Cryptococcus gattii: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella bacillispora.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Northwestern United States: The geographic area of the northwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming.British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Genes, Mating Type, Fungal: Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Bromthymol Blue: A pH sensitive dye that has been used as an indicator in many laboratory reactions.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Neosartorya: A genus of ascomycetous fungi in the family Trichocomaceae, order EUROTIALES. Some species can cause opportunistic infections in humans, similar to its anamorph ASPERGILLUS.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.TriazolesTrees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksMeningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Southeastern United States: The geographic area of the southeastern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not included. The states usually included in this region are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, West Virginia, and Virginia.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Eucalyptus: A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.Northern Territory: Territory in north central Australia, between the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Its capital is Darwin.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.D-Amino-Acid OxidaseCandida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Papua New Guinea: A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.New Guinea: Originally an island of the Malay Archipelago, the second largest island in the world. It divided, West New Guinea becoming part of Indonesia and East New Guinea becoming Papua New Guinea.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Lettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Sequoia: A plant genus of the family TAXODIACEAE known for including some of the tallest trees.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Rhode IslandMontanaNorth America

Consensus multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. (1/90)

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First isolation of Cryptococcus gattii molecular type VGII and Cryptococcus neoformans molecular type VNI from environmental sources in the city of Belem, Para, Brazil. (2/90)

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Identification of Cryptococcus gattii by use of L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue medium and DNA sequencing. (3/90)

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Correlation of genotype and in vitro susceptibilities of Cryptococcus gattii strains from the Pacific Northwest of the United States. (4/90)

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Projecting global occurrence of Cryptococcus gattii. (5/90)

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Epidemiology of Cryptococcus gattii, British Columbia, Canada, 1999-2007. (6/90)

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Extracellular DNase activity of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. (7/90)

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Heteroresistance of Cryptococcus gattii to fluconazole. (8/90)

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Clonal VGII subtypes (outbreak strains) of Cryptococcus gattii have caused an outbreak in the US Pacific Northwest since 2004. Outbreak-associated infections occur equally in male and female patients (median age 56 years) and usually cause pulmonary disease in persons with underlying medical conditions. Since 2009, a total of 25 C. gattii infections, 23 (92%) caused by non-outbreak strain C. gattii, have been reported from 8 non-Pacific Northwest states. Sixteen (64%) patients were previously healthy, and 21 (84%) were male; median age was 43 years (range 15-83 years). Ten patients who provided information reported no past-year travel to areas where C. gattii is known to be endemic. Nineteen (76%) patients had central nervous system infections; 6 (24%) died. C. gattii infection in persons without exposure to known disease-endemic areas suggests possible endemicity in the United States outside the outbreak-affected region; these infections appear to differ in clinical and demographic characteristics from
Until recently, Cryptococcus gattii infections occurred mainly in tropical and subtropical climate zones. However, during the past decade, C. gattii infections in humans and animals in Europe have increased. To determine whether the infections in Eur
INTRODUÇÃO. A criptococose é uma importante infecção oportunista, principalmente devido ao aumento do número de indivíduos imunocomprometidos, em especial aqueles infectados com HIV1,2. As espécies implicadas em grande parte dos casos são Cryptococcus neoformans e Cryptococcus gattii, causadoras de variadas formas clínicas da doença3,4,5. Neste contexto, indivíduos imunocompetentes podem adquirir a doença como micose primária, principalmente devido a C. gattii, em regiões tropicais e subtropicais6, bem como sob a forma de surtos7. Cryptococcus spp. são leveduras basidiomicetos, capsuladas, sapróbias do ambiente, sendo isoladas principalmente de excretas de aves e ocos de árvores, como por exemplo, eucalipto8 e Senna sp.9. C. neoformans é constituído pelos sorotipos A (tipos moleculares VNI, VNII), D (tipo molecular VNIV) e o híbrido AD (tipo molecular VNIII); C. gattii inclui o sorotipo B (tipos moleculares VGI, VGII, VGIII, VGIV) e o sorotipo C10,11,12.. Em Belém, Estado ...
Time-Course Proteome Analysis Reveals the Dynamic Response of Cryptococcus gattii Cells to Fluconazole. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Studies indicate that the accuracy of correct identification of the C. gattii strains using d-proline assimilation tests (2, 3, 13, 31) or d-tryptophan assimilation tests (2, 3, 35) was favorable with the CGB (25) method. The assimilation assays are based on the fact that only the C. gattii strains utilized these d-amino acids as the sole nitrogen source. In some studies the accuracy of these tests approaches 99% but the assay was relatively slow because the formulation used low glucose concentrations (1 to 2%). The current study suggests that it is feasible to combine d-tryptophan and d-proline into a single medium to separate C. gattii from C. neoformans. The use of m-DTDP or YCB-DTDP increased the carbohydrate source from 2 to 4%, such that most C. gattii strains achieved growth in 1 to 3 days. The current limitation for growth is the nitrogen source. We suggest using YCB-DTDP agar or m-DTDP agar, since the accuracy is similar to those of previously published methods and test results are ...
Over the past decade, increased sampling worldwide and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) methods have uncovered greater genetic diversity of important pathogens, including the C. neoformans and C. gattii species complexes. For example, sampling from Botswana revealed the existence of the C. neoformans VNB lineage (30), which itself has recently been shown to be deeply split into two genetically isolated lineages, VNBI and VNBII (31). Thus far, VGVI is the only lineage that exists as a single genotype since the three isolates previously designated C. decagattii appear to have been isolated from the same patient (21). The previously identified lineages of Cryptococcus have recently been designated separate taxonomic species based on phylogenetic species recognition criteria (17). While we agree that Cryptococcus contains a number of genetically diverse and monophylectic clades that can be viewed as species under an evolutionary species concept (32), we have previously argued that it is premature to ...
Cryptococcus gattiihas emerged as an important fungal pathogen. Infection manifests most often as potentially fatal meningoencephalitis and/or pulmonary disease. The emergence of clusters of cryptococcosis due toC. gattiiin British Columbia, Canada,
Cryptococcus gattii ATCC ® MYA-4093™ Designation: A1M R265 Application: Multigene phylogeny and phenotypic characterization. Biomedical Research and Development Material
Cryptococcus gattii ATCC ® MYA-4071™ Designation: WM 276 Application: Multigene phylogeny and phenotypic characterization. Biomedical Research and Development Material
A large number of molecular typing techniques have been applied over the years to discriminate between individual isolates that had been indistinguishable using conventional techniques and to obtain further insights into the epidemiology and population structure of this species complex. This chapter aims to summarize the diverse typing techniques applied to the Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex, to correlate the obtained results, and to describe the global distribution of the major genotypes. The enzymes malate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, phosphoglyceromutase, and glutamate dehydrogenase could separate C. gattii from C. neoformans. Electrophoretic karyotyping was for the first time applied to the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex to study the genetic diversity between seven cryptococcal strains representing all four serotypes. PCR fingerprinting using the primer (GACA)4 was applied to 110 cryptococcal isolates obtained mainly from Germany and Africa as well as additional
Lineage: cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Fungi; Dikarya; Basidiomycota; Agaricomycotina; Tremellomycetes; Tremellales; Cryptococcaceae; Cryptococcus; Cryptococcus gattii species complex; Cryptococcus gattii ...
Inhalation of the airborne C.gattii fungus from the environment. The fungus can be found in the environment, in the soil and trees in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world (Australia, Papua New Guinea, Africa, Asia, Europe, Mexico and South America). In the united states, C. gattii has been found in Washington, Oregon, California and Hawaii.. There is no human to human or human and animal spread of infection. Infection is only via inhalation of the yeast cells or spores.. ...
The aetiological agents of infectious disease impose a huge burden on human society. By understanding their biology, reproduction and mechanisms of infection, we are able to assess and discover new strategies for mitigating their impact. In recent years, fungi have gained widespread attention for their ability to rapidly emerge and threaten both animal and plant species across a global scale [1]. However, many features of their genomes that enable them to successfully adapt to infect diverse hosts and inhabit a wide range of ecological niches remain cryptic [6], especially for newly evolved emerging lineages. The underlying mechanism driving outbreaks caused by C. gattii has been puzzling researchers for over a decade. Compounding this is the fact that its virulence is likely a consequence of adaptations that have evolved for protection against environmental predators such as amoebae [33] (unless it is surviving and escaping out of dead animals).. Here, we have combined whole genome sequencing ...
