Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Cryptococcus gattii: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella bacillispora.Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.PolysaccharidesAntifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Melanins: Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Genes, Mating Type, Fungal: Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Laccase: A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Flucytosine: A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Itraconazole: A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.Lysophospholipase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC 3.1.1.5.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Central Nervous System Fungal Infections: MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Mice, Inbred AMycosesFungal Capsules: An extracellular layer outside the cell wall of a fungus composed of polysaccharides. It may serve a protective role amongst others.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.TriazolesMice, Inbred BALB CFungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Columbidae: Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Azoles: Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Mice, Inbred CBALung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Fungal Polysaccharides: Cell wall components constituting a polysaccharide core found in fungi. They may act as antigens or structural substrates.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Meningitis, Fungal: Meningitis caused by fungal agents which may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase: The enzyme catalyzing the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphoric acid (orotidylic acid) from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate in the course of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. EC 2.4.2.10.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Eucalyptus: A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Histoplasma: A mitosporic Onygenales fungal genus causing HISTOPLASMOSIS in humans and animals. Its single species is Histoplasma capsulatum which has two varieties: H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and H. capsulatum var. duboisii. Its teleomorph is AJELLOMYCES capsulatus.Blastomyces: A genus of onygenacetous mitosporic fungi whose perfect state is Ajellomyces (see ONYGENALES). The species Blastomyces dermatitidis (perfect state Ajellomyces dermatitidis) causes blastomycosis.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Urease: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Sterol 14-Demethylase: An NADPH-dependent P450 enzyme that plays an essential role in the sterol biosynthetic pathway by catalyzing the demethylation of 14-methyl sterols such as lanosterol. The enzyme acts via the repeated hydroxylation of the 14-methyl group, resulting in its stepwise conversion into an alcohol, an aldehyde and then a carboxylate, which is removed as formic acid. Sterol 14-demethylase is an unusual cytochrome P450 enzyme in that it is found in a broad variety of organisms including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and protozoa.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Acanthamoeba castellanii: A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.Trichosporon: A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.

BE-31405, a new antifungal antibiotic produced by Penicillium minioluteum. I. Description of producing organism, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties. (1/1887)

A new antifungal antibiotic, BE-31405, was isolated from the culture broth of a fungal strain, Penicillium minioluteum F31405. BE-31405 was isolated by adsorption on high porous polymer resin (Diaion HP-20), followed by solvent extraction, precipitation and crystallization. BE-31405 showed potent growth inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungal strains such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, but did not show cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells such as P388 mouse leukemia. The mechanism studies indicated that BE-31405 inhibited the protein synthesis of C. albicans but not of mammalian cells.  (+info)

In-vivo therapeutic efficacy in experimental murine mycoses of a new formulation of deoxycholate-amphotericin B obtained by mild heating. (2/1887)

Heat-induced 'superaggregation' of deoxycholate-amphotericin B (AmB-DOC, Fungizone) was shown previously to reduce the in-vitro toxicity of this antifungal agent. We compared AmB-DOC with the formulation obtained by heating the commercial form (Fungizone, Bristol Myers Squibb, Paris, France) for 20 min at 70 degrees C, in the treatment of murine infections. An improvement of antifungal activity was obtained with heated AmB-DOC formulations due to a lower toxicity which allowed the administration of higher drug doses than those achievable with the commercial preparation. Single intravenous injections of heated AmB-DOC solutions were demonstrated to be two-fold less toxic than unheated ones to healthy mice. For mice infected with Candida albicans, the maximum tolerated dose was higher with heated than with unheated AmB-DOC solutions. In the model of murine candidiasis, following a single dose of heated AmB-DOC 0.5 mg/kg, 85% of mice survived for 3 weeks, whereas at this dose the immediate toxicity of the standard formulation in infected mice restricted the therapeutic efficacy to 25% survival. Both formulations were equally effective in increasing the survival time for murine cryptococcal pneumonia and meningoencephalitis. Injection of heated AmB-DOC solutions at a dose two-fold higher than the maximal tolerated dose observed with the unheated preparation (1.2 mg/kg) increased the survival time by a factor of 1.4 in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. These results indicate that mild heat treatment of AmB-DOC solutions could provide a simple and economical method to improve the therapeutic index of this antifungal agent by reducing its toxicity on mammalian cells.  (+info)

Variants of a Cryptococcus neoformans strain elicit different inflammatory responses in mice. (3/1887)

The virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates with high and low extracellular proteolytic activity was investigated in mice. No consistent relationship between proteolytic activity and virulence was observed, but isolates derived from one strain were shown to elicit different inflammatory responses.  (+info)

Serotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from clinical and environmental sources in Spain. (4/1887)

We determined biovars and serotypes of 154 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from clinical and environmental sources from different areas of Spain. All clinical isolates belonged to C. neoformans var. neoformans. Serotypes showed an irregular distribution. C. neoformans var. gattii serotype B was isolated from necropsy specimens from goats with pulmonary disease.  (+info)

Cryptococcus neoformans differential gene expression detected in vitro and in vivo with green fluorescent protein. (5/1887)

Synthetic green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used as a reporter to detect differential gene expression in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Promoters from the C. neoformans actin, GAL7, or mating-type alpha pheromone (MFalpha1) genes were fused to GFP, and the resulting reporter genes were used to assess gene expression in serotype A C. neoformans. Yeast cells containing an integrated pACT::GFP construct demonstrated that the actin promoter was expressed during vegetative growth on yeast extract-peptone-dextrose medium. In contrast, yeast cells containing the inducible GAL7::GFP or MFalpha1::GFP reporter genes expressed significant GFP activity only during growth on galactose medium or V-8 agar, respectively. These findings demonstrated that the GAL7 and MFalpha1 promoters from a serotype D C. neoformans strain function when introduced into a serotype A strain. Because the MFalpha1 promoter is induced by nutrient deprivation and the MATalpha locus containing the MFalpha1 gene has been linked with virulence, yeast cells containing the pMFalpha1::GFP reporter gene were analyzed for GFP expression in the central nervous system (CNS) of immunosuppressed rabbits. In fact, significant GFP expression from the MFalpha1::GFP reporter gene was detected after the first week of a CNS infection. These findings suggest that there are temporal, host-specific cues that regulate gene expression during infection and that the MFalpha1 gene is induced during the proliferative stage of a CNS infection. In conclusion, GFP can be used as an effective and sensitive reporter to monitor specific C. neoformans gene expression in vitro, and GFP reporter constructs can be used as an approach to identify a novel gene(s) or to characterize known genes whose expression is regulated during infection.  (+info)

Heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) as a major target of the antibody response in patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. (6/1887)

Cryptococcus neoformans causes infection in individuals with defective T cell function, such as AIDS, as well as without underlying disease. It has been suggested that humoral as well as cellular immunity might play an important role in the immune response to C. neoformans infection. We have recently shown, using immunoblotting, that the 70-kD hsp family of C. neoformans was the major target molecule of the humoral response in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis. In this study we also used immunoblotting to define the antibody responses in the sera of 24 patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis: 21 proven and three suspected diagnoses. Anti-C. neoformans hsp70 antibody was detected in 16 of 24 (66.7%) patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. Fourteen of 17 (82.3%) patients with high antigen titres (> or = 1:8) and two of seven (28.6%) patients with low titres (< or = 1:4) had detectable levels of anti-hsp70 antibody. Sera from patients positive for anti-hsp70 antibody showed high titres in the Eiken latex agglutination test for the detection of serum cryptococcal antigen. Our results indicate that the 70-kD hsp family from C. neoformans appears to be a major target molecule of the humoral response, not only in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis, but also in human patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis.  (+info)

Role of the C-C chemokine, TCA3, in the protective anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune response. (7/1887)

Activated T lymphocytes play a crucial role in orchestrating cellular infiltration during a cell-mediated immune (CMI) reaction. TCA3, a C-C chemokine, is produced by Ag-activated T cells and is chemotactic for neutrophils and macrophages, two cell types in a murine CMI reaction. Using a gelatin sponge model for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), we show that TCA3 is a component of the expression phase of an anticryptococcal CMI response in mice. TCA3 mRNA levels are augmented in anticryptococcal DTH reactions at the same time peak influxes of neutrophils and lymphocytes are observed. Neutralization of TCA3 in immunized mice results in reduced numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes at DTH reaction sites. However, when rTCA3 is injected into sponges in naive mice, only neutrophils are attracted into the sponges, indicating TCA3 is chemotactic for neutrophils, but not lymphocytes. We show that TCA3 is indirectly attracting lymphocytes into DTH-reactive sponges by affecting at least one other chemokine that is chemotactic for lymphocytes. Of the two lymphocyte-attracting chemokines assessed, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), only MIP-1alpha was reduced when TCA3 was neutralized, indicating that TCA3 affects the levels of MIP-1alpha, which attracts lymphocytes into the sponges. TCA3 also plays a role in protection against Cryptococcus neoformans in the lungs and brains of infected mice, as evidenced by the fact that neutralization of TCA3 results in increased C. neoformans CFU in those two organs.  (+info)

Antibody response to Cryptococcus neoformans proteins in rodents and humans. (8/1887)

The prevalence and specificity of serum antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans proteins was studied in mice and rats with experimental infection, in individuals with or without a history of potential laboratory exposure to C. neoformans, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals who developed cryptococcosis, in matched samples from HIV-positive individuals who did not develop cryptococcosis, and in HIV-negative individuals. Rodents had little or no serum antibody reactive with C. neoformans proteins prior to infection. The intensity and specificity of the rodent antibody response were dependent on the species, the mouse strain, and the viability of the inoculum. All humans had serum antibodies reactive with C. neoformans proteins regardless of the potential exposure, the HIV infection status, or the subsequent development of cryptococcosis. Our results indicate (i) a high prevalence of antibodies reactive with C. neoformans proteins in the sera of rodents after cryptococcal infection and in humans with or without HIV infection; (ii) qualitative and quantitative differences in the antibody profiles of HIV-positive individuals; and (iii) similarities and differences between humans, mice, and rats with respect to the specificity of the antibodies reactive with C. neoformans proteins. The results are consistent with the view that C. neoformans infections are common in human populations, and the results have implications for the development of vaccination strategies against cryptococcosis.  (+info)

*Cryptococcus neoformans

A good overview of Cryptococcus neoformans biology from the Science Creative Quarterly Cryptococcus neoformans biology, general ... neoformans var. grubii. A new species name, Cryptococcus deneoformans, is used for the former C. neoformans var. neoformans. C ... neoformans and C. neoformans var. grubii. A third variety, C. neoformans var. gattii, was defined as a distinct species, ... "Recognition of seven species in the Cryptococcus gattii/Cryptococcus neoformans species complex". Fungal genetics and biology: ...

*Arturo Casadevall

Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii: separate varietal status for Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A isolates, in: Journal of ... 1998, Cryptococcus neoformans. with co-author John R. Perfect, ASM Press. Highly Cited Articles 2012, with JM Bardeen, JR Bond ... He has defined much of what is known about fungal pathogenesis and how fungi such as Cryptococcus neoformans evade the host ... Cryptococcus neoformans interactions with amoebae suggest an explanation for its virulence and intracellular pathogenic ...

*Cryptococcosis

Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. These were all previously thought to be subspecies of C. neoformans but have ... Cryptococcus gattii causes infections in immunocompetent people (fully functioning immune system), but C. neoformans v. grubii ... In humans, C. neoformans causes three types of infections: Wound or cutaneous cryptococcosis Pulmonary cryptococcosis ... Although the most common presentation of cryptococcosis is of C. neoformans infection in an immunocompromised person (such as ...

*Bacterial capsule

Gates, Marcellene A.; Thorkildson, Peter; Kozel, Thomas R. (April 1390). "Molecular architecture of the Cryptococcus neoformans ... Staphylococcus epidermidis The yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, though not a bacterium, has a similar capsule. Capsules too small ...

*Tremellales

2004). "Genetic requirements for virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans". In Domer JE, Kobayashi GS. Human Fungal Pathogens (The ... Molecular research has also indicated that the genus Filobasidiella (together with its yeast state Cryptococcus) and the genus ... and the yeast genera Cryptococcus and Trichosporon, several species of which are human pathogens. The order Tremellales was ... "Phylogeny and Phenotypic Characterization of Pathogenic Cryptococcus Species and Closely Related Saprobic Taxa in the ...

*Pathogenic fungus

Cryptococcus neoformans is the major human and animal pathogen. Cryptococcus laurentii and Cryptococcus albidus have been known ... Cryptococcus neoformans can cause a severe form of meningitis and meningo-encephalitis in patients with HIV infection and AIDS ... Lin X, Hull CM, Heitman J (2005). "Sexual reproduction between partners of the same mating type in Cryptococcus neoformans". ... Fan W, Kraus PR, Boily MJ, Heitman J (2005). "Cryptococcus neoformans gene expression during murine macrophage infection". ...

*Cryptococcus gattii

... , formerly known as Cryptococcus neoformans var gattii, is an encapsulated yeast found primarily in tropical ... "Recognition of seven species in the Cryptococcus gattii/Cryptococcus neoformans species complex". Fungal genetics and biology: ... Unlike Cryptococcus neoformans, C. gattii is not particularly associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection or other ... CDC publication: What Makes Cryptococcus neoformans a Pathogen? Kausik Datta; Karen H. Bartlett; Rebecca Baer; Edmond Byrnes; ...

