Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Cryptococcus gattii: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella bacillispora.Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Flucytosine: A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.Immunocompetence: The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.Transplants: Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.Cellulitis: An acute, diffuse, and suppurative inflammation of loose connective tissue, particularly the deep subcutaneous tissues, and sometimes muscle, which is most commonly seen as a result of infection of a wound, ulcer, or other skin lesions.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.PolysaccharidesSuloctidil: A peripheral vasodilator that was formerly used in the management of peripheral and cerebral vascular disorders. It is hepatotoxic and fatalities have occurred. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1312)Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Organ Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Lung Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.MycosesBone Diseases, Infectious: Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Aspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Central Nervous System Fungal Infections: MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Fungemia: The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.Abortion, Septic: Any type of abortion, induced or spontaneous, that is associated with infection of the UTERUS and its appendages. It is characterized by FEVER, uterine tenderness, and foul discharge.TriazolesLatex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.

In-vivo therapeutic efficacy in experimental murine mycoses of a new formulation of deoxycholate-amphotericin B obtained by mild heating. (1/1120)

Heat-induced 'superaggregation' of deoxycholate-amphotericin B (AmB-DOC, Fungizone) was shown previously to reduce the in-vitro toxicity of this antifungal agent. We compared AmB-DOC with the formulation obtained by heating the commercial form (Fungizone, Bristol Myers Squibb, Paris, France) for 20 min at 70 degrees C, in the treatment of murine infections. An improvement of antifungal activity was obtained with heated AmB-DOC formulations due to a lower toxicity which allowed the administration of higher drug doses than those achievable with the commercial preparation. Single intravenous injections of heated AmB-DOC solutions were demonstrated to be two-fold less toxic than unheated ones to healthy mice. For mice infected with Candida albicans, the maximum tolerated dose was higher with heated than with unheated AmB-DOC solutions. In the model of murine candidiasis, following a single dose of heated AmB-DOC 0.5 mg/kg, 85% of mice survived for 3 weeks, whereas at this dose the immediate toxicity of the standard formulation in infected mice restricted the therapeutic efficacy to 25% survival. Both formulations were equally effective in increasing the survival time for murine cryptococcal pneumonia and meningoencephalitis. Injection of heated AmB-DOC solutions at a dose two-fold higher than the maximal tolerated dose observed with the unheated preparation (1.2 mg/kg) increased the survival time by a factor of 1.4 in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. These results indicate that mild heat treatment of AmB-DOC solutions could provide a simple and economical method to improve the therapeutic index of this antifungal agent by reducing its toxicity on mammalian cells.  (+info)

A comparison of itraconazole versus fluconazole as maintenance therapy for AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. (2/1120)

This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of fluconazole vs. itraconazole as maintenance therapy for AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. HIV-infected patients who had been successfully treated (achieved negative culture of CSF) for a first episode of cryptococcal meningitis were randomized to receive fluconazole or itraconazole, both at 200 mg/d, for 12 months. The study was stopped prematurely on the recommendation of an independent Data Safety and Monitoring Board. At the time, 13 (23%) of 57 itraconazole recipients had experienced culture-positive relapse, compared with 2 relapses (4%) noted among 51 fluconazole recipients (P = .006). The factor best associated with relapse was the patient having not received flucytosine during the initial 2 weeks of primary treatment for cryptococcal disease (relative risk = 5.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-27.14; P = .04). Fluconazole remains the treatment of choice for maintenance therapy for AIDS-associated cryptococcal disease. Flucytosine may contribute to the prevention of relapse if used during the first 2 weeks of primary therapy.  (+info)

Cryptococcosis in children with AIDS. (3/1120)

We compiled the clinical and immunologic features of Cryptococcus neoformans infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children from 1985 to 1996 in a retrospective case series. Thirty cases of cryptococcosis were identified. These children had a median age of 9.8 years, a median CD4+ cell count of 54/microL at the time of diagnosis, and either a culture positive for C. neoformans or cryptococcal antigen in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Sixty-three percent of the cases occurred in children vertically infected with HIV and in children between 6 and 12 years of age. The clinical and laboratory characteristics of this pediatric cohort were similar to those of adults with AIDS and cryptococcosis. On the basis of a subset of the cases, a 10-year point prevalence of cryptococcosis among children with AIDS of approximately 1% was estimated.  (+info)

Variants of a Cryptococcus neoformans strain elicit different inflammatory responses in mice. (4/1120)

The virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates with high and low extracellular proteolytic activity was investigated in mice. No consistent relationship between proteolytic activity and virulence was observed, but isolates derived from one strain were shown to elicit different inflammatory responses.  (+info)

Serotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from clinical and environmental sources in Spain. (5/1120)

We determined biovars and serotypes of 154 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from clinical and environmental sources from different areas of Spain. All clinical isolates belonged to C. neoformans var. neoformans. Serotypes showed an irregular distribution. C. neoformans var. gattii serotype B was isolated from necropsy specimens from goats with pulmonary disease.  (+info)

Heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) as a major target of the antibody response in patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. (6/1120)

Cryptococcus neoformans causes infection in individuals with defective T cell function, such as AIDS, as well as without underlying disease. It has been suggested that humoral as well as cellular immunity might play an important role in the immune response to C. neoformans infection. We have recently shown, using immunoblotting, that the 70-kD hsp family of C. neoformans was the major target molecule of the humoral response in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis. In this study we also used immunoblotting to define the antibody responses in the sera of 24 patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis: 21 proven and three suspected diagnoses. Anti-C. neoformans hsp70 antibody was detected in 16 of 24 (66.7%) patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. Fourteen of 17 (82.3%) patients with high antigen titres (> or = 1:8) and two of seven (28.6%) patients with low titres (< or = 1:4) had detectable levels of anti-hsp70 antibody. Sera from patients positive for anti-hsp70 antibody showed high titres in the Eiken latex agglutination test for the detection of serum cryptococcal antigen. Our results indicate that the 70-kD hsp family from C. neoformans appears to be a major target molecule of the humoral response, not only in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis, but also in human patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis.  (+info)

Role of the C-C chemokine, TCA3, in the protective anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune response. (7/1120)

Activated T lymphocytes play a crucial role in orchestrating cellular infiltration during a cell-mediated immune (CMI) reaction. TCA3, a C-C chemokine, is produced by Ag-activated T cells and is chemotactic for neutrophils and macrophages, two cell types in a murine CMI reaction. Using a gelatin sponge model for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), we show that TCA3 is a component of the expression phase of an anticryptococcal CMI response in mice. TCA3 mRNA levels are augmented in anticryptococcal DTH reactions at the same time peak influxes of neutrophils and lymphocytes are observed. Neutralization of TCA3 in immunized mice results in reduced numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes at DTH reaction sites. However, when rTCA3 is injected into sponges in naive mice, only neutrophils are attracted into the sponges, indicating TCA3 is chemotactic for neutrophils, but not lymphocytes. We show that TCA3 is indirectly attracting lymphocytes into DTH-reactive sponges by affecting at least one other chemokine that is chemotactic for lymphocytes. Of the two lymphocyte-attracting chemokines assessed, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), only MIP-1alpha was reduced when TCA3 was neutralized, indicating that TCA3 affects the levels of MIP-1alpha, which attracts lymphocytes into the sponges. TCA3 also plays a role in protection against Cryptococcus neoformans in the lungs and brains of infected mice, as evidenced by the fact that neutralization of TCA3 results in increased C. neoformans CFU in those two organs.  (+info)

Antibody response to Cryptococcus neoformans proteins in rodents and humans. (8/1120)

The prevalence and specificity of serum antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans proteins was studied in mice and rats with experimental infection, in individuals with or without a history of potential laboratory exposure to C. neoformans, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals who developed cryptococcosis, in matched samples from HIV-positive individuals who did not develop cryptococcosis, and in HIV-negative individuals. Rodents had little or no serum antibody reactive with C. neoformans proteins prior to infection. The intensity and specificity of the rodent antibody response were dependent on the species, the mouse strain, and the viability of the inoculum. All humans had serum antibodies reactive with C. neoformans proteins regardless of the potential exposure, the HIV infection status, or the subsequent development of cryptococcosis. Our results indicate (i) a high prevalence of antibodies reactive with C. neoformans proteins in the sera of rodents after cryptococcal infection and in humans with or without HIV infection; (ii) qualitative and quantitative differences in the antibody profiles of HIV-positive individuals; and (iii) similarities and differences between humans, mice, and rats with respect to the specificity of the antibodies reactive with C. neoformans proteins. The results are consistent with the view that C. neoformans infections are common in human populations, and the results have implications for the development of vaccination strategies against cryptococcosis.  (+info)

