A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella bacillispora.
Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long, often branched chains of repeating monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic bonds, which serve as energy storage molecules (e.g., glycogen), structural components (e.g., cellulose), and molecular recognition sites in various biological systems.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.
Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.
Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Inbred strain A mice are genetically identical descendants of a single founder mouse, produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, primarily used in biomedical research for their genetic uniformity and experimental reproducibility.
Mycoses are a group of diseases caused by fungal pathogens that can infect various tissues and organs, potentially leading to localized or systemic symptoms, depending on the immune status of the host.
An extracellular layer outside the cell wall of a fungus composed of polysaccharides. It may serve a protective role amongst others.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Triazoles are a class of antifungal drugs that contain a triazole ring in their chemical structure and work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell membranes, thereby disrupting the integrity and function of the membrane.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
Inbred CBA mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical and uniform, which makes them useful for scientific research, particularly in the areas of immunology and cancer.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
Cell wall components constituting a polysaccharide core found in fungi. They may act as antigens or structural substrates.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Meningitis caused by fungal agents which may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.
The enzyme catalyzing the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphoric acid (orotidylic acid) from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate in the course of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. EC
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.
Techniques used in microbiology.
The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.
A mitosporic Onygenales fungal genus causing HISTOPLASMOSIS in humans and animals. Its single species is Histoplasma capsulatum which has two varieties: H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and H. capsulatum var. duboisii. Its teleomorph is AJELLOMYCES capsulatus.
A genus of onygenacetous mitosporic fungi whose perfect state is Ajellomyces (see ONYGENALES). The species Blastomyces dermatitidis (perfect state Ajellomyces dermatitidis) causes blastomycosis.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
An NADPH-dependent P450 enzyme that plays an essential role in the sterol biosynthetic pathway by catalyzing the demethylation of 14-methyl sterols such as lanosterol. The enzyme acts via the repeated hydroxylation of the 14-methyl group, resulting in its stepwise conversion into an alcohol, an aldehyde and then a carboxylate, which is removed as formic acid. Sterol 14-demethylase is an unusual cytochrome P450 enzyme in that it is found in a broad variety of organisms including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and protozoa.
Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.
A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.
A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.

BE-31405, a new antifungal antibiotic produced by Penicillium minioluteum. I. Description of producing organism, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties. (1/1887)

A new antifungal antibiotic, BE-31405, was isolated from the culture broth of a fungal strain, Penicillium minioluteum F31405. BE-31405 was isolated by adsorption on high porous polymer resin (Diaion HP-20), followed by solvent extraction, precipitation and crystallization. BE-31405 showed potent growth inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungal strains such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, but did not show cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells such as P388 mouse leukemia. The mechanism studies indicated that BE-31405 inhibited the protein synthesis of C. albicans but not of mammalian cells.  (+info)

In-vivo therapeutic efficacy in experimental murine mycoses of a new formulation of deoxycholate-amphotericin B obtained by mild heating. (2/1887)

Heat-induced 'superaggregation' of deoxycholate-amphotericin B (AmB-DOC, Fungizone) was shown previously to reduce the in-vitro toxicity of this antifungal agent. We compared AmB-DOC with the formulation obtained by heating the commercial form (Fungizone, Bristol Myers Squibb, Paris, France) for 20 min at 70 degrees C, in the treatment of murine infections. An improvement of antifungal activity was obtained with heated AmB-DOC formulations due to a lower toxicity which allowed the administration of higher drug doses than those achievable with the commercial preparation. Single intravenous injections of heated AmB-DOC solutions were demonstrated to be two-fold less toxic than unheated ones to healthy mice. For mice infected with Candida albicans, the maximum tolerated dose was higher with heated than with unheated AmB-DOC solutions. In the model of murine candidiasis, following a single dose of heated AmB-DOC 0.5 mg/kg, 85% of mice survived for 3 weeks, whereas at this dose the immediate toxicity of the standard formulation in infected mice restricted the therapeutic efficacy to 25% survival. Both formulations were equally effective in increasing the survival time for murine cryptococcal pneumonia and meningoencephalitis. Injection of heated AmB-DOC solutions at a dose two-fold higher than the maximal tolerated dose observed with the unheated preparation (1.2 mg/kg) increased the survival time by a factor of 1.4 in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. These results indicate that mild heat treatment of AmB-DOC solutions could provide a simple and economical method to improve the therapeutic index of this antifungal agent by reducing its toxicity on mammalian cells.  (+info)

Variants of a Cryptococcus neoformans strain elicit different inflammatory responses in mice. (3/1887)

The virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates with high and low extracellular proteolytic activity was investigated in mice. No consistent relationship between proteolytic activity and virulence was observed, but isolates derived from one strain were shown to elicit different inflammatory responses.  (+info)

Serotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from clinical and environmental sources in Spain. (4/1887)

We determined biovars and serotypes of 154 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from clinical and environmental sources from different areas of Spain. All clinical isolates belonged to C. neoformans var. neoformans. Serotypes showed an irregular distribution. C. neoformans var. gattii serotype B was isolated from necropsy specimens from goats with pulmonary disease.  (+info)

Cryptococcus neoformans differential gene expression detected in vitro and in vivo with green fluorescent protein. (5/1887)

Synthetic green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used as a reporter to detect differential gene expression in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Promoters from the C. neoformans actin, GAL7, or mating-type alpha pheromone (MFalpha1) genes were fused to GFP, and the resulting reporter genes were used to assess gene expression in serotype A C. neoformans. Yeast cells containing an integrated pACT::GFP construct demonstrated that the actin promoter was expressed during vegetative growth on yeast extract-peptone-dextrose medium. In contrast, yeast cells containing the inducible GAL7::GFP or MFalpha1::GFP reporter genes expressed significant GFP activity only during growth on galactose medium or V-8 agar, respectively. These findings demonstrated that the GAL7 and MFalpha1 promoters from a serotype D C. neoformans strain function when introduced into a serotype A strain. Because the MFalpha1 promoter is induced by nutrient deprivation and the MATalpha locus containing the MFalpha1 gene has been linked with virulence, yeast cells containing the pMFalpha1::GFP reporter gene were analyzed for GFP expression in the central nervous system (CNS) of immunosuppressed rabbits. In fact, significant GFP expression from the MFalpha1::GFP reporter gene was detected after the first week of a CNS infection. These findings suggest that there are temporal, host-specific cues that regulate gene expression during infection and that the MFalpha1 gene is induced during the proliferative stage of a CNS infection. In conclusion, GFP can be used as an effective and sensitive reporter to monitor specific C. neoformans gene expression in vitro, and GFP reporter constructs can be used as an approach to identify a novel gene(s) or to characterize known genes whose expression is regulated during infection.  (+info)

Heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) as a major target of the antibody response in patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. (6/1887)

Cryptococcus neoformans causes infection in individuals with defective T cell function, such as AIDS, as well as without underlying disease. It has been suggested that humoral as well as cellular immunity might play an important role in the immune response to C. neoformans infection. We have recently shown, using immunoblotting, that the 70-kD hsp family of C. neoformans was the major target molecule of the humoral response in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis. In this study we also used immunoblotting to define the antibody responses in the sera of 24 patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis: 21 proven and three suspected diagnoses. Anti-C. neoformans hsp70 antibody was detected in 16 of 24 (66.7%) patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. Fourteen of 17 (82.3%) patients with high antigen titres (> or = 1:8) and two of seven (28.6%) patients with low titres (< or = 1:4) had detectable levels of anti-hsp70 antibody. Sera from patients positive for anti-hsp70 antibody showed high titres in the Eiken latex agglutination test for the detection of serum cryptococcal antigen. Our results indicate that the 70-kD hsp family from C. neoformans appears to be a major target molecule of the humoral response, not only in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis, but also in human patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis.  (+info)

Role of the C-C chemokine, TCA3, in the protective anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune response. (7/1887)

Activated T lymphocytes play a crucial role in orchestrating cellular infiltration during a cell-mediated immune (CMI) reaction. TCA3, a C-C chemokine, is produced by Ag-activated T cells and is chemotactic for neutrophils and macrophages, two cell types in a murine CMI reaction. Using a gelatin sponge model for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), we show that TCA3 is a component of the expression phase of an anticryptococcal CMI response in mice. TCA3 mRNA levels are augmented in anticryptococcal DTH reactions at the same time peak influxes of neutrophils and lymphocytes are observed. Neutralization of TCA3 in immunized mice results in reduced numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes at DTH reaction sites. However, when rTCA3 is injected into sponges in naive mice, only neutrophils are attracted into the sponges, indicating TCA3 is chemotactic for neutrophils, but not lymphocytes. We show that TCA3 is indirectly attracting lymphocytes into DTH-reactive sponges by affecting at least one other chemokine that is chemotactic for lymphocytes. Of the two lymphocyte-attracting chemokines assessed, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), only MIP-1alpha was reduced when TCA3 was neutralized, indicating that TCA3 affects the levels of MIP-1alpha, which attracts lymphocytes into the sponges. TCA3 also plays a role in protection against Cryptococcus neoformans in the lungs and brains of infected mice, as evidenced by the fact that neutralization of TCA3 results in increased C. neoformans CFU in those two organs.  (+info)

Antibody response to Cryptococcus neoformans proteins in rodents and humans. (8/1887)

The prevalence and specificity of serum antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans proteins was studied in mice and rats with experimental infection, in individuals with or without a history of potential laboratory exposure to C. neoformans, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals who developed cryptococcosis, in matched samples from HIV-positive individuals who did not develop cryptococcosis, and in HIV-negative individuals. Rodents had little or no serum antibody reactive with C. neoformans proteins prior to infection. The intensity and specificity of the rodent antibody response were dependent on the species, the mouse strain, and the viability of the inoculum. All humans had serum antibodies reactive with C. neoformans proteins regardless of the potential exposure, the HIV infection status, or the subsequent development of cryptococcosis. Our results indicate (i) a high prevalence of antibodies reactive with C. neoformans proteins in the sera of rodents after cryptococcal infection and in humans with or without HIV infection; (ii) qualitative and quantitative differences in the antibody profiles of HIV-positive individuals; and (iii) similarities and differences between humans, mice, and rats with respect to the specificity of the antibodies reactive with C. neoformans proteins. The results are consistent with the view that C. neoformans infections are common in human populations, and the results have implications for the development of vaccination strategies against cryptococcosis.  (+info)

'Cryptococcus neoformans' is a species of encapsulated, budding yeast that is an important cause of fungal infections in humans and animals. The capsule surrounding the cell wall is composed of polysaccharides and is a key virulence factor, allowing the organism to evade host immune responses. C. neoformans is found worldwide in soil, particularly in association with bird droppings, and can be inhaled, leading to pulmonary infection. In people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, hematological malignancies, or organ transplants, C. neoformans can disseminate from the lungs to other sites, most commonly the central nervous system (CNS), causing meningitis. The infection can also affect other organs, including the skin, bones, and eyes.

