A class of EUKARYOTA (traditionally algae), characterized by biflagellated cells and found in both freshwater and marine environments. Pigmentation varies but only one CHLOROPLAST is present. Unique structures include a nucleomorph and ejectosomes.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.
Books designed to give factual information or instructions.
Images used to comment on such things as contemporary events, social habits, or political trends; usually executed in a broad or abbreviated manner.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
A large supergroup of mostly amoeboid EUKARYOTES whose three main subgroups are CERCOZOA; FORAMINIFERA; and HAPLOSPORIDA. Nearly all of the species possess MITOCHONDRIA and historically many were considered ANIMALS.
A group (or phylum) of unicellular EUKARYOTA (or algae) possessing CHLOROPLASTS and FLAGELLA.
A large group of flagellated EUKARYOTES found in both free-living and parasitic forms. The flagella are present in pairs and contain unique paraxonemal rods.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.
A common name (but used formally) for a group of organisms that are mostly kinds of algae including BACILLARIOPHYTA; OOMYCETES; PHAEOPHYCEAE; and CHRYSOPHYCEAE. They all contain CHLOROPLASTS that are thought to have been derived from the endosymbiosis of ancient RED ALGAE.
A group of EUKARYOTES that are parasites of plants. Life cycle stages include zoospores and plasmodia.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Ribonucleic acid in algae having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Inferior and external epigastric arteries arise from external iliac; superficial from femoral; superior from internal thoracic. They supply the abdominal muscles, diaphragm, iliac region, and groin. The inferior epigastric artery is used in coronary artery bypass grafting and myocardial revascularization.
A cyclic nucleotide formed from CYTIDINE TRIPHOSPHATE by the action of cytidylate cyclase. It is a potential cyclic nucleotide intracellular mediator of signal transductions.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.
Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant division. They are simple plants that lack vascular tissue and possess rudimentary rootlike organs (rhizoids). Like MOSSES, liverworts have alternation of generations between haploid gamete-bearing forms (gametophytes) and diploid spore-bearing forms (sporophytes).
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
Proteins found in any species of algae.
A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)
Discussions, descriptions or catalogs of public displays or items representative of a given subject.
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Mechanical food dispensing machines.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Diatom genomics: genetic acquisitions and mergers. (1/58)

Diatom algae arose by two-step endosymbiosis. The complete genome of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana has now been sequenced, allowing us to reconstruct the remarkable intracellular gene transfers that occurred during this convoluted cellular evolution.  (+info)

On the monophyly of chromalveolates using a six-protein phylogeny of eukaryotes. (2/58)

A global phylogeny of major eukaryotic lineages is a significant and ongoing challenge to molecular phylogenetics. Currently, there are five hypothesized major lineages or 'supergroups' of eukaryotes. One of these, the chromalveolates, represents a large fraction of protist and algal diversity. The chromalveolate hypothesis was originally based on similarities between the photosynthetic organelles (plastids) found in many of its members and has been supported by analyses of plastid-related genes. However, since plastids can move between eukaryotic lineages, it is important to provide additional support from data generated from the nuclear-cytosolic host lineage. Genes coding for six different cytosolic proteins from a variety of chromalveolates (yielding 68 new gene sequences) have been characterized so that multiple gene analyses, including all six major lineages of chromalveolates, could be compared and concatenated with data representing all five hypothesized supergroups. Overall support for much of the phylogenies is decreased over previous analyses that concatenated fewer genes for fewer taxa. Nevertheless, four of the six chromalveolate lineages (apicomplexans, ciliates, dinoflagellates and heterokonts) consistently form a monophyletic assemblage, whereas the remaining two (cryptomonads and haptophytes) form a weakly supported group. Whereas these results are consistent with the monophyly of chromalveolates inferred from plastid data, testing this hypothesis is going to require a substantial increase in data from a wide variety of organisms.  (+info)

Unique genetic compartmentalization of the SUF system in cryptophytes and characterization of a SufD mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana. (3/58)

The mobilization of sulfur (SUF) system is one of three systems involved in iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis and maintenance. In eukaryotes the SUF system is specific for the plastid and therefore of symbiotic origin. Analyses in cryptophytes showed a unique genetic compartmentalization of the SUF system, which evolved by at least two different gene transfer events. We analyzed one of the components, SufD, in the cryptophyte Guillardia theta and in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrated that SufD fulfils house keeping functions during embryogenesis and in adult plants in A. thaliana.  (+info)

Unique tRNA introns of an enslaved algal cell. (4/58)

Nucleomorphs are remnant nuclei of eukaryotic, secondary endosymbionts exclusively found in cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes. The nucleomorph of the cryptophyte Guillardia theta codes for 36 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 15 of them predicted to contain introns and 1 pseudo-tRNA. Some of the predicted intervening sequences are manifested at positions not known in Eukarya, even tRNAs with more than one intron were suggested. By isolating reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction products of the spliced tRNAs we verify the processing of all predicted intron-harboring tRNAs and demonstrate the splicing of the smallest introns (3 nt) investigated so far. However, the spliced intervening sequences are in some cases shifted in respect to the predicted ones. Moreover, we show that introns, if inserted into the B-box of tRNA genes in the nucleomorph of cryptophytes, mimic promoter regions and do not abolish transcription by RNA polymerase III. Consequently, internal nucleomorph-encoded tRNA promoter regions are in some cases dissected from the sequence of the mature tRNAs. By reanalyzing tRNA introns of a recently sequenced red algae we furthermore show that splicing of introns at unusual positions may be introduced in cryptophytes by its secondary endosymbiont. However, in contrast to the rest of the symbiont genome, introns are not minimized in quantity but are instead scattered along the tRNA genes.  (+info)

A high frequency of overlapping gene expression in compacted eukaryotic genomes. (5/58)

The gene density of eukaryotic nuclear genomes is generally low relative to prokaryotes, but several eukaryotic lineages (many parasites or endosymbionts) have independently evolved highly compacted, gene-dense genomes. The best studied of these are the microsporidia, highly adapted fungal parasites, and the nucleomorphs, relict nuclei of endosymbiotic algae found in cryptomonads and chlorarachniophytes. These systems are now models for the effects of compaction on the form and dynamics of the nuclear genome. Here we report a large-scale investigation of gene expression from compacted eukaryotic genomes. We have conducted EST surveys of the microsporidian Antonospora locustae and nucleomorphs of the cryptomonad Guillardia theta and the chlorarachniophyte Bigelowiella natans. In all three systems we find a high frequency of mRNA molecules that encode sequence from more than one gene. There is no bias for these genes to be on the same strand, so it is unlikely that these mRNAs represent operons. Instead, compaction appears to have reduced the intergenic regions to such an extent that control elements like promoters and terminators have been forced into or beyond adjacent genes, resulting in long untranslated regions that encode other genes. Normally, transcriptional overlap can interfere with expression of a gene, but these genomes cope with high frequencies of overlap and with termination signals within expressed genes. These findings also point to serious practical difficulties in studying expression in compacted genomes, because many techniques, such as arrays or serial analysis of gene expression will be misleading.  (+info)

The Rhodomonas salina mitochondrial genome: bacteria-like operons, compact gene arrangement and complex repeat region. (6/58)