Cryptococcus neoformans, the causative fungal agent of cryptococcosis remain a common cause of infectious morbidity and mortality, especially among HIV-positive patients living in Sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia. This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence and clinical presentation of Cryptococcus infections among HIV positive and negative patients in RIMS, Manipur. Specimens like CSF, sputum, urine, blood, tissue biopsy or aspirates from clinically suspected cryptococcosis cases from RIMS hospital, were subjected to mycological examination. Out of the 48 patients enrolled for the study, Cryptococcus spp were isolated from 16 (33.33%) patients. Among these 16 cryptococcosis patients, majority of them presented with cryptococcal meningitis 13 (81.25%), while 1 (6.25%) patient each presented with cryptococcal lymphadenitis, disseminated cutaneous cryptococcosis and osseous cryptococcosis respectively. Also, of these 16 cryptococcosis patients, 14 (87.5%) were HIV positive. Among these HIV
Cryptococcosis, also known as cryptococcal disease, is a potentially fatal fungal disease. It is caused by one of two species; Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. These were all previously thought to be subspecies of C. neoformans but have now been identified as distinct species. Cryptococcosis is believed to be acquired by inhalation of the infectious propagule from the environment. Although the exact nature of the infectious propagule is unknown, the leading hypothesis is the basidiospore created through sexual or asexual reproduction. Cryptococcosis is a defining opportunistic infection for AIDS, and is the second-most-common AIDS-defining illness in Africa. Other conditions that pose an increased risk include certain lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkins lymphoma), sarcoidosis, liver cirrhosis, and patients on long-term corticosteroid therapy. Distribution is worldwide in soil. The prevalence of cryptococcosis has been increasing over the past 20 years for many reasons, including the ...
Cryptococcosis, also known as cryptococcal disease is a potentially fatal fungal disease. It is caused by inhalation of an encapsulated yeast called Cryptococcus neoformans. Cryptococcosis is believed to be acquired by inhalation of the infectious propagule from the environment. Although the exact nature of the infectious propagule is unknown, the leading hypothesis is the basidiospore created through sexual or asexual reproduction.. Cryptococcosis market: Types of infection. There are three identified Cryptococcus strains that causes disease worldwide namely Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus grubii and Cryptococcus gattii. Exposure via respiratory or the gastrointestinal tract are considered as the most common and opportunistic pathway for the organism entry in the host. Cryptococcus neoformans can be found worldwide in soil, birds, animals and humans. Whereas, alternative route of administration can be through transplant of infected tissue, surgical instrument or laboratory instruments. ...
Background Cryptococcus neoformans causes life-threatening meningitis. A recently introduced lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) to detect cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) is reportedly more rapid and convenient than standard latex agglutination (LA), but has not yet been evaluated in a diagnostic laboratory setting. Methods One hundred and six serum, 42 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and 20 urine samples from 92 patients with known or suspected cryptococcosis were tested by LA and LFA, and titres were compared. Results were correlated with laboratory-confirmed cryptococcosis. Serial samples were tested in nine treated patients. Results Twenty-five of 92 patients had confirmed cryptococcosis; all sera (n = 56) from these patients were positive by LFA (sensitivity 100%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 93.6-100%) compared with 51/56 positive by LA (sensitivity 91.1%, 95% CI 80.7-96.1%). Fifty sera from 67 patients without cryptococcosis tested negative in both assays. While LA yielded more false negative results (5/56
The global cryptococcosis market was calculated to reach US$4.31 bn by the end of 2016, and is projected to reach US$6.2 bn by the end of 2024, cryptococcosis market is after expanding at a CAGR of 4.8% from 2016 to 2024.
... is a fungal infection caused specifically by the fungus cryptococcus neofromans, which is usually found in soil and bird droppings or less commonly, the fungus cryptococcus gatti, found in sub-tropical regions. An individual usually contracts this infection through the air by breathing in the spores. Cryptococcocsis is most commonly associated with HIV and with people with weakened immune systems such as Hodgkins disease, individuals taking high doses of corticosteroid medications or undergoing chemotherapy. However, cryptococcocsis may affect individuals with normal immune systems as well. In some cases, there are no symptoms at all, however because the fungus is typically inhaled, the lungs are most commonly infected. It is more likely to spread beyond the lungs to the brain (and cause meningitis) in individuals with weakened immune systems. Symptoms may include blurred vision, chest pain, fatigue, dry coughs, fever, headache, nausea, sweating, and skin rashes. Other symptoms ...
Cryptococcosis is a yeast-like fungal infection. Symptoms include weight loss, lethargy, and fight-like wounds on the nose and skin. Treatment includes oral antifungal medication and possibly surgery, depending on severity of wounds.
Cryptococcosis is a yeast-like fungal infection. Symptoms include weight loss, lethargy, fight-like wounds on the nose and skin. Treatment includes oral antifungal medication and possibly surgery, depending on severity of wounds.
Cryptococcosis is the most common systemic fungal disease of domestic cats worldwide. It is caused by a fungus belonging to the genus Cryptococcous.
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast. In 1894, Busse, a pathologist, first described the yeast in a paper he presented to the Greifswald Medical Society.
An acute or chronic, localized or disseminated infection by cryptococcus neoformans. Sites of involvement include the lungs, central nervous system and meninges, skin, and visceral organs ...
Jones FX Fracture line extends to 4-5 intermetatarsal space. Cryptococcosis is the most common fungal disease in HIV -infected persons, and it is the AIDS-defining illness for 60-70% of HIV-infected patients.. In addition to invading the lung and CNS, cryptococci also invade the skin, bone, and genitourinary tract, but meninges appear to be the preferred site.. Cryptococcal disease usually develops only when CD4+ lymphocyte counts fall below 100 cells/microL.. Disease onset is usually insidious; time from symptom onset to diagnosis is, on average, 30 days or more. The delay also may be due to the waxing-and-waning course and the nonspecificity of symptoms. Headache, fever, malaise, nonspecific mental status sx, uncommonly CN palsies, seizures, focal neuro sx. Also uncommon to see meningismus (no immune system).. CSF analysis may yield normal (ie, reference) results in 25% of patients and may be minimally abnormal in as many as 50%; therefore, identifying the organism via India Ink and serology ...
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International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
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The terms above describe general types of diseases because they dont provide specific information about the cause of the disease process. Once the cause has been determined, the name may change. For example, the veterinarian may determine that a patient has inflammation of the meninges (i.e. meningitis). Once it has been determined that the meningitis is caused by an infection from the fungus, coccidiomycosis, the name will change to Cocci meningitis and the patient can be specifically treated for this disease process. Also, the suffix -us denotes an organism and -osis denotes a condition. Therefore, Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by the fungus Cryptococcus.. If multiple areas are being affected by a process, two or more prefixes can be combined. For example ...
The researchers analyzed clinical cultures collected during a prospective study on cryptococcosis. Using molecular analysis of unpurified isolates they uncovered an unexpectedly high frequency (almost 20 percent) of mixed infections. They further demonstrated that these mixed infections could result from infestation by multiple strains acquired from the environment and that the strains were also evolving during infection.. "The concept of one strain/one infection does not hold true for C neoformans and may apply to other environmentally acquired fungal pathogens. The possibility of mixed and/or evolving infections should be taken into account when developing therapeutic strategies against these pathogens," says Dromer.. mBio™ is a new open access online journal published by the American Society for Microbiology to make microbiology research broadly accessible. The focus of the journal is on rapid publication of cutting-edge research spanning the entire spectrum of microbiology and related ...
The primary study outcome was the death rate 24 weeks after starting treatment. Intent to treat analysis which counted everyone randomised showed that enhanced prophylaxis was associated with a significantly reduced risk of death. 8.9% of those in the enhanced prophylaxis arm died compared to 12.2% of those in the standard of care arm, a risk reduction of 27% (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.54-0.97, p = 0.03) and this difference was sustained at week 48 (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0. 58-0.98, p = 0.04).. Analysis of the primary causes of death showed that death due to Cryptococcus was significantly reduced in the enhanced prophylaxis arm (p = 0.03) but there was no difference in rates of death due to TB or bacterial infections. The investigators concluded that, in most cases, the causes of death were multifactorial. Nevertheless, the study found that enhanced prophylaxis was associated with a reduction in new cases of TB, cryptococcal disease or candida, but not of bacterial infections. Hospitalisation for any cause ...
The lysis of infected cells by disease-causing microorganisms is an efficient but risky strategy for disseminated infection, as it exposes the pathogen to the full repertoire of the hosts immune system. Cryptococcus neoformans is a widespread fungal pathogen that causes a fatal meningitis in HIV and other immunocompromised patients. Following intracellular growth, cryptococci are able to escape their host cells by a non-lytic expulsive mechanism that may contribute to the invasion of the central nervous system. Non-lytic escape is also exhibited by some bacterial pathogens and is likely to facilitate long-term avoidance of the host immune system during latency. Here we show that phagosomes containing intracellular cryptococci undergo repeated cycles of actin polymerisation. These actin flashes occur in both murine and human macrophages and are dependent on classical WASP-Arp2/3 complex mediated actin filament nucleation. Three dimensional confocal imaging time lapse revealed that such flashes ...
Unique clinical characteristics and other variables influencing the outcome of Cryptococcus neoformans infection in organ transplant recipients have not been well defined. From a review of published reports, we found that C. neoformans infection was documented in 2.8% of organ transplant recipients (overall death rate 42%). The type of primary immunosuppressive agent used in transplantation influenced the predominant clinical manifestation of cryptococcosis. Patients receiving tacrolimus were significantly less likely to have central nervous system involvement (78% versus 11%, p =0.001) and more likely to have skin, soft-tissue, and osteoarticular involvement (66% versus 21%, p = 0.006) than patients receiving nontacrolimus-based immunosuppression. Renal failure at admission was the only independently significant predictor of death in these patients (odds ratio 16.4, 95% CI 1.9 - 143, p = 0.004). Hypotheses based on these data may elucidate the pathogenesis and may ultimately guide the management of C.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antibody-mediated protection in murine Cryptococcus neoformans infection is associated with pleotrophic effects on cytokine and leukocyte responses. AU - Feldmesser, Marta. AU - Mednick, Aron. AU - Casadevall, Arturo. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Cryptococcus neoformans, an encapsulated yeast, is a common cause of life-threatening meningoencephalitis in immunosuppressed patients. We previously observed that administration of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to the capsular polysaccharide to mice with pulmonary infection prolonged survival and enhanced granulomatous inflammation without reducing lung CFU. To understand the mechanism of MAb action, we studied leukocyte recruitment and cytokine profiles in lungs of A/JCr mice. B lymphocytes were the predominant cell type in lung infiltrates, comprising 15 to 30% of the leukocytes. Despite alterations in histological appearance, fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis revealed no significant difference in total numbers of lung ...
Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii ATCC ® 208821D-2™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii strain H99JP [ATCC ® 208821™] Application:
TY - JOUR. T1 - Host immunity to Cryptococcus neoformans. AU - Rohatgi, Soma. AU - Pirofski, Liise-anne. PY - 2015/4/1. Y1 - 2015/4/1. N2 - Cryptococcosis is caused by the fungal genus Cryptococcus. Cryptococcosis, predominantly meningoencephalitis, emerged with the HIV pandemic, primarily afflicting HIV-infected patients with profound T-cell deficiency. Where in use, combination antiretroviral therapy has markedly reduced the incidence of and risk for disease, but cryptococcosis continues to afflict those without access to therapy, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. However, cryptococcosis also occurs in solid organ transplant recipients and patients with other immunodeficiencies as well as those with no known immunodeficiency. This article reviews innate and adaptive immune responses to C. neoformans, with an emphasis on recent studies on the role of B cells, natural IgM and Fc gamma receptor polymorphisms in resistance to cryptococcosis.. AB - Cryptococcosis is caused by the fungal ...
Innate immunity plays an important role for fungal recognition and initiation of fungicidal activity. We hypothesize that subtle differences in different molecules of innate immunity may contribute to either the predisposition or clinical course of infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. To test this hypothesis, we propose to analyze the allelic frequencies of 15 different genes (mannose binding lectin, Fc-gamma receptor IIa and IIb, Fc-gamma receptors IIIa and IIIb, myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and -beta, interleukin 1A and 1B, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-10, NRAMP-1, chitotriosidase, and chemokine receptor 5) and their intragenic polymorphic forms and to compare this data to the incidence and severity of C neoformans infection. With this study we hope to identify a group of molecules of innate immunity which influence the risk and severity of invasive C neoformans infection ...
