A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella bacillispora.
Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.
Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.
Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.
Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The geographic area of the northwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.
MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC 3.1.1.5.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
Techniques used in microbiology.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.
The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
Meningitis caused by fungal agents which may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
Cell wall components constituting a polysaccharide core found in fungi. They may act as antigens or structural substrates.
Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.
A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.
The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A mitosporic Onygenales fungal genus causing HISTOPLASMOSIS in humans and animals. Its single species is Histoplasma capsulatum which has two varieties: H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and H. capsulatum var. duboisii. Its teleomorph is AJELLOMYCES capsulatus.

Early mycological treatment failure in AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. (1/529)

Cryptococcal meningitis causes significant morbidity and mortality in persons with AIDS. Of 236 AIDS patients treated with amphotericin B plus flucytosine, 29 (12%) died within 2 weeks and 62 (26%) died before 10 weeks. Just 129 (55%) of 236 patients were alive with negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures at 10 weeks. Multivariate analyses identified that titer of cryptococcal antigen in CSF, serum albumin level, and CD4 cell count, together with dose of amphotericin B, had the strongest joint association with failure to achieve negative CSF cultures by day 14. Among patients with similar CSF cryptococcal antigen titers, CD4 cell counts, and serum albumin levels, the odds of failure at week 10 for those without negative CSF cultures by day 14 was five times that for those with negative CSF cultures by day 14 (odds ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-10.9). Prognosis is dismal for patients with AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis. Multivariate analyses identified three components that, along with initial treatment, have the strongest joint association with early outcome. Clearly, more effective initial therapy and patient management strategies that address immune function and nutritional status are needed to improve outcomes of this disease.  (+info)

In vitro susceptibilities of clinical yeast isolates to the new antifungal eberconazole compared with their susceptibilities to clotrimazole and ketoconazole. (2/529)

The antifungal activity of eberconazole, a new imidazole derivative, against 124 clinical isolates of Candida comprising eight different species and to 34 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans was compared to those of clotrimazole and ketoconazole. MICs of eberconazole, determined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards standardized microbroth method, were equal to or lower than those of other azoles, especially for Candida krusei and Candida glabrata, which are usually resistant to triazoles.  (+info)

Topoisomerase I is essential in Cryptococcus neoformans: role In pathobiology and as an antifungal target. (3/529)

Topisomerase I is the target of several toxins and chemotherapy agents, and the enzyme is essential for viability in some organisms, including mice and drosophila. We have cloned the TOP1 gene encoding topoisomerase I from the opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. The C. neoformans topoisomerase I contains a fungal insert also found in topoisomerase I from Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is not present in the mammalian enzyme. We were unable to disrupt the topoisomerase I gene in this haploid organism by homologous recombination in over 8000 transformants analyzed. When a second functional copy of the TOP1 gene was introduced into the genome, the topoisomerase I gene could be readily disrupted by homologous recombination (at 7% efficiency). Thus, topoisomerase I is essential in C. neoformans. This new molecular strategy with C. neoformans may also be useful in identifying essential genes in other pathogenic fungi. To address the physiological and pathobiological functions of the enzyme, the TOP1 gene was fused to the GAL7 gene promoter. The resulting GAL7::TOP1 fusion gene was modestly regulated by carbon source in a serotype A strain of C. neoformans. Modest overexpression of topoisomerase I conferred sensitivity to heat shock, gamma-rays, and camptothecin. In contrast, alterations in topoisomerase I levels had no effect on the toxicity of a novel class of antifungal agents, the dicationic aromatic compounds (DACs), indicating that topoisomerase I is not the target of DACs. In an animal model of cryptococcal meningitis, topoisomerase I regulation was not critically important to established infection, but may impact on the initial stress response to infection. In summary, our studies reveal that topoisomerase I is essential in the human pathogen C. neoformans and represents a novel target for antifungal agents.  (+info)

Comparison of three commercial systems for identification of yeasts commonly isolated in the clinical microbiology laboratory. (4/529)

We evaluated three commercial systems (RapID Yeast Plus System; Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Norcross, Ga.; API 20C Aux; bioMerieux-Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.; and Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card, bioMerieux-Vitek) against an auxinographic and microscopic morphologic reference method for the ability to identify yeasts commonly isolated in our clinical microbiology laboratory. Two-hundred one yeast isolates were compared in the study. The RapID Yeast Plus System was significantly better than either API 20C Aux (193 versus 167 correct identifications; P < 0.0001) or the Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card (193 versus 173 correct identifications; P = 0.003) for obtaining correct identifications to the species level without additional testing. There was no significant difference between results obtained with API 20C Aux and the Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card system (P = 0.39). The API 20C Aux system did not correctly identify any of the Candida krusei isolates (n = 23) without supplemental testing and accounted for the major differences between the API 20C Aux and RapID Yeast Plus systems. Overall, the RapID Yeast Plus System was easy to use and is a good system for the routine identification of clinically relevant yeasts.  (+info)

Variation in Microbial Identification System accuracy for yeast identification depending on commercial source of Sabouraud dextrose agar. (5/529)

The accuracy of the Microbial Identification System (MIS; MIDI, Inc. ) for identification of yeasts to the species level was compared by using 438 isolates grown on prepoured BBL Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and prepoured Remel SDA. Correct identification was observed for 326 (74%) of the yeasts cultured on BBL SDA versus only 214 (49%) of yeasts grown on Remel SDA (P < 0.001). The commercial source of the SDA used in the MIS procedure significantly influences the system's accuracy.  (+info)

Comparative study of seven commercial yeast identification systems. (6/529)

AIMS: To compare the performance of seven commercial yeast identification methods with that of a reference method, and to compare the costs of the commercial kits. METHODS: Clinical yeast isolates (n = 52), comprising 19 species, were identified using Vitek, Api ID 32C, Api 20C AUX, Yeast Star, Auxacolor, RapID Yeast Plus system, and Api Candida and compared with a reference method which employed conventional tests. RESULTS: The percentage of correctly identified isolates varied between 59.6% and 80.8%. Overall, the highest performance was obtained with Api Candida (78.8%) and Auxacolor (80.8%). Among germ tube negative yeast isolates, Auxacolor and Api Candida both identified 93.1% of isolates correctly. All systems failed to identify C norvegensis, C catenulata, C haemulonii, and C dubliniensis. In comparison with Auxacolor, the Api Candida is less expensive and requires less bench time. CONCLUSIONS: Auxacolor and Api Candida appeared to be the most useful systems for identification of germ tube negative yeast isolates in clinical microbiology laboratories, although one should be aware that several germ tube negative Candida species cannot be identified by these systems.  (+info)

Binding energy and specificity in the catalytic mechanism of yeast aldose reductases. (7/529)

Derivatives of d-xylose and d-glucose, in which the hydroxy groups at C-5, and C-5 and C-6 were replaced by fluorine, hydrogen and azide, were synthesized and used as substrates of the NAD(P)H-dependent aldehyde reduction catalysed by aldose reductases isolated from the yeasts Candida tenuis, C. intermedia and Cryptococcus flavus. Steady-state kinetic analysis showed that, in comparison with the parent aldoses, the derivatives were reduced with up to 3000-fold increased catalytic efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m)), reflecting apparent substrate binding constants (K(m)) decreased to as little as 1/250 and, for d-glucose derivatives, up to 5.5-fold increased maximum initial rates (k(cat)). The effects on K(m) mirror the relative proportion of free aldehyde that is available in aqueous solution for binding to the binary complex enzyme-NAD(P)H. The effects on k(cat) reflect non-productive binding of the pyranose ring of sugars; this occurs preferentially with the NADPH-dependent enzymes. No transition-state stabilization energy seems to be derived from hydrogen-bonding interactions between enzyme-NAD(P)H and positions C-5 and C-6 of the aldose. In contrast, unfavourable interactions with the C-6 group are used together with non-productive binding to bring about specificity (6-10 kJ/mol) in a series of d-aldoses and to prevent the reaction with poor substrates such as d-glucose. Azide introduced at C-5 or C-6 destabilizes the transition state of reduction of the corresponding hydrogen-substituted aldoses by approx. 4-9 kJ/mol. The total transition state stabilization energy derived from hydrogen bonds between hydroxy groups of the substrate and enzyme-NAD(P)H is similar for all yeast aldose reductases (yALRs), at approx. 12-17 kJ/mol. Three out of four yALRs manage on only hydrophobic enzyme-substrate interactions to achieve optimal k(cat), whereas the NAD(P)H-dependent enzyme from C. intermedia requires additional, probably hydrogen-bonding, interactions with the substrate for efficient turnover.  (+info)

Intraspecies diversity of Cryptococcus laurentii as revealed by sequences of internal transcribed spacer regions and 28S rRNA gene and taxonomic position of C. laurentii clinical isolates. (8/529)

The intraspecies diversity of an opportunistic yeast pathogen, Cryptococcus laurentii, was revealed by analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions and the 28S rRNA gene. Ten strains of C. laurentii were grouped into two major phylogenetic groups and were further divided into at least seven species. Four of the strains isolated from patients did not represent a single species but showed heterogeneity. These results suggest that C. laurentii is a genetically heterogeneous species, and this must be taken into consideration when identifying C. laurentii clinical isolates.  (+info)