To gain insight into the mitochondrial genome structure and gene content of a putatively ancestral group of eukaryotes, the cryptophytes, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA of Rhodomonas salina. The 48 063 bp circular-mapping molecule codes for 2 rRNAs, 27 tRNAs and 40 proteins including 23 components of oxidative phosphorylation, 15 ribosomal proteins and two subunits of tat translocase. One potential protein (ORF161) is without assigned function. Only two introns occur in the genome; both are present within cox1 belong to group II and contain RT open reading frames. Primitive genome features include bacteria-like rRNAs and tRNAs, ribosomal protein genes organized in large clusters resembling bacterial operons and the presence of the otherwise rare genes such as rps1 and tatA. The highly compact gene organization contrasts with the presence of a 4.7 kb long, repeat-containing intergenic region. Repeat motifs approximately 40-700 bp long occur up to 31 times, forming a complex repeat structure. Tandem repeats are the major arrangement but the region also includes a large, approximately 3 kb, inverted repeat and several potentially stable approximately 40-80 bp long hairpin structures. We provide evidence that the large repeat region is involved in replication and transcription initiation, predict a promoter motif that occurs in three locations and discuss two likely scenarios of how this highly structured repeat region might have evolved.  (+info)

Rhodopsin-mediated photoreception in cryptophyte flagellates. (7/58)

We show that phototaxis in cryptophytes is likely mediated by a two-rhodopsin-based photosensory mechanism similar to that recently demonstrated in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and for the first time, to our knowledge, report spectroscopic and charge movement properties of cryptophyte algal rhodopsins. The marine cryptophyte Guillardia theta exhibits positive phototaxis with maximum sensitivity at 450 nm and a secondary band above 500 nm. Variability of the relative sensitivities at these wavelengths and light-dependent inhibition of phototaxis in both bands by hydroxylamine suggest the involvement of two rhodopsin photoreceptors. In the related freshwater cryptophyte Cryptomonas sp. two photoreceptor currents similar to those mediated by the two sensory rhodopsins in green algae were recorded. Two cDNA sequences from G. theta and one from Cryptomonas encoding proteins homologous to type 1 opsins were identified. The photochemical reaction cycle of one Escherichia-coli-expressed rhodopsin from G. theta (GtR1) involves K-, M-, and O-like intermediates with relatively slow (approximately 80 ms) turnover time. GtR1 shows lack of light-driven proton pumping activity in E. coli cells, although carboxylated residues are at the positions of the Schiff base proton acceptor and donor as in proton pumping rhodopsins. The absorption spectrum, corresponding to the long-wavelength band of phototaxis sensitivity, makes this pigment a candidate for one of the G. theta sensory rhodopsins. A second rhodopsin from G. theta (GtR2) and the one from Cryptomonas have noncarboxylated residues at the donor position as in known sensory rhodopsins.  (+info)

Lineage-specific variations of congruent evolution among DNA sequences from three genomes, and relaxed selective constraints on rbcL in Cryptomonas (Cryptophyceae). (8/58)

BACKGROUND: Plastid-bearing cryptophytes like Cryptomonas contain four genomes in a cell, the nucleus, the nucleomorph, the plastid genome and the mitochondrial genome. Comparative phylogenetic analyses encompassing DNA sequences from three different genomes were performed on nineteen photosynthetic and four colorless Cryptomonas strains. Twenty-three rbcL genes and fourteen nuclear SSU rDNA sequences were newly sequenced to examine the impact of photosynthesis loss on codon usage in the rbcL genes, and to compare the rbcL gene phylogeny in terms of tree topology and evolutionary rates with phylogenies inferred from nuclear ribosomal DNA (concatenated SSU rDNA, ITS2 and partial LSU rDNA), and nucleomorph SSU rDNA. RESULTS: Largely congruent branching patterns and accelerated evolutionary rates were found in nucleomorph SSU rDNA and rbcL genes in a clade that consisted of photosynthetic and colorless species suggesting a coevolution of the two genomes. The extremely accelerated rates in the rbcL phylogeny correlated with a shift from selection to mutation drift in codon usage of two-fold degenerate NNY codons comprising the amino acids asparagine, aspartate, histidine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. Cysteine was the sole exception. The shift in codon usage seemed to follow a gradient from early diverging photosynthetic to late diverging photosynthetic or heterotrophic taxa along the branches. In the early branching taxa, codon preferences were changed in one to two amino acids, whereas in the late diverging taxa, including the colorless strains, between four and five amino acids showed changes in codon usage. CONCLUSION: Nucleomorph and plastid gene phylogenies indicate that loss of photosynthesis in the colorless Cryptomonas strains examined in this study possibly was the result of accelerated evolutionary rates that started already in photosynthetic ancestors. Shifts in codon usage are usually considered to be caused by changes in functional constraints and in gene expression levels. Thus, the increasing influence of mutation drift on codon usage along the clade may indicate gradually relaxed constraints and reduced expression levels on the rbcL gene, finally correlating with a loss of photosynthesis in the colorless Cryptomonas paramaecium strains.  (+info)

