Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
An interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, occurring between 21-80 years of age. It is characterized by a dramatic onset of a "pneumonia-like" illness with cough, fever, malaise, fatigue, and weight loss. Pathological features include prominent interstitial inflammation without collagen fibrosis, diffuse fibroblastic foci, and no microscopic honeycomb change. There is excessive proliferation of granulation tissue within small airways and alveolar ducts.
A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.
Pneumonia caused by infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS, usually with STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.
Serious INFLAMMATION of the LUNG in patients who required the use of PULMONARY VENTILATOR. It is usually caused by cross bacterial infections in hospitals (NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS).
A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.
Pneumonia due to aspiration or inhalation of various oily or fatty substances.
A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A group of interstitial lung diseases with no known etiology. There are several entities with varying patterns of inflammation and fibrosis. They are classified by their distinct clinical-radiological-pathological features and prognosis. They include IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY FIBROSIS; CRYPTOGENIC ORGANIZING PNEUMONIA; and others.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A species of the genus PNEUMOVIRUS causing pneumonia in mice.
A species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting humans and causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA. It also occasionally causes extrapulmonary disease in immunocompromised patients. Its former name was Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis.
A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.
An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with BRONCHITIS, usually involving lobular areas from TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES to the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. The affected areas become filled with exudate that forms consolidated patches.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Chronic respiratory disease caused by the VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS. It was formerly believed to be identical with jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE) but is now recognized as a separate entity.
Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.
Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
A chronic, clinically mild, infectious pneumonia of PIGS caused by MYCOPLASMA HYOPNEUMONIAE. Ninety percent of swine herds worldwide are infected with this economically costly disease that primarily affects animals aged two to six months old. The disease can be associated with porcine respiratory disease complex. PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA is often found as a secondary infection.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
The prototype species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus (RATS). It was formerly called Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii. Other species of Pneumocystis can also infect rats.
Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Child hospitalized for short term care.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.
Pneumonia caused by infections with the genus CHLAMYDIA; and CHLAMYDOPHILA, usually with CHLAMYDOPHILA PNEUMONIAE.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Infections with viruses of the genus PNEUMOVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTIONS, an important cause of respiratory disease in humans.
Infections with species in the genus PNEUMOCYSTIS, a fungus causing interstitial plasma cell pneumonia (PNEUMONIA, PNEUMOCYSTIS) and other infections in humans and other MAMMALS. Immunocompromised patients, especially those with AIDS, are particularly susceptible to these infections. Extrapulmonary sites are rare but seen occasionally.
Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the lung parenchyma as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.
A common interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, usually occurring between 50-70 years of age. Clinically, it is characterized by an insidious onset of breathlessness with exertion and a nonproductive cough, leading to progressive DYSPNEA. Pathological features show scant interstitial inflammation, patchy collagen fibrosis, prominent fibroblast proliferation foci, and microscopic honeycomb change.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Pneumonia caused by infection with bacteria of the family RICKETTSIACEAE.
A mental state characterized by bewilderment, emotional disturbance, lack of clear thinking, and perceptual disorientation.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.
Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.
A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.
A renal dehydropeptidase-I and leukotriene D4 dipeptidase inhibitor. Since the antibiotic, IMIPENEM, is hydrolyzed by dehydropeptidase-I, which resides in the brush border of the renal tubule, cilastatin is administered with imipenem to increase its effectiveness. The drug also inhibits the metabolism of leukotriene D4 to leukotriene E4.
Adrenal cortex hormones are steroid hormones produced by the adrenal gland's outer layer, responsible for regulating various bodily functions such as metabolism, immune response, and electrolyte balance.
A cattle disease of uncertain cause, probably an allergic reaction.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Infections with viruses of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes MORBILLIVIRUS INFECTIONS; RESPIROVIRUS INFECTIONS; PNEUMOVIRUS INFECTIONS; HENIPAVIRUS INFECTIONS; AVULAVIRUS INFECTIONS; and RUBULAVIRUS INFECTIONS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally commensal in the flora of CATTLE and SHEEP. But under conditions of physical or PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS, it can cause MASTITIS in sheep and SHIPPING FEVER or ENZOOTIC CALF PNEUMONIA in cattle. Its former name was Pasteurella haemolytica.
Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.
Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.
A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A species of gram-negative bacteria causing MASTITIS; ARTHRITIS; and RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES in CATTLE.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Infections with bacteria of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
Tracheitis is an inflammation of the trachea, the tube that carries air to and from the lungs.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.
A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
Postmortem examination of the body.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A species of RHODOCOCCUS found in soil, herbivore dung, and in the intestinal tract of cows, horses, sheep, and pigs. It causes bronchopneumonia in foals and can be responsible for infection in humans compromised by immunosuppressive drug therapy, lymphoma, or AIDS.
The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
An acronym for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, a scoring system using routinely collected data and providing an accurate, objective description for a broad range of intensive care unit admissions, measuring severity of illness in critically ill patients.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Non-fatal immersion or submersion in water. The subject is resuscitable.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Inhaling liquid or solids, such as stomach contents, into the RESPIRATORY TRACT. When this causes severe lung damage, it is called ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that causes MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIA OF SWINE. The organism damages the CILIA in the airways of the pig, and thus compromises one of the most effective mechanical barriers against invading pathogens. The resulting weakening of the IMMUNE SYSTEM can encourage secondary infections, leading to porcine respiratory disease complex.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.
Chronic endemic respiratory disease of dairy calves and an important component of bovine respiratory disease complex. It primarily affects calves up to six months of age and the etiology is multifactorial. Stress plus a primary viral infection is followed by a secondary bacterial infection. The latter is most commonly associated with PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA producing a purulent BRONCHOPNEUMONIA. Sometimes present are MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA; HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS and mycoplasma species.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.
Pore forming proteins originally discovered for toxic activity to LEUKOCYTES. They are EXOTOXINS produced by some pathogenic STAPHYLOCOCCUS and STREPTOCOCCUS that destroy leukocytes by lysis of the cytoplasmic granules and are partially responsible for the pathogenicity of the organisms.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
A species of sheep, Ovis canadensis, characterized by massive brown horns. There are at least four subspecies and they are all endangered or threatened.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.
Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
Infection with CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI (formerly Chlamydia psittaci), transmitted to humans by inhalation of dust-borne contaminated nasal secretions or excreta of infected BIRDS. This infection results in a febrile illness characterized by PNEUMONITIS and systemic manifestations.
Suppurative inflammation of the pleural space.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.
The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.
Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.
The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
Act of listening for sounds within the body.

Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia associated with polymyalgia rheumatica. (1/127)

The association of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) with polymyalgia rheumatica is rare, and only one case has previously been described. This study reports on the case of an 80 yr-old male who presented with malaise, nonproductive cough and exertional dyspnoea for several weeks, along with a history of bilateral shoulder and pelvic girdle pain of several months' duration. The chest radiograph revealed a pneumonic infiltrate in the right lower lobe, which was unresponsive to antibiotics. Bronchoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage and a transbronchial lung biopsy established the diagnosis of BOOP. The patient improved consistently on steroids. As in other connective diseases, organizing pneumonia may be one of the early manifestations of polymyalgia rheumatica.  (+info)

Pneumothorax complicating fatal bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. (2/127)

Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) is an uncommon pulmonary disorder, the clinical spectrum of which is variable. We present a fatal case of BOOP, which developed spontaneous pneumothorax, a complication considered rare. Unusual was also the upper lobe distribution of the infiltrates. The histologically diagnosed disease failed to respond to antibiotics and corticosteroids and the 74-year-old patient eventually succumbed with acute respiratory distress syndrome, 50 days after disease onset. Spontaneous pneumothorax should be added to the complications of BOOP, which may adversely affect prognosis.  (+info)

T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with pulmonary involvement and relapsing BOOP. (3/127)

We report on a case of T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia involving the lung, with clinical, radiological and histological evidence of relapsing bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia in a 70-yr-old female. Pulmonary disease was the major clinical manifestation of this chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The first two episodes of the patient's pulmonary disorder resolved without treatment, and the third episode was treated with cytotoxic agents as part of the leukaemia treatment regimen. Two additional episodes of the pulmonary disorder occurred; both responded to prednisone.  (+info)

Myofibroblasts and S-100 protein positive cells in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial pneumonia. (4/127)

The aim of this study was to investigate whether idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) can be distinguished from rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated interstitial pneumonia (RA-IP) by means of quantitatively assessing myofibroblasts and S-100 protein positive dendritic cells. Seven patients with IPF and twelve with RA, in whom the pathological findings were consistent with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) were studied. Antibodies to vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and S-100 protein were used for immunohistochemical studies performed using the streptavidin/biotin/peroxidase complex method, applied to dewaxed sections from each case. In fibrosis of RA-IP, appearance of both vimentin- and alpha-SMA-positive cells, namely myofibroblasts, was widely observed, together with the pathological patterns of honeycombing, UIP and bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia (BOOP). Fibrosis, in cases of chronic IPF, was found to be characterized mainly by vimentin-positive but alpha-SMA-negative fibroblasts. Pulmonary tissues from RA-IP patients especially when associated with a BOOP pattern, contained many cells positive for S-100 protein. However, such cells were generally hard to find in cases of IPF. These findings suggests that idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial pneumonia can be differentiated from each other, to some extent, based on the appearance of myofibroblasts and the presence of S-100-positive dendritic cells.  (+info)

B7-1, B7-2 and class II MHC molecules in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia. (5/127)

Interstitial lung diseases are thought to be associated with the infiltration of activated T-lymphocytes. To induce an effective immune response, antigen-presenting cells have to not only present antigenic peptide with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules to T-lymphocytes but also express B7 molecules. Therefore, the expression of B7-1, B7-2 and class II MHC molecules was investigated in lung tissues from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia (BOOP), and in normal lung parenchyma as a control, using immunohistochemical localization. B7-1 and B7-2 were aberrantly expressed in bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells, and class II MHC molecules were also aberrantly expressed in bronchiolar epithelial cells in IPF. B7-1 was aberrantly expressed in bronchiolar epithelial cells in BOOP. There was no significant difference in the expression of these proteins in alveolar macrophages between IPF and control subjects. However, B7-2 and class II MHC molecule expression in alveolar macrophages was decreased in BOOP compared with that in control subjects. Expression of CD28 and CTLA4, receptors for B7 molecules, was detected in infiltrating lymphocytes in lung tissues in IPF and BOOP. It was concluded that bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells may actively participate in the pathophysiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis through the aberrant expression of B7 and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules. The dysregulation of these molecules in epithelial cells may lead to the activation of autoreactive T-lymphocytes, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of fibrosing lung diseases.  (+info)

Bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia associated with the use of nitrofurantoin. (6/127)

The spectrum of nitrofurantoin lung injury continues to widen. The case histories are presented of two patients who developed lung disease associated with the use of nitrofurantoin with histological features of bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia (BOOP), a rare but recognised form of drug induced injury. The two middle aged women presented with respiratory symptoms after prolonged treatment with nitrofurantoin. Both had impaired lung function and abnormal computed tomographic scans, and their condition improved when nitrofurantoin was withdrawn and corticosteroid treatment commenced. The favourable outcome in these two patients contrasts with the fatal outcome of the two other reported cases of nitrofurantoin induced BOOP. We suggest that the previous classification of nitrofurantoin induced lung injury into "acute" and "chronic" injury is an oversimplification in view of the wide variety of pathological entities that have subsequently emerged.  (+info)

Air leak syndrome as one of the manifestations of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. (7/127)

A 46-year-old man developed respiratory distress with air leak syndrome (ALS), including pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and subcutaneous emphysema. Open lung biopsy was performed and revealed the histopathologic evidence of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP), which responded well to steroid treatment. As far as we know, this appears to be the first case of BOOP presenting with ALS as one of its major complications.  (+info)

Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia: a distinct pulmonary complication in cystic fibrosis. (8/127)

Organizing pneumonia in cystic fibrosis has hitherto been considered a nonspecific reparative process. We report on an adult patient with cystic fibrosis and histologically proven bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, who experienced sustained clinical improvement under corticosteroid therapy. This case suggests that bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia may be a distinct pulmonary complication in cystic fibrosis and improve with specific therapy.  (+info)

Pneumonia is a respiratory infection that affects the lungs. It is caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, and can be acute or chronic. Symptoms of pneumonia include cough, fever, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and fatigue. Pneumonia can be treated with antibiotics, antiviral medication, or antifungal medication, depending on the cause of the infection. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Pneumonia, bacterial is a type of pneumonia caused by bacteria. It is an infection that affects the lungs and can cause symptoms such as cough, fever, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. Bacterial pneumonia is usually more serious than viral pneumonia and can be life-threatening if left untreated. It is typically treated with antibiotics, which can help to kill the bacteria causing the infection and relieve symptoms. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for severe cases of bacterial pneumonia.

Viral pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by a viral infection. It is a common respiratory illness that can affect people of all ages, but it is most common in children and older adults. The symptoms of viral pneumonia can include fever, cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue, and body aches. Viral pneumonia is usually self-limiting, meaning that it will resolve on its own within a few days to a week without any specific treatment. However, in some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage severe symptoms or complications. There are many different viruses that can cause viral pneumonia, including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and adenovirus.

Pneumonia, Pneumococcal is a type of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. It is a common respiratory infection that can affect people of all ages, but it is most common in children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. The symptoms of pneumococcal pneumonia can include fever, cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and fatigue. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as sepsis, meningitis, and pneumonia-related death. Pneumococcal pneumonia can be treated with antibiotics, but it is important to seek medical attention promptly if you suspect you or someone you know may have this infection. Vaccines are also available to prevent pneumococcal pneumonia, and they are recommended for certain high-risk groups such as children, older adults, and people with certain medical conditions.

Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia (COP) is a type of lung disease characterized by the formation of granulation tissue in the lungs, which can lead to the development of small, round opacities on chest X-rays or CT scans. The term "cryptogenic" refers to the fact that the cause of the disease is unknown or unexplained. COP is typically diagnosed based on a combination of clinical symptoms, imaging studies, and a ruling out of other possible causes of the lung disease. Symptoms of COP may include cough, fever, and shortness of breath, and the disease can affect people of all ages and both genders. Treatment for COP typically involves the use of corticosteroids, which can help reduce inflammation and improve lung function. In some cases, other medications or therapies may also be used to manage symptoms or address underlying causes of the disease. While COP can be a serious condition, it is generally treatable and most people with the disease are able to recover fully with appropriate treatment.

Pneumonia, Pneumocystis is a type of pneumonia caused by the Pneumocystis jirovecii fungus. It is a common infection in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, organ transplant recipients, and patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The symptoms of Pneumocystis pneumonia can include fever, cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, and fatigue. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure and death if left untreated. Diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia typically involves a combination of chest X-rays, blood tests, and microscopic examination of sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment typically involves the use of antifungal medications, such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or pentamidine.

Pneumonia, Staphylococcal is a type of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. It is a serious infection that can affect people of all ages, but it is more common in older adults, infants, and people with weakened immune systems. Staphylococcus aureus is a common bacteria that can be found on the skin and in the nose of healthy people. However, when it enters the lungs, it can cause an infection that can be difficult to treat. Symptoms of Staphylococcal pneumonia may include fever, cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and fatigue. In severe cases, the infection can spread to other parts of the body, such as the bloodstream or the brain, which can be life-threatening. Treatment for Staphylococcal pneumonia typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care, such as oxygen therapy or intravenous fluids. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have Staphylococcal pneumonia, as prompt treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Pneumonia, ventilator-associated (VAP) is a type of pneumonia that develops in patients who are on a ventilator to help them breathe. It is caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi that enter the lungs through the ventilator tube or the patient's mouth or nose. VAP is a serious condition that can be difficult to treat and can lead to complications such as sepsis, respiratory failure, and death. It is important for healthcare providers to take steps to prevent VAP, such as using antibiotics to prevent infections and cleaning the ventilator tubing regularly.

Pneumonia, aspiration is a type of pneumonia that occurs when bacteria, viruses, or other foreign substances are inhaled into the lungs and cause an infection. Aspiration pneumonia occurs when a person inhales food, liquid, or other substances into their lungs, which can lead to the growth of bacteria or other microorganisms in the lungs. This can cause inflammation and damage to the lung tissue, leading to symptoms such as coughing, fever, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. Aspiration pneumonia is more common in people who have difficulty swallowing or who have conditions that affect their ability to protect their airway, such as stroke or dementia. Treatment for aspiration pneumonia typically involves antibiotics to treat the infection and supportive care to help the person breathe more easily.

Community-acquired infections (CAIs) are infections that are acquired by an individual in the community, rather than in a healthcare setting. These infections can be caused by a variety of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. CAIs can be transmitted through various means, such as person-to-person contact, contaminated food or water, or contact with contaminated surfaces. Examples of CAIs include the common cold, influenza, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections. These infections can be treated with antibiotics, antiviral medications, or antifungal medications, depending on the specific cause of the infection. It is important to note that CAIs can be serious and can lead to hospitalization or even death, particularly in vulnerable populations such as the elderly, young children, and people with weakened immune systems.

Pneumonia, Mycoplasma is a type of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae. It is a common respiratory infection that affects the lungs and can cause symptoms such as cough, fever, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a small, non-acid-fast bacterium that is difficult to culture and can be difficult to diagnose. It is typically spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Treatment for Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia usually involves antibiotics, although some cases may not respond to treatment. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Pneumonia, lipid is a type of pneumonia that is caused by the accumulation of lipids (fats) in the lungs. It is a rare condition that can occur in people with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, liver disease, or kidney disease. The accumulation of lipids in the lungs can lead to the formation of small air sacs, called alveoli, which can become inflamed and filled with fluid. This can make it difficult for the lungs to function properly and can cause symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Treatment for pneumonia, lipid typically involves the use of antibiotics to treat the underlying infection and medications to help reduce inflammation and improve lung function. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are a group of disorders that affect the lungs' interstitium, which is the tissue that lies between the air sacs (alveoli) and the walls of the blood vessels. The interstitium is responsible for providing structural support to the lungs and facilitating gas exchange. ILDs can be classified into several categories based on their underlying cause, such as autoimmune disorders, environmental exposures, genetic disorders, infections, and connective tissue diseases. Some common examples of ILDs include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The symptoms of ILDs can vary depending on the specific disease and the severity of the condition. Common symptoms include shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, and chest pain. In some cases, ILDs can progress to a point where breathing becomes difficult, and oxygen therapy may be required. Treatment for ILDs depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, medications may be used to manage symptoms or slow the progression of the disease. In more severe cases, lung transplantation may be considered as a treatment option.

Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias (IIPs) are a group of chronic lung diseases characterized by inflammation and scarring in the interstitium, which is the tissue that separates the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. The term "idiopathic" means that the cause of the disease is unknown or not yet understood. IIPs are a diverse group of conditions that can have similar symptoms and imaging findings, but they have different underlying pathologies and responses to treatment. Some of the most common types of IIPs include: * Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) * Non-IPF Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias (NIIPs) * Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia (COP) * Desquamative Interstitial Pneumonia (DIP) * Acute Interstitial Pneumonia (AIP) * Lymphoid Interstitial Pneumonia (LIP) * Bronchiolitis Obliterans with Organizing Pneumonia (BOOP) IIPs can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as the underlying cause is often unknown. Treatment typically involves managing symptoms and slowing the progression of the disease through medications, oxygen therapy, and in some cases, lung transplantation.

Legionnaires' disease is a severe form of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. It is a type of atypical pneumonia, meaning that it is not caused by the typical bacteria that cause pneumonia, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae or Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The disease is typically spread through the air when people breathe in small water droplets that contain the bacteria. Legionella bacteria are commonly found in natural water sources, such as lakes and rivers, but they can also grow in man-made water systems, such as air conditioning systems, hot tubs, and cooling towers. Symptoms of Legionnaires' disease can include fever, chills, cough, shortness of breath, muscle aches, headache, nausea, and diarrhea. In severe cases, the disease can lead to pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease is typically made through a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory testing, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics to kill the bacteria causing the infection. Prevention of Legionnaires' disease involves proper maintenance and cleaning of water systems to prevent the growth and spread of the bacteria.

Cross infection is the transmission of an infectious agent from one person or animal to another through direct or indirect contact with contaminated objects, surfaces, or bodily fluids. It can occur in a variety of settings, including hospitals, schools, homes, and workplaces. Cross infection can be prevented through proper hygiene practices such as hand washing, using personal protective equipment (PPE), and disinfecting surfaces. It is also important to follow proper infection control procedures, such as isolation of infected individuals and proper disposal of contaminated materials. In the medical field, cross infection is a serious concern as it can lead to the spread of nosocomial infections, which are infections acquired in a healthcare setting. These infections can be particularly dangerous for patients with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. Therefore, healthcare workers are trained to follow strict infection control protocols to prevent the spread of cross infection.