*Fungus

Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast that can live in both plants and animals. C. neoformans usually infects the ... Perfect JR (June 2006). "Cryptococcus neoformans: the yeast that likes it hot". FEMS Yeast Research. 6 (4): 463-8. doi:10.1111/ ... Fan W, Kraus PR, Boily MJ, Heitman J (August 2005). "Cryptococcus neoformans gene expression during murine macrophage infection ... Cryptococcus neoformans. Because of similarities in morphology and lifestyle, the slime molds (mycetozoans, plasmodiophorids, ...

*3-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-alpha-D-mannopyranose xylosylphosphotransferase

"A novel xylosylphosphotransferase activity discovered in Cryptococcus neoformans". J. Biol. Chem. 284: 36118-36127. doi:10.1074 ...

*Ptilomycalin A

Dalisay DS, Saludes JP, Molinski TF (2011). "Ptilomycalin A inhibits laccase and melanization in Cryptococcus neoformans". ...

*Nigrosin

as well as the capsule-containing fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. The shapes and sizes of the organisms are seen as color-free ...

*Cryptococcus

... neoformans and Cryptococcus deneoformans. Cryptococcus gattii (formerly Cryptococcus neoformans var gattii) is ... Cryptococcus adeliensis Cryptococcus aerius Cryptococcus albidosimilis Cryptococcus antarcticus Cryptococcus aquaticus ... Cryptococcus ater Cryptococcus bhutanensis Cryptococcus consortionis Cryptococcus curvatus Cryptococcus phenolicus Cryptococcus ... Cryptococcus bacillisporus, Cryptococcus deuterogattii, Cryptococcus tetragattii and Cryptococcus decagattii. Cryptococcus ...

*Yeast

Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are significant pathogens of immunocompromised people. They are the species ... Cogliati M (2013). "Global molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii: An atlas of the molecular ... O'Meara TR, Alspaugh JA (2012). "The Cryptococcus neoformans capsule: A sword and a shield". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 25 ...

*Intracellular parasite

Cryptococcus neoformans Obligate intracellular parasites cannot reproduce outside their host cell, meaning that the parasite's ... Alvarez, M.; Burns, T.; Luo, Y.; Pirofski, L. A.; Casadevall, A. (2009). "The outcome of Cryptococcus neoformans intracellular ...

*Phagolysosome

"Cryptococcus neoformans resides in an acidic phagolysosome of human macrophages". Infection and Immunity. 67 (2): 885-890. ISSN ...

*Basidiomycota

Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. The dimorphic Basidiomycota with yeast stages and the pleiomorphic rusts are ... Cryptococcus neoformans and Ustilago maydis are examples of pathogenic basidiomycota. Such pathogens must be able to overcome ... "Sexual reproduction between partners of the same mating type in Cryptococcus neoformans". Nature. 434 (7036): 1017-21. Bibcode: ... The ability of C. neoformans and U. maydis to undergo meiosis may contribute to their virulence by removing the oxidative DNA ...

*Mucicarmine stain

One of the organisms that is identified using this staining technique is Cryptococcus neoformans. Another use is in surgical ... Lazcano, O (Jan 1993). "Combined histochemical stains in the differential diagnosis of Cryptococcus neoformans". Modern ...

*Propagule

Ecology, life cycle, and infectious propagule of Cryptococcus neoformans. The Lancet. 336(8720). Akira Sasaki and Yoh Iwasa. ...

*Beatrice B. Magee

Perfect, J R; Magee, B B; Magee, P T (1989). "Separation of chromosomes of Cryptococcus neoformans by pulsed field gel ...

*List of sequenced fungi genomes

Cryptococcus (Filobasidiella) neoformans JEC21, human pathogen (2005, other strains unpubl.) Dacryopinax sp. (2012) Tremella ... "The genome of the basidiomycetous yeast and human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans". Science. 307 (5713): 1321-4. Bibcode: ...

*Iron/lead transporter

"Iron source preference and regulation of iron uptake in Cryptococcus neoformans". PLoS Pathogens4 (2): e45. doi:10.1371/journal ...

*Filobasidiella

Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii). The presence of haustorial cells on their hyphae indicate that they are (or ... Filobasidiella neoformans, by crossing strains of the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. She was able to observe basidia similar to ... Kwon-Chung KJ, Varma A (2006). "Do major species concepts support one, two or more species within Cryptococcus neoformans?". ... 1976). "A new species of Filobasidiella, the sexual state of Cryptococcus neoformans B and C serotypes". Mycologia. 68 (4): 942 ...

*Mating of yeast

Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycetous fungus that grows as a budding yeast in culture and in an infected host. C. ... "Sexual reproduction between partners of the same mating type in Cryptococcus neoformans". Nature. 434 (7036): 1017-21. doi: ... suggested that one benefit of meiosis in C. neoformans could be to promote DNA repair in a DNA damaging environment that could ... The vast majority of environmental and clinical isolates of C. neoformans are mating type α. Filaments ordinarily have haploid ...

*Meningitis

The most common fungal meningitis is cryptococcal meningitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans. In Africa, cryptococcal meningitis ...

*Vomocytosis

Johnston, SA; May, RC (12 August 2010). "The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans escapes macrophages by a phagosome ... Alvarez, M; Casadevall, A (16 August 2007). "Cell-to-cell spread and massive vacuole formation after Cryptococcus neoformans ... Johnston, SA; Voelz, K; May, RC (17 February 2016). "Cryptococcus neoformans Thermotolerance to Avian Body Temperature Is ... Alvarez, M; Casadevall, A (7 November 2006). "Phagosome extrusion and host-cell survival after Cryptococcus neoformans ...