Cryptophytes are an enigmatic group of unicellular eukaryotes with plastids derived by secondary (i.e., eukaryote-eukaryote) endosymbiosis. Cryptophytes are unusual in that they possess four genomes-a host cell-derived nuclear and mitochondrial genome and an endosymbiont-derived plastid and nucleomorph genome. The evolutionary origins of the host and endosymbiont components of cryptophyte algae are at present poorly understood. Thus far, a single complete mitochondrial genome sequence has been determined for the cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina. Here, the second complete mitochondrial genome of the cryptophyte alga Hemiselmis andersenii CCMP644 is presented. The H. andersenii mtDNA is 60,553 bp in size and encodes 30 structural RNAs and 36 protein-coding genes, all located on the same strand. A prominent feature of the genome is the presence of a ~20 Kbp long intergenic region comprised of numerous tandem and dispersed repeat units of between 22-336 bp. Adjacent to these repeats are 27 copies of
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of cell density on biomass and fatty acid productivity during cultivation of Rhodomonas salina in a tubular photobioreactor. AU - Thoisen, Christina. AU - Pedersen, Jakob Skov. AU - Jørgensen, Lars. AU - Kyhn, Anker. AU - Hansen, Benni Winding. AU - Nielsen, Søren Laurentius. PY - 2020/5/8. Y1 - 2020/5/8. U2 - 10.1111/ARE.14672. DO - 10.1111/ARE.14672. M3 - Journal article. JO - Aquaculture Research. JF - Aquaculture Research. SN - 1355-557X. ER - ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Excitation dynamics in phycoerythrin 545. T2 - Modeling of steady-state spectra and transient absorption with modified redfield theory. AU - Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.. AU - Doust, Alexander B.. AU - Curutchet, Carles. AU - Scholes, Gregory D.. AU - Van Grondelle, Rienk. PY - 2010/7/21. Y1 - 2010/7/21. N2 - We model the spectra and excitation dynamics in the phycobiliprotein antenna complex PE545 isolated from the unicellular photosynthetic cryptophyte algae Rhodomonas CS24. The excitonic couplings between the eight bilins are calculated using the CIS/6-31G method. The site energies are extracted from a simultaneous fit of the absorption, circular dichroism, fluorescence, and excitation anisotropy spectra together with the transient absorption kinetics using the modified Redfield approach. Quantitative fit of the data enables us to assign the eight exciton components of the spectra and build up the energy transfer picture including pathways and timescales of energy relaxation, ...
ID HEMAN_1_PE108 STANDARD; PRT; 345 AA. AC HEMAN_1_PE108; A9BKW7; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE SubName: Full=Rcl1; (HEMAN_1.PE108). GN ORFNames=HAN_2g302; OS HEMISELMIS ANDERSENII. OG Nucleomorph. OC Eukaryota; Cryptophyta; Cryptomonadales; Hemiselmidaceae; Hemiselmis. OX NCBI_TaxID=464988; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS HEMAN_1.PE108. CC Hemiselmis andersenii (strain CCMP644) chromosome 2, nucleomorph, CC complete sequence. CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:A9BKW7_HEMAN CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HBG000000000 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot; A9BKW7; -. DR EMBL; CP000882; ABW98122.1; -; Genomic_DNA. DR RefSeq; XP_001712447.1; XM_001712395.1. DR GeneID; 5739692; -. DR ProtClustDB; CLSN2924336; -. DR GO; GO:0033009; C:nucleomorph; IEA:UniProtKB-KW. DR GO; GO:0003824; F:catalytic activity; IEA:InterPro. DR InterPro; IPR023797; ...
ID L1JYA3_GUITH Unreviewed; 2741 AA. AC L1JYA3; DT 06-MAR-2013, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 06-MAR-2013, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 30. DE SubName: Full=Uncharacterized protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EKX53561.1, ECO:0000313,EnsemblProtists:EKX53561}; GN ORFNames=GUITHDRAFT_160866 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EKX53561.1}; OS Guillardia theta CCMP2712. OC Eukaryota; Cryptophyta; Pyrenomonadales; Geminigeraceae; Guillardia. OX NCBI_TaxID=905079 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EKX53561.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000011087}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EKX53561.1, ECO:0000313,EnsemblProtists:EKX53561, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000011087} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE. RC STRAIN=CCMP2712 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EKX53561.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000011087}; RX PubMed=23201678; DOI=10.1038/nature11681; RG DOE Joint Genome Institute; RA Curtis B.A., Tanifuji G., Burki F., Gruber A., Irimia M., Maruyama S., RA Arias M.C., Ball S.G., Gile G.H., Hirakawa Y., Hopkins J.F., Kuo A., RA Rensing S.A., Schmutz J., Symeonidi ...
Goniomonas is a genus of Cryptomonads and contains five species. It is a genus of single-celled eukaryotes, including both freshwater and marine species. It lacks plastids, which is very unusual among all of the Cryptophyte genera. It may reflect one of only a small number of times that the Cryptophytes evolved into freshwater habitats. Goniomonas seems to have a number of freshwater relatives which have not yet been cultured and named. Goniomonas means angled small flagellates, combining goni and monas. It was established by German biologist Samuel Friedrich Stein in 1878. This genus contains species that are free-swimming, flattened, biflagellate monads. They are oval in lateral view with an obliquely truncate anterior. A furrow extends along the middle of the anterior margin and for a short distance down the ventral margin and is surrounded by a single lateral row of ejectisomes. They lack chloroplasts, pyrenoids, nucleomorphs and starch. Further ResearchThey have periplast with ...
ABSTRACT: We examined the possibility that dinoflagellates belonging to genus Dinophysis acquire plastids from certain species of cryptophytes. We measured the abundance of cryptophytes over a 3 yr period in Okkirai Bay, northern Japan by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), using an oligonucleotide probe that specifically binds to the Dinophysis plastid small subunit ribosomal RNA. A high density of FISH-probed cryptophytes always occurred prior to peak occurrences of D. fortii, although the density of FISH-probed cryptophytes did not correlate well with the density of D. fortii. Although further investigation is needed, monitoring of these cryptophyte species may be useful for predicting Dinophysis growth and subsequent outbreaks of diarrheic shellfish poisoning. ...
Cryptomonads, small biflagellate algae, contain four different genomes. In addition to the nucleus, mitochondrion, and chloroplast is a fourth DNA-containing organelle the nucleomorph. Nucleomorphs result from the successive reduction of the nucleus of an engulfed phototrophic eukaryotic endosymbion …
Synonym(s): Rhodomonas amphioxeia Conrad 1939 , Chroomonas amphioxeia (Conrad) Butcher 1967. Life-form: Solitary with two flagella. Size: 8-11 µm long and 4-6 µm wide. Resting spore:. Note: Together with Plagioselmis prolonga its one of the most common species of Cryptophyceae on the swedish west coast. Distinctive features: The shape of the cell, the longer ventral flagellum and a long ventral furrow. Similar species: Teleaulax acuta. Distribution: Gulf of Finland, western Baltic, Skagerrak, Atlantic coast of Belgium, east coast of America, Japan. Literature: ...
Russian doll in the form of an alga Unlike traditional eukaryotic cells - i.e. all cells with a nucleus - cryptophyte cells resemble a Russian doll in the form of an alga within an alga. They originated from a eukaryotic cell that engulfed and integrated a red alga. Thus, cryptophytes have acquired the ability to perform photosynthesis. Just like their red algal ancestors, cryptophytes utilise not only the green pigment chlorophyll for harvesting light, but have also the capability to use green light being missed by chlorophyll. This is due to blue or red-tinted proteins - so-called phycobiliproteins. After integrating the red alga, its genome was reduced over time and combined with the host cells genome. During this process, a number of modifications on genetic, biochemical and physiological levels took place, which facilitated adaptation to new ecological niches. Although the algae maintained the basic principle of photosynthesis, their light-harvesting phycobiliproteins were largely modified ...