The diagnosis of cryptococcosis typically involves microscopic examination and culture of clinical specimens, such as sputum, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), followed by biochemical and molecular identification of the organism. Treatment usually consists of a combination of antifungal medications, such as amphotericin B and fluconazole, along with management of any underlying immunodeficiency. The prognosis of cryptococcosis depends on various factors, including the patient's immune status, the extent and severity of infection, and the timeliness and adequacy of treatment.

'Cryptococcus' is a genus of encapsulated, budding yeast that are found in the environment, particularly in soil and bird droppings. The most common species that causes infection in humans is Cryptococcus neoformans, followed by Cryptococcus gattii.

Infection with Cryptococcus can occur when a person inhales the microscopic yeast cells, which can then lead to lung infections (pneumonia) or disseminated disease, particularly in people with weakened immune systems. The most common form of disseminated cryptococcal infection is meningitis, an inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

Cryptococcal infections can be serious and even life-threatening, especially in individuals with HIV/AIDS or other conditions that weaken the immune system. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, such as amphotericin B and fluconazole.

Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by the yeast-like fungus Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii. It can affect people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, organ transplants, or long-term steroid use. The infection typically starts in the lungs and can spread to other parts of the body, including the brain (meningitis), causing various symptoms like cough, fever, chest pain, headache, confusion, and vision problems. Treatment usually involves antifungal medications, and the prognosis depends on the patient's immune status and the severity of the infection.

'Cryptococcus gattii' is a species of encapsulated, yeast-like fungi belonging to the family Tremellaceae. It is an environmental pathogen that can cause pulmonary and central nervous system infections in humans and animals. The organism is typically found in soil and on trees in tropical and subtropical regions, but it has also been identified in temperate climates. Infection usually occurs through inhalation of the spores or desiccated yeast cells.

The disease caused by 'Cryptococcus gattii' is called cryptococcosis, which can manifest as a pulmonary infection (pneumonia) or a disseminated infection involving the central nervous system (meningitis). The symptoms of cryptococcosis may include cough, chest pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss, headache, stiff neck, confusion, and altered mental status.

Risk factors for developing cryptococcosis caused by 'Cryptococcus gattii' include underlying lung disease, immunosuppression (such as HIV/AIDS), and exposure to the fungus in endemic areas. Diagnosis typically involves microscopic examination of clinical specimens (e.g., sputum, cerebrospinal fluid) and culture isolation of the organism, followed by confirmation using biochemical or molecular methods. Treatment usually consists of antifungal therapy with agents such as amphotericin B and fluconazole.

Cryptococcal meningitis is a specific type of meningitis, which is an inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known as the meninges. This condition is caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii.

In cryptococcal meningitis, the fungal cells enter the bloodstream and cross the blood-brain barrier, causing infection in the central nervous system. The immune system's response to the infection leads to inflammation of the meninges, resulting in symptoms such as headache, fever, neck stiffness, altered mental status, and sometimes seizures or focal neurological deficits.

Cryptococcal meningitis is a serious infection that can be life-threatening if left untreated. It primarily affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, organ transplant recipients, and individuals receiving immunosuppressive therapy for cancer or autoimmune diseases. Early diagnosis and appropriate antifungal treatment are crucial to improve outcomes in patients with cryptococcal meningitis.

Fungal antibodies are a type of protein called immunoglobulins that are produced by the immune system in response to the presence of fungi in the body. These antibodies are specifically designed to recognize and bind to antigens on the surface of fungal cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

There are several types of fungal antibodies, including IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgE, each with a specific role in the immune response. For example, IgG antibodies are the most common type of antibody found in the blood and provide long-term immunity to fungi, while IgE antibodies are associated with allergic reactions to fungi.

Fungal antibodies can be measured in the blood or other bodily fluids to help diagnose fungal infections, monitor the effectiveness of treatment, or assess immune function in individuals who are at risk for fungal infections, such as those with weakened immune systems due to HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation.

Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long chains of monosaccharide units (simple sugars) bonded together by glycosidic linkages. They can be classified based on the type of monosaccharides and the nature of the bonds that connect them.

Polysaccharides have various functions in living organisms. For example, starch and glycogen serve as energy storage molecules in plants and animals, respectively. Cellulose provides structural support in plants, while chitin is a key component of fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons.

Some polysaccharides also have important roles in the human body, such as being part of the extracellular matrix (e.g., hyaluronic acid) or acting as blood group antigens (e.g., ABO blood group substances).

Antifungal agents are a type of medication used to treat and prevent fungal infections. These agents work by targeting and disrupting the growth of fungi, which include yeasts, molds, and other types of fungi that can cause illness in humans.

There are several different classes of antifungal agents, including:

1. Azoles: These agents work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes. Examples of azole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole.
2. Echinocandins: These agents target the fungal cell wall, disrupting its synthesis and leading to fungal cell death. Examples of echinocandins include caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.
3. Polyenes: These agents bind to ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to fungal cell death. Examples of polyene antifungals include amphotericin B and nystatin.
4. Allylamines: These agents inhibit squalene epoxidase, a key enzyme in ergosterol synthesis. Examples of allylamine antifungals include terbinafine and naftifine.
5. Griseofulvin: This agent disrupts fungal cell division by binding to tubulin, a protein involved in fungal cell mitosis.

Antifungal agents can be administered topically, orally, or intravenously, depending on the severity and location of the infection. It is important to use antifungal agents only as directed by a healthcare professional, as misuse or overuse can lead to resistance and make treatment more difficult.

Fungal antigens are substances found on or produced by fungi that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. They can be proteins, polysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system. Fungal antigens can be used in diagnostic tests to identify fungal infections, and they can also be targets of immune responses during fungal infections. In some cases, fungal antigens may contribute to the pathogenesis of fungal diseases by inducing inflammatory or allergic reactions. Examples of fungal antigens include the cell wall components of Candida albicans and the extracellular polysaccharide galactomannan produced by Aspergillus fumigatus.

Melanin is a pigment that determines the color of skin, hair, and eyes in humans and animals. It is produced by melanocytes, which are specialized cells found in the epidermis (the outer layer of the skin) and the choroid (the vascular coat of the eye). There are two main types of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. Eumelanin is a black or brown pigment, while pheomelanin is a red or yellow pigment. The amount and type of melanin produced by an individual can affect their skin and hair color, as well as their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as skin cancer.

Fungal lung diseases, also known as fungal pneumonia or mycoses, refer to a group of respiratory disorders caused by the infection of fungi in the lungs. These fungi are commonly found in the environment, such as soil, decaying organic matter, and contaminated materials. People can develop lung diseases from fungi after inhaling spores or particles that contain fungi.

There are several types of fungal lung diseases, including:

1. Aspergillosis: This is caused by the Aspergillus fungus and can affect people with weakened immune systems. It can cause allergic reactions, lung infections, or invasive aspergillosis, which can spread to other organs.
2. Cryptococcosis: This is caused by the Cryptococcus fungus and is usually found in soil contaminated with bird droppings. It can cause pneumonia, meningitis, or skin lesions.
3. Histoplasmosis: This is caused by the Histoplasma capsulatum fungus and is commonly found in the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys. It can cause flu-like symptoms, lung infections, or disseminated histoplasmosis, which can spread to other organs.
4. Blastomycosis: This is caused by the Blastomyces dermatitidis fungus and is commonly found in the southeastern and south-central United States. It can cause pneumonia, skin lesions, or disseminated blastomycosis, which can spread to other organs.
5. Coccidioidomycosis: This is caused by the Coccidioides immitis fungus and is commonly found in the southwestern United States. It can cause flu-like symptoms, lung infections, or disseminated coccidioidomycosis, which can spread to other organs.

Fungal lung diseases can range from mild to severe, depending on the type of fungus and the person's immune system. Treatment may include antifungal medications, surgery, or supportive care. Prevention measures include avoiding exposure to contaminated soil or dust, wearing protective masks in high-risk areas, and promptly seeking medical attention if symptoms develop.

1. Genes: These are hereditary units that carry genetic information from parents to offspring and determine various characteristics such as eye color, hair color, and height in living organisms. In fungi, genes are responsible for encoding different traits, including mating type.

2. Mating Type: Fungi have a complex sexual reproduction system involving two or more mating types that must come together to reproduce sexually. The mating type of a fungus is determined by the presence or absence of specific genes called "mating type loci" (MAT). These genes control the ability of fungal cells to recognize and fuse with each other during sexual reproduction.

3. Fungal: This term refers to any member of the kingdom Fungi, which includes a diverse group of organisms such as yeasts, molds, and mushrooms. Fungi are eukaryotic, meaning they have complex cells with a true nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. They play essential roles in various ecosystems, decomposing organic matter, recycling nutrients, and forming mutualistic relationships with plants and animals.

