A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella bacillispora.
A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
The geographic area of the northwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming.
A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)
Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.
Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)
Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
A pH sensitive dye that has been used as an indicator in many laboratory reactions.
The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.
Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi in the family Trichocomaceae, order EUROTIALES. Some species can cause opportunistic infections in humans, similar to its anamorph ASPERGILLUS.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.

Consensus multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. (1/90)

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First isolation of Cryptococcus gattii molecular type VGII and Cryptococcus neoformans molecular type VNI from environmental sources in the city of Belem, Para, Brazil. (2/90)

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Identification of Cryptococcus gattii by use of L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue medium and DNA sequencing. (3/90)

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Correlation of genotype and in vitro susceptibilities of Cryptococcus gattii strains from the Pacific Northwest of the United States. (4/90)

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Projecting global occurrence of Cryptococcus gattii. (5/90)

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Epidemiology of Cryptococcus gattii, British Columbia, Canada, 1999-2007. (6/90)

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Extracellular DNase activity of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. (7/90)

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Heteroresistance of Cryptococcus gattii to fluconazole. (8/90)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Extracellular fibrils of pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus gattii are important for ecological niche, murine virulence and human neutrophil interactions. AU - Springer, Deborah J.. AU - Ren, Ping. AU - Raina, Ramesh. AU - Dong, Yimin. AU - Behr, Melissa J.. AU - McEwen, Bruce F.. AU - Bowser, Samuel S.. AU - Samsonoff, William A.. AU - Chaturvedi, Sudha. AU - Chaturvedi, Vishnu. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Cryptococcus gattii, an emerging fungal pathogen of humans and animals, is found on a variety of trees in tropical and temperate regions. The ecological niche and virulence of this yeast remain poorly defined. We used Arabidopsis thaliana plants and plant-derived substrates to model C. gattii in its natural habitat. Yeast cells readily colonized scratch-wounded plant leaves and formed distinctive extracellular fibrils (40-100 nm diameter ×500-3000 nm length). Extracellular fibrils were observed on live plants and plant-derived substrates by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by ...
Clonal VGII subtypes (outbreak strains) of Cryptococcus gattii have caused an outbreak in the US Pacific Northwest since 2004. Outbreak-associated infections occur equally in male and female patients (median age 56 years) and usually cause pulmonary disease in persons with underlying medical conditions. Since 2009, a total of 25 C. gattii infections, 23 (92%) caused by non-outbreak strain C. gattii, have been reported from 8 non-Pacific Northwest states. Sixteen (64%) patients were previously healthy, and 21 (84%) were male; median age was 43 years (range 15-83 years). Ten patients who provided information reported no past-year travel to areas where C. gattii is known to be endemic. Nineteen (76%) patients had central nervous system infections; 6 (24%) died. C. gattii infection in persons without exposure to known disease-endemic areas suggests possible endemicity in the United States outside the outbreak-affected region; these infections appear to differ in clinical and demographic characteristics from
Until recently, Cryptococcus gattii infections occurred mainly in tropical and subtropical climate zones. However, during the past decade, C. gattii infections in humans and animals in Europe have increased. To determine whether the infections in Eur
INTRODUÇÃO. A criptococose é uma importante infecção oportunista, principalmente devido ao aumento do número de indivíduos imunocomprometidos, em especial aqueles infectados com HIV1,2. As espécies implicadas em grande parte dos casos são Cryptococcus neoformans e Cryptococcus gattii, causadoras de variadas formas clínicas da doença3,4,5. Neste contexto, indivíduos imunocompetentes podem adquirir a doença como micose primária, principalmente devido a C. gattii, em regiões tropicais e subtropicais6, bem como sob a forma de surtos7. Cryptococcus spp. são leveduras basidiomicetos, capsuladas, sapróbias do ambiente, sendo isoladas principalmente de excretas de aves e ocos de árvores, como por exemplo, eucalipto8 e Senna sp.9. C. neoformans é constituído pelos sorotipos A (tipos moleculares VNI, VNII), D (tipo molecular VNIV) e o híbrido AD (tipo molecular VNIII); C. gattii inclui o sorotipo B (tipos moleculares VGI, VGII, VGIII, VGIV) e o sorotipo C10,11,12.. Em Belém, Estado ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conservation of intracellular pathogenic strategy among distantly related cryptococcal species. AU - Freij, Joudeh B.. AU - Fu, Man Shun. AU - De Leon Rodriguez, Carlos M.. AU - Dziedzic, Amanda. AU - Jedlicka, Anne E.. AU - Dragotakes, Quigly. AU - Rossi, Diego C.P.. AU - Jung, Eric H.. AU - Coelho, Carolina. AU - Casadevall, Arturo. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.. PY - 2018/7/1. Y1 - 2018/7/1. N2 - The genus Cryptococcus includes several species pathogenic for humans. Until recently, the two major pathogenic species were recognized to be Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. We compared the interaction of murine macrophages with three C. gattii species complex strains (WM179, R265, and WM161, representing molecular types VGI, VGIIa, and VGIII, respectively) and one C. neoformans species complex strain (H99, molecular type VNI) to ascertain similarities and differences in the yeast intracellular pathogenic strategy. The parameters ...
Time-Course Proteome Analysis Reveals the Dynamic Response of Cryptococcus gattii Cells to Fluconazole. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Studies indicate that the accuracy of correct identification of the C. gattii strains using d-proline assimilation tests (2, 3, 13, 31) or d-tryptophan assimilation tests (2, 3, 35) was favorable with the CGB (25) method. The assimilation assays are based on the fact that only the C. gattii strains utilized these d-amino acids as the sole nitrogen source. In some studies the accuracy of these tests approaches 99% but the assay was relatively slow because the formulation used low glucose concentrations (1 to 2%). The current study suggests that it is feasible to combine d-tryptophan and d-proline into a single medium to separate C. gattii from C. neoformans. The use of m-DTDP or YCB-DTDP increased the carbohydrate source from 2 to 4%, such that most C. gattii strains achieved growth in 1 to 3 days. The current limitation for growth is the nitrogen source. We suggest using YCB-DTDP agar or m-DTDP agar, since the accuracy is similar to those of previously published methods and test results are ...
Over the past decade, increased sampling worldwide and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) methods have uncovered greater genetic diversity of important pathogens, including the C. neoformans and C. gattii species complexes. For example, sampling from Botswana revealed the existence of the C. neoformans VNB lineage (30), which itself has recently been shown to be deeply split into two genetically isolated lineages, VNBI and VNBII (31). Thus far, VGVI is the only lineage that exists as a single genotype since the three isolates previously designated C. decagattii appear to have been isolated from the same patient (21). The previously identified lineages of Cryptococcus have recently been designated separate taxonomic species based on phylogenetic species recognition criteria (17). While we agree that Cryptococcus contains a number of genetically diverse and monophylectic clades that can be viewed as species under an evolutionary species concept (32), we have previously argued that it is premature to ...
Cryptococcus gattiihas emerged as an important fungal pathogen. Infection manifests most often as potentially fatal meningoencephalitis and/or pulmonary disease. The emergence of clusters of cryptococcosis due toC. gattiiin British Columbia, Canada,
Cryptococcus gattii ATCC ® MYA-4561™ Designation: WM178 [CBS 10082] Application: Biomedical Research and Development Material
Cryptococcus gattii ATCC ® MYA-4562™ Designation: WM161 [CBS 10081] Application: Biomedical Research and Development Material
A large number of molecular typing techniques have been applied over the years to discriminate between individual isolates that had been indistinguishable using conventional techniques and to obtain further insights into the epidemiology and population structure of this species complex. This chapter aims to summarize the diverse typing techniques applied to the Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex, to correlate the obtained results, and to describe the global distribution of the major genotypes. The enzymes malate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, phosphoglyceromutase, and glutamate dehydrogenase could separate C. gattii from C. neoformans. Electrophoretic karyotyping was for the first time applied to the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex to study the genetic diversity between seven cryptococcal strains representing all four serotypes. PCR fingerprinting using the primer (GACA)4 was applied to 110 cryptococcal isolates obtained mainly from Germany and Africa as well as additional
Lineage: cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Fungi; Dikarya; Basidiomycota; Agaricomycotina; Tremellomycetes; Tremellales; Cryptococcaceae; Cryptococcus; Cryptococcus gattii species complex; Cryptococcus gattii ...
Inhalation of the airborne C.gattii fungus from the environment. The fungus can be found in the environment, in the soil and trees in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world (Australia, Papua New Guinea, Africa, Asia, Europe, Mexico and South America). In the united states, C. gattii has been found in Washington, Oregon, California and Hawaii.. There is no human to human or human and animal spread of infection. Infection is only via inhalation of the yeast cells or spores.. ...
The emergence of ,, previously regarded as a predominantly tropical pathogen, in the temperate climate of the North American Pacific Northwest (PNW) in 1999 prompted several questions. The most prevalent among these was the timing of the introduction of this pathogen to this novel environment. Here, we infer tip-dated timing estimates for the three clonal , populations observed in the PNW, VGIIa, VGIIb, and VGIIc, based on whole-genome sequencing of 134 , isolates and using Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees (BEAST). We estimated the nucleotide substitution rate for each lineage (1.59 × 10,, 1.59 × 10,, and 2.70 × 10,, respectively) to be an order of magnitude higher than common neutral fungal mutation rates (2.0 × 10,), indicating a microevolutionary rate (e.g., successive clonal generations in a laboratory) in comparison to a species slower, macroevolutionary rate (e.g., when using fossil records). The clonal nature of the PNW , emergence over a narrow number of years would ...
The aetiological agents of infectious disease impose a huge burden on human society. By understanding their biology, reproduction and mechanisms of infection, we are able to assess and discover new strategies for mitigating their impact. In recent years, fungi have gained widespread attention for their ability to rapidly emerge and threaten both animal and plant species across a global scale [1]. However, many features of their genomes that enable them to successfully adapt to infect diverse hosts and inhabit a wide range of ecological niches remain cryptic [6], especially for newly evolved emerging lineages. The underlying mechanism driving outbreaks caused by C. gattii has been puzzling researchers for over a decade. Compounding this is the fact that its virulence is likely a consequence of adaptations that have evolved for protection against environmental predators such as amoebae [33] (unless it is surviving and escaping out of dead animals).. Here, we have combined whole genome sequencing ...
Illustration ©CDC; Source: CDC Page on C. gattii sources. Click to embiggen. CG is an inhabitant of specific tropical and subtropical regions of the world (including Australia, South America, northern and central Africa, east and southeast Asia) and wreaks significant havoc in these parts. In the US, a high prevalence of CG has been noted since late 1970s in Southern California and Hawaii; retrospective analyses have found sporadic occurrences in North Carolina, Rhode Island, New Mexico, Michigan, Georgia, and Montana. However, disease incidences were not high enough to merit concern, until now. The current North American spread is severe enough to have gained outbreak status from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).. CG and CN have similar, but slightly different, biochemical properties and effects on mammalian (human and animal) hosts. Current thinking is that CN primarily causes disease in people with reduced or suppressed immunity (for instance, cancer or organ ...
