Lung Diseases, Fungal
Genes, Mating Type, Fungal
Drug Resistance, Fungal
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Northwestern United States
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections
Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal
DNA, Ribosomal Spacer
Central Nervous System Fungal Infections
Molecular Sequence Data
Fruiting Bodies, Fungal
Colony Count, Microbial
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Central Nervous System Infections
Early mycological treatment failure in AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. (1/529)Cryptococcal meningitis causes significant morbidity and mortality in persons with AIDS. Of 236 AIDS patients treated with amphotericin B plus flucytosine, 29 (12%) died within 2 weeks and 62 (26%) died before 10 weeks. Just 129 (55%) of 236 patients were alive with negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures at 10 weeks. Multivariate analyses identified that titer of cryptococcal antigen in CSF, serum albumin level, and CD4 cell count, together with dose of amphotericin B, had the strongest joint association with failure to achieve negative CSF cultures by day 14. Among patients with similar CSF cryptococcal antigen titers, CD4 cell counts, and serum albumin levels, the odds of failure at week 10 for those without negative CSF cultures by day 14 was five times that for those with negative CSF cultures by day 14 (odds ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-10.9). Prognosis is dismal for patients with AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis. Multivariate analyses identified three components that, along with initial treatment, have the strongest joint association with early outcome. Clearly, more effective initial therapy and patient management strategies that address immune function and nutritional status are needed to improve outcomes of this disease. (+info)
In vitro susceptibilities of clinical yeast isolates to the new antifungal eberconazole compared with their susceptibilities to clotrimazole and ketoconazole. (2/529)The antifungal activity of eberconazole, a new imidazole derivative, against 124 clinical isolates of Candida comprising eight different species and to 34 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans was compared to those of clotrimazole and ketoconazole. MICs of eberconazole, determined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards standardized microbroth method, were equal to or lower than those of other azoles, especially for Candida krusei and Candida glabrata, which are usually resistant to triazoles. (+info)
Topoisomerase I is essential in Cryptococcus neoformans: role In pathobiology and as an antifungal target. (3/529)Topisomerase I is the target of several toxins and chemotherapy agents, and the enzyme is essential for viability in some organisms, including mice and drosophila. We have cloned the TOP1 gene encoding topoisomerase I from the opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. The C. neoformans topoisomerase I contains a fungal insert also found in topoisomerase I from Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is not present in the mammalian enzyme. We were unable to disrupt the topoisomerase I gene in this haploid organism by homologous recombination in over 8000 transformants analyzed. When a second functional copy of the TOP1 gene was introduced into the genome, the topoisomerase I gene could be readily disrupted by homologous recombination (at 7% efficiency). Thus, topoisomerase I is essential in C. neoformans. This new molecular strategy with C. neoformans may also be useful in identifying essential genes in other pathogenic fungi. To address the physiological and pathobiological functions of the enzyme, the TOP1 gene was fused to the GAL7 gene promoter. The resulting GAL7::TOP1 fusion gene was modestly regulated by carbon source in a serotype A strain of C. neoformans. Modest overexpression of topoisomerase I conferred sensitivity to heat shock, gamma-rays, and camptothecin. In contrast, alterations in topoisomerase I levels had no effect on the toxicity of a novel class of antifungal agents, the dicationic aromatic compounds (DACs), indicating that topoisomerase I is not the target of DACs. In an animal model of cryptococcal meningitis, topoisomerase I regulation was not critically important to established infection, but may impact on the initial stress response to infection. In summary, our studies reveal that topoisomerase I is essential in the human pathogen C. neoformans and represents a novel target for antifungal agents. (+info)
Comparison of three commercial systems for identification of yeasts commonly isolated in the clinical microbiology laboratory. (4/529)We evaluated three commercial systems (RapID Yeast Plus System; Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Norcross, Ga.; API 20C Aux; bioMerieux-Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.; and Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card, bioMerieux-Vitek) against an auxinographic and microscopic morphologic reference method for the ability to identify yeasts commonly isolated in our clinical microbiology laboratory. Two-hundred one yeast isolates were compared in the study. The RapID Yeast Plus System was significantly better than either API 20C Aux (193 versus 167 correct identifications; P < 0.0001) or the Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card (193 versus 173 correct identifications; P = 0.003) for obtaining correct identifications to the species level without additional testing. There was no significant difference between results obtained with API 20C Aux and the Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card system (P = 0.39). The API 20C Aux system did not correctly identify any of the Candida krusei isolates (n = 23) without supplemental testing and accounted for the major differences between the API 20C Aux and RapID Yeast Plus systems. Overall, the RapID Yeast Plus System was easy to use and is a good system for the routine identification of clinically relevant yeasts. (+info)