*GNLY

2003). "CD8 T cell-mediated killing of Cryptococcus neoformans requires granulysin and is dependent on CD4 T cells and IL-15". ...
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyping of isolates of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans suggested a considerable genetic divergence between the varieties C. neoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. grubii on the one hand versus C. neoformans var. gattii on the other. This divergence is supported by additional phenotypic, biochemical, clinical and molecular differences. Therefore, the authors propose the existence of two species, C. neoformans (Sanfelice) Vuillemin and C. bacillisporus Kwon-Chung, which differ in geographical distribution, serotypes and ecological origin. Within each species three AFLP genotypes occur, which differ in geographical distribution and serotypes. Differences in ecological origin (AIDS patients, non-AIDS patients, animals or the environment) were found to be statistically not significant. In C. neoformans as well as in C. bacillisporus one of the genotypes represented a hybrid. The occurrence of hybridization has consequences for the
The lysis of infected cells by disease-causing microorganisms is an efficient but risky strategy for disseminated infection, as it exposes the pathogen to the full repertoire of the hosts immune system. Cryptococcus neoformans is a widespread fungal pathogen that causes a fatal meningitis in HIV and other immunocompromised patients. Following intracellular growth, cryptococci are able to escape their host cells by a non-lytic expulsive mechanism that may contribute to the invasion of the central nervous system. Non-lytic escape is also exhibited by some bacterial pathogens and is likely to facilitate long-term avoidance of the host immune system during latency. Here we show that phagosomes containing intracellular cryptococci undergo repeated cycles of actin polymerisation. These actin flashes occur in both murine and human macrophages and are dependent on classical WASP-Arp2/3 complex mediated actin filament nucleation. Three dimensional confocal imaging time lapse revealed that such flashes ...
MELO, Natalina Takahashi de et al. Biotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans. Review of the literature. New epidemiologic informations about cryptococcosis. Our experience with the utilization of C.G.B medium in this yeast. Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo [online]. 1993, vol.35, n.5, pp.469-478. ISSN 1678-9946. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-46651993000500015.. The purpose of this work was to collect the main information from the literature about the biotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans. The more up-to date research concerning the epidemiology of cryptococcosis comprising quite a few articles, mainly after the advent of AIDS, was also reviewed. The Cryptococcus neoformans varieties neoformans and gattii are well defined biochemically nowadays chiefly through the C.G.B. medium, according to KWON-CHUNG et al. (1982)24. The isolation of C. neoformans var. gattii from flowers and leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus tereticornis, specially in Australia, through the works of ELLIS & PFEIFFER ...
Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii ATCC ® 208821D-2™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii strain H99JP [ATCC ® 208821™] Application:
TY - JOUR. T1 - The membrane phospholipid binding protein annexin A2 promotes phagocytosis and nonlytic exocytosis of cryptococcus neoformans and impacts survival in fungal infection. AU - Stukes, Sabriya. AU - Coelho, Carolina. AU - Rivera, Johanna. AU - Jedlicka, Anne E.. AU - Hajjar, Katherine A.. AU - Casadevall, Arturo. PY - 2016/8/15. Y1 - 2016/8/15. N2 - Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen with a unique intracellular pathogenic strategy that includes nonlytic exocytosis, a phenomenon whereby fungal cells are expunged from macrophages without lysing the host cell. The exact mechanism and specific proteins involved in this process have yet to be completely defined. Using murine macrophages deficient in the membrane phospholipid binding protein, annexin A2 (ANXA2), we observed a significant decrease in both phagocytosis of yeast cells and the frequency of nonlytic exocytosis. Cryptococcal cells isolated from Anxa2-deficient (Anxa2-/-) bone marrow-derived macrophages and lung ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 7814467. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1994 Oct;32(10):2364-71. Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A is responsible for the majority of cryptococcal infections in AIDS patients. In France, approximately 17% of the patients are infected with serotype D, regardless of their human immunodeficiency virus status. In a retrospective study of 273 patients, we found that serotype D was unevenly distributed in France. We wondered if this was related to the yeasts genetic background. We used karyotyping and DNA fingerprints generated by UT-4p to analyze 40 serotype D clinical isolates. We found an extensive polymorphism, with only two conserved karyotypes from drug-addicted patients living in the same area. Although highly variable, the DNA fingerprints were classified into 10 groups. Four pairs of isolates were identical; three of these pairs were from patients living in the same area, but there was no other correlation with the geographical area. The two isolates with identical karyotypes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antibody-mediated protection in murine Cryptococcus neoformans infection is associated with pleotrophic effects on cytokine and leukocyte responses. AU - Feldmesser, Marta. AU - Mednick, Aron. AU - Casadevall, Arturo. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Cryptococcus neoformans, an encapsulated yeast, is a common cause of life-threatening meningoencephalitis in immunosuppressed patients. We previously observed that administration of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to the capsular polysaccharide to mice with pulmonary infection prolonged survival and enhanced granulomatous inflammation without reducing lung CFU. To understand the mechanism of MAb action, we studied leukocyte recruitment and cytokine profiles in lungs of A/JCr mice. B lymphocytes were the predominant cell type in lung infiltrates, comprising 15 to 30% of the leukocytes. Despite alterations in histological appearance, fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis revealed no significant difference in total numbers of lung ...
Strains and cell growth: C. neoformans was grown with continuous shaking at 30° in YPD medium [1% (w/v) Bacto yeast extract; 2% (w/v) peptone, 2% dextrose] or minimal medium lacking uracil (Ausubelet al. 2001). Low adenine plates contained yeast nitrogen base supplemented with (per liter) 20 g glucose; 24 mg uracil; 40 mg each arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, and tryrosine; 60 mg phenylalanine and tryptophan; 120 mg homoserine; 180 mg valine; and 10 mg adenine. For experiments using 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA), plates contained the same medium with adenine raised to 40 mg/liter and the addition of 1 g/liter 5-FOA. Wild-type serotype D strain B4500 and cap59 strain TYCC33 (Chang and Kwon-Chung 1994) were from Dr. June Kwon-Chung (National Institutes of Health), and ura5 strain JEC43 (Wickeset al. 1997) was from Dr. Joseph Heitman (Duke University Medical Center). JEC43 cells transformed with a control plasmid alone (CIP-GUST.Cla.Kpn; see below) are designated ...
We have recently identified peptide mimetics of the Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide by screening phage display peptide libraries. 2H1, one of a large family of mAbs against the glucuronoxylomannan fraction (GXM), is highly protective and binds several peptide motifs. This study analyzes the immunologic properties of P601E (SYSWMYE), a peptide from the low affinity motif (W/YXWM/LYE) that has an extended cross-reactivity among anti-GXM mAbs and whose binding correlates with the protective potential of mAbs in experimental infection. P601E is a mimetic, since it competes for GXM binding to 2H1, but not a mimotope, since it does not elicit an anti-GXM response. Sequence analysis of 14 anti-P601E mAbs indicates that anti-P601E mAbs elicited in BALB/c mice have an order of homology with 2H1 of V kappa | J kappa || V(H) | J(H) | D. Further screening of a peptide library with anti-P601E mAbs isolated peptides having a motif almost identical to the peptide motif selected by 2H1. When these
A polysaccharide capsule is one of the most important virulence factors for the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. We previously characterized two capsule-associated genes,CAP59 and CAP64. To further dissect the molecular mechanism of capsule synthesis, 16 acapsular mutants induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide were obtained. The acapsular phenotype of one of these mutants was complemented. The cloned gene was designatedCAP60, and deletion of this newly described capsule-associated gene resulted in an acapsular phenotype. The proposed 67-kDa Cap60p contains 592 amino acids and appears to have a putative transmembrane domain close to the N terminus. DNA sequence analysis revealed that CAP60 has similarity toCAP59 at the center portion of its coding regions. Contour-clamped homogeneous electric field blot analysis suggested that these two genes are on the same chromosome. CAP60 andCAP59, however, could not be functionally substituted for each other by direct complementation or by domain swap ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunoglobulin G monoclonal antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans protect mice deficient in complement component C3. AU - Shapiro, Scott. AU - Beenhouwer, David O.. AU - Feldmesser, Marta. AU - Taborda, Carlos. AU - Carroll, Michael C.. AU - Casadevall, Arturo. AU - Scharff, Matthew D.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Passive administration of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans can alter the course of infection in mice. In a murine model of cryptococcal infection, immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, and IgG2b switch variants of the anti-capsular 3E5 MAb prolong the survival of lethally infected mice, whereas the 3E5 IgG3 MAb does not protect and in some cases enhances infection, shortening the life spans of infected mice. We examined the role of complement component C3 in Ab-mediated protection by determining the efficacy of the four mouse IgG subclasses against C. neoformans in mice genetically deficient in factor C3 as well as mice ...
Background Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that causes cryptococcosis, a life threatening disease. The prevalence of cryptococcosis in Asia has been rising after the onset of the AIDS epidemic and estimates indicate more than 120 cases per 1,000 HIV-infected individuals per year. Almost all cryptococcal disease cases in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients in Asia are caused by C. neoformans var. grubii. Epidemiological studies on C. neoformans in pan-Asia have not been reported. The present work studies the genetic diversity of the fungus by microsatellite typing and susceptibility analysis of approximately 500 isolates from seven Asian countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Genetic diversity of Asian isolates of C. neoformans was determined using microsatellite analysis with nine microsatellite markers. The analysis revealed eight microsatellite complexes (MCs) which showed different distributions among geographically defined populations. A correlation between MCs and
Unique clinical characteristics and other variables influencing the outcome of Cryptococcus neoformans infection in organ transplant recipients have not been well defined. From a review of published reports, we found that C. neoformans infection was documented in 2.8% of organ transplant recipients (overall death rate 42%). The type of primary immunosuppressive agent used in transplantation influenced the predominant clinical manifestation of cryptococcosis. Patients receiving tacrolimus were significantly less likely to have central nervous system involvement (78% versus 11%, p =0.001) and more likely to have skin, soft-tissue, and osteoarticular involvement (66% versus 21%, p = 0.006) than patients receiving nontacrolimus-based immunosuppression. Renal failure at admission was the only independently significant predictor of death in these patients (odds ratio 16.4, 95% CI 1.9 - 143, p = 0.004). Hypotheses based on these data may elucidate the pathogenesis and may ultimately guide the management of C.
Innate immunity plays an important role for fungal recognition and initiation of fungicidal activity. We hypothesize that subtle differences in different molecules of innate immunity may contribute to either the predisposition or clinical course of infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. To test this hypothesis, we propose to analyze the allelic frequencies of 15 different genes (mannose binding lectin, Fc-gamma receptor IIa and IIb, Fc-gamma receptors IIIa and IIIb, myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and -beta, interleukin 1A and 1B, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-10, NRAMP-1, chitotriosidase, and chemokine receptor 5) and their intragenic polymorphic forms and to compare this data to the incidence and severity of C neoformans infection. With this study we hope to identify a group of molecules of innate immunity which influence the risk and severity of invasive C neoformans infection ...
Innate immunity plays an important role for fungal recognition and initiation of fungicidal activity. We hypothesize that subtle differences in different molecules of innate immunity may contribute to either the predisposition or clinical course of infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. To test this hypothesis, we propose to analyze the allelic frequencies of 15 different genes (mannose binding lectin, Fc-gamma receptor IIa and IIb, Fc-gamma receptors IIIa and IIIb, myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and -beta, interleukin 1A and 1B, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-10, NRAMP-1, chitotriosidase, and chemokine receptor 5) and their intragenic polymorphic forms and to compare this data to the incidence and severity of C neoformans infection. With this study we hope to identify a group of molecules of innate immunity which influence the risk and severity of invasive C neoformans infection ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sre1p, a regulator of oxygen sensing and sterol homeostasis, is required for virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans. AU - Chang, Yun C.. AU - Bien, Clara M.. AU - Lee, Hyeseung. AU - Espenshade, Peter J.. AU - Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.. PY - 2007/5/1. Y1 - 2007/5/1. N2 - Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental pathogen requiring atmospheric levels of oxygen for optimal growth. Upon inhalation, C. neoformans disseminates to the brain and causes meningoencephalitis, but the mechanisms by which the pathogen adapts to the low-oxygen environment in the brain have not been investigated. We found that SRE1, a homologue of the mammalian sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), functions in an oxygen-sensing pathway. Low oxygen decreased sterol synthesis in C. neoformans and triggered activation of membrane-bound Sre1p by the cleavage-activating protein, Scp1p. Microarray and Northern blot analysis demonstrated that under low oxygen, Sre1p activates genes required for ergosterol ...
Infection wif C. neoformans is termed cryptococcosis. Most infections wif C. neoformans occur in de wungs.[12] However, fungaw meningitis and encephawitis, especiawwy as a secondary infection for AIDS patients, are often caused by C. neoformans, making it a particuwarwy dangerous fungus. Infections wif dis fungus are rare in dose wif fuwwy functioning immune systems.[13] So, C. neoformans is sometimes referred to as an opportunistic fungus.[13] It is a facuwtative intracewwuwar padogen[14] dat can utiwize host phagocytes to spread widin de body.[15][16] Cryptococcus neoformans was de first intracewwuwar padogen for which de non-wytic escape process termed vomocytosis was observed.[17][18] It has been specuwated dat dis abiwity to manipuwate host cewws resuwts from environmentaw sewective pressure by amoebae, a hypodesis first proposed by Arturo Casadevaww under de term "accidentaw viruwence".[19]. In human infection, C. neoformans is spread by inhawation of aerosowized basidiospores, and can ...
Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Basidiomycota; Agaricomycotina; Tremellomycetes; Tremellales; Cryptococcaceae; Cryptococcus; Cryptococcus neoformans species ...
Cryptococcus neoformans CAP59 protein: involved in capsule formation which is essential for virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank L26508
Antibody-mediated defense against pathogens typically requires complex interactions between antibodies and other constituents of the humoral and cellular immune systems. However, recent evidence indicates that some antibodies alone can inhibit pathogen function in the absence of complement, phagocytes, or NK cells. In this issue of the JCI, McClelland et al. have begun to elucidate the molecular bases by which antibodies alone can impact pathogen growth and metabolism. They show that mAbs specific for the polysaccharide capsule of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans elicit diverse effects on fungal gene expression, lipid biosynthesis, susceptibility to amphotericin B, cellular metabolism, and protein phosphorylation. These data suggest that pathogens have the capacity to generate broad metabolic responses as a result of surface binding by pathogen-specific antibodies, effects that may hold therapeutic promise. ...
Antibody-mediated defense against pathogens typically requires complex interactions between antibodies and other constituents of the humoral and cellular immune systems. However, recent evidence indicates that some antibodies alone can inhibit pathogen function in the absence of complement, phagocytes, or NK cells. In this issue of the JCI, McClelland et al. have begun to elucidate the molecular bases by which antibodies alone can impact pathogen growth and metabolism. They show that mAbs specific for the polysaccharide capsule of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans elicit diverse effects on fungal gene expression, lipid biosynthesis, susceptibility to amphotericin B, cellular metabolism, and protein phosphorylation. These data suggest that pathogens have the capacity to generate broad metabolic responses as a result of surface binding by pathogen-specific antibodies, effects that may hold therapeutic promise. ...
Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) is a major opportunistic fungal pathogen in individuals with impaired T cell-mediated immunity. Notch pathway is an important signaling component of immunological synapse during APC/T-cell engagement. Little is known about the role of Notch signaling in fungal infections. We sought to determine the role of Notch signaling in C. neoformans infection. Wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) and CD4-Cre+×ROSA DNMAML (DNMAML) mice were infected intratracheally infected with C. neoformans. The fungal burden, leukocyte recruitment, and cytokine profile were assessed at 3 and 6 weeks post-infection (wpi). A 50-fold greater fungal burden was detected in both lungs and brains of DNMAML mice compared to those in the WT mice at 6 wpi. Although, equivalent fungal burdens were found at 3 wpi in WT and DNMAML groups, the production of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-13 was significantly decreased in lung leukocytes of DNMAML mice. In contrast, an equivalent induction of IL-17 was observed in both ...
P. multocida is the causative agent of a wide range of diseases of animals, including fowl cholera in birds. Fowl cholera isolates of P. multocida generally express a capsular polysaccharide composed of hyaluronic acid. There have been reports of spontaneous capsule loss in P. multocida fowl cholera-causing strains but the mechanism by which this occurs has not been determined. In this study, we identified three independent strains that had spontaneously lost the ability to produce capsular polysaccharide. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that these strains had significantly reduced transcription of the capsule biosynthetic genes, but DNA sequence analysis identified no mutations within the cap biosynthetic locus. However, whole genome sequencing of paired capsulated and acapsular strains identified a single nucleotide polymorphism within fis that was present only in the acapsular strain. Sequencing of fis from two independently derived spontaneous acapsular strains showed that each contained a mutation
pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLR) and C-type lectin recptors including Dectin-1. Previously, we indicated that neither TLR2 nor TLR4 was involved in the host defence to infection with Cryptococcus neoformans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen in AIDS patients (FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 47: 148-154, 2006). In the current study, we examined the role of Dectin-1, a receptor for β-glucan, in this response. Dectin-1-deficient mice were resistant to intratracheal and intravenous infection with C. neoformans at a comparable level to wild-type mice. IFN-γ production in lung an serum was not largely different between these mice. There was not significant difference in the synthesis of IL-12p40 and TNF-α by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells upon stimulation with this fungal pathogen. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Dectin-1 did not play a major role in the host protective responses to C. neoformans infection.. This work was ...
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Definition : Molecular assay reagents intended to identify Cryptococcus neoformans, a yeast-like species of imperfect fungi of the family Cryptococcaceae, by detecting specific nucleic-acid information (e.g., DNA, RNA) of the target microorganism. These fungi may cause cryptococcosis, a mycotic infection of the brain and meninges, which may also involve other organs such as the skin and lungs. The disease may progress by invading the central nervous system, lungs, liver, and spleen of immunocompromised patients.. Entry Terms : "Cryptococcus Species Detection/Identification Reagents" , "Cryptococcus neoformans Reagents, Identification" , "Cryptococcus neoformans Detection/Identification Reagents" , "Reagents, Cryptococcus neoformans" , "Reagents, Molecular Assay, Infection, Fungi/Yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans". UMDC code : 19595 ...
Cryptococcus neoformans, a fungal pathogen of humans, causes fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Its virulence is mainly determined by the elaboration of a polysaccharide capsule surrounding its cell wall. During its life, C. neoformans is confronted with and responds to dramatic variations in CO2 concentrations; one important morphological change triggered by the shift from its natural habitat (0.033% CO2) to infected hosts (5% CO2) is the induction of capsule biosynthesis. In cells, CO2 is hydrated to bicarbonate in a spontaneous reaction that is accelerated by carbonic anhydrases. Here we show that C. neoformans contains two beta-class carbonic anhydrases, Can1 and Can2. We further demonstrate that CAN2, but not CAN1, is abundantly expressed and essential for the growth of C. neoformans in its natural environment, where CO2 concentrations are limiting. Structural studies reveal that Can2 forms a homodimer in solution. Our data reveal Can2 to be the main carbonic anhydrase and ...
The population structure of a sample of clinical isolates of C. neoformans serotype A from AIDS patients in Botswana was determined, and the results support hypotheses for both clonal expansion and recombination in this population. Clonal reproduction was previously recognized in C. neoformans, as strains with identical genotypes were isolated from the environment and infected humans (5, 7, 16). The overrepresentation in the population of certain genotypes is a common feature of clonal structure (44). In the sample analyzed here, five genotypes comprised 45% of the total number of isolates (Fig. 4). Another indication of clonality is the calculation of considerable linkage disequilibrium (or nonrandom association) among the loci in the population. The IA and the rd are calculated estimates of linkage disequilibrium (or nonrandom association) among the loci; if there is no association between the loci, these values approach zero, whereas these values are much higher in clonal populations. When ...
Objectives: Cryptococcal meningitis is the third-most-common opportunistic infection in HIV patients in Cambodia. Hospitalized patients were given amphotericin B for initial therapy followed by fluconazole for maintenance therapy. The antifungal drug susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was determined.. Methods: Isolates of C. neoformans were collected during active laboratory-based surveillance, the first batch from April 2000 to March 2001 (134 new cases), the second batch from April 2001 to March 2002 (268 new cases). Etest strips were used to determine the MICs of amphotericin B and fluconazole. The antigenic agglutination slide test was used for serotyping.. Results: The MIC50s and MIC90s of fluconazole changed significantly from year 2000 to 2002; the MIC50s increased from 4 to 12 mg/L, and the MIC90s from 12 to 96 mg/L. For amphotericin B, the MIC50s and MIC90s remained stable. Moreover, in the second batch, fluconazole MICs were ≥256 mg/L ...
Pheromones and pheromone receptors have long been known to affect virulence of the opportunistic pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, yet it is still entirely uncl...
Aritreyee Datta*, Vikas Yadav*, ............, Kaustuv Sanyal, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy and Anirban Bhunia, Mode of Action of a Designed Antimicrobial Peptide: High Efficiency in Killing of the Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, Biophysical Journal 111, 1724 - 1737 (2016 ...
Despite a presumed critical role of macrophages in the host response to cryptococcal infections, previous studies have failed to show growth inhibition of encapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans by human peripheral blood cultured monocyte-derived macrophages (MO-M phi). Here, we examined whether MO-M phi could be induced to inhibit growth of an encapsulated strain and an isogenic acapsular mutant strain of C. neoformans. MO-M phi were cultured in microwells, and inhibition was measured by comparing CFU at 0 and 24 h after fungal challenge. MO-M phi cultured on plastic surfaces failed to inhibit growth of the encapsulated strain, even in the presence of pooled human serum and/or anticapsular antibody. Moreover, the presence of anticapsular antibody significantly enhanced fungal growth. However, if MO-M phi were cultured on surfaces coated with fibronectin or poly-L-lysine (but not laminin or collagen) and yeast cells were opsonized with pooled human serum, then complete growth inhibition occurred. ...
Abstract: Cryptococcus neoformans is a spherical, encapsulated, basidiomycetous yeast and the causative agent of cryptococcosis, a form of meningitis that affects the central nervous system of immunocompromised individuals (immunocompromised means patients with compromised immune systems). Since the 1980s and the emergence of the AIDS epidemic, much study has been concentrated on this fungus because cryptococcosis is 100% fatal in untreated patients. Even with treatment, the condition does not always decrease in severity, and no major advancements in antifungal drugs have been made in a decade. Recently, Cryptococcus has been shown to possess the necessary machinery for RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is a method of post-transcriptional gene silencing that may increase cryptococcal survival within mammalian hosts by controlling gene expression at various stages of the life cycle through heterochromatin and euchromatin rearrangement. RNAi was first described in Caenorhabditis elegans in 1998 by ...
Prx systems The Prx system is important for cellular processes associated with disulfide bond formation, the anti-oxidative stress response and pathogenesis of C. neoformans infection (47). Prxs, also known as thiol peroxidases, are 20-30 kDa-sized molecules that provide antioxidant protection by removing peroxides (47). Prxs may be classified into 1-Cys and 2-Cys subgroups (48). Following peroxidation, typical 2-Cys Prxs form homodimers through an intersubunit disulfide bridge, whereas atypical 2-Cys Prxs form an intramolecular disulfide bridge (48). By contrast, 1-Cys Prxs assume a monomeric form with a single active cysteine site (48). In a previous study, two Prxs, TSA1 and TSA3, were discovered in C. neoformans, of which TSA1 is highly conserved (48). In addition, the findings of Missall et al (48) indicated that Prxs were induced under oxidative and nitrosative stress and were critical for C. neoformans virulence in mice. Furthermore, their study demonstrated that deletion of TSA1, but not ...
The sexual cycle of C. neoformans has been studied for more than three decades, yet many aspects about the role of mating in the biology of this fungus remain to be resolved. One key example is a lack of knowledge about the events occurring in the basidium that result in nuclear reduction and the production of chains of spores, and the focus of this investigation. The ideal approach to examine spore production is a genetic one, i.e., by analyzing genetic markers in progeny derived from a single basidium. Just such an approach can be achieved by careful micromanipulation of the spores from the ends of basidia, and in this study the nature of the reductive event in the basidium is defined genetically by taking whole basidia and analyzing the phenotypes of all progeny.. Spores derived from 101 individual basidia were isolated and their phenotypes determined (Table 1). The data can be analyzed and interpreted in a number of ways: the interpretation placed here is that in a C. neoformans basidium ...
Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental encapsulated yeast that behaves as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. The capsule is the main virulence factor of this pathogen. This structure is highly dynamic, and it can change its size and structure according to the environmental conditions. During infection, C. neoformans significantly enlarges the size of the capsule by the addition of new polysaccharide. It is believed that capsule growth is an energy-cost process, but this aspect has never been addressed. In this work, we have evaluated the role of mitochondrial activity on capsule growth using specific inhibitors of the electron respiratory chain. We observed that capsule growth was impaired in the presence of inhibitors of the respiratory chain as salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) or antimycin A. Furthermore, capsule growth correlated with an increase of the mitochondrial membrane potential and higher production of reactive oxygen species. Our results confirm that capsule growth
Cryptococcosis, specifically caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, is a subacute or chronic fungal infection with several manifestations. It is commonly observed as a disseminated disease in the immunocompromised patient with approximately two thirds of patients experiencing meningitis.(3,5) Because of the wide spectrum of Cryptococcosis and the opportunistic nature of such infection, rapid laboratory identification of Cryptococcus neoformans is necessary so that therapy can be immediately initiated. The presumptive identification of Cryptococcus neoformans is based on the presence of an encapsulated yeast (using India ink), the absence of pseudohyphae, the failure to utilize an inorganic nitrate substance, and the ability to produce urease. The final identification of C. neoformans is usually based on typical substrate utilization patterns and brown pigment production in the presence of caffeic acid.(2,3,5). The brown pigmented colonies of Cryptococcus neoformans were observed by Staib in 1962 ...
The pathogenic species of Cryptococcus are a major cause of mortality owing to severe infections in immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent individuals. Although antifungal treatment is usually effective, many patients relapse after treatment, and in such cases, comparative analyses of the genomes of incident and relapse isolates may reveal evidence of determinative, microevolutionary changes within the host. Here, we analyzed serial isolates cultured from cerebrospinal fluid specimens of 18 South African patients with recurrent cryptococcal meningitis. The time between collection of the incident isolates and collection of the relapse isolates ranged from 124 days to 290 days, and the analyses revealed that, during this period within the patients, the isolates underwent several genetic and phenotypic changes. Considering the vast genetic diversity of cryptococcal isolates in sub-Saharan Africa, it was not surprising to find that the relapse isolates had acquired different genetic and ...
The main principles for the genetic pathophysiology of cryptococcosis will probably be consistent among all three varieties. In this chapter the author considers the yeasts to be different varieties or serotypes. Seven major areas are examined to support the potential molecular insights into this pathogenic yeast which will allow one to identify drug targets, define drug resistance mechanisms, and/or prepare mutants or fungal products for protective fungal vaccines. Initial molecular biology studies focused on distinguishing molecular strain differences with the use of karyotypes, repetitive elements, and eventually randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs, amplification fragment length polymorphisms, and PCR fingerprinting for strain genotyping. Cryptococcus neoformans has several well-characterized virulence phenotypes which have been approached in their understanding by both genetic and molecular tools. Experimental cryptococcosis in animal models has tended to be associated with large inocula or some
The recent efforts to characterize the hybrid strains of Cryptococcus neoformans has led to the identification of a cryptic population, here described as H strains, which includes hybrid strains with a double content of DNA but presenting a single mating type: Aa, Da, Aalpha, or Dalpha. A set of hypotheses can be formulated about the origin of these H strains: i) they might have lost or modified one mating type allele by a mutation event; ii) they might be homozygous originated from an incomplete mitotic event; iii) they might be homozygous originated from an incomplete meiotic event; iv) they might be homozygous originated from a post-meiotic event. To test these hypotheses we further investigated some H strains previously isolated and then we studied the F1 progeny originated from the mating between H99 (serotype A) and JEC20 (serotype D) reference strains. Fourteen clinical isolates were investigated. The double content of DNA was confirmed by flow cytometry and the presence of only one ...
The S. cerevisiae STE12 gene is a key component of two MAP kinase cascades involved in mating and filamentous/invasive growth (12)(13)(14)(15). Although STE12α shows sequence similarity with STE12 of S. cerevisiae, single copy or overexpression of STE12α cDNA in S. cerevisiae failed to complement the ste12 phenotypes, including the ability to mate and form pseudohyphae (data not shown). Recent identification of another C. neoformans MATα-specific gene, STE11α, which belongs to the same cascade, indicates an unusual arrangement of the MAP kinase cascade in C. neoformans (6). One of the intriguing findings in our study is that in contrast to the S. cerevisiae ste12 mutants, the C. neoformans ste12α disruptant was still able to mate, albeit with reduced frequency. The fact that STE12α is dispensable for mating further demonstrates the uniqueness of the mating pathway of C. neoformans.. Mating of C. neoformans is usually performed on V-8 juice agar and requires physical contact of cells from ...
Scientists have been studying the evolution of sex chromosomes for more than a century. In the 1960s, Japanese-American geneticist and evolutionary biologist Susumu Ohno proposed a theory in which the genes determining sex first arose at various spots scattered across the entire genome, but over time were "captured" on the sex chromosomes. In humans, those chromosomes go by the familiar X and Y; in birds, they are known as Z and W; in moss, they are called U and V.. Regardless of the name or species, Heitman contends that some universal principles could govern the evolution of all sex chromosomes. He and an international team of researchers focused on the last common ancestor of the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans and its nearest sibling species, a non-pathogen called Cryptococcus amylolentus.. In C. amylolentus, dozens of genes at two different locations on the chromosomes control whats called a tetrapolar, or four-part, mating system. At one location or locus known as P/R, genes ...
In Japan, most cases of cryptococcosis are caused by Cryptococcus neoformans(C. neoformans). Until now, only three cases which the infectious agent was Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii(C. gattii)have been reported. As compared with cryptococcosis caused by C. neoformans, which is often observed in immunocompromised hosts, cryptococcosis caused by C. gattii occurs predominantly in immunocompetent hosts and is resistant to antifungal drugs. Here, we report a case of refractory cerebral cryptococcoma that was successfully treated by surgical resection of the lesions. A 33-year-old man with no medical history complained of headache, hearing disturbance, and irritability. Pulmonary CT showed a nodular lesion in the left lung. Cerebrospinal fluid examination with Indian ink indicated cryptococcal meningitis, and PCR confirmed infection with C. gattii. C. gattii is usually seen in the tropics and subtropics. Since this patient imported trees and soils from abroad to feed stag beetles, parasite or ...
Genetic analysis of oxygen-sensitive mutants of Cryptococcus neoformans revealed two loci (oxy1 and oxy2) linking hyperoxia sensitivity to production of melanin, a known virulence factor. Hyperoxia-sensitive strain 562 (oxy1 oxy2) is albino and avirulent. oxy2-defective strains lacking the oxy1 defect are melanin deficient but show normal hyperoxia resistance. Mutants defective at three additional mapped melanin loci fail to show hyperoxia sensitivity in the oxy1 background. Revertants of strain 562, which regain the ability to synthesize melanin by mutation at suppressor sites unlinked to oxy2, retain the oxygen sensitivity conferred by their oxy1 and oxy2 defects. These data identify the melanin gene oxy2 as unique in its association of hyperoxia resistance and melanization.
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Torula histolytica Definition: Cryptococcus neoformans (formerly known as Torula histolytica) is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus found in (...)
1. SteenbergenJNShumanHACasadevallA 2001 Cryptococcus neoformans interactions with amoebae suggest an explanation for its virulence and intracellular pathogenic strategy in macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98 15245 15250. 2. SteenbergenJNNosanchukJDMalliarisSDCasadevallA 2003 Cryptococcus neoformans virulence is enhanced after growth in the genetically malleable host Dictyostelium discoideum. Infect Immun 71 4862 4872. 3. MylonakisEAusubelFMPerfectJRHeitmanJCalderwoodSB 2002 Killing of Caenorhabditis elegans by Cryptococcus neoformans as a model of yeast pathogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99 15675 15680. 4. AlarcoAMMarcilAChenJSuterBThomasD 2004 Immune-deficient Drosophila melanogaster: a model for the innate immune response to human fungal pathogens. J Immunol 172 5622 5628. 5. BrennanMThomasDYWhitewayMKavanaghK 2002 Correlation between virulence of Candida albicans mutants in mice and Galleria mellonella larvae. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 34 153 157. 6. LionakisMSKontoyiannisDP 2010 ...
Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC ® 28205™ Designation: VH/10414/72 Application: Biomedical Research and Development Material Emerging infectious disease research
RESUMO Padronizou-se método de fluorescência (solução de diacetato de fluoresceína DF e brometo de etídio BE) para análise de viabilidade de células fúngicas, em 40 amostras de liquor, provenientes de casos comprovados de neurocriptococose. A utilização de solução aquosa de saponina a 0,3% eliminou fluorescências interferentes emitidas por hemácias e leucócitos. Após o processamento dos materiais biológicos, foram retiradas alíquotas de 0,1 ml das supensões obtidas e misturadas a volumes iguais da solução DF-BE preparada pouco antes do uso. O tempo de coloração ideal foi de 30 minutos, resultando perfeita diferenciação entre microrganismos viáveis (fluorescência verde) e não viáveis (fluorescência vermelha). Unitermos: Cryptococcus neoformans; Viabilidade; Fluorescência. ...