Since its first clinical appearance in an 1890s case report, Cryptococcus has dramatically advanced as a human fungal pathogen: it now infects approximately 1 million individuals per year, resulting in more than 600,000 annual mortalities, including one-third of all AIDS-associated deaths.. Featuring more than 100 expert authors from around the world, this book offers the full range of scientific and clinical perspectives needed to create this unique, comprehensive overview of Cryptococcus. It covers both the Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species, examining in detail the life cycle, pathophysiology, molecular biology, genetics, genomics, epidemiology, immunology, and clinical management of this encapsulated yeast. Among the 44 chapters, readers will find several in-depth discussions of the C. gattii outbreak that began on Vancouver Island in 1999 and then spread into the mainland of Canada and the United States, causing infections in both humans and animals.. This books ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
BACKGROUND. Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) causes an estimated 180,000 deaths annually, predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa, where most patients receive fluconazole (FLC) monotherapy. While relapse after FLC monotherapy with resistant strains is frequently observed, the mechanisms and impact of emergence of FLC resistance in human CM are poorly understood. Heteroresistance (HetR) - a resistant subpopulation within a susceptible strain - is a recently described phenomenon in Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) and Cryptococcus gattii (Cg), the significance of which has not previously been studied in humans. METHODS. A cohort of 20 patients with HIV-associated CM in Tanzania was prospectively observed during therapy with either FLC monotherapy or in combination with flucytosine (5FC). Total and resistant subpopulations of Cryptococcus spp. were quantified directly from patient cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Stored isolates underwent whole genome sequencing and phenotypic characterization. RESULTS. ...
Rodrigues, Jéssica; Godinho, Rodrigo M. da C.; Fonseca, Fernanda L.; Schneider, Rafael O.; Schrank, Augusto; Staats, Charley; Kmetzsch, Livia; Vainstein, Marilene H.; Firacative, Carolina; Maszewska, Krystyna; Meyer, Wieland; Rodrigues, Marcio L. // Scientific Reports; 7/10/2015, p11717 Cryptococcus gattii is one of the causative agents of human cryptococcosis. Highly virulent strains of serotype B C. gattii have been studied in detail, but little information is available on the pathogenic properties of serotype C isolates. In this study, we analyzed pathogenic determinants in... ...
EMSL Analytical provides PCR testing solutions for Cryptococcus gattii to help identify its presence to protect people and animals from the virulent pathogen., , , , Cinnaminson, NJ, , , , Last week the Cente...
Though great advances in public health are witnessed world over in recent years, infectious diseases, besides insect vector-borne infectious diseases remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Control of the epidemics caused by the non-vector borne diseases such as tuberculosis, avian influenza (H5N1), and cryptococcus gattii, have left a very little hope in the past. The advancement of research in science and technology has paved way for the development of new tools and methodologies to fight against these diseases. In particular, intelligent technology and machine-learning based methodologies have rendered useful in developing more accurate predictive tools for the early diagnosis of these diseases. In all these endeavors the main focus is the understanding that the process of transmission of an infectious disease is nonlinear (not necessarily linear) and dynamical in character. This concept compels the appropriate quantification of the vital parameters that govern these dynamics. This book is
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has updated the 2018 edition of the Red Book to include fluconazole dosing information determined by a Pediatric Trials Network (PTN) study. The Red Book is the leading resource on pediatric infectious disease, providing the most up-to-date information on a wide variety of diseases that doctors see in children.. The updates include dosing information for the treatment of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii infections, as well as Cryptococcal meningitis in children. The updates, which can be viewed on Red Book Online, will enable doctors to provide a safer, more accurate dose of the antifungal drug fluconazole to treat these diseases in children.. The changes were based on a study conducted from 2008 to 2011 in collaboration with PTN that analyzed safety data on the use of fluconazole to treat infections caused by the Candida yeast. While Candida and Cryptococcus yeasts are not the same, they are treated similarly enough to allow dosing ...
thonous, indicating endemicity of the C. gattii VGIIb-like variant in Nova Scotia and highlighting the value of nonmigratory animals as sentinels for emerging diseases (7). Incidence for this disease is highest in the Pacific Northwest, where the primary agents are C. gattii VGII genotypes (2,4). A pertinent literature review and consultation with regional public and veterinary health authorities determined that Québec was the most eastern province in Canada where crytococcosis associated with C. gattii VGII has caused clinical disease that was not potentially travel related in humans (Phillippe Dufresne, pers. comm.). In eastern North America, the C. gattii VGIIb genotype is reported to have caused disseminated cryptococcosis in a human in Florida, USA (8,9). Because C. gattii is potentially pervasive in the environment, the Nova Scotia Department of Health has alerted provincial infectious disease specialists and the provincial public health laboratory to ensure availability of the diagnostic
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Environmental isolations have established that Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii appears to have a specific ecological association with Eucalyptus camaldulensis. So far, we have isolated C. neoformans var. gattii on 35 separate occasions, all from samples associated with E. camaldulensis. The global distribution of E. camaldulensis appears to correspond to the epidemiologic distribution of cryptococcosis caused by C. neoformans var. gattii. No other environmental source for the fungus has yet been detected, and no other eucalypt has the distribution pattern corresponding to reported cases caused by this fungus. These findings may provided an explanation for the high incidence of infections caused by C. neoformans var. gattii in Australian aborigines living in the Northern Territory and for its low worldwide incidence in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - First identification of autochthonous Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii isolated from goats with predominantly severe pulmonary disease in Spain. AU - Baró, Teresa. AU - Torres-Rodríguez, Josep M.. AU - De Mendoza, Miguel Hermoso. AU - Morera, Yolanda. AU - Alía, Concepción. PY - 1998/2/1. Y1 - 1998/2/1. N2 - Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii is associated with Eucalyptus trees growing in various tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The identification of 13 autochthonous strains of C. neoformans var. gattii in Spain is reported. These strains were isolated from lung (10 samples), liver (1 sample), and brain (2 samples) tissue specimens from six goats suffering from predominantly severe pulmonary disease that were autopsied. The animals were members of five different herds of goats grazing in rural areas of the province of Caceres (Extremadura, Spain). Between 1990 and 1994, there were five outbreaks, in which between 2.5 and 12% of the goats were affected. ...
Crude extracts and fractions of five species of Polygala - P. campestris, P. cyparissias, P. paniculata, P. pulchella and P. sabulosa - were investigated for their in vitro antifungal activity against opportunistic Candida species, Cryptococcus gattii and Sporothrix schenckii with bioautographic and microdilution assays. In the bioautographic assays, the major extracts were active against the fungi tested. In the minimal concentration inhibitory (MIC) assay, the hexane extract of P. paniculata and EtOAc fraction of P. sabulosa showed the best antifungal activity, with MIC values of 60 and 30 g/mL, respectively, against C. tropicalis, C. gattii and S. schenckii. The compounds isolated from P. sabulosa prenyloxycoumarin and 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexanehexol displayed antifungal activity against S. schenckii (with MICs of 125 g/mL and 250 g/mL, respectively) and C. gattii (both with MICs of 250 g/mL). Rutin and aurapten isolated from P. paniculata showed antifungal activity against C. gattii with MIC values ...
Cryptococcosis, also known as cryptococcal disease, is a potentially fatal fungal disease. It is caused by one of two species; Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. These were all previously thought to be subspecies of C. neoformans but have now been identified as distinct species. Cryptococcosis is believed to be acquired by inhalation of the infectious propagule from the environment. Although the exact nature of the infectious propagule is unknown, the leading hypothesis is the basidiospore created through sexual or asexual reproduction. Cryptococcosis is a defining opportunistic infection for AIDS, and is the second-most-common AIDS-defining illness in Africa. Other conditions that pose an increased risk include certain lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkins lymphoma), sarcoidosis, liver cirrhosis, and patients on long-term corticosteroid therapy. Distribution is worldwide in soil. The prevalence of cryptococcosis has been increasing over the past 20 years for many reasons, including the ...
Variable selection with supervised classification is currently an important tool for discriminating biological samples. In this paper, 15 supervised classification algorithms based on a support vector machine (SVM) were applied to discriminate Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii fungal species us
Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by fungi that belong to the genus Cryptococcus.The two species are Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii.
Cryptococcal infection is acquired from the environment. C. neoformans and C. gattii inhabit different ecologic niches. C. neoformans is frequently found in soils contaminated with avian excreta and can easily be recovered from shaded and humid soils contaminated with pigeon droppings. In contrast, C. gattii is not found in bird feces. Instead, it inhabits a variety of arboreal species, including several types of eucalyptus tree. C. neoformans strains are found throughout the world; however, var. grubii (serotype A) strains are far more common than var. neoformans (serotype D) strains among both clinical and environmental isolates. The geographic distribution of C. gattii was thought to be largely limited to tropical regions until an outbreak of cryptococcosis caused by a new serotype B strain began in Vancouver in 1999. This outbreak has extended into the United States, and C. gattii infections are being encountered increasingly in several states in the Pacific Northwest. ...
The difference between these strains could make a difference in treatment, clinical course, and outcome, said Joseph Heitman, MD, PhD, senior author of the study and chair of the Duke Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology.. The study was published September 1 in PLoS Pathogens.. The study emphasizes that health professionals need to record the cryptococcal species more carefully to understand different clinical courses and possibly to change treatment strategies.. Researchers at Duke University Medical Center discovered that in the Los Angeles area, more than 12 percent of AIDS patients diagnosed with Crypotococcus were infected with C. gattii, much higher than earlier studies, which suggested that only about 1 percent have C. gattii. The researchers based these figures on molecular testing of fungal DNA barcodes.. This discovery comes at the same time as a C. gattii outbreak is expanding in the Pacific Northwest, spreading southward from Vancouver, British Columbia, through ...
For over 40 years the Vancouver Island Kidney Patients Association has provided services and equipment used by renal patients to help cope with the challenges of kidney disease and which would not be provided by hospitals and treatment centres. We are comprised entirely of volunteers from within the renal community on Vancouver Island. Members include kidney patients, spouses, family, friends, caregivers and others interested in helping people facing the challenges of kidney disease. Each day an average of 15 Canadians learn that their kidneys have failed, often due to diabetes or hypertension. Right now there are 206 people in Victoria who need a life-saving kidney transplant. We are fundraising to purchase two dialysis chairs each chair cost approx $7,000.00 + Please accept our heartfelt thanks and appreciation. With your generous help it will allow our association to continue providing for over 2400 kidney patients within the renal community on Vancouver Island. On behalf of all renal ...
martines bistro is a restaurant located on Vancouver island in the scenic township of comox that offers superb dining sunset and mountain views great food and local seafood with a patio to sit back relax and enjoy a glass of wine or martini - ...
The renal unit is the main dialysis centre for all hemodialysis patients on Vancouver Island. Those that are well enough may attend one of the self-care community dialysis facilities in Victoria (Hillside), Duncan, Nanaimo, or Port Alberni, Cumberland. However, all these patients start in this main dialysis unit and must return here when they become too ill to be treated elsewhere ...