Cryptococcus laurentii ATCC ® 18803™ Designation: CBS 139 [CCRC 20527, CCY 17-3-2, DBVPG 6265, IFO 0609, IFO 0906, MUCL 30398, NRRL Y-2536, VKM Y-1665, VKPM Y-219] Application: Produces xylan endo-1,3-beta-xylosidase xylan hydrolase, xylanase Quality control strain Quality control strain for API products Control strain for identification
Cryptococcus albidus ATCC ® 66030™ Designation: AmMS 228 Application: Quality control strain Biomedical Research and Development Material
Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by fungi that belong to the genus Cryptococcus.The two species are Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii.
The mating type locus (MAT) and sexual reproduction of Cryptococcus heveanensis: insights into the evolution of sex and sex-determining chromosomal regions in fungi.
Looking for Cryptococcus? Find out information about Cryptococcus. A genus of encapsulated pathogenic yeasts in the order Moniliales Explanation of Cryptococcus
Archives issue of International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences which aims to cover the latest outstanding developments in the field of pharmaceutical and biological sciences
Cryptococcus is a polyphyletic genus that is present in all five major lineages of the Tremellomycetes (Agaricomycotina). Cryptococcus wieringae (syn=Filobasidium wieringae) was described by Fonseca et al. (2000) to re-classify strains of Cryptoccocus albidus related to Cryptoccocus magnus. Like many other members of Filobasidiales, Cryptococcus wieringae is also found in association with plants. The original identification by Wieringa (1956) was on samples isolated from flax straw when a role in pectin hydrolysis during the dew-retting process of flax was suggested. It has also been isolated from soil samples (Arenz et al. 2006) and glaciers (Branda et al. 2010).. This genome was sequenced as part of the 1000 fungal genomes project ...
Abstract Niger (Guizotia abyssinica) is an oilseed crop cultivated in Ethiopia and India. Niger seed oil is packed with beneficial fatty acids and linoleic acid, and has a similar composition to sunflower oil. The aim ...
Cryptococcus answers are found in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Etymology: Aseraggodes: Greek, aggos, -eos, -ous = vessel, uterus, carapace of a crab + Greek, aseros, -a, -on = to remove the appetite (Ref. 45335); albidus: Name from Latin word meaning white, refers to the unusual white overall colour of the ocular side of this sole in life.. More on author: Randall. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
In the previous post in this series, I promised to talk about some different types of the cryptococcal organism, including their clinical significance. But before I point out the types, lets recapitulate quickly the conventions of scientific naming of biological organisms, a.k.a. binomial nomenclature, a system in which living organisms (bacteria, plants, animals, and so forth) are identified with a set of two names, a generic name (indicating its Genus) and a specific name (indicating the species). Simply put, Genus (always written with an initial capital) refers to a particular group with a family of organisms, and species (always written in lowercase) refers to specific members within that group, who share genetic similarity to the point of being capable of interbreeding amongst themselves and producing fertile offsprings. This definition of species is, however, slightly foggy because under different circumstances, both natural and artificial, members of different species within the same ...
Ramtil yağı - Nijerya, Hindistan ve Etiyopyada Guizotia abyssinicaun birkaç türünden birinin tohumlarının ezilmesinden elde edilir. (Niger pea) in Hindistan ve Etiyopya. Pişirmede ve aydınlatmada kullanılır ...
D) Genetic characterization of regulatory elements that control the biosynthesis and the uptake of amino acids and their role in virulence of Cryptococcus ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extracellular fibrils of pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus gattii are important for ecological niche, murine virulence and human neutrophil interactions. AU - Springer, Deborah J.. AU - Ren, Ping. AU - Raina, Ramesh. AU - Dong, Yimin. AU - Behr, Melissa J.. AU - McEwen, Bruce F.. AU - Bowser, Samuel S.. AU - Samsonoff, William A.. AU - Chaturvedi, Sudha. AU - Chaturvedi, Vishnu. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Cryptococcus gattii, an emerging fungal pathogen of humans and animals, is found on a variety of trees in tropical and temperate regions. The ecological niche and virulence of this yeast remain poorly defined. We used Arabidopsis thaliana plants and plant-derived substrates to model C. gattii in its natural habitat. Yeast cells readily colonized scratch-wounded plant leaves and formed distinctive extracellular fibrils (40-100 nm diameter ×500-3000 nm length). Extracellular fibrils were observed on live plants and plant-derived substrates by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by ...
Until recently, Cryptococcus gattii infections occurred mainly in tropical and subtropical climate zones. However, during the past decade, C. gattii infections in humans and animals in Europe have increased. To determine whether the infections in Eur
Clonal VGII subtypes (outbreak strains) of Cryptococcus gattii have caused an outbreak in the US Pacific Northwest since 2004. Outbreak-associated infections occur equally in male and female patients (median age 56 years) and usually cause pulmonary disease in persons with underlying medical conditions. Since 2009, a total of 25 C. gattii infections, 23 (92%) caused by non-outbreak strain C. gattii, have been reported from 8 non-Pacific Northwest states. Sixteen (64%) patients were previously healthy, and 21 (84%) were male; median age was 43 years (range 15-83 years). Ten patients who provided information reported no past-year travel to areas where C. gattii is known to be endemic. Nineteen (76%) patients had central nervous system infections; 6 (24%) died. C. gattii infection in persons without exposure to known disease-endemic areas suggests possible endemicity in the United States outside the outbreak-affected region; these infections appear to differ in clinical and demographic characteristics from
Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A is responsible for the majority of cryptococcal infections in AIDS patients. In France, approximately 17% of the patients
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyping of isolates of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans suggested a considerable genetic divergence between the varieties C. neoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. grubii on the one hand versus C. neoformans var. gattii on the other. This divergence is supported by additional phenotypic, biochemical, clinical and molecular differences. Therefore, the authors propose the existence of two species, C. neoformans (Sanfelice) Vuillemin and C. bacillisporus Kwon-Chung, which differ in geographical distribution, serotypes and ecological origin. Within each species three AFLP genotypes occur, which differ in geographical distribution and serotypes. Differences in ecological origin (AIDS patients, non-AIDS patients, animals or the environment) were found to be statistically not significant. In C. neoformans as well as in C. bacillisporus one of the genotypes represented a hybrid. The occurrence of hybridization has consequences for the
Objectives: Cryptococcus species are associated with invasive fungal infections in immunosuppressed individuals. The clinical significance of low titer cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) by lateral flow assay is frequently uncertain. We investigated the correlation of low CrAg titers with disease in an immunocompromised patient population.. Methods: Patients with first-time positive CrAg results with low serum titers (≤1:10) at two medical centers (Los Angeles, CA) from April 2014-July 2018 were included. Age-matched controls with high (≥1:20) and negative titers were selected. We extracted medical records for pertinent clinical, radiologic, and laboratory data for cryptococcal disease.. Results: From 2,196 serum samples submitted for CrAg testing, 96 cases were included (32 each in low titer, high titer, and negative titer groups). One or more immunocompromising condition was identified in 95% of patients, including HIV infection (45%), solid organ transplant (26%), and cirrhosis (22%). Pulmonary ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Invasion of the central nervous system by Cryptococcus neoformans requires a secreted fungal metalloprotease. AU - Vu, Kiem. AU - Tham, Rick. AU - Uhrig, John P.. AU - Thompson, George R.. AU - Na Pombejra, Sarisa. AU - Jamklang, Mantana. AU - Bautos, Jennifer M.. AU - Gelli, Angie. PY - 2014/6/3. Y1 - 2014/6/3. N2 - Cryptococcus spp. cause life-threatening fungal infection of the central nervous system (CNS), predominantly in patients with a compromised immune system. Why Cryptococcus neoformans has this remarkable tropism for the CNS is not clear. Recent research on cerebral pathogenesis of C. neoformans revealed a predominantly transcellular migration of cryptococci across the brain endothelium; however, the identities of key fungal virulence factors that function specifically to invade the CNS remain unresolved. Here we found that a novel, secreted metalloprotease (Mpr1) that we identified in the extracellular proteome of C. neoformans (CnMpr1) is required for establishing ...
Background Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that causes cryptococcosis, a life threatening disease. The prevalence of cryptococcosis in Asia has been rising after the onset of the AIDS epidemic and estimates indicate more than 120 cases per 1,000 HIV-infected individuals per year. Almost all cryptococcal disease cases in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients in Asia are caused by C. neoformans var. grubii. Epidemiological studies on C. neoformans in pan-Asia have not been reported. The present work studies the genetic diversity of the fungus by microsatellite typing and susceptibility analysis of approximately 500 isolates from seven Asian countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Genetic diversity of Asian isolates of C. neoformans was determined using microsatellite analysis with nine microsatellite markers. The analysis revealed eight microsatellite complexes (MCs) which showed different distributions among geographically defined populations. A correlation between MCs and
Looking for online definition of Cryptococcus in the Medical Dictionary? Cryptococcus explanation free. What is Cryptococcus? Meaning of Cryptococcus medical term. What does Cryptococcus mean?
Cryptococcus gattiihas emerged as an important fungal pathogen. Infection manifests most often as potentially fatal meningoencephalitis and/or pulmonary disease. The emergence of clusters of cryptococcosis due toC. gattiiin British Columbia, Canada,
The population structure of a sample of clinical isolates of C. neoformans serotype A from AIDS patients in Botswana was determined, and the results support hypotheses for both clonal expansion and recombination in this population. Clonal reproduction was previously recognized in C. neoformans, as strains with identical genotypes were isolated from the environment and infected humans (5, 7, 16). The overrepresentation in the population of certain genotypes is a common feature of clonal structure (44). In the sample analyzed here, five genotypes comprised 45% of the total number of isolates (Fig. 4). Another indication of clonality is the calculation of considerable linkage disequilibrium (or nonrandom association) among the loci in the population. The IA and the rd are calculated estimates of linkage disequilibrium (or nonrandom association) among the loci; if there is no association between the loci, these values approach zero, whereas these values are much higher in clonal populations. When ...