Innate immunity plays an important role for fungal recognition and initiation of fungicidal activity. We hypothesize that subtle differences in different molecules of innate immunity may contribute to either the predisposition or clinical course of infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. To test this hypothesis, we propose to analyze the allelic frequencies of 15 different genes (mannose binding lectin, Fc-gamma receptor IIa and IIb, Fc-gamma receptors IIIa and IIIb, myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and -beta, interleukin 1A and 1B, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-10, NRAMP-1, chitotriosidase, and chemokine receptor 5) and their intragenic polymorphic forms and to compare this data to the incidence and severity of C neoformans infection. With this study we hope to identify a group of molecules of innate immunity which influence the risk and severity of invasive C neoformans infection ...
A polysaccharide capsule is one of the most important virulence factors for the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. We previously characterized two capsule-associated genes,CAP59 and CAP64. To further dissect the molecular mechanism of capsule synthesis, 16 acapsular mutants induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide were obtained. The acapsular phenotype of one of these mutants was complemented. The cloned gene was designatedCAP60, and deletion of this newly described capsule-associated gene resulted in an acapsular phenotype. The proposed 67-kDa Cap60p contains 592 amino acids and appears to have a putative transmembrane domain close to the N terminus. DNA sequence analysis revealed that CAP60 has similarity toCAP59 at the center portion of its coding regions. Contour-clamped homogeneous electric field blot analysis suggested that these two genes are on the same chromosome. CAP60 andCAP59, however, could not be functionally substituted for each other by direct complementation or by domain swap ...
The main principles for the genetic pathophysiology of cryptococcosis will probably be consistent among all three varieties. In this chapter the author considers the yeasts to be different varieties or serotypes. Seven major areas are examined to support the potential molecular insights into this pathogenic yeast which will allow one to identify drug targets, define drug resistance mechanisms, and/or prepare mutants or fungal products for protective fungal vaccines. Initial molecular biology studies focused on distinguishing molecular strain differences with the use of karyotypes, repetitive elements, and eventually randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs, amplification fragment length polymorphisms, and PCR fingerprinting for strain genotyping. Cryptococcus neoformans has several well-characterized virulence phenotypes which have been approached in their understanding by both genetic and molecular tools. Experimental cryptococcosis in animal models has tended to be associated with large inocula or some
Cryptococcal infection is acquired from the environment. C. neoformans and C. gattii inhabit different ecologic niches. C. neoformans is frequently found in soils contaminated with avian excreta and can easily be recovered from shaded and humid soils contaminated with pigeon droppings. In contrast, C. gattii is not found in bird feces. Instead, it inhabits a variety of arboreal species, including several types of eucalyptus tree. C. neoformans strains are found throughout the world; however, var. grubii (serotype A) strains are far more common than var. neoformans (serotype D) strains among both clinical and environmental isolates. The geographic distribution of C. gattii was thought to be largely limited to tropical regions until an outbreak of cryptococcosis caused by a new serotype B strain began in Vancouver in 1999. This outbreak has extended into the United States, and C. gattii infections are being encountered increasingly in several states in the Pacific Northwest. ...
In Japan, most cases of cryptococcosis are caused by Cryptococcus neoformans(C. neoformans). Until now, only three cases which the infectious agent was Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii(C. gattii)have been reported. As compared with cryptococcosis caused by C. neoformans, which is often observed in immunocompromised hosts, cryptococcosis caused by C. gattii occurs predominantly in immunocompetent hosts and is resistant to antifungal drugs. Here, we report a case of refractory cerebral cryptococcoma that was successfully treated by surgical resection of the lesions. A 33-year-old man with no medical history complained of headache, hearing disturbance, and irritability. Pulmonary CT showed a nodular lesion in the left lung. Cerebrospinal fluid examination with Indian ink indicated cryptococcal meningitis, and PCR confirmed infection with C. gattii. C. gattii is usually seen in the tropics and subtropics. Since this patient imported trees and soils from abroad to feed stag beetles, parasite or ...
The study by Baughman and colleagues comprises 2 parts. The first part was a retrospective analysis of 51 patients, the results of which yielded 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The second part was a prospective study of 220 patients. 15 were positive for cryptococcal antigen in their BAL fluid, but only 8 of them had culture-proven cryptococcal pneumonia. On the basis of a 3.6% prevalence of cryptococcal infection in this group of patients, a negative predictive value of 100% was calculated. The authors also calculated a positive predictive value of 53% to 67% depending on the cut-point titer of antigen used. Because of the 7 false-positive antigen tests obtained from the prospective study, all antigen-positive and 10 antigen-negative BAL specimens were retested after they were stored at -80 °C for at least 3 months. All culture-positive specimens were antigen positive, but none of the 7 initially false-positive specimens remained positive, thus providing a 100% sensitivity and 100% ...
An article in a recent issue of this journal reported the use of intravenous miconazole in cryptococcosis (1). Use of this new antifungal drug in the treatment of systemic candidiasis as well as cryptococcosis appears to be increasing. Whereas relatively few infectious disease specialists use intravenous miconazole for these indications, we believe that this drug is used much more frequently by physicians working outside the subspecialty of infectious disease. If our impression is correct, then these groups differ in the interpretation of the meager data on the efficacy of miconazole in treating these diseases. Alternatively, some physicians may be relying ...
The case below of systemic cryptococcal infection and meningitis, an opportunistic fungal infection, in a pwMS on fingolimod is one of many cases reported worldwide. The problem with fingolimod is that you cant derisk the risk of opportunistic infections. All cases of opportunistic infection on fingolimod, to the best of my knowledge, have occurred in pwMS with lymphocyte counts above 200/mm3 or 0.2x109/L (the action level ti disruot dosing in the EU). In addition, infections in pwMS on fingolimod are not linked to the peripheral lymphocyte counts. Therefore, the only way to deal with the opportunistic infection risk on fingolimod is to remain vigilant and be aware of symptoms suggsetive of an infection. In the case of cryptococcal meningitis this may be very subtle symptoms; for example a non-specific headache or visual symptoms. The reason why cryptococcal infection is very indolent is simply because people who are immunosuppressed are unable to mount a vigorous immune response against the ...
Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by fungi that belong to the genus Cryptococcus.The two species are Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii.
Aritreyee Datta*, Vikas Yadav*, ............, Kaustuv Sanyal, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy and Anirban Bhunia, Mode of Action of a Designed Antimicrobial Peptide: High Efficiency in Killing of the Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, Biophysical Journal 111, 1724 - 1737 (2016 ...
Strains and cell growth: C. neoformans was grown with continuous shaking at 30° in YPD medium [1% (w/v) Bacto yeast extract; 2% (w/v) peptone, 2% dextrose] or minimal medium lacking uracil (Ausubelet al. 2001). Low adenine plates contained yeast nitrogen base supplemented with (per liter) 20 g glucose; 24 mg uracil; 40 mg each arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, and tryrosine; 60 mg phenylalanine and tryptophan; 120 mg homoserine; 180 mg valine; and 10 mg adenine. For experiments using 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA), plates contained the same medium with adenine raised to 40 mg/liter and the addition of 1 g/liter 5-FOA. Wild-type serotype D strain B4500 and cap59 strain TYCC33 (Chang and Kwon-Chung 1994) were from Dr. June Kwon-Chung (National Institutes of Health), and ura5 strain JEC43 (Wickeset al. 1997) was from Dr. Joseph Heitman (Duke University Medical Center). JEC43 cells transformed with a control plasmid alone (CIP-GUST.Cla.Kpn; see below) are designated ...
Antibody-mediated defense against pathogens typically requires complex interactions between antibodies and other constituents of the humoral and cellular immune systems. However, recent evidence indicates that some antibodies alone can inhibit pathogen function in the absence of complement, phagocytes, or NK cells. In this issue of the JCI, McClelland et al. have begun to elucidate the molecular bases by which antibodies alone can impact pathogen growth and metabolism. They show that mAbs specific for the polysaccharide capsule of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans elicit diverse effects on fungal gene expression, lipid biosynthesis, susceptibility to amphotericin B, cellular metabolism, and protein phosphorylation. These data suggest that pathogens have the capacity to generate broad metabolic responses as a result of surface binding by pathogen-specific antibodies, effects that may hold therapeutic promise. ...
Antibody-mediated defense against pathogens typically requires complex interactions between antibodies and other constituents of the humoral and cellular immune systems. However, recent evidence indicates that some antibodies alone can inhibit pathogen function in the absence of complement, phagocytes, or NK cells. In this issue of the JCI, McClelland et al. have begun to elucidate the molecular bases by which antibodies alone can impact pathogen growth and metabolism. They show that mAbs specific for the polysaccharide capsule of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans elicit diverse effects on fungal gene expression, lipid biosynthesis, susceptibility to amphotericin B, cellular metabolism, and protein phosphorylation. These data suggest that pathogens have the capacity to generate broad metabolic responses as a result of surface binding by pathogen-specific antibodies, effects that may hold therapeutic promise. ...
Infection wif C. neoformans is termed cryptococcosis. Most infections wif C. neoformans occur in de wungs.[12] However, fungaw meningitis and encephawitis, especiawwy as a secondary infection for AIDS patients, are often caused by C. neoformans, making it a particuwarwy dangerous fungus. Infections wif dis fungus are rare in dose wif fuwwy functioning immune systems.[13] So, C. neoformans is sometimes referred to as an opportunistic fungus.[13] It is a facuwtative intracewwuwar padogen[14] dat can utiwize host phagocytes to spread widin de body.[15][16] Cryptococcus neoformans was de first intracewwuwar padogen for which de non-wytic escape process termed vomocytosis was observed.[17][18] It has been specuwated dat dis abiwity to manipuwate host cewws resuwts from environmentaw sewective pressure by amoebae, a hypodesis first proposed by Arturo Casadevaww under de term "accidentaw viruwence".[19]. In human infection, C. neoformans is spread by inhawation of aerosowized basidiospores, and can ...
The researchers findings, printed within the Worldwide Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, indicate that fendiline hydrochloride can stimulate white-colored bloodstream cells to battle cryptococcosis, which can be more efficient than using drugs to directly get rid of the fungus.. Despite its effectiveness, a lesser dose (1 µM) of fendiline hydrochloride well suited for clinical use unsuccessful to avoid C. neoformans growth.. In reaction, the scientists screened 1,200 Food and drug administration-approved drugs to recognize effective compounds that could stimulate white-colored bloodstream cells to acknowledge and kill C. neoformans residing in cells, the discharge stated. Throughout a preliminary screening, 19 compounds put together to considerably hinder intra cellular development of C. neoformans. After additional screening processes ruling out compounds with host cell toxicity, the scientists discovered that fendiline hydrochloride, dosed at 5 µM, considerably enhanced phagosomal ...
The difference between these strains could make a difference in treatment, clinical course, and outcome, said Joseph Heitman, MD, PhD, senior author of the study and chair of the Duke Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology.. The study was published September 1 in PLoS Pathogens.. The study emphasizes that health professionals need to record the cryptococcal species more carefully to understand different clinical courses and possibly to change treatment strategies.. Researchers at Duke University Medical Center discovered that in the Los Angeles area, more than 12 percent of AIDS patients diagnosed with Crypotococcus were infected with C. gattii, much higher than earlier studies, which suggested that only about 1 percent have C. gattii. The researchers based these figures on molecular testing of fungal DNA barcodes.. This discovery comes at the same time as a C. gattii outbreak is expanding in the Pacific Northwest, spreading southward from Vancouver, British Columbia, through ...
Poster: ECR 2018 / C-0919 / Central nervous system cryptococcosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients: clinical presentations and imaging features by: F. LEITÃO1, P. COIMBRA2, P. M. Brasil1, J. Benevides Lima1, D. Brilhante1, T. Camara da Silva1, K. portela luz1, L. P. PEREIRA1, C. Leite Macedo Filho1; 1Fortaleza/BR, 2Fortaleza, CEARA/BR
Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) is a major opportunistic fungal pathogen in individuals with impaired T cell-mediated immunity. Notch pathway is an important signaling component of immunological synapse during APC/T-cell engagement. Little is known about the role of Notch signaling in fungal infections. We sought to determine the role of Notch signaling in C. neoformans infection. Wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) and CD4-Cre+×ROSA DNMAML (DNMAML) mice were infected intratracheally infected with C. neoformans. The fungal burden, leukocyte recruitment, and cytokine profile were assessed at 3 and 6 weeks post-infection (wpi). A 50-fold greater fungal burden was detected in both lungs and brains of DNMAML mice compared to those in the WT mice at 6 wpi. Although, equivalent fungal burdens were found at 3 wpi in WT and DNMAML groups, the production of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-13 was significantly decreased in lung leukocytes of DNMAML mice. In contrast, an equivalent induction of IL-17 was observed in both ...