Members of the Dhak-Duhre group are still active in the drug trade despite the murders of the gang’s namesakes, Sgt. Lindsey Houghton said Thursday.
Members of the Dhak-Duhre group are still active in the drug trade despite the murders of the gang’s namesakes, Sgt. Lindsey Houghton said Thursday.
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SHAWNIGAN LAKE, B.C. - A Vancouver Island private school says a teacher accused of a series of sexual offences against young people is no longer employed at its facility.Andrew Olson is accused of fou...
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High-throughput sequencing (HTS) enables the generation of large amounts of genome sequence data at a reasonable cost. Organisms in mixed microbial communities can now be sequenced and identified in a culture-independent way, usually using amplicon sequencing of a DNA barcode. Bulk RNA-seq (metatranscriptomics) has several advantages over DNA-based amplicon sequencing: it is less susceptible to amplification biases, it captures only living organisms, and it enables a larger set of genes to be used for taxonomic identification. Using a model mock community comprising 17 fungal isolates, we evaluated whether metatranscriptomics can accurately identify fungal species and subspecies in mixed communities. Overall, 72.9% of the RNA transcripts were classified, from which the vast majority (99.5%) were correctly identified at the species level. Of the 15 species sequenced, 13 were retrieved and identified correctly. We also detected strain-level variation within the Cryptococcus species complexes: 99.3% of
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james @467. I interpret your post that you are quite firmly committed to your position and will not be re-evaluating it? Thats a pity.. I hope that you will take the time to watch How Big Oil Conquered the World and Why Big Oil Conquered The World. --oOo--. I am familiar with Vancouver Island, where you implied you live. Both sides of my family (Eire) were small farmers that worked the land (very basic, no plumbing, you got your drinking water from a well which was really a pond where water seeped onto the surface, you used a bucket to clear the insect larva from the water surface before you dipped your bucket, it was quite a walk from farmhouse to well, the horror of the whole family spending an afternoon castrating a pig Ill save for another time). Forgive me but living in Vancouver Island is not living close to the land.. Also, you should be aware that Vancouver Island is intimately connected to crime; it is has a deserved reputation as the drug gateway for the whole of Canada and it is the ...
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Looking for Cryptococcus? Find out information about Cryptococcus. A genus of encapsulated pathogenic yeasts in the order Moniliales Explanation of Cryptococcus
Individually Numbered, Limited Edition of 15,000. Includes an immediate digital download of Eyes Of The World (P.N.E. Coliseum, Vancouver, Canada 5/17/74). We were in the Pacific Northwest...between somewhere in Washington and some other where in Oregon. The road took us to the lip on a ridge, from where we could see around us for many miles in all directions … It was breathtaking to behold, but as we watched, we had a firm realization that we were witnessing something even more beautiful than our eyes could ever take in … Life causes life. Heaven and Earth dance in this way endlessly, and their child is the forest. And so there we were, epiphanously watching that grandest and most glorious dance of life-of which we are just a tiny part-awed by a magnificence without beginning, without end... Bob Weir, Sell Headwaters-Everyone Wins, San Francisco Chronicle. The Pacific Northwest offers up a rich feast of land, sky, and water. It is ripe with influences, abundant with symbols, deep and ...
Individually Numbered, Limited Edition of 15,000. Includes an immediate digital download of Eyes Of The World (P.N.E. Coliseum, Vancouver, Canada 5/17/74). We were in the Pacific Northwest...between somewhere in Washington and some other where in Oregon. The road took us to the lip on a ridge, from where we could see around us for many miles in all directions … It was breathtaking to behold, but as we watched, we had a firm realization that we were witnessing something even more beautiful than our eyes could ever take in … Life causes life. Heaven and Earth dance in this way endlessly, and their child is the forest. And so there we were, epiphanously watching that grandest and most glorious dance of life-of which we are just a tiny part-awed by a magnificence without beginning, without end... Bob Weir, Sell Headwaters-Everyone Wins, San Francisco Chronicle. The Pacific Northwest offers up a rich feast of land, sky, and water. It is ripe with influences, abundant with symbols, deep and ...
This group is here to facilitate discussion among those in the Pacific Northwest (US and Canada) who are interested in Railroad Prototype Modeling (RPM) and Free-Mo modular railroading. Everyone is welcome to participate regardless of prototype, era, or scale modeled. Discussion topics can cover any issue related to RPM/Free-Mo events and activities in the Pacific Northwest, or information relevant to same. You are also welcomed to post images for others to view. For-sale and wanted posts are permitted. The only condition to participation is that you remain respectful of others and refrain from personal attacks. Repeat offenders WILL be booted. This is a hobby, so lets keep it fun!
Its decrepit in a funky (almost charming) way, and it shudders and rolls from side to side, added to which it makes odd (and one hopes not ominous) noises as it wends its way along to its hoped-for destination some 135 miles distant.Im referring to the E&N (Esquimalt and Nanaimo) Dayliner. This is the single diesel unit railway coach that runs from Victoria on Vancouver Island to Courtenay (the end of the line) and then back again to Victoria on a daily basis, come rain, shine, snow, sleet, flood or earthquake. This aged relic is the last vestige of the first transcontinental railroad in Canada and it came into being in return for British Columbias agreement to join the Canadian Confederation - which to this day isnt deemed an agreeable situation in many minds in these parts.Politics notwithstanding - or, in truth, maybe withstanding - the feds, or their railroad handmaiden, Via Rail (Canadas Amtrak, so you know what I mean), have been trying to kill the E&N for decades now. They dont ...
Glenora Farm is based on Vancouver Island in beautiful British Columbia, Canada. It is a place where care givers and people with developmental disabil...
When asked if there could be a terrorist link to the Streptococcus A outbreak on Vancouver Island,a media relations woman at Health Canada referring to her name as simply, Page asked if she could get back with the information at a later time. At the time of this publication she had not attempted to conact I-Spy-Online ...
For all skin types 60ml Immerse yourself in the forests of Western Canada with this gentle yet invigorating cleanser 99.6% certified organic ingredients, Featuring Red Western Cedarwood essential oil wild crafted and distilled in small batches on Vancouver Island Effectively removes dirt, make-up and pollution whilst
At the time of this event I had never met nor heard of Kim, she had not yet become a part of my network, and I was there simply because John had arranged a van to pick us up and take us to ISB. John had mentioned we had been asked to talk about reading, so I had prepared a slide show on that topic, and as one does when illustrating the future or education in a networked world, I had arranged with Doug Symington on Vancouver Island in Canada to webcast our meeting, which I had hoped to stream from Bangkok out to the networked world at large. We had of course asked in advance about the facilities at ISB and we were told we could have access to anything we wanted, but a disconnect occurred when we arrived on site and found that this was true only if we had specified in advance what we needed, and then their IT people would have allowed us to breach their firewall. However, I arrived and discovered that having arranged with Doug to meet him online at a certain time, I was totally unable to connect ...
I grew up in Montreal and have spent most of my life living in the Vancouver, B.C. area where I was a businessman for many years. I am now retired and living on Vancouver Island with Linda Spenard and our golden retriever Shelby. R.I.P. Cooper. I have 2 kids, twins, Dean and Leah who are 28. I can be reached at my e-mail address [email protected] Pictures of some of our travels can be found on Picasa. http://picasaweb.google.com/colinincanada (hasnt been updated for some time). A special thanks to my older brother David for letting me use his old photos. Thanks also to Linda Spenard for her photos and support ...
Galaxy Motors is the #1 used car dealership on Vancouver Island with 5 locations to serve you in Colwood, Duncan, Nanaimo, Courtenay and now in Langley on the mainland. Hundreds of fully reconditioned vehicles to choose from with finance rates starting at 3.99% OAC. Need your vehicle serviced? No problem we service all makes and models as well. Apply online or visit us in person and let us get you into your new vehicle today! Documentation Fee $499 and taxes are extra.. ...
His father had smoked all his life, and it was catching up with him now. Since hed left home, hed managed to see his father a couple of times a year. His father, along with his lady friend Marnie, usually visited him on Vancouver Island, where Cole ran a successful business. Hed seen them just a few months ago, and his father had appeared in good health, but when Marnie called him two days ago, hed come running, and was shocked at his dads appearance. These days, Marty Slater spent most of his time in a big recliner facing the television; Cole could tell by the items on the two tables that flanked the chair. Books, remote controls, cell phone, tissues, and pain pills painted a picture of someone very ill; someone who was too weak to move around. Cole wondered idly if the doctor would give him an estimate of how much longer. Probably not. ...
I have a great respect for the incredible forces that shape our planet Earth. Living on Vancouver Island, we are prepared (somewhat) for
Hey! My name is Kim and I live on Vancouver Island, BC. Shortly after my 34th birthday, I was diagnosed with ER/PR+ Her2- stage 2b breast cancer. I underwent a lumpectomy, followed by 8 rounds of dose dense AC+T chemo, and 28 treatments of radiation. Read more ...
I have a great respect for the incredible forces that shape our planet Earth. Living on Vancouver Island, we are prepared (somewhat) for
Rain long foretold takes a long time to pass; if it arrives on short notice, it soon will pass. For the folks I go out collecting with all hikes, digs and kayak trips are rain or shine. Safety is always top of mind and prepping for the weather is paramount. Keep yourself safe whatever part of the world you choose to explore. For forecasts of marine weather in Vancouver call 604.666.3655 or visit http://www.weatheroffice.com/ ...
Scientific name: Cortaderia selloana Aureolineata Synonym: C. s. Gold Band Family: POACEAE Common names: pampas grass Aureolineata Plant Type: Evergreen perennial Conditions: Zone: 7-10 Light: Full sun Exposure: Exposed or sheltered Soil: Grows bigger in rich soil Moisture: Well drained, drought tolerant Aesthetic: Plant Size: H 4-5 with plumes at 6-7 W 4-5 Leaf and Stem shape: Arching mound of…
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You may have concerns that your child is using drugs or alcohol. Before you confront your child however, consider talking to others that know your child, such as friends, relatives and teachers. You dont have to tell them explicitly that you are worried about drugs, but you can still ask them how they find your child, which can be helpful.. When talking to your child, choose a time when your child is awake, alert, and receptive to talking. Give your child a choice about when to talk, e.g. Do you want to talk now, or later?. Avoid interruptions, maintain privacy, and STAY CALM. Go over a checklist with your child, highlighting those concerns that have you worried.. ...
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TimberWest has confirmed that the driver of a logging truck that left the road near Caycuse on Wednesday has died.. The man was a working for a contractor for TimberWest near the Honeymoon Bay operations.. According to the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change Strategy, the truck left the road approximately two kilometres past Nixon River Bridge, which is three kilometres east of Caycuse. It went into standing water beside the road and became submerged.. We express our deepest sympathies to the family, friends and colleagues affected by this tragic accident, TimberWest president and CEO Jeff Zweig said. A fatality within our forest community deeply impacts all of us. We are working closely with the RCMP, WorkSafe and our contractor on the investigation.. TimberWest has lent its full support to authorities in the ongoing investigation, and operations have been suspended out of respect for the deceased and his family, and to provide support to friends and colleagues, the company ...