In summary, 'Genes, Mating Type, Fungal' refers to the genetic factors that determine the mating type of fungi, which is crucial for their sexual reproduction and survival in various environments.

Mycological typing techniques are methods used to identify and classify fungi at the species or strain level, based on their unique biological characteristics. These techniques are often used in clinical laboratories to help diagnose fungal infections and determine the most effective treatment approaches.

There are several different mycological typing techniques that may be used, depending on the specific type of fungus being identified and the resources available in the laboratory. Some common methods include:

1. Phenotypic methods: These methods involve observing and measuring the physical characteristics of fungi, such as their growth patterns, colonial morphology, and microscopic features. Examples include macroscopic and microscopic examination, as well as biochemical tests to identify specific metabolic properties.

2. Genotypic methods: These methods involve analyzing the DNA or RNA of fungi to identify unique genetic sequences that can be used to distinguish between different species or strains. Examples include PCR-based methods, such as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, as well as sequencing-based methods, such as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST).

3. Proteotypic methods: These methods involve analyzing the proteins expressed by fungi to identify unique protein profiles that can be used to distinguish between different species or strains. Examples include matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS).

Mycological typing techniques are important tools for understanding the epidemiology of fungal infections, tracking outbreaks, and developing effective treatment strategies. By accurately identifying the specific fungi causing an infection, healthcare providers can tailor their treatments to target the most vulnerable aspects of the pathogen, improving patient outcomes and reducing the risk of drug resistance.

Fluconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat and prevent various fungal infections, such as candidiasis (yeast infections), cryptococcal meningitis, and other fungal infections that affect the mouth, throat, blood, lungs, genital area, and other parts of the body. It works by inhibiting the growth of fungi that cause these infections. Fluconazole is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and intravenous (IV) solutions, and is typically prescribed to be taken once daily.

The medical definition of Fluconazole can be found in pharmacological or medical dictionaries, which describe it as a triazole antifungal agent that inhibits fungal cytochrome P450-dependent synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of the fungal cell membrane. This results in increased permeability and leakage of cellular contents, ultimately leading to fungal death. Fluconazole has a broad spectrum of activity against various fungi, including Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, and others.

It is important to note that while Fluconazole is an effective antifungal medication, it may have side effects and interactions with other medications. Therefore, it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Laccase is an enzyme (specifically, a type of oxidoreductase) that is widely distributed in plants, fungi, and bacteria. It catalyzes the oxidation of various phenolic compounds, including polyphenols, methoxy-substituted phenols, aromatic amines, and some inorganic ions, while reducing molecular oxygen to water. This enzyme plays a crucial role in lignin degradation, as well as in the detoxification of xenobiotic compounds and in the synthesis of various pigments and polymers. The medical relevance of laccase is linked to its potential applications in bioremediation, biofuel production, and biotechnology.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Fungal proteins are a type of protein that is specifically produced and present in fungi, which are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds. These proteins play various roles in the growth, development, and survival of fungi. They can be involved in the structure and function of fungal cells, metabolism, pathogenesis, and other cellular processes. Some fungal proteins can also have important implications for human health, both in terms of their potential use as therapeutic targets and as allergens or toxins that can cause disease.

Fungal proteins can be classified into different categories based on their functions, such as enzymes, structural proteins, signaling proteins, and toxins. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in fungal cells, while structural proteins provide support and protection for the cell. Signaling proteins are involved in communication between cells and regulation of various cellular processes, and toxins are proteins that can cause harm to other organisms, including humans.

Understanding the structure and function of fungal proteins is important for developing new treatments for fungal infections, as well as for understanding the basic biology of fungi. Research on fungal proteins has led to the development of several antifungal drugs that target specific fungal enzymes or other proteins, providing effective treatment options for a range of fungal diseases. Additionally, further study of fungal proteins may reveal new targets for drug development and help improve our ability to diagnose and treat fungal infections.

Fungal DNA refers to the genetic material present in fungi, which are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as larger organisms like mushrooms. The DNA of fungi, like that of all living organisms, is made up of nucleotides that are arranged in a double helix structure.

Fungal DNA contains the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of fungi. This includes the instructions for making proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of cells, as well as other important molecules such as enzymes and nucleic acids.

Studying fungal DNA can provide valuable insights into the biology and evolution of fungi, as well as their potential uses in medicine, agriculture, and industry. For example, researchers have used genetic engineering techniques to modify the DNA of fungi to produce drugs, biofuels, and other useful products. Additionally, understanding the genetic makeup of pathogenic fungi can help scientists develop new strategies for preventing and treating fungal infections.

Meningoencephalitis is a medical term that refers to an inflammation of both the brain (encephalitis) and the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (meninges), known as the meninges. It is often caused by an infection, such as bacterial or viral infections, that spreads to the meninges and brain. In some cases, it can also be caused by other factors like autoimmune disorders or certain medications.

The symptoms of meningoencephalitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, seizures, and changes in mental status. If left untreated, this condition can lead to serious complications, such as brain damage, hearing loss, learning disabilities, or even death. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial infections or antiviral medications for viral infections, along with supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Amphotericin B is an antifungal medication used to treat serious and often life-threatening fungal infections. It works by binding to the ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to the loss of essential cell components and ultimately cell death.

The medical definition of Amphotericin B is:

A polyene antifungal agent derived from Streptomyces nodosus, with a broad spectrum of activity against various fungi, including Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and Histoplasma capsulatum. Amphotericin B is used to treat systemic fungal infections, such as histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, candidiasis, and aspergillosis, among others. It may be administered intravenously or topically, depending on the formulation and the site of infection.

Adverse effects associated with Amphotericin B include infusion-related reactions (such as fever, chills, and hypotension), nephrotoxicity, electrolyte imbalances, and anemia. These side effects are often dose-dependent and may be managed through careful monitoring and adjustment of the dosing regimen.

Gene expression regulation in fungi refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins and other functional gene products in response to various internal and external stimuli. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and adaptation of fungal cells to changing environmental conditions.

In fungi, gene expression is regulated at multiple levels, including transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, and post-translational modifications. Key regulatory mechanisms include:

1. Transcription factors (TFs): These proteins bind to specific DNA sequences in the promoter regions of target genes and either activate or repress their transcription. Fungi have a diverse array of TFs that respond to various signals, such as nutrient availability, stress, developmental cues, and quorum sensing.
2. Chromatin remodeling: The organization and compaction of DNA into chromatin can influence gene expression. Fungi utilize ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes and histone modifying enzymes to alter chromatin structure, thereby facilitating or inhibiting the access of transcriptional machinery to genes.
3. Non-coding RNAs: Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) play a role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in fungi. These sncRNAs can guide RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complexes to specific target loci, leading to the repression of gene expression through histone modifications and DNA methylation.
4. Alternative splicing: Fungi employ alternative splicing mechanisms to generate multiple mRNA isoforms from a single gene, thereby increasing proteome diversity. This process can be regulated by RNA-binding proteins that recognize specific sequence motifs in pre-mRNAs and promote or inhibit splicing events.
5. Protein stability and activity: Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, can influence their stability, localization, and activity. These PTMs play a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes, including signal transduction, stress response, and cell cycle progression.

Understanding the complex interplay between these regulatory mechanisms is essential for elucidating the molecular basis of fungal development, pathogenesis, and drug resistance. This knowledge can be harnessed to develop novel strategies for combating fungal infections and improving agricultural productivity.

Flucytosine is an antifungal medication used to treat serious and life-threatening fungal infections, such as cryptococcal meningitis and candidiasis. It works by interfering with the production of DNA and RNA in the fungal cells, which inhibits their growth and reproduction.

The medical definition of Flucytosine is:

A synthetic fluorinated pyrimidine nucleoside analogue that is converted to fluorouracil after uptake into susceptible fungal cells. It is used as an antifungal agent in the treatment of serious systemic fungal infections, particularly those caused by Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans. Flucytosine has both fungistatic and fungicidal activity, depending on the concentration achieved at the site of infection and the susceptibility of the organism.

Flucytosine is available in oral form and is often used in combination with other antifungal agents to increase its effectiveness and prevent the development of resistance. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and bone marrow suppression. Regular monitoring of blood counts and liver function tests is necessary during treatment to detect any potential toxicity.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

Phagocytosis is the process by which certain cells in the body, known as phagocytes, engulf and destroy foreign particles, bacteria, or dead cells. This mechanism plays a crucial role in the immune system's response to infection and inflammation. Phagocytes, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, have receptors on their surface that recognize and bind to specific molecules (known as antigens) on the target particles or microorganisms.

Once attached, the phagocyte extends pseudopodia (cell extensions) around the particle, forming a vesicle called a phagosome that completely encloses it. The phagosome then fuses with a lysosome, an intracellular organelle containing digestive enzymes and other chemicals. This fusion results in the formation of a phagolysosome, where the engulfed particle is broken down by the action of these enzymes, neutralizing its harmful effects and allowing for the removal of cellular debris or pathogens.

Phagocytosis not only serves as a crucial defense mechanism against infections but also contributes to tissue homeostasis by removing dead cells and debris.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

Fungal drug resistance is a condition where fungi are no longer susceptible to the antifungal drugs that were previously used to treat infections they caused. This can occur due to genetic changes in the fungi that make them less sensitive to the drug's effects, or due to environmental factors that allow the fungi to survive and multiply despite the presence of the drug.

There are several mechanisms by which fungi can develop drug resistance, including:

1. Mutations in genes that encode drug targets: Fungi can acquire mutations in the genes that encode for the proteins or enzymes that the antifungal drugs target. These mutations can alter the structure or function of these targets, making them less susceptible to the drug's effects.
2. Overexpression of efflux pumps: Fungi can increase the expression of genes that encode for efflux pumps, which are proteins that help fungi expel drugs from their cells. This can reduce the intracellular concentration of the drug and make it less effective.
3. Changes in membrane composition: Fungi can alter the composition of their cell membranes to make them less permeable to antifungal drugs, making it more difficult for the drugs to enter the fungal cells and exert their effects.
4. Biofilm formation: Fungi can form biofilms, which are complex communities of microorganisms that adhere to surfaces and are protected by a matrix of extracellular material. Biofilms can make fungi more resistant to antifungal drugs by limiting drug penetration and creating an environment that promotes the development of resistance.