Illustration ©CDC; Source: CDC Page on C. gattii sources. Click to embiggen. CG is an inhabitant of specific tropical and subtropical regions of the world (including Australia, South America, northern and central Africa, east and southeast Asia) and wreaks significant havoc in these parts. In the US, a high prevalence of CG has been noted since late 1970s in Southern California and Hawaii; retrospective analyses have found sporadic occurrences in North Carolina, Rhode Island, New Mexico, Michigan, Georgia, and Montana. However, disease incidences were not high enough to merit concern, until now. The current North American spread is severe enough to have gained outbreak status from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).. CG and CN have similar, but slightly different, biochemical properties and effects on mammalian (human and animal) hosts. Current thinking is that CN primarily causes disease in people with reduced or suppressed immunity (for instance, cancer or organ ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
BACKGROUND. Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) causes an estimated 180,000 deaths annually, predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa, where most patients receive fluconazole (FLC) monotherapy. While relapse after FLC monotherapy with resistant strains is frequently observed, the mechanisms and impact of emergence of FLC resistance in human CM are poorly understood. Heteroresistance (HetR) - a resistant subpopulation within a susceptible strain - is a recently described phenomenon in Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) and Cryptococcus gattii (Cg), the significance of which has not previously been studied in humans. METHODS. A cohort of 20 patients with HIV-associated CM in Tanzania was prospectively observed during therapy with either FLC monotherapy or in combination with flucytosine (5FC). Total and resistant subpopulations of Cryptococcus spp. were quantified directly from patient cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Stored isolates underwent whole genome sequencing and phenotypic characterization. RESULTS. ...
Rodrigues, Jéssica; Godinho, Rodrigo M. da C.; Fonseca, Fernanda L.; Schneider, Rafael O.; Schrank, Augusto; Staats, Charley; Kmetzsch, Livia; Vainstein, Marilene H.; Firacative, Carolina; Maszewska, Krystyna; Meyer, Wieland; Rodrigues, Marcio L. // Scientific Reports; 7/10/2015, p11717 Cryptococcus gattii is one of the causative agents of human cryptococcosis. Highly virulent strains of serotype B C. gattii have been studied in detail, but little information is available on the pathogenic properties of serotype C isolates. In this study, we analyzed pathogenic determinants in... ...
A study on the identification of hybrids identified six distinct clusters based on the genotypes of a large number of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii global isolates using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). A combination of genotype and ploidy analyses are able to discriminate AD hybrids from haploid serotype A or D isolates. Serological reactions and a set of genotyping techniques have been used to determine the serotype of Cryptococcus strains. Serotype A strains presented a rim pattern characterized by a sharp increase in the optical gradient at the capsular edge followed directly by an immediate decrease. The estimation of the time of hybridization showed that recombination occurred very recently, indicating that hybridization is important during Cryptococcus evolution. Gene genealogical analysis supported the hypothesis of multiple origins of hybrid strains, suggesting that hybridization events occurred in different times probably coinciding with the continuing
EMSL Analytical provides PCR testing solutions for Cryptococcus gattii to help identify its presence to protect people and animals from the virulent pathogen., , , , Cinnaminson, NJ, , , , Last week the Cente...
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has updated the 2018 edition of the Red Book to include fluconazole dosing information determined by a Pediatric Trials Network (PTN) study. The Red Book is the leading resource on pediatric infectious disease, providing the most up-to-date information on a wide variety of diseases that doctors see in children.. The updates include dosing information for the treatment of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii infections, as well as Cryptococcal meningitis in children. The updates, which can be viewed on Red Book Online, will enable doctors to provide a safer, more accurate dose of the antifungal drug fluconazole to treat these diseases in children.. The changes were based on a study conducted from 2008 to 2011 in collaboration with PTN that analyzed safety data on the use of fluconazole to treat infections caused by the Candida yeast. While Candida and Cryptococcus yeasts are not the same, they are treated similarly enough to allow dosing ...
thonous, indicating endemicity of the C. gattii VGIIb-like variant in Nova Scotia and highlighting the value of nonmigratory animals as sentinels for emerging diseases (7). Incidence for this disease is highest in the Pacific Northwest, where the primary agents are C. gattii VGII genotypes (2,4). A pertinent literature review and consultation with regional public and veterinary health authorities determined that Québec was the most eastern province in Canada where crytococcosis associated with C. gattii VGII has caused clinical disease that was not potentially travel related in humans (Phillippe Dufresne, pers. comm.). In eastern North America, the C. gattii VGIIb genotype is reported to have caused disseminated cryptococcosis in a human in Florida, USA (8,9). Because C. gattii is potentially pervasive in the environment, the Nova Scotia Department of Health has alerted provincial infectious disease specialists and the provincial public health laboratory to ensure availability of the diagnostic
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Environmental isolations have established that Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii appears to have a specific ecological association with Eucalyptus camaldulensis. So far, we have isolated C. neoformans var. gattii on 35 separate occasions, all from samples associated with E. camaldulensis. The global distribution of E. camaldulensis appears to correspond to the epidemiologic distribution of cryptococcosis caused by C. neoformans var. gattii. No other environmental source for the fungus has yet been detected, and no other eucalypt has the distribution pattern corresponding to reported cases caused by this fungus. These findings may provided an explanation for the high incidence of infections caused by C. neoformans var. gattii in Australian aborigines living in the Northern Territory and for its low worldwide incidence in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. ...
Crude extracts and fractions of five species of Polygala - P. campestris, P. cyparissias, P. paniculata, P. pulchella and P. sabulosa - were investigated for their in vitro antifungal activity against opportunistic Candida species, Cryptococcus gattii and Sporothrix schenckii with bioautographic and microdilution assays. In the bioautographic assays, the major extracts were active against the fungi tested. In the minimal concentration inhibitory (MIC) assay, the hexane extract of P. paniculata and EtOAc fraction of P. sabulosa showed the best antifungal activity, with MIC values of 60 and 30 g/mL, respectively, against C. tropicalis, C. gattii and S. schenckii. The compounds isolated from P. sabulosa prenyloxycoumarin and 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexanehexol displayed antifungal activity against S. schenckii (with MICs of 125 g/mL and 250 g/mL, respectively) and C. gattii (both with MICs of 250 g/mL). Rutin and aurapten isolated from P. paniculata showed antifungal activity against C. gattii with MIC values ...
Cryptococcosis, also known as cryptococcal disease, is a potentially fatal fungal disease. It is caused by one of two species; Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. These were all previously thought to be subspecies of C. neoformans but have now been identified as distinct species. Cryptococcosis is believed to be acquired by inhalation of the infectious propagule from the environment. Although the exact nature of the infectious propagule is unknown, the leading hypothesis is the basidiospore created through sexual or asexual reproduction. Cryptococcosis is a defining opportunistic infection for AIDS, and is the second-most-common AIDS-defining illness in Africa. Other conditions that pose an increased risk include certain lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkins lymphoma), sarcoidosis, liver cirrhosis, and patients on long-term corticosteroid therapy. Distribution is worldwide in soil. The prevalence of cryptococcosis has been increasing over the past 20 years for many reasons, including the ...
Variable selection with supervised classification is currently an important tool for discriminating biological samples. In this paper, 15 supervised classification algorithms based on a support vector machine (SVM) were applied to discriminate Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii fungal species us
Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by fungi that belong to the genus Cryptococcus.The two species are Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii.
Cryptococcal infection is acquired from the environment. C. neoformans and C. gattii inhabit different ecologic niches. C. neoformans is frequently found in soils contaminated with avian excreta and can easily be recovered from shaded and humid soils contaminated with pigeon droppings. In contrast, C. gattii is not found in bird feces. Instead, it inhabits a variety of arboreal species, including several types of eucalyptus tree. C. neoformans strains are found throughout the world; however, var. grubii (serotype A) strains are far more common than var. neoformans (serotype D) strains among both clinical and environmental isolates. The geographic distribution of C. gattii was thought to be largely limited to tropical regions until an outbreak of cryptococcosis caused by a new serotype B strain began in Vancouver in 1999. This outbreak has extended into the United States, and C. gattii infections are being encountered increasingly in several states in the Pacific Northwest. ...