Definition : Molecular assay reagents intended to identify Cryptococcus neoformans, a yeast-like species of imperfect fungi of the family Cryptococcaceae, by detecting specific nucleic-acid information (e.g., DNA, RNA) of the target microorganism. These fungi may cause cryptococcosis, a mycotic infection of the brain and meninges, which may also involve other organs such as the skin and lungs. The disease may progress by invading the central nervous system, lungs, liver, and spleen of immunocompromised patients.. Entry Terms : Cryptococcus Species Detection/Identification Reagents , Cryptococcus neoformans Reagents, Identification , Cryptococcus neoformans Detection/Identification Reagents , Reagents, Cryptococcus neoformans , Reagents, Molecular Assay, Infection, Fungi/Yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans. UMDC code : 19595 ...
Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Basidiomycota; Agaricomycotina; Tremellomycetes; Tremellales; Cryptococcaceae; Cryptococcus; Cryptococcus neoformans species ...
Abstract: Cryptococcus neoformans is a spherical, encapsulated, basidiomycetous yeast and the causative agent of cryptococcosis, a form of meningitis that affects the central nervous system of immunocompromised individuals (immunocompromised means patients with compromised immune systems). Since the 1980s and the emergence of the AIDS epidemic, much study has been concentrated on this fungus because cryptococcosis is 100% fatal in untreated patients. Even with treatment, the condition does not always decrease in severity, and no major advancements in antifungal drugs have been made in a decade. Recently, Cryptococcus has been shown to possess the necessary machinery for RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is a method of post-transcriptional gene silencing that may increase cryptococcal survival within mammalian hosts by controlling gene expression at various stages of the life cycle through heterochromatin and euchromatin rearrangement. RNAi was first described in Caenorhabditis elegans in 1998 by ...
Over the past decade, increased sampling worldwide and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) methods have uncovered greater genetic diversity of important pathogens, including the C. neoformans and C. gattii species complexes. For example, sampling from Botswana revealed the existence of the C. neoformans VNB lineage (30), which itself has recently been shown to be deeply split into two genetically isolated lineages, VNBI and VNBII (31). Thus far, VGVI is the only lineage that exists as a single genotype since the three isolates previously designated C. decagattii appear to have been isolated from the same patient (21). The previously identified lineages of Cryptococcus have recently been designated separate taxonomic species based on phylogenetic species recognition criteria (17). While we agree that Cryptococcus contains a number of genetically diverse and monophylectic clades that can be viewed as species under an evolutionary species concept (32), we have previously argued that it is premature to ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Serotypes of Cryptococcus neoformans. AU - Swinne, D. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. KW - B780-tropical-medicine. KW - Mycology. KW - Cryptococcus neoformans. KW - Laboratory. KW - Serotypes. M3 - Chapter. SP - 233. EP - 242. BT - Sexuality and pathogenicity of fungi. A2 - Vanbreuseghem, R. A2 - De Vroey, C. PB - Masson. CY - Paris. ER - ...
Cryptococcus neoformans CAP59 protein: involved in capsule formation which is essential for virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank L26508
TY - JOUR. T1 - More information about the natural habitat of Cryptococcus neoformans. AU - Swinne, D. AU - Bauwens, L. AU - Desmet, P. N1 - This item is not available in the ITG Library. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. KW - B780-tropical-medicine. KW - Mycology. KW - Cryptococcus neoformans. KW - Natural history. M3 - A2: International peer reviewed article (not A1-type). VL - 60. SP - 4. JO - ISHAM Mycoses Newsletter. JF - ISHAM Mycoses Newsletter. ER - ...
Since its first clinical appearance in an 1890s case report, Cryptococcus has dramatically advanced as a human fungal pathogen: it now infects approximately 1 million individuals per year, resulting in more than 600,000 annual mortalities, including one-third of all AIDS-associated deaths.. Featuring more than 100 expert authors from around the world, this book offers the full range of scientific and clinical perspectives needed to create this unique, comprehensive overview of Cryptococcus. It covers both the Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species, examining in detail the life cycle, pathophysiology, molecular biology, genetics, genomics, epidemiology, immunology, and clinical management of this encapsulated yeast. Among the 44 chapters, readers will find several in-depth discussions of the C. gattii outbreak that began on Vancouver Island in 1999 and then spread into the mainland of Canada and the United States, causing infections in both humans and animals.. This books ...
Cryptococcal meningitis is common in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the need for data for a rapid, point-of-care cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFA), we assessed diagnostic performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture, CRAG latex agglutination, India ink microscopy, and CRAG LFA for 832 HIV-infected persons with suspected meningitis during 2006-2009 (n = 299) in Uganda and during 2010-2012 (n = 533) in Uganda and South Africa. CRAG LFA had the best performance (sensitivity 99.3%, specificity 99.1%). Culture sensitivity was dependent on CSF volume (82.4% for 10 μL, 94.2% for 100 μL). CRAG latex agglutination test sensitivity (97.0%-97.8%) and specificity (85.9%-100%) varied between manufacturers. India ink microscopy was 86% sensitive. Laser thermal contrast had 92% accuracy (R = 0.91, ...
EURODICAUTOM, On-line Technical Dictionary in 12 languages provided by the European Commission , http://eurodic.echo.lu/cgi-bin/edicbin/EuroDicWWW.pl?page=expert ,.. Getinet A. & Sharma S.M. 1996, Niger - Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass. Promoting the Conservation & Use of Underutilized & Neglected Crops. 5. Institute of Plant Genetics & Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben / International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome. Italy. PDF version at International Plant Genetic Resources Institute , http://www.ipgri.cgiar.org/publications/pubfile.asp?ID_PUB=136 ,.. Mabberley D.J. 1997, The Plant-Book : a Portable Dictionary of the Vascular Plants, 2d Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.. USDA, ARS, 2000, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Available: www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxdump.pl?xxxx (xx xxxx 2002).. Wang Zongxun et al. 1996, A New ...
BACKGROUND. Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) causes an estimated 180,000 deaths annually, predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa, where most patients receive fluconazole (FLC) monotherapy. While relapse after FLC monotherapy with resistant strains is frequently observed, the mechanisms and impact of emergence of FLC resistance in human CM are poorly understood. Heteroresistance (HetR) - a resistant subpopulation within a susceptible strain - is a recently described phenomenon in Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) and Cryptococcus gattii (Cg), the significance of which has not previously been studied in humans. METHODS. A cohort of 20 patients with HIV-associated CM in Tanzania was prospectively observed during therapy with either FLC monotherapy or in combination with flucytosine (5FC). Total and resistant subpopulations of Cryptococcus spp. were quantified directly from patient cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Stored isolates underwent whole genome sequencing and phenotypic characterization. RESULTS. ...
Cryptococcal meningitis (CM), a fungal disease caused by Cryptococcus spp., is the most common form of meningitis and a leading cause of death among persons with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. Detection of cryptococcal antigen, which is present several weeks before overt signs of meningitis develop …
Despite a presumed critical role of macrophages in the host response to cryptococcal infections, previous studies have failed to show growth inhibition of encapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans by human peripheral blood cultured monocyte-derived macrophages (MO-M phi). Here, we examined whether MO-M phi could be induced to inhibit growth of an encapsulated strain and an isogenic acapsular mutant strain of C. neoformans. MO-M phi were cultured in microwells, and inhibition was measured by comparing CFU at 0 and 24 h after fungal challenge. MO-M phi cultured on plastic surfaces failed to inhibit growth of the encapsulated strain, even in the presence of pooled human serum and/or anticapsular antibody. Moreover, the presence of anticapsular antibody significantly enhanced fungal growth. However, if MO-M phi were cultured on surfaces coated with fibronectin or poly-L-lysine (but not laminin or collagen) and yeast cells were opsonized with pooled human serum, then complete growth inhibition occurred. ...
Fortunately, research has demonstrated that nearly all patients at risk of developing CM during ART could be identified on entry into ART programmes by screening for sub-clinical infection using cheap (ZAR38.95), simple and highly sensitive cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) blood tests.22 In 707 patients initiating ART in Cape Town, stored serum samples from 13% of patients with CD4+ T-cell counts ,100 cells/µl tested positive for CRAG in a retrospective analysis. Prospective screening for CRAG in this cohort would have been 100% predictive of subsequent development of CM within the first year of treatment.22 If identified prospectively, such patients could be given pre-emptive treatment to prevent progression from cryptococcal antigenaemia to life-threatening meningitis. Such a targeted prevention strategy would avoid many potential problems of widespread fluconazole use with a blanket primary prophylaxis approach.. Cape Town data also show that 73% of ART-naïve patients presenting with CM have ...
Fortunately, research has demonstrated that nearly all patients at risk of developing CM during ART could be identified on entry into ART programmes by screening for sub-clinical infection using cheap (ZAR38.95), simple and highly sensitive cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) blood tests.22 In 707 patients initiating ART in Cape Town, stored serum samples from 13% of patients with CD4+ T-cell counts ,100 cells/µl tested positive for CRAG in a retrospective analysis. Prospective screening for CRAG in this cohort would have been 100% predictive of subsequent development of CM within the first year of treatment.22 If identified prospectively, such patients could be given pre-emptive treatment to prevent progression from cryptococcal antigenaemia to life-threatening meningitis. Such a targeted prevention strategy would avoid many potential problems of widespread fluconazole use with a blanket primary prophylaxis approach.. Cape Town data also show that 73% of ART-naïve patients presenting with CM have ...
