaeodarea); and indirect evidence (such as cell fusion or formation of putative gametes) has been witnessed in five lineages (Acantharea, Polycystinea, Cercomonas, Helkesimastix and Lateromyxa).. There are at least two lineages in the Rhizaria with confirmed sexual life cycles. ...
Cyanobacteria, Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta by Xia Bangmei; Diatomeae (Bacillariophyta), Chrysophyta, Cryptophyta, Xanthophyta, Prymnesiophyta (Haptophyta) by Gao Yahui, Chen Changping, Sun Lin, Zhou Qianqian; Dinozoa by Luu Douding. ISBN: ISBN 978-7-03-023722-4.. PDF: ...
Pythium is a member of the Oomycota (also referred to as oomycetes), which are part of the heterokont/chromist clade [1, 2] within the Straminipila-Alveolata-Rhizaria superkingdom [3]. Recent phylogenies based on multiple protein coding genes indicate that the oomycetes, together with the uniflagellate hyphochytrids and the flagellates Pirsonia and Developayella, form the sister clade to the diverse photosynthetic orders in the phylum Ochrophyta [2, 4]. Therefore, the genomes of the closest relatives to Pythium outside of the oomycetes available to date would be those of the diatoms Thalassiosira [5] and Phaeodactylum [6], and the phaeophyte algae Ectocarpus [7].. Pythium is a cosmopolitan and biologically diverse genus. Most species are soil inhabitants, although some reside in saltwater estuaries and other aquatic environments. Most Pythium spp. are saprobes or facultative plant pathogens causing a wide variety of diseases, including damping-off and a range of field and post-harvest rots ...
Saxitoxin is a potent neurotoxin that occurs in aquatic environments worldwide. Ingestion of vector species can lead to paralytic shellfish poisoning, a severe human illness that may lead to paralysis and death. In freshwaters, the toxin is produced by prokaryotic cyanobacteria; in marine waters, it is associated with eukaryotic dinoflagellates. However, several studies suggest that saxitoxin is not produced by dinoflagellates themselves, but by co-cultured bacteria. Here, we show that genes required for saxitoxin synthesis are encoded in the nuclear genomes of dinoflagellates. We sequenced |1.2×106 mRNA transcripts from the two saxitoxin-producing dinoflagellate strains Alexandrium fundyense CCMP1719 and A. minutum CCMP113 using high-throughput sequencing technology. In addition, we used in silico transcriptome analyses, RACE, qPCR and conventional PCR coupled with Sanger sequencing. These approaches successfully identified genes required for saxitoxin-synthesis in the two transcriptomes. We focused
ABSTRACT: Members of the marine phytoplankton genus Phaeocystis (Prymnesiophyceae) produce large amounts of the intracellular osmolyte DMSP and they are known to also produce lyase enzymes that cleave DMSP into the biogeochemically important trace gas DMS. The functional characteristics of DMSP lyase activity in Phaeocystis spp. are not well known. We characterized DMSP lyase activity in extracts from 2 ecologically important species from this genus, the mesophile P. globosa (strain CCMP629) and the psychrophile P. antarctica (strain CCMP1374). Results from whole cell extracts showed that both algal species were potent producers of DMSP lyase, with Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and maximum reaction velocity (Vmax) values of 1.77 mM and 17.3 nmol DMS min-1 mg protein-1, respectively, for P. globosa, and 2.31 mM and 28.2 nmol DMS min-1 mg protein-1, respectively, for P. antarctica. The optimal DMSP lyase activity was recorded at pH 4 and 30?C for P. globosa, and at pH 5 and 20?C for P. ...
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Heterokont algae, together with cryptophytes, haptophytes and some alveolates, possess red-algal derived plastids. The chromalveolate hypothesis proposes that the red-algal derived plastids of all four groups have a monophyletic origin resulting from a single secondary endosymbiotic event. However, due to incongruence between nuclear and plastid phylogenies, this controversial hypothesis remains under debate. Large-scale genomic analyses have shown to be a powerful tool for phylogenetic reconstruction but insufficient sequence data have been available for red-algal derived plastid genomes. The chloroplast genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus, have been fully sequenced. These species represent two distinct orders of the Phaeophyceae, which is a major group within the heterokont lineage. The sizes of the circular plastid genomes are 139,954 and 124,986 base pairs, respectively, the size difference being due principally to the presence of longer inverted repeat and
Florida Atlantic University (Acantheae, Acanthopterygii, Acanthus Clade, Acari, African Ruellia, Agaricales, Agaricomycotina, Aleocharinae, Aliatypus, Anacardiaceae, Andalucia, Ankylosauria, Arcellinida, Architeuthis, Archon bostanchii, Archonias brassolis, Argonauta, Asellariales, Aspidogastrea, Asteroidea, Atlanta brunnea, Aulacidae, Berryteuthis magister nipponensis, Bolitaena pygmaea, Bolitoglossinae, Calisto, Callichthyidae, Cardiapoda, Cardiapoda richardi, Carinaria, Carinaria challengeri, Carinaria cithara, Carinaria cristata, Carinaria galea, Carinaria japonica, Carinaria lamarcki, Carinariidae, Caryophyllales, Cassieae sensu lato (pro parte), Chaetothyriales, Chiroptera, Chlorarachniophytes, Cicindis horni, Ciconiidae, Classicula, Clusiidae, Core Eudicots, Crenarchaeota, Cryptalyra, Cryptomycocolax, Cryptoteuthis brevibracchiata, Cystobasidiomycetes, Dacrymycetales, Delitschiaceae, Dimargaritales, Diptera, Discoteuthis sp. A, Diversisporales, Echinodermata, Echinophthiriidae, ...