Variation in Microbial Identification System accuracy for yeast identification depending on commercial source of Sabouraud dextrose agar. (5/529)The accuracy of the Microbial Identification System (MIS; MIDI, Inc. ) for identification of yeasts to the species level was compared by using 438 isolates grown on prepoured BBL Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and prepoured Remel SDA. Correct identification was observed for 326 (74%) of the yeasts cultured on BBL SDA versus only 214 (49%) of yeasts grown on Remel SDA (P < 0.001). The commercial source of the SDA used in the MIS procedure significantly influences the system's accuracy. (+info)
Comparative study of seven commercial yeast identification systems. (6/529)AIMS: To compare the performance of seven commercial yeast identification methods with that of a reference method, and to compare the costs of the commercial kits. METHODS: Clinical yeast isolates (n = 52), comprising 19 species, were identified using Vitek, Api ID 32C, Api 20C AUX, Yeast Star, Auxacolor, RapID Yeast Plus system, and Api Candida and compared with a reference method which employed conventional tests. RESULTS: The percentage of correctly identified isolates varied between 59.6% and 80.8%. Overall, the highest performance was obtained with Api Candida (78.8%) and Auxacolor (80.8%). Among germ tube negative yeast isolates, Auxacolor and Api Candida both identified 93.1% of isolates correctly. All systems failed to identify C norvegensis, C catenulata, C haemulonii, and C dubliniensis. In comparison with Auxacolor, the Api Candida is less expensive and requires less bench time. CONCLUSIONS: Auxacolor and Api Candida appeared to be the most useful systems for identification of germ tube negative yeast isolates in clinical microbiology laboratories, although one should be aware that several germ tube negative Candida species cannot be identified by these systems. (+info)
Binding energy and specificity in the catalytic mechanism of yeast aldose reductases. (7/529)Derivatives of d-xylose and d-glucose, in which the hydroxy groups at C-5, and C-5 and C-6 were replaced by fluorine, hydrogen and azide, were synthesized and used as substrates of the NAD(P)H-dependent aldehyde reduction catalysed by aldose reductases isolated from the yeasts Candida tenuis, C. intermedia and Cryptococcus flavus. Steady-state kinetic analysis showed that, in comparison with the parent aldoses, the derivatives were reduced with up to 3000-fold increased catalytic efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m)), reflecting apparent substrate binding constants (K(m)) decreased to as little as 1/250 and, for d-glucose derivatives, up to 5.5-fold increased maximum initial rates (k(cat)). The effects on K(m) mirror the relative proportion of free aldehyde that is available in aqueous solution for binding to the binary complex enzyme-NAD(P)H. The effects on k(cat) reflect non-productive binding of the pyranose ring of sugars; this occurs preferentially with the NADPH-dependent enzymes. No transition-state stabilization energy seems to be derived from hydrogen-bonding interactions between enzyme-NAD(P)H and positions C-5 and C-6 of the aldose. In contrast, unfavourable interactions with the C-6 group are used together with non-productive binding to bring about specificity (6-10 kJ/mol) in a series of d-aldoses and to prevent the reaction with poor substrates such as d-glucose. Azide introduced at C-5 or C-6 destabilizes the transition state of reduction of the corresponding hydrogen-substituted aldoses by approx. 4-9 kJ/mol. The total transition state stabilization energy derived from hydrogen bonds between hydroxy groups of the substrate and enzyme-NAD(P)H is similar for all yeast aldose reductases (yALRs), at approx. 12-17 kJ/mol. Three out of four yALRs manage on only hydrophobic enzyme-substrate interactions to achieve optimal k(cat), whereas the NAD(P)H-dependent enzyme from C. intermedia requires additional, probably hydrogen-bonding, interactions with the substrate for efficient turnover. (+info)
Intraspecies diversity of Cryptococcus laurentii as revealed by sequences of internal transcribed spacer regions and 28S rRNA gene and taxonomic position of C. laurentii clinical isolates. (8/529)The intraspecies diversity of an opportunistic yeast pathogen, Cryptococcus laurentii, was revealed by analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions and the 28S rRNA gene. Ten strains of C. laurentii were grouped into two major phylogenetic groups and were further divided into at least seven species. Four of the strains isolated from patients did not represent a single species but showed heterogeneity. These results suggest that C. laurentii is a genetically heterogeneous species, and this must be taken into consideration when identifying C. laurentii clinical isolates. (+info)
The symptoms of cryptococcosis vary depending on the location and severity of the infection. In lung infections, patients may experience fever, cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. In CNS infections, patients may experience headaches, confusion, seizures, and loss of coordination. Skin infections can cause skin lesions, and eye infections can cause vision problems.