Fungal drug resistance is a significant clinical problem, particularly in patients with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or cancer. It can lead to treatment failures, increased morbidity and mortality, and higher healthcare costs. To address this issue, there is a need for new antifungal drugs, as well as strategies to prevent and manage drug resistance.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Mycology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and classification, their role in diseases and decomposition processes, and their potential uses in industry, agriculture, and medicine. It involves the examination and identification of various types of fungi, such as yeasts, molds, and mushrooms, and the investigation of their ecological relationships with other organisms and their environments. Mycologists may also study the medical and veterinary importance of fungi, including the diagnosis and treatment of fungal infections, as well as the development of antifungal drugs and vaccines.

'Candida' is a type of fungus (a form of yeast) that is commonly found on the skin and inside the body, including in the mouth, throat, gut, and vagina, in small amounts. It is a part of the normal microbiota and usually does not cause any problems. However, an overgrowth of Candida can lead to infections known as candidiasis or thrush. Common sites for these infections include the skin, mouth, throat, and genital areas. Some factors that can contribute to Candida overgrowth are a weakened immune system, certain medications (such as antibiotics and corticosteroids), diabetes, pregnancy, poor oral hygiene, and wearing damp or tight-fitting clothing. Common symptoms of candidiasis include itching, redness, pain, and discharge. Treatment typically involves antifungal medication, either topical or oral, depending on the site and severity of the infection.

AIDS-related opportunistic infections (AROIs) are infections that occur more frequently or are more severe in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with advanced HIV infection or AIDS. These infections take advantage of a weakened immune system and can affect various organs and systems in the body.

Common examples of AROIs include:

1. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii
2. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection, caused by a type of bacteria called mycobacteria
3. Candidiasis, a fungal infection that can affect various parts of the body, including the mouth, esophagus, and genitals
4. Toxoplasmosis, caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii
5. Cryptococcosis, a fungal infection that affects the lungs and central nervous system
6. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, caused by a type of herpes virus
7. Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis
8. Cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic infection that affects the intestines
9. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a viral infection that affects the brain

Preventing and treating AROIs is an important part of managing HIV/AIDS, as they can cause significant illness and even death in people with weakened immune systems. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is used to treat HIV infection and prevent the progression of HIV to AIDS, which can help reduce the risk of opportunistic infections. In addition, medications to prevent specific opportunistic infections may be prescribed for people with advanced HIV or AIDS.

Fungal genes refer to the genetic material present in fungi, which are eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as larger organisms like mushrooms. The genetic material of fungi is composed of DNA, just like in other eukaryotes, and is organized into chromosomes located in the nucleus of the cell.

Fungal genes are segments of DNA that contain the information necessary to produce proteins and RNA molecules required for various cellular functions. These genes are transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, which are then translated into proteins by ribosomes in the cytoplasm.

Fungal genomes have been sequenced for many species, revealing a diverse range of genes that encode proteins involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, signaling, and regulation. Comparative genomic analyses have also provided insights into the evolutionary relationships among different fungal lineages and have helped to identify unique genetic features that distinguish fungi from other eukaryotes.

Understanding fungal genes and their functions is essential for advancing our knowledge of fungal biology, as well as for developing new strategies to control fungal pathogens that can cause diseases in humans, animals, and plants.

Itraconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat various fungal infections, including blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and candidiasis. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a vital component of fungal cell membranes, thereby disrupting the integrity and function of these membranes. Itraconazole is available in oral and intravenous forms for systemic use and as a topical solution or cream for localized fungal infections.

Medical Definition:
Itraconazole (i-tra-KON-a-zole): A synthetic triazole antifungal agent used to treat various fungal infections, such as blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and candidiasis. It inhibits the synthesis of ergosterol, a critical component of fungal cell membranes, leading to disruption of their integrity and function. Itraconazole is available in oral (capsule and solution) and intravenous forms for systemic use and as a topical solution or cream for localized fungal infections.

Lysophospholipase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid from lysophospholipids, producing a glycerophosphocholine and free fatty acid. This enzyme plays a role in the metabolism of lipids and membrane homeostasis. There are several types of lysophospholipases that differ based on their specificity for the head group of the lysophospholipid substrate, such as lysophosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase or lysophospholipase 1 (LPLA1), and lysophosphatidic acid-specific phospholipase D or autotaxin (ATX).

Deficiency or mutations in lysophospholipases can lead to various diseases, such as LPI (lysophosphatidylinositol lipidosis) caused by a deficiency of the lysophospholipase superfamily member called Ptdlns-specific phospholipase C (PLC).

Note: This definition is for general information purposes only and may not include all the latest findings or medical terminologies. For accurate and comprehensive understanding, it's recommended to consult authoritative medical textbooks or resources.

'Candida albicans' is a species of yeast that is commonly found in the human body, particularly in warm and moist areas such as the mouth, gut, and genital region. It is a part of the normal microbiota and usually does not cause any harm. However, under certain conditions like a weakened immune system, prolonged use of antibiotics or steroids, poor oral hygiene, or diabetes, it can overgrow and cause infections known as candidiasis. These infections can affect various parts of the body including the skin, nails, mouth (thrush), and genital area (yeast infection).

The medical definition of 'Candida albicans' is:

A species of yeast belonging to the genus Candida, which is commonly found as a commensal organism in humans. It can cause opportunistic infections when there is a disruption in the normal microbiota or when the immune system is compromised. The overgrowth of C. albicans can lead to various forms of candidiasis, such as oral thrush, vaginal yeast infection, and invasive candidiasis.

A cell wall is a rigid layer found surrounding the plasma membrane of plant cells, fungi, and many types of bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to the cell, maintains cell shape, and acts as a barrier against external factors such as chemicals and mechanical stress. The composition of the cell wall varies among different species; for example, in plants, it is primarily made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin, while in bacteria, it is composed of peptidoglycan.

Environmental Microbiology is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other microscopic entities, that are found in various environments such as water, soil, air, and organic matter. This field focuses on understanding how these microbes interact with their surroundings, their role in various ecological systems, and their impact on human health and the environment. It also involves studying the genetic and biochemical mechanisms that allow microorganisms to survive and thrive in different environmental conditions, as well as the potential uses of microbes for bioremediation, bioenergy, and other industrial applications.

Central nervous system (CNS) fungal infections refer to invasive fungal diseases that affect the brain and/or spinal cord. These types of infections are relatively uncommon but can be serious and potentially life-threatening, especially in individuals with weakened immune systems due to conditions such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation.

There are several types of fungi that can cause CNS infections, including:

1. Candida species: These are yeast-like fungi that can cause a range of infections, from superficial to systemic. When they invade the CNS, they can cause meningitis or brain abscesses.
2. Aspergillus species: These are mold-like fungi that can cause invasive aspergillosis, which can affect various organs, including the brain.
3. Cryptococcus neoformans: This is a yeast-like fungus that primarily affects people with weakened immune systems. It can cause meningitis or brain abscesses.
4. Coccidioides species: These are mold-like fungi that can cause coccidioidomycosis, also known as Valley Fever. While most infections are limited to the lungs, some people may develop disseminated disease, which can affect the CNS.
5. Histoplasma capsulatum: This is a mold-like fungus that causes histoplasmosis, which primarily affects the lungs but can disseminate and involve the CNS.

Symptoms of CNS fungal infections may include headache, fever, altered mental status, seizures, stiff neck, and focal neurologic deficits. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as MRI or CT), and laboratory tests (such as cerebrospinal fluid analysis or fungal cultures). Treatment usually involves long-term antifungal therapy, often with a combination of drugs, and may also include surgical intervention in some cases.

Virulence factors are characteristics or components of a microorganism, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, that contribute to its ability to cause damage or disease in a host organism. These factors can include various structures, enzymes, or toxins that allow the pathogen to evade the host's immune system, attach to and invade host tissues, obtain nutrients from the host, or damage host cells directly.

Examples of virulence factors in bacteria include:

1. Endotoxins: lipopolysaccharides found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that can trigger a strong immune response and inflammation.
2. Exotoxins: proteins secreted by some bacteria that have toxic effects on host cells, such as botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum or diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
3. Adhesins: structures that help the bacterium attach to host tissues, such as fimbriae or pili in Escherichia coli.
4. Capsules: thick layers of polysaccharides or proteins that surround some bacteria and protect them from the host's immune system, like those found in Streptococcus pneumoniae or Klebsiella pneumoniae.
5. Invasins: proteins that enable bacteria to invade and enter host cells, such as internalins in Listeria monocytogenes.
6. Enzymes: proteins that help bacteria obtain nutrients from the host by breaking down various molecules, like hemolysins that lyse red blood cells to release iron or hyaluronidases that degrade connective tissue.

Understanding virulence factors is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by these microorganisms.

Inbred A mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings. This results in a high degree of genetic similarity among individuals within the strain, making them useful for research purposes where a consistent genetic background is desired. The Inbred A strain is maintained through continued brother-sister mating. It's important to note that while these mice are called "Inbred A," the designation does not refer to any specific medical condition or characteristic. Instead, it refers to the breeding practices used to create and maintain this particular strain of laboratory mice.

Mycoses are a group of diseases caused by fungal infections. These infections can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, nails, hair, lungs, and internal organs. The severity of mycoses can range from superficial, mild infections to systemic, life-threatening conditions, depending on the type of fungus and the immune status of the infected individual. Some common types of mycoses include candidiasis, dermatophytosis, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, which can be topical or systemic, depending on the location and severity of the infection.