Find details on Cryptococcus neoformans in cats including diagnosis and symptoms, active forms, resting forms, clinical effects, treatment and more. All information is peer reviewed.
martines bistro is a restaurant located on Vancouver island in the scenic township of comox that offers superb dining sunset and mountain views great food and local seafood with a patio to sit back relax and enjoy a glass of wine or martini - ...
The renal unit is the main dialysis centre for all hemodialysis patients on Vancouver Island. Those that are well enough may attend one of the self-care community dialysis facilities in Victoria (Hillside), Duncan, Nanaimo, or Port Alberni, Cumberland. However, all these patients start in this main dialysis unit and must return here when they become too ill to be treated elsewhere ...
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For over 40 years the Vancouver Island Kidney Patients Association has provided services and equipment used by renal patients to help cope with the challenges of kidney disease and which would not be provided by hospitals and treatment centres. We are comprised entirely of volunteers from within the renal community on Vancouver Island. Members include kidney patients, spouses, family, friends, caregivers and others interested in helping people facing the challenges of kidney disease. Each day an average of 15 Canadians learn that their kidneys have failed, often due to diabetes or hypertension. Right now there are 206 people in Victoria who need a life-saving kidney transplant. We are fundraising to purchase two dialysis chairs each chair cost approx $7,000.00 + Please accept our heartfelt thanks and appreciation. With your generous help it will allow our association to continue providing for over 2400 kidney patients within the renal community on Vancouver Island. On behalf of all renal ...
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) enables the generation of large amounts of genome sequence data at a reasonable cost. Organisms in mixed microbial communities can now be sequenced and identified in a culture-independent way, usually using amplicon sequencing of a DNA barcode. Bulk RNA-seq (metatranscriptomics) has several advantages over DNA-based amplicon sequencing: it is less susceptible to amplification biases, it captures only living organisms, and it enables a larger set of genes to be used for taxonomic identification. Using a model mock community comprising 17 fungal isolates, we evaluated whether metatranscriptomics can accurately identify fungal species and subspecies in mixed communities. Overall, 72.9% of the RNA transcripts were classified, from which the vast majority (99.5%) were correctly identified at the species level. Of the 15 species sequenced, 13 were retrieved and identified correctly. We also detected strain-level variation within the Cryptococcus species complexes: 99.3% of
pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLR) and C-type lectin recptors including Dectin-1. Previously, we indicated that neither TLR2 nor TLR4 was involved in the host defence to infection with Cryptococcus neoformans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen in AIDS patients (FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 47: 148-154, 2006). In the current study, we examined the role of Dectin-1, a receptor for β-glucan, in this response. Dectin-1-deficient mice were resistant to intratracheal and intravenous infection with C. neoformans at a comparable level to wild-type mice. IFN-γ production in lung an serum was not largely different between these mice. There was not significant difference in the synthesis of IL-12p40 and TNF-α by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells upon stimulation with this fungal pathogen. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Dectin-1 did not play a major role in the host protective responses to C. neoformans infection.. This work was ...
Torula histolytica Definition: Cryptococcus neoformans (formerly known as Torula histolytica) is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus found in (...)
Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental encapsulated yeast that behaves as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. The capsule is the main virulence factor of this pathogen. This structure is highly dynamic, and it can change its size and structure according to the environmental conditions. During infection, C. neoformans significantly enlarges the size of the capsule by the addition of new polysaccharide. It is believed that capsule growth is an energy-cost process, but this aspect has never been addressed. In this work, we have evaluated the role of mitochondrial activity on capsule growth using specific inhibitors of the electron respiratory chain. We observed that capsule growth was impaired in the presence of inhibitors of the respiratory chain as salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) or antimycin A. Furthermore, capsule growth correlated with an increase of the mitochondrial membrane potential and higher production of reactive oxygen species. Our results confirm that capsule growth
Kocho and Bula are fermented product of Enset (Ensete ventricosum). It is the staple food for 20 million people in Ethiopia. The aim of study was to isolate, identify and characterize yeast species from fermented kocho and bulla by using Biolog Micro station. 300 Kocho samples were collected from Angacha District. 0.1ml of serially diluted samples were Streaked on yeast pepton dextrose agar and incubated at 280C. Pure yeast colony inoculum were prepared at 9ml distilled water at 49% +2 turbidometer and transferred in to YT micro plate. Incubated for 24-72 hours at 28oC and micro plate reading were carried out using MicroLog 3 Software version. 4.20.05. Seven yeast species were identified from study samples. Biolog Micro station 100% probability and |0.5 Similarity read identify Cryptococcus albidus Var aerus, Guilliermondella selenospora, Rhodotorula acheniorum and Trichosporon beigelii. 99% Cryptococcus terreus A, 98% Candida zylandase, 86% Kluyveramyces delphensis respectively. Characterization of
National coverage of reflex cryptococcal antigen screening: A milestone achievement in the care of persons with advanced HIV disease
Lineage: cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Fungi; Dikarya; Basidiomycota; Agaricomycotina; Tremellomycetes; Tremellales; Cryptococcaceae; Cryptococcus; Cryptococcus gattii species complex; Cryptococcus gattii ...
The recent efforts to characterize the hybrid strains of Cryptococcus neoformans has led to the identification of a cryptic population, here described as H strains, which includes hybrid strains with a double content of DNA but presenting a single mating type: Aa, Da, Aalpha, or Dalpha. A set of hypotheses can be formulated about the origin of these H strains: i) they might have lost or modified one mating type allele by a mutation event; ii) they might be homozygous originated from an incomplete mitotic event; iii) they might be homozygous originated from an incomplete meiotic event; iv) they might be homozygous originated from a post-meiotic event. To test these hypotheses we further investigated some H strains previously isolated and then we studied the F1 progeny originated from the mating between H99 (serotype A) and JEC20 (serotype D) reference strains. Fourteen clinical isolates were investigated. The double content of DNA was confirmed by flow cytometry and the presence of only one ...
Deletion of the sex-determining gene SXI1α enhances the spread of mitochondrial introns in Cryptococcus neoformans Academic Article ...
RESUMO Padronizou-se método de fluorescência (solução de diacetato de fluoresceína DF e brometo de etídio BE) para análise de viabilidade de células fúngicas, em 40 amostras de liquor, provenientes de casos comprovados de neurocriptococose. A utilização de solução aquosa de saponina a 0,3% eliminou fluorescências interferentes emitidas por hemácias e leucócitos. Após o processamento dos materiais biológicos, foram retiradas alíquotas de 0,1 ml das supensões obtidas e misturadas a volumes iguais da solução DF-BE preparada pouco antes do uso. O tempo de coloração ideal foi de 30 minutos, resultando perfeita diferenciação entre microrganismos viáveis (fluorescência verde) e não viáveis (fluorescência vermelha). Unitermos: Cryptococcus neoformans; Viabilidade; Fluorescência. ...
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Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii: separate varietal status for Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A isolates, in: Journal of ... Books 2011, Cryptococcus: from human pathogen to model yeast. with co-editors J. Heitman, T.R. Kozel, KJ Kwon-Chung, and JR ... 2011). Cryptococcus: from human pathogen to model yeast (1st ed.). ISBN 978-1555815011. Ma, H; Croudace, JE; Lammas, DA; May, ... 1998, Cryptococcus neoformans. with co-author John R. Perfect, ASM Press. Highly Cited Articles 2020, with Liise-anne Pirofski ...
Pneumocystis carinni Cryptococcus spp. Candida spp. Aspergillus spp. Microsporidia Toxoplasma gondii Cryptosporidium parvum ...
Cryptococcus. *Malassezia pachydermatis. Parasites[edit]. Veterinary parasitology studies both external and internal parasites ...
Nocardia Corynebacterium urealyticum Cryptococcus spp., an opportunistic fungus Helicobacter pylori Certain Enteric bacteria ...
Cryptococcus, and other yeasts). It may also have occurred in some red algae (e.g., Porphyridium), but it is possible that they ...
Aspergillus and Cryptococcus, are also called fungemia. It is most commonly seen in immunosuppressed or immunocompromised ...
Primary infection, although poorly understood due to lack of data, is thought to occur through inhalation of the conidia through the respiratory tract, after inhaling fungal conidia produced by the mycelial form of P. brasiliensis.[10][16] This occurs predominantly in childhood and young adulthood, after exposure to agricultural activity.[9] Infection may occur through direct skin inoculation, although this is rare.[11] After inhalation into the alveoli, there is rapid multiplication of the organism in the lung tissue, sometimes spreading via the venous and lymphatic systems.[10] Approximately 2% of people develop clinical features after the initial asymptomatic infection.[11] The type of immune response determines the clinical manifestation of the infection, with children and HIV co-infected individuals most commonly developing the acute/subacute disseminated disease.[10] Most of those infected develop a Type 1 T-cell (Th1) mediated immune response, resulting in alveolitis and compact granuloma ...
... (also known as "rose gardener's disease"[1]) is a disease caused by the infection of the fungus Sporothrix schenckii.[2] This fungal disease usually affects the skin, although other rare forms can affect the lungs, joints, bones, and even the brain. Because roses can spread the disease, it is one of a few diseases referred to as rose-thorn or rose-gardeners' disease.[3] Because S. schenckii is naturally found in soil, hay, sphagnum moss, and plants, it usually affects farmers, gardeners, and agricultural workers.[2] It enters through small cuts and abrasions in the skin to cause the infection. In case of sporotrichosis affecting the lungs, the fungal spores enter through the respiratory pathways. Sporotrichosis can also be acquired from handling cats with the disease; it is an occupational hazard for veterinarians. Sporotrichosis progresses slowly - the first symptoms may appear 1 to 12 weeks (average 3 weeks) after the initial exposure to the fungus. Serious complications can ...