The difference between these strains could make a difference in treatment, clinical course, and outcome, said Joseph Heitman, MD, PhD, senior author of the study and chair of the Duke Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology.. The study was published September 1 in PLoS Pathogens.. The study emphasizes that health professionals need to record the cryptococcal species more carefully to understand different clinical courses and possibly to change treatment strategies.. Researchers at Duke University Medical Center discovered that in the Los Angeles area, more than 12 percent of AIDS patients diagnosed with Crypotococcus were infected with C. gattii, much higher than earlier studies, which suggested that only about 1 percent have C. gattii. The researchers based these figures on molecular testing of fungal DNA barcodes.. This discovery comes at the same time as a C. gattii outbreak is expanding in the Pacific Northwest, spreading southward from Vancouver, British Columbia, through ...
For over 40 years the Vancouver Island Kidney Patients Association has provided services and equipment used by renal patients to help cope with the challenges of kidney disease and which would not be provided by hospitals and treatment centres. We are comprised entirely of volunteers from within the renal community on Vancouver Island. Members include kidney patients, spouses, family, friends, caregivers and others interested in helping people facing the challenges of kidney disease. Each day an average of 15 Canadians learn that their kidneys have failed, often due to diabetes or hypertension. Right now there are 206 people in Victoria who need a life-saving kidney transplant. We are fundraising to purchase two dialysis chairs each chair cost approx $7,000.00 + Please accept our heartfelt thanks and appreciation. With your generous help it will allow our association to continue providing for over 2400 kidney patients within the renal community on Vancouver Island. On behalf of all renal ...
martines bistro is a restaurant located on Vancouver island in the scenic township of comox that offers superb dining sunset and mountain views great food and local seafood with a patio to sit back relax and enjoy a glass of wine or martini - ...
The renal unit is the main dialysis centre for all hemodialysis patients on Vancouver Island. Those that are well enough may attend one of the self-care community dialysis facilities in Victoria (Hillside), Duncan, Nanaimo, or Port Alberni, Cumberland. However, all these patients start in this main dialysis unit and must return here when they become too ill to be treated elsewhere ...
Members of the Dhak-Duhre group are still active in the drug trade despite the murders of the gang’s namesakes, Sgt. Lindsey Houghton said Thursday.
Members of the Dhak-Duhre group are still active in the drug trade despite the murders of the gang’s namesakes, Sgt. Lindsey Houghton said Thursday.
SHAWNIGAN LAKE, B.C. - A Vancouver Island private school says a teacher accused of a series of sexual offences against young people is no longer employed at its facility.Andrew Olson is accused of fou...
Spouse and I are planning a trip to Vancouver Island this summer, probably 10 days max. Well fly into Victoria, Bike Fridays in tow.I want to bike,
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) enables the generation of large amounts of genome sequence data at a reasonable cost. Organisms in mixed microbial communities can now be sequenced and identified in a culture-independent way, usually using amplicon sequencing of a DNA barcode. Bulk RNA-seq (metatranscriptomics) has several advantages over DNA-based amplicon sequencing: it is less susceptible to amplification biases, it captures only living organisms, and it enables a larger set of genes to be used for taxonomic identification. Using a model mock community comprising 17 fungal isolates, we evaluated whether metatranscriptomics can accurately identify fungal species and subspecies in mixed communities. Overall, 72.9% of the RNA transcripts were classified, from which the vast majority (99.5%) were correctly identified at the species level. Of the 15 species sequenced, 13 were retrieved and identified correctly. We also detected strain-level variation within the Cryptococcus species complexes: 99.3% of
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Looking for Cryptococcus? Find out information about Cryptococcus. A genus of encapsulated pathogenic yeasts in the order Moniliales Explanation of Cryptococcus
This group is here to facilitate discussion among those in the Pacific Northwest (US and Canada) who are interested in Railroad Prototype Modeling (RPM) and Free-Mo modular railroading. Everyone is welcome to participate regardless of prototype, era, or scale modeled. Discussion topics can cover any issue related to RPM/Free-Mo events and activities in the Pacific Northwest, or information relevant to same. You are also welcomed to post images for others to view. For-sale and wanted posts are permitted. The only condition to participation is that you remain respectful of others and refrain from personal attacks. Repeat offenders WILL be booted. This is a hobby, so lets keep it fun!
Its decrepit in a funky (almost charming) way, and it shudders and rolls from side to side, added to which it makes odd (and one hopes not ominous) noises as it wends its way along to its hoped-for destination some 135 miles distant.Im referring to the E&N (Esquimalt and Nanaimo) Dayliner. This is the single diesel unit railway coach that runs from Victoria on Vancouver Island to Courtenay (the end of the line) and then back again to Victoria on a daily basis, come rain, shine, snow, sleet, flood or earthquake. This aged relic is the last vestige of the first transcontinental railroad in Canada and it came into being in return for British Columbias agreement to join the Canadian Confederation - which to this day isnt deemed an agreeable situation in many minds in these parts.Politics notwithstanding - or, in truth, maybe withstanding - the feds, or their railroad handmaiden, Via Rail (Canadas Amtrak, so you know what I mean), have been trying to kill the E&N for decades now. They dont ...
Glenora Farm is based on Vancouver Island in beautiful British Columbia, Canada. It is a place where care givers and people with developmental disabil...
When asked if there could be a terrorist link to the Streptococcus A outbreak on Vancouver Island,a media relations woman at Health Canada referring to her name as simply, Page asked if she could get back with the information at a later time. At the time of this publication she had not attempted to conact I-Spy-Online ...
At the time of this event I had never met nor heard of Kim, she had not yet become a part of my network, and I was there simply because John had arranged a van to pick us up and take us to ISB. John had mentioned we had been asked to talk about reading, so I had prepared a slide show on that topic, and as one does when illustrating the future or education in a networked world, I had arranged with Doug Symington on Vancouver Island in Canada to webcast our meeting, which I had hoped to stream from Bangkok out to the networked world at large. We had of course asked in advance about the facilities at ISB and we were told we could have access to anything we wanted, but a disconnect occurred when we arrived on site and found that this was true only if we had specified in advance what we needed, and then their IT people would have allowed us to breach their firewall. However, I arrived and discovered that having arranged with Doug to meet him online at a certain time, I was totally unable to connect ...
I grew up in Montreal and have spent most of my life living in the Vancouver, B.C. area where I was a businessman for many years. I am now retired and living on Vancouver Island with Linda Spenard and our golden retriever Shelby. R.I.P. Cooper. I have 2 kids, twins, Dean and Leah who are 28. I can be reached at my e-mail address [email protected] Pictures of some of our travels can be found on Picasa. http://picasaweb.google.com/colinincanada (hasnt been updated for some time). A special thanks to my older brother David for letting me use his old photos. Thanks also to Linda Spenard for her photos and support ...
Galaxy Motors is the #1 used car dealership on Vancouver Island with 5 locations to serve you in Colwood, Duncan, Nanaimo, Courtenay and now in Langley on the mainland. Hundreds of fully reconditioned vehicles to choose from with finance rates starting at 3.99% OAC. Need your vehicle serviced? No problem we service all makes and models as well. Apply online or visit us in person and let us get you into your new vehicle today! Documentation Fee $499 and taxes are extra.. ...
His father had smoked all his life, and it was catching up with him now. Since hed left home, hed managed to see his father a couple of times a year. His father, along with his lady friend Marnie, usually visited him on Vancouver Island, where Cole ran a successful business. Hed seen them just a few months ago, and his father had appeared in good health, but when Marnie called him two days ago, hed come running, and was shocked at his dads appearance. These days, Marty Slater spent most of his time in a big recliner facing the television; Cole could tell by the items on the two tables that flanked the chair. Books, remote controls, cell phone, tissues, and pain pills painted a picture of someone very ill; someone who was too weak to move around. Cole wondered idly if the doctor would give him an estimate of how much longer. Probably not. ...
Hey! My name is Kim and I live on Vancouver Island, BC. Shortly after my 34th birthday, I was diagnosed with ER/PR+ Her2- stage 2b breast cancer. I underwent a lumpectomy, followed by 8 rounds of dose dense AC+T chemo, and 28 treatments of radiation. Read more ...
Rain long foretold takes a long time to pass; if it arrives on short notice, it soon will pass. For the folks I go out collecting with all hikes, digs and kayak trips are rain or shine. Safety is always top of mind and prepping for the weather is paramount. Keep yourself safe whatever part of the world you choose to explore. For forecasts of marine weather in Vancouver call 604.666.3655 or visit http://www.weatheroffice.com/ ...