Pulmonary eosinophilia is a condition characterized by an increased number of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, in the lungs. Eosinophils are a type of immune cell that play a role in fighting off parasitic infections and allergies. In pulmonary eosinophilia, the increased number of eosinophils can lead to inflammation and damage to the lungs, causing symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Pulmonary eosinophilia can be caused by a variety of factors, including allergies, parasitic infections, and certain medications. It is often diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as chest X-rays or CT scans. Treatment for pulmonary eosinophilia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms, as well as measures to address any underlying allergies or infections.

Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination is a medication that contains two antibiotics: trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. It is commonly used to treat bacterial infections such as urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, and skin infections. The combination of these two antibiotics provides a broad spectrum of coverage against a variety of bacteria. Trimethoprim inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase, while sulfamethoxazole inhibits bacterial dihydropteroate synthase, both of which are essential for bacterial growth and replication. The medication is usually taken orally in tablet form and is generally well-tolerated, although it may cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions.

Bronchopneumonia is a type of pneumonia that affects both the bronchial tubes and the lungs. It is caused by an infection that starts in the bronchial tubes and then spreads to the alveoli, which are the tiny air sacs in the lungs where gas exchange occurs. Bronchopneumonia is typically caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, and can be either acute or chronic. Symptoms of bronchopneumonia may include coughing, fever, chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, and difficulty breathing. Treatment for bronchopneumonia depends on the underlying cause of the infection. Antibiotics may be prescribed if the infection is caused by bacteria, while antiviral or antifungal medications may be used if the infection is caused by viruses or fungi. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary for intravenous antibiotics and oxygen therapy. Prevention of bronchopneumonia involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently and avoiding close contact with people who are sick. Vaccines are also available to prevent certain types of pneumonia, such as the pneumococcal vaccine.

Pneumonia, Progressive Interstitial, of Sheep is a type of respiratory disease that affects sheep. It is characterized by the progressive destruction of the interstitial tissue of the lungs, leading to the formation of fibrous tissue and the accumulation of fluid in the lungs. This can result in difficulty breathing, weight loss, and a decrease in milk production in affected sheep. The disease is caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial and viral infections, and can be transmitted from one sheep to another through the air or by direct contact. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics or antiviral medications to control the infection, as well as supportive care to manage the symptoms of the disease.

Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal is a type of respiratory disease in pigs caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. It is a common and economically important disease in pig farming, affecting pigs of all ages and causing significant losses in productivity and animal welfare. The disease is characterized by chronic respiratory symptoms such as coughing, sneezing, and difficulty breathing. The lungs of affected pigs may become inflamed and filled with fluid, leading to reduced oxygen exchange and impaired growth and weight gain. In severe cases, the disease can lead to pneumonia, which can be fatal. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is transmitted through direct contact between pigs, as well as through contaminated equipment and surfaces. The disease can be difficult to control, as it is not easily eradicated from infected farms and can persist in the environment for long periods of time. Treatment of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in pigs typically involves the use of antibiotics, although these may not always be effective in eradicating the infection. Prevention measures include good hygiene and biosecurity practices, as well as vaccination of pigs against the disease.

Pseudomonas infections are bacterial infections caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in soil, water, and on the surfaces of plants and animals. It can cause a wide range of infections in humans, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and bloodstream infections. Pseudomonas infections are particularly common in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with cystic fibrosis, cancer, or HIV/AIDS. They can also occur in people who have had recent surgery or who are being treated with antibiotics, which can disrupt the normal balance of bacteria in the body and allow Pseudomonas to grow and cause an infection. Pseudomonas infections can be difficult to treat because Pseudomonas is often resistant to antibiotics. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and supportive care, such as fluids and oxygen therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Pneumococcal vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as pneumococcus. Pneumococcus is a common cause of pneumonia, meningitis, and other serious infections, particularly in young children, older adults, and people with certain medical conditions. There are currently two types of pneumococcal vaccines available: pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV). PCV is recommended for infants and young children, while PPSV is recommended for older adults and people with certain medical conditions. Pneumococcal vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can recognize and fight off pneumococcal bacteria. This can help prevent the bacteria from causing infections, or can help the body respond more effectively if it does become infected. It is important to note that while pneumococcal vaccines are highly effective at preventing serious infections, they are not 100% effective. Additionally, some strains of pneumococcus may not be covered by the vaccines, so it is still possible to get infected even if you have been vaccinated.

Empyema is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity, which is the space between the lungs and the chest wall. The condition is typically caused by an infection, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis, that spreads to the pleural space and causes inflammation and fluid buildup. Empyema can be classified as either primary or secondary. Primary empyema occurs when the infection originates in the pleural space, while secondary empyema occurs when the infection spreads from another part of the body, such as the lungs or the bloodstream, to the pleural space. Symptoms of empyema may include chest pain, fever, cough, and difficulty breathing. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as drainage of the fluid from the pleural space. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the infected tissue or drain the fluid.,empyema,、。

Influenza, Human, also known as the flu, is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus. It can cause mild to severe illness, and in some cases, can lead to death. The virus is transmitted through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or by touching a surface contaminated with the virus and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. Symptoms of the flu can include fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills, and fatigue. In severe cases, the flu can lead to pneumonia, which can be life-threatening. The flu is preventable through vaccination, and antiviral medications can be used to treat the illness.

Pneumococcal infections are a group of illnesses caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. These infections can affect various parts of the body, including the lungs, sinuses, ears, bloodstream, and brain. The most common type of pneumococcal infection is pneumonia, which is an inflammation of the lungs caused by bacteria. Other types of pneumococcal infections include meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord), otitis media (middle ear infection), sinusitis (sinus infection), and bacteremia (presence of bacteria in the bloodstream). Pneumococcal infections can be serious, especially in people with weakened immune systems, such as young children, older adults, and people with chronic medical conditions. Vaccines are available to prevent some types of pneumococcal infections, and antibiotics are used to treat them.

Pentamidine is an antiprotozoal medication that is used to treat a variety of parasitic infections, including African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), leishmaniasis, and pneumocystis pneumonia. It works by interfering with the ability of the parasites to synthesize proteins, which is essential for their survival. Pentamidine is typically administered intravenously or intramuscularly, and the dosage and duration of treatment depend on the specific infection being treated. It can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, headache, and dizziness, and may also cause more serious side effects such as kidney damage, low blood pressure, and allergic reactions. Pentamidine is not effective against all types of parasitic infections, and its use is generally reserved for cases where other treatments are not available or have failed. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when using pentamidine, as the medication can be toxic if not used properly.

Chlamydial pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae. It is a common respiratory infection that can affect people of all ages, but it is most common in children and young adults. The symptoms of chlamydial pneumonia can include fever, cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. In some cases, the infection can also cause conjunctivitis (inflammation of the eye). Chlamydial pneumonia is usually treated with antibiotics, and it is important to complete the full course of treatment to prevent the infection from recurring. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Bacteremia is a medical condition in which bacteria are present in the bloodstream. It is a serious condition that can lead to sepsis, a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body's response to an infection causes widespread inflammation and organ damage. Bacteremia can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. It can be diagnosed through blood cultures, which involve taking a sample of blood and growing the bacteria in a laboratory to confirm the presence of the bacteria. Treatment for bacteremia typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria and manage the symptoms of the infection.

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections (AROIs) are infections that occur when the immune system is weakened due to HIV/AIDS. The immune system is responsible for fighting off infections and diseases, but when it is weakened, it is unable to effectively fight off these infections. As a result, people with HIV/AIDS are more susceptible to a variety of infections that would not normally cause illness in people with a healthy immune system. These infections are called opportunistic infections because they take advantage of the weakened immune system to cause illness. Some common AROIs include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and yeast infections. Treatment for AROIs typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART) to control the HIV infection and medications to treat the specific infection.

Pneumonic pasteurellosis is a type of bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida. It is primarily a disease of animals, such as cattle, sheep, and pigs, but it can also affect humans, particularly those who work with or around animals. The infection typically affects the lungs and can cause symptoms such as fever, cough, shortness of breath, and chest pain. In severe cases, it can lead to pneumonia, which is an infection of the lungs. Pneumonic pasteurellosis is usually treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin or tetracycline. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for more severe cases. Prevention of pneumonic pasteurellosis involves proper hygiene and biosecurity measures, such as avoiding contact with sick animals and wearing protective clothing when working with animals. Vaccination of animals can also help prevent the spread of the disease.

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are a group of infections that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat, sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. RTIs can be caused by a variety of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms. Common symptoms of RTIs include coughing, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, fever, and difficulty breathing. RTIs can range from mild to severe and can affect people of all ages, although young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to severe infections. Treatment for RTIs depends on the specific cause and severity of the infection, and may include medications, rest, and fluids. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic lung disease characterized by the scarring and thickening of the lung tissue, which can lead to difficulty breathing and a reduced ability to transfer oxygen from the lungs to the bloodstream. This scarring, or fibrosis, is caused by damage to the lungs, which can be the result of a variety of factors, including exposure to environmental pollutants, certain medications, infections, and autoimmune diseases. Pulmonary fibrosis can be a progressive disease, meaning that the scarring and thickening of the lung tissue can worsen over time, leading to more severe symptoms and a reduced quality of life. Treatment for pulmonary fibrosis typically involves managing symptoms and slowing the progression of the disease, but there is currently no cure.

Klebsiella infections are bacterial infections caused by the Klebsiella species of bacteria. These bacteria are commonly found in the environment and on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Klebsiella infections can occur in a variety of settings, including hospitals, long-term care facilities, and the community. Klebsiella infections can affect different parts of the body, including the lungs, urinary tract, bloodstream, and skin. They can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the infection. Symptoms may include fever, chills, cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Klebsiella infections can be treated with antibiotics, although some strains of the bacteria have become resistant to certain antibiotics, making treatment more difficult. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and properly cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, as well as appropriate use of antibiotics.

Haemophilus infections are a group of bacterial infections caused by the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae. These infections can affect various parts of the body, including the respiratory tract, joints, and bloodstream. Haemophilus influenzae is a common cause of respiratory tract infections, such as bronchitis and pneumonia, particularly in children. It can also cause ear infections, meningitis, and sepsis. There are two main types of Haemophilus influenzae: type b (Hib) and non-type b (NTHi). Hib is the most serious type and can cause severe infections, including meningitis and sepsis, particularly in young children. NTHi is less serious but can still cause respiratory tract infections and other illnesses. Haemophilus infections are typically treated with antibiotics, such as amoxicillin or ceftriaxone. Vaccines are available to prevent Hib infections, but not NTHi infections. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone you know may have a Haemophilus infection, as prompt treatment is crucial for a successful outcome.