To the editor: In their evaluation of fine-needle aspiration biopsies of lymph nodes in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related conditions, Bottles and colleagues (1) emphasize the usefulness of this method for diagnosing malignancy, Kaposi sarcoma, and mycobacterial infection. We report a case in which the diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcosis was made on the basis of a routine May-Grünwald-Giemsa-stained lymph node specimen from fine-needle aspiration biopsy.. A 33-year-old black patient from Angola had lost weight and had night sweats and fever. Physical examination showed cervical, nontender small lymph nodes (0.5 to 1 cm). Mild splenomegaly was present. ...
Cryptococcus laurentii ATCC ® 18803™ Designation: CBS 139 [CCRC 20527, CCY 17-3-2, DBVPG 6265, IFO 0609, IFO 0906, MUCL 30398, NRRL Y-2536, VKM Y-1665, VKPM Y-219] Application: Produces xylan endo-1,3-beta-xylosidase xylan hydrolase, xylanase Quality control strain Quality control strain for API products Control strain for identification
Giant cells called "titan cells" created by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans protect the fungus during infection, according to two University of Minnesota researchers. Kirsten Nielsen, Ph.D., an assistant professor in the department of microbiology, and recent Ph.D. recipient Laura Okagaki believe their discovery could help develop new ways to fight infections caused by Cryptococcus. The findings will be published in the June 2012 issue of the journal Eukaryotic Cell. Cryptococcus, a fungus frequently found in dust and dirt, is responsible for the deaths of more than 650,000 AIDS patients worldwide each year. It is also a potentially deadly concern among chemotherapy and organ transplant patients. Currently, Cryptococcus causes more annual deaths in sub-Saharan Africa than tuberculosis. "While most healthy individuals are resistant to Cryptococcus infections, the fungus can cause deadly disease for those with already weak immune systems," said Dr. Nielsen. When inhaled, Cryptococcus can cause ...
Inhalation of the airborne C.gattii fungus from the environment. The fungus can be found in the environment, in the soil and trees in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world (Australia, Papua New Guinea, Africa, Asia, Europe, Mexico and South America). In the united states, C. gattii has been found in Washington, Oregon, California and Hawaii.. There is no human to human or human and animal spread of infection. Infection is only via inhalation of the yeast cells or spores.. ...
폐 효모균증 치료의 목적은 폐렴의 증상과 징후의 조절, 파종의 예방, 그리고 재발의 방지 등이다. 일반적으로 면역기능과 증상의 정도에 따라 기간과 용량에 차이가 있으며, 가장 흔하게 사용되는 항진균제는 fluconazole를 비롯하여 심각한 증상의 경우에는 amphotericin B, flucytocin 등을 사용하며, itraconazole을 대체제로 사용할 수 있다[2,14,15]. 그러나 면역기능이 정상인 환자에서는 파종성의 증거가 없거나 전신적 증상이 없는 경우는 항진균제 치료 없이도 호전될 수 있음을 보여준 경우도 있으나 [6] , 경증 이상의 경우는 fluconazole을 하루에 400 mg, 3-6개월 또는 12개월까지 사용함을 추천하고 있다 [15] . 국내의 증례에서는 고립성 폐결절로 발현된 면역기능이 정상인 환자에서 초기 내원 시 조직검사를 거부한 환자에서 3개월 뒤 2배 이상 커진 증례가 있었다 [12] . 본 ...
The development of new drugs to fight a common fungal pathogen which kills half a million people globally each year is a step closer thanks to a University of Queensland-led study.. UQ PhD student Jessica Chitty of the Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, said the study targeted the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, which had shown signs of becoming resistant to current medications.. "This is a fungus that can be found around the world and when inhaled, its microscopic cells can cause infection in people with a weakened immune system," she said.. "Infections are particularly prevalent in people with advanced AIDS but can also occur in transplant recipients and those on immunosuppressive medication.. "Recently two rare cases of Cryptococcus neoformans infections occurred in Australia in immunocompetent people.". Co-author Associate Professor James Fraser said drugs used to treat the disease have been around for a few decades and consequently ...
Pheromones and pheromone receptors have long been known to affect virulence of the opportunistic pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, yet it is still entirely uncl...
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The sexual cycle of C. neoformans has been studied for more than three decades, yet many aspects about the role of mating in the biology of this fungus remain to be resolved. One key example is a lack of knowledge about the events occurring in the basidium that result in nuclear reduction and the production of chains of spores, and the focus of this investigation. The ideal approach to examine spore production is a genetic one, i.e., by analyzing genetic markers in progeny derived from a single basidium. Just such an approach can be achieved by careful micromanipulation of the spores from the ends of basidia, and in this study the nature of the reductive event in the basidium is defined genetically by taking whole basidia and analyzing the phenotypes of all progeny.. Spores derived from 101 individual basidia were isolated and their phenotypes determined (Table 1). The data can be analyzed and interpreted in a number of ways: the interpretation placed here is that in a C. neoformans basidium ...
This chapter begins with the history of Cryptococcus neoformans. By the end of the 19th century three seminal observations had been made regarding C. neoformans. First, the organism had been recovered from lesions in humans and animals, establishing its potential to cause disease. Second, the organism had been recovered from the environment, establishing that it was free-living. Finally, the organism was propagated in the laboratory and shown to cause disease in laboratory animals. Many of the early clinical reports of cryptococcosis included animal experiments with the organism isolated from patients. Examination of C. neoformans by light microscopy reveals yeast-like cells that reproduce by budding and are of variable size. C. neoformans has been extensively studied by electron microscopy, which shows that C. neoformans cells have morphological features typical of eukaryotic cells. There are many reports in the literature of C. neoformans cells with germ tube-like structure, hyphal forms, pseudohyphae
Fungal infections, including invasive infections, chronic lung infections, allergic fungal diseases, mucosal, skin, hair and nail infections affect billion of people annually. Invasive fungal diseases alone kill at least as many people per year as tuberculosis and malaria, but they are neglected world-wide.. Our group aims to understand the phylogenetic relationships between human and animal pathogenic fungi, and to develop early and accurate diagnostic methods to enable a faster and more effective treatment of mycoses and to ultimately to save human life.. Our research group is one of the worlds leading molecular epidemiology groups investigating fungal disease outbreaks (for example, the ongoing outbreak of cryptococcosis on Vancouver Island) and nosocomial case clusters (Pneumocystis infections in kidney transplants). In our research we develop and apply techniques including PCR-fingerprinting, Multilocus Microsatellite Typing (MLMT), Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) (see: ...
Research article on the plasma nevirapine levels, adverse events and efficacy of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected patients concurrently receiving nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy and fluconazole. ...
Earlier in the year, I received a phone call from a cat owner seeking a second opinion. Their four-year-old male orange tabby, Teddy, has always been a bit of a troublemaker, knocking things off counters, chasing imaginary mice and leaving no houseplant un-nibbled. Over the last few weeks, however, Teddy had been battling a stubborn upper respiratory infection (URI), and it was only getting worse, despite treatment.
Looking for cryptococcal? Find out information about cryptococcal. A genus of encapsulated pathogenic yeasts in the order Moniliales Explanation of cryptococcal
The overarching goal of this research program is to discover novel natural products from bacteria and fungi. The researchers utilize a variety of biological assays (bacteria, fungi, and human cancer cells) to identify active compounds, and use a traditional bioassay-guided purification approach to obtain pure compounds. The group has focused especially on the discovery of anti-fungal compounds with the goal of developing new treatment options for drug-resistant Candida and Cryptococcus infections. An additional component of this work is to identify strains of bacteria and fungi collected from the environment that could be developed into biological control systems for animals and plant agriculture.. Return to this PIs main page.. ...
Department of Science and Technology (DST) has initiated a new program Augmenting Writing Skills for Articulating Research (AWSAR) to bridge gap in communicating scientific research that is being conducted in R&D labs in various Universities and Institutions across the country to lay man by utilizing latent potential of PhD Scholars and Post-Doctoral Fellows (PDFs). These PhD Scholars and PDFs would be encouraged to submit popular stories about their respective research work for AWSAR Award. More›› ...
Disruption of a key enzyme in the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans -- a common cause of infection of the central nervous system in patients such as organ transplant recipients who lack a functioning immune system -- led to a significant loss of fungal virulence in mice, the team found. That loss of virulence stemmed from the fungus s inability to launch a counterattack against components of the innate immune system, the body s first line of defense against infection, the study showed ...
Bloomberg School of Public Health, W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology; School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases. Arturo Casadevall "came of age" as a physician during the height of the 1980s AIDS epidemic. "I couldnt believe all these people, who were younger than I was, were dying from something we didnt understand," he says. He didnt know whether scientists would be able to treat the virus itself, so he turned his attention to the opportunistic infections that take hold once an immune system has been compromised. Since then, hes spent more than two decades studying the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, which in the 1980s killed about 10 percent of AIDS patients in the United States and is still a major cause of death in Africa.. Today, in his new role as chair of the W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, he continues his mission to understand how microbes cause disease ...
DURHAM, N.C. -- Mutations tend to get a bad rap, and deservedly so. A single defect in our DNA can strip us of our sight, thicken our lungs with mucus, prompt us to bleed to death, weaken our muscles or fill our organs with tumors. But in certain situations, a mutation can actually be a source of strength. For microorganisms, the right mutation can confer superpowers, allowing them to traverse continents, infect new hosts and avoid drug-induced annihilation.. Microbes are such big fans of mutations that they have rigged their genomes to accumulate more and more of them.. In a study published September 26 in eLife, Duke researchers show that lineages of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus deuterogattii house a specific mutation in their DNA that increases their mutation rate. These hypermutators, as they are called, rapidly develop resistance to the antifungal drugs FK506 and rapamycin.. "If there werent mutations, there wouldnt be any raw genetic material for evolution and selection to act ...
Atherosclerosis is a potentially serious condition where arteries become clogged with fatty substances called plaques, or atheroma.. These plaques cause the arteries to harden and narrow, restricting the blood flow and oxygen supply to vital organs, and increasing the risk of blood clots that could potentially block the flow of blood to the heart or brain.. Atherosclerosis does not tend to have any symptoms at first and many people may be unaware they have it, but it can eventually cause life-threatening problems, such as heart attacks and strokes, if it gets worse.. But the condition is largely preventable with a healthy lifestyle, and treatment can help reduce the risk of serious problems happening.. ...
Atherosclerosis is a potentially serious condition where arteries become clogged with fatty substances called plaques, or atheroma.. These plaques cause the arteries to harden and narrow, restricting the blood flow and oxygen supply to vital organs, and increasing the risk of blood clots that could potentially block the flow of blood to the heart or brain.. Atherosclerosis does not tend to have any symptoms at first and many people may be unaware they have it, but it can eventually cause life-threatening problems, such as heart attacks and strokes, if it gets worse.. But the condition is largely preventable with a healthy lifestyle, and treatment can help reduce the risk of serious problems happening.. ...
Chronic stress - the kind faced by doctors in the ICU - increases white blood cells that can cause life-threatening plaques to form.
RT @_BIST: The #BISTCommunity is meeting today to share what every working group has been up to in 2017. Very informative session! @CRGenom… - 7 hours 31 min ago ...
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyping of isolates of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans suggested a considerable genetic divergence between the varieties C. neoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. grubii on the one hand versus C. neoformans var. gattii on the other. This divergence is supported by additional phenotypic, biochemical, clinical and molecular differences. Therefore, the authors propose the existence of two species, C. neoformans (Sanfelice) Vuillemin and C. bacillisporus Kwon-Chung, which differ in geographical distribution, serotypes and ecological origin. Within each species three AFLP genotypes occur, which differ in geographical distribution and serotypes. Differences in ecological origin (AIDS patients, non-AIDS patients, animals or the environment) were found to be statistically not significant. In C. neoformans as well as in C. bacillisporus one of the genotypes represented a hybrid. The occurrence of hybridization has consequences for the
TY - JOUR. T1 - G protein-coupled receptor Gpr4 senses amino acids and activates the cAMP-PKA pathway in Cryptococcus neoformans. AU - Xue, Chaoyang. AU - Bahn, Yong Sun. AU - Cox, Gary M.. AU - Heitman, Joseph. PY - 2006/2/1. Y1 - 2006/2/1. N2 - The Gα protein Gpa1 governs the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway and plays a central role in virulence and differentiation in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, but the signals and receptors that trigger this pathway were unknown. We identified seven putative proteins that share identity with known G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). One protein, Gpr4, shares limited sequence identity with the Dictyostelium discoideum cAMP receptor cAR1 and the Aspergillus nidulans GPCR protein GprH and also shares structural similarity with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae receptor Gpr1. gpr4 mutants exhibited reduced capsule production and mating defects, similar to gpa1 mutants, and exogenous cAMP suppressed both gpr4 mutant phenotypes. Epistasis analysis ...