A fungal capsule refers to a structure that surrounds and protects the fungal cell, primarily found in encapsulated fungi. It is composed of polysaccharides and glycoproteins, and its formation is influenced by environmental factors such as pH, temperature, and nutrient availability. The capsule plays a crucial role in the virulence and pathogenicity of fungi, facilitating adherence to host tissues, evasion of the immune system, and biofilm formation.

Medically important encapsulated fungi include Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, which can cause severe infections such as meningitis and pneumonia, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. The capsule is a key virulence factor for these organisms, making it an important target for diagnostic tests and antifungal therapies.

Pheromones are chemical signals that one organism releases into the environment that can affect the behavior or physiology of other organisms of the same species. They are primarily used for communication in animals, including insects and mammals. In humans, the existence and role of pheromones are still a subject of ongoing research and debate.

In a medical context, pheromones may be discussed in relation to certain medical conditions or treatments that involve olfactory (smell) stimuli, such as some forms of aromatherapy. However, it's important to note that the use of pheromones as a medical treatment is not widely accepted and more research is needed to establish their effectiveness and safety.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Triazoles are a class of antifungal medications that have broad-spectrum activity against various fungi, including yeasts, molds, and dermatophytes. They work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell membranes, leading to increased permeability and disruption of fungal growth. Triazoles are commonly used in both systemic and topical formulations for the treatment of various fungal infections, such as candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, and dermatophytoses. Some examples of triazole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

A fungal vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity against fungal infections. It contains one or more fungal antigens, which are substances that can stimulate an immune response, along with adjuvants to enhance the immune response. The goal of fungal vaccines is to protect against invasive fungal diseases, especially in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy, organ transplantation, or HIV/AIDS treatment.

Fungal vaccines can work by inducing both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Humoral immunity involves the production of antibodies that recognize and neutralize fungal antigens, while cell-mediated immunity involves the activation of T cells to directly attack infected cells.

Currently, there are no licensed fungal vaccines available for human use, although several candidates are in various stages of development and clinical trials. Some examples include vaccines against Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Pneumocystis jirovecii.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Columbidae is the family that includes all pigeons and doves. According to the medical literature, there are no specific medical definitions associated with Columbidae. However, it's worth noting that some species of pigeons and doves are commonly kept as pets or used in research, and may be mentioned in medical contexts related to avian medicine, zoonoses (diseases transmissible from animals to humans), or public health concerns such as bird-related allergies.

Fungal spores are defined as the reproductive units of fungi that are produced by specialized structures called hyphae. These spores are typically single-celled and can exist in various shapes such as round, oval, or ellipsoidal. They are highly resistant to extreme environmental conditions like heat, cold, and dryness, which allows them to survive for long periods until they find a suitable environment to germinate and grow into a new fungal organism. Fungal spores can be found in the air, water, soil, and on various surfaces, making them easily dispersible and capable of causing infections in humans, animals, and plants.

"Azoles" is a class of antifungal medications that have a similar chemical structure, specifically a five-membered ring containing nitrogen and two carbon atoms (a "azole ring"). The most common azoles used in medicine include:

1. Imidazoles: These include drugs such as clotrimazole, miconazole, and ketoconazole. They are used to treat a variety of fungal infections, including vaginal yeast infections, thrush, and skin infections.
2. Triazoles: These include drugs such as fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. They are also used to treat fungal infections, but have a broader spectrum of activity than imidazoles and are often used for more serious or systemic infections.

Azoles work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell membranes. This leads to increased permeability of the cell membrane, which ultimately results in fungal cell death.

While azoles are generally well-tolerated, they can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In addition, some azoles can interact with other medications and affect liver function, so it's important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting an azole regimen.

"CBA" is an abbreviation for a specific strain of inbred mice that were developed at the Cancer Research Institute in London. The "Inbred CBA" mice are genetically identical individuals within the same strain, due to many generations of brother-sister matings. This results in a homozygous population, making them valuable tools for research because they reduce variability and increase reproducibility in experimental outcomes.

The CBA strain is known for its susceptibility to certain diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and cancer, which makes it a popular choice for researchers studying those conditions. Additionally, the CBA strain has been widely used in studies related to transplantation immunology, infectious diseases, and genetic research.

It's important to note that while "Inbred CBA" mice are a well-established and useful tool in biomedical research, they represent only one of many inbred strains available for scientific investigation. Each strain has its own unique characteristics and advantages, depending on the specific research question being asked.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

Yeasts are single-celled microorganisms that belong to the fungus kingdom. They are characterized by their ability to reproduce asexually through budding or fission, and they obtain nutrients by fermenting sugars and other organic compounds. Some species of yeast can cause infections in humans, known as candidiasis or "yeast infections." These infections can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, mouth, genitals, and internal organs. Common symptoms of a yeast infection may include itching, redness, irritation, and discharge. Yeast infections are typically treated with antifungal medications.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. It acts as a shock absorber for the central nervous system and provides nutrients to the brain while removing waste products. CSF is produced by specialized cells called ependymal cells in the choroid plexus of the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) inside the brain. From there, it circulates through the ventricular system and around the outside of the brain and spinal cord before being absorbed back into the bloodstream. CSF analysis is an important diagnostic tool for various neurological conditions, including infections, inflammation, and cancer.

Haploidy is a term used in genetics to describe the condition of having half the normal number of chromosomes in a cell or an organism. In humans, for example, a haploid cell contains 23 chromosomes, whereas a diploid cell has 46 chromosomes.

Haploid cells are typically produced through a process called meiosis, which is a type of cell division that occurs in the reproductive organs of sexually reproducing organisms. During meiosis, a diploid cell undergoes two rounds of division to produce four haploid cells, each containing only one set of chromosomes.

In humans, haploid cells are found in the sperm and egg cells, which fuse together during fertilization to create a diploid zygote with 46 chromosomes. Haploidy is important for maintaining the correct number of chromosomes in future generations and preventing genetic abnormalities that can result from having too many or too few chromosomes.

Fungal polysaccharides refer to complex carbohydrates that are produced and found in fungi, including yeasts, molds, and mushrooms. These polysaccharides are made up of long chains of sugar molecules that are linked together by glycosidic bonds.

Fungal polysaccharides have various structures and functions depending on the specific fungal species they come from. Some fungal polysaccharides, such as beta-glucans, have been shown to have immunomodulatory effects and are used in some medical treatments. Beta-glucans, for example, can stimulate the immune system's response to infections and cancer.

Other fungal polysaccharides, such as chitin, are structural components of fungal cell walls. Chitin is a polysaccharide made up of N-acetylglucosamine units and is also found in the exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans.

Fungal polysaccharides have been studied for their potential therapeutic uses, including as antimicrobial, antitumor, and immunomodulatory agents. However, more research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and potential benefits and risks.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Biological pigments are substances produced by living organisms that absorb certain wavelengths of light and reflect others, resulting in the perception of color. These pigments play crucial roles in various biological processes such as photosynthesis, vision, and protection against harmful radiation. Some examples of biological pigments include melanin, hemoglobin, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and flavonoids.

Melanin is a pigment responsible for the color of skin, hair, and eyes in animals, including humans. Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that contains a porphyrin ring with an iron atom at its center, which gives blood its red color and facilitates oxygen transport. Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in plants, algae, and some bacteria that absorbs light during photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. Carotenoids are orange, yellow, or red pigments found in fruits, vegetables, and some animals that protect against oxidative stress and help maintain membrane fluidity. Flavonoids are a class of plant pigments with antioxidant properties that have been linked to various health benefits.

Hyphae (singular: hypha) are the long, branching filamentous structures of fungi that make up the mycelium. They are composed of an inner layer of cell wall materials and an outer layer of proteinaceous fibrils. Hyphae can be divided into several types based on their structure and function, including septate (with cross-walls) and coenocytic (without cross-walls) hyphae, as well as vegetative and reproductive hyphae. The ability of fungi to grow as hyphal networks allows them to explore and exploit their environment for resources, making hyphae critical to the ecology and survival of these organisms.

Opsonins are proteins found in the blood that help enhance the immune system's response to foreign substances, such as bacteria and viruses. They do this by coating the surface of these pathogens, making them more recognizable to immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages. This process, known as opsonization, facilitates the phagocytosis (engulfing and destroying) of the pathogen by these immune cells.

There are two main types of opsonins:

1. IgG antibodies: These are a type of antibody produced by the immune system in response to an infection. They bind to specific antigens on the surface of the pathogen, marking them for destruction by phagocytic cells.
2. Complement proteins: The complement system is a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens. When activated, the complement system can produce various proteins that act as opsonins, including C3b and C4b. These proteins bind to the surface of the pathogen, making it easier for phagocytic cells to recognize and destroy them.

In summary, opsonin proteins are crucial components of the immune system's response to infections, helping to mark foreign substances for destruction by immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

Fungal meningitis is a form of meningitis, which is an inflammation of the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It is specifically caused by the invasion of the meninges by fungi. The most common causative agents are Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum.

Fungal meningitis typically occurs in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant recipients. It begins gradually, often with symptoms including headache, fever, stiff neck, and sensitivity to light. Other possible symptoms can include confusion, nausea, vomiting, and altered mental status.

Diagnosis of fungal meningitis typically involves a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans), and laboratory tests (such as cerebrospinal fluid analysis). Treatment usually requires long-term antifungal therapy, often administered intravenously in a hospital setting. The prognosis for fungal meningitis depends on several factors, including the underlying immune status of the patient, the specific causative agent, and the timeliness and adequacy of treatment.

Orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of orotate to oximine monophosphate (OMP), which is a key step in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines, a type of nucleotide. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the metabolism of nucleic acids, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA.