Opportunistic infections (OIs) are infections that occur when a person's immune system is weakened or compromised, making them more susceptible to infections caused by normally harmless microorganisms. These infections can occur in people with weakened immune systems due to a variety of factors, including HIV/AIDS, cancer, organ transplantation, and certain medications. Opportunistic infections can affect any part of the body and can range from mild to life-threatening. Some common examples of opportunistic infections include pneumonia caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and candidiasis caused by the yeast Candida albicans. The treatment of opportunistic infections depends on the specific infection and the underlying cause of the weakened immune system. In many cases, antifungal, antiviral, or antibiotic medications are used to treat the infection. In some cases, the underlying cause of the weakened immune system may need to be addressed in order to prevent further infections.

In the medical field, an acute disease is a condition that develops suddenly and progresses rapidly over a short period of time. Acute diseases are typically characterized by severe symptoms and a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Examples of acute diseases include pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and heart attacks. These diseases require prompt medical attention and treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes. In contrast, chronic diseases are long-term conditions that develop gradually over time and may persist for years or even decades.

Lung diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the lungs and their ability to function properly. These conditions can be acute or chronic, and can range from mild to severe. Some common examples of lung diseases include: 1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A group of lung diseases that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, characterized by difficulty breathing and shortness of breath. 2. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that causes wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. 3. Pulmonary Fibrosis: A progressive lung disease that causes scarring and thickening of the lung tissue, making it difficult to breathe. 4. Tuberculosis: A bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs, causing coughing, fever, and weight loss. 5. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, and can cause fever, cough, and difficulty breathing. 6. Emphysema: A lung disease that causes damage to the air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. 7. Interstitial Lung Disease: A group of lung diseases that affect the tissue between the air sacs in the lungs, causing difficulty breathing and shortness of breath. 8. Lung Cancer: A type of cancer that starts in the lungs and can spread to other parts of the body. These are just a few examples of the many different types of lung diseases that can affect people. Treatment for lung diseases depends on the specific condition and can include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.

Pneumovirus infections are a type of respiratory infection caused by viruses belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae. These viruses are responsible for a range of respiratory illnesses, including the common cold, croup, and pneumonia. Pneumovirus infections can affect people of all ages, but they are most common in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Symptoms of pneumovirus infections can include coughing, fever, difficulty breathing, and chest pain. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as rest, fluids, and over-the-counter medications to relieve symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary. Vaccines are available to prevent some types of pneumovirus infections.

Pneumocystis infections are a group of respiratory infections caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii. These infections are most commonly seen in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, organ transplant recipients, and patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Pneumocystis infections can range from mild to severe and can cause symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, fever, and fatigue. In severe cases, the infection can lead to pneumonia, which can be life-threatening. Diagnosis of Pneumocystis infections typically involves a combination of clinical symptoms, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. Treatment typically involves the use of antifungal medications, such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or pentamidine. Pneumocystis infections are a significant public health concern, particularly in populations with weakened immune systems. Efforts to prevent the spread of the fungus include vaccination, infection control measures, and the use of antifungal prophylaxis in high-risk populations.

A lung abscess is a collection of pus that forms in the lung tissue. It is typically caused by an infection, such as bacteria, fungi, or parasites, that spreads from another part of the body or enters the lungs through the airways. Lung abscesses can be either primary, meaning they form in the lung tissue without an underlying cause, or secondary, meaning they develop as a complication of an existing condition, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis. Symptoms of a lung abscess may include fever, cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and imaging tests such as chest X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans. Treatment for a lung abscess typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as drainage of the pus through a procedure called aspiration. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the abscess. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Pasteurella infections are a group of bacterial infections caused by the Pasteurella genus of bacteria. These bacteria are commonly found in the mouths and throats of animals, particularly dogs, cats, and birds, and can be transmitted to humans through bites, scratches, or contact with infected animal secretions. Pasteurella infections can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, respiratory system, and eyes. Symptoms of Pasteurella infections can vary depending on the location and severity of the infection, but may include fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, and localized pain, redness, and swelling at the site of the infection. Treatment for Pasteurella infections typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary. Prevention of Pasteurella infections involves avoiding contact with infected animals and practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands thoroughly after handling animals or their environments.

Sepsis is a serious medical condition that occurs when the body's response to an infection causes widespread inflammation throughout the body. It is a life-threatening condition that can lead to organ failure, septic shock, and even death if not treated promptly and effectively. Sepsis can develop from any type of infection, including bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections. The body's immune system responds to the infection by releasing chemicals called cytokines, which can cause inflammation throughout the body. This inflammation can damage tissues and organs, leading to a range of symptoms, including fever, chills, rapid heartbeat, rapid breathing, confusion, and decreased urine output. Diagnosis of sepsis typically involves a combination of clinical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In severe cases, treatment may include fluid resuscitation, vasopressors to maintain blood pressure, and organ support. Early recognition and prompt treatment of sepsis are critical for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of death.

Respiratory insufficiency is a medical condition in which the body is unable to take in enough oxygen or expel enough carbon dioxide. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including lung disease, heart disease, neurological disorders, or other medical conditions that affect the respiratory system. Symptoms of respiratory insufficiency may include shortness of breath, fatigue, confusion, dizziness, and bluish discoloration of the skin or nails. In severe cases, respiratory insufficiency can lead to respiratory failure, which is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Treatment for respiratory insufficiency depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, oxygen therapy may be used to increase the amount of oxygen in the blood. In other cases, medications or surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying condition causing the respiratory insufficiency. In severe cases, mechanical ventilation may be required to help the patient breathe.

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive lung disease characterized by the scarring and thickening of the lung tissue, leading to decreased lung function and difficulty breathing. The exact cause of IPF is unknown, which is why it is referred to as "idiopathic." It typically affects people over the age of 50 and is more common in men than women. The symptoms of IPF can include shortness of breath, coughing, fatigue, and a persistent dry cough. There is currently no cure for IPF, but treatments such as oxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, and medications can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.

Pneumonia, Rickettsial is a type of pneumonia caused by rickettsial bacteria. Rickettsial bacteria are a group of bacteria that can cause a range of diseases, including typhus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and Q fever. Rickettsial pneumonia is a rare but serious condition that can cause inflammation and fluid buildup in the lungs. Symptoms of rickettsial pneumonia may include fever, cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. The disease is typically spread to humans through the bite of infected ticks or mites. Treatment for rickettsial pneumonia typically involves antibiotics, such as doxycycline or tetracycline. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you may have rickettsial pneumonia, as prompt treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

In the medical field, confusion refers to a state of disorientation, impaired judgment, and difficulty with thinking and reasoning. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including illness, injury, medication side effects, dehydration, and lack of sleep. Confusion can range from mild to severe and can affect a person's ability to communicate, perform daily activities, and make decisions. It is often a symptom of more serious underlying medical conditions, such as infections, brain injuries, or neurological disorders, and requires prompt medical attention.

In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.

Pleural effusion is a medical condition in which excess fluid accumulates between the two layers of tissue that cover the lungs, known as the pleurae. This can cause the lungs to become compressed, making it difficult to breathe and reducing the amount of oxygen that can be taken in by the body. Pleural effusion can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, heart failure, cancer, and lung diseases such as pneumonia or tuberculosis. Treatment for pleural effusion depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, drainage of the fluid, or surgery.

Mycoplasma infections are a group of bacterial infections caused by Mycoplasma species. These bacteria are very small and can be difficult to detect using traditional methods of bacterial culture. Mycoplasma infections can affect a wide range of organs and systems in the body, including the respiratory system, urinary tract, reproductive system, and skin. Some common symptoms of Mycoplasma infections include fever, cough, sore throat, difficulty breathing, and fatigue. In some cases, Mycoplasma infections can cause more serious complications, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and meningitis. Mycoplasma infections are typically diagnosed using a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, although the specific antibiotic used may depend on the type of Mycoplasma infection and the location of the infection in the body. In some cases, additional supportive care may be necessary to manage symptoms and complications.

In the medical field, mineral oil is a type of liquid hydrocarbon that is commonly used as a lubricant, emollient, and antiseptic. It is derived from petroleum and is composed of a mixture of hydrocarbons with carbon chain lengths ranging from C12 to C50. Mineral oil is often used in medical applications due to its low toxicity, low cost, and ability to form a protective barrier on the skin. It is commonly used as a lubricant for medical equipment, such as syringes and catheters, and as a topical ointment for treating dry skin, eczema, and other skin conditions. However, it is important to note that mineral oil can be comedogenic, meaning it can clog pores and cause acne breakouts in some individuals. Additionally, it is not recommended for use on wounds or open skin as it can slow down the healing process and increase the risk of infection.

Lung diseases caused by fungi are a group of respiratory infections that can affect people of all ages and can range from mild to severe. These infections are caused by fungi that are normally found in the environment, such as Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and Pneumocystis jirovecii. Fungal lung diseases can be classified into several categories, including: 1. Pulmonary Aspergillosis: This is an infection caused by the fungus Aspergillus, which can cause inflammation and damage to the lungs. 2. Cryptococcosis: This is an infection caused by the fungus Cryptococcus, which can cause inflammation and damage to the lungs, as well as other organs. 3. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP): This is an infection caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii, which is commonly found in the lungs of healthy individuals. However, it can cause severe pneumonia in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS. 4. Other fungal lung diseases: There are several other fungal lung diseases, including histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and blastomycosis, which are caused by different types of fungi. Fungal lung diseases can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests, such as chest X-rays, CT scans, and cultures of respiratory secretions. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, which may be taken orally or intravenously, depending on the severity of the infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue.

Ceftriaxone is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It is a cephalosporin antibiotic, which means that it works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Ceftriaxone is often used to treat infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin, as well as infections that affect the bones and joints, blood, and central nervous system. It is usually given by injection, although it is also available in an oral form. Ceftriaxone is a powerful antibiotic and can be effective against many types of bacteria, but it is important to use it only as directed by a healthcare provider to avoid the development of antibiotic resistance.

Macrolides are a class of antibiotics that are commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted infections. They work by inhibiting the production of proteins that are essential for the growth and reproduction of bacteria. Macrolides are typically administered orally or intravenously, and they have a broad spectrum of activity against many different types of bacteria. Some common examples of macrolides include erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin. Macrolides are generally considered to be safe and effective, although they can cause side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain. They may also interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all the medications you are taking before starting treatment with a macrolide.