Nature. 2012 Dec 6;492(7427):59-65. doi: 10.1038/nature11681. Epub 2012 Nov 28. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.
The water-soluble antenna chromoprotein phycocyanin-645 from a Chroomonas species (Cryptophyceae) has been crystallized. X-ray precession photographs prove space groups P3121 (or the enantiomorphic P3
Members of the marine dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium are known to exude allelochemicals, unrelated to well-known neurotoxins (PSP-toxins, spirolides), with negative effects on other phytoplankton and marine grazers. Physico/chemical characterization of extracellular lytic compounds of A. tamarense, quantified by Rhodomonas salina bioassay, showed that the lytic activity, and hence presumably the compounds were stable over wide ranges of temperatures and pH and were refractory to bacterial degradation. Two distinct lytic fractions were collected by reversed-phase solid-phase extraction. The more hydrophilic fraction accounted for about 2% of the whole lytic activity of the A. tamarense culture supernatant, while the less hydrophilic one accounted for about 98% of activity. Although temporal stability of the compounds is high, substantial losses were evident during purification. Lytic activity was best removed from aqueous phase with chloroform-methanol (3:1). A
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) to the plant mitochondrial genome has recently been shown to occur at a surprisingly high rate; however, little evidence has been found for HGT to the plastid genome, despite extensive sequencing. In this study, we analyzed all genes from sequenced plastid genomes to unearth any neglected cases of HGT and to obtain a measure of the overall extent of HGT to the plastid. Although several genes gave strongly supported conflicting trees under certain conditions, we are confident of HGT in only a single case beyond the rubisco HGT already reported. Most of the conflicts involved near neighbors connected by long branches (e.g. red algae and their secondary hosts), where phylogenetic methods are prone to mislead. However, three genes - clpP, ycf2, and rpl36 - provided strong support for taxa moving far from their organismal position. Further taxon sampling of clpP and ycf2 resulted in rejection of HGT due to long-branch attraction and a serious error in the published plastid
A global phylogeny of major eukaryotic lineages is a significant and ongoing challenge to molecular phylogenetics. Currently, there are five hypothesized major lineages or supergroups' of eukaryotes. One of these, the chromalveolates, represents a large fraction of protist and algal diversity. The chromalveolate hypothesis was originally based on similarities between the photosynthetic organelles (plastids) found in many of its members and has been supported by analyses of plastid-related genes. However, since plastids can move between eukaryotic lineages, it is important to provide additional support from data generated from the nuclear-cytosolic host lineage. Genes coding for six different cytosolic proteins from a variety of chromalveolates (yielding 68 new gene sequences) have been characterized so that multiple gene analyses, including all six major lineages of chromalveolates, could be compared and concatenated with data representing all five hypothesized supergroups. Overall support for
We continue to explore the genomes of all life forms using the tools of bioinformatics. Following our introduction using fungi in the previous chapter we now arrive at the eukaryotes, from parasites to plants to primates. This page offers web documents and resources that are referred to in Chapter 19. Figure 19.1 presents a tree by Baldauf et al. showing the relationships of the eukaryotes, and in the chapter we follow this tree from bottom up. Topics include the protozoans (Trichomonas, Giardia); unicellular pathogens (trypanosomes and Leishmania); the Chromalveolates (the malaria parasite P. falciparum and other apicomplexans; the ciliophora Paramecium and Tetrahymena; nucleomorphs; Stramenopiles such as diatoms); the plants; and slime molds. When we arrive at the metazoans (animals) we divide these into the great groups of nematodes (such as the worm C. elegans), insects (e.g. fruitfly, mosquito, honeybee), and chordates (Ciona). We conclude with descriptions of fish (diverged from humans ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Mirkovic, T, Doust AB, Kim J, Wilk KE, Curutchet C, Mennucci B, Cammi R, Curmi PMG, Scholes GD. 2007. Ultrafast light harvesting dynamics in the cryptophyte phycocyanin 645. Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences. 6(9):964-975. Abstract ...
Burki, F; Inagaki, Y; Bråte, J; Archibald, J.; Keeling, P.; Cavalier-Smith, T; Sakaguchi, M; Hashimoto, T; Horak, A; Kumar, S; Klaveness, D; Jakobsen, K.S; Pawlowski, J; Shalchian-Tabrizi, K (2009). Large-scale phylogenomic analyses reveal that two enigmatic protist lineages, Telonemia and Centroheliozoa, are related to photosynthetic chromalveolates.. 》Genome Biology and Evolution》 1: 231-8. PMC 2817417. PMID 20333193. doi:10.1093/gbe/evp022. 2012년 7월 10일에 원본 문서 (Free full text)에서 보존된 문서 ...
Light-gated rhodopsin cation channels from chlorophyte algae have transformed neuroscience research through their use as membrane-depolarizing optogenetic tools for targeted photoactivation of neuron firing. Photosuppression of neuronal action potentials has been limited by the lack of equally efficient tools for membrane hyperpolarization. We describe Anion Channel Rhodopsins (ACRs), a family of light-gated anion channels from cryptophyte algae that provide highly sensitive and efficient membrane hyperpolarization and neuronal silencing through light-gated chloride conduction. ACRs strictly conducted anions, completely excluding protons and larger cations, and hyperpolarized the membrane of cultured animal cells with much faster kinetics at less than one-thousandth of the light intensity than required by the most efficient currently available optogenetic proteins. Natural ACRs provide optogenetic inhibition tools with unprecedented light sensitivity and temporal precision. ...
In this study we have investigated whether the carbon isotopic signature differs between different groups and species of marine phytoplankton depending on growth phase, nutrient conditions and salinity. The 15 investigated algal species, representing the Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae and Haptophyceae classes were grown in batch monocultures and analysed for delta(13)C in both exponential and stationary phase. For all the cultured species, delta(13)C signatures ranged from -23.5 parts per thousand (Imantonia sp.) to - 12.3 parts per thousand (Nodulania spumigena) in the exponential phase and from - 18.8 parts per thousand (Amphidinium carterae) to - 8.0 parts per thousand (Anabaena lemmermannii) in the stationary phase. Three species (Dunaliella tertiolecta, Rhodomonas sp.. Heterocapsa triquetra) were also grown under nutrient sufficient and nitrogen or phosphorus deficient conditions. Nitrogen limitation resulted in a more negative delta(13)C ...
Další analýzy (2007) přiřadily dovnitř chromist/chromalveolát i Rhizaria (ještě v r. 2005 považovaná za samostatnou superskupinu vedle chromalveolát), do příbuznosti skrytěnek a haptofytů se pak dnes řadí i Katablepharida, Telonemea, Centrohelida a Picobiliphyta.[8][9][10] Nepodařilo se však prokázat přirozenost takto posílené říše Chromista jako celku. Sice se původně zdálo, že je tvořena dvěma liniemi, dodnes v některých systémech udržovaných jako podříše, a sice SAR (Stramenopiles + Alveolata + Rhizaria) a Hacrobia (Haptophyta + Cryptophyta + Katablepharida + Centrohelida + Telonemea + Picobiliphyta). Zatímco přirozenost SAR je s vysokou věrohodností prokázána, nové analýzy ukazují nepřirozenost hacrobií jako celku. Haptofyta, centrohelidní slunivky a Telonemea by se podle nich odvětvovala na bázi holofyletických SAR, umístění skrytěnek (s plastidem morfologicky podobným haptofytům), katablefarid a pikobilifyt by mělo být na ...
Stephen Murray was a globally renowned private equity investor and leading philanthropist. Mr. Murray passed on March 12, 2015, at the age of 52. He was the head of CCMP […]. Read More → ...