Florida Atlantic University (Acantheae, Acanthopterygii, Acanthus Clade, Acari, African Ruellia, Agaricales, Agaricomycotina, Aleocharinae, Aliatypus, Anacardiaceae, Andalucia, Ankylosauria, Arcellinida, Architeuthis, Archon bostanchii, Archonias brassolis, Argonauta, Asellariales, Aspidogastrea, Asteroidea, Atlanta brunnea, Aulacidae, Berryteuthis magister nipponensis, Bolitaena pygmaea, Bolitoglossinae, Calisto, Callichthyidae, Cardiapoda, Cardiapoda richardi, Carinaria, Carinaria challengeri, Carinaria cithara, Carinaria cristata, Carinaria galea, Carinaria japonica, Carinaria lamarcki, Carinariidae, Caryophyllales, Cassieae sensu lato (pro parte), Chaetothyriales, Chiroptera, Chlorarachniophytes, Cicindis horni, Ciconiidae, Classicula, Clusiidae, Core Eudicots, Crenarchaeota, Cryptalyra, Cryptomycocolax, Cryptoteuthis brevibracchiata, Cystobasidiomycetes, Dacrymycetales, Delitschiaceae, Dimargaritales, Diptera, Discoteuthis sp. A, Diversisporales, Echinodermata, Echinophthiriidae, ...
Research Articles. Wernegreen, J. J. and N. A. Moran. 2001.Vertical Transmission of Biosynthetic Plasmids in Aphid Endosymbionts (Buchnera). J. Bacteriol. 183:785-790.. Shigenobu S., H. Watanabe, M. Hattori, Y. Sakaki and H. Ishikawa. 2000. Genome sequence of the endocellular bacterial symbiont of aphids Buchnera sp. APS. Nature 407:81-86.. Fukatsu, T., N. Nikoh, R. Kawai and R. Koga. The secondary endosymbiotic bacterium of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Insecta: Homoptera). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2000. 66:2748-2758.. Thao, M. L., N. A. Moran, P. Abbot, E. B. Brennan, D. H. Burckhardt and P. Baumann. 2000. Cospeciation of Psyllids and their primary prokaryotic endosymbionts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:2898-2905.. Baumann L., Baumann P., M.L. Thao. 1999. Detection of messenger RNA transcribed from genes encoding enzymes of amino acid biosynthesis in Buchnera aphidicola (endosymbiont of aphids). Current. Microbiology 38:135-136.. Charles H., H. Ishikawa. 1999. Physical and genetic map of ...
basis of record Brunel, P.; Bosse, L.; Lamarche, G. (1998). Catalogue of the marine invertebrates of the estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 126. 405 p. (look up in IMIS) [details] Available for editors ...
维奇猪笼草(学名:Nepenthes veitchii)是婆罗洲特有的热带食虫植物。[3]其广泛分布于婆罗洲西北部。其种加词"veitchii"来源于维奇苗圃的主人,詹姆斯·维奇。[4] 低地地区的树林中维奇猪笼草常附生,其以叶柄环抱树杆向上生长。而在高地地区泥炭沼泽的维奇猪笼草则多陆生。[3]巴里奥地区的维奇猪笼草似乎严格陆生,未在该地区观察到其附生植株。此外,低地地区和高地地区的维奇猪笼草在形态上也有区别,低地变型比高地变型的唇窄。[3] 维奇猪笼草被认为产于菲律宾的罗伯坎特利猪笼草(N. robcantleyi)之间存在着密切的近缘关系。[5]其也与宝特瓶猪笼草(N. truncata)进行了比较。[6] ...
Features include: Gongora truncata - collectors item; problems in orchid hybrid nomenclature; table-top construction for orchid shows; a revision of the genus Phalaenopsis - VII. American Orchid Society, Inc.
By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the main characteristics of protists Describe important pathogenic species of protists Des
There is considerable interest in the pathways by which carbon and growth-limiting elemental and biochemical nutrients are supplied to upper trophic levels. Fatty acids and sterols are among the most important molecules transferred across the plant-animal interface of food webs. In lake ecosystems, in addition to phytoplankton, bacteria and terrestrial organic matter are potential trophic resources for zooplankton, especially in those receiving high terrestrial organic matter inputs. We therefore tested carbon, nitrogen, and fatty acid assimilation by the crustacean Daphnia magna when consuming these resources. We fed Daphnia with monospecific diets of high-quality (Cryptomonas marssonii) and intermediate-quality (Chlamydomonas sp. and Scenedesmus gracilis) phytoplankton species, two heterotrophic bacterial strains, and particles from the globally dispersed riparian grass, Phragmites australis, representing terrestrial particulate organic carbon (t-POC). We also fed Daphnia with various mixed ...
All references with links attached are the resources I used myself, other resources in plain black are additional resources.. References. Andolfatto, P. 2005. Adaptive evolution of non-coding DNA in Drosophila. Nature 437: 1149-1152.. Batten, D. 1998. Junk DNA (again). Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal 12: 5.. Beaton, M.J. and T. Cavalier-Smith. 1999. Eukaryotic non-coding DNA is functional: evidence from the differential scaling of cryptomonad genomes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 266: 2053-2059.. Bejerano, G., M. Pheasant, I. Makunin, S. Stephen, W.J. Kent, J.S. Mattick, and D. Haussler. 2004. Ultraconserved elements in the human genome. Science 304: 1321-1325.. Bennett, M.D. 1982. Nucleotypic basis of the spatial ordering of chromosomes in eukaryotes and the implications of the order for genome evolution and phenotypic variation. In Genome Evolution (eds. G.A. Dover and R.B. Flavell), pp. 239-261. Academic Press, New York.. Bergman, J. 2001. The functions of ...
See what Loida Ester Salinas Castillo (loidaesters) has discovered on Pinterest, the worlds biggest collection of everybodys favorite things.
Researchers studying the waters of Northport Harbor say theyve found a type of harmful algae in the water never seen before at these levels in New York. The algae, Dinophysis acuminata, produces a to