Deglutition disorders refer to difficulties or problems with swallowing. This can include difficulty starting or stopping the swallowing process, difficulty swallowing solid or liquid foods, or difficulty feeling full after eating. Deglutition disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including neurological disorders, structural abnormalities of the esophagus or mouth, and certain medications. Treatment for deglutition disorders depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, dietary changes, physical therapy, or surgery.

Cilastatin is a medication that is used in combination with another drug called imipenem to treat certain types of bacterial infections. Imipenem is an antibiotic that works by killing bacteria, but it can be broken down in the body before it has a chance to fully do its job. Cilastatin works by protecting imipenem from being broken down, allowing it to remain active in the body for longer and be more effective at fighting bacteria. Cilastatin is typically given by injection into a vein, and it is usually used to treat infections that are caused by bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics. It is important to note that cilastatin should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as it can cause side effects and may not be appropriate for everyone.

Adrenal cortex hormones are a group of hormones produced by the adrenal gland's outer layer, the cortex. These hormones play a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including metabolism, blood pressure, and the body's response to stress. The adrenal cortex hormones are divided into three main categories based on their chemical structure and function: 1. Glucocorticoids: These hormones, including cortisol, are responsible for regulating metabolism and the body's response to stress. They help the body break down stored carbohydrates and fats to provide energy, and they also suppress the immune system to reduce inflammation. 2. Mineralocorticoids: These hormones, including aldosterone, regulate the body's electrolyte balance and blood pressure. They help the kidneys retain sodium and excrete potassium, which helps maintain proper blood pressure. 3. Androgens: These hormones, including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), are responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair and deepening of the voice. They also play a role in the body's response to stress. Adrenal cortex hormones are produced in response to signals from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, and their levels can be affected by a variety of factors, including stress, illness, and medications. Imbalances in adrenal cortex hormone levels can lead to a range of health problems, including Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and adrenal insufficiency.

Pneumonia, Atypical Interstitial, of Cattle is a type of respiratory disease that affects cattle. It is caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, also known as the "Mycoplasma mycoides cluster" or "Mycoplasma mycoides complex." This disease is characterized by inflammation of the lungs, which can lead to difficulty breathing, coughing, and weight loss in affected animals. It is a significant problem in cattle farming, particularly in areas where the disease is endemic. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, and vaccination is available to help prevent the disease.

Calcitonin is a hormone produced by the parafollicular cells, also known as C cells, of the thyroid gland. It plays a role in regulating calcium levels in the blood by inhibiting the release of calcium from bones and increasing calcium excretion in the kidneys. Calcitonin is typically released in response to an increase in blood calcium levels, such as after a meal or during pregnancy. It is also produced by the medullary thyroid carcinoma, a rare type of thyroid cancer. Calcitonin is used as a diagnostic tool to help diagnose medullary thyroid carcinoma and is also used as a treatment for osteoporosis and hypercalcemia.

Gram-negative bacterial infections are a type of bacterial infection caused by bacteria that have a negative gram stain reaction. This means that when they are stained with a special dye called crystal violet, they appear purple or pink under a microscope, rather than the characteristic blue color of gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria are a diverse group of bacteria that include many important pathogens, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enterica. These bacteria are commonly found in the environment and on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. However, some species of gram-negative bacteria can cause serious infections when they enter the body through cuts, wounds, or other openings. Gram-negative bacterial infections can affect various parts of the body, including the respiratory system, urinary tract, bloodstream, and gastrointestinal tract. The symptoms of these infections can vary depending on the location and severity of the infection, but may include fever, chills, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In severe cases, gram-negative bacterial infections can lead to sepsis, a life-threatening condition in which the body's immune system overreacts to the infection. Treatment for gram-negative bacterial infections typically involves the use of antibiotics, which are medications that can kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. The choice of antibiotic will depend on the specific type of bacteria causing the infection and the location and severity of the infection. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for intravenous antibiotics or other supportive care.

Paramyxoviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. This family includes a number of important human and animal pathogens, such as measles virus, mumps virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and parainfluenza viruses. Paramyxoviridae infections are characterized by the production of small, nonenveloped viruses with a single-stranded RNA genome. These viruses are able to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and birds. They are typically transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected individuals or surfaces. Symptoms of paramyxoviridae infections can vary depending on the specific virus causing the infection. Common symptoms include fever, cough, runny nose, sore throat, and body aches. In some cases, more severe symptoms may develop, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, or encephalitis. Treatment for paramyxoviridae infections typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help control the infection. Vaccines are also available for some of the viruses in this family, such as measles and mumps.

Bronchiolitis is a respiratory infection that affects the small airways (bronchioles) in the lungs. It is most common in children under the age of 2, particularly in the first year of life. Bronchiolitis is usually caused by a virus, such as the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), but it can also be caused by other viruses, bacteria, or fungi. The symptoms of bronchiolitis include coughing, wheezing, difficulty breathing, and a runny nose. In severe cases, the child may have difficulty feeding, rapid breathing, and blue lips or fingernails. Bronchiolitis can be a serious illness, particularly in young infants, but most children recover fully within a few weeks. Treatment for bronchiolitis typically involves supportive care, such as fluids and rest, and may include the use of bronchodilators to open up the airways and reduce wheezing. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary for oxygen therapy or other treatments. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect your child may have bronchiolitis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications.

Streptolysins are a group of enzymes produced by certain strains of the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as Group A Streptococcus or GAS). These enzymes are capable of breaking down the cell walls of other bacteria, which can lead to the lysis (rupture) of the bacterial cells. Streptolysins are classified into two main types: Streptolysin O (SLO) and Streptolysin S (SLS). SLO is the more common of the two and is responsible for the majority of the lysis caused by GAS. SLS is less common and is thought to play a role in the invasion of host cells by GAS. Streptolysins are important virulence factors for GAS, meaning they contribute to the ability of the bacteria to cause disease. They are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of a variety of GAS infections, including strep throat, scarlet fever, and necrotizing fasciitis (a severe skin infection). In addition, streptolysins have been shown to have potential therapeutic applications, such as in the treatment of bacterial infections and as adjuvants in vaccines.

Dapsone is a medication that is used to treat a variety of infections, including leprosy, dermatitis herpetiformis, and certain types of pneumonia. It is also used to treat certain types of parasitic infections, such as babesiosis and trypanosomiasis. Dapsone works by inhibiting the production of folic acid, which is essential for the growth and reproduction of bacteria and parasites. It is usually taken by mouth, although it can also be given intravenously or topically. Side effects of dapsone may include nausea, vomiting, headache, and anemia. It is important to note that dapsone can cause a severe reaction called Steven-Johnson syndrome, which can be life-threatening. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Actinomycetales infections are a group of bacterial infections caused by members of the order Actinomycetales. These bacteria are gram-positive, filamentous, and non-motile, and are commonly found in soil and decaying organic matter. Actinomycetales infections can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. Some common examples of Actinomycetales infections include Actinomyces israelii infections of the mouth and throat, Actinomyces bovis infections of the lungs, and Actinomyces pyogenes infections of the skin. These infections can range from mild to severe and can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as the bacteria are slow-growing and can be resistant to antibiotics. Symptoms of Actinomycetales infections can vary depending on the location and severity of the infection, but may include fever, chills, fatigue, and localized pain or swelling. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and surgical intervention, if necessary.

Tracheitis is an inflammation of the trachea, which is the tube that carries air from the larynx (voice box) to the lungs. It can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, and it can also be a complication of other respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Symptoms of tracheitis may include a hoarse voice, difficulty breathing, coughing, and throat pain. Treatment typically involves managing the underlying cause of the inflammation and providing symptom relief with medications such as antibiotics or corticosteroids. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Adenoviridae infections are a group of viral infections caused by members of the Adenoviridae family. These viruses are common and can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and plants. In humans, adenoviruses can cause a variety of illnesses, ranging from mild respiratory infections to more severe diseases such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, and hemorrhagic cystitis. Adenoviruses are characterized by their icosahedral capsid, which is composed of protein subunits arranged in a double-layered structure. The viral genome is a linear double-stranded DNA molecule that is enclosed within the capsid. There are currently more than 100 different serotypes of adenoviruses, each of which is associated with a specific disease. Adenovirus infections are typically transmitted through respiratory droplets, direct contact with infected individuals or surfaces, or through the fecal-oral route. Symptoms of adenovirus infections can vary depending on the specific serotype and the infected individual's immune status. Common symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, and red eyes. In more severe cases, adenovirus infections can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and other respiratory complications. Treatment for adenovirus infections typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help control the infection. Vaccines are currently available for some serotypes of adenoviruses, but they are not effective against all strains. Prevention of adenovirus infections involves good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with infected individuals.

Acinetobacter infections are bacterial infections caused by the genus Acinetobacter, which is a group of Gram-negative bacteria commonly found in the environment. These bacteria can cause a variety of infections in humans, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and wound infections. Acinetobacter infections are typically acquired in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where patients are more vulnerable to infections due to their weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. The bacteria can also be transmitted through contaminated medical equipment, such as catheters or ventilators. Acinetobacter infections can be difficult to treat because they are often resistant to antibiotics, and they can cause severe illness and even death in some cases. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and supportive care, such as fluid replacement and oxygen therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Antibodies, Bacterial are proteins produced by the immune system in response to bacterial infections. They are also known as bacterial antibodies or bacterial immunoglobulins. These antibodies are specific to bacterial antigens, which are molecules found on the surface of bacteria that trigger an immune response. When the immune system detects a bacterial infection, it produces antibodies that bind to the bacterial antigens and mark them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to neutralize the bacteria and prevent them from causing harm to the body. Bacterial antibodies can be detected in the blood or other bodily fluids using laboratory tests. These tests are often used to diagnose bacterial infections and to monitor the effectiveness of antibiotic treatments.