The development of new drugs to fight a common fungal pathogen which kills half a million people globally each year is a step closer thanks to a University of Queensland-led study.. UQ PhD student Jessica Chitty of the Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, said the study targeted the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, which had shown signs of becoming resistant to current medications.. "This is a fungus that can be found around the world and when inhaled, its microscopic cells can cause infection in people with a weakened immune system," she said.. "Infections are particularly prevalent in people with advanced AIDS but can also occur in transplant recipients and those on immunosuppressive medication.. "Recently two rare cases of Cryptococcus neoformans infections occurred in Australia in immunocompetent people.". Co-author Associate Professor James Fraser said drugs used to treat the disease have been around for a few decades and consequently ...
Giant cells called "titan cells" created by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans protect the fungus during infection, according to two University of Minnesota researchers. Kirsten Nielsen, Ph.D., an assistant professor in the department of microbiology, and recent Ph.D. recipient Laura Okagaki believe their discovery could help develop new ways to fight infections caused by Cryptococcus. The findings will be published in the June 2012 issue of the journal Eukaryotic Cell. Cryptococcus, a fungus frequently found in dust and dirt, is responsible for the deaths of more than 650,000 AIDS patients worldwide each year. It is also a potentially deadly concern among chemotherapy and organ transplant patients. Currently, Cryptococcus causes more annual deaths in sub-Saharan Africa than tuberculosis. "While most healthy individuals are resistant to Cryptococcus infections, the fungus can cause deadly disease for those with already weak immune systems," said Dr. Nielsen. When inhaled, Cryptococcus can cause ...
The fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, causes devastating levels of morbidity and mortality. Infections with this fungus tend to be predominantly in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV. Infections initiate with inhalation of cryptococcal cells and entry of the pathogen into the lungs. The bronchial epithelial cells of the upper airway and the alveolar epithelial cells of the lower airway are likely to be the first host cells that Cryptococcus engage with. Thus the interaction of cryptococci and the respiratory epithelia will be the focus of this review. C. neoformans has been shown to adhere to respiratory epithelial cells, although if the role of the capsule is in aiding or hindering this adhesion is debatable. The epithelia are also able to react to cryptococci with the release of cytokines and chemokines to start the immune response to this invading pathogen. The activity of surfactant components that line this mucosal barrier towards Cryptococcus and the metabolic and
The capsule itself can mediate immune evasion through several different mechanisms. The capsule, made up of polysaccharides rich in mannan residues, is strongly hydrophobic in nature. This helps prevent contact with exogenous factors and prevents recognition by some cells of the immune response. It also prevents efficient antibody binding and the resultant activation of the complement system via classical pathway. The capsule is also capable of interacting directly with components of the immune system, namely glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) and galactoxylomannan, both of which are capable of inducing leukocyte activation and cytokine production. However, the capsular anti-inflammatory properties outweigh the inflammatory properties of these two components. Stimulation with encapsulated cryptococci downregulate the activity of macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils. This is associated with reduced inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. GXM has also been shown to stimulate production of ...
This chapter begins with the history of Cryptococcus neoformans. By the end of the 19th century three seminal observations had been made regarding C. neoformans. First, the organism had been recovered from lesions in humans and animals, establishing its potential to cause disease. Second, the organism had been recovered from the environment, establishing that it was free-living. Finally, the organism was propagated in the laboratory and shown to cause disease in laboratory animals. Many of the early clinical reports of cryptococcosis included animal experiments with the organism isolated from patients. Examination of C. neoformans by light microscopy reveals yeast-like cells that reproduce by budding and are of variable size. C. neoformans has been extensively studied by electron microscopy, which shows that C. neoformans cells have morphological features typical of eukaryotic cells. There are many reports in the literature of C. neoformans cells with germ tube-like structure, hyphal forms, pseudohyphae
Infection is initiated by inhalation of the yeast cells. The primary pulmonary infection may be asymptomatic or may mimic influenza like respiratory infection often resolving spontaneously. In immune-compromised patients with impaired T cell immunity, the yeasts may multiply and disseminate to other parts of the body but preferentially to the central nervous system (neurotropic), causing cryptococcal meningitis. Other common sites of dissemination include the skin, adrenals, bone, eye and prostate gland. The inflammatory reaction is usually minimal or granulomatous.. Virulence Factors of Cryptococcus neformans ...
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After analyzing genomic sequences from 23 strains in which a drug marker had been inserted in an apparently neutral location and 30 nontransformed control strains, we found a very low rate of collateral mutations resulting from the transformation process. All 23 transformations together resulted in only four point mutations, of which one changed an amino acid, and one case of multiple tandem insertions of the drug marker. Furthermore, none of the 23 transformants showed any abnormal stress resistance phenotypes.. Our findings stand in striking contrast to the received wisdom in the field, which is that transformation is inherently mutagenic. However, the only published evidence supporting this belief comes from the construction of the yeast knockout (YKO) collection. The YKO collection was constructed by transforming a drug marker cassette into diploid cells, in order to replace one copy of the target gene. The diploids were then sporulated to produce four haploid spores, two of which carry the ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Subhasish Chatterjee, Rafael Prados-Rosales, Boris Itin, Arturo Casadevall, Ruth E Stark].
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Disruption of a key enzyme in the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans -- a common cause of infection of the central nervous system in patients such as organ transplant recipients who lack a functioning immune system -- led to a significant loss of fungal virulence in mice, the team found. That loss of virulence stemmed from the fungus s inability to launch a counterattack against components of the innate immune system, the body s first line of defense against infection, the study showed ...
I write because I like it. If you want to modify, republish it, publish them in your own way I have got no problem. At the end of the day, making people happy is one of the greatest deeds and I would just be happy if you give me a little credit while you copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format or remix, transform, and build upon the material. Because all my articles are licensed under under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ...
Bloomberg School of Public Health, W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology; School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases. Arturo Casadevall "came of age" as a physician during the height of the 1980s AIDS epidemic. "I couldnt believe all these people, who were younger than I was, were dying from something we didnt understand," he says. He didnt know whether scientists would be able to treat the virus itself, so he turned his attention to the opportunistic infections that take hold once an immune system has been compromised. Since then, hes spent more than two decades studying the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, which in the 1980s killed about 10 percent of AIDS patients in the United States and is still a major cause of death in Africa.. Today, in his new role as chair of the W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, he continues his mission to understand how microbes cause disease ...
Receptors involved in innate immunity to fungal pathogens have not been fully elucidated. We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans receptors CED-1 and C03F11.3, and their mammalian orthologues, the scavenger receptors SCARF1 and CD36, mediate host defense against two prototypic fungal pathogens, Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. CED-1 and C03F11.1 mediated antimicrobial peptide production and were necessary for nematode survival after C. neoformans infection. SCARF1 and CD36 mediated cytokine production and were required for macrophage binding to C. neoformans, and control of the infection in mice. Binding of these pathogens to SCARF1 and CD36 was β-glucan dependent. Thus, CED-1/SCARF1 and C03F11.3/CD36 are β-glucan binding receptors and define an evolutionarily conserved pathway for the innate sensing of fungal pathogens ...
Department of Science and Technology (DST) has initiated a new program Augmenting Writing Skills for Articulating Research (AWSAR) to bridge gap in communicating scientific research that is being conducted in R&D labs in various Universities and Institutions across the country to lay man by utilizing latent potential of PhD Scholars and Post-Doctoral Fellows (PDFs). These PhD Scholars and PDFs would be encouraged to submit popular stories about their respective research work for AWSAR Award. More›› ...
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was standardized for the detection of cryptococcal antigen in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The system was evaluated in clinical samples from patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus with and without previous cryptococcosis diagnosis. The evaluated system is highly sensitive and specific, and when it was compared with latex agglutination there were not significant differences. A standard curve with purified Cryptococcus neoformans antigen was settled down for the antigen quantification in positive samples ...
doc, ,br/, The focus of my research is to understand the ways in which microorganisms sense and respond to changes in their environment. As microbial pathogens enter the infected host, dramatic genetic and phenotypic events occur that allow these organisms to survive in this harsh environment. We study the model fungal organism ,i,Cryptococcus neoformans,/i, to define signal transduction pathways associated with systemic fungal diseases. This pathogenic fungus causes lethal infections of the central nervous system in patients with AIDS and other immunological disorders. In addition to being an important pathogen, ,i,C. neoformans,/i, displays well-characterized and inducible virulence determinants. It is an outstanding system for dissecting the signaling pathways associated with pathogenicity. ,br/, ,br/, The main techniques used in the lab are those of molecular genetics. We are able to readily mutate ,i,C. neoformans ,/i,genes by homologous recombination. Mutant strains with disruptions in ...
The fungus is the master still.. Powerful imagery, right? To me, no fungus brings home this sense of foreboding and inevitability more, than does the yeast-like pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans (lets call it CN). (I admit I have a bias towards this microbe, having worked on it for the longest time in my academic career.). Why Cryptococcus, you may well ask. Surely there are other sporulating (spore-forming) fungal pathogens that fit the bill? There are, of course. But I think, it was the mention of the brain in the third last line, that settled CN firmly in my mind. You see, CN is known to have a peculiar predilection for the brain and the central nervous system, even though the microbe - in form of spores (technical term: infectious propagules) - comes into the body from the environment most likely via the nose and the respiratory pathway, depositing itself into the lungs.. In healthy people, the body can usually fight off this invasion, with the aid of various components of the immune ...
The role of ploidy and ploidy shifts in the emergence of pathogenic fungi is now beginning to be appreciated. The degree to which such ploidy changes drive the emergence of new fungal threats is not yet certain; however, it is clear that ploidy shifts and aneuploidy can promote the acquisition of altitude on the fitness landscape, even if the aneuploid state is transient. An example is C. neoformans, which has emerged from an environmental saprophyte to a pathogen of global importance [58]. Very large and polyploid (4n, 8n and 16n) cryptococcal cells, termed titan cells, were recently discovered and shown to be better able to tolerate oxidative and nitrosative stress [59], to prevent phagocytosis and contribute to dissemination to the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, the large size of titan cells protects them from phagocytosis by immune cells. Titan cells have been proposed to promote persistence in the host based on their prevalence in chronic lung infections [60]. Titan cells give ...
DURHAM, N.C. -- Mutations tend to get a bad rap, and deservedly so. A single defect in our DNA can strip us of our sight, thicken our lungs with mucus, prompt us to bleed to death, weaken our muscles or fill our organs with tumors. But in certain situations, a mutation can actually be a source of strength. For microorganisms, the right mutation can confer superpowers, allowing them to traverse continents, infect new hosts and avoid drug-induced annihilation.. Microbes are such big fans of mutations that they have rigged their genomes to accumulate more and more of them.. In a study published September 26 in eLife, Duke researchers show that lineages of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus deuterogattii house a specific mutation in their DNA that increases their mutation rate. These hypermutators, as they are called, rapidly develop resistance to the antifungal drugs FK506 and rapamycin.. "If there werent mutations, there wouldnt be any raw genetic material for evolution and selection to act ...
...DURHAM N.C. Pathogenic fungi have been found to protect themselves a...This pathway was discovered in Cryptococcus neoformans a fungus that ... This discovery of how the genome is protected during sex might be le...Sexual reproduction in fungi produces airborne spores that are readily...,Tiny,molecules,protect,from,the,dangers,of,sex,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
The focus of my research is to understand the ways in which microorganisms sense and respond to changes in their environment. As microbial pathogens enter the infected host, dramatic genetic and phenotypic events occur that allow these organisms to survive in this harsh environment. We study the model fungal organism Cryptococcus neoformans to define signal transduction pathways associated with systemic fungal diseases. This pathogenic fungus causes lethal infections of the central nervous system in patients with AIDS and other immunological disorders.
The focus of my research is to understand the ways in which microorganisms sense and respond to changes in their environment. As microbial pathogens enter the infected host, dramatic genetic and phenotypic events occur that allow these organisms to survive in this harsh environment. We study the model fungal organism Cryptococcus neoformans to define signal transduction pathways associated with systemic fungal diseases. This pathogenic fungus causes lethal infections of the central nervous system in patients with AIDS and other immunological disorders.
Combating Fungal Resistance: Development of Small Molecule Sensitizers that Enhance the Potency of Azole Drugs against Candida albicans, Candida Glabrata, and Cryptococcus Neoformans ...
Multivariate linear regression is a statistical tool used to analyze the relative contributions of different parameters. Out of the three types of multivariate linear regression researchers identified hierarchical regression as the type most applicable to this study. It is described as entering variables in different blocks in a specific order with the order of entry resulting from theoretical or logical importance. This approach was applied to Cryptococcus neoformans and Bacillus anthracis and results showed the method to be useful in determining the relative contributions of virulence factors in pathogenesis ...
The problems in comparing the fruit fly model - in which death of the host is the read-out parameter, with the murine model - in which fitness and growth of the pathogen serves as the measure, are self-evident. For these and other reasons, the usefulness of invertebrate models is often hotly debated. Yet, for each of these infection models, the above are the biologically relevant and - equally important - measurable parameters. Furthermore, although in our model mice do not succumb to C. glabrata infection, a strong correlation between fungal organ burden and virulence (measured by survival time) has been shown, e.g. for C. neoformans mutants (Liu et al., 2008). To enable a comparison between these two models, we have introduced the virulence scores. In mouse, an increase or decrease by one MVI unit correlates to a twofold increase or decrease in the relative in vivo growth of the mutant compared with wild type. In fly, a change by one on our FVI scale equals a twofold shorter or longer mean ...
Subsequent addition of CO results in a six-coordinate low-spin ferrous heme also with histidine likely bound proximally. Serum and brain purine levels in an experimental systemic infection of mice by Cryptococcus buy cialis neoformans: Purinergic immunomodulatory effects. Mechanically reinforced phosphoric acid ...
(Published on July-August 2008 - JEC Magazine #42) RAVI SHRIVASTAVA GENERAL MANAGER, MARKETING & PROJECTS, KINECO Unlike conventional materials such as metals, composite materials are easy to mould into complex shapes, which gives the designer more freedom to design the front end with desirable aerodynamic curves.
Chronic stress - the kind faced by doctors in the ICU - increases white blood cells that can cause life-threatening plaques to form.
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Environmental isolations have established that Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii appears to have a specific ecological association with Eucalyptus camaldulensis. So far, we have isolated C. neoformans var. gattii on 35 separate occasions, all from samples associated with E. camaldulensis. The global distribution of E. camaldulensis appears to correspond to the epidemiologic distribution of cryptococcosis caused by C. neoformans var. gattii. No other environmental source for the fungus has yet been detected, and no other eucalypt has the distribution pattern corresponding to reported cases caused by this fungus. These findings may provided an explanation for the high incidence of infections caused by C. neoformans var. gattii in Australian aborigines living in the Northern Territory and for its low worldwide incidence in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. ...
INTRODUÇÃO. A criptococose é uma importante infecção oportunista, principalmente devido ao aumento do número de indivíduos imunocomprometidos, em especial aqueles infectados com HIV1,2. As espécies implicadas em grande parte dos casos são Cryptococcus neoformans e Cryptococcus gattii, causadoras de variadas formas clínicas da doença3,4,5. Neste contexto, indivíduos imunocompetentes podem adquirir a doença como micose primária, principalmente devido a C. gattii, em regiões tropicais e subtropicais6, bem como sob a forma de surtos7. Cryptococcus spp. são leveduras basidiomicetos, capsuladas, sapróbias do ambiente, sendo isoladas principalmente de excretas de aves e ocos de árvores, como por exemplo, eucalipto8 e Senna sp.9. C. neoformans é constituído pelos sorotipos A (tipos moleculares VNI, VNII), D (tipo molecular VNIV) e o híbrido AD (tipo molecular VNIII); C. gattii inclui o sorotipo B (tipos moleculares VGI, VGII, VGIII, VGIV) e o sorotipo C10,11,12.. Em Belém, Estado ...