Until recently, Cryptococcus gattii infections occurred mainly in tropical and subtropical climate zones. However, during the past decade, C. gattii infections in humans and animals in Europe have increased. To determine whether the infections in Eur
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Objectives: Cryptococcus species are associated with invasive fungal infections in immunosuppressed individuals. The clinical significance of low titer cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) by lateral flow assay is frequently uncertain. We investigated the correlation of low CrAg titers with disease in an immunocompromised patient population.. Methods: Patients with first-time positive CrAg results with low serum titers (≤1:10) at two medical centers (Los Angeles, CA) from April 2014-July 2018 were included. Age-matched controls with high (≥1:20) and negative titers were selected. We extracted medical records for pertinent clinical, radiologic, and laboratory data for cryptococcal disease.. Results: From 2,196 serum samples submitted for CrAg testing, 96 cases were included (32 each in low titer, high titer, and negative titer groups). One or more immunocompromising condition was identified in 95% of patients, including HIV infection (45%), solid organ transplant (26%), and cirrhosis (22%). Pulmonary ...
Background Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that causes cryptococcosis, a life threatening disease. The prevalence of cryptococcosis in Asia has been rising after the onset of the AIDS epidemic and estimates indicate more than 120 cases per 1,000 HIV-infected individuals per year. Almost all cryptococcal disease cases in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients in Asia are caused by C. neoformans var. grubii. Epidemiological studies on C. neoformans in pan-Asia have not been reported. The present work studies the genetic diversity of the fungus by microsatellite typing and susceptibility analysis of approximately 500 isolates from seven Asian countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Genetic diversity of Asian isolates of C. neoformans was determined using microsatellite analysis with nine microsatellite markers. The analysis revealed eight microsatellite complexes (MCs) which showed different distributions among geographically defined populations. A correlation between MCs and
Cryptococcus gattiihas emerged as an important fungal pathogen. Infection manifests most often as potentially fatal meningoencephalitis and/or pulmonary disease. The emergence of clusters of cryptococcosis due toC. gattiiin British Columbia, Canada,
Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A is responsible for the majority of cryptococcal infections in AIDS patients. In France, approximately 17% of the patients
Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) has greatly improved the prognosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients globally, opportunistic infections (OIs) are still common in Chinese AIDS patients, especially cryptococcosis. We described here two Chinese AIDS patients with cryptococcal infections. Case one was a fifty-year-old male. At admission, he was conscious and oriented, with papulonodular and umbilicated skin lesions, some with ulceration and central necrosis resembling molluscum contagiosum. The overall impression reminded us of talaromycosis: we therefore initiated empirical treatment with amphotericin B, even though the case history of this patient did not support such a diagnosis. On the second day of infusion, the patient complained of intermittent headache, but the brain CT revealed no abnormalities. On the third day, a lumbar puncture was performed. The cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) was turbid, with slightly increased pressure. India ink staining was positive, but the
Abstract: Cryptococcus neoformans is a spherical, encapsulated, basidiomycetous yeast and the causative agent of cryptococcosis, a form of meningitis that affects the central nervous system of immunocompromised individuals (immunocompromised means patients with compromised immune systems). Since the 1980s and the emergence of the AIDS epidemic, much study has been concentrated on this fungus because cryptococcosis is 100% fatal in untreated patients. Even with treatment, the condition does not always decrease in severity, and no major advancements in antifungal drugs have been made in a decade. Recently, Cryptococcus has been shown to possess the necessary machinery for RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is a method of post-transcriptional gene silencing that may increase cryptococcal survival within mammalian hosts by controlling gene expression at various stages of the life cycle through heterochromatin and euchromatin rearrangement. RNAi was first described in Caenorhabditis elegans in 1998 by ...
Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Basidiomycota; Agaricomycotina; Tremellomycetes; Tremellales; Cryptococcaceae; Cryptococcus; Cryptococcus neoformans species ...
Cryptococcosis, specifically caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, is a subacute or chronic fungal infection with several manifestations. It is commonly observed as a disseminated disease in the immunocompromised patient with approximately two thirds of patients experiencing meningitis.(3,5) Because of the wide spectrum of Cryptococcosis and the opportunistic nature of such infection, rapid laboratory identification of Cryptococcus neoformans is necessary so that therapy can be immediately initiated. The presumptive identification of Cryptococcus neoformans is based on the presence of an encapsulated yeast (using India ink), the absence of pseudohyphae, the failure to utilize an inorganic nitrate substance, and the ability to produce urease. The final identification of C. neoformans is usually based on typical substrate utilization patterns and brown pigment production in the presence of caffeic acid.(2,3,5). The brown pigmented colonies of Cryptococcus neoformans were observed by Staib in 1962 ...
The pathogenic species of Cryptococcus are a major cause of mortality owing to severe infections in immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent individuals. Although antifungal treatment is usually effective, many patients relapse after treatment, and in such cases, comparative analyses of the genomes of incident and relapse isolates may reveal evidence of determinative, microevolutionary changes within the host. Here, we analyzed serial isolates cultured from cerebrospinal fluid specimens of 18 South African patients with recurrent cryptococcal meningitis. The time between collection of the incident isolates and collection of the relapse isolates ranged from 124 days to 290 days, and the analyses revealed that, during this period within the patients, the isolates underwent several genetic and phenotypic changes. Considering the vast genetic diversity of cryptococcal isolates in sub-Saharan Africa, it was not surprising to find that the relapse isolates had acquired different genetic and ...
A 29-year-old man of European ancestry, with a history of sarcoidosis treated with low-dose steroids, presented with a progressive swelling of the skull which had appeared 3 weeks earlier.. Physical examination revealed a 2.5 cm soft swelling of the right parietal part of the skull. A contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scan of the head showed a solitary lesion of the right parietal bone measuring 9 mm × 17 mm.. After neurosurgical resection, pus cultures grew Cryptococcus neoformans.. In the absence of disseminated cryptococcosis, the patient was treated successfully with oral fluconazole. Current literature suggests sarcoidosis as a risk factor for cryptococcosis, independent of the use of immunosuppressive agents.1,2. ...
Definition : Molecular assay reagents intended to identify Cryptococcus neoformans, a yeast-like species of imperfect fungi of the family Cryptococcaceae, by detecting specific nucleic-acid information (e.g., DNA, RNA) of the target microorganism. These fungi may cause cryptococcosis, a mycotic infection of the brain and meninges, which may also involve other organs such as the skin and lungs. The disease may progress by invading the central nervous system, lungs, liver, and spleen of immunocompromised patients.. Entry Terms : "Cryptococcus Species Detection/Identification Reagents" , "Cryptococcus neoformans Reagents, Identification" , "Cryptococcus neoformans Detection/Identification Reagents" , "Reagents, Cryptococcus neoformans" , "Reagents, Molecular Assay, Infection, Fungi/Yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans". UMDC code : 19595 ...
Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic yeast infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans that remains the most common systemic fungal infection in immunosuppressed patients and often presents with signs of meningitis. Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis (PCC) is a more rare clinical identity that is characterized by skin lesions confined to 1 body region, often presenting as a whitlow or phlegmon with positive culture for C neoformans and no evidence of simultaneous dissemination. We report a rare case of PCC in a 73-year-old man with intact cell-mediated immunity. Read More ...
Worldwide, the burden of cryptoccocal meningitis (CM) is estimated to be 0.04 - 12% per year among persons with HIV, resulting in nearly 625 000 deaths.[1] Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest yearly burden with 720 000 cases (range 144 000 - 1.3 million).[1] In sub-Saharan Africa, mortality is estimated to be 50 - 70%, compared with 12% in the USA and other developed nations.[2]Cryptococcus neoformans infections are very rare in healthy people, with a yearly incidence of 0.4 - 1.3 cases per 100 000 in the general population.[2] In a population-based surveillance of cryptococcosis in Gauteng, South Africa (SA), the overall incidence rate was 15.6/100 000 among both HIV-positive and -negative individuals.[3] Among HIV-positive persons, the rate was 95/100 000, and among persons living with AIDS, 14/1 000.[3] In HIV-positive individuals, CM may present with headaches, unexplained fever, nausea, vomiting, neck stiffness, confusion, seizures, abnormal behaviour, and new onset of psychiatric symptoms, ...
Cryptococcus neoformans CAP59 protein: involved in capsule formation which is essential for virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank L26508
Acute/subacute cerebral infarction (ASCI) in HIV-negative cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) adults has rarely been examined by a series of MRI-based follow-up study. We studied a series of MRI follow-up study of CM adults and compared the clinical characters of those with ASCI and those without ASCI. The clinical characteristics and a series of brain MRI findings of seven CM adults with ASCI were enrolled for analysis. The clinical characteristics of another 30 HIV-negative CM adults who did not have ASCI were also included for a comparative analysis. The seven HIV-negative CM adults with ASCI were four men and three women, aged 46-78 years. Lacunar infarction was the type of ASCI, and 86% (6/7) of the ACSI were multiple infarctions distributed in both the anterior and posterior cerebrovascular territories. The seven CM patients with ASCI were significantly older and had a higher rate of DM and previous stroke than the other 30 CM adults without ASCI. They also had a higher incidence of
pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLR) and C-type lectin recptors including Dectin-1. Previously, we indicated that neither TLR2 nor TLR4 was involved in the host defence to infection with Cryptococcus neoformans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen in AIDS patients (FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 47: 148-154, 2006). In the current study, we examined the role of Dectin-1, a receptor for β-glucan, in this response. Dectin-1-deficient mice were resistant to intratracheal and intravenous infection with C. neoformans at a comparable level to wild-type mice. IFN-γ production in lung an serum was not largely different between these mice. There was not significant difference in the synthesis of IL-12p40 and TNF-α by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells upon stimulation with this fungal pathogen. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Dectin-1 did not play a major role in the host protective responses to C. neoformans infection.. This work was ...
Despite a presumed critical role of macrophages in the host response to cryptococcal infections, previous studies have failed to show growth inhibition of encapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans by human peripheral blood cultured monocyte-derived macrophages (MO-M phi). Here, we examined whether MO-M phi could be induced to inhibit growth of an encapsulated strain and an isogenic acapsular mutant strain of C. neoformans. MO-M phi were cultured in microwells, and inhibition was measured by comparing CFU at 0 and 24 h after fungal challenge. MO-M phi cultured on plastic surfaces failed to inhibit growth of the encapsulated strain, even in the presence of pooled human serum and/or anticapsular antibody. Moreover, the presence of anticapsular antibody significantly enhanced fungal growth. However, if MO-M phi were cultured on surfaces coated with fibronectin or poly-L-lysine (but not laminin or collagen) and yeast cells were opsonized with pooled human serum, then complete growth inhibition occurred. ...
Fortunately, research has demonstrated that nearly all patients at risk of developing CM during ART could be identified on entry into ART programmes by screening for sub-clinical infection using cheap (ZAR38.95), simple and highly sensitive cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) blood tests.22 In 707 patients initiating ART in Cape Town, stored serum samples from 13% of patients with CD4+ T-cell counts ,100 cells/µl tested positive for CRAG in a retrospective analysis. Prospective screening for CRAG in this cohort would have been 100% predictive of subsequent development of CM within the first year of treatment.22 If identified prospectively, such patients could be given pre-emptive treatment to prevent progression from cryptococcal antigenaemia to life-threatening meningitis. Such a targeted prevention strategy would avoid many potential problems of widespread fluconazole use with a blanket primary prophylaxis approach.. Cape Town data also show that 73% of ART-naïve patients presenting with CM have ...