CryptomonadsCryptomonads

Cryptophyta. Kerstin Hoef-Emden and John M. Archibald Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Cryptophyta. Authored by Kerstin Hoef-Emden and John M. Archibald. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons ... Hoef-Emden K, Marin B, Melkonian M (2002) Nuclear and nucleomorph SSU rDNA phylogeny in the Cryptophyta and the evolution of ... Okamoto N, Inouye I (2005) The katablepharids are a distant sister group of the Cryptophyta: A proposal for Katablepharidophyta ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/Cryptophyta

Coccolithophore - WikipediaCoccolithophore - Wikipedia

Coccolithophores occur throughout the world ocean. Their distribution varies vertically by stratified layers in the ocean and geographically by different temporal zones.[26] While most modern coccolithophores can be located in their associated stratified oligotrophic conditions, the most abundant areas of coccolithophores where there is the highest species diversity are located in subtropical zones with a temperate climate.[27] While water temperature and the amount of light intensity entering the waters surface are the more influential factors in determining where species are located, the ocean currents also can determine the location where certain species of coccolithophores are found.[28] Although motility and colony formation vary according to the life cycle of different coccolithophore species, there is often alternation between a motile, haploid phase, and a non-motile diploid phase. In both phases, the organisms dispersal is largely due to ocean currents and circulation patterns.[16] ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coccolithophore