Cryptococcosis is diagnosed by culturing the fungus from body fluids or tissue samples. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, such as amphotericin B or fluconazole, which may be given intravenously or orally, depending on the severity and location of the infection. In severe cases, surgery may be required to remove infected tissue or repair damaged organs.
Preventive measures for cryptococcosis include avoiding exposure to fungal spores, practicing good hygiene, and maintaining a healthy immune system. For individuals with HIV/AIDS, antiretroviral therapy can help reduce the risk of developing cryptococcosis.
Overall, while rare, cryptococcosis is a serious opportunistic infection that can affect individuals with compromised immune systems. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
A type of meningitis caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, which can be found in soil and decaying organic matter. The fungus is more common in areas with warm climates and poor air quality. It can cause a variety of symptoms including fever, headache, stiff neck, nausea, vomiting, and mental confusion.
It is most commonly seen in people who have compromised immune systems (such as those with HIV/AIDS or taking immunosuppressive medications), and the elderly. It can be diagnosed by analyzing a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the presence of the fungus or its antigens, or through imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications and supportive care to manage symptoms.
Types of fungal lung diseases include:
1. Aspergillosis: This is an infection caused by the fungus Aspergillus, which is commonly found in soil and decaying organic matter. It can affect people with weakened immune systems, such as those with cancer, HIV/AIDS, or taking immunosuppressive drugs.
2. Cryptococcosis: This is an infection caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, which is found in soil and decaying wood. It can affect people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or taking immunosuppressive drugs.
3. Histoplasmosis: This is an infection caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, which is found in soil and decaying organic matter. It can affect people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or taking immunosuppressive drugs.
4. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP): This is an infection caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii, which is found in soil and decaying organic matter. It can affect people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or taking immunosuppressive drugs.
5. Sporotrichosis: This is an infection caused by the fungus Sporothrix schenckii, which is found in soil and decaying organic matter. It can affect people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or taking immunosuppressive drugs.
Symptoms of fungal lung diseases can include:
* Chest pain
* Shortness of breath
Diagnosis of fungal lung diseases is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, and fungal cultures. Treatment usually involves antifungal medications and may also include supportive care to manage symptoms.
Prevention of fungal lung diseases includes:
1. Avoiding exposure to fungal spores by wearing protective clothing and gear when working with soil or decaying organic matter.
2. Maintaining good indoor air quality by using ventilation systems and reducing humidity.
3. Reducing the risk of infection by avoiding close contact with people who are at high risk of developing fungal lung diseases, such as those with weakened immune systems.
4. Avoiding smoking and other tobacco products, which can increase the risk of developing fungal lung diseases.
5. Managing underlying medical conditions, such as HIV/AIDS or taking immunosuppressive drugs, to reduce the risk of developing fungal lung diseases.
The symptoms of meningoencephalitis can vary depending on the cause, but common signs include fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness. The disease can progress rapidly and can be fatal if not treated promptly.
Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests (such as blood cultures and PCR), and imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans). Treatment options depend on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotics, antiviral medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Prognosis for meningoencephalitis depends on the severity of the disease and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment. In general, the prognosis is better for patients who receive prompt medical attention and have a mild form of the disease. However, the disease can be severe and potentially life-threatening, especially in young children, older adults, and those with weakened immune systems.
Examples of AROIs include:
1. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP): a type of pneumonia caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii.
2. Tuberculosis (TB): a bacterial infection that can affect the lungs, brain, or other organs.
3. Toxoplasmosis: an infection caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii that can affect the brain, eyes, and other organs.