Define protoctists. protoctists synonyms, protoctists pronunciation, protoctists translation, English dictionary definition of protoctists. Noun 1. Protoctista - in most modern classifications, replacement for the Protista; includes: Protozoa; Euglenophyta; Chlorophyta; Cryptophyta;...
We have just published a new paper in Scientific Reports describing the role of the cytoskeleton in biomineralisation in haptophyte lgae. The results suggest that mechanisms for scale secretion may be common to both calcifcied coccolithophores and the silicifying haptophyte, Prymnesium neolepis. The work was performed by Grazyna Durak during her PhD studies at the MBA.. ...
Of course, technical analysis is just one part of the puzzle - it may help you to make trading decisions, but its foolish to only trade based on technical analysis. In addition to technical analysis, you should also conduct fundamental analysis, looking through the balance sheet of Cabot Microelectronics Corporation. Heres how it stands right now:. ...
Most heterokonts are biflagellated at some stage of their life cycles, usually at least as gametes. The two flagella are structurally distinct, the leading-end flagella (tinsel) being branched, the lateral or subapical flagellum is smooth and shorter or even rudimentary. Their plastid envelops consist of 4 membrane layers. The innermost 2 layers are derived from the original cyanobacterial endosymbiont. The next layer is the relic of the cell membrane of the red alga from which the stramenopilie acquired the plastid by seconadry endosymbiosis. The outermost layer is actually the host endoplasmic reticulum, inside of which the plastids reside.. Diatoms are the most familiar members of this group, and are perhaps the most abundant and diverse as well. By some estimates, they may be responsible for up to half of marine primary production. Most are unicellular. Gametes are flagellated, but diploids are non-motile or motile by gliding, and are encased in a intricate 2-part silica (glass) shells. ...
Originally Posted by Exo Good luck! I had some, but they have almost all died out...it would appear that they need a very acid PH to survive long term
The Rhizaria are a heterogeneous assemblage encompassing lineages such as Foraminifera, radiolarians and euglyphid testate amoebae, chlorarachniophytes, parasitic groups (Phytomyxea, Haplosporidia), as well as a multitude of other lesser-known flagellates (figure 2b) that emerge as having fundamental ecological roles [13,74-76]. Filamentous pseudopodia are a recurrent morphological feature among amoeboid members of Rhizaria, in contrast to the lobose or broad pseudopodia of many Amoebozoa. Complete sexual life cycles are documented for two lineages (Foraminifera and Gromia); karyogamy or meiosis (direct evidence) has been observed in five lineages (Euglyphida, Thecofilosea, Chlorarachniophyta, Plasmodiophorida and Phaeodarea); and indirect evidence (such as cell fusion or formation of putative gametes) has been witnessed in five lineages (Acantharea, Polycystinea, Cercomonas, Helkesimastix and Lateromyxa).. There are at least two lineages in the Rhizaria with confirmed sexual life cycles. ...
Cyanobacteria, Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta by Xia Bangmei; Diatomeae (Bacillariophyta), Chrysophyta, Cryptophyta, Xanthophyta, Prymnesiophyta (Haptophyta) by Gao Yahui, Chen Changping, Sun Lin, Zhou Qianqian; Dinozoa by Luu Douding. ISBN: ISBN 978-7-03-023722-4.. PDF: ...
ID PROMP_1_PE100 STANDARD; PRT; 555 AA. AC PROMP_1_PE100; Q7V3H5; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE SubName: Full=L-aspartate oxidase; EC=1.4.3 16; (PROMP_1.PE100). GN Name=nadB; OrderedLocusNames=PMM0100; OS PROCHLOROCOCCUS MARINUS SUBSP. PASTORIS STR. CCMP1986. OC Bacteria; Cyanobacteria; Prochlorales; Prochlorococcaceae; OC Prochlorococcus. OX NCBI_TaxID=59919; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS PROMP_1.PE100. CC Prochlorococcus marinus subsp. pastoris str. CCMP1986, complete genome. CC genome. CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:Q7V3H5_PROMP CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HOG000160476 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot; Q7V3H5; -. DR EMBL; BX548174; CAE18559.1; -; Genomic_DNA. DR RefSeq; NP_892221.1; NC_005072.1. DR HSSP; P83223; 1D4D. DR ProteinModelPortal; Q7V3H5; -. DR STRING; Q7V3H5; -. DR GeneID; 1725749; -. DR GenomeReviews; BX548174_GR; PMM0100. DR ...
One fox sits atop the formally christened office. Nancy-Ann worked for J.P. Morgan Partners LLP, which later became CCMP Capital Advisers, a private equity underwriter (PEU) specializing in health care. Ms. DeParle sits on the board of four for-profit health care boards. Her 2007 board compensation was nearly $550,000. Her stock holdings were recently worth over $3.1 million ...
Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Species Pellaea truncata Goodding Click on names to expand them, and on P for PLANTS profiles ...
Support for this feature is highly dependent on the theme in use. At the time of writing, the default theme for EFL does not implement support for orientation modes ...
Pythium is a member of the Oomycota (also referred to as oomycetes), which are part of the heterokont/chromist clade [1, 2] within the Straminipila-Alveolata-Rhizaria superkingdom [3]. Recent phylogenies based on multiple protein coding genes indicate that the oomycetes, together with the uniflagellate hyphochytrids and the flagellates Pirsonia and Developayella, form the sister clade to the diverse photosynthetic orders in the phylum Ochrophyta [2, 4]. Therefore, the genomes of the closest relatives to Pythium outside of the oomycetes available to date would be those of the diatoms Thalassiosira [5] and Phaeodactylum [6], and the phaeophyte algae Ectocarpus [7].. Pythium is a cosmopolitan and biologically diverse genus. Most species are soil inhabitants, although some reside in saltwater estuaries and other aquatic environments. Most Pythium spp. are saprobes or facultative plant pathogens causing a wide variety of diseases, including damping-off and a range of field and post-harvest rots ...
Maytenus truncata (Celastraceae) is a plant species widely used in the treatment of ulcers and tumors. Despite the intensive harvest of native specimens in the State of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, there is no information about the genetic variability or structure of this species. Therefore, the goal of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity and population structure of M. truncata based on inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers.
Saxitoxin is a potent neurotoxin that occurs in aquatic environments worldwide. Ingestion of vector species can lead to paralytic shellfish poisoning, a severe human illness that may lead to paralysis and death. In freshwaters, the toxin is produced by prokaryotic cyanobacteria; in marine waters, it is associated with eukaryotic dinoflagellates. However, several studies suggest that saxitoxin is not produced by dinoflagellates themselves, but by co-cultured bacteria. Here, we show that genes required for saxitoxin synthesis are encoded in the nuclear genomes of dinoflagellates. We sequenced |1.2×106 mRNA transcripts from the two saxitoxin-producing dinoflagellate strains Alexandrium fundyense CCMP1719 and A. minutum CCMP113 using high-throughput sequencing technology. In addition, we used in silico transcriptome analyses, RACE, qPCR and conventional PCR coupled with Sanger sequencing. These approaches successfully identified genes required for saxitoxin-synthesis in the two transcriptomes. We focused
ABSTRACT: Members of the marine phytoplankton genus Phaeocystis (Prymnesiophyceae) produce large amounts of the intracellular osmolyte DMSP and they are known to also produce lyase enzymes that cleave DMSP into the biogeochemically important trace gas DMS. The functional characteristics of DMSP lyase activity in Phaeocystis spp. are not well known. We characterized DMSP lyase activity in extracts from 2 ecologically important species from this genus, the mesophile P. globosa (strain CCMP629) and the psychrophile P. antarctica (strain CCMP1374). Results from whole cell extracts showed that both algal species were potent producers of DMSP lyase, with Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and maximum reaction velocity (Vmax) values of 1.77 mM and 17.3 nmol DMS min-1 mg protein-1, respectively, for P. globosa, and 2.31 mM and 28.2 nmol DMS min-1 mg protein-1, respectively, for P. antarctica. The optimal DMSP lyase activity was recorded at pH 4 and 30?C for P. globosa, and at pH 5 and 20?C for P. ...