The population structure of a sample of clinical isolates of C. neoformans serotype A from AIDS patients in Botswana was determined, and the results support hypotheses for both clonal expansion and recombination in this population. Clonal reproduction was previously recognized in C. neoformans, as strains with identical genotypes were isolated from the environment and infected humans (5, 7, 16). The overrepresentation in the population of certain genotypes is a common feature of clonal structure (44). In the sample analyzed here, five genotypes comprised 45% of the total number of isolates (Fig. 4). Another indication of clonality is the calculation of considerable linkage disequilibrium (or nonrandom association) among the loci in the population. The IA and the rd are calculated estimates of linkage disequilibrium (or nonrandom association) among the loci; if there is no association between the loci, these values approach zero, whereas these values are much higher in clonal populations. When ...
Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental encapsulated yeast that behaves as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. The capsule is the main virulence factor of this pathogen. This structure is highly dynamic, and it can change its size and structure according to the environmental conditions. During infection, C. neoformans significantly enlarges the size of the capsule by the addition of new polysaccharide. It is believed that capsule growth is an energy-cost process, but this aspect has never been addressed. In this work, we have evaluated the role of mitochondrial activity on capsule growth using specific inhibitors of the electron respiratory chain. We observed that capsule growth was impaired in the presence of inhibitors of the respiratory chain as salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) or antimycin A. Furthermore, capsule growth correlated with an increase of the mitochondrial membrane potential and higher production of reactive oxygen species. Our results confirm that capsule growth
Results: 57 patients were studied. Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii molecular type VN1 caused 70% of infections; C. gattii accounted for the rest. Most patients did not have underlying disease (81%), and the rate of underlying disease did not differ by infecting species. 11 patients died while in-patients (19.3%). Independent predictors of death were age ≥ 60 years and a history of convulsions (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals 8.7 (1 - 76), and 16.1 (1.6 - 161) respectively). Residual visual impairment was common, affecting 25 of 46 survivors (54.3%). Infecting species did ...
The fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, causes devastating levels of morbidity and mortality. Infections with this fungus tend to be predominantly in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV. Infections initiate with inhalation of cryptococcal cells and entry of the pathogen into the lungs. The bronchial epithelial cells of the upper airway and the alveolar epithelial cells of the lower airway are likely to be the first host cells that Cryptococcus engage with. Thus the interaction of cryptococci and the respiratory epithelia will be the focus of this review. C. neoformans has been shown to adhere to respiratory epithelial cells, although if the role of the capsule is in aiding or hindering this adhesion is debatable. The epithelia are also able to react to cryptococci with the release of cytokines and chemokines to start the immune response to this invading pathogen. The activity of surfactant components that line this mucosal barrier towards Cryptococcus and the metabolic and
The recent efforts to characterize the hybrid strains of Cryptococcus neoformans has led to the identification of a cryptic population, here described as H strains, which includes hybrid strains with a double content of DNA but presenting a single mating type: Aa, Da, Aalpha, or Dalpha. A set of hypotheses can be formulated about the origin of these H strains: i) they might have lost or modified one mating type allele by a mutation event; ii) they might be homozygous originated from an incomplete mitotic event; iii) they might be homozygous originated from an incomplete meiotic event; iv) they might be homozygous originated from a post-meiotic event. To test these hypotheses we further investigated some H strains previously isolated and then we studied the F1 progeny originated from the mating between H99 (serotype A) and JEC20 (serotype D) reference strains. Fourteen clinical isolates were investigated. The double content of DNA was confirmed by flow cytometry and the presence of only one ...
The S. cerevisiae STE12 gene is a key component of two MAP kinase cascades involved in mating and filamentous/invasive growth (12)(13)(14)(15). Although STE12α shows sequence similarity with STE12 of S. cerevisiae, single copy or overexpression of STE12α cDNA in S. cerevisiae failed to complement the ste12 phenotypes, including the ability to mate and form pseudohyphae (data not shown). Recent identification of another C. neoformans MATα-specific gene, STE11α, which belongs to the same cascade, indicates an unusual arrangement of the MAP kinase cascade in C. neoformans (6). One of the intriguing findings in our study is that in contrast to the S. cerevisiae ste12 mutants, the C. neoformans ste12α disruptant was still able to mate, albeit with reduced frequency. The fact that STE12α is dispensable for mating further demonstrates the uniqueness of the mating pathway of C. neoformans.. Mating of C. neoformans is usually performed on V-8 juice agar and requires physical contact of cells from ...
Torula histolytica Definition: Cryptococcus neoformans (formerly known as Torula histolytica) is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus found in (...)
RESUMO Padronizou-se método de fluorescência (solução de diacetato de fluoresceína DF e brometo de etídio BE) para análise de viabilidade de células fúngicas, em 40 amostras de liquor, provenientes de casos comprovados de neurocriptococose. A utilização de solução aquosa de saponina a 0,3% eliminou fluorescências interferentes emitidas por hemácias e leucócitos. Após o processamento dos materiais biológicos, foram retiradas alíquotas de 0,1 ml das supensões obtidas e misturadas a volumes iguais da solução DF-BE preparada pouco antes do uso. O tempo de coloração ideal foi de 30 minutos, resultando perfeita diferenciação entre microrganismos viáveis (fluorescência verde) e não viáveis (fluorescência vermelha). Unitermos: Cryptococcus neoformans; Viabilidade; Fluorescência. ...
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was standardized for the detection of cryptococcal antigen in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The system was evaluated in clinical samples from patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus with and without previous cryptococcosis diagnosis. The evaluated system is highly sensitive and specific, and when it was compared with latex agglutination there were not significant differences. A standard curve with purified Cryptococcus neoformans antigen was settled down for the antigen quantification in positive samples ...
One of the more interesting aspects of C. neoformans interactions with the host is the large discrepancy in the incidence of infections in male and female patients, with males having a higher incidence of C. neoformans infection and disease than females. This gender-related difference has been observed in dozens of studies and suggests underlying differences in the interactions of the immune response to C. neoformans infection and differential expression of microbial factors between males and females. We have found differences in the immune response of ex vivo male or female macrophages to C. neoformans, PLoS One, 2013. Currently, we are characterizing gender-specific and microbial factors in clinical isolates to determine which factors are involved in the gender susceptibility difference to C. neoformans.. 2. Determine how C. neoformans modulates cell signaling in macrophages Another key aspect of the C. neoformans host-pathogen interaction is with host macrophages. I am collaborating with Dr. ...
The risk of developing fungal meningitis from Cryptococcus neoformans rises dramatically when people have weakened immunity, due to HIV infection or other reasons including the use of immunosuppressive drugs after organ transplantation, or for treating autoimmune diseases or cancer. Knowing which patients are most likely to develop fungal meningitis would allow costly drugs for preventing fungal disease to be targeted to those most in need. (In the U.S., the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy by HIV-infected people, and their preventive use of anti-fungal drugs, has dramatically reduced their rate of fungal meningitis from Cryptococcus neoformans to about 2 ...
The capsule itself can mediate immune evasion through several different mechanisms. The capsule, made up of polysaccharides rich in mannan residues, is strongly hydrophobic in nature. This helps prevent contact with exogenous factors and prevents recognition by some cells of the immune response. It also prevents efficient antibody binding and the resultant activation of the complement system via classical pathway. The capsule is also capable of interacting directly with components of the immune system, namely glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) and galactoxylomannan, both of which are capable of inducing leukocyte activation and cytokine production. However, the capsular anti-inflammatory properties outweigh the inflammatory properties of these two components. Stimulation with encapsulated cryptococci downregulate the activity of macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils. This is associated with reduced inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. GXM has also been shown to stimulate production of ...
Environmental isolations have established that Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii appears to have a specific ecological association with Eucalyptus camaldulensis. So far, we have isolated C. neoformans var. gattii on 35 separate occasions, all from samples associated with E. camaldulensis. The global distribution of E. camaldulensis appears to correspond to the epidemiologic distribution of cryptococcosis caused by C. neoformans var. gattii. No other environmental source for the fungus has yet been detected, and no other eucalypt has the distribution pattern corresponding to reported cases caused by this fungus. These findings may provided an explanation for the high incidence of infections caused by C. neoformans var. gattii in Australian aborigines living in the Northern Territory and for its low worldwide incidence in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The homeostasis of iron, copper, and zinc in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Cryptococcus neoformans var. Grubii, and Cryptococcus gattii. T2 - A comparative analysis. AU - Silva, Mirelle Garcia. AU - Schrank, Augusto. AU - Bailão, Elisa Flávia L C. AU - Bailão, Alexandre Melo. AU - Borges, Clayton Luiz. AU - Staats, Charley Christian. AU - Parente, Juliana Alves. AU - Pereira, Maristela. AU - Salem-Izacc, Silvia Maria. AU - Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares. AU - Oliveira, Rosely Maria Zancopé. AU - Silva, Lívia Kmetzsch Rosa e. AU - Nosanchuk, Joshua D.. AU - Vainstein, Marilene Henning. AU - Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Iron, copper, and zinc are essential for all living organisms. Moreover, the homeostasis of these metals is vital to microorganisms during pathogenic interactions with a host. Most pathogens have developed specific mechanisms for the uptake of micronutrients from their hosts in order to counteract the low availability of ...
This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of fluconazole vs. itraconazole as mainte-nance therapy for AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. HIV-infected patients who had been successfully treated (achieved negative culture of CSF) for a first episode of cryptococcal meningitis were randomized to receive fluconazole or itraconazole, both at 200 mg/d, for 12 months. The study was stopped prematurely on the recommendation of an independent Data Safety and Monitoring Board. At the time, 13 (23%) of 57 itraconazole recipients had experienced culture-positive relapse, compared with 2 relapses (4%) noted among 51 fluconazole recipients (P = .006). The factor best associated with relapse was the patient having not received flucytosine during the initial 2 weeks of primary treatment for cryptococcal disease (relative risk = 5.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-27.14; P = .04). Fluconazole remains the treatment of choice for maintenance therapy for AIDS-associated cryptococcal disease. ...
Abstract. Cryptococcal meningitis may have long-term morbidity and requires a permanent cerebrospinal fluid shunt. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors and create a predictive model for permanent shunt treatment in cryptococcal meningitis patients. This was a retrospective analytical study conducted at Khon Kaen University. The study period was from January 2005 to December 2015. We enrolled all adult patients diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. Risk factors predictive for permanent shunting treatment were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. There were 341 patients diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. Of those, 64 patients (18.7%) were treated with permanent shunts. There were three independent factors associated with permanent shunt treatment. The presence of hydrocephalus had the highest adjusted odds ratio at 56.77. The resulting predictive model for permanent shunt treatment (y) is (−3.85) + (4.04 × hydrocephalus) + (2.13 × initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
European Wall Lizards were introduced to the Saanich Peninsula of Vancouver Island in 1970, after the private zoo that housed the lizards closed. Since that time Wall Lizards have become firmly established and are spreading. Several separate populations are now present on Vancouver Island due to people collecting the lizards and releasing them at new locations (such as their yards and gardens). To prevent the spread of these lizards it is very important to never, never capture them or move them, even a short distance.. Wall Lizards live in some of the same areas as Northwestern Alligator Lizards. The two lizards have been seen basking on the same rocks and are suspected to hibernate together in at least one location. Little is known about the effects of Wall Lizards on Alligator Lizards but since they share habitat in some locations and eat similar things, there is potential for competition. Monitoring and study of the European Wall Lizard on Vancouver Island will help to determine if this ...
0141] FIGS. 5A to 5E are bar charts showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, and the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, respectively, when treated with micelles formed from Example 1. FIGS. 6A to 6E are bar charts showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans as well as Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, respectively, when treated with micelles formed from Example 3. FIG. 7 is a bar chart showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis when treated with micelles formed from Example 2. Example 2 does not show a strong inhibition effect towards bacterial growth, having a MIC of higher than 66.4 micromole/L against Bacillus subtilis (FIG. 7). This is attributed to the polymer with the longest hydrophobic block precipitating ...