Lung diseases caused by parasites are a group of respiratory disorders that are caused by the presence of parasitic organisms in the lungs. These parasites can cause a range of symptoms, including coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain, fever, and fatigue. Some common examples of parasitic lung diseases include: 1. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP): This is a type of pneumonia caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii. It is most commonly seen in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS. 2. Paragonimiasis: This is a lung infection caused by the parasite Paragonimus westermani. It is most commonly seen in people who eat raw or undercooked freshwater fish from contaminated sources. 3. Hydatid disease: This is a lung infection caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. It is most commonly seen in people who live in or travel to areas where dogs or other animals are infected with the parasite. 4. Ascaris lumbricoides: This is a type of roundworm that can cause a lung infection called ascariasis. It is most commonly seen in children who live in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. Treatment for parasitic lung diseases typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications to kill the parasites and alleviate symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or drain fluid from the lungs. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you may have a parasitic lung disease, as prompt treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Orthomyxoviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae. These viruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that are characterized by their ability to cause both respiratory and systemic infections in humans and animals. The most well-known member of the Orthomyxoviridae family is the influenza virus, which causes seasonal flu outbreaks and pandemics. Other viruses in this family include the parainfluenza viruses, which can cause respiratory infections in humans and animals, and the equine influenza virus, which can cause respiratory infections in horses. Symptoms of Orthomyxoviridae infections can vary depending on the specific virus and the severity of the infection. Common symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, infections can lead to pneumonia, bronchitis, and other complications. Treatment for Orthomyxoviridae infections typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Antiviral medications may also be used to treat certain types of Orthomyxoviridae infections, such as influenza. Vaccines are available to prevent influenza and some other Orthomyxoviridae infections.

Bronchitis is a respiratory condition characterized by inflammation of the bronchial tubes, which are the airways that carry air from the nose and mouth to the lungs. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Acute bronchitis is a short-term condition that typically lasts for a few weeks and is caused by a viral or bacterial infection. Symptoms of acute bronchitis include coughing, chest discomfort, and difficulty breathing. In some cases, fever, fatigue, and body aches may also occur. Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is a long-term condition that lasts for at least three months each year for two consecutive years. It is usually caused by long-term exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or dust. Symptoms of chronic bronchitis include a persistent cough that produces mucus, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Both acute and chronic bronchitis can be treated with medications such as antibiotics, bronchodilators, and cough suppressants. In some cases, oxygen therapy may also be necessary. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of bronchitis, as untreated bronchitis can lead to more serious respiratory problems such as pneumonia or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Penicillins are a group of antibiotics that are derived from the Penicillium fungi. They are one of the most widely used antibiotics in the medical field and are effective against a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, strep throat, and urinary tract infections. Penicillins work by inhibiting the production of cell walls in bacteria, which causes the bacteria to burst and die. There are several different types of penicillins, including penicillin G, penicillin V, amoxicillin, and cephalosporins, which have different properties and are used to treat different types of infections. Penicillins are generally well-tolerated by most people, but can cause side effects such as allergic reactions, diarrhea, and nausea. It is important to take penicillins exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to finish the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished.

Levofloxacin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and bone and joint infections. It is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, which means that it works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to replicate. Levofloxacin is available in oral and intravenous forms and is generally well-tolerated by most people. However, like all antibiotics, it can cause side effects, such as nausea, diarrhea, and headache. It is important to take levofloxacin exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to complete the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished.

Fever is a medical condition characterized by an elevated body temperature above the normal range of 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F). It is typically a response to an infection or inflammation in the body, and can also be caused by certain medications or other medical conditions. Fever is usually accompanied by other symptoms such as chills, sweating, fatigue, headache, muscle aches, and loss of appetite. While a fever can be uncomfortable, it is generally not considered a serious medical condition in itself, and can be a sign that the body is fighting off an infection. In some cases, a fever may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as sepsis or meningitis. If a fever persists for more than a few days, or if it is accompanied by other severe symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention.

Vaccines, conjugate are a type of vaccine that uses a carrier protein to enhance the immune response to a specific bacterial or viral pathogen. The carrier protein is usually a protein that is found in the body, such as diphtheria toxin or tetanus toxin, and is conjugated to a small piece of the pathogen, such as a polysaccharide or protein. This conjugation helps the immune system recognize and respond to the pathogen more effectively, particularly in young children whose immune systems may not be as developed as those of adults. Conjugate vaccines are used to prevent a variety of bacterial and viral diseases, including pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and pneumococcal disease.

Ofloxacin is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the class of fluoroquinolones. It is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted infections. Ofloxacin works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to replicate. It is available in oral and injectable forms and is generally well-tolerated, although it can cause side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, and headache. Ofloxacin is not effective against viral infections and should not be used to treat such conditions.

Colistin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including those caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria such as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and Acinetobacter baumannii. It is a polypeptide antibiotic that works by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane, leading to cell death. Colistin is typically administered intravenously and is often used as a last resort when other antibiotics have failed. It can cause side effects such as kidney damage, hearing loss, and neuromuscular problems. It is also important to note that colistin-resistant bacteria are becoming increasingly common, so it is important to use this antibiotic judiciously and only when necessary.

Swine diseases refer to any illness or infection that affects pigs. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, fungi, and environmental factors. Swine diseases can range from mild to severe and can affect pigs of all ages and sizes. Some common swine diseases include: 1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) 2. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) 3. Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) 4. Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) 5. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED) 6. Swine Leukosis Virus (SLV) 7. Porcine Dermatitis and Necrosis Syndrome (PDNS) 8. Porcine Enterotoxemia (PED) 9. Porcine Circovirus Type 1 (PCV1) 10. Porcine Circovirus Type 3 (PCV3) Swine diseases can have significant economic impacts on the pork industry, as well as on animal welfare and public health. Therefore, it is important for veterinarians, farmers, and other stakeholders to be aware of the signs and symptoms of swine diseases and to take appropriate measures to prevent and control their spread.

Near drowning is a medical emergency that occurs when a person experiences respiratory distress due to submersion in water. It is characterized by a lack of oxygen to the brain and other vital organs, which can lead to serious health complications or even death if not treated promptly. Near drowning can occur in both fresh and salt water, and the severity of the condition depends on several factors, including the length of time the person was submerged, the depth of the water, and the presence of any underlying medical conditions. Symptoms of near drowning may include coughing, wheezing, difficulty breathing, blue lips or fingernails, seizures, confusion, and loss of consciousness. Treatment typically involves immediate medical attention, including rescue breathing, chest compressions, and oxygen therapy, as well as further medical evaluation and monitoring for any complications that may arise.

Amoxicillin is an antibiotic medication that is commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, bronchitis, ear infections, urinary tract infections, and skin infections. It is a type of penicillin antibiotic that works by stopping the growth of bacteria in the body. Amoxicillin is usually taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules, and it is often prescribed for short-term use. It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to complete the full course of treatment, even if you start to feel better before the medication is finished. Like all antibiotics, amoxicillin can cause side effects, such as nausea, diarrhea, and allergic reactions. It is important to let your healthcare provider know if you experience any side effects while taking amoxicillin.

Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) is a medical condition that occurs when the lungs are unable to function properly, leading to difficulty breathing and low levels of oxygen in the blood. In adults, RDS is a rare condition that can occur as a complication of certain medical conditions or procedures, such as severe trauma, surgery, or infections. The symptoms of RDS in adults may include shortness of breath, rapid breathing, chest pain, coughing, and bluish skin or lips. The diagnosis of RDS is typically made based on a combination of clinical symptoms, medical history, and diagnostic tests, such as chest X-rays and blood tests. Treatment for RDS in adults typically involves providing oxygen therapy to increase the amount of oxygen in the blood, as well as medications to reduce inflammation and improve lung function. In severe cases, mechanical ventilation may be necessary to help the lungs function properly. The prognosis for RDS in adults depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition, but with prompt and appropriate treatment, most people are able to recover fully.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections (RSV) are a common viral infection that affects the respiratory system, particularly the nose and throat. RSV is a highly contagious virus that spreads easily through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. It is most common in young children, especially those under the age of 2, and can also affect older adults, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems. Symptoms of RSV infection can range from mild to severe and may include a runny nose, cough, fever, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, RSV can cause pneumonia, bronchiolitis, and even death, particularly in young children and older adults. RSV is typically diagnosed through a physical examination and laboratory tests, such as a nasal swab or blood test. Treatment for RSV typically involves managing symptoms and providing supportive care, such as fluids and rest. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary for oxygen therapy or other interventions. While there is no specific cure for RSV, vaccination is available for high-risk populations, such as premature infants and young children with chronic lung disease.

Cattle diseases refer to any illness or condition that affects cattle, which are domesticated animals commonly raised for meat, milk, and other products. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and environmental conditions. In the medical field, cattle diseases are typically studied and treated by veterinarians who specialize in animal health. Some common cattle diseases include bovine respiratory disease (BRD), Johne's disease, foot-and-mouth disease, and mastitis. These diseases can have significant economic impacts on farmers and the cattle industry, as they can lead to decreased productivity, increased mortality rates, and the need for costly treatments. To prevent and control cattle diseases, veterinarians and farmers may use a variety of strategies, including vaccination, proper nutrition and hygiene, and the use of antibiotics and other medications when necessary. Additionally, monitoring and surveillance efforts are often implemented to detect and respond to outbreaks of new or emerging diseases.

In the medical field, a cough is a reflex action that involves the contraction of muscles in the chest and throat to expel air from the lungs. It is a common symptom of many respiratory conditions, including colds, flu, bronchitis, pneumonia, and asthma. A cough can be dry, meaning that no phlegm or mucus is produced, or wet, meaning that mucus is produced. A persistent cough that lasts for more than three weeks or is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, chest pain, or difficulty breathing may be a sign of a more serious condition and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional. Treatment for a cough depends on the underlying cause. For example, a cough caused by a cold or flu may be treated with over-the-counter cough suppressants or expectorants, while a cough caused by a more serious condition may require prescription medication or other medical interventions.

Respiratory aspiration is a medical condition that occurs when a person inhales foreign material into their lungs. This can happen when a person is unconscious, has difficulty swallowing, or has a weakened cough reflex, among other reasons. Aspiration can lead to a variety of complications, including pneumonia, lung abscesses, and respiratory failure. Treatment for respiratory aspiration typically involves removing the foreign material from the lungs and providing supportive care to manage any complications that may arise.

Fluoroquinolones are a class of antibiotics that are commonly used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. They work by inhibiting the growth and reproduction of bacteria by interfering with their ability to replicate their DNA. Fluoroquinolones are often used to treat respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted infections. Some examples of fluoroquinolones include ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin. It is important to note that fluoroquinolones should only be used to treat bacterial infections and should not be used to treat viral infections such as the flu or a cold. Additionally, fluoroquinolones can have serious side effects and should only be prescribed by a healthcare professional.

In the medical field, aerosols refer to tiny particles or droplets of liquid or solid matter that are suspended in the air and can be inhaled into the respiratory system. Aerosols can be generated by various sources, including human activities such as talking, coughing, and sneezing, as well as natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions and dust storms. Aerosols can contain a variety of substances, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, pollutants, and other particles. When inhaled, these particles can enter the lungs and potentially cause respiratory infections, allergies, and other health problems. In the context of infectious diseases, aerosols are of particular concern because they can transmit pathogens over long distances and remain suspended in the air for extended periods of time. To prevent the spread of infectious diseases, it is important to take measures to reduce the generation and dispersion of aerosols in indoor environments, such as wearing masks, practicing good respiratory hygiene, and improving ventilation systems.