Scientific name: Cortaderia selloana Aureolineata Synonym: C. s. Gold Band Family: POACEAE Common names: pampas grass Aureolineata Plant Type: Evergreen perennial Conditions: Zone: 7-10 Light: Full sun Exposure: Exposed or sheltered Soil: Grows bigger in rich soil Moisture: Well drained, drought tolerant Aesthetic: Plant Size: H 4-5 with plumes at 6-7 W 4-5 Leaf and Stem shape: Arching mound of…
You may have concerns that your child is using drugs or alcohol. Before you confront your child however, consider talking to others that know your child, such as friends, relatives and teachers. You dont have to tell them explicitly that you are worried about drugs, but you can still ask them how they find your child, which can be helpful.. When talking to your child, choose a time when your child is awake, alert, and receptive to talking. Give your child a choice about when to talk, e.g. Do you want to talk now, or later?. Avoid interruptions, maintain privacy, and STAY CALM. Go over a checklist with your child, highlighting those concerns that have you worried.. ...
TimberWest has confirmed that the driver of a logging truck that left the road near Caycuse on Wednesday has died.. The man was a working for a contractor for TimberWest near the Honeymoon Bay operations.. According to the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change Strategy, the truck left the road approximately two kilometres past Nixon River Bridge, which is three kilometres east of Caycuse. It went into standing water beside the road and became submerged.. "We express our deepest sympathies to the family, friends and colleagues affected by this tragic accident," TimberWest president and CEO Jeff Zweig said. "A fatality within our forest community deeply impacts all of us. We are working closely with the RCMP, WorkSafe and our contractor on the investigation.". TimberWest has lent its full support to authorities in the ongoing investigation, and operations have been suspended out of respect for the deceased and his family, and to provide support to friends and colleagues, the company ...
Chipotle has closed 43 of its Pacific Northwest locations in response to an E. coli outbreak health officials have connected to the Mexican food chain.
KANSAS CITY, Mo. - Aug. 24, 2015 - Five Cerner clients in the Pacific Northwest have agreed to use CommonWell Health Alliance® services to securely exchange patient data with a growing number of provider sites across the United States.
Read the *unlimited* glondos appreciation thread (cle elum) discussion from the Chowhound Restaurants, Pacific Northwest food community. Join the discussion today.
How to Make Plant Based Paints in the Pacific Northwest. At their best, store-bought art supplies can be of high quality and convenient. At their worst, they carry unnecessary expenses and toxic ingredients that can distance artists from...
Read the Bad experience handled right - praise to Shultzys discussion from the Chowhound Restaurants, Pacific Northwest food community. Join the discussion today.
A deep-sea port located in the heart of Vancouver Island and approached via a long inlet from the Islands west coast. The town itself is divided by several ravines. Position 49°14′2″N, 124°48′18″W. ...
Hoteltilbud i Cobble Hill: Find gode tilbud fra hundredvis af websteder, og vælg det rigtige hotel med hjælp fra TripAdvisor anmeldelser af hoteller i Cobble Hill, Vancouver Island.
Tess is ten years old--old enough to join her mother, Sue, for a summers fishing in the northern waters off Vancouver Island on their boat the Henry Bay. ...
Our handwarmer mugs were handcrafted by Bob and Corina Neher in a small town in eastern Oregon, Milton-Freewater. Your hand fits right
The rights of all are equal: justice, poised and balanced in eternal calm, will shake from the golden scales in which are weighed the acts of men, the very dust of prejudice and caste: No race, no color, no previous condition, can change the rights of men. - Robert Green Ingersoll ...
As a guild, our mission is to raise money for Seattle Childrens Hospital. But we are also a group of parents, friends and family - all touched in some way by CDH. And as such, we seek to raise awareness of this life-threatening birth defect so that we may inspire hope and empowerment for those…
Name: Van Class: A(Unknown) GPS: 43.99045, -118.68882 Directions: From John Day head south on Highway 395 or the John Day-Burns Highway for 36.6 miles. Turn left on Silvies-Hopper Ranch Rd..... ...
The rights of all are equal: justice, poised and balanced in eternal calm, will shake from the golden scales in which are weighed the acts of men, the very dust of prejudice and caste: No race, no color, no previous condition, can change the rights of men. - Robert Green Ingersoll ...
Biology works by apparently simple principles but with very complex structures. Associated with complex structures are the dynamics of these macromolecules which make the biological world. As Richard Feynman said, Biology is all about wiggling and jiggling of atoms.. Molecular fluorescence, when observed with a time resolution of a few picoseconds, becomes a powerful tool for revealing the wiggling and jiggling which makes the biological world living. With the state-of-the-art laser technology available today one can observe dynamics of molecules in ultrafast timescales with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity of molecular fluorescence is shown by the capability to see a single molecule. The high selectivity enables us to see either a single type of molecule or only a specific segment in a molecular complex in its natural environment having thousands of molecular types in various compartments such as the scenario in a living cell.. In our laboratory we, in collaboration ...
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Paradise Cay Publications is a wholesale distributor of books, printed charts, and custom metal art. Specializing in regional titles focused on the outdoors, Sasquatch, childrens books, field guides, nautical titles, the pacific northwest and more. We are also an authorized print provider of NOAA, NGA, and FAA navigational charts.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The homeostasis of iron, copper, and zinc in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Cryptococcus neoformans var. Grubii, and Cryptococcus gattii. T2 - A comparative analysis. AU - Silva, Mirelle Garcia. AU - Schrank, Augusto. AU - Bailão, Elisa Flávia L C. AU - Bailão, Alexandre Melo. AU - Borges, Clayton Luiz. AU - Staats, Charley Christian. AU - Parente, Juliana Alves. AU - Pereira, Maristela. AU - Salem-Izacc, Silvia Maria. AU - Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares. AU - Oliveira, Rosely Maria Zancopé. AU - Silva, Lívia Kmetzsch Rosa e. AU - Nosanchuk, Joshua D.. AU - Vainstein, Marilene Henning. AU - Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Iron, copper, and zinc are essential for all living organisms. Moreover, the homeostasis of these metals is vital to microorganisms during pathogenic interactions with a host. Most pathogens have developed specific mechanisms for the uptake of micronutrients from their hosts in order to counteract the low availability of ...
Cryptococcosis, also known as cryptococcal disease is a potentially fatal fungal disease. It is caused by inhalation of an encapsulated yeast called Cryptococcus neoformans. Cryptococcosis is believed to be acquired by inhalation of the infectious propagule from the environment. Although the exact nature of the infectious propagule is unknown, the leading hypothesis is the basidiospore created through sexual or asexual reproduction.. Cryptococcosis market: Types of infection. There are three identified Cryptococcus strains that causes disease worldwide namely Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus grubii and Cryptococcus gattii. Exposure via respiratory or the gastrointestinal tract are considered as the most common and opportunistic pathway for the organism entry in the host. Cryptococcus neoformans can be found worldwide in soil, birds, animals and humans. Whereas, alternative route of administration can be through transplant of infected tissue, surgical instrument or laboratory instruments. ...
In Japan, most cases of cryptococcosis are caused by Cryptococcus neoformans(C. neoformans). Until now, only three cases which the infectious agent was Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii(C. gattii)have been reported. As compared with cryptococcosis caused by C. neoformans, which is often observed in immunocompromised hosts, cryptococcosis caused by C. gattii occurs predominantly in immunocompetent hosts and is resistant to antifungal drugs. Here, we report a case of refractory cerebral cryptococcoma that was successfully treated by surgical resection of the lesions. A 33-year-old man with no medical history complained of headache, hearing disturbance, and irritability. Pulmonary CT showed a nodular lesion in the left lung. Cerebrospinal fluid examination with Indian ink indicated cryptococcal meningitis, and PCR confirmed infection with C. gattii. C. gattii is usually seen in the tropics and subtropics. Since this patient imported trees and soils from abroad to feed stag beetles, parasite or ...
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyping of isolates of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans suggested a considerable genetic divergence between the varieties C. neoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. grubii on the one hand versus C. neoformans var. gattii on the other. This divergence is supported by additional phenotypic, biochemical, clinical and molecular differences. Therefore, the authors propose the existence of two species, C. neoformans (Sanfelice) Vuillemin and C. bacillisporus Kwon-Chung, which differ in geographical distribution, serotypes and ecological origin. Within each species three AFLP genotypes occur, which differ in geographical distribution and serotypes. Differences in ecological origin (AIDS patients, non-AIDS patients, animals or the environment) were found to be statistically not significant. In C. neoformans as well as in C. bacillisporus one of the genotypes represented a hybrid. The occurrence of hybridization has consequences for the
The lysis of infected cells by disease-causing microorganisms is an efficient but risky strategy for disseminated infection, as it exposes the pathogen to the full repertoire of the hosts immune system. Cryptococcus neoformans is a widespread fungal pathogen that causes a fatal meningitis in HIV and other immunocompromised patients. Following intracellular growth, cryptococci are able to escape their host cells by a non-lytic expulsive mechanism that may contribute to the invasion of the central nervous system. Non-lytic escape is also exhibited by some bacterial pathogens and is likely to facilitate long-term avoidance of the host immune system during latency. Here we show that phagosomes containing intracellular cryptococci undergo repeated cycles of actin polymerisation. These actin flashes occur in both murine and human macrophages and are dependent on classical WASP-Arp2/3 complex mediated actin filament nucleation. Three dimensional confocal imaging time lapse revealed that such flashes ...
Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Basidiomycota; Agaricomycotina; Tremellomycetes; Tremellales; Cryptococcaceae; Cryptococcus; Cryptococcus neoformans species ...
Its International Overdose Awareness Day on Wednesday, and a reporter from the Comox Valley Record on Vancouver Island met with Sarah Sullivan, manager of AIDS Vancouver Island, to discuss how people can save a life with or without a naloxone kit.. Sullivan encourages everyone to get basic CPR training, and if necessary, a naloxone kit.. ...
Definition : Molecular assay reagents intended to identify Cryptococcus neoformans, a yeast-like species of imperfect fungi of the family Cryptococcaceae, by detecting specific nucleic-acid information (e.g., DNA, RNA) of the target microorganism. These fungi may cause cryptococcosis, a mycotic infection of the brain and meninges, which may also involve other organs such as the skin and lungs. The disease may progress by invading the central nervous system, lungs, liver, and spleen of immunocompromised patients.. Entry Terms : "Cryptococcus Species Detection/Identification Reagents" , "Cryptococcus neoformans Reagents, Identification" , "Cryptococcus neoformans Detection/Identification Reagents" , "Reagents, Cryptococcus neoformans" , "Reagents, Molecular Assay, Infection, Fungi/Yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans". UMDC code : 19595 ...
Abstract: This thesis examines temperature total daily maximum load (TMDL) and TMDL implementation plans in the Pacific Northwest in order to determine the common and unique strategies and challenges to TMDL implementation. Water temperatures for many rivers and streams in the Pacific Northwest region are above state water quality standards, threatening habitat quality for cold water salmonids. Th... read moree study area included seven case study watersheds, which were investigated through interviews and document reviews. The results of the case study investigations revealed that, in many cases, entities other than the State Department of Environmental Quality were responsible for TMDL implementation; the line of authority between entities implementing the TMDL is unclear, which may lead to confusion between implementers; and the water quality data collected by many groups is not coalesced into one centralized location for comprehensive analysis, which may lead to inefficiencies in TMDL ...
Canada is one of the heaviest users of opioids in the world.. One of these, fentanyl, is changing the way a lot of people look at drug use in Canada, and it has created a shift in the drug game in this country and province.. Late in November, the health crisis this drug has caused in BC reached a peak with health organizations issuing dire warnings about the risk related to its use. On Vancouver Island, seven deaths due to the drug in as many days was enough for Island Health to issue an alert. During that time, Vancouver saw 494 calls to 911 for overdoses, although not all were fatal. The record-breaking number is being attributed mostly to fentanyl.. On Thanksgiving weekend, the statistics became personal for a Port Alberni family.. That weekend, fentanyl changed everything Port Alberni resident Norine Messer thought she knew about drug use by stealing the life of her boyfriend (whose name we are not using out of respect for his family).. Norine said before her boyfriends death, she would ...
Island Health provides health care services through a network of hospitals, clinics, centres, health units, and residential care locations. We serve people on Vancouver Island and its surrounding islands as well as people living in mainland communities north of Powell River and south of Rivers Inlet.
Island Health provides health care services through a network of hospitals, clinics, centres, health units, and residential care locations. We serve people on Vancouver Island and its surrounding islands as well as people living in mainland communities north of Powell River and south of Rivers Inlet.
The body count has been edging forward so relentlessly some observers may becoming numb to the toll.. Not Island Health.. In the wake of seven overdose deaths on Vancouver Island in a week and four in less than 72 hours, the health authority has this afternoon issued an urgent message to drug consumers: Avoid using alone. With social service cheques arriving in time for a weekend wave of getting high, health officials are on high alert.. Inject, inhale, snort, smoke, or swallow: it doesnt matter how you are ingesting your drugs. If you are consuming, do it with someone willing and able to get help if something goes wrong.. "The drugs on the street are more potent and dangerous than they have ever been before," Chief Medical Officer Dr. Richard Stanwick said. According to Stanwick, its not just the hardcore addict that needs to take care.. "While vulnerable, street-entrenched individuals are still very high risk for overdoses, we are finding that recent overdose deaths involve individuals who ...
Jeff Cook spent 13 years of his childhood at the Alberni Indian Residential School on Vancouver Island. He says he doesnt share much about the time he spent there. Ive never really told my story about residential school and my experience, he said.. ...
Directed by Don McBrearty. With Adam Beach, Graham Greene, Jason Priestley, Tantoo Cardinal. Mike Maquinna returns to his home town of Gold River on Vancouver Island to attend the funeral of his father, Mowachaht/Muchalaht First Nations Chief Ambrose Maquinna. With a troubled past including alcoholism, Mike does not intend on staying to claim his rightful place as Chief, but intends on returning to his current life as a logger in Bella Coola. Meanwhile, a lone Orca whale - dubbed Luna by...
Watch raptors take a break on Vancouver Island during their annual fall migration, or listen to the rat-tat-tat of a noisy woodpecker looking for its supper at two CRD Parks programs this weekend:. . .
Judith was born in Ottawa, Ontario, on May 16, 1967. She had a typical Canadian childhood in Ottawa, where her father Maier worked for the public service and her mother Peggy was a teacher. In 1981, her life took a turn in a different direction. While she was on summer vacation on Vancouver Island, she became ill with a fever and abdominal pain. She was first diagnosed with appendicitis, but then she began to develop paralysis, beginning in her feet and hands and progressing up her legs and arms.
Cryptococcus neoformans CAP59 protein: involved in capsule formation which is essential for virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank L26508
Aritreyee Datta*, Vikas Yadav*, ............, Kaustuv Sanyal, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy and Anirban Bhunia, Mode of Action of a Designed Antimicrobial Peptide: High Efficiency in Killing of the Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, Biophysical Journal 111, 1724 - 1737 (2016 ...
Cair Paravel Boxers strongly recommends Petsecure Insurance to all our puppy owners and friends. We have been using petsecure insurance for the last nine years and have found it to be a very valuable part of our lives. As much as we protect our family members we are unable to foresee the accidents waiting to happen, the mischeviousness of puppies and kittens, how tempting the strangest objects are, or how wonderful they may be to eat. Bug bites and stings are another example of unforseen emergencies. I am so thankful that my family members have petsecure insurance. We have always had excellent service from the wonderful representatives of petsecure. For more information on petsecure insurance there is a link below. ...
Tigh-Na-Mara Resort, Parksville: See 2,292 traveller reviews, 718 candid photos, and great deals for Tigh-Na-Mara Resort, ranked #4 of 13 hotels in Parksville and rated 4 of 5 at TripAdvisor.
Private and workplace insurance plans Contact your employer to see if you have a health plan that covers medications. Private insurance plans in Ontario will usually cover medications right away, or shortly after they become available in Canada. Most plans will not reimburse the whole cost of the medication. There is a deductible which means you have to pay a part of the cost - usually 10-20% - "out of pocket." But if the costs that you have to pay yourself are quite high, then you may qualify for coverage under Ontarios Trillium Program. Ontario Drug Benefits ... ...
Oct 16, 2019. Te toto o te tangata, he kai; te oranga o te tangata, he whenua. (While food provides the blood in our veins, our health is drawn from the land).. This session will profile the work of Billie Pomare, Jordan Cranmer, and Ella Parker who have been been each exploring youth engagement watershed work from opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean. Through three rounds of questioning the panel will have the opportunity to showcase the communities and projects that they have been a part of, as well as delve into specific mechanisms enabling youth engagement & action projects to succeed, from their experiences. ...
