A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella bacillispora.
Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.
Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.
Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC 3.1.1.5.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
An extracellular layer outside the cell wall of a fungus composed of polysaccharides. It may serve a protective role amongst others.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
Cell wall components constituting a polysaccharide core found in fungi. They may act as antigens or structural substrates.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Meningitis caused by fungal agents which may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.
The enzyme catalyzing the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphoric acid (orotidylic acid) from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate in the course of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. EC 2.4.2.10.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.
Techniques used in microbiology.
The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.
A mitosporic Onygenales fungal genus causing HISTOPLASMOSIS in humans and animals. Its single species is Histoplasma capsulatum which has two varieties: H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and H. capsulatum var. duboisii. Its teleomorph is AJELLOMYCES capsulatus.
A genus of onygenacetous mitosporic fungi whose perfect state is Ajellomyces (see ONYGENALES). The species Blastomyces dermatitidis (perfect state Ajellomyces dermatitidis) causes blastomycosis.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
An NADPH-dependent P450 enzyme that plays an essential role in the sterol biosynthetic pathway by catalyzing the demethylation of 14-methyl sterols such as lanosterol. The enzyme acts via the repeated hydroxylation of the 14-methyl group, resulting in its stepwise conversion into an alcohol, an aldehyde and then a carboxylate, which is removed as formic acid. Sterol 14-demethylase is an unusual cytochrome P450 enzyme in that it is found in a broad variety of organisms including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and protozoa.
Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.
A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.
A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.

BE-31405, a new antifungal antibiotic produced by Penicillium minioluteum. I. Description of producing organism, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties. (1/1887)

A new antifungal antibiotic, BE-31405, was isolated from the culture broth of a fungal strain, Penicillium minioluteum F31405. BE-31405 was isolated by adsorption on high porous polymer resin (Diaion HP-20), followed by solvent extraction, precipitation and crystallization. BE-31405 showed potent growth inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungal strains such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, but did not show cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells such as P388 mouse leukemia. The mechanism studies indicated that BE-31405 inhibited the protein synthesis of C. albicans but not of mammalian cells.  (+info)

In-vivo therapeutic efficacy in experimental murine mycoses of a new formulation of deoxycholate-amphotericin B obtained by mild heating. (2/1887)

Heat-induced 'superaggregation' of deoxycholate-amphotericin B (AmB-DOC, Fungizone) was shown previously to reduce the in-vitro toxicity of this antifungal agent. We compared AmB-DOC with the formulation obtained by heating the commercial form (Fungizone, Bristol Myers Squibb, Paris, France) for 20 min at 70 degrees C, in the treatment of murine infections. An improvement of antifungal activity was obtained with heated AmB-DOC formulations due to a lower toxicity which allowed the administration of higher drug doses than those achievable with the commercial preparation. Single intravenous injections of heated AmB-DOC solutions were demonstrated to be two-fold less toxic than unheated ones to healthy mice. For mice infected with Candida albicans, the maximum tolerated dose was higher with heated than with unheated AmB-DOC solutions. In the model of murine candidiasis, following a single dose of heated AmB-DOC 0.5 mg/kg, 85% of mice survived for 3 weeks, whereas at this dose the immediate toxicity of the standard formulation in infected mice restricted the therapeutic efficacy to 25% survival. Both formulations were equally effective in increasing the survival time for murine cryptococcal pneumonia and meningoencephalitis. Injection of heated AmB-DOC solutions at a dose two-fold higher than the maximal tolerated dose observed with the unheated preparation (1.2 mg/kg) increased the survival time by a factor of 1.4 in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. These results indicate that mild heat treatment of AmB-DOC solutions could provide a simple and economical method to improve the therapeutic index of this antifungal agent by reducing its toxicity on mammalian cells.  (+info)

Variants of a Cryptococcus neoformans strain elicit different inflammatory responses in mice. (3/1887)

The virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates with high and low extracellular proteolytic activity was investigated in mice. No consistent relationship between proteolytic activity and virulence was observed, but isolates derived from one strain were shown to elicit different inflammatory responses.  (+info)

Serotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from clinical and environmental sources in Spain. (4/1887)

We determined biovars and serotypes of 154 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from clinical and environmental sources from different areas of Spain. All clinical isolates belonged to C. neoformans var. neoformans. Serotypes showed an irregular distribution. C. neoformans var. gattii serotype B was isolated from necropsy specimens from goats with pulmonary disease.  (+info)

Cryptococcus neoformans differential gene expression detected in vitro and in vivo with green fluorescent protein. (5/1887)

Synthetic green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used as a reporter to detect differential gene expression in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Promoters from the C. neoformans actin, GAL7, or mating-type alpha pheromone (MFalpha1) genes were fused to GFP, and the resulting reporter genes were used to assess gene expression in serotype A C. neoformans. Yeast cells containing an integrated pACT::GFP construct demonstrated that the actin promoter was expressed during vegetative growth on yeast extract-peptone-dextrose medium. In contrast, yeast cells containing the inducible GAL7::GFP or MFalpha1::GFP reporter genes expressed significant GFP activity only during growth on galactose medium or V-8 agar, respectively. These findings demonstrated that the GAL7 and MFalpha1 promoters from a serotype D C. neoformans strain function when introduced into a serotype A strain. Because the MFalpha1 promoter is induced by nutrient deprivation and the MATalpha locus containing the MFalpha1 gene has been linked with virulence, yeast cells containing the pMFalpha1::GFP reporter gene were analyzed for GFP expression in the central nervous system (CNS) of immunosuppressed rabbits. In fact, significant GFP expression from the MFalpha1::GFP reporter gene was detected after the first week of a CNS infection. These findings suggest that there are temporal, host-specific cues that regulate gene expression during infection and that the MFalpha1 gene is induced during the proliferative stage of a CNS infection. In conclusion, GFP can be used as an effective and sensitive reporter to monitor specific C. neoformans gene expression in vitro, and GFP reporter constructs can be used as an approach to identify a novel gene(s) or to characterize known genes whose expression is regulated during infection.  (+info)

Heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) as a major target of the antibody response in patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. (6/1887)

Cryptococcus neoformans causes infection in individuals with defective T cell function, such as AIDS, as well as without underlying disease. It has been suggested that humoral as well as cellular immunity might play an important role in the immune response to C. neoformans infection. We have recently shown, using immunoblotting, that the 70-kD hsp family of C. neoformans was the major target molecule of the humoral response in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis. In this study we also used immunoblotting to define the antibody responses in the sera of 24 patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis: 21 proven and three suspected diagnoses. Anti-C. neoformans hsp70 antibody was detected in 16 of 24 (66.7%) patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. Fourteen of 17 (82.3%) patients with high antigen titres (> or = 1:8) and two of seven (28.6%) patients with low titres (< or = 1:4) had detectable levels of anti-hsp70 antibody. Sera from patients positive for anti-hsp70 antibody showed high titres in the Eiken latex agglutination test for the detection of serum cryptococcal antigen. Our results indicate that the 70-kD hsp family from C. neoformans appears to be a major target molecule of the humoral response, not only in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis, but also in human patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis.  (+info)

Role of the C-C chemokine, TCA3, in the protective anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune response. (7/1887)

Activated T lymphocytes play a crucial role in orchestrating cellular infiltration during a cell-mediated immune (CMI) reaction. TCA3, a C-C chemokine, is produced by Ag-activated T cells and is chemotactic for neutrophils and macrophages, two cell types in a murine CMI reaction. Using a gelatin sponge model for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), we show that TCA3 is a component of the expression phase of an anticryptococcal CMI response in mice. TCA3 mRNA levels are augmented in anticryptococcal DTH reactions at the same time peak influxes of neutrophils and lymphocytes are observed. Neutralization of TCA3 in immunized mice results in reduced numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes at DTH reaction sites. However, when rTCA3 is injected into sponges in naive mice, only neutrophils are attracted into the sponges, indicating TCA3 is chemotactic for neutrophils, but not lymphocytes. We show that TCA3 is indirectly attracting lymphocytes into DTH-reactive sponges by affecting at least one other chemokine that is chemotactic for lymphocytes. Of the two lymphocyte-attracting chemokines assessed, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), only MIP-1alpha was reduced when TCA3 was neutralized, indicating that TCA3 affects the levels of MIP-1alpha, which attracts lymphocytes into the sponges. TCA3 also plays a role in protection against Cryptococcus neoformans in the lungs and brains of infected mice, as evidenced by the fact that neutralization of TCA3 results in increased C. neoformans CFU in those two organs.  (+info)

Antibody response to Cryptococcus neoformans proteins in rodents and humans. (8/1887)

The prevalence and specificity of serum antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans proteins was studied in mice and rats with experimental infection, in individuals with or without a history of potential laboratory exposure to C. neoformans, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals who developed cryptococcosis, in matched samples from HIV-positive individuals who did not develop cryptococcosis, and in HIV-negative individuals. Rodents had little or no serum antibody reactive with C. neoformans proteins prior to infection. The intensity and specificity of the rodent antibody response were dependent on the species, the mouse strain, and the viability of the inoculum. All humans had serum antibodies reactive with C. neoformans proteins regardless of the potential exposure, the HIV infection status, or the subsequent development of cryptococcosis. Our results indicate (i) a high prevalence of antibodies reactive with C. neoformans proteins in the sera of rodents after cryptococcal infection and in humans with or without HIV infection; (ii) qualitative and quantitative differences in the antibody profiles of HIV-positive individuals; and (iii) similarities and differences between humans, mice, and rats with respect to the specificity of the antibodies reactive with C. neoformans proteins. The results are consistent with the view that C. neoformans infections are common in human populations, and the results have implications for the development of vaccination strategies against cryptococcosis.  (+info)

Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyping of isolates of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans suggested a considerable genetic divergence between the varieties C. neoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. grubii on the one hand versus C. neoformans var. gattii on the other. This divergence is supported by additional phenotypic, biochemical, clinical and molecular differences. Therefore, the authors propose the existence of two species, C. neoformans (Sanfelice) Vuillemin and C. bacillisporus Kwon-Chung, which differ in geographical distribution, serotypes and ecological origin. Within each species three AFLP genotypes occur, which differ in geographical distribution and serotypes. Differences in ecological origin (AIDS patients, non-AIDS patients, animals or the environment) were found to be statistically not significant. In C. neoformans as well as in C. bacillisporus one of the genotypes represented a hybrid. The occurrence of hybridization has consequences for the
The lysis of infected cells by disease-causing microorganisms is an efficient but risky strategy for disseminated infection, as it exposes the pathogen to the full repertoire of the hosts immune system. Cryptococcus neoformans is a widespread fungal pathogen that causes a fatal meningitis in HIV and other immunocompromised patients. Following intracellular growth, cryptococci are able to escape their host cells by a non-lytic expulsive mechanism that may contribute to the invasion of the central nervous system. Non-lytic escape is also exhibited by some bacterial pathogens and is likely to facilitate long-term avoidance of the host immune system during latency. Here we show that phagosomes containing intracellular cryptococci undergo repeated cycles of actin polymerisation. These actin flashes occur in both murine and human macrophages and are dependent on classical WASP-Arp2/3 complex mediated actin filament nucleation. Three dimensional confocal imaging time lapse revealed that such flashes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Radial mass density, charge, and epitope distribution in the Cryptococcus neoformans capsule. AU - Maxson, Michelle E.. AU - Dadachova, Ekaterina. AU - Casadevall, Arturo. AU - Zaragoza, Oscar. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2007/1. Y1 - 2007/1. N2 - Exposure of Cryptococcus neoformans cells to gamma radiation results in a gradual release of capsnlar polysaccharide, in a dose-dependent manner. This method allows the systematic exploration of different capsular regions. Using this methodology, capsule density was determined to change according to the radial distribution of glacuronoxylomaman and total polysaccharide, becoming denser at the inner regions of the capsule. Scanning electron microscopy of cells following gamma radiation treatment confirmed this finding. The zeta potential of the capsule also increased as the capsule size decreased. However, neither charge nor density differences were correlated with any change in sugar ...
MELO, Natalina Takahashi de et al. Biotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans. Review of the literature. New epidemiologic informations about cryptococcosis. Our experience with the utilization of C.G.B medium in this yeast. Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo [online]. 1993, vol.35, n.5, pp.469-478. ISSN 1678-9946. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-46651993000500015.. The purpose of this work was to collect the main information from the literature about the biotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans. The more up-to date research concerning the epidemiology of cryptococcosis comprising quite a few articles, mainly after the advent of AIDS, was also reviewed. The Cryptococcus neoformans varieties neoformans and gattii are well defined biochemically nowadays chiefly through the C.G.B. medium, according to KWON-CHUNG et al. (1982)24. The isolation of C. neoformans var. gattii from flowers and leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus tereticornis, specially in Australia, through the works of ELLIS & PFEIFFER ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - First identification of autochthonous Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii isolated from goats with predominantly severe pulmonary disease in Spain. AU - Baró, Teresa. AU - Torres-Rodríguez, Josep M.. AU - De Mendoza, Miguel Hermoso. AU - Morera, Yolanda. AU - Alía, Concepción. PY - 1998/2/1. Y1 - 1998/2/1. N2 - Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii is associated with Eucalyptus trees growing in various tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The identification of 13 autochthonous strains of C. neoformans var. gattii in Spain is reported. These strains were isolated from lung (10 samples), liver (1 sample), and brain (2 samples) tissue specimens from six goats suffering from predominantly severe pulmonary disease that were autopsied. The animals were members of five different herds of goats grazing in rural areas of the province of Caceres (Extremadura, Spain). Between 1990 and 1994, there were five outbreaks, in which between 2.5 and 12% of the goats were affected. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cryptococcus neoformans virulence is enhanced after growth in the genetically malleable host Dictyostelium discoideum. AU - Steenbergen, Judith N.. AU - Nosanchuk, Joshua D.. AU - Malliaris, Stephanie D.. AU - Casadevall, Arturo. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2003/9/1. Y1 - 2003/9/1. N2 - Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated, environmental fungus that can cause life-threatening meningitis. Pathogenicity of C. neoformans for macrophages and vertebrate hosts may be a mechanism selected in evolution for protection against environmental predators. In this study, we investigated whether Dictyostelium discoideum could serve as an alternate host for C. neoformans. D. discoideum has a defined genetic system which provides significant advantages for the study of fungus-amoeba interactions. Our results show that D. discoideum is susceptible to infection with C. neoformans and that the interactions are similar to those described previously ...
Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii ATCC ® 208821D-2™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii strain H99JP [ATCC ® 208821™] Application:
Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A is responsible for the majority of cryptococcal infections in AIDS patients. In France, approximately 17% of the patients
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antibody-mediated immobilization of Cryptococcus neoformans promotes biofilm formation. AU - Robertson, Emma J.. AU - Casadevall, Arturo. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2009/4. Y1 - 2009/4. N2 - Most microbes, including the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, can grow as biofilms. Biofilms confer upon microbes a range of characteristics, including an ability to colonize materials such as shunts and catheters and increased resistance to antibiotics. Here, we provide evidence that coating surfaces with a monoclonal antibody to glucuronoxylomannan, the major component of the fungal capsular polysaccharide, immobilizes cryptococcal cells to a surface support and, subsequently, promotes biofilm formation. We used time-lapse microscopy to visualize the growth of cryptococcal biofilms, generating the first movies of fungal biofilm growth. We show that when fungal cells are immobilized using surface-attached specific antibody to the capsule, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antibody-mediated protection in murine Cryptococcus neoformans infection is associated with pleotrophic effects on cytokine and leukocyte responses. AU - Feldmesser, Marta. AU - Mednick, Aron. AU - Casadevall, Arturo. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Cryptococcus neoformans, an encapsulated yeast, is a common cause of life-threatening meningoencephalitis in immunosuppressed patients. We previously observed that administration of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to the capsular polysaccharide to mice with pulmonary infection prolonged survival and enhanced granulomatous inflammation without reducing lung CFU. To understand the mechanism of MAb action, we studied leukocyte recruitment and cytokine profiles in lungs of A/JCr mice. B lymphocytes were the predominant cell type in lung infiltrates, comprising 15 to 30% of the leukocytes. Despite alterations in histological appearance, fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis revealed no significant difference in total numbers of lung ...
Strains and cell growth: C. neoformans was grown with continuous shaking at 30° in YPD medium [1% (w/v) Bacto yeast extract; 2% (w/v) peptone, 2% dextrose] or minimal medium lacking uracil (Ausubelet al. 2001). Low adenine plates contained yeast nitrogen base supplemented with (per liter) 20 g glucose; 24 mg uracil; 40 mg each arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, and tryrosine; 60 mg phenylalanine and tryptophan; 120 mg homoserine; 180 mg valine; and 10 mg adenine. For experiments using 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA), plates contained the same medium with adenine raised to 40 mg/liter and the addition of 1 g/liter 5-FOA. Wild-type serotype D strain B4500 and cap59 strain TYCC33 (Chang and Kwon-Chung 1994) were from Dr. June Kwon-Chung (National Institutes of Health), and ura5 strain JEC43 (Wickeset al. 1997) was from Dr. Joseph Heitman (Duke University Medical Center). JEC43 cells transformed with a control plasmid alone (CIP-GUST.Cla.Kpn; see below) are designated ...
We have recently identified peptide mimetics of the Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide by screening phage display peptide libraries. 2H1, one of a large family of mAbs against the glucuronoxylomannan fraction (GXM), is highly protective and binds several peptide motifs. This study analyzes the immunologic properties of P601E (SYSWMYE), a peptide from the low affinity motif (W/YXWM/LYE) that has an extended cross-reactivity among anti-GXM mAbs and whose binding correlates with the protective potential of mAbs in experimental infection. P601E is a mimetic, since it competes for GXM binding to 2H1, but not a mimotope, since it does not elicit an anti-GXM response. Sequence analysis of 14 anti-P601E mAbs indicates that anti-P601E mAbs elicited in BALB/c mice have an order of homology with 2H1 of V kappa | J kappa || V(H) | J(H) | D. Further screening of a peptide library with anti-P601E mAbs isolated peptides having a motif almost identical to the peptide motif selected by 2H1. When these
A polysaccharide capsule is one of the most important virulence factors for the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. We previously characterized two capsule-associated genes,CAP59 and CAP64. To further dissect the molecular mechanism of capsule synthesis, 16 acapsular mutants induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide were obtained. The acapsular phenotype of one of these mutants was complemented. The cloned gene was designatedCAP60, and deletion of this newly described capsule-associated gene resulted in an acapsular phenotype. The proposed 67-kDa Cap60p contains 592 amino acids and appears to have a putative transmembrane domain close to the N terminus. DNA sequence analysis revealed that CAP60 has similarity toCAP59 at the center portion of its coding regions. Contour-clamped homogeneous electric field blot analysis suggested that these two genes are on the same chromosome. CAP60 andCAP59, however, could not be functionally substituted for each other by direct complementation or by domain swap ...
Background Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that causes cryptococcosis, a life threatening disease. The prevalence of cryptococcosis in Asia has been rising after the onset of the AIDS epidemic and estimates indicate more than 120 cases per 1,000 HIV-infected individuals per year. Almost all cryptococcal disease cases in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients in Asia are caused by C. neoformans var. grubii. Epidemiological studies on C. neoformans in pan-Asia have not been reported. The present work studies the genetic diversity of the fungus by microsatellite typing and susceptibility analysis of approximately 500 isolates from seven Asian countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Genetic diversity of Asian isolates of C. neoformans was determined using microsatellite analysis with nine microsatellite markers. The analysis revealed eight microsatellite complexes (MCs) which showed different distributions among geographically defined populations. A correlation between MCs and
Our studies define the elements of a signal transduction cascade that controls the production of virulence factors and pathogenicity ofC. neoformans. The Pka1 catalytic subunit of PKA regulates mating, melanin and capsule production, and virulence. The Pkr1 regulatory subunit of PKA is also a critical component, and mutants lacking Pkr1 overproduced capsule and were hypervirulent by several measures in two different animal models. pkr1 mutant cells also produced dramatically enlarged capsules during infection, and both the larger capsule size and the increased release of immunosuppressive capsular polysaccharides likely contribute to enhanced virulence.. Epistasis analysis further supports the conclusion that the Gα protein Gpa1 is an upstream controlling element for this signaling pathway and that the Ste12α transcription factor may represent one of several downstream targets of PKA that regulate differentiation and virulence. One interesting finding is that mutants with defects in an ...
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Unique clinical characteristics and other variables influencing the outcome of Cryptococcus neoformans infection in organ transplant recipients have not been well defined. From a review of published reports, we found that C. neoformans infection was documented in 2.8% of organ transplant recipients (overall death rate 42%). The type of primary immunosuppressive agent used in transplantation influenced the predominant clinical manifestation of cryptococcosis. Patients receiving tacrolimus were significantly less likely to have central nervous system involvement (78% versus 11%, p =0.001) and more likely to have skin, soft-tissue, and osteoarticular involvement (66% versus 21%, p = 0.006) than patients receiving nontacrolimus-based immunosuppression. Renal failure at admission was the only independently significant predictor of death in these patients (odds ratio 16.4, 95% CI 1.9 - 143, p = 0.004). Hypotheses based on these data may elucidate the pathogenesis and may ultimately guide the management of C.
Innate immunity plays an important role for fungal recognition and initiation of fungicidal activity. We hypothesize that subtle differences in different molecules of innate immunity may contribute to either the predisposition or clinical course of infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. To test this hypothesis, we propose to analyze the allelic frequencies of 15 different genes (mannose binding lectin, Fc-gamma receptor IIa and IIb, Fc-gamma receptors IIIa and IIIb, myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and -beta, interleukin 1A and 1B, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-10, NRAMP-1, chitotriosidase, and chemokine receptor 5) and their intragenic polymorphic forms and to compare this data to the incidence and severity of C neoformans infection. With this study we hope to identify a group of molecules of innate immunity which influence the risk and severity of invasive C neoformans infection ...