Cryptococcosis, also known as cryptococcal disease is a potentially fatal fungal disease. It is caused by inhalation of an encapsulated yeast called Cryptococcus neoformans. Cryptococcosis is believed to be acquired by inhalation of the infectious propagule from the environment. Although the exact nature of the infectious propagule is unknown, the leading hypothesis is the basidiospore created through sexual or asexual reproduction.. Cryptococcosis market: Types of infection. There are three identified Cryptococcus strains that causes disease worldwide namely Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus grubii and Cryptococcus gattii. Exposure via respiratory or the gastrointestinal tract are considered as the most common and opportunistic pathway for the organism entry in the host. Cryptococcus neoformans can be found worldwide in soil, birds, animals and humans. Whereas, alternative route of administration can be through transplant of infected tissue, surgical instrument or laboratory instruments. ...
To assess the relationship between melanin production by Cryptococcus neoformans and virulence on a molecular basis, we asked: (a) is CNLAC1, the laccase structural gene of C. neoformans, expressed in vivo?; (b) can mouse virulence be restored to cnlac1 (Mel-) mutants by complementation with CNLAC1?; and (c) will targeted gene deletion of CNLAC1 decrease virulence for mice? Melanin is produced when cryptococcal laccase catalyzes the oxidation of certain aromatic compounds, including L-dopa, to quinones, which then polymerize to melanin. To assess CNLAC1 transcription, RNA was extracted from C. neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid of infected rabbits. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction detected CNLAC1 transcript, indicating that laccase may be produced in the infected host. To assess the effect of CNLAC1 deletion on virulence, a Mel- mutant (10S) was obtained by disruption of the 5 end of the gene. After multiple backcrosses with a parental strain to remove unintended genetic defects ...
0141] FIGS. 5A to 5E are bar charts showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, and the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, respectively, when treated with micelles formed from Example 1. FIGS. 6A to 6E are bar charts showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans as well as Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, respectively, when treated with micelles formed from Example 3. FIG. 7 is a bar chart showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis when treated with micelles formed from Example 2. Example 2 does not show a strong inhibition effect towards bacterial growth, having a MIC of higher than 66.4 micromole/L against Bacillus subtilis (FIG. 7). This is attributed to the polymer with the longest hydrophobic block precipitating ...
Background Cryptococcus neoformans causes life-threatening meningitis. A recently introduced lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) to detect cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) is reportedly more rapid and convenient than standard latex agglutination (LA), but has not yet been evaluated in a diagnostic laboratory setting. Methods One hundred and six serum, 42 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and 20 urine samples from 92 patients with known or suspected cryptococcosis were tested by LA and LFA, and titres were compared. Results were correlated with laboratory-confirmed cryptococcosis. Serial samples were tested in nine treated patients. Results Twenty-five of 92 patients had confirmed cryptococcosis; all sera (n = 56) from these patients were positive by LFA (sensitivity 100%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 93.6-100%) compared with 51/56 positive by LA (sensitivity 91.1%, 95% CI 80.7-96.1%). Fifty sera from 67 patients without cryptococcosis tested negative in both assays. While LA yielded more false negative results (5/56
TY - JOUR. T1 - The novel microtubule-associated cap-glycine protein cgp1 governs growth, differentiation, and virulence of cryptococcus neoformans. AU - Wanga, Li Li. AU - Lee, Kyung Tae. AU - Jung, Kwang Woo. AU - Lee, Dong Gi. AU - Bahn, Yong-Sun. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Microtubules are involved in mechanical support, cytoplasmic organization, and several cellular processes by interacting with diverse microtubule-associated proteins such as plus-end tracking proteins, motor proteins, and tubulin-folding cofactors. A number of the cytoskeletonassociated proteins (CAPs) contain the CAP-glycine-rich (CAP-Gly) domain, which is evolutionarily conserved and generally considered to bind to a-tubulin to regulate the function of microtubules. However, there has been a dearth of research on CAP-Gly proteins in fungal pathogens, including Cryptococcus neoformans, which is a global cause of fatal meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients. In this study, we identified five CAPGly ...
Cryptococcosis, also known as cryptococcal disease, is a potentially fatal fungal disease. It is caused by one of two species; Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. These were all previously thought to be subspecies of C. neoformans but have now been identified as distinct species. Cryptococcosis is believed to be acquired by inhalation of the infectious propagule from the environment. Although the exact nature of the infectious propagule is unknown, the leading hypothesis is the basidiospore created through sexual or asexual reproduction. Cryptococcosis is a defining opportunistic infection for AIDS, and is the second-most-common AIDS-defining illness in Africa. Other conditions that pose an increased risk include certain lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkins lymphoma), sarcoidosis, liver cirrhosis, and patients on long-term corticosteroid therapy. Distribution is worldwide in soil. The prevalence of cryptococcosis has been increasing over the past 20 years for many reasons, including the ...
Looking for Cryptococcus? Find out information about Cryptococcus. A genus of encapsulated pathogenic yeasts in the order Moniliales Explanation of Cryptococcus
Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic yeast infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans that remains the most common systemic fungal infection in immunosuppressed patients and often presents with signs of meningitis. Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis (PCC) is a more rare clinical identity that is characterized by skin lesions confined to 1 body region, often presenting as a whitlow or phlegmon with positive culture for C neoformans and no evidence of simultaneous dissemination. We report a rare case of PCC in a 73-year-old man with intact cell-mediated immunity. Read More ...
Hughes, William S. (2015) Cryptococcus neoformans phospholipase B and its influence on fungal cell morphology AND A study into proteins proposed to be involved in C-di-GMP signalling and predation from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus - Bd1483, Bd1996, Bd2538 and Bd3100. M.Res. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Evans, Robert J. (2013) How does the expression of phospholipase B influence the host pathogen relationship between Cryptococcus neoformans and the macrophage? and An investigation into the properties of two Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus C-di-GMP metabolism proteins - Bd2325 and Bd1971. M.Res. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Ma, Hansong (2009) Intracellular parasitism of macrophages by Cryptococcus. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Smith, Leanne May (2015) Investigating phagosome dynamics of microbial pathogens. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Gilbert, Andrew Stephen (2017) Investigating the molecular mechanisms of vomocytosis. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Needs, ...
Results: 57 patients were studied. Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii molecular type VN1 caused 70% of infections; C. gattii accounted for the rest. Most patients did not have underlying disease (81%), and the rate of underlying disease did not differ by infecting species. 11 patients died while in-patients (19.3%). Independent predictors of death were age ≥ 60 years and a history of convulsions (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals 8.7 (1 - 76), and 16.1 (1.6 - 161) respectively). Residual visual impairment was common, affecting 25 of 46 survivors (54.3%). Infecting species did ...
The study of regulatory networks in human pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans provides insights into host-pathogen interactions that may allow for correlation of gene expression patterns with clinical outcomes. In the present study, deletion of the cryptococcal copper-dependent transcription factor 1 (Cuf1) led to defects in growth and virulence factor expression in low copper conditions. In mouse models, cuf1Δ strains exhibited reduced dissemination to the brain, but no change in lung growth, suggesting copper is limiting in neurologic infections. To examine this further, a biologic probe of available copper was constructed using the cryptococcal CUF1-dependent copper transporter, CTR4. Fungal cells demonstrated high CTR4 expression levels after phagocytosis by macrophage-like J774.16 cells and during infection of mouse brains, but not lungs, consistent with limited copper availability during neurologic infection. This was extended to human brain infections by demonstrating CTR4 ...
The risk of developing fungal meningitis from Cryptococcus neoformans rises dramatically when people have weakened immunity, due to HIV infection or other reasons including the use of immunosuppressive drugs after organ transplantation, or for treating autoimmune diseases or cancer. Knowing which patients are most likely to develop fungal meningitis would allow costly drugs for preventing fungal disease to be targeted to those most in need. (In the U.S., the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy by HIV-infected people, and their preventive use of anti-fungal drugs, has dramatically reduced their rate of fungal meningitis from Cryptococcus neoformans to about 2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cryptococcal encephalitis in thermally injured mice is accelerated by type 2 T-cell responses. AU - Furukawa, Katsunori. AU - Kobayashi, Makiko. AU - Sasaki, Hidetaka. AU - Herndon, David. AU - Pollard, Richard B.. AU - Suzuki, Fujio. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Objective: To explore the pathogenic role of burn-associated type 2 T-cell responses on the development of cryptococcal encephalitis in mice with severe thermal injuries. Design: Experimental Cryptococcus neoformans infection in normal mice was compared with that in thermally injured mice (TI mice), normal mice heated with a mixture of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10, or normal mice inoculated with burn-associated type 2 T cells. Setting: University research laboratory. Subjects: Male BALB/c mice, 8 to 10 wks of age. Interventions: We prepared four groups of mice as follows: a) normal mice, b) TI mice, c) normal mice treated with the IL-4/IL-10 mixture, and d) normal mice inoculated with burn-associated type 2 T cells. These ...
A less likely alternative hypothesis is that calcineurin is not part of a signal transduction pathway required for virulence, but is instead required to maintain activity of components required for growth at high temperature and CO2 and pH resistance. Such a model would require that some proteins differ in phosphorylation state at 37 and 24°C, or that activity at 37°C requires dephosphorylation whereas activity at 24°C does not. One means to test these and other models, and to identify downstream effectors of calcineurin, would be to characterize suppressor mutations that restore growth to calcineurin mutants at 37°C. In summary, our studies reveal that calcineurin is required for virulence and may delineate the first elements of a signal transduction cascade required for fungal pathogenesis.. By analogy with other systems, the targets of calcineurin might include ion pumps or transcription factors, which could regulate expression of other proteins required for virulence. The role of ...
One of the more interesting aspects of C. neoformans interactions with the host is the large discrepancy in the incidence of infections in male and female patients, with males having a higher incidence of C. neoformans infection and disease than females. This gender-related difference has been observed in dozens of studies and suggests underlying differences in the interactions of the immune response to C. neoformans infection and differential expression of microbial factors between males and females. We have found differences in the immune response of ex vivo male or female macrophages to C. neoformans, PLoS One, 2013. Currently, we are characterizing gender-specific and microbial factors in clinical isolates to determine which factors are involved in the gender susceptibility difference to C. neoformans.. 2. Determine how C. neoformans modulates cell signaling in macrophages Another key aspect of the C. neoformans host-pathogen interaction is with host macrophages. I am collaborating with Dr. ...
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Looking for medication to treat fungal+meningitis+caused+by+cryptococcus? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when used to treat or reduce the symptoms of fungal+meningitis+caused+by+cryptococcus
Looking for online definition of Cryptococcus in the Medical Dictionary? Cryptococcus explanation free. What is Cryptococcus? Meaning of Cryptococcus medical term. What does Cryptococcus mean?
The case below of systemic cryptococcal infection and meningitis, an opportunistic fungal infection, in a pwMS on fingolimod is one of many cases reported worldwide. The problem with fingolimod is that you cant derisk the risk of opportunistic infections. All cases of opportunistic infection on fingolimod, to the best of my knowledge, have occurred in pwMS with lymphocyte counts above 200/mm3 or 0.2x109/L (the action level ti disruot dosing in the EU). In addition, infections in pwMS on fingolimod are not linked to the peripheral lymphocyte counts. Therefore, the only way to deal with the opportunistic infection risk on fingolimod is to remain vigilant and be aware of symptoms suggsetive of an infection. In the case of cryptococcal meningitis this may be very subtle symptoms; for example a non-specific headache or visual symptoms. The reason why cryptococcal infection is very indolent is simply because people who are immunosuppressed are unable to mount a vigorous immune response against the ...
Objectives: Cryptococcus species are associated with invasive fungal infections in immunosuppressed individuals. The clinical significance of low titer cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) by lateral flow assay is frequently uncertain. We investigated the correlation of low CrAg titers with disease in an immunocompromised patient population.. Methods: Patients with first-time positive CrAg results with low serum titers (≤1:10) at two medical centers (Los Angeles, CA) from April 2014-July 2018 were included. Age-matched controls with high (≥1:20) and negative titers were selected. We extracted medical records for pertinent clinical, radiologic, and laboratory data for cryptococcal disease.. Results: From 2,196 serum samples submitted for CrAg testing, 96 cases were included (32 each in low titer, high titer, and negative titer groups). One or more immunocompromising condition was identified in 95% of patients, including HIV infection (45%), solid organ transplant (26%), and cirrhosis (22%). Pulmonary ...
Abstract. Cryptococcal meningitis may have long-term morbidity and requires a permanent cerebrospinal fluid shunt. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors and create a predictive model for permanent shunt treatment in cryptococcal meningitis patients. This was a retrospective analytical study conducted at Khon Kaen University. The study period was from January 2005 to December 2015. We enrolled all adult patients diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. Risk factors predictive for permanent shunting treatment were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. There were 341 patients diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. Of those, 64 patients (18.7%) were treated with permanent shunts. There were three independent factors associated with permanent shunt treatment. The presence of hydrocephalus had the highest adjusted odds ratio at 56.77. The resulting predictive model for permanent shunt treatment (y) is (−3.85) + (4.04 × hydrocephalus) + (2.13 × initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Cryptococcal meningitis is common in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the need for data for a rapid, point-of-care cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFA), we assessed diagnostic performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture, CRAG latex agglutination, India ink microscopy, and CRAG LFA for 832 HIV-infected persons with suspected meningitis during 2006-2009 (n = 299) in Uganda and during 2010-2012 (n = 533) in Uganda and South Africa. CRAG LFA had the best performance (sensitivity 99.3%, specificity 99.1%). Culture sensitivity was dependent on CSF volume (82.4% for 10 μL, 94.2% for 100 μL). CRAG latex agglutination test sensitivity (97.0%-97.8%) and specificity (85.9%-100%) varied between manufacturers. India ink microscopy was 86% sensitive. Laser thermal contrast had 92% accuracy (R = 0.91, ...
Itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole - the mechanism of action of itraconazole is the same as the other azole antifungals: it inhibits the fungal cytochrome P450 oxidase-mediated synthesis of ergosterol.. Fluconazole is active against most Candida species, with the absolute exception of Candida krusei and partial exception of Candida glabrata and a small number of isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis and other rare species. It is also active against the vast majority of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates. It is active against many other yeasts including Trichosporon beigelii, Rhodotorula rubra, and the dimorphic endemic fungi including Blastomyces dermatitidis, Coccidioides immitis, Histoplasma capsulatumand Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is less active than itraconazole against these dimorphic fungi. It is not active against Aspergillus or Mucorales. It is active against skin fungi such as Trichophyton. Increasing resistance in Candida ...
To treat thrush (yeast infection of the mouth and throat), the recommended adult dose is 100 mg taken by mouth once daily for at least 2 weeks.. To treat esophageal candidiasis (yeast infection of the tube leading to the stomach), the recommended adult dose ranges from 100 mg to 200 mg taken daily for at least 3 weeks. Fluconazole must be taken for at least 2 weeks after the symptoms of the infection resolve to prevent the infection from returning.. To treat yeast infection that has spread throughout the body (disseminated yeast infection), the recommended adult dose of fluconazole is 200 mg to 400 mg once daily, for at least 4 weeks. Again, this medication must be taken for at least 2 weeks after the symptoms of the infection resolve to prevent the infection from returning.. To treat cryptococcal meningitis, the recommended dose of fluconazole is 200 mg to 400 mg once daily. Fluconazole should be taken for at least 10 weeks when treating this condition. To prevent cryptococcal meningitis, 200 ...
Results obtained with a recently introduced enzyme immunoassay system (EIA) for the detection of cryptococcal antigen (Meridian Diagnostics Inc) were compared with those obtained by a latex agglutination (LA) method (Immuno-Mycologics, Norman, Oklahoma, USA). Fifty four samples were examined. There was 92% agreement between the two methods. One false positive result was obtained with LA, and one sample was inevaluable. The EIA was rapid and simple to perform. There was some evidence that it gave fewer false positive reactions and improved the diagnosis of genuine early cases.. ...