Another approach involves the use of chemofluorescent agents (optical brightening agents) such as Calcofluor, Fungi-Fluor, or Uvitex 2B. These reagents are sensitive, but nonspecific; objects other than microsporidial spores will also fluoresce. This is a particular problem when examining stool specimens; both false positive and false negative results have been seen.. Extraintestinal: Modified trichrome stains. Tissue: Tissue stains such as PAS, Silver, tissue Gram stains and others are specifically recommended for the microsporidial spores. Microsporidial infections can be misdiagnosed in tissues and can be confused with Cryptococcus neoformans infections. Mucus granules in goblet cells can take up stain and can be very confusing. Good preservation and thin tissue sections (1 µm) that have been resin-embedded enhance the resolution of cellular detail. Demonstration of the coiled polar tube within spores is diagnostic for microsporidial infection. Encephalitozoon intestinalis is not confined to ...
The most commonly known pathogen is Candida albicans, causing roughly 70% of fungemias, followed by Candida glabrata with 10%, Aspergillus with 1% and Saccharomyces as the fourth most common.[citation needed] However, the frequency of infection by C. glabrata, Saccharomyces boulardii, Candida tropicalis, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis is increasing, perhaps because significant use of fluconazole is common or due to increase in antibiotic use.[citation needed]. New emerging pathogen: Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) yeast that can cause invasive infections and is associated with high mortality. It was first described in 2009 after being isolated from external ear discharge of a patient in Japan. Since the 2009 report, C. auris infections, specifically fungemia, have been reported from South Korea, India, South Africa, and Kuwait. Although published reports are not available, C. auris has also been identified in Colombia, Venezuela, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom.[3]. ...
... (also known as "rose gardener's disease"[1]) is a disease caused by the infection of the fungus Sporothrix schenckii.[2] This fungal disease usually affects the skin, although other rare forms can affect the lungs, joints, bones, and even the brain. Because roses can spread the disease, it is one of a few diseases referred to as rose-thorn or rose-gardeners' disease.[3] Because S. schenckii is naturally found in soil, hay, sphagnum moss, and plants, it usually affects farmers, gardeners, and agricultural workers.[2] It enters through small cuts and abrasions in the skin to cause the infection. In case of sporotrichosis affecting the lungs, the fungal spores enter through the respiratory pathways. Sporotrichosis can also be acquired from handling cats with the disease; it is an occupational hazard for veterinarians. Sporotrichosis progresses slowly - the first symptoms may appear 1 to 12 weeks (average 3 weeks) after the initial exposure to the fungus. Serious complications can ...
C. krusei grows at a maximum temperature of 43-45 °C. Although most of the medically important Candida spp. require biotin for growth and some have additional vitamin requirements, only C. krusei can grow in vitamin-free media. However, of the medically important Candida spp., C. krusei is perhaps the only species which grows on Sabouraud's dextrose agar as spreading colonies with a matte or a rough whitish yellow surface, in contrast to the convex colonies of other Candida spp. This characteristic, together with its "long grain rice" appearance on microscopy, helps the definitive identification of the species. A complex variety of fatty acids has been demonstrated as metabolites when C. krusei is grown in culture media containing lactose, it is also able to produce a number of short-chain carboxylic acids when cultured in saliva supplemented with glucose; these include acetate, pyruvate, succinate, propionate, formate and lactate. The biological role of these, if any, is as yet unknown. ...
Cryptococcosis Cryptococcus neoformans Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium species Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) usually ...
Toxoplasmosis is becoming a global health hazard as it infects 30-50% of the world human population. Clinically, the life-long presence of the parasite in tissues of a majority of infected individuals is usually considered asymptomatic. However, a number of studies show that this 'asymptomatic infection' may also lead to development of other human pathologies. ... The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with various disease burden. Statistical associations does not necessarily mean causality. The precautionary principle suggests however that possible role of toxoplasmosis as a triggering factor responsible for development of several clinical entities deserves much more attention and financial support both in everyday medical practice and future clinical research ...
Rapid in office testing can be done with scraping of the nail, skin, or scalp. Characteristic hyphae can be seen interspersed among the epithelial cells. Trichophyton tonsurans, the causative agent of tinea capitis (scalp infection) can be seen as solidly packed arthrospores within the broken hairshafts scraped from the plugged black dots of the scalp.. Fungal culture medium is used for positive identification of the species. Usually fungal growth is noted in 5 to 14 days. Microscopic morphology of the micro- and macroconidia is the most reliable identification character, but a good slide preparation is needed, and also needed is the stimulation of sporulation in some strains. Culture characteristics such as surface texture, topography and pigmentation are variable so they are the least reliable criteria for identification. Clinical information such as the appearance of the lesion, site, geographic location, travel history, animal contacts and race is also important, especially in identifying ...
Recent debate has centered on whether the Basidiobolaceae should be included in the Entomophthorales, or raised to ordinal status. Molecular systematics approaches so far give an ambiguous answer. Some analyses suggest the Basdiobolaceae are more closely related to certain chytrid fungi than to the Entomophthorales.[3] Others find weak support to maintain them in the Entomophthorales.[4] Morphological characters can be found to support either hypothesis. ...
Not every hospital in the USA is required to publicize details of infectious outbreaks which occur within their facilities. In 2014, details of a lethal mucormycosis outbreak[13] which occurred in 2008 emerged after television and newspaper reports responded to an article in a pediatric medical journal.[14] Contaminated hospital linen was found to be spreading the infection. A cluster of infections occurred in the wake of the 2011 Joplin tornado. As of July 19, a total of 18 suspected cases of cutaneous mucormycosis had been identified, of which 13 were confirmed. A confirmed case was defined as 1) necrotizing soft-tissue infection requiring antifungal treatment or surgical debridement in a person injured in the tornado, 2) with illness onset on or after May 22 and 3) positive fungal culture or histopathology and genetic sequencing consistent with a Mucormycete. No additional cases related to that outbreak have been reported since June 17. Ten patients required admission to an intensive-care ...
For patients who are unresponsive to fluconazole, options are limited. Several case reports have studied the efficacy of three newer antifungal agents in the treatment of disease that is refractory to first-line therapy: posaconazole and voriconazole (triazole compounds similar in structure to fluconazole) and caspofungin (glucan synthesis inhibitor of the echinocandin structural class). However, these drugs have not been FDA approved, and clinical trials are lacking. Susceptibility testing of Coccidioides species in one report revealed uniform susceptibility to most antifungal agents, including these newer drugs. In very severe cases, combination therapy with amphotericin B and an azole have been postulated, although no trials have been conducted. Caspofungin in combination with fluconazole has been cited as beneficial in a case report of a 31-year-old Asian patient with coccidioidal pneumonia. In a case report of a 23-year-old Black male with HIV and coccidioidal meningitis, combination ...
It is capable of causing disease (cryptococcosis) in nonimmunocompromised people. It has been isolated from eucalyptus trees in ... "What is Cryptococcus infection (cryptococcosis)?". Center for Disease Control and Prevention. April 28, 2010. Retrieved 8 March ... "(("cryptococcus"[MeSH Terms] OR ("cryptococcosis"[TIAB] NOT Medline[SB - PubMed - NCBI". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-12- ...
CryptococcosisEdit. When Cryptococcus infection occurs in persons whose immune systems are intact, granulomatous inflammation ... cryptococcosis, coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis and cat scratch disease. Examples of non-infectious granulomatous diseases ...
"Cryptococcus (Cryptococcosis)", StatPearls, StatPearls Publishing, PMID 28613714, retrieved 2019-12-09. ...
Infection with C. neoformans is termed cryptococcosis. Most infections with C. neoformans occur in the lungs. However, fungal ... If cryptococcal meningitis occurs, mortality rate is between 10-30%. Cryptococcosis that does not affect the central nervous ... "Efficient phagocytosis and laccase activity affect the outcome of HIV-associated cryptococcosis". The Journal of Clinical ...
"Cryptococcosis in Gilbert's and long-nosed potoroos." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 38.4 (2007): 567-73. Web. "Archived ... In a later study of a long-nosed potoroo, the same symptoms were found and were likened to a fatal disease, cryptococcosis, ...
Lay summary - Medical Xpress (August 30, 2014). CNS Cryptococcosis in HIV at eMedicine Kleerebezem, Michiel; Boekhorst, Jos; ... resulting in an AIDS defining illness such as Cryptococcosis (this pathogen represents 60%-70% of all AIDS defining cases, but ...
Cryptococcosis, in: Infectious disease clinics of North America. Vol. 16, nº 4; 837-874. 2001, with JN Steenbergen and HA ... Urease as a virulence factor in experimental cryptococcosis, in: Infection and Immunity. Vol. 68, nº 2; 443-448. 1999, with ...
Cryptococcosis, Trichosporonosis and Geotrichosis". JDDG: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft. 11 (5): 381-394 ...
"Urease as a Virulence Factor in Experimental Cryptococcosis". Infection and Immunity. 68 (2): 443-448. doi:10.1128/IAI.68.2.443 ...
In 1894 Busse was the first to provide a written account of cryptococcosis, caused by a yeast-like fungus now known as ... Hanns von Meyenburg NCBI One hundred years of cryptococcosis. Medical mycology in the 19th century in Greifswald ...
Examples of opportunistic mycoses include Candidiasis, Cryptococcosis and Aspergillosis. Keeping the skin clean and dry, as ...
"Opportunistic Fungal Infections, Part 3: Cryptococcosis, Histoplasmosis, Coccidioidomycosis, and Emerging Mould Infections" ...
These include aspergillosis, candidiasis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, mycetomas, and ...
This includes candidiasis, blastomycosis, coccidiodomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, dermatophytosis, and pityriasis ...
A similar appearance can be associated with histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and coccidioidomycosis. In caseous necrosis no ...
Barron MA, Madinger NE (November 18, 2008). "Opportunistic Fungal Infections, Part 3: Cryptococcosis, Histoplasmosis, ...
... and cryptococcosis. For certain infections it is given with flucytosine. It is typically given by injection into a vein Common ... and Abelcet for Treatment of Systemic Murine Cryptococcosis". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 42: 899-902. PMC 105563 . ...
Central nervous system cryptococcosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients: clinical presentations and imaging ... CNS cryptococcosis produces a wide variety of MRI features that may vary depending on the immunological status of the patient. ... The spectrum of MRI findings in CNS cryptococcosis in AIDS. Clin Radiol. 1996;51:842-50. Mathews VP, Alo PL, Glass JD, et al. ... AIDS-related CNS cryptococcosis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1992;13:1477-86. SmithAB, ...
First case of human cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii in Spain.J Clin Microbiol. Year: 2005;43:3548- ... A rare genotype of Cryptococcus gattii caused the cryptococcosis outbreak on Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada).Proc ... Cryptococcosis / epidemiology*, immunology, microbiology. Cryptococcus gattii / classification, genetics*, isolation & ... DromerF, MathoulinS, DupontB, LaporteAEpidemiology of cryptococcosis in France: a 9-year survey (1985-1993). French ...
New epidemiologic informations about cryptococcosis. Our experience with the utilization of C.G.B medium in this yeast. Rev. ... The more up-to date research concerning the epidemiology of cryptococcosis comprising quite a few articles, mainly after the ... BUSSE 8, in 1894, described the first human case of cryptococcosis under the presentation of a bone lesion simulating sarcoma. ...
Evaluation of conventional & serological methods for rapid diagnosis of cryptococcosis. Identification was confirmed by ...
Cryptococcosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2006 Sep;20(3):507-44. [Link]. 32 Staib F. Das Verhalten von Candida albicans- und ... Primary endemic Cryptococcosis gattii by molecular type VGII in the state of Pará, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2008 Dec;103( ... 16 Perfect JR, Casadevall A. Cryptococcosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2002 Dec;16(4):837-74. [Link]. 17 Buchanan KL, Murphy JW ... 2 Dromer F, Mathoulin-pelissier S, Fontanet A, Ronin O, Dupont B, Lortholary O. Epidemiology of HIV-associated cryptococcosis ...
Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by the Cryptococcus fungus. Symptoms and signs include fever, cough, skin lesions, ... Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by the Cryptococcus fungus. Cryptococcus is spread through inhalation of airborne fungi. ...
... is an infectious disease caused by two species of fungus, the Cryptococcus gattii and the ... Transmission of Cryptococcosis can occur through inhalation of basidiospores and yeast cells. There is no national surveillance ... Approximately eighty-five percent of Cryptococcosis cases in the United States are people who have an HIV infection. The early ... Meningitis as a sequela can cause permanent neurological damage for individuals with Cryptococcosis. A little over ten percent ...
encoded search term (Cryptococcosis) and Cryptococcosis What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * ... Cryptococcosis. Updated: Sep 11, 2018 * Author: John W King, MD; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD more ... Pulmonary cryptococcosis can be treated with observation only, if the following criteria are met:. * CSF chemistry parameters ... Most cases of cryptococcosis involve serotypes A and D. Serotypes B and C, C gattii, are most common in tropical and ...