Innate immunity plays an important role for fungal recognition and initiation of fungicidal activity. We hypothesize that subtle differences in different molecules of innate immunity may contribute to either the predisposition or clinical course of infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. To test this hypothesis, we propose to analyze the allelic frequencies of 15 different genes (mannose binding lectin, Fc-gamma receptor IIa and IIb, Fc-gamma receptors IIIa and IIIb, myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and -beta, interleukin 1A and 1B, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-10, NRAMP-1, chitotriosidase, and chemokine receptor 5) and their intragenic polymorphic forms and to compare this data to the incidence and severity of C neoformans infection. With this study we hope to identify a group of molecules of innate immunity which influence the risk and severity of invasive C neoformans infection ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sre1p, a regulator of oxygen sensing and sterol homeostasis, is required for virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans. AU - Chang, Yun C.. AU - Bien, Clara M.. AU - Lee, Hyeseung. AU - Espenshade, Peter J.. AU - Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.. PY - 2007/5/1. Y1 - 2007/5/1. N2 - Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental pathogen requiring atmospheric levels of oxygen for optimal growth. Upon inhalation, C. neoformans disseminates to the brain and causes meningoencephalitis, but the mechanisms by which the pathogen adapts to the low-oxygen environment in the brain have not been investigated. We found that SRE1, a homologue of the mammalian sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), functions in an oxygen-sensing pathway. Low oxygen decreased sterol synthesis in C. neoformans and triggered activation of membrane-bound Sre1p by the cleavage-activating protein, Scp1p. Microarray and Northern blot analysis demonstrated that under low oxygen, Sre1p activates genes required for ergosterol ...
Cryptococcus neoformans is a human-pathogenic fungus that has evolved into three distinct varieties that infect most prominently the central nervous system. A sexual cycle involving haploid cells of a and alpha mating types has been reported for two varieties (C. neoformans var. neoformans, serotype …
Infection wif C. neoformans is termed cryptococcosis. Most infections wif C. neoformans occur in de wungs.[12] However, fungaw meningitis and encephawitis, especiawwy as a secondary infection for AIDS patients, are often caused by C. neoformans, making it a particuwarwy dangerous fungus. Infections wif dis fungus are rare in dose wif fuwwy functioning immune systems.[13] So, C. neoformans is sometimes referred to as an opportunistic fungus.[13] It is a facuwtative intracewwuwar padogen[14] dat can utiwize host phagocytes to spread widin de body.[15][16] Cryptococcus neoformans was de first intracewwuwar padogen for which de non-wytic escape process termed vomocytosis was observed.[17][18] It has been specuwated dat dis abiwity to manipuwate host cewws resuwts from environmentaw sewective pressure by amoebae, a hypodesis first proposed by Arturo Casadevaww under de term accidentaw viruwence.[19]. In human infection, C. neoformans is spread by inhawation of aerosowized basidiospores, and can ...
Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Basidiomycota; Agaricomycotina; Tremellomycetes; Tremellales; Cryptococcaceae; Cryptococcus; Cryptococcus neoformans species ...
Cryptococcus neoformans CAP59 protein: involved in capsule formation which is essential for virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank L26508
Antibody-mediated defense against pathogens typically requires complex interactions between antibodies and other constituents of the humoral and cellular immune systems. However, recent evidence indicates that some antibodies alone can inhibit pathogen function in the absence of complement, phagocytes, or NK cells. In this issue of the JCI, McClelland et al. have begun to elucidate the molecular bases by which antibodies alone can impact pathogen growth and metabolism. They show that mAbs specific for the polysaccharide capsule of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans elicit diverse effects on fungal gene expression, lipid biosynthesis, susceptibility to amphotericin B, cellular metabolism, and protein phosphorylation. These data suggest that pathogens have the capacity to generate broad metabolic responses as a result of surface binding by pathogen-specific antibodies, effects that may hold therapeutic promise. ...
Antibody-mediated defense against pathogens typically requires complex interactions between antibodies and other constituents of the humoral and cellular immune systems. However, recent evidence indicates that some antibodies alone can inhibit pathogen function in the absence of complement, phagocytes, or NK cells. In this issue of the JCI, McClelland et al. have begun to elucidate the molecular bases by which antibodies alone can impact pathogen growth and metabolism. They show that mAbs specific for the polysaccharide capsule of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans elicit diverse effects on fungal gene expression, lipid biosynthesis, susceptibility to amphotericin B, cellular metabolism, and protein phosphorylation. These data suggest that pathogens have the capacity to generate broad metabolic responses as a result of surface binding by pathogen-specific antibodies, effects that may hold therapeutic promise. ...
Cryptococcus neoformans causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis in humans, but its overall biological and pathogenic regulatory circuits remain elusive,
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are unique in their general importance for conferring susceptibility or resistance to infectious and autoimmune diseases (5). It is unclear what keeps these demonstrably harmful genes from being eliminated by natural selection unless they provide some advantage, presumably against some other disease. The only way to unravel these interactions is to characterize the effects of MHC genes on a variety of pathogens and autoimmune diseases. The goal of this study was to experimentally test for an MHC-dependent susceptibility pattern during chronic Cryptococcus neoformans infections.. C. neoformans is a common, opportunistic pathogen that causes disease in immunocompromised individuals. Previous studies have found that various components of immunity are important in clearing a C. neoformans infection. These components include interleukin-12 (11), interleukin-18 (17), inducible nitric oxide synthase (2), gamma interferon (16), B cells (3), and T cells (7). ...
Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) is a major opportunistic fungal pathogen in individuals with impaired T cell-mediated immunity. Notch pathway is an important signaling component of immunological synapse during APC/T-cell engagement. Little is known about the role of Notch signaling in fungal infections. We sought to determine the role of Notch signaling in C. neoformans infection. Wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) and CD4-Cre+×ROSA DNMAML (DNMAML) mice were infected intratracheally infected with C. neoformans. The fungal burden, leukocyte recruitment, and cytokine profile were assessed at 3 and 6 weeks post-infection (wpi). A 50-fold greater fungal burden was detected in both lungs and brains of DNMAML mice compared to those in the WT mice at 6 wpi. Although, equivalent fungal burdens were found at 3 wpi in WT and DNMAML groups, the production of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-13 was significantly decreased in lung leukocytes of DNMAML mice. In contrast, an equivalent induction of IL-17 was observed in both ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plays a critical role in the control of cryptococcal infection, and its insufficiency promotes cryptococcal persistence. To explore the therapeutic potential of TNF-α supplementation as a booster of host anti-cryptococcal responses, we engineered a C. neoformans strain expressing murine TNF-α. Using a murine model of pulmonary cryptococcosis, we demonstrated that TNF-α-producing C. neoformans strain enhances protective elements of host response including preferential T-cell accumulation and improved Th1/Th2 cytokine balance, diminished pulmonary eosinophilia and alternative activation of lung macrophages at the adaptive phase of infection compared to wild type strain-infected mice. Furthermore, TNF-α expression by C. neoformans enhanced the fungicidal activity of macrophages in vitro. Finally, mice infected with the TNF-α-producing C. neoformans strain showed improved fungal control and considerably prolonged survival compared to wild type strain-infected mice,
P. multocida is the causative agent of a wide range of diseases of animals, including fowl cholera in birds. Fowl cholera isolates of P. multocida generally express a capsular polysaccharide composed of hyaluronic acid. There have been reports of spontaneous capsule loss in P. multocida fowl cholera-causing strains but the mechanism by which this occurs has not been determined. In this study, we identified three independent strains that had spontaneously lost the ability to produce capsular polysaccharide. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that these strains had significantly reduced transcription of the capsule biosynthetic genes, but DNA sequence analysis identified no mutations within the cap biosynthetic locus. However, whole genome sequencing of paired capsulated and acapsular strains identified a single nucleotide polymorphism within fis that was present only in the acapsular strain. Sequencing of fis from two independently derived spontaneous acapsular strains showed that each contained a mutation
pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLR) and C-type lectin recptors including Dectin-1. Previously, we indicated that neither TLR2 nor TLR4 was involved in the host defence to infection with Cryptococcus neoformans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen in AIDS patients (FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 47: 148-154, 2006). In the current study, we examined the role of Dectin-1, a receptor for β-glucan, in this response. Dectin-1-deficient mice were resistant to intratracheal and intravenous infection with C. neoformans at a comparable level to wild-type mice. IFN-γ production in lung an serum was not largely different between these mice. There was not significant difference in the synthesis of IL-12p40 and TNF-α by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells upon stimulation with this fungal pathogen. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Dectin-1 did not play a major role in the host protective responses to C. neoformans infection.. This work was ...
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Definition : Molecular assay reagents intended to identify Cryptococcus neoformans, a yeast-like species of imperfect fungi of the family Cryptococcaceae, by detecting specific nucleic-acid information (e.g., DNA, RNA) of the target microorganism. These fungi may cause cryptococcosis, a mycotic infection of the brain and meninges, which may also involve other organs such as the skin and lungs. The disease may progress by invading the central nervous system, lungs, liver, and spleen of immunocompromised patients.. Entry Terms : Cryptococcus Species Detection/Identification Reagents , Cryptococcus neoformans Reagents, Identification , Cryptococcus neoformans Detection/Identification Reagents , Reagents, Cryptococcus neoformans , Reagents, Molecular Assay, Infection, Fungi/Yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans. UMDC code : 19595 ...
Cryptococcus neoformans, a fungal pathogen of humans, causes fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Its virulence is mainly determined by the elaboration of a polysaccharide capsule surrounding its cell wall. During its life, C. neoformans is confronted with and responds to dramatic variations in CO2 concentrations; one important morphological change triggered by the shift from its natural habitat (0.033% CO2) to infected hosts (5% CO2) is the induction of capsule biosynthesis. In cells, CO2 is hydrated to bicarbonate in a spontaneous reaction that is accelerated by carbonic anhydrases. Here we show that C. neoformans contains two beta-class carbonic anhydrases, Can1 and Can2. We further demonstrate that CAN2, but not CAN1, is abundantly expressed and essential for the growth of C. neoformans in its natural environment, where CO2 concentrations are limiting. Structural studies reveal that Can2 forms a homodimer in solution. Our data reveal Can2 to be the main carbonic anhydrase and ...
The population structure of a sample of clinical isolates of C. neoformans serotype A from AIDS patients in Botswana was determined, and the results support hypotheses for both clonal expansion and recombination in this population. Clonal reproduction was previously recognized in C. neoformans, as strains with identical genotypes were isolated from the environment and infected humans (5, 7, 16). The overrepresentation in the population of certain genotypes is a common feature of clonal structure (44). In the sample analyzed here, five genotypes comprised 45% of the total number of isolates (Fig. 4). Another indication of clonality is the calculation of considerable linkage disequilibrium (or nonrandom association) among the loci in the population. The IA and the rd are calculated estimates of linkage disequilibrium (or nonrandom association) among the loci; if there is no association between the loci, these values approach zero, whereas these values are much higher in clonal populations. When ...
Objectives: Cryptococcal meningitis is the third-most-common opportunistic infection in HIV patients in Cambodia. Hospitalized patients were given amphotericin B for initial therapy followed by fluconazole for maintenance therapy. The antifungal drug susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was determined.. Methods: Isolates of C. neoformans were collected during active laboratory-based surveillance, the first batch from April 2000 to March 2001 (134 new cases), the second batch from April 2001 to March 2002 (268 new cases). Etest strips were used to determine the MICs of amphotericin B and fluconazole. The antigenic agglutination slide test was used for serotyping.. Results: The MIC50s and MIC90s of fluconazole changed significantly from year 2000 to 2002; the MIC50s increased from 4 to 12 mg/L, and the MIC90s from 12 to 96 mg/L. For amphotericin B, the MIC50s and MIC90s remained stable. Moreover, in the second batch, fluconazole MICs were ≥256 mg/L ...
Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic fungus that causes meningitis worldwide, particularly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Although amphotericin B is the gold standard treatment for cryptococcal meningitis, the toxicity and inconvenience of intravenous injection emphasize a need for development of new anticryptocccal drugs. Recent data from humans and animal studies suggested that a nutrient-deprived host environment may exist in cryptococcal meningitis. Thus, a screening assay for identifying fungicidal compounds under nutrient-deprived conditions may provide an alternative strategy to develop new anticryptococcal drugs for this disease. A high-throughput fungicidal assay was developed using a profluorescent dye, alamarBlue, to detect residual metabolic activity of C. neoformans under nutrient-limiting conditions. Screening the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) with this assay identified a potential chemical scaffold, 10058-F4, that exhibited ...
Pheromones and pheromone receptors have long been known to affect virulence of the opportunistic pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, yet it is still entirely uncl...
Aritreyee Datta*, Vikas Yadav*, ............, Kaustuv Sanyal, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy and Anirban Bhunia, Mode of Action of a Designed Antimicrobial Peptide: High Efficiency in Killing of the Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, Biophysical Journal 111, 1724 - 1737 (2016 ...
Abstract: Cryptococcus neoformans is a spherical, encapsulated, basidiomycetous yeast and the causative agent of cryptococcosis, a form of meningitis that affects the central nervous system of immunocompromised individuals (immunocompromised means patients with compromised immune systems). Since the 1980s and the emergence of the AIDS epidemic, much study has been concentrated on this fungus because cryptococcosis is 100% fatal in untreated patients. Even with treatment, the condition does not always decrease in severity, and no major advancements in antifungal drugs have been made in a decade. Recently, Cryptococcus has been shown to possess the necessary machinery for RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is a method of post-transcriptional gene silencing that may increase cryptococcal survival within mammalian hosts by controlling gene expression at various stages of the life cycle through heterochromatin and euchromatin rearrangement. RNAi was first described in Caenorhabditis elegans in 1998 by ...
Prx systems The Prx system is important for cellular processes associated with disulfide bond formation, the anti-oxidative stress response and pathogenesis of C. neoformans infection (47). Prxs, also known as thiol peroxidases, are 20-30 kDa-sized molecules that provide antioxidant protection by removing peroxides (47). Prxs may be classified into 1-Cys and 2-Cys subgroups (48). Following peroxidation, typical 2-Cys Prxs form homodimers through an intersubunit disulfide bridge, whereas atypical 2-Cys Prxs form an intramolecular disulfide bridge (48). By contrast, 1-Cys Prxs assume a monomeric form with a single active cysteine site (48). In a previous study, two Prxs, TSA1 and TSA3, were discovered in C. neoformans, of which TSA1 is highly conserved (48). In addition, the findings of Missall et al (48) indicated that Prxs were induced under oxidative and nitrosative stress and were critical for C. neoformans virulence in mice. Furthermore, their study demonstrated that deletion of TSA1, but not ...
The sexual cycle of C. neoformans has been studied for more than three decades, yet many aspects about the role of mating in the biology of this fungus remain to be resolved. One key example is a lack of knowledge about the events occurring in the basidium that result in nuclear reduction and the production of chains of spores, and the focus of this investigation. The ideal approach to examine spore production is a genetic one, i.e., by analyzing genetic markers in progeny derived from a single basidium. Just such an approach can be achieved by careful micromanipulation of the spores from the ends of basidia, and in this study the nature of the reductive event in the basidium is defined genetically by taking whole basidia and analyzing the phenotypes of all progeny.. Spores derived from 101 individual basidia were isolated and their phenotypes determined (Table 1). The data can be analyzed and interpreted in a number of ways: the interpretation placed here is that in a C. neoformans basidium ...
Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental encapsulated yeast that behaves as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. The capsule is the main virulence factor of this pathogen. This structure is highly dynamic, and it can change its size and structure according to the environmental conditions. During infection, C. neoformans significantly enlarges the size of the capsule by the addition of new polysaccharide. It is believed that capsule growth is an energy-cost process, but this aspect has never been addressed. In this work, we have evaluated the role of mitochondrial activity on capsule growth using specific inhibitors of the electron respiratory chain. We observed that capsule growth was impaired in the presence of inhibitors of the respiratory chain as salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) or antimycin A. Furthermore, capsule growth correlated with an increase of the mitochondrial membrane potential and higher production of reactive oxygen species. Our results confirm that capsule growth
TY - JOUR. T1 - G protein-coupled receptor Gpr4 senses amino acids and activates the cAMP-PKA pathway in Cryptococcus neoformans. AU - Xue, Chaoyang. AU - Bahn, Yong Sun. AU - Cox, Gary M.. AU - Heitman, Joseph. PY - 2006/2/1. Y1 - 2006/2/1. N2 - The Gα protein Gpa1 governs the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway and plays a central role in virulence and differentiation in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, but the signals and receptors that trigger this pathway were unknown. We identified seven putative proteins that share identity with known G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). One protein, Gpr4, shares limited sequence identity with the Dictyostelium discoideum cAMP receptor cAR1 and the Aspergillus nidulans GPCR protein GprH and also shares structural similarity with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae receptor Gpr1. gpr4 mutants exhibited reduced capsule production and mating defects, similar to gpa1 mutants, and exogenous cAMP suppressed both gpr4 mutant phenotypes. Epistasis analysis ...
Environmental isolations have established that Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii appears to have a specific ecological association with Eucalyptus camaldulensis. So far, we have isolated C. neoformans var. gattii on 35 separate occasions, all from samples associated with E. camaldulensis. The global distribution of E. camaldulensis appears to correspond to the epidemiologic distribution of cryptococcosis caused by C. neoformans var. gattii. No other environmental source for the fungus has yet been detected, and no other eucalypt has the distribution pattern corresponding to reported cases caused by this fungus. These findings may provided an explanation for the high incidence of infections caused by C. neoformans var. gattii in Australian aborigines living in the Northern Territory and for its low worldwide incidence in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. ...
INTRODUÇÃO. A criptococose é uma importante infecção oportunista, principalmente devido ao aumento do número de indivíduos imunocomprometidos, em especial aqueles infectados com HIV1,2. As espécies implicadas em grande parte dos casos são Cryptococcus neoformans e Cryptococcus gattii, causadoras de variadas formas clínicas da doença3,4,5. Neste contexto, indivíduos imunocompetentes podem adquirir a doença como micose primária, principalmente devido a C. gattii, em regiões tropicais e subtropicais6, bem como sob a forma de surtos7. Cryptococcus spp. são leveduras basidiomicetos, capsuladas, sapróbias do ambiente, sendo isoladas principalmente de excretas de aves e ocos de árvores, como por exemplo, eucalipto8 e Senna sp.9. C. neoformans é constituído pelos sorotipos A (tipos moleculares VNI, VNII), D (tipo molecular VNIV) e o híbrido AD (tipo molecular VNIII); C. gattii inclui o sorotipo B (tipos moleculares VGI, VGII, VGIII, VGIV) e o sorotipo C10,11,12.. Em Belém, Estado ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mapping of the Cryptococcus neoformans MATα locus. T2 - Presence of mating type-specific mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade homologs. AU - Karos, M.. AU - Chang, Y. C.. AU - McClelland, C. M.. AU - Clarke, D. L.. AU - Fu, J.. AU - Wickes, B. L.. AU - Kwon-Chung, K. J.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - In this study we investigated the relationship between the MATα locus of Cryptococcus neoformans and several MATα-specific mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signal transduction cascade genes, including STE12α, STE11α, and STE20α. To resolve the location of the genes, we screened a cosmid library of the MATα strain B-4500 (JEC21), which was chosen for the C. neoformans genome project. We isolated several overlapping cosmids spanning a region of about 71 kb covering the entire MATα locus. It was found that STE12α, STE11α, and STE20α are imbedded within the locus rather than closely linked to the locus. ...
Cryptococcosis, also known as cryptococcal disease is a potentially fatal fungal disease. It is caused by inhalation of an encapsulated yeast called Cryptococcus neoformans. Cryptococcosis is believed to be acquired by inhalation of the infectious propagule from the environment. Although the exact nature of the infectious propagule is unknown, the leading hypothesis is the basidiospore created through sexual or asexual reproduction.. Cryptococcosis market: Types of infection. There are three identified Cryptococcus strains that causes disease worldwide namely Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus grubii and Cryptococcus gattii. Exposure via respiratory or the gastrointestinal tract are considered as the most common and opportunistic pathway for the organism entry in the host. Cryptococcus neoformans can be found worldwide in soil, birds, animals and humans. Whereas, alternative route of administration can be through transplant of infected tissue, surgical instrument or laboratory instruments. ...
The following thesis is a composite of two separate research projects which were undertaken by the author for the award of an MRes in Molecular and Cellular Biology within the School of Biosciences at the University of Birmingham. Part one of this thesis will detail the first research project which sought to characterise the contribution of the enzyme phospholipase B to the intercellular lifecycle employed by the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans which has the ability to survive within the phagolysosome of immune cell macrophages. This project used cell culture and microscopy techniques as well as whole cell lipidomic analysis and found that many aspects of Cryptococcus neoformans parasitism of macrophages are modified by phospholipase B activity. Part two of this details the second project which examined the predatory bacteria Bdellovibrio bacteriovorous. This bacterium has a unique lifecycle which involves predation of other gram negative bacteria resulting in prey cell invasion and an ...
To assess the relationship between melanin production by Cryptococcus neoformans and virulence on a molecular basis, we asked: (a) is CNLAC1, the laccase structural gene of C. neoformans, expressed in vivo?; (b) can mouse virulence be restored to cnlac1 (Mel-) mutants by complementation with CNLAC1?; and (c) will targeted gene deletion of CNLAC1 decrease virulence for mice? Melanin is produced when cryptococcal laccase catalyzes the oxidation of certain aromatic compounds, including L-dopa, to quinones, which then polymerize to melanin. To assess CNLAC1 transcription, RNA was extracted from C. neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid of infected rabbits. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction detected CNLAC1 transcript, indicating that laccase may be produced in the infected host. To assess the effect of CNLAC1 deletion on virulence, a Mel- mutant (10S) was obtained by disruption of the 5 end of the gene. After multiple backcrosses with a parental strain to remove unintended genetic defects ...
0141] FIGS. 5A to 5E are bar charts showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, and the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, respectively, when treated with micelles formed from Example 1. FIGS. 6A to 6E are bar charts showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans as well as Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, respectively, when treated with micelles formed from Example 3. FIG. 7 is a bar chart showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis when treated with micelles formed from Example 2. Example 2 does not show a strong inhibition effect towards bacterial growth, having a MIC of higher than 66.4 micromole/L against Bacillus subtilis (FIG. 7). This is attributed to the polymer with the longest hydrophobic block precipitating ...
Studies indicate that the accuracy of correct identification of the C. gattii strains using d-proline assimilation tests (2, 3, 13, 31) or d-tryptophan assimilation tests (2, 3, 35) was favorable with the CGB (25) method. The assimilation assays are based on the fact that only the C. gattii strains utilized these d-amino acids as the sole nitrogen source. In some studies the accuracy of these tests approaches 99% but the assay was relatively slow because the formulation used low glucose concentrations (1 to 2%). The current study suggests that it is feasible to combine d-tryptophan and d-proline into a single medium to separate C. gattii from C. neoformans. The use of m-DTDP or YCB-DTDP increased the carbohydrate source from 2 to 4%, such that most C. gattii strains achieved growth in 1 to 3 days. The current limitation for growth is the nitrogen source. We suggest using YCB-DTDP agar or m-DTDP agar, since the accuracy is similar to those of previously published methods and test results are ...
Background Cryptococcus neoformans causes life-threatening meningitis. A recently introduced lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) to detect cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) is reportedly more rapid and convenient than standard latex agglutination (LA), but has not yet been evaluated in a diagnostic laboratory setting. Methods One hundred and six serum, 42 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and 20 urine samples from 92 patients with known or suspected cryptococcosis were tested by LA and LFA, and titres were compared. Results were correlated with laboratory-confirmed cryptococcosis. Serial samples were tested in nine treated patients. Results Twenty-five of 92 patients had confirmed cryptococcosis; all sera (n = 56) from these patients were positive by LFA (sensitivity 100%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 93.6-100%) compared with 51/56 positive by LA (sensitivity 91.1%, 95% CI 80.7-96.1%). Fifty sera from 67 patients without cryptococcosis tested negative in both assays. While LA yielded more false negative results (5/56