Natural habitat of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. | Journal of Clinical MicrobiologyNatural habitat of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. | Journal of Clinical Microbiology

Natural habitat of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ... Natural habitat of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii.. D H Ellis, T J Pfeiffer ... Environmental isolations have established that Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii appears to have a specific ecological ... So far, we have isolated C. neoformans var. gattii on 35 separate occasions, all from samples associated with E. camaldulensis ...
more infohttps://jcm.asm.org/content/28/7/1642

Hybrid genotypes in the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans | Microbiology SocietyHybrid genotypes in the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans | Microbiology Society

... neoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. grubii on the one hand versus C. neoformans var. gattii on the other. This ... In C. neoformans as well as in C. bacillisporus one of the genotypes represented a hybrid. The occurrence of hybridization has ... Therefore, the authors propose the existence of two species, C. neoformans (Sanfelice) Vuillemin and C. bacillisporus Kwon- ... genotyping of isolates of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans suggested a considerable genetic divergence between the ...
more infohttps://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-147-4-891

The Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans Escapes Macrophages by a Phagosome Emptying Mechanism That Is Inhibited by...The Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans Escapes Macrophages by a Phagosome Emptying Mechanism That Is Inhibited by...

Cryptococcus neoformans is a widespread fungal pathogen that causes a fatal meningitis in HIV and other immunocompromised ... Johnston, Simon A. and May, Robin C. (2010) The Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans Escapes Macrophages by a ... The Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans Escapes Macrophages by a Phagosome Emptying Mechanism That Is Inhibited by ... Following intracellular growth, cryptococci are able to escape their host cells by a non-lytic expulsive mechanism that may ...
more infohttp://eprints.bham.ac.uk/893/

Produção de fatores de virulência in vitro por isolados de Cryptococcus neoformans e Cryptococcus gattii de origem clínica em...Produção de fatores de virulência in vitro por isolados de Cryptococcus neoformans e Cryptococcus gattii de origem clínica em...

Produção de fatores de virulência in vitro por isolados de Cryptococcus neoformans e Cryptococcus gattii de origem clínica em ... Producción de factores de virulencia in vitro por aislados de Cryptococcus neoformans y Cryptococcus gattii de origen clínico ... Production of virulence factors in vitro by isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii of clinical origin in ... Cryptococcus neoformans e Cryptococcus gattii são espécies causadoras de meningite criptocócica, implicadas no acometimento de ...
more infohttp://scielo.iec.gov.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2176-62232012000200008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt

ECR 2018 / C-0919 / Central nervous system cryptococcosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients: clinical...ECR 2018 / C-0919 / Central nervous system cryptococcosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients: clinical...

Cryptococcus neoformans ,a saprophytic fungus isolated from soil contaminated with bird excreta, is particularly pathogenic in ... neoformans include soil contaminated with pigeon excreta and eucalyptus... ...
more infohttps://epos.myesr.org/esr/viewing/index.php?module=viewing_poster&task=&pi=144395

Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii.  - PubMed - NCBICryptococcus neoformans variety gattii. - PubMed - NCBI

Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii.. Sorrell TC1.. Author information. 1. Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, ... Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii is emerging as a primary human pathogen which is distinct genetically and biochemically ... This enzyme has now been confirmed to play a role in the virulence of C. neoformans serotype A. Disease caused by C. n. var. ... neoformans. There is increasing evidence that it should be reclassified as a separate species within the Tremellales. In nature ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11346263?dopt=Abstract

Cryptococcus neoformans | MSDSonlineCryptococcus neoformans | MSDSonline

Cryptococcus neoformans. Cryptococcus neoformans. MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES SECTION I - INFECTIOUS ...
more infohttps://www.msdsonline.com/resources/msds-resources/free-safety-data-sheet-index/cryptococcus-neoformans/

Cryptococcus neoformans - microbewikiCryptococcus neoformans - microbewiki

C. neoformans v. grubii (serotype A), C. neoformans v. neoformans (serotype D). Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans. A ... Global Molecular Epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii: An Atlas of the Molecular Types. Scientifica ... Genetic control of susceptibility to Cryptococcus neoformans in mice. Infect. Immun. 12. Kechichian TB, Shea J, Del Poeta M. ... Fungi pathogenic to humans: Molecular bases of virulence of Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus ...
more infohttps://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Cryptococcus_neoformans

Extracellular iron chelation in Cryptococcus neoformans.  - PubMed - NCBIExtracellular iron chelation in Cryptococcus neoformans. - PubMed - NCBI

Extracellular iron chelation in Cryptococcus neoformans.. Jacobson ES1, Petro MJ.. Author information. 1. Research Service, ... Low-iron minimal medium supported growth of Cryptococcus neoformans but spent medium contained no hydroxamates, organic acids ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3325632?dopt=Abstract

Cryptococcus neoformans (Sanfelice) Vuillemin ATCC ® 28205™Cryptococcus neoformans (Sanfelice) Vuillemin ATCC ® 28205™

Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC ® 28205™ Designation: VH/10414/72 Application: Biomedical Research and Development Material ... Cryptococcus neoformans (Sanfelice) Vuillemin (ATCC® 28205™) Alternate State: Filobasidiella neoformans Kwon-Chung / Strain ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Fungi_and_Yeast/Biomedical_Strains/28205.aspx

Cerebral Cryptococcus neoformans infection symptoms, treatments & forums | PatientsLikeMeCerebral Cryptococcus neoformans infection symptoms, treatments & forums | PatientsLikeMe

5 patients with cerebral Cryptococcus neoformans infection experience fatigue, depressed mood, pain, anxious mood, and insomnia ... Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on cerebral Cryptococcus neoformans infection at ... What is cerebral Cryptococcus neoformans infection?. Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast-like fungus which causes life- ... 1 a cerebral Cryptococcus neoformans infection patient reports mild pain (25%). * 0 cerebral Cryptococcus neoformans infection ...
more infohttps://www.patientslikeme.com/conditions/1443-cerebral-cryptococcus-neoformans-infection

RNA Interference in the Pathogenic Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans | GeneticsRNA Interference in the Pathogenic Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans | Genetics

1990 Isolation of the URA5 gene from Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans and its use as a selective marker for ... RNA Interference in the Pathogenic Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Hong Liu, Tricia R. Cottrell, Lynda M. Pierini, William E. ... RNA Interference in the Pathogenic Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Hong Liu, Tricia R. Cottrell, Lynda M. Pierini, William E. ... RNA Interference in the Pathogenic Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Hong Liu, Tricia R. Cottrell, Lynda M. Pierini, William E. ...
more infohttp://www.genetics.org/content/160/2/463

Identification of Viable Cryptococcus neoformansIdentification of Viable Cryptococcus neoformans

... Description. Cryptococcus neoformans (teleomorph: Filobasidiella spp.) is ... Identification of Viable Cryptococcus neoformans. Identification of Viable Cryptococcus neoformans. Microbiology Laboratory ... The main problem with the detection of Cryptococcus neoformans is that it is a nondescript yeast upon primary isolation. While ... Cryptococcosis (an infection with Cryptococcus neoformans) is a trademark secondary infection in AIDS patients and most other ...
more infohttps://www.emsl.com/Services.aspx?action=show&TopServiceCategoryID=5&serviceid=114

Cryptococcus neoformans (Sanfelice) Vuillemin ATCC ® MYA-4567&tradCryptococcus neoformans (Sanfelice) Vuillemin ATCC ® MYA-4567&trad

Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC ® MYA-4567™ Designation: WM629 [CBS 10079] Application: Emerging infectious disease research ... Cryptococcus neoformans (Sanfelice) Vuillemin (ATCC® MYA-4567™) Alternate State: Filobasidiella neoformans Kwon-Chung / Strain ... Consensus multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Med. Mycol. 47(6):561-570, ... Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Microbial_Panels/Pathogenic_Cryptococcus_Reference_Strains_Panel/MYA-4567.aspx?p=1&rel=%7B0%7D&slp=1

KEGG GENOME: Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans B-3501AKEGG GENOME: Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans B-3501A

Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Basidiomycota; Agaricomycotina; Tremellomycetes; Tremellales; Cryptococcaceae; Cryptococcus; ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?gn:T01040

Cryptococcus neoformans - WikipediaCryptococcus neoformans - Wikipedia

A good overview of Cryptococcus neoformans biology from the Science Creative Quarterly Cryptococcus neoformans biology, general ... neoformans var. grubii. A new species name, Cryptococcus deneoformans, is used for the former C. neoformans var. neoformans. C ... neoformans and C. neoformans var. grubii. A third variety, C. neoformans var. gattii, was defined as a distinct species, ... "Recognition of seven species in the Cryptococcus gattii/Cryptococcus neoformans species complex". Fungal genetics and biology: ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptococcus_neoformans

Complex selection on intron size in Cryptococcus neoformans. | Broad InstituteComplex selection on intron size in Cryptococcus neoformans. | Broad Institute

Cryptococcus neoformans, Genome, Fungal, Introns, Selection, Genetic, Sequence Deletion. Abstract. We conducted a genome-wide ... analysis of the roles of mutation and selection in sculpting intron size in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. We ...
more infohttps://www.broadinstitute.org/publications/broad3504

A PEACH OF A PATHOGEN: CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS | SCQA PEACH OF A PATHOGEN: CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS | SCQ

Cryptococcus neoformans is pathogen. Cryptococcus neoformans is also an opportunist. Over the past 10 years, infections of this ... Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii: Separate varietal status for Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A isolates. J Clin Microbiol ... neoformans var. gattii, while the others are known as C. neoformans var. grubii (A) and C. neoformans var. neoformans (D). It ... neoformans and C. neoformans var. gatti. Pathogenic Qualities Cryptococcus as a genus contains approximately 37 species and out ...
more infohttps://www.scq.ubc.ca/a-peach-of-a-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans/

Cryptococcus neoformans CAP59 protein
     Summary Report | CureHunterCryptococcus neoformans CAP59 protein Summary Report | CureHunter

... involved in capsule formation which is essential for virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans; amino acid sequence given in first ... Cryptococcus neoformans CAP59 protein. Subscribe to New Research on Cryptococcus neoformans CAP59 protein ... involved in capsule formation which is essential for virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans; amino acid sequence given in first ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC087781-Cryptococcus-neoformans-CAP59-protein.do

Are Two Cryptococcus neoformans Strains Epidemiologically Linked? | Journal of Clinical MicrobiologyAre Two Cryptococcus neoformans Strains Epidemiologically Linked? | Journal of Clinical Microbiology

1999) Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii: separate varietal status for Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A isolates. J. Clin. ... neoformans var.grubii (serotype A) (7) and C. neoformans var. neoformans (serotype D), both with worldwide distributions, and C ... Are Two Cryptococcus neoformans Strains Epidemiologically Linked?. Dea Garcia-Hermoso, Françoise Dromer, Simone Mathoulin- ... Are Two Cryptococcus neoformans Strains Epidemiologically Linked?. Dea Garcia-Hermoso, Françoise Dromer, Simone Mathoulin- ...
more infohttps://jcm.asm.org/content/39/4/1402?ijkey=9d07462c66d0997d2b3f07f18a26821ff376edb3&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Drug Resistance in Cryptococcus neoformans | Springer for Research & DevelopmentDrug Resistance in Cryptococcus neoformans | Springer for Research & Development

Cryptococcus neoformansis an encapsulated yeast known to cause disease in both immunosuppressed as well as seemingly ... In vitro susceptibility of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans variety neoformans isolates from Turkey to six antifungal ... and Cryptococcus neoformans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2001; 45(10):2862-2864PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... What makes Cryptococcus neoform-ans a pathogen? Emerg Infect Dis 1998; 4(1):71-83PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-60327-595-8_20

Cryptococcus neoformans - Volume 14, Number 5-May 2008 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDCCryptococcus neoformans - Volume 14, Number 5-May 2008 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC

Cryptococcus neoformans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):762. doi:10.3201/eid1405.e11405.. ... 2008). Cryptococcus neoformans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 762. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.e11405.. ... C. neoformans is an encapsulated yeastlike fungus of the family Cryptococcaceae. It was first described in 1894 by German ... Cryptococcus neoformans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):762. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.e11405. ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/14/5/e1-1405

Cryptococcus neoformans - Volume 14, Number 5-May 2008 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDCCryptococcus neoformans - Volume 14, Number 5-May 2008 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC

Cryptococcus neoformans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):762. doi:10.3201/eid1405.e11405.. ... 2008). Cryptococcus neoformans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 762. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.e11405.. ... C. neoformans is an encapsulated yeastlike fungus of the family Cryptococcaceae. It was first described in 1894 by German ... Cryptococcus neoformans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):762. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1405.e11405. ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/14/5/e1-1405_article

Cryptococcus neoformans - Humpath.com - Human pathologyCryptococcus neoformans - Humpath.com - Human pathology

Cryptococcus neoformans (formerly known as Torula histolytica) is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus found in (...) ... Cryptococcus neoformans grows as a yeast (unicellular) and replicates by budding.. C. neoformans makes hyphae during mating, ... Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast that can live in both plants and animals. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella ... Definition: Cryptococcus neoformans (formerly known as Torula histolytica) is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus found in dried ...
more infohttp://www.humpath.com/spip.php?article6778

Diagnostic Challenges of Cryptococcus neoformans in an Immunocompetent Individual Masquerading as Chronic HydrocephalusDiagnostic Challenges of Cryptococcus neoformans in an Immunocompetent Individual Masquerading as Chronic Hydrocephalus

... predominance of Cryptococcus neoformans compared with Cryptococcus gattii," International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. ... I. Bose, A. J. Reese, J. J. Ory, G. Janbon, and T. L. Doering, "A yeast under cover: the capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans," ... Y.-Y. Lin, S. Shiau, and C.-T. Fang, "Risk factors for invasive Cryptococcus neoformans diseases: a case-control study," PLoS ... W. S. Cheon, K.-S. Eom, B. K. Yoo et al., "A case of pulmonary cryptococcosis by capsule-deficient Cryptococcus neoformans," ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2016/7381943/ref/
  • The global distribution of E. camaldulensis appears to correspond to the epidemiologic distribution of cryptococcosis caused by C. neoformans var. (asm.org)
  • These findings may provided an explanation for the high incidence of infections caused by C. neoformans var. (asm.org)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast known to cause disease in both immunosuppressed as well as seemingly immunocompetent hosts. (springer.com)
  • Orni-Wasserlauf R, Izkhakov E, Siegman-Igra Y, Bash E, Polacheck I, Giladi M. Fluconazole-resistant Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from an immunocompetent patient without prior exposure to fluconazole. (springer.com)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated fungal organism and it can cause disease in apparently immunocompetent, as well as immunocompromised, hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Use of RNA interference in Cryptococcus should allow manipulation of mRNA levels for functional analysis of genes of interest and enable efficient exploration of genes discovered by genome sequencing. (genetics.org)
  • One fungal genome, that of Cryptococcus neoformans (24 Mb), has been currently sequenced to approximately seven times shotgun coverage by the Stanford Genome Technology Center ( http://www-sequence.stanford.edu ) and The Institute for Genomic Research ( http://www.tigr.org ). (genetics.org)
  • KEGG GENOME: Cryptococcus neoformans var. (genome.jp)
  • The first genome sequence for a strain of C. neoformans (var. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific modulation of protein expression through introduction of double-stranded RNA thus operates in C. neoformans , which is the first demonstration of this technique in a fungal organism. (genetics.org)
  • The differentiation of C. neoformans from other yeasts is based on biochemistry rather than direct observation and as such requires viable cultures of the organism. (emsl.com)
  • Sexual reproduction in C. neoformans begins when two cells, each carrying one complement of their genetic information (a state in which they are called haploid), encounter one another and, as a result, fuse. (ubc.ca)
  • As these haploid spores are released to produce more cells the life cycle of C. neoformans will continue. (ubc.ca)
  • In C. neoformans , haploid fruiting on filament agar required STE12α . (rupress.org)
  • The analysis for C. neoformans can be performed in the typical 6-10 day turn around for viable cultures, but the test requires special media that do not allow other fungi to be reliably recovered or identified. (emsl.com)
  • Studies suggest that colonies of C. neoformans and related fungi growing on the ruins of the melted down reactor of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant may be able to use the energy of radiation for "radiotrophic" growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • J. Stie and D. Fox, "Blood-brain barrier invasion by Cryptococcus neoformans is enhanced by functional interactions with plasmin," Microbiology , vol. 158, part 1, pp. 240-258, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • C. neoformans causes fatal meningitis primarily in immunosuppressed humans . (kenyon.edu)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast that can cause life-threatening meningitis in immunocompromised patients ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Besides a prevalent asexual life cycle, C. neoformans also presents a bipolar mating cycle with two mating types, MATa and MATα, with the latter being the most prevalently isolated from hosts and the environment . (kenyon.edu)
  • These mechanisms are not very effective when C. neoformans infects hosts with intact immune defenses, but they can lead to disseminated disease in immunosuppressed individuals. (humpath.com)
  • C. neoformans can establish latent infections accompanied by granuloma formation but can reactivate in immunosuppressed hosts. (humpath.com)
  • Are Two Cryptococcus neoformans Strains Epidemiologically Linked? (asm.org)
  • The aim of this study was to standardize a method to determine whether two strains of Cryptococcus neoformans could be considered epidemiologically linked. (asm.org)
  • Using the plasmid pCnTel-1-labeled probe CENTEL, we were able to differentiate some unrelated strains that yielded the same hybridization profile with the C. neoformans middle-repetitive-element CNRE-1 probe. (asm.org)
  • We compared the abilities of CNRE-1 ( 19 ) and a new probe named CENTEL to establish whether two C. neoformans strains are linked. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, C. neoformans induces the activation of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalases, and the synthesis of antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH), to adapt to oxidative attack ( 14 , 15 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • C. neoformans makes hyphae during mating, and eventually creates basidiospores at the end of the hyphae before producing spores. (humpath.com)
  • The sexual state of C . neoformans is characterized by the formation of dikaryotic hyphae, which possess typical basidiomycetous clamp connections and bear terminal basidia. (rupress.org)
  • The molecular analysis of hyphae production in MATα C . neoformans has resulted in the identification of a gene named STE12α whose sequence displays similarity to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae STE12 gene ( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • Mebendazole showed antifungal activity against phagocytized C. neoformans , affected cryptococcal biofilms profoundly and caused marked morphological alterations in C. neoformans , including reduction of capsular dimensions. (frontiersin.org)
  • The production of spores is a result of the sexual reproduction of C. neoformans (see Figure 2), a process entirely different from its asexual reproduction by budding mentioned above. (ubc.ca)
  • C. neoformans is typically acquired by inhaling spores or desiccated yeast from the environment ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The Cryptococcus neoformans STE12 α gene, a homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae STE12 , exists only in mating type ( MAT ) α cells. (rupress.org)
  • gatti, making it ecologically and epidemiologically different from C. neoformans var. (ubc.ca)
  • C. neoformans can also utilize the host plasminogen system to enhance degradation and invasion of tissues and penetrate the blood-brain barrier. (kenyon.edu)
  • Thus, this report provides comprehensive insight into the melanin-regulating pathways in C. neoformans and other fungal pathogens. (asm.org)
  • However, investigations of Cryptococcus are hampered by the technical difficulty of specific gene replacements. (genetics.org)
  • One recently developed method for downregulating gene function that may facilitate studies in C. neoformans is double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi). (genetics.org)
  • In this study, we systematically analyzed melanin-regulating signaling pathways in Cryptococcus neoformans and identified four melanin-regulating core transcription factors (TFs), Bzp4, Usv101, Mbs1, and Hob1, required for induction of the laccase gene ( LAC1 ). (asm.org)
  • The C . neoformans STE12α gene, while having conserved roles in morphogenesis, has one striking difference from the S . cerevisiae STE12 gene: it is found only in MATα cells ( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • Gene transfer in Cryptococcus neoformans by use of biolistic delivery of DNA. (asm.org)
  • This system has the potential for targeted gene disruption, and its efficiency will also allow for screening of DNA libraries within C. neoformans. (asm.org)
  • A transformation scheme for Cryptococcus neoformans to yield high-frequency, integrative events was developed. (asm.org)
  • 5-fluorocytosine resistance in Cryptococcus neoformans . (springer.com)
  • 1995. Role of tumor necrosis factor and gamma interferon in acquired resistance to Cryptococcus neoformans in the central nervous system of mice. (asmscience.org)