Protoctists - definition of protoctists by The Free DictionaryProtoctists - definition of protoctists by The Free Dictionary

Cryptophyta, phylum Cryptophyta - a phylum in the kingdom Protoctista. kingdom - the highest taxonomic group into which ... Cryptophyta; Heterokontophyta; Rhodophyta; unicellular protists and their descendant multicellular organisms: regarded as ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/protoctists

Rhodophyte - definition of Rhodophyte by The Free DictionaryRhodophyte - definition of Rhodophyte by The Free Dictionary

Cryptophyta; Heterokontophyta; Rhodophyta; unicellular protists and their descendant multicellular organisms: regarded as ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/Rhodophyte

Handbook of the Protists | John M. Archibald | SpringerHandbook of the Protists | John M. Archibald | Springer

Explores the ecological, medical and economic importance of major groups of protists Covers protists morphology, molecular biology, biochemistry,
more infohttp://www.springer.com/la/book/9783319281476

Complete genomes: EukaryotaComplete genomes: Eukaryota

The Complete Genomes Resource is a collection of genomic sequences that is a part of the Entrez Genomes, which provides curated sequence data and annotations of complete genomes to the scientific community.
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomes/GenomesGroup.cgi?opt=plasmid&taxid=2759

Chromista - WikipedieChromista - Wikipedie

Cryptophyta (skrytěnky).. Chromalveolátní hypotéza[editovat , editovat zdroj]. Cavalier-Smith v r. 2002 navrhl do příbuznosti ... Cryptophyta + Katablepharida + Centrohelida + Telonemea + Picobiliphyta). Zatímco přirozenost SAR je s vysokou věrohodností ...
more infohttps://cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromista

Goniomonas amphinema - WikispeciesGoniomonas amphinema - Wikispecies

Phylum: Cryptophyta Classis: Cryptophyceae Ordo: Cryptomonadales Familia: Cryptomonadaceae Genus: Goniomonas Species: ...
more infohttps://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Goniomonas_amphinema

Protista - WikispeciesProtista - Wikispecies

Phylum Cryptophyta Pascher, 1914 *Class Cryptophyceae Senn, 1900. *Phylum Euglenozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1978 *Class Euglenoidea ...
more infohttps://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Protista

UniProt: L1JYA3 GUITHUniProt: L1JYA3 GUITH

OC Eukaryota; Cryptophyta; Pyrenomonadales; Geminigeraceae; Guillardia. OX NCBI_TaxID=905079 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EKX53561.1, ECO: ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?uniprot:L1JYA3_GUITH

Metabolites  | Free Full-Text | Volatile Metabolites Emission by In Vivo Microalgae-An Overlooked Opportunity? | HTMLMetabolites | Free Full-Text | Volatile Metabolites Emission by In Vivo Microalgae-An Overlooked Opportunity? | HTML

Cryptophyta). Headspace VOCs were concentrated in a wet trap followed by a sorbent trap, and then analyzed using GC-MS. The ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2218-1989/7/3/39/htm

Cryptomonas Ehrenberg, 1831 :: AlgaebaseCryptomonas Ehrenberg, 1831 :: Algaebase

Cryptomonas Ehrenberg 1831 emend. Hoef-Emden et Melkonian; type species: Cryptomonas curvata Ehrenberg 1832 emend. Hoef-Emden et Melkonian (hic designatus); synonyms: Chilomonas Ehrenberg 1831, (typus: Chilomonas paramecium Ehrenberg 1832), Pseudocryptomonas Bicudo et Tell 1988 (typus: Pseudocryptomonas americana Bicudo et Tell 1988), Campylomonas Hill 1991 (typus: Campylomonas reflexa (Skuja) Hill 1991) [Hoef-Emden & Melkonian 2003: 391]. - (8 Jul 2010) - Wendy Guiry. Description: Free swimming, generally obovoid, biflagellate monads that often form thickly mucilaginous, palmelloid colonies; a longitudinal furrow extends posteriorly from the vestibulum and transforms into a sack-like gullet lined with many rows of ejectisomes; two chloroplasts, pyrenoids and nucleomorphs, the chloroplasts contain the phycobiliprotein, Cr-phycoerythrin 566, and vary in color from olive-brown to brown and yellow in older cells; periplast with an inner layer of plates and a superficial layer of fine fibrillar ...
more infohttp://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=43571

Ophiuroidea - The World Ophiuroidea DatabaseOphiuroidea - The World Ophiuroidea Database

Cryptophyta is also a valid synonym of Cryptomonada. [details]. Classification for Discomitochondria ...
more infohttp://www.marinespecies.org/Ophiuroidea/aphia.php?p=sourcedetails&id=3

Unexpected Importance of Potential Parasites in the Composition of the Freshwater Small-Eukaryote Community | Applied and...Unexpected Importance of Potential Parasites in the Composition of the Freshwater Small-Eukaryote Community | Applied and...