Size: 7.2cm Propagation Method: seedling. Well rooted. Note: This plant will be shipped from Taiwan, so please select Shipping with Phytosanitary certificate at checkout, in case you are ordering it from anywhere outside Taiwan.
static void on_efl_event_finger_down(void *data, const Efl_Event *event) { Efl_Input_Pointer *info = event-,info; Eo *obj = event-,object; Data *d = data; /* event hander code */ } static void setup_event_handler(Eo *obj, Data *d) { efl_event_callback_add(obj, EFL_EVENT_FINGER_DOWN, on_efl_event_finger_down, d); } ...
Find Siddiqui Md located at , Salina, Kansas, 67401. Contact 7854524007. Ratings, reviews, hours, phone number and directions from ChamberofCommerce.com
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Heterokont algae, together with cryptophytes, haptophytes and some alveolates, possess red-algal derived plastids. The chromalveolate hypothesis proposes that the red-algal derived plastids of all four groups have a monophyletic origin resulting from a single secondary endosymbiotic event. However, due to incongruence between nuclear and plastid phylogenies, this controversial hypothesis remains under debate. Large-scale genomic analyses have shown to be a powerful tool for phylogenetic reconstruction but insufficient sequence data have been available for red-algal derived plastid genomes. The chloroplast genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus, have been fully sequenced. These species represent two distinct orders of the Phaeophyceae, which is a major group within the heterokont lineage. The sizes of the circular plastid genomes are 139,954 and 124,986 base pairs, respectively, the size difference being due principally to the presence of longer inverted repeat and
Florida Atlantic University (Acantheae, Acanthopterygii, Acanthus Clade, Acari, African Ruellia, Agaricales, Agaricomycotina, Aleocharinae, Aliatypus, Anacardiaceae, Andalucia, Ankylosauria, Arcellinida, Architeuthis, Archon bostanchii, Archonias brassolis, Argonauta, Asellariales, Aspidogastrea, Asteroidea, Atlanta brunnea, Aulacidae, Berryteuthis magister nipponensis, Bolitaena pygmaea, Bolitoglossinae, Calisto, Callichthyidae, Cardiapoda, Cardiapoda richardi, Carinaria, Carinaria challengeri, Carinaria cithara, Carinaria cristata, Carinaria galea, Carinaria japonica, Carinaria lamarcki, Carinariidae, Caryophyllales, Cassieae sensu lato (pro parte), Chaetothyriales, Chiroptera, Chlorarachniophytes, Cicindis horni, Ciconiidae, Classicula, Clusiidae, Core Eudicots, Crenarchaeota, Cryptalyra, Cryptomycocolax, Cryptoteuthis brevibracchiata, Cystobasidiomycetes, Dacrymycetales, Delitschiaceae, Dimargaritales, Diptera, Discoteuthis sp. A, Diversisporales, Echinodermata, Echinophthiriidae, ...
Florida Atlantic University (Acantheae, Acanthopterygii, Acanthus Clade, Acari, African Ruellia, Agaricales, Agaricomycotina, Aleocharinae, Aliatypus, Anacardiaceae, Andalucia, Ankylosauria, Arcellinida, Architeuthis, Archon bostanchii, Archonias brassolis, Argonauta, Asellariales, Aspidogastrea, Asteroidea, Atlanta brunnea, Aulacidae, Berryteuthis magister nipponensis, Bolitaena pygmaea, Bolitoglossinae, Calisto, Callichthyidae, Cardiapoda, Cardiapoda richardi, Carinaria, Carinaria challengeri, Carinaria cithara, Carinaria cristata, Carinaria galea, Carinaria japonica, Carinaria lamarcki, Carinariidae, Caryophyllales, Cassieae sensu lato (pro parte), Chaetothyriales, Chiroptera, Chlorarachniophytes, Cicindis horni, Ciconiidae, Classicula, Clusiidae, Core Eudicots, Crenarchaeota, Cryptalyra, Cryptomycocolax, Cryptoteuthis brevibracchiata, Cystobasidiomycetes, Dacrymycetales, Delitschiaceae, Dimargaritales, Diptera, Discoteuthis sp. A, Diversisporales, Echinodermata, Echinophthiriidae, ...
Research Articles. Wernegreen, J. J. and N. A. Moran. 2001.Vertical Transmission of Biosynthetic Plasmids in Aphid Endosymbionts (Buchnera). J. Bacteriol. 183:785-790.. Shigenobu S., H. Watanabe, M. Hattori, Y. Sakaki and H. Ishikawa. 2000. Genome sequence of the endocellular bacterial symbiont of aphids Buchnera sp. APS. Nature 407:81-86.. Fukatsu, T., N. Nikoh, R. Kawai and R. Koga. The secondary endosymbiotic bacterium of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Insecta: Homoptera). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2000. 66:2748-2758.. Thao, M. L., N. A. Moran, P. Abbot, E. B. Brennan, D. H. Burckhardt and P. Baumann. 2000. Cospeciation of Psyllids and their primary prokaryotic endosymbionts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:2898-2905.. Baumann L., Baumann P., M.L. Thao. 1999. Detection of messenger RNA transcribed from genes encoding enzymes of amino acid biosynthesis in Buchnera aphidicola (endosymbiont of aphids). Current. Microbiology 38:135-136.. Charles H., H. Ishikawa. 1999. Physical and genetic map of ...
basis of record Brunel, P.; Bosse, L.; Lamarche, G. (1998). Catalogue of the marine invertebrates of the estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 126. 405 p. (look up in IMIS) [details] Available for editors ...
维奇猪笼草(学名:Nepenthes veitchii)是婆罗洲特有的热带食虫植物。[3]其广泛分布于婆罗洲西北部。其种加词veitchii来源于维奇苗圃的主人,詹姆斯·维奇。[4] 低地地区的树林中维奇猪笼草常附生,其以叶柄环抱树杆向上生长。而在高地地区泥炭沼泽的维奇猪笼草则多陆生。[3]巴里奥地区的维奇猪笼草似乎严格陆生,未在该地区观察到其附生植株。此外,低地地区和高地地区的维奇猪笼草在形态上也有区别,低地变型比高地变型的唇窄。[3] 维奇猪笼草被认为产于菲律宾的罗伯坎特利猪笼草(N. robcantleyi)之间存在着密切的近缘关系。[5]其也与宝特瓶猪笼草(N. truncata)进行了比较。[6] ...
Features include: Gongora truncata - collectors item; problems in orchid hybrid nomenclature; table-top construction for orchid shows; a revision of the genus Phalaenopsis - VII. American Orchid Society, Inc.
By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the main characteristics of protists Describe important pathogenic species of protists Des
Gianfranco Novarino (2002). "Phylum Cryptophyta". In D. M. John; Brian A. Whitton; Alan J. Brook (eds.). The freshwater algal ...
"Cryptophyta - the cryptomonads". Archived from the original on 2011-06-10. Retrieved 2009-06-02. Graham, L. E.; Graham, J. M.; ... Later, botanists treated them as a separate algae group, class Cryptophyceae or division Cryptophyta, while zoologists treated ... Tree of Life: Cryptomonads Phylum Cryptophyta at AlgaeBase. ...
... - :: Algaebase "Cryptophyta - the cryptomonads". Archived from the original on 2011-06-10. Retrieved 2009-06-02. ... Later, botanists treated them as a separate algae group, class Cryptophyceae or division Cryptophyta, while zoologists treated ...
Clay, Brec; Kugrens, Paul; Lee, Robert (October 1999). "A revised classification of Cryptophyta". Botanical Journal of the ...
"A revised classification of Cryptophyta". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 131: 131-151. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1999. ...
Laza-Martinez, 2012 Clay, Brec; Kugrens, Paul; Lee, Robert (October 1999). "A revised classification of Cryptophyta". Botanical ...
I. Cryptomonas Ovata (cryptophyta)1". Journal of Phycology. 20 (4): 590-599. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3646.1984.00590.x. ISSN 1529- ... Cryptophyta) from Korea". ALGAE. 28 (4): 307-330. doi:10.4490/algae.2013.28.4.307. Laura Wegener Parfrey; Daniel J G Lahr; ...
Clay, Brec L.; Kugrens, Paul; Lee, Robert E. (October 1999). "A revised classification of Cryptophyta". Botanical Journal of ...
... s occur throughout the world ocean. Their distribution varies vertically by stratified layers in the ocean and geographically by different temporal zones.[26] While most modern coccolithophores can be located in their associated stratified oligotrophic conditions, the most abundant areas of coccolithophores where there is the highest species diversity are located in subtropical zones with a temperate climate.[27] While water temperature and the amount of light intensity entering the water's surface are the more influential factors in determining where species are located, the ocean currents also can determine the location where certain species of coccolithophores are found.[28] Although motility and colony formation vary according to the life cycle of different coccolithophore species, there is often alternation between a motile, haploid phase, and a non-motile diploid phase. In both phases, the organism's dispersal is largely due to ocean currents and circulation patterns.[16] ...