The reaction catalyzed by OPRT is as follows:

orotate + phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) -> oximine monophosphate (OMP) + pyrophosphate

Defects in the gene that encodes for OPRT can lead to orotic aciduria, a rare genetic disorder characterized by an accumulation of orotic acid and other pyrimidines in the urine and other body fluids. Symptoms of this condition may include developmental delay, mental retardation, seizures, and megaloblastic anemia.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique is a type of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based method used in molecular biology for DNA fingerprinting and genetic diversity analysis. This technique utilizes random primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequences to amplify random segments of genomic DNA. The amplified products are then separated by electrophoresis, and the resulting banding patterns are analyzed.

In RAPD analysis, the randomly chosen primers bind to multiple sites in the genome, and the intervening regions between the primer binding sites are amplified. Since the primer binding sites can vary among individuals within a species or among different species, the resulting amplicons will also differ. These differences in amplicon size and pattern can be used to distinguish between individuals or populations at the DNA level.

RAPD is a relatively simple and cost-effective technique that does not require prior knowledge of the genome sequence. However, it has some limitations, such as low reproducibility and sensitivity to experimental conditions. Despite these limitations, RAPD remains a useful tool for genetic analysis in various fields, including forensics, plant breeding, and microbial identification.

Eucalyptus is defined in medical terms as a genus of mostly Australian trees and shrubs that have aromatic leaves and bark, and oil-containing foliage. The oil from eucalyptus leaves contains a chemical called eucalyptol, which has been found to have several medicinal properties.

Eucalyptus oil has been used in traditional medicine for centuries to treat various health conditions such as respiratory problems, fever, and pain. It has anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, decongestant, and expectorant properties, making it a popular remedy for colds, coughs, and congestion.

Eucalyptus oil is also used in modern medicine as an ingredient in over-the-counter products such as throat lozenges, cough syrups, and topical pain relievers. It is important to note that eucalyptus oil should not be ingested undiluted, as it can be toxic in large amounts.

In addition to its medicinal uses, eucalyptus trees are also known for their rapid growth and ability to drain swampland, making them useful in land reclamation projects.

Microbiological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and analysis of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. These techniques are essential in fields like medical microbiology, food microbiology, environmental microbiology, and industrial microbiology.

Some common microbiological techniques include:

1. Microbial culturing: This involves growing microorganisms on nutrient-rich media in Petri dishes or test tubes to allow them to multiply. Different types of media are used to culture different types of microorganisms.
2. Staining and microscopy: Various staining techniques, such as Gram stain, acid-fast stain, and methylene blue stain, are used to visualize and identify microorganisms under a microscope.
3. Biochemical testing: These tests involve the use of specific biochemical reactions to identify microorganisms based on their metabolic characteristics. Examples include the catalase test, oxidase test, and sugar fermentation tests.
4. Molecular techniques: These methods are used to identify microorganisms based on their genetic material. Examples include polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, and gene probes.
5. Serological testing: This involves the use of antibodies or antigens to detect the presence of specific microorganisms in a sample. Examples include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting.
6. Immunofluorescence: This technique uses fluorescent dyes to label antibodies or antigens, allowing for the visualization of microorganisms under a fluorescence microscope.
7. Electron microscopy: This method uses high-powered electron beams to produce detailed images of microorganisms, allowing for the identification and analysis of their structures.

These techniques are critical in diagnosing infectious diseases, monitoring food safety, assessing environmental quality, and developing new drugs and vaccines.

A fruiting body, in the context of mycology (the study of fungi), refers to the part of a fungus that produces spores for sexual or asexual reproduction. These structures are often what we typically think of as mushrooms or toadstools, although not all fungal fruiting bodies resemble these familiar forms.

Fungal fruiting bodies can vary greatly in size, shape, and color, depending on the species of fungus. They may be aboveground, like the caps and stalks of mushrooms, or underground, like the tiny, thread-like structures known as "corals" in some species.

The primary function of a fruiting body is to produce and disperse spores, which can give rise to new individuals when they germinate under favorable conditions. The development of a fruiting body is often triggered by environmental factors such as moisture, temperature, and nutrient availability.

Histoplasma is a genus of dimorphic fungi that can cause the infectious disease histoplasmosis in humans and animals. The two species that are most commonly associated with disease are Histoplasma capsulatum and Histoplasma duboisii. These fungi are found worldwide, but are particularly prevalent in certain regions such as the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys in the United States and parts of Central and South America.

Histoplasma exists in two forms: a mold that grows in soil and other environments, and a yeast form that infects human and animal hosts. The fungi are typically inhaled into the lungs, where they can cause respiratory symptoms such as cough, fever, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, histoplasmosis can disseminate throughout the body and affect other organs, leading to more serious complications.

Histoplasma is often found in soil enriched with bird or bat droppings, and exposure can occur through activities such as digging, gardening, or cleaning chicken coops. While histoplasmosis can be a serious disease, it is usually treatable with antifungal medications. However, some people may develop chronic or severe forms of the disease, particularly those with weakened immune systems.

"Blastomyces" is a genus of fungi that can cause a pulmonary or systemic infection known as blastomycosis in humans and animals. The fungus exists in the environment, particularly in damp soil and decomposing organic matter, and is typically found in certain regions of North America. Infection occurs when a person inhales spores of the fungus, which can lead to respiratory symptoms such as cough, fever, and chest pain. The infection can also disseminate to other parts of the body, causing various symptoms depending on the organs involved.

DNA fingerprinting, also known as DNA profiling or genetic fingerprinting, is a laboratory technique used to identify and compare the unique genetic makeup of individuals by analyzing specific regions of their DNA. This method is based on the variation in the length of repetitive sequences of DNA called variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) or short tandem repeats (STRs), which are located at specific locations in the human genome and differ significantly among individuals, except in the case of identical twins.

The process of DNA fingerprinting involves extracting DNA from a sample, amplifying targeted regions using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then separating and visualizing the resulting DNA fragments through electrophoresis. The fragment patterns are then compared to determine the likelihood of a match between two samples.

DNA fingerprinting has numerous applications in forensic science, paternity testing, identity verification, and genealogical research. It is considered an essential tool for providing strong evidence in criminal investigations and resolving disputes related to parentage and inheritance.

Alveolar macrophages are a type of macrophage (a large phagocytic cell) that are found in the alveoli of the lungs. They play a crucial role in the immune defense system of the lungs by engulfing and destroying any foreign particles, such as dust, microorganisms, and pathogens, that enter the lungs through the process of inhalation. Alveolar macrophages also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help to coordinate the immune response. They are important for maintaining the health and function of the lungs by removing debris and preventing infection.

Urease is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. It is found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants. In medicine, urease is often associated with certain bacterial infections, such as those caused by Helicobacter pylori, which can produce large amounts of this enzyme. The presence of urease in these infections can lead to increased ammonia production, contributing to the development of gastritis and peptic ulcers.

Gene deletion is a type of mutation where a segment of DNA, containing one or more genes, is permanently lost or removed from a chromosome. This can occur due to various genetic mechanisms such as homologous recombination, non-homologous end joining, or other types of genomic rearrangements.

The deletion of a gene can have varying effects on the organism, depending on the function of the deleted gene and its importance for normal physiological processes. If the deleted gene is essential for survival, the deletion may result in embryonic lethality or developmental abnormalities. However, if the gene is non-essential or has redundant functions, the deletion may not have any noticeable effects on the organism's phenotype.

Gene deletions can also be used as a tool in genetic research to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes. For example, researchers may use gene deletion techniques to create genetically modified animal models to investigate the impact of gene deletion on disease progression or development.

Sterol 14-demethylase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of sterols, particularly ergosterol in fungi and cholesterol in animals. This enzyme is classified as a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme and is located in the endoplasmic reticulum.

The function of sterol 14-demethylase is to remove methyl groups from the sterol molecule at the 14th position, which is a necessary step in the biosynthesis of ergosterol or cholesterol. Inhibition of this enzyme can disrupt the normal functioning of cell membranes and lead to various physiological changes, including impaired growth and development.

Sterol 14-demethylase inhibitors (SDIs) are a class of antifungal drugs that target this enzyme and are used to treat fungal infections. Examples of SDIs include fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole. These drugs work by binding to the heme group of the enzyme and inhibiting its activity, leading to the accumulation of toxic sterol intermediates and disruption of fungal cell membranes.

Dermatomycoses are a group of fungal infections that affect the skin, hair, and nails. These infections are caused by various types of fungi, including dermatophytes, yeasts, and molds. Dermatophyte infections, also known as tinea, are the most common type of dermatomycoses and can affect different areas of the body, such as the scalp (tinea capitis), beard (tinea barbae), body (tinea corporis), feet (tinea pedis or athlete's foot), hands (tinea manuum), and nails (tinea unguium or onychomycosis). Yeast infections, such as those caused by Candida albicans, can lead to conditions like candidal intertrigo, vulvovaginitis, and balanitis. Mold infections are less common but can cause skin disorders like scalded skin syndrome and phaeohyphomycosis. Dermatomycoses are typically treated with topical or oral antifungal medications.

'Acanthamoeba castellanii' is a species of free-living amoebae that are widely found in the environment, such as in water, soil, and air. These amoebae are known for their ability to survive under various conditions and can cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

'Acanthamoeba castellanii' is known to be associated with a range of diseases, including Acanthamoeba keratitis, a sight-threatening eye infection that primarily affects contact lens wearers, and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, a rare but serious central nervous system infection.

It is important to note that while 'Acanthamoeba castellanii' can cause infections in humans, these cases are relatively uncommon and typically occur in individuals with compromised immune systems or those who come into contact with contaminated water or soil. Proper hygiene practices and the use of sterile solutions when handling contact lenses can help reduce the risk of infection.

Trichosporon is a genus of fungi that are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil, water, and air. They are also part of the normal flora of the human skin and mucous membranes. Some species of Trichosporon can cause various types of infections, mainly in people with weakened immune systems. These infections can range from superficial (e.g., skin and nail) to systemic and invasive, affecting internal organs. The most common Trichosporon-related infection is white piedra, a superficial mycosis that affects the hair shafts.