Phylogenetic tree for small-subunit rRNA gene sequences covering the diversity of Chlorophyceae, Cryptophyta, and Cercozoa. ...
more infohttps://aem.asm.org/content/74/10/2940/figures-only

NOAA Sea Grant Great Lakes Water Life Photo Gallery -ProtozoaNOAA Sea Grant Great Lakes Water Life Photo Gallery -Protozoa

Cryptomonads (see also Cryptophyta) apical flagella, colorless and free-swimming.. Ochromonas spp. ...
more infohttps://www.glerl.noaa.gov/seagrant/GLWL/Protozoa/Protozoa.html

WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Hemiselmis virescens Droop, 1955WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Hemiselmis virescens Droop, 1955

Cryptophyta (Phylum). *Cryptophyceae (Class). *Pyrenomonadales (Order). *Chroomonadaceae (Family). *Hemiselmis (Genus). * ...
more infohttp://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=106310

TCDB » SEARCHTCDB » SEARCH

Cryptophyta. Acr2 of Guillardia theta. *3.E.1.8.3. Homologue of anion-specific light-gated channel rhodopsin of 461 aas and 7 ...
more infohttp://tcdb.org/search/result.php?tc=3.E.1.1

Algae - Encyclopedia of ArkansasAlgae - Encyclopedia of Arkansas

Uncommon divisions in Arkansas are Dinophyta (dinoflagellates), Cryptophyta (cryptomonads), Haptophyta (haptophytes), and ...
more infohttps://encyclopediaofarkansas.net/entries/algae-6594/

TCDB » SEARCHTCDB » SEARCH

Cryptophyta. UP of Guillardia theta. *1.A.17.6.7. TMC protein of 890 aas and 10 TMSs ...
more infohttp://tcdb.org/search/result.php?tc=1.A.17.6

Article Botanica Plancton (Crec) | Phytoplankton | AlgaeArticle Botanica Plancton (Crec) | Phytoplankton | Algae

respectively members of the Cryptophyta. chlorarachniophytes and euglenophytes appear far less diversified (less than 2% for ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/document/132400249/Article-Botanica-Plancton-Crec

Komma caudata - WikipediaKomma caudata - Wikipedia

Gianfranco Novarino (2002). "Phylum Cryptophyta". In D. M. John; Brian A. Whitton; Alan J. Brook. The freshwater algal flora of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komma_caudata

Key to Nature EU deliverable D 4.4: Resource Metadata Exchange Agreement - KeyToNatureKey to Nature EU deliverable D 4.4: Resource Metadata Exchange Agreement - KeyToNature

Cryptophyta * Haptophyta. * Labyrinthulomycota. * Ochrophyta. * Hyphochytriomycota. * Oomycota (= traditionally part of fungi) ...
more infohttp://www.keytonature.eu/wiki/Key_to_Nature_EU_deliverable_D_4.4:_Resource_Metadata_Exchange_Agreement

Temporal Succession of Phytoplankton Assemblages in a Tidal Creek System of the Sundarbans Mangroves: An Integrated ApproachTemporal Succession of Phytoplankton Assemblages in a Tidal Creek System of the Sundarbans Mangroves: An Integrated Approach

The clone library approach showed dominance of Bacillariophyta-like sequences, in addition to Cryptophyta-, Haptophyta-, ... and other members belonging to Cryptophyta (see Figure ). Two sequences namely Stn2_Apr10_clone1 and Stn2_Apr10_clone8 ... Cryptophyta, although unidentified, were reported for the first time from Chemaguri creek system (Stn2). Identification of ... We have also recorded the presence of an unidentified member of Cryptophyta in water samples collected during summer of 2011 ( ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbd/2013/824543/
  • Phylogenetic tree for small-subunit rRNA gene sequences covering the diversity of Chlorophyceae, Cryptophyta, and Cercozoa. (asm.org)