When the coronavirus pandemic hit the Pacific Northwest states of Oregon and Washington, their governors quickly reacted with shutdowns. Now they are about to impose new restrctions again as infections and hospitalizations rise to alarming levels. Oregon Gov. Kate Brown is putting 15 counties that encompass the states biggest cities into the states extreme risk category starting Friday, imposing restrictions that include banning indoor restaurant dining. As Brown issued her order on Tuesday, she said rising COVID-19 hospitalizations threaten to overwhelm doctors.
Chipotle has closed 43 of its Pacific Northwest locations in response to an E. coli outbreak health officials have connected to the Mexican food chain.
KANSAS CITY, Mo. - Aug. 24, 2015 - Five Cerner clients in the Pacific Northwest have agreed to use CommonWell Health Alliance® services to securely exchange patient data with a growing number of provider sites across the United States.
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"Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, the etiologic agents of cryptococcosis". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in ... Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungus that causes cryptococcosis, which can lead to pulmonary infection as well as nervous system ...
IRIS has been described in immunocompetent hosts who have meningitis caused by Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans ... "Paradoxical Inflammatory Reaction during Treatment of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii Meningitis in an HIV-Seronegative ... "Steroid responsive late deterioration in Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii meningitis". Neurology. 63 (4): 713-714. doi: ... Wiesner, Darin L.; Boulware, David R. (4 August 2011). "Cryptococcus-Related Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS ...
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are significant pathogens of immunocompromised people. They are the species ... Cogliati M (2013). "Global molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii: An atlas of the molecular ... O'Meara TR, Alspaugh JA (2012). "The Cryptococcus neoformans capsule: A sword and a shield". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 25 ...
Isolates found in PCC include Cryptococcus neoformans (most common), Cryptococcus gattii, and Cryptococcus laurentii. Prognosis ... most often Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii). Cryptococcosis is believed to be acquired by inhalation of the ... Cryptococcus (both C. neoformans and C. gattii) plays a common role in pulmonary invasive mycosis seen in adults with HIV and ... Cryptococcus gattii causes infections in immunocompetent people (fully functioning immune system), but C. neoformans v. grubii ...
... as well as the expansion of the geographic range of the emerging pathogen Cryptococcus gattii. Joseph Heitman has served as co- ... "Molecular evidence that the range of the Vancouver Island outbreak of Cryptococcus gattii infection has expanded into the ... "Same-sex mating and the origin of the Vancouver Island Cryptococcus gattii outbreak". Nature. 437 (7063): 1360-4. Bibcode: ... "Emergence and pathogenicity of highly virulent Cryptococcus gattii genotypes in the northwest United States". PLOS Pathog. 6 (4 ...
Fungal Cyp51 Inhibitor VT-1129 Demonstrates Potent Activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii". ...
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii). The presence of haustorial cells on their hyphae indicate that they are (or ... Kwon-Chung KJ, Varma A (2006). "Do major species concepts support one, two or more species within Cryptococcus neoformans?". ... 1976). "A new species of Filobasidiella, the sexual state of Cryptococcus neoformans B and C serotypes". Mycologia. 68 (4): 942 ... 1975). "A new genus, Filobasidiella, the perfect state of Cryptococcus neoformans". Mycologia. 67 (6): 1197-1200. doi:10.2307/ ...
Cryptococcus gattii is endemic to tropical parts of the continent of Africa and Australia and can cause disease in non- ... Cryptococcus neoformans is the major human and animal pathogen. Cryptococcus laurentii and Cryptococcus albidus have been known ... Cryptococcus neoformans can cause a severe form of meningitis and meningo-encephalitis in patients with HIV infection and AIDS ... The majority of Cryptococcus species live in the soil and do not cause disease in humans. ...
Cryptococcus gattii, and Candida albicans. His research laid the foundation for the current knowledge body about somatic and ...
C. gattii[edit]. Main article: Cryptococcus gattii. C. gattii (formerly C. neoformans var gattii) is endemic to tropical parts ... "Spread of Cryptococcus gattii in British Columbia, Canada, and Detection in the Pacific Northwest, USA". Emerg Infect Dis. 13 ( ... "Cryptococcus gattii Risk for Tourists Visiting Vancouver Island, Canada". Emerg Infect Dis. 13 (1): 178-79. doi:10.3201/ ... Vishniac H. S., Kurtzman C. P. (1992) Cryptococcus anarcticus sp. nov. and Cryptococcus albidosimilis sp. nov., ...
... towards Cryptococcus gattii L48, Cryptococcus neoformans L3 (MIC=31.2μg/mL), and Cryptococcus sp. D (MIC=62.5μg/mL). Therefore ... were revealed to show activity against Cryptococcus sp. D (minimum inhibitory concentration=15.62μg/mL). It was also revealed ...
Anaplasmosis Aspergillus BK virus Bordetella pertussis Borrelia miyamotoi Clostridium difficile Cryptococcus gattii ...
gattii, was defined as a distinct species, Cryptococcus gattii. The most recent classification system divides organisms into ... "Recognition of seven species in the Cryptococcus gattii/Cryptococcus neoformans species complex". Fungal Genetics and Biology. ... C. gattii is divided into five species. Cryptococcus neoformans grows as a yeast (unicellular) and replicates by budding. It ... Media related to Cryptococcus neoformans at Wikimedia Commons A good overview of Cryptococcus neoformans biology from the ...
... , formerly known as Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, is an encapsulated yeast found primarily in ... Cryptococcus gattii has recently been divided into five species. These are C. gattii, C. bacillisporus, C. deuterogattii, C. ... "Recognition of seven species in the Cryptococcus gattii/Cryptococcus neoformans species complex". Fungal Genetics and Biology. ... "Cryptococcus gattii Q&A". The Globe and Mail. 2007-02-10. Kidd, S.E.; F. Hagen; R. L. Tscharke; M. Huynh; K. H. Bartlett; M. ...
Cryptococcus neoformans un C. gattii izraisa kriptokokozi).[5] ...
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are significant pathogens of immunocompromised people. They are the species ... "Global molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii: An atlas of the molecular types". Scientifica ... "The Cryptococcus neoformans capsule: A sword and a shield". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 25 (3): 387-408. doi:10.1128/CMR. ...
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. The dimorphic Basidiomycota with yeast stages and the pleiomorphic rusts are ... Cryptococcus neoformans and Ustilago maydis are examples of pathogenic basidiomycota. Such pathogens must be able to overcome ... Lin, X.; Hull, C. M.; Heitman, J. (April 2005). "Sexual reproduction between partners of the same mating type in Cryptococcus ... In the human pathogenic genus Cryptococcus, four nuclei following meiosis remain in the basidium, but continually divide ...
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are significant pathogens of immunocompromised people. They are the species ... "Global molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii: An atlas of the molecular types". Scientifica ... "The Cryptococcus neoformans capsule: A sword and a shield". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 25 (3): 387-408. doi:10.1128/CMR. ...
Cryptococcus Gattii Infection (C. gattii) , 2015 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/cryptococcus-gattii- ...
Detection of Cryptococcus gattii-specific nucleic acid in clinical specimen; or *Demonstration of Cryptococcus gattii in a ... Two species of Cryptococcus cause the vast majority of human infections: C. neoformans and C. gattii. C. neoformans has a clear ... Isolation of Cryptococcus gattii from a clinical specimen; or. * ... Cryptococcus Gattii Infection (C. gattii). 2015 Case Definition ... Cryptococcus is a ubiquitous fungal pathogen that causes primarily meningitis and pneumonia. The incidence of cryptococcal ...
Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii.. Sorrell TC1.. Author information. 1. Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, ... Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii is emerging as a primary human pathogen which is distinct genetically and biochemically ... gattii. This enzyme has now been confirmed to play a role in the virulence of C. neoformans serotype A. Disease caused by C. n ... gattii. A potential determinant of tissue invasion, secreted phospholipase B, is produced in vitro and in vivo by C. n. var. ...
Cryptococcus gattiihas emerged as an important fungal pathogen. Infection manifests most often as potentially fatal ... See Cryptococcus gattii infection: Microbiology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis and Cryptococcus gattii infection: Clinical ... Cryptococcus gattii infection: Clinical features and diagnosis. *Cryptococcus gattii infection: Microbiology, epidemiology, and ... Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex: an international study of wild-type susceptibility endpoint ...
Cryptococcus is a genus of fungi, of which two species, Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, cause nearly all human ... Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii. Med Mycol 2001;39:155--68.. * Fyfe M, MacDougall L, Romney M, et al. Cryptococcus ... Source: Cryptococcus gattii Public Health Working Group.. * Defined as illness occurring on or after January 1, 2004, in a U.S ... Source: Cryptococcus gattii Public Health Working Group.. * Defined as illness occurring on or after January 1, 2004, in a U.S ...
Cryptococcus gattii, formerly known as Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, is an encapsulated yeast found primarily in ... Cryptococcus gattii has recently been divided into five species. These are C. gattii, C. bacillisporus, C. deuterogattii, C. ... "Recognition of seven species in the Cryptococcus gattii/Cryptococcus neoformans species complex". Fungal Genetics and Biology. ... "Cryptococcus gattii Q&A". The Globe and Mail. 2007-02-10. Kidd, S.E.; F. Hagen; R. L. Tscharke; M. Huynh; K. H. Bartlett; M. ...
Cryptococcus gattii EJB2, whole genome shotgun sequencing project Cryptococcus gattii EJB2, whole genome shotgun sequencing ... Cryptococcus gattii EJB2, whole genome shotgun sequencing project. GenBank: ATAL00000000.1. * This entry is the master record ...
C. gattii can form long-term associations with trees and soil resulting in the production of infectious propagules (spores an … ... Cryptococcus gattii is an environmentally occurring pathogen that is responsible for causing cryptococcosis marked by pneumonia ... Cryptococcus gattii, no longer an accidental pathogen? Curr Fungal Infect Rep. 2012 Dec;6(4):245-256. doi: 10.1007/s12281-012- ... Cryptococcus gattii is an environmentally occurring pathogen that is responsible for causing cryptococcosis marked by pneumonia ...
Cryptococcus gattii ATCC ® MYA-4561™ Designation: WM178 [CBS 10082] Application: Biomedical Research and Development Material ... Consensus multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Med. Mycol. 47(6):561-570, ... Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of ... Cryptococcus gattii (Vanbreuseghem et Takashio) Kwon-Chung et Boekhout (ATCC® MYA-4561™) Alternate State: Filobasidiella ...
Cryptococcus gattii ATCC ® MYA-4071™ Designation: WM 276 Application: Multigene phylogeny and phenotypic characterization. ... Consensus multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Med. Mycol. 47(6):561-570, ... Gene disruption in Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii by in vitro transposition. Curr Genet 49: 341-350, 2006. ... Cryptococcus gattii (Vanbreuseghem et Takashio) Kwon-Chung et Boekhout (ATCC® MYA-4071™) Alternate State: Filobasidiella ...
Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis - Cryptococcus gattii [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ...
SOURCE: Cryptococcus gattii ( ) Page printed: . Unofficial document if printed. Please refer to SOURCE for latest information. ... Isolation of Cryptococcus from any body site AND. *Confirmation of C. gattii species on isolates by restricted fragment length ...