In a medical context, Trichosporon refers specifically to these fungi with potential pathogenic properties. It's essential to distinguish between the general term "trichosporon" (referring to the genus) and "Trichosporon" as a medically relevant entity causing infections.

  • grubii and C. neoformans var. (cdc.gov)
  • grubii , serotype A (3), C. neoformans var. (cdc.gov)
  • grubii / neoformans has been isolated worldwide ratories, and 3) to apply PCR fingerprinting and URA5 RFLP from soil enriched with avian excreta (4,5). (cdc.gov)
  • grubii, 150 C. neoformans var. (uludag.edu.tr)
  • A total of 476 European isolates (310 Cryptococcus neoformans var. (uludag.edu.tr)
  • The aim of this study was to examine three serial isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from a patient with AIDS for genotypical and phenotypical characteristics. (unipg.it)
  • In conclusion, in serial Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from a patient with AIDS, phenotypical changes but not molecular changes were documented, thus supporting the role of microevolution as a pathogenetic mechanism(s) for persistence/reactivation of fungal organisms. (unipg.it)
  • One hundred and twenty-two clinical isolates, from distinct patients, were identified as C. neoformans and genotyped by URA5-RFLP, with the molecular types VNI (45.5 %) and VNIII (30.9 %) being the most commonly found ones. (unl.pt)
  • Microevolution of Serial Clinical Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Fungi that require special media include Cryptococcus neoformans (bird seed agar), Candida (chromogenic agar for its differentiation of isolates), dermatophytes (dermatophytes test medium), and Malassezia furfur (need long-chain fatty acid supplementation). (medscape.com)
  • Infection with C. neoformans is termed cryptococcosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, fungal meningitis and encephalitis, especially as a secondary infection for AIDS patients, are often caused by C. neoformans, making it a particularly dangerous fungus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human infection, C. neoformans is spread by inhalation of aerosolized basidiospores, and can disseminate to the central nervous system, where it can cause meningoencephalitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who are immunocompromised-their immune system is not functioning properly due to infection with, for example, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or deliberate suppression to lessen the rejection of a transplanted organ-can are at particular risk for a potentially fatal infection with C. neoformans . (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, the cellular constituents of the innate immune response that promote clearance versus progression of infection upon respiratory acquisition of C. neoformans remain poorly defined. (listlabs.com)
  • In this study, we found that during acute C. neoformans infection, CCR2+ Ly6Chi inflammatory monocytes (IM) rapidly infiltrate the lungs and mediate fungal trafficking to lung-draining lymph nodes. (listlabs.com)
  • Overall, our findings indicate that C. neoformans can subvert the fungicidal potential of IM to enable the progression of infection through a mechanism that is not dependent on lymphocyte priming, eosinophil recruitment, or downstream M2 macrophage polarization pathways. (listlabs.com)
  • Fundamental niche prediction of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in Europe is an important tool to understand where these pathogenic yeasts have a high probability to survive in the environment and therefore to identify the areas with high risk of infection. (pasteur.fr)
  • Depending on the virulence of the yeast strain and the immune status of the host, Cryptococcus neoformans can cause either no infection, latent infection, or symptomatic disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Because C. neoformans enters the body through the respiratory route, infection can present as pneumonia-like illness, with symptoms such as cough, fever, chest pain, and weight loss. (cdc.gov)
  • C. neoformans infection is acquired through inhalation of basidiospores or desiccated yeast cells from the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • We investigated the pathogenesis of pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection and passive Ab efficacy in mice deficient in inducible NO synthase (NOS2 -/- ) and the parental strain. (elsevierpure.com)
  • C. neoformans infection in NOS2 -/- mice resulted in significantly higher levels of IFN-γ, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1α than parental mice. (elsevierpure.com)
  • To test this hypothesis, we have studied the influence of murine cerebral infection with C. neoformans and the inhibition of efflux by intraperitoneal injection of a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, GF120918 [N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)-ethyl]-phenyl)9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide], on the pharmacokinetics of itraconazole in plasma and brain after a single intraperitoneal itraconazole injection. (pasteur.fr)
  • Moreover, the pretreatment of infected mice with GF120918 significantly increased cerebral itraconazole values of area under the curve and decreased weight loss in the treatment with itraconazole of a cerebral infection with C. neoformans. (pasteur.fr)
  • We are interested in elucidating the process of melanogenesis in Cryptococcus neoformans, where melanin plays a key role during infection. (jhu.edu)
  • Macrophage recruitment into the lungs of mice after infection with C. neoformans strain H99γ was comparable with that observed in mice challenged with wild-type C. neoformans. (elsevierpure.com)
  • However, pulmonary infection in mice with C. neoformans strain H99γ was associated with reduced pulmonary fungal burden, increased pulmonary Th1-type and interleukin-17 cytokine production, and classical macrophage activation as evidenced by increased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, histological evidence of enhanced macrophage fungicidal activity, and resolution of inflammation. (elsevierpure.com)
  • In contrast, progressive pulmonary infection, enhanced Th2-type cytokine production, and the induction of alternatively activated macrophages expressing arginase-1, found in inflammatory zone 1, Ym1, and macrophage mannose receptor were observed in the lungs of mice infected with wild-type C. neoformans. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that pulmonary infection with C. neoformans strain H99γ results in the induction of classically activated macrophages and promotes fungal clearance. (elsevierpure.com)
  • These studies indicate that phenotype, as opposed to quantity, of infiltrating macrophages correlates with protection against pulmonary C. neoformans infection. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Cryptococcosis is infection with the fungi Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Infection with C neoformans is seen worldwide. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cryptococcus is the most common fungus that causes serious infection worldwide. (medlineplus.gov)
  • C neoformans is the most common life-threatening cause of fungal infection in people with HIV/AIDS. (medlineplus.gov)
  • C. neoformans causes cryptococcosis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is the causative agent of pulmonary cryptococcosis and cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, which are major clinical manifestations in immunosuppressed patients. (unifesp.br)
  • Two of the species, Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus bacillisporus , are the casual agents of the majority of human and animal cryptococcosis . (doe.gov)
  • Cryptococcosis is an acute, subacute or chronic fungal disease caused by an encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. (journalcra.com)
  • This study provides a comprehensive picture of the C. neoformans/C. gattii molecular types most often associated with human cryptococcosis in Portugal and assesses the impact of C. gattii in these infections. (unl.pt)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common causative agent of cryptococcosis. (dergipark.org.tr)
  • Perfect JR. Cryptococcosis ( Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii ). (medlineplus.gov)
  • C. neoformans causes cryptococcosis and is often found in bird manure accumulations. (cdc.gov)
  • Cryptococcosis is a systemic mycosis whose etiological agent is called Cryptococcus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans can cause life-threatening infections, especially in immune-compromised patients. (japsonline.com)
  • Shehu A, Ismail S, Rohin MAK, Harun A, Aziz AA, Haque M. Antifungal Properties of Malaysian Tualang Honey and Stingless Bee Propolis against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. (japsonline.com)
  • Antifungal activity of EO and fractions were tested by a broth microdilution method, whereby minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined against several fungal organisms (Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Cryptococcus gattii, and Cryptococcus neoformans). (researchgate.net)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Candida and Cryptococcus in Chilean psittacine birds. (scielo.cl)
  • The most frequent yeasts isolated included Candida famata (8/28 samples), followed by Candida tropicalis (7/28), Cryptococcus albidus (3/28), Cryptococcus laurentii (2/28 ), Rhodotorula sp. (scielo.cl)
  • 2/28), Candida glabrata (1/28) and Cryptococcus neoformans (1/28). (scielo.cl)
  • Though a wide range of organisms and diseases is considered, the most extensive information centers on common mycoses associated with invasive fungal infections, including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus spp. (who.int)
  • Most commonly, C. neoformans causes the form of meningitis called cryptococcal meningitis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • C. neoformans meningitis may lead to permanent neurologic damage. (cdc.gov)
  • Dr Ballou said: "Cryptococcus is now the most common cause of adult meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide it kills around 625,000 people every year. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • The combined administration of an efflux inhibitor with itraconazole should increase cerebral itraconazole concentrations and therefore, improve the treatment of Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis with this antifungal agent. (pasteur.fr)
  • Cryptococcus is a ubiquitous fungal pathogen that causes primarily meningitis and pneumonia. (cdc.gov)
  • Describir epidemiológicamente a los pacientes con meningitis criptocócica asociada al VIH del Instituto de Medicina Tropical en el año 2019. (bvsalud.org)
  • Estudio observacional descriptivo, retrospectivo en el que se incluyeron pacientes de ambos sexos, sin límite de edad con diagnóstico de meningitis criptocócica infectados por el VIH del Instituto de Medicina tropical (IMT) en el año 2019. (bvsalud.org)
  • Se estudió una muestra de 43 pacientes con diagnóstico de meningitis criptocócica asociado al VIH, de estos el 72,1% era del sexo masculino, el grupo etario más frecuente entre los 20 a 34 años (promedio de edad: 37,9 ± 13,6 años) y la procedencia en el 46,5% el departamento Central. (bvsalud.org)
  • Using standard fungal culturing methods, each sample was analyzed for three potentially infectious microorganisms: Blastomyces dermatitidis Cryptococcus neoformans, and Histoplasma capsulatum. (cdc.gov)
  • Previous studies demonstrated that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was uniparentally transmitted in laboratory crosses of the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. (singerinstruments.com)
  • The interaction between the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans and human fibronectin (HFN) was examined in this study. (unifesp.br)
  • The genome of the basidiomycetous yeast and human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. (doe.gov)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of MTH and SBP against C. albicans and C. neoformans . (japsonline.com)
  • Early data from endemic areas suggested that C. gattii differed not only in epidemiology and clinical presentation from C. neoformans , but might also have different susceptibilities to antifungal agents and require more aggressive and lengthier antifungal therapy than C. neoformans infections. (cdc.gov)
  • gattii , serotypes B and lates agrees with the fact that C. neoformans var. (cdc.gov)
  • Based on the differences in capsule polysaccharides, Cryptococcus is traditionally subdivided into 5 serotypes - A, B, C, D and AD. (doe.gov)