Rain long foretold takes a long time to pass; if it arrives on short notice, it soon will pass. For the folks I go out collecting with all hikes, digs and kayak trips are rain or shine. Safety is always top of mind and prepping for the weather is paramount. Keep yourself safe whatever part of the world you choose to explore. For forecasts of marine weather in Vancouver call 604.666.3655 or visit http://www.weatheroffice.com/ ...
pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLR) and C-type lectin recptors including Dectin-1. Previously, we indicated that neither TLR2 nor TLR4 was involved in the host defence to infection with Cryptococcus neoformans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen in AIDS patients (FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 47: 148-154, 2006). In the current study, we examined the role of Dectin-1, a receptor for β-glucan, in this response. Dectin-1-deficient mice were resistant to intratracheal and intravenous infection with C. neoformans at a comparable level to wild-type mice. IFN-γ production in lung an serum was not largely different between these mice. There was not significant difference in the synthesis of IL-12p40 and TNF-α by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells upon stimulation with this fungal pathogen. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Dectin-1 did not play a major role in the host protective responses to C. neoformans infection.. This work was ...
The 32nd annual meeting of the Pacific Northwest Branch of AGU (PNAGU) was held September 6-7, 1985, at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada. The first session, chaired by R. D. Hyndman, was opened by R. H. T. Smith, president (pro tem) of the university. Following the opening exercises the initial speaker, R. L. Armstrong, provided a thorough background with his talk entitled "Sutures, Terranes, and Magmatism in the Canadian Cordillera." The remainder of the morning was filled by a variety of papers covering tectonics and seismology. ...
In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Contents Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Mollusk Diversity , The Importance of Understanding and Identifying Mollusks , Threatened Species Conservation , Ecological Balance Mollusks as Alternate Hosts for Parasites , Mollusk Ecology (Habitat) Reproduction , Dispersal , Distribution and Endemism Environmental Hazards and Mortality , Predation Defenses Collecting, Preparing, and Preserving , How to Use This Book Nomenclature of Shell Characteristics Land Snails and Slugs of the Pacific Northwest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Taxonomic List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Keys to the Families and Genera. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 ...
Pacific Northwest Eye Care is your local optometrist in Olympia serving all of your vision care needs. Call us today at 360-570-1780 for an appointment.
Pacific Northwest Eye Care is your local optometrist in Olympia serving all of your vision care needs. Call us today at 360-570-1780 for an appointment.
MELO, Natalina Takahashi de et al. Biotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans. Review of the literature. New epidemiologic informations about cryptococcosis. Our experience with the utilization of C.G.B medium in this yeast. Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo [online]. 1993, vol.35, n.5, pp.469-478. ISSN 1678-9946. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-46651993000500015.. The purpose of this work was to collect the main information from the literature about the biotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans. The more up-to date research concerning the epidemiology of cryptococcosis comprising quite a few articles, mainly after the advent of AIDS, was also reviewed. The Cryptococcus neoformans varieties neoformans and gattii are well defined biochemically nowadays chiefly through the C.G.B. medium, according to KWON-CHUNG et al. (1982)24. The isolation of C. neoformans var. gattii from flowers and leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus tereticornis, specially in Australia, through the works of ELLIS & PFEIFFER ...
SMITHE (Smith, Smyth, Smythe), WILLIAM, farmer and politician; b. 30 June 1842 in Matfen, Northumberland, England; d. 28 March 1887 in Victoria, B.C. William Smithe, of Northumbrian ancestry, was educated in local schools at Whittington. As a young man he worked in the merchant trade in Newcastle upon Tyne before coming to British Columbia in 1862. He established residence in the Cowichan district, Vancouver Island, near Somenos; there he made his home until his death, except for a short period in 1866 when he lived in San Francisco and several months in 1868 when he tried his hand at mining on Grouse Creek in the Cariboo. In 1865 Smithe was appointed road commissioner for Cowichan, his first public office.. In 1871 his growing reputation as a community leader in the burgeoning farming district around Somenos, the most promising agricultural area on Vancouver Island, won Smithe one of the two seats for Cowichan in the first assembly elected following British Columbias entry into confederation ...
VANCOUVER ISLAND - Fentanyl test strips were added to Island Healths supervised consumption and overdose prevention sites in late December, allowing on-the-spot testing of drugs before they are consumed.. Sites in Victoria, the city with the third-highest number of overdose deaths in BC this year, were the first locations on Vancouver Island to receive the strips.. Overdose prevention sites in Duncan, Nanaimo, Port Alberni, Courtenay and Campbell River were to receive strips by the end of December. The strips are free to people checking drugs while at an overdose prevention or supervised consumption site.. "It isnt a perfect method for detecting contaminants and a risk still exists regardless of the results, which is why we are making them available at supervised consumption and overdose prevention sites," said Dr. Murray Fyfe, Medical Health Officer, Island Health.. "We hope that drug checking will become part of a routine for people using drugs at these sites to do so more safely - combining ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - G protein-coupled receptor Gpr4 senses amino acids and activates the cAMP-PKA pathway in Cryptococcus neoformans. AU - Xue, Chaoyang. AU - Bahn, Yong Sun. AU - Cox, Gary M.. AU - Heitman, Joseph. PY - 2006/2/1. Y1 - 2006/2/1. N2 - The Gα protein Gpa1 governs the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway and plays a central role in virulence and differentiation in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, but the signals and receptors that trigger this pathway were unknown. We identified seven putative proteins that share identity with known G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). One protein, Gpr4, shares limited sequence identity with the Dictyostelium discoideum cAMP receptor cAR1 and the Aspergillus nidulans GPCR protein GprH and also shares structural similarity with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae receptor Gpr1. gpr4 mutants exhibited reduced capsule production and mating defects, similar to gpa1 mutants, and exogenous cAMP suppressed both gpr4 mutant phenotypes. Epistasis analysis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence of zoonotic transmission of Cryptococcus neoformans from a pet cockatoo to an immunocompromised patient. AU - Nosanchuk, Joshua D.. AU - Shoham, Shmuel. AU - Fries, Bettina C.. AU - Shapiro, Daniel S.. AU - Levitz, Stuart M.. AU - Casadevall, Arturo. PY - 2000/2/1. Y1 - 2000/2/1. N2 - Background: Although cryptococcosis has been associated with birds for almost 50 years, point sources for infection have not been identified. Objective: To document zoonotic transmission of Cryptococcus neoformans. Design: Case report. Setting: A home in Boston, Massachusetts. Patient: A 72- year-old woman who received a diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis in November 1998. The patient, who had been taking immunosuppressant drugs since undergoing renal transplantation in 1989, owned a pet cockatoo. Measurements: Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from the feces of the cockatoo. Isolates from excreta and from the patient were compared by using biochemical profiles, monoclonal antibody ...
Uncooked oysters from Canadas Pacific Coast have been confirmed as the source of a norovirus outbreak. according to the British Columbia Center for Disease Control.. Oysters making people ill have been traced to a section of Effingham Inlet on Vancouver Islands west coast. The oysters were harvested between Sept. 7 and Sept. 21.. Because of the outbreak, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) issued an expanded warning about eating oysters. The public warning originally included Evening Cover Oysters Processing of Nanaimo, B.C. It was expanded to include Albion Fisheries of Victoria, Albion Fisheries of Vancouver, Pacific Rim Shellfish of Vancouver and Sea World Fisheries of Vancouver.. BCs Center for Disease Control reports that at least three clusters of norovirus in the Vancouver area are related to eating uncooked oysters from Effingham Inlet.. Canadian officials did not say how many people have come down with symptoms of the virus, which include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and stomach ...
It is caused by one of two species; Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. These were all previously thought to be ... Cryptococcus gattii causes infections in immunocompetent people (fully functioning immune system), but C. neoformans v. grubii ... Cryptococcosis can rarely occur in the non-immunosuppressed people, particularly with Cryptococcus gattii. Cryptococcosis is a ... gattii is being increasingly recognised as a pathogen in what is presumed to be immunocompetent hosts, especially in Canada and ...
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are significant pathogens of immunocompromised people. They are the species ... Cogliati M (2013). "Global molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii: An atlas of the molecular ... O'Meara TR, Alspaugh JA (2012). "The Cryptococcus neoformans capsule: A sword and a shield". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 25 ...
IRIS has been described in immunocompetent hosts who have meningitis caused by Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans ... Lane M, McBride J and Archer J "Steroid responsive late deterioration in Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii meningitis", ... "Paradoxical inflammatory reaction during treatment of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii meningitis in an HIV-seronegative ... in whom Cryptococcus neoformans is the usual pathogen. Treatment with systemic corticosteroids during IRIS may be beneficial in ...