However, during the past decade, C. gattii infections in humans and animals in Europe have increased. To determine whether the ... Cryptococcus gattii infections occurred mainly in tropical and subtropical climate zones. ... Autochthonous and Dormant Cryptococcus gattii Infections in Europe Alternate Title:Cryptococcus gattii in Europe ... Consensus multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii.Med Mycol. Year: 2009;47:561- ...
... Kausik Datta,1 Karen H. ... The relatively uncommon fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii recently emerged as a significant cause of cryptococcal disease in ... C. gattii may have exploited such a hitherto unrecognized but clement environment in the Pacific Northwest to provide a wider ... C. gattii can survive wide climatic variations and colonize the environment in tropical, subtropical, temperate, and dry ...
Natural habitat of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ... Natural habitat of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii.. D H Ellis, T J Pfeiffer ... Environmental isolations have established that Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii appears to have a specific ecological ... gattii. No other environmental source for the fungus has yet been detected, and no other eucalypt has the distribution pattern ...
In this study, we examine the expansion on an outbreak of a fungus, Cryptococcus gattii, in the Pacific Northwest of the United ... Cryptococcus gattii Is the Subject Area "Cryptococcus gattii" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Cryptococcus neoformans Is the Subject Area "Cryptococcus neoformans" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Maternal-fetal transmission of Cryptococcus gattii in harbor porpoise.(LETTERS, Letter to the editor, Report) by Emerging ... gattii in Australia. J Clin Microbiol. 1987;25:430-1. (2.) MacDougall L, Fyfe M. Emergence of Cryptococcus gattii in a novel ... To the Editor: We report maternal-fetal transmission of Cryptococcus gattii and death in a wild porpoise. Cryptococcus ... gattii+in+harbor+porpoise.-a0251376957. *APA style: Maternal-fetal transmission of Cryptococcus gattii in harbor porpoise.. (n. ...
the Cryptococcus gattii Working Group of the Pacific Northwest. . 2009. Spread of Cryptococcus gattii into Pacific Northwest ... Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii genes preferentially expressed during rat macrophage infection. Med. Mycol. 48: ... Consensus multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Med. Mycol. 47:561-570. ... Genetic diversity of the Cryptococcus species complex suggests that Cryptococcus gattii deserves to have varieties. PLoS One 4: ...
... caused by Cryptococcus gattii, which has affected hundreds of otherwise healthy humans and animals. Over the same time period, ... Ancient dispersal of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii from the Amazon rainforest PLoS One. 2013 Aug 7;8(8):e71148. ... caused by Cryptococcus gattii, which has affected hundreds of otherwise healthy humans and animals. Over the same time period, ... gattii population in the native rainforest of Northern Brazil. Thus the modern virulent C. gattii AFLP6/VGII outbreak lineages ...
2015 Recognition of seven species in the Cryptococcus gattii/Cryptococcus neoformans species complex. Fungal Genet. Biol. FG B ... and the basidiomycetous fungus Cryptococcus gattii (C. gattii) has expanded its range into non-endemic environments with a ... 2011 Cryptococcus gattii: an emerging fungal pathogen infecting humans and animals. Microbes Infect. Inst. Pasteur 13, 895-907 ... 2005 Same-sex mating and the origin of the Vancouver Island Cryptococcus gattii outbreak. Nature 437, 1360-1364. (doi:10.1038/ ...
... has the largest reported population of Cryptococcus gattii-infected persons worldwide. To assess the impact of illness, we ... Distribution of Cryptococcus gattii strains among 124 persons with C. gattii infection, by age category, British Columbia, ... Distribution of Cryptococcus gattii strains among 124 persons with C. gattii infection, by age category, British Columbia, ... Datta K, Bartlett K, Baer R, Byrnes E, Galanis E, Heitman J, Spread of Cryptococcus gattii into Pacific Northwest region of the ...
Genome Variation in Cryptococcus gattii, an Emerging Pathogen of Immunocompetent Hosts. C. A. DSouza, J. W. Kronstad, G. ... Genome Variation in Cryptococcus gattii, an Emerging Pathogen of Immunocompetent Hosts. C. A. DSouza, J. W. Kronstad, G. ... Genome Variation in Cryptococcus gattii, an Emerging Pathogen of Immunocompetent Hosts. C. A. DSouza, J. W. Kronstad, G. ... Genome Variation in Cryptococcus gattii, an Emerging Pathogen of Immunocompetent Hosts Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
The C. gattii R265 VGIIa strain, which was isolated from the Vancouver outbreak, differed from C. gattii CG01, CG02 and CG03 ... The C. gattii R265 VGIIa strain, which was isolated from the Vancouver outbreak, differed from C. gattii CG01, CG02 and CG03 ... C. gattii VGII isolates have a strong clinical relevance and phenotypic variations. These phenotypic variations among C. gattii ... C. gattii VGII isolates have a strong clinical relevance and phenotypic variations. These phenotypic variations among C. gattii ...
Here we report the isolation of C. gattii VGI and VGIII from environmental soil and tree samples. C. gattii isolates were ... gattii is responsible for ongoing and expanding outbreaks in the Western United States and Canada. C. gattii comprises four ... The Pacific Northwest and Canadian outbreak is primarily caused by C. gattii VGII. VGIII is responsible for ongoing infections ... However, only two environmental C. gattii isolates have ever been identified from the Californian environment: CBS7750 (VGII) ...
Cryptococcus gattii, Disease Outbreaks, Haplotypes, Linkage Disequilibrium, Virulence. Abstract. An outbreak of the fungal ... Importance: Cryptococcus gattii is the causative agent responsible for ongoing infections in the Pacific Northwest of the ... Highly recombinant VGII Cryptococcus gattii population develops clonal outbreak clusters through both sexual macroevolution and ... pathogen Cryptococcus gattii began in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in the late 1990s. This outbreak consists of three clonal ...
grubii and Cryptococcus gattii. Although prior studies have identified certain aspects of metal regulation in Cryptococcus ... grubii and Cryptococcus gattii. Although prior studies have identified certain aspects of metal regulation in Cryptococcus ... The broad analyses of the genomes of P. brasiliensis, Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Cryptococcus gattii for genes ... grubii, and Cryptococcus gattii. Although prior studies have identified certain aspects of metal regulation in Cryptococcus ...
... are more frequently observed in Cryptococcus gattii compared to C. neoformans isolates; however, the development of in vivo ... In vivodevelopment of fluconazole resistance in serialCryptococcus gattiiisolates from a cat. ... We report a case of Cryptococcus gattii (molecular type VGIII) that developed reduced susceptibility to fluconazole during ... Elevated fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) are more frequently observed in Cryptococcus gattii compared to C ...
Cryptococcus gattii (B) derived from ATCC® 34877™*, SKU: 01063PKWIK-STIK™ 2 PackDETAILS ... Cryptococcus gattii (B) derived from ATCC® 34877™*, SKU: 01063LLYFO DISK™DETAILS ...
  • Molecular Typing of IberoAmerican Cryptococcus neoformans Isolates. (atcc.org)
  • Here, we detail fine-resolution mapping of genetic differences between two highly related Cryptococcus gattii VGIIc isolates that differ in their virulence traits (phagocytosis, vomocytosis, macrophage death, mitochondrial tubularization and intracellular proliferation). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • C. gattii VGII isolates have a strong clinical relevance and phenotypic variations. (frontiersin.org)
  • These phenotypic variations among C. gattii species complex isolates suggest that some strains are more virulent than others, but little information is available related to the pathogenic properties of those strains. (frontiersin.org)
  • The C. gattii R265 VGIIa strain, which was isolated from the Vancouver outbreak, differed from C. gattii CG01, CG02 and CG03 isolates (also classified as VGII) when analyzed the capsular dimensions, melanin production, urease activity, as well as the glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) secretion. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although some lineages of Australian C. gattii have retained the ability to mate, the majority of isolates were sterile, suggesting that asexuality is the dominant mode of propagation in these populations. (asm.org)
  • Microevolution of Serial Clinical Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. (duke.edu)
  • In this study, we collected isolates of Cryptococcus from cerebrospinal fluid specimens of 18 patients at the time of their diagnosis and when they relapsed several months later. (duke.edu)
  • These analyses revealed that the relapsing isolates manifested multiple genetic and chromosomal changes that affected a variety of genes implicated in the pathogenicity of Cryptococcus or resistance to fluconazole. (duke.edu)
  • The 13 C. gattii isolates were collected from five Eucalyptus, four Ceratonia, two Pinus and two Olea trees. (marmara.edu.tr)
  • With the exception of a single VGIV isolate, all C. gattii isolates were VGI. (marmara.edu.tr)
  • Accordingly, four species were identified as Cryptococcus albidus while species of two other isolates were not detectable by used methods. (ijmm.ir)
  • The molecular types and genetic heterogeneity of Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii clinical isolates in Malaysia were determined in this study. (um.edu.my)
  • Of 17 C.gattii isolates, 13 (76.5) were molecular type VGI, and 4 (23.5) were molecular type VGII. (um.edu.my)
  • A total of 476 European isolates (310 Cryptococcus neoformans var. (cu.edu.tr)
  • grubii (56 VNI, 8 VNII, 1 VNB), and 5 among the C. gattii species complex (4 VGI and 1 VGIV) isolates. (cu.edu.tr)
  • The 16 European C. gattii species complex isolates analyzed in the present study originated all from the environment and all belonged to a large cluster endemic in the Mediterranean area. (cu.edu.tr)
  • This banana blossom-based agar is useful for the enrichment of isolates of the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex from environmental and clinical materials. (knaw.nl)
  • The banana blossom agar (BABA) with and without creatinine can differentiate between the melanin forming isolates of the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex from other yeasts that do not form melanin. (knaw.nl)
  • This study investigated the activity of exoenzymes (phospholipase and proteinase), biofilm formation and production of a hemolytic factor by isolates of C. neoformans (n = 9) and C. gattii (n = 7) from Belém, Pará State, Brazil. (iec.gov.br)
  • This is the first report of in vitro exoenzyme activity and biofilm formation by isolates of Cryptococcus in Pará State. (iec.gov.br)
  • Here we address this question by conducting outgroup crosses between distantly related C. gattii lineages (VGII and VGIII) and ingroup crosses between isolates from the same molecular type (VGII). (duke.edu)
  • Of a random sample of 48 isolates serotyped, 26 (54%) were C. neoformans, serotype A, and 22 (46%) C. gattii, serotype B. Determination of mating type alleles was done in 44 of the isolates, comprising 31 of C. neoformans , serotype A and 13 of C. gattii, serotype B. All of them proved to be mating type α (MATα). (oup.com)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, live in the Prevalence of Cryptococcus was 0.71% (4 isolates). (scribd.com)
  • Three isolates environment throughout the world, and represent the primary were identified by both biochemical and proteomic approaches cause of cryptococcosis, a life threatening disease1,2, especially in as C. neoformans corresponding to VNI (images 1-3), and one immunocompromised patients3,4 being much higher the isolate as C: gattii corresponding to VGII (image 4). (scribd.com)
  • The study of environmental and clinical isolates of Cryptococcus as human pathogens is an important contribution to the positividad (los 4 positivos, epidemiology and ecology of the fungus (Ref). (scribd.com)
  • C. gattii infection had previously been detected infrequently and was thought to be largely restricted to tropical and subtropical regions, including Australia and Papua New Guinea. (uptodate.com)
  • The antifungal treatment and other aspects of management of C. gattii infection will be reviewed here. (uptodate.com)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans infection is also reviewed elsewhere. (uptodate.com)
  • Despite these limitations, MICs, most commonly determined by broth microdilution, have been reported for C. gattii and may provide help to clinicians in the management of C. gattii infection [ 8 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • In December 2004, a case of human C. gattii infection was reported in Oregon, associated with an outbreak on Vancouver Island and in mainland British Columbia, Canada ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Among 52 patients for whom travel history was known, 46 (88%) said they had not traveled to British Columbia or any other C. gattii --endemic areas, suggesting they acquired the infection locally. (cdc.gov)
  • Among 45 patients with known outcomes, nine (20%) died because of C. gattii infection, and six (13%) died with C. gattii infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Physicians should consider C. gattii as a possible etiology of a cryptococcal infection among persons living in or traveling to the Pacific Northwest or traveling to other C. gattii --endemic areas. (cdc.gov)