C. krusei grows at a maximum temperature of 43-45 °C. Although most of the medically important Candida spp. require biotin for growth and some have additional vitamin requirements, only C. krusei can grow in vitamin-free media. However, of the medically important Candida spp., C. krusei is perhaps the only species which grows on Sabouraud's dextrose agar as spreading colonies with a matte or a rough whitish yellow surface, in contrast to the convex colonies of other Candida spp. This characteristic, together with its "long grain rice" appearance on microscopy, helps the definitive identification of the species. A complex variety of fatty acids has been demonstrated as metabolites when C. krusei is grown in culture media containing lactose, it is also able to produce a number of short-chain carboxylic acids when cultured in saliva supplemented with glucose; these include acetate, pyruvate, succinate, propionate, formate and lactate. The biological role of these, if any, is as yet unknown. ...
Cryptococcus neoformans Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium species Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) usually Ancylostoma braziliense ...
Toxoplasmosis is becoming a global health hazard as it infects 30-50% of the world human population. Clinically, the life-long presence of the parasite in tissues of a majority of infected individuals is usually considered asymptomatic. However, a number of studies show that this 'asymptomatic infection' may also lead to development of other human pathologies. ... The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with various disease burden. Statistical associations does not necessarily mean causality. The precautionary principle suggests however that possible role of toxoplasmosis as a triggering factor responsible for development of several clinical entities deserves much more attention and financial support both in everyday medical practice and future clinical research ...
Candida yeasts are generally present in healthy humans, frequently part of the human body's normal oral and intestinal flora, and particularly on the skin; however, their growth is normally limited by the human immune system and by competition of other microorganisms, such as bacteria occupying the same locations in the human body.[41] Candida requires moisture for growth, notably on the skin.[42] For example, wearing wet swimwear for long periods of time is believed to be a risk factor.[43] Candida can also cause diaper rashes in babies.[35] In extreme cases, superficial infections of the skin or mucous membranes may enter the bloodstream and cause systemic Candida infections. Factors that increase the risk of candidiasis include HIV/AIDS, mononucleosis, cancer treatments, steroids, stress, antibiotic usage, diabetes, and nutrient deficiency. Hormone replacement therapy and infertility treatments may also be predisposing factors.[44] Use of inhaled corticosteroids increases risk of candidiasis ...
Rapid in office testing can be done with scraping of the nail, skin, or scalp. Characteristic hyphae can be seen interspersed among the epithelial cells. Trichophyton tonsurans, the causative agent of tinea capitis (scalp infection) can be seen as solidly packed arthrospores within the broken hairshafts scraped from the plugged black dots of the scalp.. Fungal culture medium is used for positive identification of the species. Usually fungal growth is noted in 5 to 14 days. Microscopic morphology of the micro- and macroconidia is the most reliable identification character, but a good slide preparation is needed, and also needed is the stimulation of sporulation in some strains. Culture characteristics such as surface texture, topography and pigmentation are variable so they are the least reliable criteria for identification. Clinical information such as the appearance of the lesion, site, geographic location, travel history, animal contacts and race is also important, especially in identifying ...
Recent debate has centered on whether the Basidiobolaceae should be included in the Entomophthorales, or raised to ordinal status. Molecular systematics approaches so far give an ambiguous answer. Some analyses suggest the Basdiobolaceae are more closely related to certain chytrid fungi than to the Entomophthorales.[3] Others find weak support to maintain them in the Entomophthorales.[4] Morphological characters can be found to support either hypothesis. ...
Not every hospital in the USA is required to publicize details of infectious outbreaks which occur within their facilities. In 2014, details of a lethal mucormycosis outbreak[13] which occurred in 2008 emerged after television and newspaper reports responded to an article in a pediatric medical journal.[14] Contaminated hospital linen was found to be spreading the infection. A cluster of infections occurred in the wake of the 2011 Joplin tornado. As of July 19, a total of 18 suspected cases of cutaneous mucormycosis had been identified, of which 13 were confirmed. A confirmed case was defined as 1) necrotizing soft-tissue infection requiring antifungal treatment or surgical debridement in a person injured in the tornado, 2) with illness onset on or after May 22 and 3) positive fungal culture or histopathology and genetic sequencing consistent with a Mucormycete. No additional cases related to that outbreak have been reported since June 17. Ten patients required admission to an intensive-care ...
For patients who are unresponsive to fluconazole, options are limited. Several case reports have studied the efficacy of three newer antifungal agents in the treatment of disease that is refractory to first-line therapy: posaconazole and voriconazole (triazole compounds similar in structure to fluconazole) and caspofungin (glucan synthesis inhibitor of the echinocandin structural class). However, these drugs have not been FDA approved, and clinical trials are lacking. Susceptibility testing of Coccidioides species in one report revealed uniform susceptibility to most antifungal agents, including these newer drugs. In very severe cases, combination therapy with amphotericin B and an azole have been postulated, although no trials have been conducted. Caspofungin in combination with fluconazole has been cited as beneficial in a case report of a 31-year-old Asian patient with coccidioidal pneumonia. In a case report of a 23-year-old Black male with HIV and coccidioidal meningitis, combination ...
"Cryptococcus neoformans (ID 61) - Genome - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-12-14. "Index of /genomes/refseq/fungi/ ... "Index of /genomes/refseq/fungi/Cryptococcus_neoformans/latest_assembly_versions/GCF_000091045.1_ASM9104v1". ftp.ncbi.nih.gov. ...
Basidiomycota, including the human-pathogenic genus Cryptococcus. Prions (although they don't secrete toxins) Parasites, which ... Mada, Pradeep Kumar; Jamil, Radia T.; Alam, Mohammed U. (2019), "Cryptococcus (Cryptococcosis)", StatPearls, StatPearls ...
Casadevall A, Coelho C, Cordero RJ, Dragotakes Q, Jung E, Vij R, Wear MP (December 2019). "Cryptococcus neoformans". Virulence ... O'Meara TR, Alspaugh JA (July 2012). "The Cryptococcus neoformans capsule: a sword and a shield". Clinical Microbiology Reviews ... Gates MA, Thorkildson P, Kozel TR (April 2004). "Molecular architecture of the Cryptococcus neoformans capsule". Molecular ... Staphylococcus epidermidis Staphylococcus aureus The yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, though not a bacterium, has a similar ...
Other fungi reported are Acremonium charticola, Chaetomium sp., Cryptococcus, Mucor and Penicillium "Antarctica Ultra- ...
Molecular research has also indicated that the genus Filobasidiella (and its yeast state Cryptococcus) should be included ... 2004). "Genetic requirements for virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans". In Domer JE, Kobayashi GS (eds.). Human Fungal ... and the yeast genus Cryptococcus, several species of which are human pathogens, causing cryptococcosis. Fries created the ... "Phylogeny and Phenotypic Characterization of Pathogenic Cryptococcus Species and Closely Related Saprobic Taxa in the ...
Vidal-Leiria M, van Uden N (1973). "Inositol dehydrogenase from the yeast Cryptococcus melibiosum". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 293 ...
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast that can live in both plants and animals. C. neoformans usually infects the ... Perfect JR (June 2006). "Cryptococcus neoformans: the yeast that likes it hot". FEMS Yeast Research. 6 (4): 463-8. doi:10.1111/ ... Lin X, Hull CM, Heitman J (April 2005). "Sexual reproduction between partners of the same mating type in Cryptococcus ... Fan W, Kraus PR, Boily MJ, Heitman J (August 2005). "Cryptococcus neoformans gene expression during murine macrophage infection ...
"A novel xylosylphosphotransferase activity discovered in Cryptococcus neoformans". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (52 ...
Halde, C.; Fraher, M. A. (1966-03-01). "Cryptococcus neoformans in pigeon feces in San Francisco". California Medicine. 104 (3 ...
It is also referred to as Cryptococcus ramirezgomezianus. Prillinger, Hansjörg; Lopandic, Ksenija; Sugita, Takashi; Wuczkowski ...
IRIS has been described in immunocompetent hosts who have meningitis caused by Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans ... Lane, M.; McBride, J.; Archer, J. (23 August 2004). "Steroid responsive late deterioration in Cryptococcus neoformans variety ... Wiesner, Darin L.; Boulware, David R. (4 August 2011). "Cryptococcus-Related Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS ... in whom Cryptococcus neoformans is the usual pathogen. Treatment with systemic corticosteroids during IRIS may be beneficial in ...
Dalisay DS, Saludes JP, Molinski TF (2011). "Ptilomycalin A inhibits laccase and melanization in Cryptococcus neoformans". ...
Uridine diphosphate D-xylose: acceptor xylosyltransferase of Cryptococcus laurentii. Interferon production in mice by cell wall ... 21:543-546, 1965 Uridine diphosphate D-xylose: acceptor xylosyltransferase of Cryptococcus laurentii. Cohen, A. and Feingold, D ...
She has looked at iron and copper as ionophores; which are important in the virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans. Franz also ...
Cryptococcus fagisuga, commonly known as the beech scale or woolly beech scale, is a felted scale insect in the superfamily ... Cryptococcus fagisuga aka Beech bark disease has been recorded as affecting common beech trees, Fagus sylvatica, in Europe ... Cryptococcus fagisuga (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae), an invasive pest in North America. Biological Control, 39(1), 9-18. Retrieved ... from http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1049964406001058 Population dynamics of beech scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga) ...
Cryptococcus Gattii Infection (C. gattii) , 2015 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/cryptococcus-gattii- ...
Detection of Cryptococcus gattii-specific nucleic acid in clinical specimen; or *Demonstration of Cryptococcus gattii in a ... Two species of Cryptococcus cause the vast majority of human infections: C. neoformans and C. gattii. C. neoformans has a clear ... Cryptococcus is a ubiquitous fungal pathogen that causes primarily meningitis and pneumonia. The incidence of cryptococcal ... Isolation of Cryptococcus gattii from a clinical specimen; or. * ... Cryptococcus Gattii Infection (C. gattii). 2015 Case Definition ...
Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii.. Sorrell TC1.. Author information. 1. Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, ... Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii is emerging as a primary human pathogen which is distinct genetically and biochemically ...