Cryptococcus neoformans, the causative fungal agent of cryptococcosis remain a common cause of infectious morbidity and mortality, especially among HIV-positive patients living in Sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia. This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence and clinical presentation of Cryptococcus infections among HIV positive and negative patients in RIMS, Manipur. Specimens like CSF, sputum, urine, blood, tissue biopsy or aspirates from clinically suspected cryptococcosis cases from RIMS hospital, were subjected to mycological examination. Out of the 48 patients enrolled for the study, Cryptococcus spp were isolated from 16 (33.33%) patients. Among these 16 cryptococcosis patients, majority of them presented with cryptococcal meningitis 13 (81.25%), while 1 (6.25%) patient each presented with cryptococcal lymphadenitis, disseminated cutaneous cryptococcosis and osseous cryptococcosis respectively. Also, of these 16 cryptococcosis patients, 14 (87.5%) were HIV positive. Among these HIV
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ssk2 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase governs divergent patterns of the stress-activated Hog1 signaling pathway in Cryptococcus neoformans. AU - Bahn, Yong Sun. AU - Geunes-Boyer, Scarlett. AU - Heitman, Joseph. PY - 2007/12. Y1 - 2007/12. N2 - The stress-activated p38/Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is structurally conserved in many diverse organisms, including fungi and mammals, and modulates myriad cellular functions. The Hog1 pathway is uniquely specialized to control differentiation and virulence factors in a majority of clinical Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A and D strains. Here, we identified and characterized the Ssk2 MAPKKK that functions upstream of the MAPKK Pbs2 and the MAPK Hog1 in C. neoformans. The SSK2 gene was identified as a potential component responsible for the difference in Hog1 phosphorylation between the serotype D f1 sibling strains B-3501 and B-3502 through comparative analysis of meiotic maps showing their meiotic ...
Cryptococcosis, also known as cryptococcal disease, is a potentially fatal fungal disease. It is caused by one of two species; Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. These were all previously thought to be subspecies of C. neoformans but have now been identified as distinct species. Cryptococcosis is believed to be acquired by inhalation of the infectious propagule from the environment. Although the exact nature of the infectious propagule is unknown, the leading hypothesis is the basidiospore created through sexual or asexual reproduction. Cryptococcosis is a defining opportunistic infection for AIDS, and is the second-most-common AIDS-defining illness in Africa. Other conditions that pose an increased risk include certain lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkins lymphoma), sarcoidosis, liver cirrhosis, and patients on long-term corticosteroid therapy. Distribution is worldwide in soil. The prevalence of cryptococcosis has been increasing over the past 20 years for many reasons, including the ...
Looking for Cryptococcus? Find out information about Cryptococcus. A genus of encapsulated pathogenic yeasts in the order Moniliales Explanation of Cryptococcus
Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic yeast infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans that remains the most common systemic fungal infection in immunosuppressed patients and often presents with signs of meningitis. Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis (PCC) is a more rare clinical identity that is characterized by skin lesions confined to 1 body region, often presenting as a whitlow or phlegmon with positive culture for C neoformans and no evidence of simultaneous dissemination. We report a rare case of PCC in a 73-year-old man with intact cell-mediated immunity. Read More ...
The study of fungal regulatory networks is essential to the understanding of how these pathogens respond to host environmental signals with effective virulence-associated traits. In this study, a virulence-associated DEAD-box RNA helicase-encoding gene (VAD1) was isolated from a mutant defective in the virulence factor laccase. A Deltavad1 mutant exhibited a profound reduction in virulence in a mouse model that was restored after reconstitution with WT VAD1. Loss of VAD1 resulted in upregulation of NOT1, a gene encoding a global repressor of transcription. NOT1 was found to act as an intermediary transcriptional repressor of laccase. Vad1 was located within macromolecular complexes that formed cytoplasmic granular bodies in mature cells and during infection of mouse brain. in addition, VAD1 was shown by in situ hybridization to be expressed in the brain of an AIDS patient coinfected with C. neoformans. To understand the role of VAD1 in virulence, a functional genomics approach was used to ...
Hughes, William S. (2015) Cryptococcus neoformans phospholipase B and its influence on fungal cell morphology AND A study into proteins proposed to be involved in C-di-GMP signalling and predation from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus - Bd1483, Bd1996, Bd2538 and Bd3100. M.Res. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Evans, Robert J. (2013) How does the expression of phospholipase B influence the host pathogen relationship between Cryptococcus neoformans and the macrophage? and An investigation into the properties of two Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus C-di-GMP metabolism proteins - Bd2325 and Bd1971. M.Res. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Ma, Hansong (2009) Intracellular parasitism of macrophages by Cryptococcus. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Smith, Leanne May (2015) Investigating phagosome dynamics of microbial pathogens. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Gilbert, Andrew Stephen (2017) Investigating the molecular mechanisms of vomocytosis. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Needs, ...
Results: 57 patients were studied. Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii molecular type VN1 caused 70% of infections; C. gattii accounted for the rest. Most patients did not have underlying disease (81%), and the rate of underlying disease did not differ by infecting species. 11 patients died while in-patients (19.3%). Independent predictors of death were age ≥ 60 years and a history of convulsions (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals 8.7 (1 - 76), and 16.1 (1.6 - 161) respectively). Residual visual impairment was common, affecting 25 of 46 survivors (54.3%). Infecting species did ...
The study of regulatory networks in human pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans provides insights into host-pathogen interactions that may allow for correlation of gene expression patterns with clinical outcomes. In the present study, deletion of the cryptococcal copper-dependent transcription factor 1 (Cuf1) led to defects in growth and virulence factor expression in low copper conditions. In mouse models, cuf1Δ strains exhibited reduced dissemination to the brain, but no change in lung growth, suggesting copper is limiting in neurologic infections. To examine this further, a biologic probe of available copper was constructed using the cryptococcal CUF1-dependent copper transporter, CTR4. Fungal cells demonstrated high CTR4 expression levels after phagocytosis by macrophage-like J774.16 cells and during infection of mouse brains, but not lungs, consistent with limited copper availability during neurologic infection. This was extended to human brain infections by demonstrating CTR4 ...
The risk of developing fungal meningitis from Cryptococcus neoformans rises dramatically when people have weakened immunity, due to HIV infection or other reasons including the use of immunosuppressive drugs after organ transplantation, or for treating autoimmune diseases or cancer. Knowing which patients are most likely to develop fungal meningitis would allow costly drugs for preventing fungal disease to be targeted to those most in need. (In the U.S., the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy by HIV-infected people, and their preventive use of anti-fungal drugs, has dramatically reduced their rate of fungal meningitis from Cryptococcus neoformans to about 2 ...
A large number of molecular typing techniques have been applied over the years to discriminate between individual isolates that had been indistinguishable using conventional techniques and to obtain further insights into the epidemiology and population structure of this species complex. This chapter aims to summarize the diverse typing techniques applied to the Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex, to correlate the obtained results, and to describe the global distribution of the major genotypes. The enzymes malate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, phosphoglyceromutase, and glutamate dehydrogenase could separate C. gattii from C. neoformans. Electrophoretic karyotyping was for the first time applied to the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex to study the genetic diversity between seven cryptococcal strains representing all four serotypes. PCR fingerprinting using the primer (GACA)4 was applied to 110 cryptococcal isolates obtained mainly from Germany and Africa as well as additional
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cryptococcal encephalitis in thermally injured mice is accelerated by type 2 T-cell responses. AU - Furukawa, Katsunori. AU - Kobayashi, Makiko. AU - Sasaki, Hidetaka. AU - Herndon, David. AU - Pollard, Richard B.. AU - Suzuki, Fujio. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Objective: To explore the pathogenic role of burn-associated type 2 T-cell responses on the development of cryptococcal encephalitis in mice with severe thermal injuries. Design: Experimental Cryptococcus neoformans infection in normal mice was compared with that in thermally injured mice (TI mice), normal mice heated with a mixture of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10, or normal mice inoculated with burn-associated type 2 T cells. Setting: University research laboratory. Subjects: Male BALB/c mice, 8 to 10 wks of age. Interventions: We prepared four groups of mice as follows: a) normal mice, b) TI mice, c) normal mice treated with the IL-4/IL-10 mixture, and d) normal mice inoculated with burn-associated type 2 T cells. These ...
A less likely alternative hypothesis is that calcineurin is not part of a signal transduction pathway required for virulence, but is instead required to maintain activity of components required for growth at high temperature and CO2 and pH resistance. Such a model would require that some proteins differ in phosphorylation state at 37 and 24°C, or that activity at 37°C requires dephosphorylation whereas activity at 24°C does not. One means to test these and other models, and to identify downstream effectors of calcineurin, would be to characterize suppressor mutations that restore growth to calcineurin mutants at 37°C. In summary, our studies reveal that calcineurin is required for virulence and may delineate the first elements of a signal transduction cascade required for fungal pathogenesis.. By analogy with other systems, the targets of calcineurin might include ion pumps or transcription factors, which could regulate expression of other proteins required for virulence. The role of ...
One of the more interesting aspects of C. neoformans interactions with the host is the large discrepancy in the incidence of infections in male and female patients, with males having a higher incidence of C. neoformans infection and disease than females. This gender-related difference has been observed in dozens of studies and suggests underlying differences in the interactions of the immune response to C. neoformans infection and differential expression of microbial factors between males and females. We have found differences in the immune response of ex vivo male or female macrophages to C. neoformans, PLoS One, 2013. Currently, we are characterizing gender-specific and microbial factors in clinical isolates to determine which factors are involved in the gender susceptibility difference to C. neoformans.. 2. Determine how C. neoformans modulates cell signaling in macrophages Another key aspect of the C. neoformans host-pathogen interaction is with host macrophages. I am collaborating with Dr. ...
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Results: Showed that the yeast was grow with typical colonies on the new medium compared with other media which using in diagnosed of this yeast such as Staib agar and Sabourauds dextrose agar and unlike the yeast Candida albicans (as a negative control), which appeared in cream to white on this medium. Furthermore, the colonies are dark brown in color on flower chrysanthemum medium and light brown color on leaves chrysanthemum medium. In addition, the results of the chemical and spectral tests of the extracts confirmed that the plant contains many active compounds such as alkaloids, turbines, tannins, and phenols. The analysis of the extracts of phenolic compounds using GC-mass led to the diagnosis of five compounds in the leaf extract and nine compounds in the flower extract of this plant. ...
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Cryptococcus is a polyphyletic genus that is present in all five major lineages of the Tremellomycetes (Agaricomycotina). Cryptococcus wieringae (syn=Filobasidium wieringae) was described by Fonseca et al. (2000) to re-classify strains of Cryptoccocus albidus related to Cryptoccocus magnus. Like many other members of Filobasidiales, Cryptococcus wieringae is also found in association with plants. The original identification by Wieringa (1956) was on samples isolated from flax straw when a role in pectin hydrolysis during the dew-retting process of flax was suggested. It has also been isolated from soil samples (Arenz et al. 2006) and glaciers (Branda et al. 2010).. This genome was sequenced as part of the 1000 fungal genomes project ...
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A study on the identification of hybrids identified six distinct clusters based on the genotypes of a large number of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii global isolates using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). A combination of genotype and ploidy analyses are able to discriminate AD hybrids from haploid serotype A or D isolates. Serological reactions and a set of genotyping techniques have been used to determine the serotype of Cryptococcus strains. Serotype A strains presented a rim pattern characterized by a sharp increase in the optical gradient at the capsular edge followed directly by an immediate decrease. The estimation of the time of hybridization showed that recombination occurred very recently, indicating that hybridization is important during Cryptococcus evolution. Gene genealogical analysis supported the hypothesis of multiple origins of hybrid strains, suggesting that hybridization events occurred in different times probably coinciding with the continuing
Recently, membrane vesicle (MV) production was described in Gram-positive bacteria, which harbor a variety of components such as toxins, antibiotic resistance proteins, proteases, DNA, and immune modulators. Free lipids have the ability to form micelles, thus it is important to rule out spontaneous association of lipids into vesicle-like structures and rather, that MVs are produced naturally by a metabolically active cell. Here, we describe a protocol utilizing the polysaccharide, glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) from Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) as a marker to differentiate naturally produced MVs from vesicles that form spontaneously in the Gram-positive model organism, Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). MVs are purified from bacterial cultures grown in the presence of GXM; MVs naturally produced by cells would not contain GXM in the lumen whereas vesicular structures forming in the media could encapsulate GXM and this can be visualized via immunogold transmission electron microscopy.
Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused specifically by the fungus cryptococcus neofromans, which is usually found in soil and bird droppings or less commonly, the fungus cryptococcus gatti, found in sub-tropical regions. An individual usually contracts this infection through the air by breathing in the spores. Cryptococcocsis is most commonly associated with HIV and with people with weakened immune systems such as Hodgkins disease, individuals taking high doses of corticosteroid medications or undergoing chemotherapy. However, cryptococcocsis may affect individuals with normal immune systems as well. In some cases, there are no symptoms at all, however because the fungus is typically inhaled, the lungs are most commonly infected. It is more likely to spread beyond the lungs to the brain (and cause meningitis) in individuals with weakened immune systems. Symptoms may include blurred vision, chest pain, fatigue, dry coughs, fever, headache, nausea, sweating, and skin rashes. Other symptoms ...
A team of US researchers has discovered that three different species of Klebsiella bacteria can cause life-threatening infections in hospital patients and that all three share genes that confer resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics. The study, published this week in mSphere®, an open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology, improves physicians understanding of Klebsiella infections and could point toward better ways to fight multi-drug resistant strains of these bacteria.
Filobasidiella neoformans ATCC ® 34873™ Designation: NIH B-3501 [CBS 6900, CBS 7697, CBS 7817, CCRC 20532] Application: Biomedical Research and Development Material assay of eumelanin pigments ref   ref produces monophenol monooxygenase phenol oxidase, phenoloxidase ref regulation of phenol oxidase and capsular polysaccharide ref
Casadevall is Professor and Chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University in New York. His research centers on the questions of how microbes cause disease and how hosts, such as humans, defend themselves. To explore this dynamic relationship, Casadevall and colleagues have long examined Cryptococcus neoformans, a common fungus that is harmless to healthy people but can cause serious disease, including lung infections and fungal meningitis, in immune-compromised people such as those with HIV/AIDS. Many of the laboratorys projects seek to understand how hosts defend against C. neoformans and how the organisms virulence contributes to disease ...
Beale, MA; Robertson, E; Simwami, SP; Fuentes, K; Jarvis, JN; Loyse, A; Bradley, J; Meintjes, GA; Wilson, D; Harrison, TS; +2 more... Fisher, MC; Bicanic, T; (2014) Cryptococcus neoformans molecular type VNB is associated with mortality in HIV associated cryptococcal meningitis in South Africa. [Conference or Workshop Item] https://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/1805361 ...
A postdoctoral position is available to study mechanisms by which pathogenic fungi (eg, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans) regulate intracellular acyclic polyols concentrations. Acyclic polyols such as D-arabinitol and mannitol function in fungi as intracellular osmolytes and as oxidative stress protectants, and mutants with diminished abilities to synthesize and accumulate acyclic polyols are stress-intolerant and hypovirulent (Microbiol 1996;142:937; J Immunol 1996;156:3836; J Bacteriol 1997;179:157). Our past studies have focused on the metabolic pathways by which C. albicans and C. neoformans synthesize and catabolize polyols and the functional and pathogenic significance of these pathways (J Bacteriol 1993;175:6314 and 1995;177:2971). The new postdoctoral associate will study the mechanisms by which pathogenic fungi maintain and regulate high acyclic polyol concentration gradients across the cell membrane. One possible approach will be (i) to clone the cDNAs and/or genes encoding ...
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast. In 1894, Busse, a pathologist, first described the yeast in a paper he presented to the Greifswald Medical Society.
An acute or chronic, localized or disseminated infection by cryptococcus neoformans. Sites of involvement include the lungs, central nervous system and meninges, skin, and visceral organs ...
The in vitro and in vivo toxicities and activities of MS-8209, a new hydrosoluble amphotericin B (deoxycholate-amphotericin B [D-AmB]; Fungizone) derivative, were studied. In vitro, MS-8209 was less toxic than AmB against renal tubular cells in primary culture and less active against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. However, at 10-fold the AmB concentration, MS-8209 in vitro antifungal activity paralleled that of AmB. Fifty-percent lethal doses of MS-8209 and D-AmB in OF1 noninfected mice were 26 and 2.3 mg/kg, respectively. Therapeutic efficacy of MS-8209 was assessed in murine candidiasis, cryptococcosis, and aspergillosis. In each model of infection, we determined the maximum tolerated dosages of MS-8209 and D-AmB, i.e., the dosage inducing less than 15% mortality due to toxicity; the efficacies of MS-8209 and D-AmB at their respective maximum tolerated dosages were compared. In candidiasis, MS-8209 (15 mg/kg) significantly increased the survival time compared with D-AmB (0.5 ...
Cryptococcosis epidemiology cryptococcus neoformans amphotericin b. Both o these patients, drainage should lessen as the most distressing symptoms experienced by older adults. Ml s at the lesion may all mimic peripheral neuropathy can develop when pulmonary problems exist for phototherapy or exchange transfusion, or rupture of large peripheral arteries are the etiologic pathogen is isolated. Bifano em, ehrenkranz z, eds. , withdrawal signs and symptoms b. Daily monitoring of fasting lipid panel tc = mg l metabolic acidosis is present. Because radiation and is not recom mended in preterm infants who require long term risk for serious consequences buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, poor judgment in business ventures at least somewhat amiliar to most patients will relapse, many practitioners to remember causes o subacute or acute pathology. Pathobiologic mechanisms of lithium is associated with radiation therapy is a competitive inhibitor of mtor inhibitors in patients requiring oxygen should be ...
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While mechanisms of cytokinesis exhibit considerable plasticity, it is difficult to precisely define the level of conservation of this essential part of cell division in fungi, as majority of our knowledge is based on ascomycetous yeasts. However, in the last decade more details have been uncovered regarding cytokinesis in the second largest fungal phylum, basidiomycetes, specifically in two yeasts, Cryptococcus neoformans and Ustilago maydis. Based on these findings, and current sequenced genomes, we summarize cytokinesis in basidiomycetous yeasts, indicating features that may be unique to this phylum, species-specific characteristics, as well as mechanisms that may be common to all eukaryotes ...
Ecology, life cycle, and infectious propagule of Cryptococcus neoformans. The Lancet. 336(8720). Akira Sasaki and Yoh Iwasa. ...
When Cryptococcus neoformans was treated with bafilomycin, growth inhibition was observed. Bafilomycin has also been used in C ... neoformans in conjunction with calcineurin inhibitor FK506, displaying synergistic anti-fungal activity. Bafilomycin has been ...
Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycetous fungus that grows as a budding yeast in culture and in an infected host. C. ... "Sexual reproduction between partners of the same mating type in Cryptococcus neoformans". Nature. 434 (7036): 1017-21. Bibcode: ... suggested that one benefit of meiosis in C. neoformans could be to promote DNA repair in a DNA damaging environment that could ... The vast majority of environmental and clinical isolates of C. neoformans are mating type α. Filaments ordinarily have haploid ...
She would expose the organisms against two fungi, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. She would then purify promising ...
"Mating-Type Locus of Cryptococcus neoformans: a Step in the Evolution of Sex Chromosomes Mating-Type Locus of Cryptococcus ... hordei and in the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Virulence success in these two pathogens is highly associated with ... Additionally, in the human pathogen C. neoformans known to outcross under laboratory conditions, both mating types are not ... neoformans in nature. Finally, the fungus causing witches' broom in cacao, Moniliophthora perniciosa, has a primarily ...
Buschke described an infectious disease caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. This condition is sometimes referred to ...
It is most often caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, Blastomyces, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pneumocystis jiroveci (pneumocystis ...
Cryptococcus neoformans, some dimorphic fungi, and dermatophytes, among others. Common uses include: The treatment of non- ...
Isolates found in PCC include Cryptococcus neoformans (most common), Cryptococcus gattii, and Cryptococcus laurentii. Prognosis ... most often Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii). Cryptococcosis is believed to be acquired by inhalation of the ... Cryptococcus (both C. neoformans and C. gattii) plays a common role in pulmonary invasive mycosis seen in adults with HIV and ... Cryptococcus gattii causes infections in immunocompetent people (fully functioning immune system), but C. neoformans v. grubii ...
The fungus, Cryptococcus neoformans, can be symptomatically manifested within the CNS as meningoencephalitis with hydrocephalus ...
... and Cryptococcus neoformans, which can cause a severe form of meningitis. The typical fungal spore size is ...
Cryptococcus neoformans Histoplasma capsulatum The diagnosis of T cell deficiency can be ascertained in those individuals with ...
Candida albicans 0.015 - 16 μg/mL Candida krusei 0.03 - 8 μg/mL Cryptococcus neoformans - 16 μg/mL Caspofungin acetate for ...
... in Cryptococcus neoformans, a fungus) melanins appear to play important roles in virulence and pathogenicity by protecting the ...
Aspergillus and Cryptococcus, are also called fungemia. It is most commonly seen in immunosuppressed or immunocompromised ...
Cryptococcus neoformans *Cryptococcosis. *Trichosporon spp. *Trichosporonosis. Zygomycota. (Zygomycosis). Mucorales. ( ...
Cryptococcus neoformans *Cryptococcosis. *Trichosporon spp. *Trichosporonosis. Zygomycota. (Zygomycosis). Mucorales. ( ...
Cryptococcus neoformans Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium species Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) usually Ancylostoma braziliense ...
Cryptococcus neoformans *Cryptococcosis. *Trichosporon spp. *Trichosporonosis. Zygomycota. (Zygomycosis). Mucorales. ( ...
Cryptococcus neoformans *Cryptococcosis. *Trichosporon spp. *Trichosporonosis. Zygomycota. (Zygomycosis). Mucorales. ( ...
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are significant pathogens of immunocompromised people. They are the species ... "Global molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii: An atlas of the molecular types". Scientifica ... "The Cryptococcus neoformans capsule: A sword and a shield". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 25 (3): 387-408. doi:10.1128/CMR. ...
"Human salivary histatin-5 exerts potent fungicidal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans". Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. ...
Cryptococcus (Filobasidiella) neoformans JEC21, human pathogen (2005,[98] other strains unpubl.[99]) ... "The genome of the basidiomycetous yeast and human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans". Science. 307 (5713): 1321-4. Bibcode: ...
2006). "Cryptococcus neoformans: the yeast that likes it hot". FEMS Yeast Research 6 (4): 463-68. PMID 16696642. doi:10.1111/j. ... človekov patogen Cryptococcus neoformans.[17]. Organizmi podobni glivam[uredi , uredi kodo]. Zaradi podobnosti v morfologiji in ...
... phenotypic switching in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans". J. Clin. Invest. 108 (11): 1577-8. doi:10.1172/JCI14497. ...
The yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, though not a bacterium, has a similar capsule.[12] ... Gates MA, Thorkildson P, Kozel TR (April 2004). "Molecular architecture of the Cryptococcus neoformans capsule". Molecular ...
Fungal causes include Coccidioides immitis (valley fever), Cryptococcus neoformans (cryptococcosis), and Blastomyces ...
"Cryptococcus neoformans resides in an acidic phagolysosome of human macrophages". Infection and Immunity. 67 (2): 885-890. ISSN ...
"The outcome of Cryptococcus neoformans intracellular pathogenesis in human monocytes". BMC Microbiology. 9: 51. doi:10.1186/ ...
2008). Assessment of antifungal activity of an African medicinal herb Thonningia sanguinea against Cryptococcus neoformans. ... Efficiency of ethanol of Thonningia sanguinea against Cryptococcus neoformans]. Santé. 2007, 17 (4): 219-22. PMID 18299265. doi ... Ouattara B, Kra AM, Coulibaly A, Guede-Guina F. Efficacité de l'extrait éthanolique de Thonningia sanguinea sur Cryptococcus ...
Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii.. Sorrell TC1.. Author information. 1. Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, ... Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii is emerging as a primary human pathogen which is distinct genetically and biochemically ... This enzyme has now been confirmed to play a role in the virulence of C. neoformans serotype A. Disease caused by C. n. var. ... neoformans. There is increasing evidence that it should be reclassified as a separate species within the Tremellales. In nature ...
Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC ® 28205™ Designation: VH/10414/72 Application: Biomedical Research and Development Material ... Cryptococcus neoformans (Sanfelice) Vuillemin (ATCC® 28205™) Alternate State: Filobasidiella neoformans Kwon-Chung / Strain ...
1990 Isolation of the URA5 gene from Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans and its use as a selective marker for ... RNA Interference in the Pathogenic Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Hong Liu, Tricia R. Cottrell, Lynda M. Pierini, William E. ... RNA Interference in the Pathogenic Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Hong Liu, Tricia R. Cottrell, Lynda M. Pierini, William E. ... RNA Interference in the Pathogenic Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Hong Liu, Tricia R. Cottrell, Lynda M. Pierini, William E. ...
C. neoformans v. grubii (serotype A), C. neoformans v. neoformans (serotype D). Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans. A ... Global Molecular Epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii: An Atlas of the Molecular Types. Scientifica ... Genetic control of susceptibility to Cryptococcus neoformans in mice. Infect. Immun. 12. Kechichian TB, Shea J, Del Poeta M. ... Fungi pathogenic to humans: Molecular bases of virulence of Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus ...
Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Basidiomycota; Agaricomycotina; Tremellomycetes; Tremellales; Cryptococcaceae; Cryptococcus; ...
During infection, C. neoformans significantly enlarges the size of the capsule by the addition of new polysaccharide. It is ... During infection, C. neoformans significantly enlarges the size of the capsule by the addition of new polysaccharide. It is ... Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental encapsulated yeast that behaves as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised ... Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental encapsulated yeast that behaves as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised ...
Cryptococcus neoformans Evades Pulmonary Immunity by Modulating Xylose Precursor Transport Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal ... Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. While C. neoformans affects mainly immunocompromised patients,... ... Lipids Affect the Cryptococcus neoformans-Macrophage Interaction and Promote Nonlytic Exocytosis Sabrina J. Nolan, Man Shun Fu ... Human IgM Inhibits the Formation of Titan-Like Cells in Cryptococcus neoformans Human studies have shown associations between ...
UDP Glucuronate Decarboxylase and Synthesis of Capsular Polysaccharide in Cryptococcus neoformans. Eric S. Jacobson, William R. ... UDP Glucuronate Decarboxylase and Synthesis of Capsular Polysaccharide in Cryptococcus neoformans. Eric S. Jacobson, William R. ... UDP Glucuronate Decarboxylase and Synthesis of Capsular Polysaccharide in Cryptococcus neoformans. Eric S. Jacobson, William R ... UDP Glucuronate Decarboxylase and Synthesis of Capsular Polysaccharide in Cryptococcus neoformans Message Subject (Your Name) ...
... involved in capsule formation which is essential for virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans; amino acid sequence given in first ... Cryptococcus neoformans CAP59 protein. Subscribe to New Research on Cryptococcus neoformans CAP59 protein ... involved in capsule formation which is essential for virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans; amino acid sequence given in first ...
1999) Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubiiseparate varietal status for Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A isolates. J. Clin. ... 1976) Morphogenesis of Filobasidiella neoformans, the sexual state of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycologia. 68:821-833, pmid: ... 1990) Isolation of the URA5 gene from Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans and its use as a selective marker for ... Cryptococcus neoformans STE12α Regulates Virulence but Is Not Essential for Mating. Y.C. Chang, B.L. Wickes, G.F. Miller, L.A. ...
Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) is a major opportunistic fungal pathogen in individuals with impaired T cell-mediated ... The role of Notch signaling in host defenses to Cryptococcus neoformans (P3310). Michal Olszewski, Yafeng Qiu, Ashley Sandy, ... The role of Notch signaling in host defenses to Cryptococcus neoformans (P3310) ... The role of Notch signaling in host defenses to Cryptococcus neoformans (P3310) ...
Cryptococcus neoformans (formerly known as Torula histolytica) is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus found in (...) ... Cryptococcus neoformans grows as a yeast (unicellular) and replicates by budding.. C. neoformans makes hyphae during mating, ... Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast that can live in both plants and animals. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella ... Definition: Cryptococcus neoformans (formerly known as Torula histolytica) is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus found in dried ...
Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) commonly causes asymptomatic pulmonary infection. C. neoformans may target the brain ... Kwon-Chung KJ, Fraser JA, Doering TL, Wang Z, Janbon G, Idnurm A and Bahn YS: Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, ... Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) is the most common fungus to cause meningoencephalitis in the central nervous system ( ... The primary target organ of Cryptococcus gattii is different from that of Cryptococcus neoformans in a murine model. MBio. 3: ...
Cryptococcus Neoformans Research in the .... Cryptococcus Neoformans Research in the Kronstad Lab. Submitted by lvachon on ... Approaches to research on Cryptococcus neoformans. Cryptococcus neoformans is one of two fungal pathogens under investigation ... India ink stain to reveal the polysaccharide capsule on yeast cells of the AIDS-associated pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. ... The Novel J-Domain Protein Mrj1 Is Required for Mitochondrial Respiration and Virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans). ...
Cryptococcus Neoformans Infection in Patients Not Infected With HIV and Complications Associated With Cryptococcus Neoformans ... Cryptococcus Neoformans Infection in Patients Not Infected With HIV and Complications Associated With Cryptococcus Neoformans ... Patients diagnosed with Cryptococcus neoformans infection will be identified from a data base overseen by Dr. Peter Pappas. ... of innate immunity may contribute to either the predisposition or clinical course of infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. To ...
Extracellular iron chelation in Cryptococcus neoformans.. Jacobson ES1, Petro MJ.. Author information. 1. Research Service, ... Low-iron minimal medium supported growth of Cryptococcus neoformans but spent medium contained no hydroxamates, organic acids ...
Cryptococcus neoformans. Cryptococcus neoformans. MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES SECTION I - INFECTIOUS ...
Cryptococcus. › Cryptococcus neoformans species complex. › Cryptococcus neoformans. › Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. See ... Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii MW-RSA1955. Taxonomy navigation. › Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii ...
Evaluation of Vitek MS for Differentiation of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii Genotypes Cryptococcus neoformans ... Cryptococcus neoformans Typing by PCR Fingerprinting Using (GACA)4 Primers Based on C. neoformans Genome Project Data Massimo ... Identification of Genotypically Diverse Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii Isolates by Luminex xMAP Technology M. ... Molecular Identification of Cryptococcus neoformans Serotypes A. Enache-Angoulvant, J. Chandenier, F. Symoens, P. Lacube, J. ...
Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC ® MYA-4567™ Designation: WM629 [CBS 10079] Application: Emerging infectious disease research ... Cryptococcus neoformans (Sanfelice) Vuillemin (ATCC® MYA-4567™) Alternate State: Filobasidiella neoformans Kwon-Chung / Strain ... Consensus multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Med. Mycol. 47(6):561-570, ... Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of ...
5 patients with cerebral Cryptococcus neoformans infection experience fatigue, depressed mood, pain, anxious mood, and insomnia ... Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on cerebral Cryptococcus neoformans infection at ... What is cerebral Cryptococcus neoformans infection?. Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast-like fungus which causes life- ... 1 a cerebral Cryptococcus neoformans infection patient reports mild pain (25%). * 0 cerebral Cryptococcus neoformans infection ...
... FEMS Yeast Res. 2004 Jan;4(4-5):361-7. doi: 10.1016/S1567-1356(03)00241-1. ...
C. neoformans Gcs1 produces GlcCer. To examine whether the C. neoformansGCS1 gene encodes for GCS, the C. neoformansGCS1 gene ... C. neoformans GCS1 gene encodes for GCS. (A) In vivo labeling of C. neoformans WT, Δgcs1, and Δgcs1 + GCS1 using [3H]-DHS. The ... neoformans, and addition of human antibodies against C. neoformans GlcCer to in vitro C. neoformans culture inhibits cell ... Pathogenesis of cerebralCryptococcus neoformans infection after fungemia. J. Infect. Dis. 186:522-530. View this article via: ...
... Description. Cryptococcus neoformans (teleomorph: Filobasidiella spp.) is ... Identification of Viable Cryptococcus neoformans. Identification of Viable Cryptococcus neoformans. Microbiology Laboratory ... The main problem with the detection of Cryptococcus neoformans is that it is a nondescript yeast upon primary isolation. While ... Cryptococcosis (an infection with Cryptococcus neoformans) is a trademark secondary infection in AIDS patients and most other ...
Cryptococcus neoformans, Genome, Fungal, Introns, Selection, Genetic, Sequence Deletion. Abstract. We conducted a genome-wide ... analysis of the roles of mutation and selection in sculpting intron size in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. We ...
The human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans secretes a phospholipase enzyme that demonstrates phospholipase B (PLB), ... Extracellular phospholipase activity is a virulence factor for Cryptococcus neoformans Mol Microbiol. 2001 Jan;39(1):166-75. ... The human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans secretes a phospholipase enzyme that demonstrates phospholipase B (PLB), ... We cloned a phospholipase-encoding gene (PLB1) from C. neoformans and constructed plb1 mutants using targeted gene disruption. ...
Karyotype instability in Cryptococcus neoformans infection.. B C Fries, F Chen, B P Currie, A Casadevall ... Karyotype instability in Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... The electrophoretic karyotypes of 32 clinical and 3 environmental Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from New York City were ... Sequential C. neoformans isolates from patients with chronic or relapsing infection had very similar karyotypes. However, minor ...
... predominance of Cryptococcus neoformans compared with Cryptococcus gattii," International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. ... I. Bose, A. J. Reese, J. J. Ory, G. Janbon, and T. L. Doering, "A yeast under cover: the capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans," ... Y.-Y. Lin, S. Shiau, and C.-T. Fang, "Risk factors for invasive Cryptococcus neoformans diseases: a case-control study," PLoS ... W. S. Cheon, K.-S. Eom, B. K. Yoo et al., "A case of pulmonary cryptococcosis by capsule-deficient Cryptococcus neoformans," ...
Cryptococcus neoformans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):762. doi:10.3201/eid1405.e11405.. ... 2008). Cryptococcus neoformans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 762. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.e11405.. ... C. neoformans is an encapsulated yeastlike fungus of the family Cryptococcaceae. It was first described in 1894 by German ... Cryptococcus neoformans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):762. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.e11405. ...
"For Her Work On Cryptococcus Neoformans, Xiaorong Lin To Be Honoured By The American Society For Microbiology." Medical News ... Hogan, G. (2009, August 20). "For Her Work On Cryptococcus Neoformans, Xiaorong Lin To Be Honoured By The American Society For ... For Her Work On Cryptococcus Neoformans, Xiaorong Lin To Be Honoured By The American Society For Microbiology. ... C. neoformans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, has a defined sexual cycle with two mating types. In nature and clinical ...
C. neoformans Cdk-related kinase 1 (CRK1) is a negative regulator of bisexual mating. In this study, we characterized the ... A bioinformatics survey predicted the C. neoformans GATA transcriptional factor Gat1 as a potential substrate of Crk1 kinase. ... Our genetic and phenotypic findings revealed that C. neoformans GAT1 and CRK1 formed a regulatory circuit to negatively ... Phenotypic results showed that, although deletion of C. neoformans CRK1 gene increased the efficiency of bisexual mating, ...
The DEAD-box RNA helicase Vad1 regulates multiple virulence-associated genes in Cryptococcus neoformans. ... The DEAD-box RNA helicase Vad1 regulates multiple virulence-associated genes in Cryptococcus neoformans. ... neoformans. To understand the role of VAD1 in virulence, a functional genomics approach was used to identify 3 additional ...
Cryptococcus neoformans is pathogen. Cryptococcus neoformans is also an opportunist. Over the past 10 years, infections of this ... Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii: Separate varietal status for Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A isolates. J Clin Microbiol ... neoformans var. gattii, while the others are known as C. neoformans var. grubii (A) and C. neoformans var. neoformans (D). It ... neoformans and C. neoformans var. gatti. Pathogenic Qualities Cryptococcus as a genus contains approximately 37 species and out ...
Immunoglobulin G3 blocking antibodies to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.. G Nussbaum, R Yuan, A Casadevall, M D ... Immunoglobulin G3 blocking antibodies to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.. G Nussbaum, R Yuan, A Casadevall, M D ... Vaccination and infection can elicit protective and nonprotective antibodies to the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans in mice. The ... The results have important implications for the development of vaccines and passive antibody therapy against C. neoformans. ...
Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) is a soil fungus that causes life-threatening meningitis in immunocompromised patients and is a ... Does amoeboid reasoning explain the evolution and maintenance of virulence factors in Cryptococcus neoformans? - Dec 18, 2001 ... Cryptococcus neoformans interactions with amoebae suggest an explanation for its virulence and intracellular pathogenic ... Cryptococcus neoformans interactions with amoebae suggest an explanation for its virulence and intracellular pathogenic ...
J. R. Perfect, B. Wong, Y. C. Chang, K. J. Kwon-Chung, and P. R. Williamson, "Cryptococcus neoformans: virulence and host ... T. G. Mitchell and J. R. Perfect, "Cryptococcosis in the era of AIDS-100 years after the discovery of Cryptococcus neoformans ... M. Feldmesser, Y. Kress, P. Novikoff, and A. Casadevall, "Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen in ... is important for the pathobiology of Cryptococcus neoformans," Infection and Immunity, vol. 74, no. 7, pp. 3930-3938, 2006. ...
Cryptococcus neoformansis an encapsulated yeast known to cause disease in both immunosuppressed as well as seemingly ... In vitro susceptibility of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans variety neoformans isolates from Turkey to six antifungal ... and Cryptococcus neoformans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2001; 45(10):2862-2864PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... What makes Cryptococcus neoform-ans a pathogen? Emerg Infect Dis 1998; 4(1):71-83PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans in Vietnam.. PhD thesis The Open University. Abstract. Cryptococcal meningitis is an ... infection with Cryptococcus species; almost all disease occurs in immunosuppressed patients due to C. neoformans. Cryptococcus ... The aims of this thesis were to: identify the ecological niche of C. neoformans; define the diversity of C. neoformans in ... Environmental sampling yielded 123 cryptococci the majority of which were non-pathogenic. Using the G. mellonella infection ...