Cephalosporins are a class of antibiotics that are derived from the mold species Cephalosporium acremonium. They are commonly used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, skin infections, urinary tract infections, and infections of the bones and joints. Cephalosporins work by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, which leads to the death of the bacteria. They are generally well-tolerated and have a broad spectrum of activity against many types of bacteria. There are several different classes of cephalosporins, each with its own specific characteristics and uses. The most commonly used classes are first-generation cephalosporins, second-generation cephalosporins, third-generation cephalosporins, and fourth-generation cephalosporins. The choice of which cephalosporin to use depends on the type of infection being treated, the severity of the infection, and the specific characteristics of the bacteria causing the infection.

Imipenem is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It is a member of the carbapenem class of antibiotics, which are known for their effectiveness against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Imipenem is typically administered intravenously and is used to treat infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, skin and soft tissues, and the bloodstream. It is also sometimes used to treat infections of the abdomen, including those caused by bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics. Imipenem works by inhibiting the production of bacterial cell walls, which leads to the death of the bacteria. It is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, meaning that it is effective against a wide range of bacteria, including both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. However, like all antibiotics, imipenem can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and allergic reactions. It is important to take imipenem exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to notify them if any side effects occur.

Pneumonia of calves, also known as enzootic pneumonia, is a highly contagious respiratory disease that affects young cattle, particularly those less than six months old. The disease is caused by various bacteria, including Mannheimia haemolytica, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis. The disease is characterized by fever, coughing, difficulty breathing, and a rapid decline in the health of affected animals. In severe cases, the disease can lead to death within a few days of onset. Enzootic pneumonia is a significant problem in the cattle industry, as it can cause significant economic losses due to reduced productivity, increased mortality, and the need for veterinary intervention. Prevention measures include vaccination, proper nutrition and management of cattle, and the use of antibiotics to control the disease in affected herds.

Leukocidins are a type of protein toxins produced by certain bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, that are capable of killing white blood cells (leukocytes) in the human body. These toxins are able to disrupt the integrity of the cell membrane of leukocytes, leading to cell lysis and death. Leukocidins are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of certain bacterial infections, such as skin infections and pneumonia, by contributing to the destruction of the body's immune defenses.

Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone that is used in the medical field to treat a variety of conditions. It is a potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent that is commonly used to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and psoriasis. It is also used to treat allergies, asthma, and other respiratory conditions, as well as to reduce swelling and inflammation in the body. In addition, prednisolone is used to treat certain types of cancer, such as lymphoma and leukemia, and to prevent rejection of transplanted organs. It is available in various forms, including tablets, injections, and eye drops, and is typically prescribed by a doctor or other healthcare professional.

Cytokines are small proteins that are produced by various cells of the immune system, including white blood cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. They play a crucial role in regulating immune responses and inflammation, and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Cytokines can be classified into different groups based on their function, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines, and regulatory cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), promote inflammation and recruit immune cells to the site of infection or injury. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), help to dampen the immune response and prevent excessive inflammation. Regulatory cytokines, such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13), help to regulate the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses. Cytokines play a critical role in many diseases, including autoimmune disorders, cancer, and infectious diseases. They are also important in the development of vaccines and immunotherapies.

Sulfamethoxazole is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, skin infections, and ear infections. It is a member of the sulfonamide class of antibiotics, which work by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to synthesize folic acid, an essential nutrient for bacterial growth. Sulfamethoxazole is typically used in combination with another antibiotic, such as trimethoprim, to increase its effectiveness and reduce the risk of resistance. It is usually taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules, and the dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the specific infection being treated and the patient's medical condition. It is important to note that sulfamethoxazole can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and allergic reactions. It may also interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting treatment with sulfamethoxazole.

Critical illness refers to a severe and potentially life-threatening medical condition that requires immediate medical attention and hospitalization. These conditions can be acute or chronic and can affect any part of the body. Examples of critical illnesses include heart attacks, strokes, organ failure, sepsis, and severe infections. Critical illnesses can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and environmental factors. They can also be triggered by other medical conditions or treatments. Treatment for critical illnesses typically involves hospitalization, intensive medical care, and sometimes surgery. In some cases, long-term rehabilitation and ongoing medical care may be necessary. Critical illnesses can have a significant impact on a person's physical and emotional well-being, as well as their ability to work and participate in daily activities. It is important for individuals to have access to appropriate medical care and support to help manage their condition and improve their quality of life.

Psittacosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia psittaci. It is primarily transmitted to humans through inhalation of respiratory droplets from infected birds, particularly parrots and parakeets. The disease can also be transmitted through direct contact with infected birds or their feces, as well as through contaminated objects or surfaces. Symptoms of psittacosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection, but may include fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, cough, shortness of breath, and chest pain. In severe cases, the disease can lead to pneumonia, meningitis, and even death. Treatment for psittacosis typically involves the use of antibiotics, such as doxycycline or azithromycin. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with infected birds, wearing protective clothing and gloves when handling birds, and thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting any objects or surfaces that may have come into contact with infected birds.

Empyema, pleural is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity, which is the space between the lungs and the chest wall. This can occur as a complication of pneumonia, lung abscess, or other lung infections, or as a result of trauma or surgery. The symptoms of empyema, pleural may include chest pain, fever, cough, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, the condition can lead to respiratory failure and other complications. Diagnosis of empyema, pleural typically involves a physical examination, chest X-ray, and CT scan. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as drainage of the pus from the pleural cavity. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the infected tissue or repair any damage to the chest wall.

Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are a group of disorders that affect the body's connective tissue, which is the tissue that binds and supports other tissues in the body. Connective tissue is found throughout the body, including the skin, bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and organs. CTDs can affect any part of the body, and the symptoms and severity of the disease can vary widely depending on the specific type of CTD. Some common CTDs include: - Rheumatoid arthritis - Systemic lupus erythematosus - Scleroderma - Polymyositis - Dermatomyositis - Fibromyalgia - Osteoarthritis - Osteoporosis CTDs are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment for CTDs depends on the specific type of disease and can include medications, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat complications of the disease.

Thienamycins are a class of antibiotics that are derived from the fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. They are structurally related to penicillin and have a similar mechanism of action, which is to inhibit the synthesis of bacterial cell walls. Thienamycins are effective against a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). They are also active against some Gram-negative bacteria, such as Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Thienamycins are typically administered intravenously and are used to treat severe bacterial infections, such as pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. They are also used to treat skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and urinary tract infections. Thienamycins are considered to be broad-spectrum antibiotics and are effective against a wide range of bacterial pathogens.

Staphylococcal infections are caused by bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus. These bacteria are commonly found on the skin and in the nose of healthy individuals, but can sometimes cause infections when they enter the body through cuts, wounds, or other openings. Staphylococcal infections can range from mild skin infections like impetigo to more serious infections like pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Some types of staphylococcal bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are resistant to certain antibiotics and can be more difficult to treat. Treatment for staphylococcal infections typically involves antibiotics, although in some cases surgery may be necessary.

Chlamydophila infections are a group of bacterial infections caused by the Chlamydiae family of bacteria. These infections can affect various parts of the body, including the respiratory tract, eyes, and genitals. Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a common cause of atypical pneumonia, which is a type of pneumonia that does not respond to typical antibiotics. It can also cause bronchitis, sinusitis, and other respiratory infections. Chlamydia trachomatis is a sexually transmitted infection that can cause infections of the cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and eyes. It is the most common cause of sexually transmitted infections in the United States. Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic infection that can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected birds or their droppings. It can cause respiratory infections, including pneumonia and bronchitis. Chlamydia suis is a zoonotic infection that can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected pigs or their products. It can cause respiratory infections, including pneumonia and bronchitis. Chlamydia abortus is a zoonotic infection that can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected cattle or their products. It can cause respiratory infections, including pneumonia and bronchitis. Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most common Chlamydophila infections in humans. They are typically treated with antibiotics, although some strains of Chlamydia trachomatis have become resistant to certain antibiotics.

Methylprednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone that is used in the medical field to treat a variety of conditions. It is a potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent that is commonly used to reduce inflammation and swelling, as well as to suppress the immune system. Methylprednisolone is often prescribed to treat conditions such as asthma, allergies, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. It is also used to treat severe allergic reactions, as well as to reduce inflammation and swelling after surgery. Methylprednisolone is available in various forms, including tablets, injections, and inhalers, and is typically administered orally or by injection.

Pulmonary Aspergillosis is a type of lung infection caused by the fungus Aspergillus. It is a common infection in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation. The infection can also occur in people with chronic lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pulmonary Aspergillosis can present with a variety of symptoms, including cough, fever, chest pain, shortness of breath, and. In severe cases, the infection can spread to other parts of the body, such as the brain, and can be life-threatening. Diagnosis of Pulmonary Aspergillosis typically involves a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies such as chest X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests to identify the fungus in sputum or other respiratory samples. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, which may be given orally or intravenously, depending on the severity of the infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue.