Cryptococcus gattiihas emerged as an important fungal pathogen. Infection manifests most often as potentially fatal ... See Cryptococcus gattii infection: Microbiology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis and Cryptococcus gattii infection: Clinical ... Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex: an international study of wild-type susceptibility endpoint ... Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex: an international study of wild-type susceptibility endpoint ...
Cryptococcus aerius is an obligate aerobe, that has been previously isolated from soil samples and samples of sand. It has a ... 46:7-27 Shafiee R., Nahvi I. and Emtiazi G. (2005) Bioconversion of Raw Starch to SCP by Coculture of Cryptococcus aerius and ... Fonseca A., Scorzeti G., and Fell J. (2000) Diversity in the yeast Cryptococcus albidus and related species as revealed by ...
Cryptococcus mangaliensis is a yeast species first found in the Florida Everglades. Fell, Jack W.; Statzell-Tallman, Adele; ... "Cryptococcus mangaliensis" at the Encyclopedia of Life MycoBank v t e. ...
Cryptococcus is a genus of fungi, of which two species, Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, cause nearly all human ... Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii. Med Mycol 2001;39:155--68.. * Fyfe M, MacDougall L, Romney M, et al. Cryptococcus ... Source: Cryptococcus gattii Public Health Working Group.. * Defined as illness occurring on or after January 1, 2004, in a U.S ... Source: Cryptococcus gattii Public Health Working Group.. * Defined as illness occurring on or after January 1, 2004, in a U.S ...
Extracellular iron chelation in Cryptococcus neoformans.. Jacobson ES1, Petro MJ.. Author information. 1. Research Service, ... Low-iron minimal medium supported growth of Cryptococcus neoformans but spent medium contained no hydroxamates, organic acids ...
Cryptococcus fagi and beech bark disease in Lyons State forest (Normandy, France). [Cryptococcus fagi (Barspr.) et ... Presence of Cryptococcus fagisuga Lindinger (Homoptera: Cryptococcidae) in Spain. (Presencia de Cryptococcus fagisuga Lindinger ... A new Cryptococcus species from North America, with a key to the species of the genus (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Virginia Journal ... However, the genus Cryptococcus is currently regarded as a member of the Eriococcidae (Miller and Gimpel, 2000).. ...
... Franco Calista,1 Federica Tomei,1 Pasquale Assalone,1 Divina ... P. Banerjee, M. Haider, V. Trehan et al., "Cryptococcus laurentii Fungemia," Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 31, ... R. A. Colmers, W. Irniger, and D. H. Steinberg, "Cryptococcus neoformans endocarditis cured by amphotericin B," The Journal of ... We present a rare case of diarrhea and neutropenia caused by Cryptococcus laurentii (C. laurentii) infection in old patient ...
The epithelia are also able to react to cryptococci with the release of cytokines and chemokines to start the immune response ... Thus the interaction of cryptococci and the respiratory epithelia will be the focus of this review. C. neoformans has been ... The activity of surfactant components that line this mucosal barrier towards Cryptococcus and the metabolic and transcriptional ... the upper airway and the alveolar epithelial cells of the lower airway are likely to be the first host cells that Cryptococcus ...
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Cryptococcus neoformans SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Cryptococcosis, Torulosis, European blastomycosis CHARACTERISTICS: Yeast; often budding, surrounded by a wide mucopolysaccharide capsule SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD PATHOGENICITY: Mycosis presenting as a subacute or chronic meningitis; infection of lung, kidney, prostate, bone or liver may occur; skin lesions, ulcers or subcutaneous tumour-like masses; untreated meningitis terminates fatally within several months EPIDEMIOLOGY: Sporadic cases occur worldwide; males infected twice as frequently as females, mainly adults; important mycosis in immunocompromised patients leg. (Patients with AIDS or severe combined immunodeficiency) HOST RANGE: Humans; cats, dogs, horses, cows, monkeys and other animals INFECTIOUS DOSE: Low level of pathogenicity for normal immunocompetent adults MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Presumably by inhalation INCUBATION PERIOD: Unknown; pulmonary ...
Cryptococcus laurentii ATCC ® 18803™ Designation: CBS 139 [CCRC 20527, CCY 17-3-2, DBVPG 6265, IFO 0609, IFO 0906, MUCL 30398, ... Three new combinations from the Cryptococcus laurentii complex: Cryptococcus aureus, Cryptococcus carnescens and Cryptococcus ... Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of ... Cryptococcus laurentii (Kufferath) Skinner, anamorph Strain Designations CBS 139 [CCRC 20527, CCY 17-3-2, DBVPG 6265, IFO 0609 ...
Cryptococcus. › Cryptococcus neoformans species complex. › Cryptococcus neoformans. › Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. See ...
Cryptococcus albidus ATCC ® 66030™ Designation: AmMS 228 Application: Quality control strain Biomedical Research and ... diffluens (= Cryptococcus diffluens). Morphology Colonies cream-colored to tan, liquid to mucoid, glossy, with entire margins. ... Cryptococcus albidus (Saito) Skinner (ATCC® 66030™) Strain Designations: AmMS 228 / Product Format: freeze-dried ... The multigene sequence analysis indicates that the strain is closely related to Cryptococcus albidus var. ...
Evaluation of Vitek MS for Differentiation of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii Genotypes Cryptococcus neoformans ... Identification of Genotypically Diverse Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii Isolates by Luminex xMAP Technology M. ... Cryptococcus neoformans Typing by PCR Fingerprinting Using (GACA)4 Primers Based on C. neoformans Genome Project Data Massimo ... Molecular Identification of Cryptococcus neoformans Serotypes A. Enache-Angoulvant, J. Chandenier, F. Symoens, P. Lacube, J. ...
RNA Interference in the Pathogenic Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Hong Liu, Tricia R. Cottrell, Lynda M. Pierini, William E. ... RNA Interference in the Pathogenic Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Hong Liu, Tricia R. Cottrell, Lynda M. Pierini, William E. ... RNA Interference in the Pathogenic Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Hong Liu, Tricia R. Cottrell, Lynda M. Pierini, William E. ... 1993 Gene transfer in Cryptococcus neoformans by use of biolistic delivery of DNA. J. Bacteriol. 175: 1405-1411. ...
Cryptococcus gattii is an environmentally occurring pathogen that is responsible for causing cryptococcosis marked by pneumonia ... Cryptococcus gattii, no longer an accidental pathogen? Curr Fungal Infect Rep. 2012 Dec;6(4):245-256. doi: 10.1007/s12281-012- ... Cryptococcus gattii is an environmentally occurring pathogen that is responsible for causing cryptococcosis marked by pneumonia ...
Cryptococcus albidus as the asexual (anamorphic) form; Filobasidiella neoformans when sexual (telemorphic) Classification: ... 2009). Evaluation of the experimental inoculation of Cryptococcus albidus and Cryptococcus laurentii in normal mice: virulence ... 2000). Diversity in the yeast Cryptococcus albidus and related species as revealed by ribosomal DNA analysis. Can. J. Micro. 46 ... Genus/species: Cryptococcus albidus as the asexual (anamorphic) form; Filobasidiella neoformans when sexual (telemorphic) ...
Campbell, L. T., and D. A. Carter, 2006 Looking for sex in the fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii ... Lengeler, K. B., D. S. Fox, J. A. Fraser, A. Allen, K. Forrester et al., 2002 Mating-type locus of Cryptococcus neoformans: a ... Nielsen, K., G. M. Cox, P. Wang, D. L. Toffaletti, J. R. Perfect et al., 2003 Sexual cycle of Cryptococcus neoformans var. ... Marra, R. E., J. C. Huang, E. Fung, K. Nielsen, J. Heitman et al., 2004 A genetic linkage map of Cryptococcus neoformans ...
Cryptococcus is a basidiomycetous yeast ubiquitous in the environment, but a major human fungal pathogen. C. neoformans and C. ... The Diagnostic Challenge of an Infrequent Spectrum of Cryptococcus Infection. Francisco Barbosa De Araujo Neto,1 Camila Corona ... L. Lu, Y. Y. Zhao, H. B. Yang, X. L. Tian, Z. J. Xu, and Z. L. Lu, "Cushings disease with pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans ... J. F. Gibson and S. A. Johnston, "Immunity to Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii during cryptococcosis," Fungal Genetics and ...
Global Molecular Epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii: An Atlas of the Molecular Types. Scientifica ... Genetic control of susceptibility to Cryptococcus neoformans in mice. Infect. Immun. 12. Kechichian TB, Shea J, Del Poeta M. ... Fungi pathogenic to humans: Molecular bases of virulence of Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus ... Depletion of alveolar macrophages decreases the dissemination of a glucosylceramide-deficient mutant of Cryptococcus neoformans ...
... FEMS Yeast Res. 2004 Jan;4(4-5):361-7. doi: 10.1016/S1567-1356(03)00241-1. ...
... cryptococcus? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when used to treat or ... reduce the symptoms of fungal+meningitis+caused+by+cryptococcus ... cryptococcus? Below is a list of common medications used to ... treat or reduce the symptoms of fungal+meningitis+caused+by+cryptococcus. Follow the links to read common uses, side effects, ...
A killer-toxin preparation was obtained and partly purified from the culture liquid of the yeast Cryptococcus pinus. Its ... This work was aimed to study of fungicidal activity and mechanism of action of the killer toxin of Cryptococcus pinus VKM Y- ... The effects of the killer toxin of Cryptococcus pinus VKM Y-2958 on Cryptococcus terreus VKM Y-2253 cells after 24-h incubation ... The yeast strains were Cryptococcus pinus VKM Y-2958, Cystofilobasidim bisporidii VKM Y-2700 and Cryptococcus terreus VKM Y- ...
Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis - Cryptococcus gattii [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ...
Pathogenesis of cerebralCryptococcus neoformans infection after fungemia. J. Infect. Dis. 186:522-530. View this article via: ... Cryptococcus neoformans survive and replicate in human microglia. Lab. Invest. 73:871-879. View this article via: PubMed Google ... Virulence ofCryptococcus neoformans . Regulation of capsule synthesis by carbon dioxide. J. Clin. Invest. 76:508-516. View this ... Cryptococcus neoformans : intracellular or extracellular? Trends Microbiol. 9:417-418. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef ...
  • Cryptococcus neoformans infection is also reviewed elsewhere. (uptodate.com)
  • Cryptococcus is a yeast (type of fungus) that seldom causes infection, but is considered opportunistic (it affects people with weakened immune systems). (medlineplus.gov)
  • We present a rare case of diarrhea and neutropenia caused by Cryptococcus laurentii (C. laurentii) infection in old patient with metastatic rectal cancer who underwent FOLFOX plus Cetuximab chemotherapy. (hindawi.com)
  • When you share what it's like to have cerebral Cryptococcus neoformans infection through your profile, those stories and data appear here too. (patientslikeme.com)
  • Got a question about living with cerebral Cryptococcus neoformans infection? (patientslikeme.com)
  • Who has cerebral Cryptococcus neoformans infection on PatientsLikeMe? (patientslikeme.com)
  • Distribution of survey respondents who have seen any patient(s) with cryptococcosis during the past year and who have ever treated a patient with Cryptococcus gatti infection, Emerging Infections Network survey, March-February 2011. (cdc.gov)
  • Cryptococcosis (an infection with Cryptococcus neoformans ) is a trademark secondary infection in AIDS patients and most other cases are in patients with some other predisposing condition (such as lupus erythematosus, lymphoma, or leukemia). (emsl.com)