4. Cryptococcosis: a fungal infection that can affect the lungs, brain, or skin.
5. Histoplasmosis: a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum that can affect the lungs, skin, and other organs.
6. Aspergillosis: a fungal infection caused by Aspergillus species that can affect the lungs, sinuses, and other organs.
7. Candidiasis: a fungal infection caused by Candida species that can affect the mouth, throat, vagina, or skin.
8. Kaposi's sarcoma: a type of cancer that is caused by the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) and can affect the skin and lymph nodes.
9. Wasting syndrome: a condition characterized by weight loss, fatigue, and diarrhea.
10. Opportunistic infections that can affect the gastrointestinal tract, such as cryptosporidiosis and isosporiasis.
AROIs are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with HIV/AIDS, and they can be prevented or treated with antimicrobial therapy, supportive care, and other interventions.
The most common types of mycoses include:
1. Ringworm: This is a common fungal infection that causes a ring-shaped rash on the skin. It can affect any part of the body, including the arms, legs, torso, and face.
2. Athlete's foot: This is a common fungal infection that affects the feet, causing itching, redness, and cracking of the skin.
3. Jock itch: This is a fungal infection that affects the groin area and inner thighs, causing itching, redness, and cracking of the skin.
4. Candidiasis: This is a fungal infection caused by Candida, a type of yeast. It can affect various parts of the body, including the mouth, throat, and vagina.
5. Aspergillosis: This is a serious fungal infection that can affect various parts of the body, including the lungs, sinuses, and brain.
Symptoms of mycoses can vary depending on the type of infection and the severity of the infection. Common symptoms include itching, redness, swelling, and cracking of the skin. Treatment for mycoses usually involves antifungal medications, which can be applied topically or taken orally. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.
Preventive measures for mycoses include practicing good hygiene, avoiding sharing personal items such as towels and clothing, and using antifungal medications as prescribed by a healthcare professional. Early diagnosis and treatment of mycoses can help prevent complications and reduce the risk of transmission to others.
The most common types of CNS fungal infections include:
1. Meningitis: An inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, caused by fungi such as Candida, Aspergillus, or Cryptococcus.
2. Encephalitis: An inflammation of the brain tissue itself, caused by fungi such as Histoplasma or Coccidioides.
3. Abscesses: Pocket of pus that form in the brain or spinal cord, caused by bacteria or fungi.
4. Opportunistic infections: Infections that occur in people with compromised immune systems, such as HIV/AIDS patients or those taking immunosuppressive drugs after an organ transplant.
CNS fungal infections can cause a wide range of symptoms, including headache, fever, confusion, seizures, and loss of coordination. They are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans.
Treatment of CNS fungal infections usually involves the use of antifungal medications, which can be administered intravenously or orally. The choice of treatment depends on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the patient's overall health status. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to drain abscesses or relieve pressure on the brain.
Prevention of CNS fungal infections is important for individuals at risk, such as those with compromised immune systems or underlying medical conditions. This includes taking antifungal medications prophylactically, avoiding exposure to fungal spores, and practicing good hygiene.
Overall, CNS fungal infections are serious and potentially life-threatening conditions that require prompt diagnosis and treatment. With appropriate management, many patients can recover fully, but delays in diagnosis and treatment can lead to poor outcomes.
Also found in: Medical, Encyclopedia.
Examples from the web for 'dermatomycoses'
Some common types of dermatomycoses include athlete's foot and jock itch.
Scientific American, 25 Mar. 2019.
Topical antifungal medications are effective against most types of dermatomycoses.
Britannica.com: encyclopedia article about dermatomycoses.
This condition is caused by a type of fungus that affects the skin, known as dermatomycoses.
Mayo Clinic, 01 Mar. 2020.
A type of meningitis caused by a fungal infection. Fungal meningitis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that can occur when fungi enter the bloodstream and spread to the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meninges).
The most common types of fungi that cause fungal meningitis are Aspergillus, Candida, and Cryptococcus. These fungi can be found in soil, decaying organic matter, and contaminated food. People with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or taking immunosuppressive drugs, are at a higher risk of developing fungal meningitis.
Symptoms of fungal meningitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, sensitivity to light, and confusion. If left untreated, fungal meningitis can lead to serious complications such as brain damage, hearing loss, and seizures. Treatment typically involves the use of antifungal medications, and in severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or relieve pressure on the brain.