  • Reported case-fatality rates either from or with C. gattii infection was 9% ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In early 2006, a resident of Orcas Island, Washington, developed C. gattii VGIIa infection with a strain indistinguishable from the British Columbia VGIIa strain ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Cryptococcus gattii causes the human diseases of pulmonary cryptococcosis (lung infection), basal meningitis, and cerebral cryptococcomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike Cryptococcus neoformans, C. gattii is not particularly associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection or other forms of immunosuppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Distribution of survey respondents who have seen any patient(s) with cryptococcosis during the past year and who have ever treated a patient with Cryptococcus gatti infection, Emerging Infections Network survey, March-February 2011. (cdc.gov)
  • We describe 2 cases of donor-derived To rule out infection by Cryptococcus species in the transmission of Cryptococcus deuterogattii in Brazil. (cdc.gov)
  • C. gattii may have exploited such a hitherto unrecognized but clement environment in the Pacific Northwest to provide a wider exposure and risk of infection to human and animal populations. (hindawi.com)
  • Infection is thought to occur mostly in immunocompetent persons, but new evidence from British Columbia shows that a sizeable proportion of persons with C. gattii have underlying immunocompromising conditions (E. Galanis, L. MacDougall, unpub. (cdc.gov)
  • To clarify the epidemiology and impact of illness caused by C. gattii infection, we retrospectively analyzed incidence of, hospitalizations for, and deaths caused by C. gattii in British Columbia from its emergence in 1999 through 2007. (cdc.gov)
  • We analyzed C. gattii infection diagnosed during 1999-2007 in BC residents and reported to the BC Centre for Disease Control. (cdc.gov)
  • A confirmed case was defined as culture-confirmed C. gattii infection based on differential media and genotyping ( 13 ). (cdc.gov)
  • For their infection to be considered a case, patients must have traveled to or resided in a local C. gattii -endemic area during the year before onset. (cdc.gov)
  • Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by the fungus Cryptococcus gattii formerly known as Cryptococcus neoformans var gattii . (hawaii.gov)
  • gattii is the same organism as those isolated from cases of human infection. (asm.org)
  • The yeast Cryptococcus gattii is the etiologic agent of cryptococcosis, a disease that can led to fatal infection of the central nervous system in humans and other mammals. (ufrgs.br)
  • The vast majority of infection with cryptococcal species occurs with Cryptococcus neoformans in the severely immunocompromised. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cryptococcus deuterogattii induced higher levels of IL-22 than those induced by C. tetragattii and the environmental species C. flavescens In addition, C. bacillisporus and C. gattii sensu stricto proliferated inside human monocyte-derived macrophages after 24 h of infection. (ru.nl)
  • C. gattii infection usually involves the central nervous system, the respiratory tract, or may be disseminated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we report an atypical manifestation of C. gattii infection in a patient who had C. gattii meningitis complicating the ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt infection and concurrent infected intraabdominal VP shunt pseudocyst. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C. gattii meningitis complicating the VP shunt infection and concurrent infected intraabdominal VP shunt pseudocyst was diagnosed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C. neoformans was categorized into serotypes A and D whereas C. gattii was classified into the serotypes B and C. Inhalation of spores is a primary route of infection that mainly affects immunocompromised persons, such as HIV-infected patients, organ transplant recipients, and patients receiving corticosteroid or immunosuppressive agents. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Few studies of C. gattii infection in Thailand have been published. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we report atypical C. gattii infection in a patient who had chronic C. gattii meningitis complicating a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt infection and concurrent infected intraabdominal VP shunt pseudocyst. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The median lethal time (LT50) and median lethal dose (LC50) at 48 h of Cryptococcus gattii were calculated using Galleria mellonella infection test. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by Cryptococcus species. (ijmm.ir)
  • Cryptococcus gattii is considered to be an emerging non-zoonotic infection affecting animals and humans in Oregon. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cryptococcus gattii molecular types VGIIa and VGI were isolated in 2010 from soil and tree bark near the home of a 9-month-old dog which three months previously had an infection caused by C. gattii genotype VGIIa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The only known means of acquisition of C. gattii infection is inhalation of spores from the environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The identification of C. gattii infection in domestic animals suggested that exposure to the fungus must have occurred near the animals' residence and presented opportunity for identifying ecological foci of C. gattii in Oregon. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii cause cryptococcal meningitis and are implicated in the infection of immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients, respectively. (iec.gov.br)
  • Overall, this study provides the basis for further genetic studies to characterize the differences in the virulence composite of strains with minor evolutionary divergences in gene expression in the primary pathogen C. gattii, that have led to a major invasive fungal infection outbreak. (duke.edu)
  • We report a case of Cryptococcus gattii infection in a 12-year-old neutered male cat in Alaska. (blogspot.com)
  • In humans, the average incubation period for C. gattii infection is 6 weeks-13 months ( 5 - 7 ). (blogspot.com)
  • Although most reported cases of C. gattii infection appear to be primary infections, infrequent reports of C. gattii infections in immunocompetent persons have described symptoms occurring several years after likely exposure, which suggests that C. gattii may have a greater capacity to remain dormant than believed ( 8 - 10 ). (blogspot.com)
  • For the first time, serological factors of cryptococcosis as a primary infection, caused by C. gattii, which is endemic in certain departments of Colombia, will be studied. (urosario.edu.co)
  • Cryptococcosis is infection with the fungi Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Infection with C gattii has mainly been seen in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, British Columbia in Canada, Southeast Asia, and Australia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cryptococcus is the most common fungus that causes serious infection worldwide. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Individuals with a positive culture of Cryptococcus neoformans 18 years of age and older without HIV infection or other condition predisposing to cryptococcosis (such as high-dose corticosteroid therapy, sarcoidosis, or a blood cancer) may be eligible for this study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Infection with the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans can result in harmless colonization of the airways, but it can also lead to meningitis or disseminated disease, especially in persons with defective cell-mediated immunity. (medscape.com)
  • gattii, is an encapsulated yeast found primarily in tropical and subtropical climates. (wikipedia.org)
  • C. gattii can form long-term associations with trees and soil resulting in the production of infectious propagules (spores and desiccated yeast). (nih.gov)
  • The key ability of yeast and spores to enter, survive, multiply, and exit host cells and to infect immunocompetent hosts distinguishes C. gattii as a primary pathogen and suggest evolution of C. gattii pathogenesis as a result of interaction with plants and other organisms in its environmental niche. (nih.gov)
  • During the past decade, the basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus gattii has stepped out of the shadows of its sibling C. neoformans . (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cryptococcus gattii causes pneumonia and meningoencephalitis in humans following an inhalation of infectious yeast or airborne hyphae [ 8 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Cryptococcus gattii is a primary pathogenic yeast that causes disease in both animals and humans. (asm.org)
  • This investigation clearly suggests a promising strategy to identify novel targets for improved diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis.IMPORTANCE Opportunistic infections caused by species of the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus lead to chronic meningoencephalitis and continue to ravage thousands of patients with HIV/AIDS. (duke.edu)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast ubiquitous in nature which, when it infects humans, typically causes pulmonary disease and occasionally meningitis [1]. (who.int)
  • Transcriptional profiling revealed that zinc levels regulated the expression of the ZIP1, ZIP2 and ZIP3 genes, although only the C. gattii zinc transporter Zip1 was required for yeast growth under zinc-limiting conditions. (pasteur.fr)
  • Cryptococcus gattii is a pathogenic yeast that together with Cryptococcus neoformans causes cryptococcosis in humans and animals. (edu.au)
  • The name Cryptococcus is used when referring to the yeast states of the fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • [13] C. albidus is very easily mistaken for other Cryptococcus species, as well as species from other genera of yeast, so should be allowed to grow for a minimum of 7 days before attempting to identify this species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytologic analysis of the discharge showed large yeast bodies consistent with a Cryptococcus sp. (blogspot.com)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast and an obligate aerobe that can live in both plants and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans grows as a yeast (unicellular) and replicates by budding. (wikipedia.org)
  • abstract = "Cryptococcus neoformans var. (uab.cat)
  • abstract = "Isolation of representatives of the Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex can be made using dopamine containing media, such as Niger seed agar and l-DOPA agar. (knaw.nl)
  • Multilocus sequence typing subcategorizes C. gattii into four genotypes: VGI, VGII, VGIII, and VGIV. (cdc.gov)
  • Although VGII is the genotype most commonly associated with the outbreak in the United States and British Columbia, it is uncommon in other C. gattii --endemic parts of the world, where VGI is isolated most frequently ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • VGII C. gattii have probably undergone either bisexual or unisexual reproduction in multiple different locales, thus giving rise to novel virulent phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In every case, the causative agent belongs to a previously rare genotype of C. gattii called AFLP6/VGII, but the origin of the outbreak clades remains enigmatic. (nih.gov)
  • Thus the modern virulent C. gattii AFLP6/VGII outbreak lineages derived from mating events in South America and then dispersed to temperate regions where they cause serious infections in humans and animals. (nih.gov)
  • C. gattii molecular type VGII predominates in the north and northeastern regions of Brazil, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, we analyzed some virulence determinants of C. gattii VGII strains (CG01, CG02, and CG03) isolated from patients in the state of Piauí, Brazil. (frontiersin.org)
  • Highly recombinant VGII Cryptococcus gattii population develops clonal outbreak clusters through both sexual macroevolution and asexual microevolution. (broadinstitute.org)
  • This suggests that VGII C. gattii has undergone sexual reproduction, either bisexual or unisexual, in multiple locales contributing to the production of novel, virulent subtypes. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Cryptococcus gattii - sorotipo B, tipo molecular VGII, linhagem R265, com capacidade de infectar pacientes imunocompetentes, causou uma epidemia na Ilha de Vancouver (Canadá) entre 1999 e 2003. (ufrgs.br)
  • We developed and validated a mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) real-time PCR panel for genotyping C. gattii molecular types VGI-VGIV and VGII subtypes a,b,c. (elsevier.com)
  • The Australian VGII population has been in the spotlight since 2005, when it was suggested as the possible origin for the ongoing outbreak at Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada), with same-sex mating being suggested as the driving force behind the emergence of this outbreak, and is nowadays hypothesized as a widespread phenomenon in C. gattii. (edu.au)
  • Human and animal cryptococcosis due to an unusual molecular type of Cryptococcus gattii (VGII) emerged recently on Vancouver Island, Canada. (duke.edu)