  • Karyotype instability in Cryptococcus neoformans infection. (asm.org)
  • Vaccination and infection can elicit protective and nonprotective antibodies to the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans in mice. (rupress.org)
  • Husain S, Wagener MM, Singh N. Cryptococcus neoformans infection in organ transplant recipients: Variables influencing clinical characteristics and outcome. (springer.com)
  • Histopathologic examination results demonstrating Cryptococcus yeasts in tissue also was considered evidence of infection at the tissue site. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is eradicated by macrophages via production of NO. Unmethylated CpG-ODN protect mice from infection with this fungal pathogen by inducing IFN-γ. (wiley.com)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast that causes meningoencephalitis in normal individuals but more frequently presents as an opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS, leukemia, lymphoma, systemic lupus erythematosus, Hodgkin lymphoma, or sarcoidosis and in transplant recipients. (humpath.com)
  • Many of these patients receive high-dose corticosteroids, a major risk factor for Cryptococcus infection. (humpath.com)
  • As an infectious fungus that affects the respiratory tract, Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) commonly causes asymptomatic pulmonary infection. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We hypothesize that subtle differences in different molecules of innate immunity may contribute to either the predisposition or clinical course of infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients diagnosed with Cryptococcus neoformans infection will be identified from a data base overseen by Dr. Peter Pappas. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The prostate gland is a common site for persistent and recurrent Cryptococcus neoformans infection after amphotericin B therapy for cryptococcal meningitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (1, 2). (annals.org)
  • These two fungal species of the Cryptococcus genus are the etiological agents of Cryptococcosis, which is an opportunistic or primary fungal infection with global distribution. (rsc.org)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated basidiomycetous yeast capable of causing fatal infection in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients, including a prevalence of infection of up to 15% of patients with AIDS ( 9 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • A few species in the Cryptococcus genus cause a disease called cryptococcosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the main pathogenic species of invasive cryptococcosis among the Cryptococcus species. (asm.org)
  • Cryptococcus gattii is an environmentally occurring pathogen that is responsible for causing cryptococcosis marked by pneumonia and meningoencephalitis in humans and animals. (nih.gov)
  • Cryptococcosis is a systemic infectious disease mainly caused by fungal species from the Cryptococcus genus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mitchell TG, Perfect JR. Cryptococcosis in the era of AIDS - 100 years after the discovery of Cryptococcus neoformans . (springer.com)
  • Any of various yeastlike fungi of the genus Cryptococcus, commonly occurring in the soil and including certain pathogenic species, such as the causative agent of cryptococcosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Protection against Experimental Cryptococcosis following Vaccination with Glucan Particles Containing Cryptococcus Alkaline Extracts. (umassmed.edu)
  • No recognition of the Cryptococcus neoformans colonies developed in culture media usually employed for the bacteriologic diagnosis can cause a lack of cryptococcosis' diagnosis, when this disease is not suspected or develops from unusual samples. (scielo.org.ar)
  • ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast causing around 600 000 deaths annually. (cuni.cz)
  • The fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans , causes devastating levels of morbidity and mortality. (mdpi.com)
  • We conducted a genome-wide analysis of the roles of mutation and selection in sculpting intron size in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. (broadinstitute.org)
  • The genome of the basidiomycetous yeast and human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. (genome.jp)
  • Immunoglobulin G3 blocking antibodies to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. (rupress.org)
  • India ink stain to reveal the polysaccharide capsule on yeast cells of the AIDS-associated pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. (ubc.ca)
  • and the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans , the causative agent of cryptococcal meningitis, which is responsible for 15% of all HIV-related deaths. (ubc.ca)
  • Cell wall chitosan is necessary for virulence in the opportunistic pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. (umassmed.edu)
  • Most isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans are haploid. (kenyon.edu)
  • The electrophoretic karyotypes of 32 clinical and 3 environmental Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from New York City were studied by contour clamped homogeneous electrophoresis. (asm.org)
  • Here, we detail fine-resolution mapping of genetic differences between two highly related Cryptococcus gattii VGIIc isolates that differ in their virulence traits (phagocytosis, vomocytosis, macrophage death, mitochondrial tubularization and intracellular proliferation). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Yeast mycoflora are more diverse in forest ecosystems and isolates of Cryptococcus spp (n=13) especially Cr. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Genetic diversity and antifungal susceptibility of clinical and environnemental isolates of Cryptococcus in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic fungus responsible for serious disease in immunocompromised individuals. (genetics.org)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast-like fungus which causes life-threatening infections in patients that are immunocompromised. (patientslikeme.com)
  • The heterothallic basidiomycetous fungus Cryptococcus neoformans has two mating types, MAT a and MAT α. (mdpi.com)
  • . tritici first detected in 1998 is now recognized as a major threat to wheat production and food security worldwide [ 3 ], and the basidiomycetous fungus Cryptococcus gattii ( C. gattii ) has expanded its range into non-endemic environments with a consequential increase in fatal meningitis in humans [ 4 , 5 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans ( Cn ) is a soil fungus that causes life-threatening meningitis in immunocompromised patients and is a facultative intracellular pathogen capable of replication inside macrophages. (pnas.org)
  • Scientists interbred different strains of the Cryptococcus gattii fungus to test how easily the characteristics can transfer to other strains. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Genes involved in the virulence of the meningitis-causing fungus are being characterized at an increasing rate, and to date, at least 648 Cryptococcus gene names have been published. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Xylose-containing glycans are particularly abundant in plants and in the polysaccharide capsule that is the major virulence factor of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans . (pnas.org)
  • We have examined synthesis of this compound in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans . (pnas.org)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans (formerly known as Torula histolytica) is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus found in dried avian (particularly pigeon) and bat excreta, and in dust contaminated with such droppings. (humpath.com)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans ( C . neoformans ) is the most common fungus to cause meningoencephalitis in the central nervous system (CNS) worldwide ( 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • For Cryptococcus , iron sensing actually triggers formation of a major virulence factor, the polysaccharide capsule that protects the fungus from the host immune system. (ubc.ca)
  • A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. (umassmed.edu)
  • A partial-genome microarray was used to profile gene expression in the human-pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans during growth at 37°C. Genes with orthologs involved in stress responses were induced during growth at 37°C, suggesting that a conserved transcriptional program is used by C. neoformans to alter gene expression during stressful conditions. (asm.org)
  • Cryptococcus curvatus ATCC 20509 is a commonly used nonmodel oleaginous yeast capable of converting a variety of carbon sources into fatty acids. (osti.gov)
  • The yeast strains were Cryptococcus pinus VKM Y-2958, Cystofilobasidim bisporidii VKM Y-2700 and Cryptococcus terreus VKM Y-2253 from the All-Russian Collection of Microorganisms, as well as the yeast Filobasidiella neoformans IGC 3957 from the Collection of the Gulbenkian Institute of Science (Portugal). (scirp.org)
  • UDP glucuronate decarboxylase activity was comparable in encapsulated and non-encapsulated strains of Cryptococcus neoformans , required NAD ( K a = 0.2 mM), and was inhibited by NADH ( K i = 0.1 mM) and UDP xylose. (asm.org)
  • Classification and phenotypic profile of clinical and environmental Cryptococcus neoformans complex strains maintened in stock culture. (usp.br)
  • Aiming to study the phenotypic profile of yeasts maintened in stock culture identified as Cryptococcus neoformans , 40 clinical and 44 environmental strains, were chosen ran domly. (usp.br)
  • grubii strain H99, and Cryptococcus gattii strains R265 and WM276, and have written brief descriptions of their functions. (oregonstate.edu)
  • PAULA, C.R. & GAMBALE, W. - evaluation of a fluorescent method (fluorescein diacetate and ethidium bromide solution) in the study of the viability of Cryptococcus neoformans strains. (scielo.br)
  • Our study describes epidemiology and resistance to antifungal of environmental and clinical strains of Cryptococcus in Ivory Coast. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Thermally regulated dimorphism occurs in Cryptococcus neoformans during mating and haploid fruiting and in self-fertile diploid strains but is not a requirement for pathogenesis ( 4 , 47 ). (asm.org)
  • Cryptococcus (Greek for "hidden sphere") is a genus of fungi, which grow in culture as yeasts . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptococcus, sometimes informally called crypto, is a genus of fungi that grow in culture as yeasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii are 2 environmental, encapsulated yeasts that cause invasive, potentially life-threatening infections in humans and animals (1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Mediastinal lymph nodes had mild granulomatous inflammation and contained numerous yeasts morphologically consistent with Cryptococcus spp. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The yeasts responsible belong to the C. neoformans / Cryptococcus gattii species complex. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Serotypes A, D and a hybrid of AD are found among Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii and Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years Cryptococcus has been developed as an experimental system, with advances in molecular techniques enabling detailed investigation of virulence factors and interactions with the mammalian host. (genetics.org)