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Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - ... Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia (Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia). By Joyce Lee , MD, MAS, University of ... Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, a form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia Overview of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias ... Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia recurs occur in up to 50% of patients. Recurrences appear related to the duration of treatment ...
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Radzikowska E, Fijolek J. Update on cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. Front Med (Lausanne). 2023. 10:1146782. [QxMD MEDLINE ... A model for the study of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. Am J Pathol. 1997 Jun. 150(6):2243-54. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Reovirus type 3 associated with fatal pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1967 May 11. 276(19):1060-3. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Detection of rotavirus in respiratory secretions of children with pneumonia. J Pediatr. 1983 Oct. 103(4):583-5. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia * Diaphragmatic Disorders * Drug Induced Pulmonary Disease * Dyspnea On Exertion ...
Cases of interstitial pneumonia, eosinophilic pneumonia and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia have been reported; if diagnosis ... Psoriasis: Diverticulitis, cellulitis, pneumonia, appendicitis, cholecystitis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, viral infections, ... Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: Lower respiratory tract infection; interstitial pneumonia, eosinophilic ... Crohn disease: Anal abscess, gastroenteritis, ophthalmic herpes zoster, pneumonia, and listeria meningitis ...
Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia. Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia. Granuloma, Plasma Cell, Pulmonary. Plasma Cell ...
Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia. Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia. Granuloma, Plasma Cell, Pulmonary. Plasma Cell ...
Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia. Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia. Granuloma, Plasma Cell, Pulmonary. Plasma Cell ...
Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia. Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia. Granuloma, Plasma Cell, Pulmonary. Plasma Cell ...
Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia From NCATS Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center File Formats Help:. How do I view ...
Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia. Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia. Granuloma, Plasma Cell, Pulmonary. Plasma Cell ...
Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia. Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia. Granuloma, Plasma Cell, Pulmonary. Plasma Cell ...
Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia. Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia. Granuloma, Plasma Cell, Pulmonary. Plasma Cell ...
Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia. Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia. Granuloma, Plasma Cell, Pulmonary. Plasma Cell ...
Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia. Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia. Granuloma, Plasma Cell, Pulmonary. Plasma Cell ...
Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia. Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia. Granuloma, Plasma Cell, Pulmonary. Plasma Cell ...
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common infectious diseases and is an important cause of mortality and ... Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia * Pulmonary embolus or infarction * Bronchogenic carcinomas * Radiation pneumonitis * ... Blood-tinged sputum may be found in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia, Klebsiella pneumonia, or Legionella pneumonia. ... Chest radiography may assist with the differentiation of viral pneumonias from nonviral pneumonias. Viral pneumonias tend to ...
Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia. Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia. Granuloma, Plasma Cell, Pulmonary. Plasma Cell ...
Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. COPD. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. CRP. C-reactive protein. CT. Computed tomography ... Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. COPD. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. CRP. C-reactive protein. CT. Computed tomography ... Pneumonitis may present on imaging studies as cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis ( ... IP, HLK, and MSE organized and lead the workshop where the guidelines were developed. ...
METHODS: Thirty cryptogenic organizing pneumonia patients in the resolution phase (group 1, 30 right eyes) and 33 healthy ... BACKGROUND: To assess retinochoroidal and optic nerve head microcirculation alterations in cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. ... angiography characteristics of retinochoroidal and optic nerve head microcirculation in cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. ... Disco Óptico , Pneumonia em Organização , Fotoquimioterapia , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Disco Óptico/ ...
Organizing Pneumonia (see Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia, [[Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia]]) *Acebutolol (Sectral, Prent ... Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia. Retrospective study of 19 cases. Rev Pneumol Clin 1998; 54: 136-143 [ ... Atenolol-induced interstitial pneumonia. Ann Intern Med 1997; 148: 505-507 [MEDLINE] ...
... and associated with the histopathologic and/or radiologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Of the seven listed ... progressive fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown cause, primarily occurring in older adults, limited to the lungs, ... nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial ... pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia), idiopathic pulmonary ...
Myers J, Colby T. Pathological manifestations of bronchiolitis, constrictive bronchiolitis, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, ... Antibiotic treatment of pneumonia and bronchiolitis. A prospective randomised study. Arch Dis Child 1984;59:1038-45. ... Desquamative interstitial pneumonia and respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease. Semin Respir Crit Care ... Cryptogenic constrictive bronchiolitis: a clinicopathologic study. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993;148:1093-101. ...
idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (mnemonic) * acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP). * cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) ... desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP). * non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) *fibrotic non-specific interstitial ... usual interstitial pneumonia / idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (UIP/IPF) *diagnostic HRCT criteria for UIP pattern - ATS/ERS/JRS/ ...
... cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) (see Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia), and lymphocytic interstitial ... High-resolution computed tomography features of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia. J Comput ... Idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia: a study of 22 patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Nov 1. 166(9):1235-9. [QxMD ... pneumonia (LIP) (see Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia).. Some forms of DPLD are related to occupational, environmental, drug ...
organizing pneumonia (i.e., bronchiolitis obliterans, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, etc.), or evidence of active ...
... the odds were Comparison between cryptogenic organizing pneumonia and connective tissue disease-related organizing pneumonia. ...
... (Pneumonia due to the Flu): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and ... Influenza pneumonia is a life-threatening complication of influenza virus infection, one of the most frequently encountered ... Learn more Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia (COP) Symptoms, Causes and Risk Factors The cause of COP is unknown and in most ... Pneumonia due to the Flu Influenza pneumonia is a life-threatening complication of influenza virus infection, one of the most ...
Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia (COP), Sarcoidosis, and Asbestosis.. Recent clinical trials have focused on testing new ... Types of Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) include Interstitial Pneumonia, IPF, Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonitis (lung ...
Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. *Thrombosis. *Duodenal wound-blunt trauma. *Children. *Wheat. University/Institution. ...
  • Other major histopathologic forms of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias include the following: desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease (RBILD), acute interstitial pneumonitis (AIP), also known as Hamman-Rich syndrome, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) (see Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia ), and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) (see Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia ). (medscape.com)
  • CFA is a now an outdated term more recently subdivided into separate specific entities, and as such Nicholson and colleagues reclassified these patients into UIP, NSIP, and desquamative interstitial pneumonia/respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (DIP/RBILD, the smoking-related ILDs) diagnoses. (radiologykey.com)
  • Types of Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) include Interstitial Pneumonia, IPF, Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonitis (lung disease often present with an autoimmune condition such as Rheumatoid Arthritis or Scleroderma), Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis, Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia (COP), Sarcoidosis, and Asbestosis. (thelungresearchcenter.com)
  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia Community-acquired pneumonia is defined as pneumonia that is acquired outside the hospital. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common infectious diseases and an important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is a disorder of unknown etiology characterized by an abnormal, chronic accumulation of eosinophils in the lung. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In adult ILD, the diagnostic emphasis is on distinguishing fibrotic from inflammatory entities, in particular distinguishing the specific diagnosis of IPF-defined by the histologic pattern known as usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)-from other ILD diagnoses. (radiologykey.com)
  • The term "typical" CAP refers to a bacterial pneumonia caused by pathogens such as S pneumoniae , H influenzae , and M catarrhalis . (medscape.com)
  • For this reason, a clear distinction between primary influenza pneumonia and secondary bacterial pneumonia may be difficult to make. (symptoma.com)
  • That can be bacterial pneumonia that can develop after they've had the flu. (symptoma.com)
  • Nicholson and colleagues reviewed the histopathology specimens from 78 patients diagnosed with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) in the late 1970s to the 1980s. (radiologykey.com)
  • Another category of DPLDs includes granulomatous forms, such as sarcoidosis (see Sarcoidosis ), and hypersensitivity pneumonia (HSP) (see Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis ). (medscape.com)
  • Overview of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are interstitial lung diseases of unknown etiology that share similar clinical and radiologic features and are distinguished primarily by the histopathologic. (msdmanuals.com)
  • [6] In the case presented, the specific etiology was unyielding and so remains cryptogenic in nature. (authorea.com)
  • Influenza pneumonia is a life-threatening complication of influenza virus infection, one of the most frequently encountered infections in clinical practice. (symptoma.com)
  • Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia is an idiopathic condition in which granulation tissue obstructs alveolar ducts and alveolar spaces with chronic inflammation occurring in adjacent alveoli. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Diagnosis of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia requires imaging tests and, if the diagnosis is not otherwise clear, lung biopsy. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Overview of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are interstitial lung diseases of unknown etiology that share similar clinical and radiologic features and are distinguished primarily by the histopathologic. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Smoking is also related to other idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) including familial pulmonary fibrosis (FPF), respiratory bronchiolitis associated interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), and desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP). (nationaljewish.org)
  • Occult connective tissue diseases mimicking idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. (medscape.com)
  • Martinez FJ, Flaherty K. Pulmonary function testing in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. (medscape.com)
  • American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society International Multidisciplinary Consensus Classification of the Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias. (medscape.com)
  • Kim DS, Collard HR, King TE Jr. Classification and natural history of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. (medscape.com)
  • Histologic spectrum of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. (medscape.com)
  • Radiographic findings of computed axial tomography, results of bronchoscopy and a lung biopsy were consistent with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. (medscape.com)
  • Diagnosis of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia requires imaging tests and, if the diagnosis is not otherwise clear, lung biopsy. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is a disorder of unknown etiology characterized by an abnormal, chronic accumulation of eosinophils in the lung. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Do all cryptogenic organizing pneumonias require lung biopsy and steroid treatment? (nih.gov)
  • Second harmonic generation microscopy reveals altered collagen microstructure in usual interstitial pneumonia versus healthy lung. (nih.gov)
  • Patient 1, a 7-year-old girl with a history of recurrent life-threatening pulmonary infections and post-infectious pneumatocele formation, developed pulmonary aspergillosis day +28 post-BMT with concomitant eosinophilic pneumonia requiring systemic corticosteroids and tocilizumab. (nih.gov)
  • It is not understood why some pulmonary fibroses such as cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) respond well to treatment, while others like usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) do not. (nih.gov)
  • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia: imaging diagnosis, spectrum of abnormalities, and temporal progression. (medscape.com)
  • Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP)--a leading disease in pneumology in the last decade]. (nih.gov)
  • Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP pattern) is characterized by classic bronchiolitis obliterans, with intraluminal polyps affecting mainly respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts. (elsevierpure.com)
  • At 11.5 months post-BMT, she developed pneumococcal sepsis and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. (nih.gov)
  • Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia is an idiopathic condition in which granulation tissue obstructs alveolar ducts and alveolar spaces with chronic inflammation occurring in adjacent alveoli. (msdmanuals.com)
  • We concluded that there is a recognizable potentially life-threatening toxicity due to organizing pneumonia secondary to azacitidine in the setting of myelodysplasia syndrome treatment. (medscape.com)
  • It is characterized by a dramatic onset of a "pneumonia-like" illness with cough, fever, malaise, fatigue, and weight loss. (nih.gov)
  • ALVR109, an off-the-shelf partially HLA matched SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell therapy, to treat refractory severe COVID-19 pneumonia in a heart transplant patient: Case report. (ucdenver.edu)
  • The term "typical" CAP refers to a bacterial pneumonia caused by pathogens such as S pneumoniae , H influenzae , and M catarrhalis . (medscape.com)
  • We present an extremely rare case of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia following therapy with azacitidine and a review of the relevant literature. (medscape.com)
  • 7. Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia in Sweet's syndrome: case report and review of the literature. (nih.gov)
  • 16. [Case of organizing pneumonia associated with sweet's syndrome]. (nih.gov)
  • Characterisation of patients with interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features. (medscape.com)
  • An official European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society research statement: interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features. (medscape.com)
  • Few patients survive to adulthood as most die from pneumonia and cardiovascular collapse. (debbietaylor.biz)