  • Taken together, our data suggest that hypervirulence can spread among the C. gattii lineages VGII and VGIII, potentially creating novel hypervirulent genotypes, and that current models of uniparental mitochondrial inheritance in the Cryptococcus genus may not be universal. (duke.edu)
  • We then extended our methods across multiple lineages of C. gattii to study how selection is acting on key virulence genes within different lineages. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Virulence, serotype, and molecular characteristics of environmental strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. (asm.org)
  • gattii originating from Eucalyptus camaldulensis, three from Australia and one from San Francisco, were tested for their serotype, virulence for mice, and a number of genetic and molecular characteristics. (asm.org)
  • Herein, we analyzed the effect of a non-azole agrochemical, pyraclostrobin (PCT), on the antifungal susceptibility and virulence of the human and animal pathogens Cryptococcus gattii and C. neoformans. (pasteur.fr)
  • Previously, we determined that functional zinc metabolism is associated with Cryptococcus gattii virulence. (pasteur.fr)
  • Among Cryptococcus neoformans and VGⅠ and VGⅡ types of Cryptococcus gattii, Cryptococcus gattii VGⅡ showed the shortest LT50 and the strongest virulence to Galleria mellonella. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cryptococcus gattii virulence composite: candidate genes revealed by microarray analysis of high and less virulent Vancouver island outbreak strains. (duke.edu)
  • Unlike C. neoformans, C. gattii causes disease mainly in immunocompetent hosts, despite producing a similar suite of virulence determinants. (duke.edu)
  • In the context of C. gattii, however, the likelihood of virulence traits associated with the outbreak lineages spreading to other lineages via genetic exchange is currently unknown. (duke.edu)
  • Meningitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cryptococcosis is a systemic fungal disease caused by Cryptococcus neoformans , which primarily affects immunocompromised individuals, but may occasionally affect immunocompetent individuals. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cryptococcosis is mycosis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. (urosario.edu.co)
  • In the United States, C. gattii serotype B, subtype VGIIa, is largely responsible for clinical cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • gattii serotype (B) from Egypt, in a patient positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (who.int)
  • gattii (serotype B). (who.int)
  • gattii serotype B. This is the first confirmation of the presence of this variety in Spain, with a peculiar ability to produce severe pulmonary and systemic disease in normal goats, particularly in the form of outbreaks of pneumonia in association with cachexia. (uab.cat)
  • neoformans, respectively, Serotype AD strains are hybrids and serotype B and C strains are considered to belong to the related but distinct species C. gattii. (unl.pt)
  • Previous studies have identified 'serotype-associated' alleles of several genes in the Cryptococcus species complex. (unl.pt)
  • . tritici first detected in 1998 is now recognized as a major threat to wheat production and food security worldwide [ 3 ], and the basidiomycetous fungus Cryptococcus gattii ( C. gattii ) has expanded its range into non-endemic environments with a consequential increase in fatal meningitis in humans [ 4 , 5 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Cryptoccocus gattii is an environmental fungus that emerged in a temperate climate on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, in 1999, causing an outbreak affecting humans and animals ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Inhalation of the airborne C.gattii fungus from the environment. (hawaii.gov)
  • C.gattii fungus can be isolated in the soil and around trees in the environment. (hawaii.gov)
  • Cryptococcus gattii is a recognized pathogenic fungus along the Pacific coast of the United States from California to Washington. (cdc.gov)
  • This study seeks to determine antibodies against C. neoformans and C. gattii proteins in sera of healthy individuals with cryptococcosis, which will help to clarify sero-epidemiological variations in the incidence of the disease in the country, establish regional differences in exposure to the fungus and determine the proportion of children and adults immunized against both etiological agents. (urosario.edu.co)
  • In most cases, cryptococcal meningitis is caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cryptococcus is a fungus that causes infections most commonly in immunocompromised patients, such as those with AIDS and solid organ transplant recipients, particularly renal transplant recipients (1-3). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • FLAGSTAFF, Ariz. - July 15, 2014 - Cryptococcus gattii , a virulent fungus that has invaded the Pacific Northwest is highly adaptive and warrants global "public health vigilance," according to a study by an international team led by the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen). (tgen.org)
  • C. gattii was typically a tropical fungus before it was discovered in the temperate environs of Vancouver Island. (tgen.org)
  • The relatively uncommon fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii recently emerged as a significant cause of cryptococcal disease in human and animals in the Pacific Northwest of North America. (hindawi.com)
  • An outbreak of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii began in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in the late 1990s. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Transmission of Hypervirulence traits via sexual reproduction within and between lineages of the human fungal pathogen cryptococcus gattii. (duke.edu)
  • Since 1999 a lineage of the pathogen Cryptococcus gattii has been infecting humans and other animals in Canada and the Pacific Northwest of the USA. (duke.edu)
  • Early data from endemic areas suggested that C. gattii differed not only in epidemiology and clinical presentation from C. neoformans , but might also have different susceptibilities to antifungal agents and require more aggressive and lengthier antifungal therapy than C. neoformans infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Cryptococcus is a genus of fungi, of which two species, Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, cause nearly all human and animal cryptococcal infections. (cdc.gov)
  • The two human infections reported from Oregon in 2004 and 2005 were from C. gattii subtypes VGIIa and VGIIc ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The highest incidences of C. gattii infections occur in Papua New Guinea and Northern Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autochthonous and dormant Cryptococcus gattii infections in Europe. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Until recently, Cryptococcus gattii infections occurred mainly in tropical and subtropical climate zones. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, during the past decade, C. gattii infections in humans and animals in Europe have increased. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results indicate that reactivation of dormant C. gattii infections can occur many years after the infectious agent was acquired elsewhere. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii are 2 environmental, encapsulated yeasts that cause invasive, potentially life-threatening infections in humans and animals (1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Importance: Cryptococcus gattii is the causative agent responsible for ongoing infections in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and western Canada. (broadinstitute.org)
  • These infections are attributable to three clonal lineages of C. gattii, VGIIa, VGIIb, and VGIIc, with only VGIIa identified once previously in the Pacific Northwest prior to the start of the outbreak, albeit in a less virulent form. (broadinstitute.org)
  • The pathogenic species of Cryptococcus are a major cause of mortality owing to severe infections in immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent individuals. (duke.edu)
  • A significant exception to this is the infections of those with apparently normal immune systems by Cryptococcus gattii. (semanticscholar.org)
  • gattii has been more frequently associated with disease in tropical and subtropical areas, infections throughout the world, including the United States and Europe, have been reported [3,4]. (who.int)
  • Cryptococcosis is one of the more common systemic fungal infections caused by two main species, Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Like other fungal infections, C. gattii cannot be spread from person to person. (blogspot.com)
  • Since 1999, an outbreak of C. gattii infections has occurred in eastern Vancouver Island , [8] an area not generally thought to be endemic for this organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Oregon, human and animal infections by C. gattii were first identified in 2004. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In 1999, C. gattii infections emerged on Vancouver Island, British Columbia (BC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Oregon, human and animal infections by C. gattii were first identified in 2004, and they have subsequently been identified in Washington State as well [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the case of C. gattii disease it is suggested that it results from primary exposure rather than reactivation of old latent infections, although there are no studies demonstrating the absence of specific antibodies against C. gattii in children or healthy adults that reinforce this idea. (urosario.edu.co)
  • Cryptococcus gattii infections. (springer.com)
  • Although most cryptococal infections occur in HIV, one member of the family, Cryptococcus gattii, causes outbreaks in healthy individuals, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. (abc.net.au)
  • Copy number variation contributes to cryptic genetic variation in outbreak lineages of Cryptococcus gattii from the North American Pacific Northwest. (cdc.gov)
  • Here we summarize the historical literature on C. gattii and recent literature supporting the world-wide occurrence of the primary pathogen C. gattii. (nih.gov)
  • 90% of cases and is considered an opportunistic pathogen, mainly affecting immunocompromised patients, especially with HIV, C. gattii is considered a primary pathogen affecting patients without an apparent risk factor. (urosario.edu.co)
  • Is Cryptococcus gattii a Primary Pathogen? (mdpi.com)
  • We report here an analysis of genes potentially involved in iron, copper, and zinc uptake and homeostasis in the fungal pathogens Paracoccidioides brasiliensis , Cryptococcus neoformans var. (frontiersin.org)
  • Members of the Cryptococcus species complex (C. neoformans and C. gattii) are opportunistic pathogens responsible for frequently fatal cases of meningoencephalitis. (unl.pt)
  • The emergence of clusters of cryptococcosis due to C. gattii in British Columbia, Canada, in 1999, with subsequent spread to the United States Pacific Northwest, has challenged our understanding of this disease [ 1-3 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • Although genetic studies indicated its possible presence in the Pacific Northwest for more than 30 years, C. gattii as an etiological agent was largely unknown in this region prior to 1999. (hindawi.com)
  • Over the past two decades, several fungal outbreaks have occurred, including the high-profile 'Vancouver Island' and 'Pacific Northwest' outbreaks, caused by Cryptococcus gattii, which has affected hundreds of otherwise healthy humans and animals. (nih.gov)
  • For example, over the past decade, an unusual lineage of Cryptococcus gattii , which was first detected on Vancouver Island, has spread to the Canadian mainland and the Pacific Northwest infecting otherwise healthy individuals. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The last parasite from "Whale Week" is Cryptococcus gattii , which both infects whales and dolphins, but also has been all over the news lately because it has been spreading across the Pacific Northwest and killing people as well. (blogspot.com)
  • Here we report that C. gattii may also be endemic to the southeastern United States and has probably been present there longer than in the Pacific Northwest. (cdc.gov)
  • By now you know, dear readers, that Cryptococcus gattii ( CG ), the deadly fungal pathogen and a native of tropical and subtropical regions of the world, has stealthily charted itself a course of world domination, starting with the Pacific Northwest of North America . (inscientioveritas.org)
  • Background: Cryptococcus gattii has been the cause of an ongoing outbreak starting in 1999 on Vancouver Island, British Columbia and spreading to mainland Canada and the US Pacific Northwest. (elsevier.com)
  • Since 2009, Alaska has participated in the CDC-led Pacific Northwest C. gattii working group, which has been interested in enhanced surveillance for C. gattii ( 1 , 2 ). (blogspot.com)
  • That was followed by an outbreak in Oregon of another new strain of C. gattii, which also displayed increased lethality and similarly spread throughout the Pacific Northwest. (tgen.org)
  • The study, "Cryptococcus gattii in North American Pacific Northwest: whole population genome analysis provides insights into species evolution and dispersal ," was supported by a grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Medical Research Council (MRC) of South Africa. (tgen.org)
  • Case report forms are completed after a patient isolate is confirmed as C. gattii at CDC. (cdc.gov)