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii). The presence of haustorial cells on their hyphae indicate that they are (or ... Kwon-Chung KJ, Varma A (2006). "Do major species concepts support one, two or more species within Cryptococcus neoformans?". ... 1976). "A new species of Filobasidiella, the sexual state of Cryptococcus neoformans B and C serotypes". Mycologia. 68 (4): 942 ... 1975). "A new genus, Filobasidiella, the perfect state of Cryptococcus neoformans". Mycologia. 67 (6): 1197-1200. doi:10.2307/ ...
Cryptococcus gattii is endemic to tropical parts of the continent of Africa and Australia and can cause disease in non- ... Cryptococcus neoformans is the major human and animal pathogen. Cryptococcus laurentii and Cryptococcus albidus have been known ... Cryptococcus neoformans can cause a severe form of meningitis and meningo-encephalitis in patients with HIV infection and AIDS ... The majority of Cryptococcus species live in the soil and do not cause disease in humans. ...
Cryptococcus gattii, and Candida albicans. His research laid the foundation for the current knowledge body about somatic and ...
Anaplasmosis Aspergillus BK virus Bordetella pertussis Borrelia miyamotoi Clostridium difficile Cryptococcus gattii ...
C. gattii[edit]. Main article: Cryptococcus gattii. C. gattii (formerly C. neoformans var gattii) is endemic to tropical parts ... "Spread of Cryptococcus gattii in British Columbia, Canada, and Detection in the Pacific Northwest, USA". Emerg Infect Dis. 13 ( ... "Cryptococcus gattii Risk for Tourists Visiting Vancouver Island, Canada". Emerg Infect Dis. 13 (1): 178-79. doi:10.3201/ ... Vishniac H. S., Kurtzman C. P. (1992) Cryptococcus anarcticus sp. nov. and Cryptococcus albidosimilis sp. nov., ...
gattii, was defined as a distinct species, Cryptococcus gattii. The most recent classification system divides organisms into ... "Recognition of seven species in the Cryptococcus gattii/Cryptococcus neoformans species complex". Fungal genetics and biology: ... A new species name, Cryptococcus deneoformans, is used for the former C. neoformans var. neoformans. C. gattii is divided into ... A good overview of Cryptococcus neoformans biology from the Science Creative Quarterly Cryptococcus neoformans biology, general ...
... , formerly known as Cryptococcus neoformans var gattii, is an encapsulated yeast found primarily in tropical ... Cryptococcus gattii has recently been divided into five species. These are C. gattii, C. bacillisporus, C. deuterogattii, C. ... "Recognition of seven species in the Cryptococcus gattii/Cryptococcus neoformans species complex". Fungal genetics and biology: ... "Cryptococcus gattii Q&A". Globe and Mail. 2007-02-10. Kidd, S.E.; F. Hagen; R. L. Tscharke; M. Huynh; K. H. Bartlett; M. Fyfe; ...
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are significant pathogens of immunocompromised people. They are the species ... "Global molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii: An atlas of the molecular types". Scientifica ... "The Cryptococcus neoformans capsule: A sword and a shield". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 25 (3): 387-408. doi:10.1128/CMR. ...
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. The dimorphic Basidiomycota with yeast stages and the pleiomorphic rusts are ... Cryptococcus neoformans and Ustilago maydis are examples of pathogenic basidiomycota. Such pathogens must be able to overcome ... Lin, X.; Hull, C. M.; Heitman, J. (April 2005). "Sexual reproduction between partners of the same mating type in Cryptococcus ... In the human pathogenic genus Cryptococcus, four nuclei following meiosis remain in the basidium, but continually divide ...
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are significant pathogens of immunocompromised people. They are the species ... "Global molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii: An atlas of the molecular types". Scientifica ... "The Cryptococcus neoformans capsule: A sword and a shield". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 25 (3): 387-408. doi:10.1128/CMR. ...
Cryptococcus Gattii Infection (C. gattii) , 2015 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/cryptococcus-gattii- ...
Detection of Cryptococcus gattii-specific nucleic acid in clinical specimen; or *Demonstration of Cryptococcus gattii in a ... Two species of Cryptococcus cause the vast majority of human infections: C. neoformans and C. gattii. C. neoformans has a clear ... Isolation of Cryptococcus gattii from a clinical specimen; or. * ... Cryptococcus Gattii Infection (C. gattii). 2015 Case Definition ... Cryptococcus is a ubiquitous fungal pathogen that causes primarily meningitis and pneumonia. The incidence of cryptococcal ...
Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii.. Sorrell TC1.. Author information. 1. Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, ... Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii is emerging as a primary human pathogen which is distinct genetically and biochemically ... gattii. This enzyme has now been confirmed to play a role in the virulence of C. neoformans serotype A. Disease caused by C. n ... gattii. A potential determinant of tissue invasion, secreted phospholipase B, is produced in vitro and in vivo by C. n. var. ...
Cryptococcus gattiihas emerged as an important fungal pathogen. Infection manifests most often as potentially fatal ... See Cryptococcus gattii infection: Microbiology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis and Cryptococcus gattii infection: Clinical ... Cryptococcus gattii infection: Clinical features and diagnosis. *Cryptococcus gattii infection: Microbiology, epidemiology, and ... Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex: an international study of wild-type susceptibility endpoint ...
Cryptococcus is a genus of fungi, of which two species, Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, cause nearly all human ... Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii. Med Mycol 2001;39:155--68.. * Fyfe M, MacDougall L, Romney M, et al. Cryptococcus ... Source: Cryptococcus gattii Public Health Working Group.. * Defined as illness occurring on or after January 1, 2004, in a U.S ... Source: Cryptococcus gattii Public Health Working Group.. * Defined as illness occurring on or after January 1, 2004, in a U.S ...
Cryptococcus gattii, formerly known as Cryptococcus neoformans var gattii, is an encapsulated yeast found primarily in tropical ... Cryptococcus gattii has recently been divided into five species. These are C. gattii, C. bacillisporus, C. deuterogattii, C. ... "Recognition of seven species in the Cryptococcus gattii/Cryptococcus neoformans species complex". Fungal genetics and biology: ... "Cryptococcus gattii Q&A". Globe and Mail. 2007-02-10. Kidd, S.E.; F. Hagen; R. L. Tscharke; M. Huynh; K. H. Bartlett; M. Fyfe; ...
Cryptococcus gattii EJB2, whole genome shotgun sequencing project Cryptococcus gattii EJB2, whole genome shotgun sequencing ... Cryptococcus gattii EJB2, whole genome shotgun sequencing project. GenBank: ATAL00000000.1. * This entry is the master record ...
Cryptococcus gattii ATCC ® MYA-4561™ Designation: WM178 [CBS 10082] Application: Biomedical Research and Development Material ... Consensus multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Med. Mycol. 47(6):561-570, ... Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of ... Cryptococcus gattii (Vanbreuseghem et Takashio) Kwon-Chung et Boekhout (ATCC® MYA-4561™) Alternate State: Filobasidiella ...
Cryptococcus gattii ATCC ® MYA-4071™ Designation: WM 276 Application: Multigene phylogeny and phenotypic characterization. ... Consensus multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Med. Mycol. 47(6):561-570, ... Gene disruption in Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii by in vitro transposition. Curr Genet 49: 341-350, 2006. ... Cryptococcus gattii (Vanbreuseghem et Takashio) Kwon-Chung et Boekhout (ATCC® MYA-4071™) Alternate State: Filobasidiella ...
Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis - Cryptococcus gattii [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ...
However, during the past decade, C. gattii infections in humans and animals in Europe have increased. To determine whether the ... Cryptococcus gattii infections occurred mainly in tropical and subtropical climate zones. ... Autochthonous and Dormant Cryptococcus gattii Infections in Europe Alternate Title:Cryptococcus gattii in Europe ... Consensus multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii.Med Mycol. Year: 2009;47:561- ...
... Kausik Datta,1 Karen H. ... The relatively uncommon fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii recently emerged as a significant cause of cryptococcal disease in ... C. gattii may have exploited such a hitherto unrecognized but clement environment in the Pacific Northwest to provide a wider ... C. gattii can survive wide climatic variations and colonize the environment in tropical, subtropical, temperate, and dry ...
Natural habitat of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ... Natural habitat of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii.. D H Ellis, T J Pfeiffer ... Environmental isolations have established that Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii appears to have a specific ecological ... gattii. No other environmental source for the fungus has yet been detected, and no other eucalypt has the distribution pattern ...