  • 2009). Evaluation of the experimental inoculation of Cryptococcus albidus and Cryptococcus laurentii in normal mice: virulence factors and molecular profile before and after animal passage. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Does amoeboid reasoning explain the evolution and maintenance of virulence factors in Cryptococcus neoformans ? (pnas.org)
  • Eumelanins produced by pathogenic Cryptococcus neoformans fungi are virulence factors that render the fungal cells resistant to host defenses and certain antifungal drugs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The sexual forms or teleomorphs of Cryptococcus species are filamentous fungi in the genus Filobasidiella . (wikipedia.org)
  • The name Cryptococcus is used when referring to the yeast states of the fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptococcus is a genus of fungi, of which two species, Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, cause nearly all human and animal cryptococcal infections. (cdc.gov)
  • The disease is caused by fungi belonging to the Cryptococcus genus. (scielo.br)
  • Cryptococcus is one of the more common life-threatening fungal infections people with AIDS. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Autochthonous and dormant Cryptococcus gattii infections in Europe. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Until recently, Cryptococcus gattii infections occurred mainly in tropical and subtropical climate zones. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The human fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii cause life-threatening infections of the central nervous system. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Cryptococcus, a major cause of disseminated infections in immunocompromised patients, kills over 600,000 people per year worldwide. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycetous yeast pathogen that can cause life-threatening infections in normal as well as immunocompromised individuals ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • Importance: Cryptococcus gattii is the causative agent responsible for ongoing infections in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and western Canada. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Infections with the human pathogenic basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus neoformans are often treated with fluconazole. (asm.org)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening infections of the human central nervous system (CNS) ( 7 , 52 ). (asm.org)
  • About 37 species of Cryptococcus are recognized, but the taxonomy of the group is currently being re-evaluated with up-to-date methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • The taxonomy of this species has been reviewed: it has been proposed that it be divided into two species - Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus deneoformans . (wikipedia.org)
  • Result of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF), performed on a clinical specimen, specific for Cryptococcus gattii . (cdc.gov)
  • This report describes the clinical, pathological, and molecular aspects of a pneumonia by Cryptococcus neoformans in a goat in the Southern region of Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • Hence, the aim of this study was to describe the clinical, pathological, and molecular aspects of granulomatous pneumonia by Cryptococcus neoformans in a goat in the Southern region of Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • Dynamic virulence: real-time assessment of intracellular pathogenesis links Cryptococcus neoformans phenotype with clinical outcome. (umassmed.edu)
  • C. albidus produces urease , as is common for Cryptococcus species. (wikipedia.org)
  • [13] C. albidus is very easily mistaken for other Cryptococcus species, as well as species from other genera of yeast, so should be allowed to grow for a minimum of 7 days before attempting to identify this species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fonseca A., Scorzeti G., and Fell J. (2000) Diversity in the yeast Cryptococcus albidus and related species as revealed by ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The multigene sequence analysis indicates that the strain is closely related to Cryptococcus albidus var. (atcc.org)
  • 1988). Pectic enzyme production by Cryptococcus albidus var. (ucdavis.edu)
  • 2000). Diversity in the yeast Cryptococcus albidus and related species as revealed by ribosomal DNA analysis. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Simulated in situ competitive ability and survival of a representative soil yeast, Cryptococcus albidus . (ucdavis.edu)
  • If you examined Cryptococcus neoformans under a microscope you would see round or oval shaped yeast cells, which are often referred to as 'basidiomycete' yeast. (ubc.ca)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental encapsulated yeast that behaves as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) is a major opportunistic fungal pathogen in individuals with impaired T cell-mediated immunity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that infects the human central nervous system. (asm.org)
  • Contributions of the MyD88-dependent receptors IL-18R, IL-1R, and TLR9 to host defenses following pulmonary challenge with Cryptococcus neoformans. (umassmed.edu)
  • AF075469 Cryptococcus laurentii 26S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. (atcc.org)
  • Taylor-Smith, L.M. Cryptococcus -Epithelial Interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • Cryptococcus can survive and proliferate within macrophages, and is also capable of escaping into the intracellular environment via a non-lytic mechanism ('expulsion') and can be transferred directly from one cell to another (lateral transfer). (bham.ac.uk)
  • The polysaccharide capsule of C. neoformans is a major virulence factor, preventing phagocytosis of cryptococci by alveolar macrophages . (humpath.com)
  • India ink stain of Cryptococcus neosporans showing the presence of a capsule. (kenyon.edu)
  • Specific staining showed a prominent mucicarminophilic capsule consistent with Cryptococcus spp. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • McFadden DC, De Jesus M, Casadevall A. The physical properties of the capsular polysaccharides from Cryptococcus neoformans suggest features for capsule construction. (springer.com)
  • Complementation of a capsule-deficient mutation of Cryptococcus neoformans restores its virulence. (asm.org)
  • Human studies have shown associations between cryptococcal meningitis and reduced IgM memory B cell levels, and studies in IgM- and/or B cell-deficient mice have demonstrated increased Cryptococcus neoformans dissemination from lungs to brain. (asm.org)
  • Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) causes high rates of HIV-related mortality, yet the Cryptococcus factors influencing patient outcome are not well understood. (asm.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis and genotyping studies have revealed significant genetic diversity within the pathogenic Cryptococcus neoformans / Cryptococcus gattii species complex. (scielo.br)
  • The neocentromere formation and chromosomal fusion events observed in this study in C. deuterogattii may be similar to events that triggered genomic changes within the Cryptococcus / Kwoniella species complex and may contribute to speciation throughout the eukaryotic domain. (elifesciences.org)
  • In this paper, 15 supervised classification algorithms based on a support vector machine (SVM) were applied to discriminate Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii fungal species using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. (rsc.org)
  • The main problem with the detection of Cryptococcus neoformans is that it is a nondescript yeast upon primary isolation. (emsl.com)
  • Our results describe also, for the first time, the isolation of Cryptococcus from pigeon droppings from Abidjan. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Multicenter evaluation of broth microdilution method for susceptibility testing of Cryptococcus neoformans against fluconazole. (springer.com)
  • Currie BP, Ghannoum M, Bessen L, Casadevall A. Decreased fluconazole susceptibility of a relapse Cryptococcus neoform-ans isolate after fluconazole treatment. (springer.com)
  • We report a case of Cryptococcus gattii (molecular type VGIII) that developed reduced susceptibility to fluconazole during therapy and delineate the molecular mechanisms responsible. (ovid.com)
  • Flucytosine primary resistance in Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans . (springer.com)
  • 46:7-27 Shafiee R., Nahvi I. and Emtiazi G. (2005) Bioconversion of Raw Starch to SCP by Coculture of Cryptococcus aerius and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the years, the organism Sanfelice first isolated has been re-isolated and given all sorts of names, from Saccharomyces hominis, Cryptococcus hominis and Torula histolytica, all the way to Debaryamyces hominis. (ubc.ca)
  • The Cryptococcus neoformans STE12 α gene, a homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae STE12 , exists only in mating type ( MAT ) α cells. (rupress.org)
  • 5-fluorocytosine resistance in Cryptococcus neoformans . (springer.com)
  • At least 38 Cryptococcus species other than C . neoformans have been described, and C . neoformans is the only species that can consistently grow at mammalian body temperatures and is the only common human pathogen ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Cross talk between the cell wall integrity and cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathways in Cryptococcus neoformans. (umassmed.edu)
  • We characterized Cryptococcus neoformans recombinant antiphagocytic protein 1 (rApp1) by SDS-PAGE, gel filtration chromatography, circular dichroism, and fluorescence spectroscopy. (springer.com)
  • Williams V, Del Poeta M. Role of glucose in the expression of Cryptococcus neoformans antiphagocytic protein 1, App1. (springer.com)
  • However, investigations of Cryptococcus are hampered by the technical difficulty of specific gene replacements. (genetics.org)
  • In this study, we systematically analyzed melanin-regulating signaling pathways in Cryptococcus neoformans and identified four melanin-regulating core transcription factors (TFs), Bzp4, Usv101, Mbs1, and Hob1, required for induction of the laccase gene ( LAC1 ). (asm.org)
  • To avoid these conflicts and to provide a central source of Cryptococcus gene information, we have collected all published Cryptococcus gene names from the scientific literature and associated them with standard Cryptococcus locus identifiers and have incorporated them into FungiDB ( www.fungidb.org ). (oregonstate.edu)
  • We also compiled a protocol for gene naming that summarizes guidelines proposed by members of the Cryptococcus research community. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Gene transfer in Cryptococcus neoformans by use of biolistic delivery of DNA. (asm.org)
  • Use of RNA interference in Cryptococcus should allow manipulation of mRNA levels for functional analysis of genes of interest and enable efficient exploration of genes discovered by genome sequencing. (genetics.org)
  • One fungal genome, that of Cryptococcus neoformans (24 Mb), has been currently sequenced to approximately seven times shotgun coverage by the Stanford Genome Technology Center ( http://www-sequence.stanford.edu ) and The Institute for Genomic Research ( http://www.tigr.org ). (genetics.org)
  • KEGG GENOME: Cryptococcus neoformans var. (genome.jp)
  • The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus deuterogattii is RNAi-deficient and lacks active transposons in its genome. (elifesciences.org)