Preventive measures for fungal meningitis include avoiding exposure to fungal sources, practicing good hygiene, and taking antifungal medications as prescribed by a healthcare professional. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical in preventing serious complications and improving outcomes for patients with fungal meningitis.
The most common types of CNS infections include:
1. Meningitis: Inflammation of the protective membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord, often caused by bacteria or viruses.
2. Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain tissue itself, usually caused by a virus.
3. Abscesses: Pockets of pus that form in the brain or spinal cord, typically caused by bacterial infections.
4. Cryptococcal infections: Caused by a fungus called Cryptococcus neoformans, often affecting people with weakened immune systems.
5. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection caused by the Toxoplasma gondii parasite, which can affect the CNS in people with compromised immune systems.
Symptoms of CNS infections can vary depending on the specific type and severity of the infection, but may include fever, headache, confusion, seizures, weakness, and stiff neck. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans.
Treatment of CNS infections depends on the underlying cause, but may involve antibiotics, antiviral medications, or antifungal drugs. In severe cases, hospitalization and supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and respiratory support may be necessary.
Prevention of CNS infections includes good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and getting vaccinated against certain viruses that can cause CNS infections. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are critical to preventing long-term complications of CNS infections and improving outcomes for patients.
Symptoms of fungemia may include fever, chills, night sweats, fatigue, and weight loss. Diagnosis is typically made by drawing blood cultures and performing microbiological tests to identify the presence of fungal organisms in the blood. Treatment typically involves administration of antifungal medications, which can be given intravenously or orally. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition.
In some cases, fungemia can lead to complications such as sepsis, organ failure, and death. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent these outcomes.
Rhoda Williams Benham
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- Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that may cause meningitis in immunocompromised individuals. (broadinstitute.org)
- Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated fungal pathogen causing fatal meningitis in humans. (broadinstitute.org)
- Infections caused by the emerging pathogen Cryptococcus gattii are increasing in frequency in North America. (nih.gov)
- Cryptococcus gattii in the United States: clinical aspects of infection with an emerging pathogen. (nih.gov)
- We tested the performance of three RNA enrichment methods on RNA isolated from Cryptococcus neoformans, a fungal pathogen of humans. (duke.edu)
- ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Cryptococcus neoformans (Sanfelice) Vuillemin is an opportunistic fungal pathogen responsible for causing meningitis predominantly in immuno-compromised individuals, particularly in those suffering from human immuno virus (HIV) acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS). (sun.ac.za)
- We found that mutations in genes of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans involved in mammalian virulence allow C. elegans to produce greater numbers of progeny than when exposed to wild-type fungus. (houstonmethodist.org)
- Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogen causing cryptococcosis in HIV / AIDS patients , but treatment is limited due to the relative lack of potent antifungal agents . (bvsalud.org)
- Cryptococcus is a yeast (type of fungus) that seldom causes infection, but is considered opportunistic (it affects people with weakened immune systems). (medlineplus.gov)
- Cryptococcus gattii Infection Presenting as an Aggressive Lung Mass. (nih.gov)
- The fungus Cryptococcus , a type of yeast, is responsible for cryptococcal meningitis, a potentially fatal fungal brain infection. (nih.gov)
- A 53-year old immunocompetent Swiss female is described who developed severe meningoencephalitis due to infection with Cryptococcus gattii 13 months following exposure on Vancouver Island, Canada. (nih.gov)
- Interestingly, dectin inhibitors blocked phagocytosis of unopsonised Cryptococci and partially protected the larvae from infection by both fungi, supporting a key role for host phagocytes in augmenting early disease establishment. (swan.ac.uk)
- Variables influencing the risk of dissemination and outcome of Cryptococcus neoformans infection were assessed in 111 organ transplant recipients with cryptococcosis in a prospective, multicenter, international study. (nebraska.edu)
- Cryptococcosis is infection with the fungi Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii . (nih.gov)
- Cryptococcus is the most common fungus that causes serious infection worldwide. (nih.gov)
- Cryptococcus neoformans is usually found in tissues in the yeast form. (broadinstitute.org)
- Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast ubiquitous in nature which, when it infects humans, typically causes pulmonary disease and occasionally meningitis . (who.int)
- Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast found widely in the environment but especially the feces of birds such as the pigeon. (pathwaymedicine.org)
- Cryptococcosis: update and emergence of Cryptococcus gattii. (nih.gov)
- A species of the fungus Cryptococcus, which causes cryptococcosis. (loinc.org)
- The Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex members are the main agents of systemic cryptococcosis. (unl.pt)
- Perfect JR. Cryptococcosis ( Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii ). (nih.gov)
- Cryptococcus is a genus of fungi, of which two species, Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, cause nearly all human and animal cryptococcal infections. (cdc.gov)
- In this lecture we will dissect the biology of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans in an effort to glean an explanation for the origin of virulence. (nih.gov)
- The fungus Cryptococcus neoformans can cause brain inflammation, or meningitis. (nih.gov)
- Although antifungal therapies kill Cryptococcus , small pieces of the fungus remain and can provoke immune responses. (nih.gov)
- While earning her Ph.D. at Duke University, Durham, N.C., Findley zeroed in on Cryptococcus neoformans , a common, single-celled fungus that can lead to life-threatening infections, especially in people with weakened immune systems. (nih.gov)
- The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus enters the human host via inhalation into the lung and is able to reside in a niche environment that is serum (opsonin) limiting. (swan.ac.uk)
- Today we're discussing everything you need to know about managing Cryptococcus gattii meningitis in immunocompetent patients with Dr Sharon Chen. (medscape.com)
- It has blown me away in terms of how different these patients can be compared with patients with HIV or even transplant patients presenting with Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis and also how challenging it has been to take care of some of these patients. (medscape.com)
- Cryptococcus neoformans is unique among the most common human fungal pathogens in that it is a basidiomycete, thus it is evolutionarily divergent from the more common pathogenic ascomycetes (e.g. (broadinstitute.org)
- Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are yeasts that cause meningoencephalitis, but that differ in host range and geographical distribution. (pasteur.fr)
- Cryptococcus is one of the more common life-threatening fungal infections people with AIDS. (medlineplus.gov)
- Autochthonous and dormant Cryptococcus gattii infections in Europe. (nih.gov)
- The murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) 18B7 [immunoglobulin G1(K)] is in preclinical development for treatment of Cryptococcus neoformans infections. (elsevier.com)
- Cryptococcus gattii was also not found although some isolates yielded a positive canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue test. (unl.pt)
- Thus, non-opsonised Cryptococci are recognised by mammalian phagocytes in a manner that minimises proinflammatory cytokine production and potentially facilitates fungal pathogenesis. (swan.ac.uk)
- In 2008, in response to the emergence of C. gattii in the United States, CDC, state and local public health authorities, and the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC) formed the Cryptococcus gattii Public Health Working Group ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- Cryptococcus gattii meningoencephalitis in an HIV-negative patient from the Peruvian Andes. (nih.gov)
- The Cryptococcus neoformans Serotype A H99 reference genome project was a collaboration between the Fungal Genome Initiative at the Broad Institute and Fred Dietrich at the Duke Center for Genome Technology. (broadinstitute.org)
- Using a combination of soluble inhibitors of phagocytic receptors and macrophages derived from knockout mice, we show that uptake of non-opsonised Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptocccous gattii is not mannose receptor dependent. (swan.ac.uk)
- Cryptococcus victoriae), from homes participating in the New York City Neighborhood Asthma and Allergy Study (NAAS). (cdc.gov)
- Cryptococcus" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uams.edu)
- Diversity and ontogeny of Cryptococcus neoformans var. (sun.ac.za)
- Peter Williamson, M.D., Ph.D., chief of the Translational Mycology Unit in the Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, led NIAID researchers in seeking to uncover why healthy people may be susceptible to Cryptococcus and why therapies so frequently fail these patients. (nih.gov)
- Cryptococcus neoformans has a defined sexual cycle involving mating between cells of the MATalpha and MATa types. (broadinstitute.org)
- Cryptococcus neoformans occurs world-wide and mostly infects immunocompromised patients, whereas C. gattii occurs mainly in (sub)tropical regions and infects healthy individuals. (pasteur.fr)
- Is the Subject Area "Cryptococcus neoformans" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Cryptococcus" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "Cryptococcus" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uams.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Cryptococcus" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. (uams.edu)
- Fungal medicines are prescribed for people infected with cryptococcus. (nih.gov)
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