  • Binding of complement component C3 and Factor B to Cryptococcus neoformans serotypes A through D via the alternative complement pathway was measured in a system containing fresh nonimmune human serum. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Serotypes B and C (C. neoformans var. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • gattii) bound approximately half as many molecules of both complement components as serotypes A and D (C. neoformans var. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Most are caused by C. neoformans(serotypes A and D). C. neoformansis an opportunistic pathogen in AIDS patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • Confirmation of the fact that C. neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen could provide new insights into several poorly understood areas of cryptococcal pathogenesis, including mechanisms for latency and persistence and the lack of efficacy of humoral immunity. (elsevierpure.com)
  • A major research area of the department is focused on understanding the ecology and pathogenesis of Cryptococcus neoformans . (jhu.edu)
  • Following changes to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, the practice of giving different names to teleomorph and anamorph forms of the same fungus was discontinued, meaning that Filobasidiella neoformans became a synonym of the earlier name Cryptococcus neoformans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies suggest that colonies of C. neoformans and related fungi growing on the ruins of the melted down reactor of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant may be able to use the energy of radiation for "radiotrophic" growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • C neoformans and C gattii are the fungi that cause this disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is the only pathogenic yeast known to have a polysaccharide capsule. (microbeonline.com)
  • Infections with this fungus are rare in people with fully functioning immune systems, hence C. neoformans is often referred to as an opportunistic pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogenic fungus of human beings that infects mainly immunocompromised patients. (unifesp.br)
  • Filobasidiella neoformans ) is an opportunistic pathogenic fungus found world-wide. (doe.gov)
  • Cell-wall dyes interfere with Cryptococcus neoformans melanin deposition. (jhmi.edu)
  • Perez-Dulzaides R , Camacho E, Cordero RJB, Casadevall A. Cell-wall dyes interfere with Cryptococcus neoformans melanin deposition. (jhmi.edu)
  • Deletion of CGP1 also reduces production of melanin pigment and attenuates the virulence of C. neoformans. (elsevierpure.com)
  • One aspect of this research is C. neoformans melanin production and how it relates to virulence. (jhu.edu)
  • Melanin, a pigment of undefined chemical structure and with a tremendous physical stability, accumulates in the cell wall of C. neoformans and enables growth and budding. (jhu.edu)
  • Its teleomorph is a filamentous fungus, formerly referred to Filobasidiella neoformans. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The teleomorph was first described in 1975 by K.J. Kwon-Chung, who obtained cultures of Filobasidiella neoformans by crossing strains of the yeast C. neoformans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans , a filamentous fungus belonging to the class Tremellomycetes. (ensembl.org)
  • Cryptococcal disease is acquired via inhalation of haploid yeast or basidiospores from the environment.Genus Filobasidiella contains approximately 38 Cryptococcus species. (doe.gov)
  • It formerly contained two varieties: C. neoformans var. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conclusion, we produced for the first time detailed prediction maps of the species and varieties of the C. neoformans and C. gattii species complex in Europe and Mediterranean area. (pasteur.fr)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is a leading cause of invasive fungal infections among immunocompromised patients. (listlabs.com)
  • These results give us new insight into the plasticity of IM function during fungal infections and the level of control that C. neoformans can exert on host immune responses. (listlabs.com)
  • Most infections with C. neoformans occur in the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • C. neoformans variety neoformans causes most of the cryptococcal infections in humans. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Prior to the explosion of the number of cases of AIDS and the more routine use of immunosuppressant drugs, C. neoformans infections were rare. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cryptococcus is very drug resistant and infections can last a long time with patients receiving antibiotic treatments for more than six months. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome associated with Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptococcus neoformans infections: the first case with molecular diagnosis in Korea. (lu.se)
  • C. neoformans has a clear predilection for causing disease in persons in whom the immune system is impaired, and today an overwhelming proportion of C. neoformans infections occur in immunocompromised persons. (cdc.gov)
  • gattii, was later defined as a distinct species, Cryptococcus gattii. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new species name, Cryptococcus deneoformans, is used for the former C. neoformans var. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast that is the sole species of the genus capable of causing mycotic (fungal) disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A few are pathogenic and constitute the pathogenic Cryptococcus species cluster. (doe.gov)
  • neoformans, and 16 C. gattii species complex) from both clinical and environmental sources were analyzed by multi-locus sequence typing. (uludag.edu.tr)
  • Morphological and cultural characteristics of C. neoformans Sanf. (journalcra.com)
  • Analyses of mating-type alleles and mtDNA genotypes of natural hybrids from clinical and natural samples were consistent with the hypothesis that mtDNA is inherited from the MATa parent in C. neoformans. (singerinstruments.com)
  • In the lungs, C. neoformans cells are phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some C. neoformans cells can survive intracellularly in macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • We ascertained that IM in the lungs upregulated transcripts associated with alternatively activated (M2) macrophages in response to C. neoformans, consistent with the model that IM assume a cellular phenotype that is permissive for fungal growth. (listlabs.com)
  • For survival in macrophages, C. neoformans utilizes a novel strategy for intracellular parasitism that includes the accumulation of intracellular polysaccharide in cytoplasmic vesicles. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The finding that C. neoformans replicates inside macrophages in vitro in a manner similar to that observed in vivo provides an excellent system to dissect the molecular mechanisms responsible for this unique pathogenic strategy. (elsevierpure.com)
  • These alternatively activated macrophages were also shown to harbor highly encapsulated, replicating cryptococci. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The recognition of C. neoformans in Gram-stained smears of purulent exudates may be hampered by the presence of the large gelatinous capsule which apparently prevents definitive staining of the yeast-like cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When grown as a yeast, C. neoformans has a prominent capsule composed mostly of polysaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three versions of C. neoformans , based on differences in the capsule that surrounds the yeast, in the use of various sugars as nutrients, and in the shape of the environmentally resilient structures called spores that can be produced by the yeast. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Like the capsule produced by some bacteria, the capsule of C. neoformans is made of sugars. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast with a prominent polysaccharide capsule. (microbeonline.com)
  • INTRODUCTION: Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are encapsulated basidiomycetous yeasts with worldwide distribution. (unifesp.br)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans, an encapsulated fungal pathogen, causes meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients. (elsevierpure.com)
  • However, there has been a dearth of research on CAP-Gly proteins in fungal pathogens, including Cryptococcus neoformans, which is a global cause of fatal meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Fundamental niche prediction of the pathogenic yeasts Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in Europe. (pasteur.fr)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated fungal organism and it can cause disease in apparently immunocompetent, as well as immunocompromised, hosts. (ensembl.org)
  • Antibiotic activities of some commercially available 11 antibiotics were assayed against C. neoformans and chloramphenical alone inhibited the growth of the test organism. (journalcra.com)
  • The results indicate that NO is involved in the regulation of cytokine expression in response to cryptococcal pneumonia and is necessary for Ab efficacy against C. neoformans in mice. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Please confirm that you want to SAVE all your changes for 'Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans JEC21' . (doe.gov)
  • The genome of Cryptococcus neoformans JEC21 (serotype D) was not sequenced by the JGI, but by TIGR. (doe.gov)
  • sendo um de Cryptococcus laurentii , dois de Cryptococcus neoformans e um de Cryptococcus gattii . (ufrgs.br)
  • Com este trabalho, obteve-se o primeiro isolamento descrito de Cryptococcus laurentii de sistema nervoso central de cão. (ufrgs.br)
  • The first genome sequence for a strain of C. neoformans (var. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of the genome and transcriptome of Cryptococcus neoformans var. (bvsalud.org)
  • The department's mycology program has a major focus on Cryptococcus neoformans, a ubiquitous environmental microbe frequently affecting individuals with impaired immunity. (jhu.edu)
  • The present study evaluated the efficacy of interferon-γ transgene expression by Cryptococcus neoformans strain H99γ in abrogating alternative macrophage activation in infected mice. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Evidence from laboratory studies indicates that C. neoformans is not only capable of evading the host's immune response, but may also actively impair the response. (encyclopedia.com)
  • FR5 moderately inhibited strains of C. gattii and C. neoformans (MIC 0.62 mg/mL). (researchgate.net)
  • The research program of the Casadevall laboratory seeks to elucidate host defenses against C. neoformans , and how the fungus' virulence contributes to disease. (jhu.edu)
  • EO showed moderate inhibition of C. neoformans (MIC 0.62 mg/mL), and strongly inhibited of C. gattii (MIC 0.31 mg/mL). (researchgate.net)
  • The larger number of genotype VNI iso- mans , serotype D, C. neoformans var. (cdc.gov)
  • Our findings indicate a complex relationship between Ab efficacy against C. neoformans and cytokine expression, underscoring the interdependency of cellular and humoral defense mechanisms. (elsevierpure.com)
  • citation needed] Cryptococcus neoformans typically grows as a yeast (unicellular) and replicates by budding. (wikipedia.org)
  • The case mans (serotype D) and C. neoformans var. (who.int)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans was the first intracellular pathogen for which the non-lytic escape process termed vomocytosis was observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results indicate that in C. neoformans, Amphotericin B causes intracellular damage mediated through the production of free radicals before damage on the cell membrane, measured by propidium iodide uptake. (unesp.br)
  • Recent in vivo studies have demonstrated that C. neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen, as was previously suggested by in vitro studies. (elsevierpure.com)
  • C. neoformans can also disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS) and cause meningoencephalitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Sabouraud's dextrose agar ) at room temperature or 37 °C. Cryptococcus neoformans are sensitive to cycloheximide so media containing cycloheximide should be avoided. (microbeonline.com)

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