  • We report the first identification of an isolate of Cryptococcus neoformans var. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The present study was performed to isolate Cryptococcus sp. (ijmm.ir)
  • The culture yielded Cryptococcus , and the isolate was sent to Oregon State University, Veterinary Diagnostics Laboratory (OSU, VDL) for further identification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purpose of this research was to isolate C. gattii and C. neoformans from different environmental samples in public parks of the city of San Jos de Ccuta. (scribd.com)
  • Reference strain of VG II, AFLP6 molecular type of C. gattii . (atcc.org)
  • We report a case of Cryptococcus gattii (molecular type VGIII) that developed reduced susceptibility to fluconazole during therapy and delineate the molecular mechanisms responsible. (ovid.com)
  • Four strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. (asm.org)
  • Fourteen strains of Cryptococcus neoformans were studied for comparison. (bvsalud.org)
  • During 1999, C. gattii began appearing in animals and humans on Vancouver Island and, beginning in 2004, among mainland British Columbia residents who had no exposure to Vancouver Island ( 2,4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • From 1999 through to early 2008, 216 people in British Columbia have been infected with C. gattii, and eight died from complications related to it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 1999, cryptococcosis caused by C. gattii has appeared on southern Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada) and nearby surrounding areas (2,3). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • C. gattii , which likely originated in Brazil, is responsible for dozens of deaths in recent years since it was first found in 1999 on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, well outside its usual tropical habitats. (tgen.org)
  • In 2008, in response to the emergence of C. gattii in the United States, CDC, state and local public health authorities, and the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC) formed the Cryptococcus gattii Public Health Working Group ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This study concludes that: "Public health vigilance is warranted for emergence in regions where C. gattii is not thought to be endemic. (tgen.org)
  • grubii , and C. gattii for genes involved in metal homeostasis provide important groundwork for numerous interesting future areas of investigation that are required in order to validate and explore the function of the identified genes and gene pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • A A revised histology of the brain biopsy of the do- fter antiretroviral therapy for HIV patients nor showed yeasts of Cryptococcus species that had was introduced, solid organ transplant recipi- not been detected previously. (cdc.gov)
  • Mediastinal lymph nodes had mild granulomatous inflammation and contained numerous yeasts morphologically consistent with Cryptococcus spp. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The results confirmed the presence of both Cryptococcus species in the Mediterranean environment, and showed that both carob and olive trees represent an important niche for these yeasts. (marmara.edu.tr)
  • Cryptococcus (Greek for "hidden sphere") is a genus of fungi, which grow in culture as yeasts . (wikipedia.org)
  • We present a meta-analysis to discuss the worldwide molecular epidemiology of the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complexes based on the currently published data. (urosario.edu.co)
  • Neither patient had traveled to Vancouver Island or any other known C. gattii --endemic area. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the highest prevalence of C. gattii cryptococcosis occurs in Papua New Guinea and in regions of Australia where the eucalypt species implicated to date are not endemic. (edu.au)
  • C. gattii (formerly C. neoformans var gattii ) is endemic to tropical parts of the continent of Africa and Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Engelthaler, David M. / Real-time PCR assays for genotyping of Cryptococcus gattii in North America . (elsevier.com)
  • Similar regional patterns are observed among C. gattii species complex subtypes, ST156 is exclusive to Europe, ST6 to North America, but STs 51 and 7 are found in several continents. (urosario.edu.co)
  • The Cryptococcus gattii species complex harbors the main etiological agents of cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • A standardized MLST scheme has been established by the ISHAM working group on "Genotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii ", which is used globally for typing the agents of cryptococcosis. (urosario.edu.co)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, the etiologic agents of cryptococcosis. (springer.com)
  • In 2011, a second set of soil and tree bark samples was collected in the same area and C. gattii VGIIa was again identified from the environment, along with genotypes VGIIb and VGIIc. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At present, there are no guidelines with interpretative clinical minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints to recognize antifungal susceptibility or resistance in C. gattii . (uptodate.com)
  • Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Candida and Cryptococcus Species and Mechanisms of Resistance: Implications for Clinical Laboratories. (edu.au)
  • Cryptococcus gattii is an environmentally occurring pathogen that is responsible for causing cryptococcosis marked by pneumonia and meningoencephalitis in humans and animals. (nih.gov)
  • gattii is not known, but its association with decaying wood is suggestive of an endophytic existence, in common with other wood-rot fungi. (nih.gov)
  • Various fungi phylogenetically related to C. neoformans, including a phenol oxidase-positive strain of Cryptococcus laurentii obtained from E. camaldulensis, were negative in the nucleic acid hybridization test. (asm.org)
  • Many medically important fungi have urease activity, among which are Cryptococcus neoformans, Coccidioides immitis, Histoplasma capsulatum, Sporothrix schenckii, and species of Trichosporon and Aspergillus. (ufrgs.br)
  • The sexual forms or teleomorphs of Cryptococcus species are filamentous fungi in the genus Filobasidiella . (wikipedia.org)
  • C neoformans and C gattii are the fungi that cause this disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Soil debris associated with certain tree species has been found frequently to contain C. gattii VGIII MATα and MATa, and less commonly VGI MATα, in Southern California. (wikipedia.org)
  • gattii has been consistently isolated from decaying wood in hollows of species of the red gum group of eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus ser. (nih.gov)
  • gattii appears to have a specific ecological association with Eucalyptus camaldulensis. (asm.org)
  • High numbers of viable C. gattii propagules can be obtained from certain species of Australian Eucalyptus camaldulensis trees, and an epidemiological link between Eucalyptus colonization and human exposure has been proposed. (edu.au)
  • Cryptococcus gattii is mostly isolated from Eucalyptus trees and is acquired via inhalation of basidiospores. (ijmm.ir)
  • 6 out of 88 samples of Eucalyptus trees were identified as Cryptococcus sp. (ijmm.ir)
  • Although Cryptococcus gattii was not isolated from the collected samples, this does not mean that Eucalyptus trees of Tehran are not contaminated. (ijmm.ir)
  • gattii is associated with Eucalyptus trees growing in various tropical and subtropical regions of the world. (uab.cat)
  • First reported isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Another study described Tsunami survivors from Thailand who suffered from primary cutaneous cryptococcosis caused by C. gattii [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies on Vancouver Island found C. gattii spores in the environment, often in association with trees and soil ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • While C. neoformans is the most common cause of fatal meningoencephalitis, especially in HIV patients, C. gattii has caused disease mainly in non-HIV patients [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study investigated the population structure of three geographically distinct clinical and veterinary populations of C. gattii from Australia and Papua New Guinea. (edu.au)
  • Microbiological culture and molecular typing confirmed the etiology as a unique Cryptococcus gattii variant strain most similar to that of the VGIIb genotype. (cdc.gov)
  • Sources: Vanbruseghem R, Takashio M. An atypical strain of Cryptococcus neoformans (San Felice) Vuillemin 1894. (cdc.gov)
  • Timing the Origin of Cryptococcus gattii sensu stricto, Southeastern United States. (cdc.gov)
  • With the objective to understand the mechanism of induction of CR through non-azoles, the transcriptomes of NA and 10p cells from C. gattii R265 were analyzed. (pasteur.fr)
  • Neste trabalho desenvolvemos um procedimento de purificação e apresentamos a caracterização físico-química e cinética da urease de C. gattii, cepa R265, após ter sido purificada na razão de 539 vezes. (ufrgs.br)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'First identification of autochthonous Cryptococcus neoformans var. (uab.cat)
  • gattii (serotypes B and C) [2]. (who.int)
  • We developed a loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification method using CAP59 allele-specific primers to identify the serotypes A, D and B/C of the Cryptococcus species complex. (unl.pt)
  • Cryptococcus gattii is known to be an etiologic agent of human cryptococcosis, particularly in immunocompetent persons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cryptococcus deuterogattii in 2 kidney transplant recipi- tion tests were positive (titer: 1:64). (cdc.gov)
  • Cryptococcus bacillisporus and C. deuterogattii induced the lowest levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and IL-6 among the five species of the C. gattii complex. (ru.nl)
  • All Cryptococcus species were able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human PBMCs, with C. bacillisporus and C. deuterogattii being more efficient than the other species. (ru.nl)
  • it has been proposed that it be divided into five species - C. gattii , C. bacillisporus , ' C. deuterogattii , C. tetragattii , and C. decagattii . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptococcus is a ubiquitous fungal pathogen that causes primarily meningitis and pneumonia. (cdc.gov)
  • C. gattii can lead to pneumonia or formation of cryptococcomas. (cdc.gov)
  • Given what is known about the potential for dispersal of C. gattii ( 4 ), the owner was extensively interviewed about travel history of the cat and household members, and any travelers to or visitors from California who may have brought items into the house. (blogspot.com)
  • Chronic C. gattii meningitis should be aware in a patient presenting with normal pressure hydrocephalus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cryptococcus gattii can also cause meningitis, but this form can cause disease in patients with a normal immune system as well. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Here we used phylogenetic and recombination analyses, based on AFLP and multiple MLST datasets, and coalescence gene genealogy to demonstrate that these outbreaks have arisen from a highly-recombining C. gattii population in the native rainforest of Northern Brazil. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular typing by restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to definitively speciate and subtype C. gattii (6). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Subtype assays were designed based on whole-genome sequence of 20 C. gattii strains. (elsevier.com)
  • A group in Brazil reported significantly higher geometric mean MICs for fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and flucytosine against C. gattii compared with C. neoformans [ 12 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • In a study from Spain, fluconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole MICs were significantly higher against C. gattii than against C. neoformans [ 13 ], whilst in Taiwan, C. gattii has been reported to be less susceptible to flucytosine and amphotericin B [ 14 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • The in vivo development of heteroresistance to fluconazole in our patient with C. gattii is secondary to overexpression of the efflux pump PDR11 and the drug target ERG11. (ovid.com)
  • In this study, we describe a case of fluconazole -resistant neurocryptococcosis by Cryptococcus gattii in immunocompetent individuals, who unsuccessfully received intravenous and intrathecal amphotericin B , with the patient progressing to death from probable complications of obstructive hydrocephalus . (bvsalud.org)
  • Statistical analysis demonstrates that populations with a higher genetic diversity are associated with a higher rate of mating type a strains, suggesting sexual reproduction as the main way of recombination within the C. neoformans and C. gattii species complexes. (urosario.edu.co)
  • In contrast, C. gattii was, until recently, considered a disease exclusive to immunocompetent persons living in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. (cdc.gov)
  • The latter species mainly infects immunocompromised persons, and C. gattii mainly infects apparently immunocompetent persons. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Whereas C. neoformans primarily affects persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) worldwide, C. gattii primarily affects HIV-uninfected persons in tropical and subtropical regions ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)