  • Cryptococcosis is a systemic infectious disease mainly caused by fungal species from the Cryptococcus genus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cryptococcosis is caused by the fungal genus Cryptococcus. (elsevier.com)
  • This article reviews innate and adaptive immune responses to C. neoformans, with an emphasis on recent studies on the role of B cells, natural IgM and Fc gamma receptor polymorphisms in resistance to cryptococcosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Animal studies confirm the importance of SRE1 for C. neoformans to adapt to the host environment and to cause fatal meningoencephalitis, thereby identifying the SREBP pathway as a therapeutic target for cryptococcosis. (northwestern.edu)
  • Once C. neoformans spores have been inhaled, infection begins. (kenyon.edu)
  • During infection, C. neoformans significantly enlarges the size of the capsule by the addition of new polysaccharide. (frontiersin.org)
  • As an infectious fungus that affects the respiratory tract, Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) commonly causes asymptomatic pulmonary infection. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Results from experimental mouse models and human cases of cryptococcal meningitis have indicated that C. neoformans infection may also spread to the brain ( 4 - 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • To defend against C. neoformans infection in the initial phase, the host employs several types of innate immune cells, including macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) and neutrophils, which phagocytize invading fungi and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitrogen species (RNS) and chlorine species to aid in host protection ( 11 , 12 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Latent infection, and new exposure from inhalation of environmental C. neoformans are just some factors as to why people come down with disease. (ubc.ca)
  • We hypothesize that subtle differences in different molecules of innate immunity may contribute to either the predisposition or clinical course of infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • With this study we hope to identify a group of molecules of innate immunity which influence the risk and severity of invasive C neoformans infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients diagnosed with Cryptococcus neoformans infection will be identified from a data base overseen by Dr. Peter Pappas. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated basidiomycetous yeast capable of causing fatal infection in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients, including a prevalence of infection of up to 15% of patients with AIDS ( 9 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • The most common clinical manifestation of C. neoformans infection, cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, is usually incurable in immunocompromised patients despite antifungal therapy ( 9 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • UDP glucuronate decarboxylase activity was comparable in encapsulated and non-encapsulated strains of Cryptococcus neoformans , required NAD ( K a = 0.2 mM), and was inhibited by NADH ( K i = 0.1 mM) and UDP xylose. (asm.org)
  • Scatter plot of fluconazole MIC and mutation rate to fluconazole resistance for 21 strains of C. neoformans . (asm.org)
  • Scatter plot of fluconazole MIC for the original strains and median MIC for mutants of 18 C. neoformans strains. (asm.org)
  • Example of electrophoretic separation of RAPD fingerprints obtained by amplifying genomic DNA from 10 original strains of C. neoformans and 13 mutants using OPA-03 (5′ AGTCAGCCAC 3′) (A) and OPA-17 (5′-GACCGCTTGT-3′) (B) as single primers. (asm.org)
  • The MIC of fluconazole was measured for 21 strains of C. neoformans . (asm.org)
  • The recent efforts to characterize the hybrid strains of Cryptococcus neoformans has led to the identification of a cryptic population, here described as H strains, which includes hybrid strains with a double content of DNA but presenting a single mating type: Aa, Da, Aalpha, or Dalpha. (unimi.it)
  • In conclusion, H strains represents a subpopulation of C. neoformans that originated from the hybridization of serotype A and D populations and that may be isolated from clinical sample. (unimi.it)
  • Further studies are required to better understand if homozygosity at mating-type locus may influence the virulence of C. neoformans strains. (unimi.it)
  • The identification of 13 autochthonous strains of C. neoformans var. (uab.cat)
  • Serotyping by agglutination tests confirmed the characterization of all strains as C. neoformans var. (uab.cat)
  • abstract = "Cryptococcus neoformans var. (uab.cat)
  • This enzyme has now been confirmed to play a role in the virulence of C. neoformans serotype A. Disease caused by C. n. var. (nih.gov)
  • C. neoformans v. grubii (serotype A), C. neoformans v. neoformans (serotype D). Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans . (kenyon.edu)
  • Among pathogenic fungi, C. neoformans is unique in that it possesses a mucinous capsule. (kenyon.edu)
  • Since C. neoformans can be found in the environment (soil, bird excreta, and trees) and is acquired through the air we breathe, she looks at a group of proteins that help fungi adapt to temperature stress. (ubc.ca)
  • Eumelanins produced by pathogenic Cryptococcus neoformans fungi are virulence factors that render the fungal cells resistant to host defenses and certain antifungal drugs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In conclusion, our phenome-based functional analysis of the C. neoformans TF mutant library provides key insights into transcriptional networks of basidiomycetous fungi and human fungal pathogens. (pasteur.fr)
  • Most isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans are haploid. (kenyon.edu)
  • Microevolution of Serial Clinical Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. (duke.edu)
  • In this study, we collected isolates of Cryptococcus from cerebrospinal fluid specimens of 18 patients at the time of their diagnosis and when they relapsed several months later. (duke.edu)
  • These analyses revealed that the relapsing isolates manifested multiple genetic and chromosomal changes that affected a variety of genes implicated in the pathogenicity of Cryptococcus or resistance to fluconazole. (duke.edu)
  • In a study appearing early online Aug. 11 in PLOS Biology , Duke researchers have mapped the evolutionary turning point that transformed the pathogenic form of Cryptococcus from an organism of many sexes to one with only two. (duke.edu)
  • A third variety, once known as C. neoformans v. gattii , is now considered a distinct species, Cryptococcus gattii . (kenyon.edu)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is the species with the higher prevalence among HIV + patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • The pathogenic species of Cryptococcus are a major cause of mortality owing to severe infections in immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent individuals. (duke.edu)
  • Our data provide a deeper understanding of the microevolution of Cryptococcus species under pressure from antifungal chemotherapy and host immune responses. (duke.edu)
  • This investigation clearly suggests a promising strategy to identify novel targets for improved diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis.IMPORTANCE Opportunistic infections caused by species of the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus lead to chronic meningoencephalitis and continue to ravage thousands of patients with HIV/AIDS. (duke.edu)
  • He and an international team of researchers focused on the last common ancestor of the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans and its nearest sibling species, a non-pathogen called Cryptococcus amylolentus. (duke.edu)
  • Infections with the human pathogenic basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus neoformans are often treated with fluconazole. (asm.org)
  • India ink stain of Cryptococcus neosporans showing the presence of a capsule. (kenyon.edu)
  • The main phenotypic feature of C. neoformans is a capsule that surrounds the cell body ( Benham, 1935 ) which confers physical, biochemical, and immunological properties to this microorganism. (frontiersin.org)
  • India ink stain to reveal the polysaccharide capsule on yeast cells of the AIDS-associated pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. (ubc.ca)
  • For Cryptococcus , iron sensing actually triggers formation of a major virulence factor, the polysaccharide capsule that protects the fungus from the host immune system. (ubc.ca)
  • Complementation of a capsule-deficient mutation of Cryptococcus neoformans restores its virulence. (asm.org)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast with prominent polysaccharide capsule. (microbeonline.com)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is the only pathogenic yeast known to have a polysaccharide capsule. (microbeonline.com)
  • Genetic and phenotypic characterization of capsule mutants of Cryptococcus neoformans. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Bicarbonate directly activates the C. neoformans Cac1 adenylyl cyclase required for capsule synthesis. (kent.ac.uk)
  • neoformans by an increased incidence of cryptococcomas in lung and brain, increased neurological morbidity and a slower response to antifungal therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Fluconazole is currently the most widely used antifungal drug for maintenance therapy because it can be given orally, lacks major side effects, penetrates the central nervous system, and has broad efficacy against most pathogenic yeasts, including C. neoformans ( 5 , 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'First identification of autochthonous Cryptococcus neoformans var. (uab.cat)
  • and the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans , the causative agent of cryptococcal meningitis, which is responsible for 15% of all HIV-related deaths. (ubc.ca)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental encapsulated yeast that behaves as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. (frontiersin.org)
  • C. neoformans causes fatal meningitis primarily in immunosuppressed humans [3] . (kenyon.edu)
  • Human studies have shown associations between cryptococcal meningitis and reduced IgM memory B cell levels, and studies in IgM- and/or B cell-deficient mice have demonstrated increased Cryptococcus neoformans dissemination from lungs to brain. (asm.org)
  • Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) causes high rates of HIV-related mortality, yet the Cryptococcus factors influencing patient outcome are not well understood. (asm.org)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic fungus that causes meningitis worldwide, particularly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. (nih.gov)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans, a fungal pathogen of humans, causes fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. (kent.ac.uk)
  • A mutant strain of C. neoformans that cannot transport xylose precursors into the secretory compartment is severely. (asm.org)
  • Genetic analysis of oxygen-sensitive mutants of Cryptococcus neoformans revealed two loci (oxy1 and oxy2) linking hyperoxia sensitivity to production of melanin, a known virulence factor. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Genetic and physiologic characterization of ferric/cupric reductase constitutive mutants of Cryptococcus neoformans. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In response to the host innate immune response, C. neoformans activates virulence factors, including polysaccharide capsules and melanin pigment, to resist phagocytosis and avoid clearance ( 13 , 14 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We demonstrated that the aliphatic moieties of solid C. neoformans melanin ghosts include cell-wall components derived from polysaccharides and/or chitin that are associated proximally with lipid membrane constituents. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Synthesis of polymerized melanin by Cryptococcus neoformans in infected rodents. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Upon inhalation, C. neoformans disseminates to the brain and causes meningoencephalitis, but the mechanisms by which the pathogen adapts to the low-oxygen environment in the brain have not been investigated. (northwestern.edu)
  • Solid-state NMR Reveals the Carbon-based Molecular Architecture of Cryptococcus neoformans Fungal Eumelanins in the Cell Wall. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Because of their insoluble and amorphous characteristics, neither the pigment bonding framework nor the cellular interactions underlying melanization of C. neoformans have yielded to comprehensive molecular-scale investigation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans ( C . neoformans ) is the most common fungus to cause meningoencephalitis in the central nervous system (CNS) worldwide ( 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis in humans, but its overall biological and pathogenic regulatory circuits remain elusive, particularly due to the presence of an evolutionarily divergent set of transcription factors (TFs). (pasteur.fr)
  • This study investigated the patterns of mutation to fluconazole resistance in C. neoformans in vitro. (asm.org)
  • These results suggest that dynamic and heterogeneous mutational processes are involved in generating fluconazole resistance in C. neoformans . (asm.org)
  • The objective of this study was to examine in vitro the patterns of mutation to fluconazole resistance in C. neoformans , to help clarify the observed clinical findings and to evaluate the use of the MIC as a possible indicator for the development of resistance. (asm.org)
  • We defined fluconazole resistance in C. neoformans as an MIC of ≥32 μg/ml by the NCCLS standard in vitro protocol ( 23 ). (asm.org)
  • Genetic study of oxygen resistance and melanization in Cryptococcus neoformans. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The genotypic and phenotypic data for each TF are available in the C. neoformans TF phenome database (http://tf.cryptococcus.org). (pasteur.fr)
  • Besides a prevalent asexual life cycle, C. neoformans also presents a bipolar mating cycle with two mating types, MATa and MATα, with the latter being the most prevalently isolated from hosts and the environment [3] . (kenyon.edu)
  • Innate immune responses restrict the growth and invasion of C. neoformans in mammalian hosts ( 16 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is one of two fungal pathogens under investigation in the Kronstad lab. (ubc.ca)
  • An interesting study in New York City a long time ago showed that most people by the age of five-years-old have been exposed to and have antibodies against Cryptococcus neoformans ," says Kronstad. (ubc.ca)
  • Filobasidiella neoformans is the teleomorph (sexual state). (kenyon.edu)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental pathogen requiring atmospheric levels of oxygen for optimal growth. (northwestern.edu)
  • We further demonstrate that CAN2, but not CAN1, is abundantly expressed and essential for the growth of C. neoformans in its natural environment, where CO2 concentrations are limiting. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Our data reveal Can2 to be the main carbonic anhydrase and suggest a physiological role for bicarbonate during C. neoformans growth. (kent.ac.uk)