Phylum Cryptophyta Pascher 1913 em. Adl et al. 2012 (Cryptomonada Cavalier-Smith 2004 sta. n.] Class Goniomonadea Cavalier- ...
... is an order of Cryptophyta. Daugbjerg, Niels; Norlin, Andreas; Lovejoy, Connie (2018-07-25). "Baffinella ...
... the other comprises the Cryptophyta and the Haptophyta. A 2010 paper splits the Cryptophyta and Haptophyta; the former are a ... Hacrobia The other two groups originally included in Chromalveolata, the Haptophyta and the Cryptophyta, were related in some ... Cryptophyta Haptophyta Stramenopiles (or Heterokontophyta) Alveolata Other groups that may be included within, or related to, ... the ejectisome of the Cryptophyta, and the two different flagella of the Heterokontophyta. However, none of these features are ...
Though the heterokonts are now split out, Cryptophyta and Haptophyta are considered in some studies to be closely related (and ... Several recent studies have concluded that Haptophyta and Cryptophyta do not form a monophyletic group. The former are a sister ... standing for Cryptophyta, Centrohelida, Telonemia and Haptophyta); and "Eukaryomonadae". As of February 2012[update], it is ... are sometimes simply referred to as the "Cryptophyta+Haptophyta" group). A 2009 paper suggested that the Telonemia and ...
... is a family of Cryptophyta in the order Cryptomonadales. Clay, Brec; Kugrens, Paul; Lee, Robert (October 1999 ... "A revised classification of Cryptophyta" Check ,url= value (help). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 131 (2): 131-151. ...
Cryptophyta (skrytěnky).. Chromalveolátní hypotéza[editovat , editovat zdroj]. Cavalier-Smith v r. 2002 navrhl do příbuznosti ... Cryptophyta + Katablepharida + Centrohelida + Telonemea + Picobiliphyta). Zatímco přirozenost SAR je s vysokou věrohodností ...
Haptophyta and Cryptophyta. The Chromalveolata (Cavalier-Smith, 1981) included Stramenopiles, Haptophyta, Cryptophyta and ... Cryptophyta, Dinophyta and Choanoflagellida. The Euglenophyceae were transferred to the Chlorophyta. The Chromophyta (Bourrelly ... Cryptophyta, Dinophyta, Euglenophyceae and Choanoflagellida (included in Chrysophyceae until Hibberd, 1975). The Chromophyta ( ...
The summer was then dominated by cyanobacteria (Cyanophyta), with an increase in Cryptomonad (Cryptophyta) abundance by October ... In recent monitoring (2012), Cryptomonads (Cryptophyta) were most abundant in winter. Chrysophyte populations peaked in April, ...
The Cryptomonads (or Cryptophyta) are a phylum of algae,[1] most of which have chloroplasts. ...
... is an order of Cryptophyta containing the families Cryptomonadaceae and Hilleaceae. Guiry, M.D.; Guiry, G.M. ( ...
In some analyses, the Hacrobia group (Haptophyta + Cryptophyta) is placed next to Archaeplastida, but in other ones it is ... However, several recent studies have concluded that Haptophyta and Cryptophyta do not form a monophyletic group. The former ... Cryptophyta, Centrohelida, Telonemia, Picozoa, Apusomonadida, Ancyromonadida, Breviatea, and the genus Collodictyon. Overall, ...
... euglenophyta or cryptophyta. Examples of the types of organisms found in the Protist Kingdom are red, green and brown algae. ...
Haptophyta and Cryptophyta. Members of this group are mostly studied for evolutionary interest. Excavata is a group of related ...
Many of the more common OTUs have been identified to the following taxa: Cryptophyta (order), Stramenopiles (order) and OM60 ( ...
Cryptophyta, Excavata), and even to prokaryotic lineages. The genus was also included in other groups, as in Mastigophora or ...
Marin, Birger; Klingberg, Max; Melkonian, Michael (1998). "Phylogenetic Relationships among the Cryptophyta: Analyses of ...
Les Hacrobia sont assimilés au « groupe CCTH » (abréviation de Cryptophyta, Centrohelida, Telonemia et Haptophyta)[80]. ... o Cryptophyta │ └─o Haptophyta └─o ├─o Alveolata │ ├─o Ciliophora │ └─o │ ├─o Dinoflagellata │ └─o Apicomplexa └─o ├─o ... o Cryptophyta │ └─o Viridiplantae └─o ├─o │ ├─o Malawimonadidae │ └─o │ ├─o Jakobidae │ └─o Discicristata │ ├─o Euglenozoa │ └─ ... o embranchement des Cryptophyta └─o sous-règne des Chromobiota ├─o infra-règne des Heterokonta ► └─o infra-règne des Haptophyta ...
Punavetika tüüpi plastiidid on järgmistel rühmadel: neelvetikad (Cryptophyta), haptofüüdid (Haptophyta), stramenopiilid ( ...
2008). It includes: Plants Hacrobia (the "HC" refers to Cryptophyta and Haptophyta, the two major members of this group) ...
Several recent studies have concluded that Haptophyta and Cryptophyta do not form a monophyletic group.[11] The former are a ... Cryptophyta and Haptophyta are considered in some studies to be closely related[7][8] (and are sometimes simply referred to as ... standing for Cryptophyta, Centrohelida, Telonemia and Haptophyta);[3] and "Eukaryomonadae".[4] ... the "Cryptophyta+Haptophyta" group).[9] A 2009 paper suggested that the Telonemia and centrohelids may form a clade with the ...
Koshland, Jr., Daniel E. (22 March 2002). 'The Seven Pillars of Life'. Science 295 (5563): 2215-2216. doi:10.1126/science.1068489. PMID 11910092. Retrieved 25 May 2009 ...
The Species 2000/ITIS Catalogue of Life : 2006 Annual Checklist is a comprehensive index of all known plants, animals, fungi and micro-organisms. It can be used to search multiple databases simultaneously for the scientific name of an organism.
Unmasked nuclear assembly scaffolds, Gene Catalog transcripts, EST clusters, Uncategorized nucleotide sequence data, All Models transcripts, ESTs, All Models proteins, Repeat masked nuclear assembly scaffolds, Gene Catalog proteins, ...
Cryptophyta. Kerstin Hoef-Emden and John M. Archibald Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Cryptophyta. Authored by Kerstin Hoef-Emden and John M. Archibald. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons ... Hoef-Emden K, Marin B, Melkonian M (2002) Nuclear and nucleomorph SSU rDNA phylogeny in the Cryptophyta and the evolution of ... Okamoto N, Inouye I (2005) The katablepharids are a distant sister group of the Cryptophyta: A proposal for Katablepharidophyta ...
Coccolithophores occur throughout the world ocean. Their distribution varies vertically by stratified layers in the ocean and geographically by different temporal zones.[26] While most modern coccolithophores can be located in their associated stratified oligotrophic conditions, the most abundant areas of coccolithophores where there is the highest species diversity are located in subtropical zones with a temperate climate.[27] While water temperature and the amount of light intensity entering the waters surface are the more influential factors in determining where species are located, the ocean currents also can determine the location where certain species of coccolithophores are found.[28] Although motility and colony formation vary according to the life cycle of different coccolithophore species, there is often alternation between a motile, haploid phase, and a non-motile diploid phase. In both phases, the organisms dispersal is largely due to ocean currents and circulation patterns.[16] ...
Cryptophyta, phylum Cryptophyta - a phylum in the kingdom Protoctista. kingdom - the highest taxonomic group into which ... Cryptophyta; Heterokontophyta; Rhodophyta; unicellular protists and their descendant multicellular organisms: regarded as ...
Cryptophyta; Heterokontophyta; Rhodophyta; unicellular protists and their descendant multicellular organisms: regarded as ...
Explores the ecological, medical and economic importance of major groups of protists Covers protists morphology, molecular biology, biochemistry,
The Complete Genomes Resource is a collection of genomic sequences that is a part of the Entrez Genomes, which provides curated sequence data and annotations of complete genomes to the scientific community.
Cryptophyta (skrytěnky).. Chromalveolátní hypotéza[editovat , editovat zdroj]. Cavalier-Smith v r. 2002 navrhl do příbuznosti ... Cryptophyta + Katablepharida + Centrohelida + Telonemea + Picobiliphyta). Zatímco přirozenost SAR je s vysokou věrohodností ...