In this study, we examine the expansion on an outbreak of a fungus, Cryptococcus gattii, in the Pacific Northwest of the United ... Cryptococcus gattii Is the Subject Area "Cryptococcus gattii" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Cryptococcus neoformans Is the Subject Area "Cryptococcus neoformans" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Maternal-fetal transmission of Cryptococcus gattii in harbor porpoise.(LETTERS, Letter to the editor, Report) by Emerging ... gattii in Australia. J Clin Microbiol. 1987;25:430-1. (2.) MacDougall L, Fyfe M. Emergence of Cryptococcus gattii in a novel ... To the Editor: We report maternal-fetal transmission of Cryptococcus gattii and death in a wild porpoise. Cryptococcus ... gattii+in+harbor+porpoise.-a0251376957. *APA style: Maternal-fetal transmission of Cryptococcus gattii in harbor porpoise.. (n. ...
the Cryptococcus gattii Working Group of the Pacific Northwest. . 2009. Spread of Cryptococcus gattii into Pacific Northwest ... Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii genes preferentially expressed during rat macrophage infection. Med. Mycol. 48: ... Consensus multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Med. Mycol. 47:561-570. ... Genetic diversity of the Cryptococcus species complex suggests that Cryptococcus gattii deserves to have varieties. PLoS One 4: ...
2015 Recognition of seven species in the Cryptococcus gattii/Cryptococcus neoformans species complex. Fungal Genet. Biol. FG B ... and the basidiomycetous fungus Cryptococcus gattii (C. gattii) has expanded its range into non-endemic environments with a ... 2011 Cryptococcus gattii: an emerging fungal pathogen infecting humans and animals. Microbes Infect. Inst. Pasteur 13, 895-907 ... 2005 Same-sex mating and the origin of the Vancouver Island Cryptococcus gattii outbreak. Nature 437, 1360-1364. (doi:10.1038/ ...
... has the largest reported population of Cryptococcus gattii-infected persons worldwide. To assess the impact of illness, we ... Distribution of Cryptococcus gattii strains among 124 persons with C. gattii infection, by age category, British Columbia, ... Distribution of Cryptococcus gattii strains among 124 persons with C. gattii infection, by age category, British Columbia, ... Datta K, Bartlett K, Baer R, Byrnes E, Galanis E, Heitman J, Spread of Cryptococcus gattii into Pacific Northwest region of the ...
The C. gattii R265 VGIIa strain, which was isolated from the Vancouver outbreak, differed from C. gattii CG01, CG02 and CG03 ... The C. gattii R265 VGIIa strain, which was isolated from the Vancouver outbreak, differed from C. gattii CG01, CG02 and CG03 ... C. gattii VGII isolates have a strong clinical relevance and phenotypic variations. These phenotypic variations among C. gattii ... C. gattii VGII isolates have a strong clinical relevance and phenotypic variations. These phenotypic variations among C. gattii ...
Here we report the isolation of C. gattii VGI and VGIII from environmental soil and tree samples. C. gattii isolates were ... gattii is responsible for ongoing and expanding outbreaks in the Western United States and Canada. C. gattii comprises four ... The Pacific Northwest and Canadian outbreak is primarily caused by C. gattii VGII. VGIII is responsible for ongoing infections ... However, only two environmental C. gattii isolates have ever been identified from the Californian environment: CBS7750 (VGII) ...
Unique hybrids between the fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. FEMS Yeast Res 6:599-607. doi: ... Recognition of seven species in the Cryptococcus gattii/Cryptococcus neoformans species complex. Fungal Genet Biol 78:16-48. ... Genetic diversity of the Cryptococcus species complex suggests that Cryptococcus gattii deserves to have varieties. PLoS One 4: ... Identification of novel hybrids between Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii VNI and Cryptococcus gattii VGII. Mycopathologia ...
grubii and Cryptococcus gattii. Although prior studies have identified certain aspects of metal regulation in Cryptococcus ... grubii and Cryptococcus gattii. Although prior studies have identified certain aspects of metal regulation in Cryptococcus ... The broad analyses of the genomes of P. brasiliensis, Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Cryptococcus gattii for genes ... grubii, and Cryptococcus gattii. Although prior studies have identified certain aspects of metal regulation in Cryptococcus ...
Growth and Pigment Production on d-Tryptophan Medium by Cryptococcus gattii, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Candida albicans. ... Growth and Pigment Production on d-Tryptophan Medium by Cryptococcus gattii, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Candida albicans ... Growth and Pigment Production on d-Tryptophan Medium by Cryptococcus gattii, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Candida albicans ... Growth and Pigment Production on d-Tryptophan Medium by Cryptococcus gattii, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Candida albicans ...
  • Multilocus sequence typing subcategorizes C. gattii into four genotypes: VGI, VGII, VGIII, and VGIV. (cdc.gov)
  • Although VGII is the genotype most commonly associated with the outbreak in the United States and British Columbia, it is uncommon in other C. gattii --endemic parts of the world, where VGI is isolated most frequently ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • C. gattii molecular type VGII predominates in the north and northeastern regions of Brazil, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cryptococcus gattii - sorotipo B, tipo molecular VGII, linhagem R265, com capacidade de infectar pacientes imunocompetentes, causou uma epidemia na Ilha de Vancouver (Canadá) entre 1999 e 2003. (ufrgs.br)
  • We developed and validated a mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) real-time PCR panel for genotyping C. gattii molecular types VGI-VGIV and VGII subtypes a,b,c. (elsevier.com)
  • The Australian VGII population has been in the spotlight since 2005, when it was suggested as the possible origin for the ongoing outbreak at Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada), with same-sex mating being suggested as the driving force behind the emergence of this outbreak, and is nowadays hypothesized as a widespread phenomenon in C. gattii. (edu.au)
  • Human and animal cryptococcosis due to an unusual molecular type of Cryptococcus gattii (VGII) emerged recently on Vancouver Island, Canada. (duke.edu)
  • The latter species mainly infects immunocompromised persons, and C. gattii mainly infects apparently immunocompetent persons. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The last parasite from "Whale Week" is Cryptococcus gattii , which both infects whales and dolphins, but also has been all over the news lately because it has been spreading across the Pacific Northwest and killing people as well. (blogspot.com)
  • Christopher Uejio] C. gattii usually infects the lungs or the central nervous system (the brain and the spinal cord), causing diseases like pneumonia and meningitis, but it can also affect other parts of the body. (cdc.gov)
  • Interestingly, one of the 3 papers that we have in this month's journal describes the isolation of Cryptococcus gattii from the wheel wells of the vehicles that they use to travel round the Island, and they also found it in wheel wells of vehicles on the mainland. (cdc.gov)
  • At present, there are no guidelines with interpretative clinical minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints to recognize antifungal susceptibility or resistance in C. gattii . (uptodate.com)
  • We report a case of Cryptococcus gattii (molecular type VGIII) that developed reduced susceptibility to fluconazole during therapy and delineate the molecular mechanisms responsible. (ovid.com)
  • Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Candida and Cryptococcus Species and Mechanisms of Resistance: Implications for Clinical Laboratories. (edu.au)
  • Using synteny to inform orthology prediction, we identified a core set of 87% of C. gattii genes present as single copies in all four lineages. (asm.org)
  • grubii , and C. gattii for genes involved in metal homeostasis provide important groundwork for numerous interesting future areas of investigation that are required in order to validate and explore the function of the identified genes and gene pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • ii) Using each basidium as an unordered tetrad, the ADE2 and URA5 genes are linked to their centromeres, consistent with adjacent genomic regions rich in repetitive elements predicted to comprise Cryptococcus centromeres. (genetics.org)
  • This study investigated the population structure of three geographically distinct clinical and veterinary populations of C. gattii from Australia and Papua New Guinea. (edu.au)
  • Working Group to study how weather systematically influenced C. gattii populations. (cdc.gov)
  • In the soil, warmer temperatures decreased C. gattii populations. (cdc.gov)
  • gattii in Australian aborigines living in the Northern Territory and for its low worldwide incidence in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. (asm.org)
  • Cryptococcus gattii showed the highest prevalence (89%) in S. cumini trees in Delhi, followed by 27%, 12.5% and 9% prevalence in Bulandshahr, Amritsar City and Meerut Cantt. (oup.com)
  • The data on high prevalence, fungal population density, perennial colonization and aerial isolations indicate that decayed wood in trunk hollows of S. cumini trees is to-date the main well documented primary environmental niche of C. gattii and C. neoformans in north-western India. (oup.com)