The Cryptomonads (or Cryptophyta) are a phylum of algae,[1] most of which have chloroplasts. ...
OC Eukaryota; Cryptophyta; Pyrenomonadales; Geminigeraceae; Guillardia. OX NCBI_TaxID=55529; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC ...
OC Eukaryota; Cryptophyta; Cryptomonadales; Hemiselmidaceae; Hemiselmis. OX NCBI_TaxID=464988; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC ...
Cryptophyta). Headspace VOCs were concentrated in a wet trap followed by a sorbent trap, and then analyzed using GC-MS. The ...
Full text: Available Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Rotifera / Aquaculture / Cryptophyta / Animal Feed Limits: Animals ... Full text: Available Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Rotifera / Aquaculture / Cryptophyta / Animal Feed Limits: Animals ... Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta) pastes as feed for Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera). Rotifers are an important live feed for ... Pastas de Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta) como alimento para Brachionus plicatilis (Rotife Pastas de Rhodomonas salina ( ...
Protists are a heterogeneous group of living organisms, comprising those eukaryotes that are not animals, plants, or fungi. In systems of biological classification, they usually are treated as the Kingdom Protista or Protoctista. Protists are more complex than bacteria in that they have cell nuclei, but less complex than fungi, plants, and animals because they are mostly single-celled, or if multi-celled, they lack highly specialized tissues. The protists are a paraphyletic grade, rather than a natural (monophyletic) group, and do not have much in common besides a relatively simple organization. Some call it the "left-overs" from the other eukaryotic kingdoms. Protists are a vital part of the earths ecosystems and are particularly noteworthy because they make up the largest part of the plankton on which almost all life in the oceans depends. In several ways, protists reveal an astonishing harmony and unity in creation. Small, photosynthetic plankton use carbon dioxide and produce oxygen-indeed ...
Gianfranco Novarino (2002). "Phylum Cryptophyta". In D. M. John; Brian A. Whitton; Alan J. Brook (eds.). The freshwater algal ...
Phylum: Cryptophyta Classis: Cryptophyceae Ordo: Cryptomonadales Familia: Cryptomonadaceae Genus: Goniomonas Species: ...
Cryptophyta. There are none from the red or brown algae divisions (Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta). ...
Kingdom 2. Chromista (Cryptophyta + Chromophyta). *Kingdom 3. Plantae (Viridiplantae + Biliphyta). *Kingdom 4. Protista ( ...
OC Eukaryota; Cryptophyta; Pyrenomonadales; Geminigeraceae; Guillardia. OX NCBI_TaxID=905079 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EKX53561.1, ECO: ...
"Cryptophyta - the cryptomonads". Archived from the original on 2011-06-10. Retrieved 2009-06-02. Graham, L. E.; Graham, J. M.; ... Later, botanists treated them as a separate algae group, class Cryptophyceae or division Cryptophyta, while zoologists treated ... Tree of Life: Cryptomonads Phylum Cryptophyta at AlgaeBase. ...
Cryptomonads (see also Cryptophyta) apical flagella, colorless and free-swimming.. Ochromonas spp. ...
V. Cryptophyta *Ordo III. Fungi *Subordo VI. Myxomycetes [vol. 3, 1833, p. 405] *98. Lycogala ...
Cryptomonas Ehrenberg 1831 emend. Hoef-Emden et Melkonian; type species: Cryptomonas curvata Ehrenberg 1832 emend. Hoef-Emden et Melkonian (hic designatus); synonyms: Chilomonas Ehrenberg 1831, (typus: Chilomonas paramecium Ehrenberg 1832), Pseudocryptomonas Bicudo et Tell 1988 (typus: Pseudocryptomonas americana Bicudo et Tell 1988), Campylomonas Hill 1991 (typus: Campylomonas reflexa (Skuja) Hill 1991) [Hoef-Emden & Melkonian 2003: 391]. - (8 Jul 2010) - Wendy Guiry. Description: Free swimming, generally obovoid, biflagellate monads that often form thickly mucilaginous, palmelloid colonies; a longitudinal furrow extends posteriorly from the vestibulum and transforms into a sack-like gullet lined with many rows of ejectisomes; two chloroplasts, pyrenoids and nucleomorphs, the chloroplasts contain the phycobiliprotein, Cr-phycoerythrin 566, and vary in color from olive-brown to brown and yellow in older cells; periplast with an inner layer of plates and a superficial layer of fine fibrillar ...
Phylum Cryptophyta. Class Cryptophyceae. Order Pyrenomonadales. Family Pyrenomonadaceae. Genus Rhodomonas. *References. *Submit ...
respectively members of the Cryptophyta. chlorarachniophytes and euglenophytes appear far less diversified (less than 2% for ...
The clone library approach showed dominance of Bacillariophyta-like sequences, in addition to Cryptophyta-, Haptophyta-, ... and other members belonging to Cryptophyta (see Figure ). Two sequences namely Stn2_Apr10_clone1 and Stn2_Apr10_clone8 ... Cryptophyta, although unidentified, were reported for the first time from Chemaguri creek system (Stn2). Identification of ... We have also recorded the presence of an unidentified member of Cryptophyta in water samples collected during summer of 2011 ( ...
Cryptophyta is also a valid synonym of Cryptomonada. [details]. Classification for Discomitochondria ...
Phylogenetic tree for small-subunit rRNA gene sequences covering the diversity of Chlorophyceae, Cryptophyta, and Cercozoa. ...
Cryptophyta (Phylum). *Cryptophyceae (Class). *Pyrenomonadales (Order). *Chroomonadaceae (Family). *Hemiselmis (Genus). * ...
  • Later, botanists treated them as a separate algae group, class Cryptophyceae or division Cryptophyta, while zoologists treated them as the flagellate protozoa order Cryptomonadina. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cryptomonads (or Cryptophyta ) are a phylum of algae , [1] most of which have chloroplasts . (wikipedia.org)
  • Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. (statemaster.com)
  • Sice se původně zdálo, že je tvořena dvěma liniemi, dodnes v některých systémech udržovaných jako podříše, a sice SAR (Stramenopiles + Alveolata + Rhizaria) a Hacrobia (Haptophyta + Cryptophyta + Katablepharida + Centrohelida + Telonemea + Picobiliphyta). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromalveolates, which represent the association of chromists (Stramenopiles, Haptophyta and Cryptophyta) and the Alveolata (Apicomplexa, Perkinsidae, Dinophyta and Ciliata), unite an extremely diverse array of protists. (els.net)
  • The Canadian Encyclopedia https://thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/algae/ (accessed August 14, 2018). (thecanadianencyclopedia.com)
  • We did not mention Phyla like Cryptophyta, Chrysophyta or Xanthophyta since they are difficult to keep apart. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • Several recent studies have concluded that Haptophyta and Cryptophyta do not form a monophyletic group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptophyta division was represented by Cryptomonas ovata and Dinophyta division Gymnodinium sp. (trjfas.org)
  • Hoef-Emden K, Marin B, Melkonian M (2002) Nuclear and nucleomorph SSU rDNA phylogeny in the Cryptophyta and the evolution of cryptophyte diversity. (tolweb.org)
  • Rhodomonas salina ( Cryptophyta ) pastes as feed for Brachionus plicatilis ( Rotifera ). (bvsalud.org)
  • The clone library approach showed dominance of Bacillariophyta-like sequences, in addition to Cryptophyta-, Haptophyta-, Pelagophyta-, and Eustigmatophyta-like sequences which were detected for the first time highlighting their importance in mangrove ecosystem. (hindawi.com)
  • Phylogenetic tree for small-subunit rRNA gene sequences covering the diversity of Chlorophyceae, Cryptophyta, and Cercozoa. (asm.org)
  • Marin B, Klingberg M, Melkonian M (1998) Phylogenetic relationships among the Cryptophyta: analyses of nuclear-encoded SSU rRNA sequences support the monophyly of extant plastid-containing lineages. (tolweb.org)
  • Overall 14 classes of photosynthetic eukaryotes were present in our samples with the following dominating: Bacillariophyta (diatoms), Pelagophyceae and Dictyochophyceae for division Ochrophyta, Mamiellophyceae and Pyramimonadophyceae for division Chlorophyta, Haptophyta and Cryptophyta. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • 2018. Cryptophyta as major freshwater bacterivores in experiments with manipulated bacterial prey . (jcu.cz)