Cryptococcosis can rarely occur in the non-immunosuppressed people, particularly with Cryptococcus gattii. Cryptococcosis is a ... In humans, C. neoformans causes three types of infections: Wound or cutaneous cryptococcosis Pulmonary cryptococcosis ... are especially susceptible to disseminated cryptococcosis. Cryptococcosis is often fatal, even if treated. It is estimated that ... Cryptococcosis, also known as cryptococcal disease, is a potentially fatal fungal disease. It is caused by one of two species; ...
This is an example of cryptococcus skin lesions on the forehead. Cryptococcus is a yeast (type of fungus) that seldom causes infection and is considered opportunistic (affecting individuals with weakened
L. Kaufman and S. Blumer, "Cryptococcosis: the awakening giant," in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on the ... J. R. Perfect, "The triple threat of cryptococcosis: its the body site, the strain, and/or the host," mBio, vol. 3, no. 4, pp ... S. E. Kidd, F. Hagen, R. L. Tscharke et al., "A rare genotype of Cryptococcus gattii caused the cryptococcosis outbreak on ... C. B. Severo, M. O. Xavier, A. F. Gazzoni, and L. C. Severo, "Cryptococcosis in children," Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, vol ...
Evaluation and Follow-up of Patients With Cryptococcosis. *Cryptococcosis. Observational. *National Institute of Allergy and ... treatment of pulmonary cryptococcosis. 260. All. Child, Adult, Senior. NCT02503449. LYN-316. MCTOPCIC. December 2014. December ... Serological response (evaluated by approved diagnostic serological tests [cryptococcosis, coccidiomycosis, and histoplasmosis ... differences in clinical manifestations of pulmonary cryptococcosis. * ...
Cryptococcosis. Last Updated: November 6, 2013; Last Reviewed: November 6, 2013. Panels Recommendations for Cryptococcosis. ... Cryptococcosis. The information in the brief version is excerpted directly from the full-text guidelines. The brief version is ... IRIS related to cryptococcosis can present within weeks (such as meningitis) or months (such as lymphadenitis) after start of ... Most cases of cryptococcosis in HIV-infected patients are caused by Cryptococcus neoformans; Cryptococcus gattii (formerly ...
SERUM PROTEIN ENHANCEMENT OF ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY IN CRYPTOCOCCOSIS.. GORDON MA, LAPA E. ...
Cryptococcosis is infection with the fungi Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. ... Cryptococcosis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ... Cryptococcosis (Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, ... The infection may go away on its own, remain in the lungs only, or spread throughout the body (disseminate). Cryptococcosis is ...
Most cases of human cryptococcosis are caused by this variety. C. neoformans var. gattii has recently been isolated in nature ... Because exposure to C. neoformans is probably common and clinically apparent cases of cryptococcosis in healthy hosts are rare ... The ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans and the epidemiology of cryptococcosis are reviewed. Two varieties of C. neoformans have ... The ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans and the epidemiology of cryptococcosis.. Levitz SM1. ...
encoded search term (Imaging in CNS Cryptococcosis) and Imaging in CNS Cryptococcosis What to Read Next on Medscape. Related ... Imaging in CNS Cryptococcosis. Updated: Dec 18, 2015 * Author: Farhood Saremi, MD; Chief Editor: James G Smirniotopoulos, MD ... Several studies have shown that MRI is superior to CT in detecting abnormalities in patients with CNS cryptococcosis, [4] but ... AIDS-related CNS cryptococcosis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1992 Sep-Oct. 13(5):1477-86. [ ...
It was cryptococcosis. Poppy did not survive. I later learned that the disease is spread via pigeon droppings. What else can ... Ask Elizabeth: What is Cryptococcosis Suggested Articles Lung Ailments: A Widespread Source of Feline Woe ... In some studies, cats with cryptococcosis were more likely to be infected with feline leukemia virus or feline immunodeficiency ... However, underlying disease is usually not found in cats with cryptococcosis, so the reasons why some cats become infected with ...
How can cryptococcosis be prevented?. There is no vaccine for cryptococcosis. Routine prophylaxis with fluconazole is generally ... Are you sure your patient has cryptococcosis? What are the typical findings for this disease?. Headache and fever are the most ... If you are able to confirm that the patient has cryptococcosis, what treatment should be initiated?. In addition to antifungal ... Disseminated cryptococcosis and severe pulmonary disease. Amphotericin B deoxycholate (1 mg/kg) combined with flucytosine 100 ...
Cryptococcosis is a yeast-like fungal infection. Symptoms include weight loss, lethargy, fight-like wounds on the nose and skin ... Keeping your cat away from areas with large volumes of pigeon droppings is one way to avoid cryptococcosis. ...
... clinicaltrials.gov This 5-year study will follow the course of disease in previously healthy patients with cryptococcosis who ... Treatment of cryptococcosis in non-HIV immunocompromised patients.. Cryptococcosis has become a common opportunistic infection ... Pulmonary cryptococcosis: A review of pathobiology and clinical aspects.. Pulmonary cryptococcosis is an important ... Cryptococcosis is a common invasive fungal infection (IFI) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Little is known about ...
oa Cutaneous Cryptococcosis Mimicking Leishmaniasis * Alexandre Moretti de Lima1, Milena Marchini Rodrigues2, Carmelia Matos ... Disseminated cryptococcosis induced skin ulcers in a patient with autoimmune hepatitis. Case Rep Dermatol 20: 98-102.. [Google ... Cutaneous cryptococcosis in a diabetic renal transplant recipient. J Med Microbiol 53: 4459.. [Google Scholar] ... Cutaneous manifestations of disseminated cryptococcosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 32: 844-850.. [Google Scholar] ...
... cryptococcosis market is after expanding at a CAGR of 4.8% from 2016 to 2024. ... The global cryptococcosis market was calculated to reach US$4.31 bn by the end of 2016, and is projected to reach US$6.2 bn by ... One of the key factors driving the global cryptococcosis market is the increasing incidence of cryptococcosis infections across ... Middle East and Africa HIV Numbers Boost Demand for Cryptococcosis Treatment. The global cryptococcosis market is segmented ...
Synthetic Peptides as an Alternative Tool for the Diagnosis of Cryptococcosis. By Rafael M.S. de S. Brandão, Liline M.S. ... www.intechopen.com/embed/fungal-pathogenicity/synthetic-peptides-as-an-alternative-tool-for-the-diagnosis-of-cryptococcosis /, ... www.intechopen.com/embed/fungal-pathogenicity/synthetic-peptides-as-an-alternative-tool-for-the-diagnosis-of-cryptococcosis /, ... Synthetic Peptides as an Alternative Tool for the Diagnosis of Cryptococcosis, Fungal Pathogenicity Sadia Sultan, IntechOpen, ...
  • Describe the imaging findings of central nervous system cryptococcosis;discuss the different findings in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients and briefly review the literature on the subject. (myesr.org)
  • CNS cryptococcosis produces a wide variety of MRI features that may vary depending on the immunological status of the patient. (myesr.org)
  • Cryptococcosis can involve many different organ systems - thus, the term systemic - including the skin, the brain and spinal cord, the nasal passages and other parts of the respiratory system , the eyes, the bone marrow, the liver, and the kidneys . (cornell.edu)
  • Use of this new antifungal drug in the treatment of systemic candidiasis as well as cryptococcosis appears to be increasing. (annals.org)
  • Cryptococcosis is the most common systemic fungal disease of domestic cats worldwide. (tuftscatnip.com)
  • We report a rare case of bilateral lower limb cutaneous cryptococcosis in a patient who lacked evidence of systemic involvement at presentation, with subsequent development and discovery of disseminated cryptococcosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Disseminated cryptococcosis (DC), however, is a systemic and most severe form of disorder caused by these fungi, primarily because mortality rates rise rapidly in the absence of early recognition and proper therapy . (symptoma.com)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is the main etiological agent of cryptococcosis, a life-threatening systemic mycosis and one of the leading secondary infections among HIV-positive patients. (urosario.edu.co)
  • Rising initiatives by government and non-government organizations is also putting the pipeline development in the global cryptococcosis market on the fast track in many countries, especially in developed ones. (sbwire.com)
  • However, the global cryptococcosis market is currently being affected by restraining factors such as the increased mortality among cryptococcosis infected patients, which reduces the overall scope of testing and diagnostics, and the imminent patent expiry of key drugs which will result in the large scale entry of cheaper generics. (sbwire.com)
  • The global cryptococcosis market was valued at US$4.12 bn in 2015 and is projected to reach US$6.27 bn by 2024, after expanding at a CAGR of 4.8% from 2016 to 2024. (sbwire.com)
  • The global cryptococcosis market is segmented into the key regions of North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa. (sbwire.com)
  • North America and the Middle East and Africa are projected to be highly lucrative regions in the global cryptococcosis market, while Europe, Asia Pacific, and Latin America expected to remain relatively smaller in terms of demand and growth rate. (sbwire.com)
  • Based on the distribution channel, the global cryptococcosis market is segmented into hospital pharmacies, retail pharmacies, drug store, and mail order pharmacies. (sbwire.com)
  • Online pharmaceutical retailers are also generating a high volume of preference in in emerging economies such as Brazil, China, and India as well, further increasing the scope of growth for the global cryptococcosis market over the coming years. (sbwire.com)
  • In terms of treatment, Flucytosine was the leading segment in the global cryptococcosis market in terms of revenue for 2015, driven by its large scale adoption in the U.S. (sbwire.com)
  • The global cryptococcosis market has been foretold by the analysts at Transparency Market Research (TMR) to be pioneered by a small number of companies rooted in the developed geographies of the world. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Holding an extremely fragmented nature, the global cryptococcosis market had Janssen Biotech, Inc., Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Valeant Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and Pfizer, Inc. secure a combined 41.0% share in 2015. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Leading players have been expected to sustain their dominance in the global cryptococcosis market by adhering to factors such as lofty investments in research and development and enhanced brand name recognition. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Proliferation of operations in developed regions which bear higher awareness and demand could also a strategy adopted by players to cement their status in the global cryptococcosis market. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • According to a market intelligence report released by TMR, the global cryptococcosis market has been forecasted to reach a valuation of US$6.2 bn by 2024 from US$4.31 bn in 2016 at a CAGR of 4.8% between 2016 and 2024. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • By treatment, the global cryptococcosis market has been foreseen to witness the flucytosine segment earn revenue at a higher CAGR of 5.4% during the forecast period. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The basic factor that has been prognosticated to work in the favor of the global cryptococcosis market is the rising number of patients infected by the fatal fungal disease. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The healthcare sector is aware of the fact that cryptococcosis is spreading at an alarming rate across the world, which could benefit the global cryptococcosis market. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Players in the global cryptococcosis market may be aware that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has spotted the disease to be responsible for a 625,000 death count and close to a 1.0 mn new cases. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Amphotericin B plus oral flucytosine, presently the golden yardstick for cryptococcosis treatment, has been projected to be in the vanguard of the demand in the global cryptococcosis market. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Government efforts directed toward the development of pipeline drugs, availability of advanced treatment alternatives, and improvement in the distribution of existing drugs have been prophesied to propel the growth in the global cryptococcosis market. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • With last-stage HIV patients developing the disease, the demand in the global cryptococcosis market could increase further. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The significantly high mortality rate of patients with the disease could be one of critical aspects of the cutback in growth of the global cryptococcosis market. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The authors of the global cryptococcosis market report have pointed out cryptococcal meningitis and pneumocystis pneumonia as the top two fungal infections causing deaths worldwide. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Moreover, HIV patients diagnosed with cryptococcosis combine a nearly 100.0% mortality rate, which could be menacing for the global cryptococcosis market. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Thus, it has been envisaged that the global cryptococcosis market will have a very little scope for developing pipeline as well as existing drugs. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Consequently, the gush of generics and impending patient expirations could degrade the demand in the global cryptococcosis market. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Howbeit, the analysts envision the global cryptococcosis market to repair its growth as integrated facilities are installed in regions with an all-time high penetration potential. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • As a result, pharmaceutical competitors in the global cryptococcosis market could sustain their position while augmenting production speeds and curbing operational costs. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Mergers and acquisitions and strong investment inflow have also been anticipated to set the tone for the global cryptococcosis market. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • No evidence shows that exposure to pigeon droppings is associated with an increased risk for acquiring cryptococcosis. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Cryptococcosis is a global invasive mycosis associated with significant morbidity and mortality. (guidelinecentral.com)
  • Although the widespread availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has substantially reduced cryptococcosis prevalence worldwide, it is still a major problem in developing countries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A similar phenomenon is seen with other infections, such as leprosy, leishmaniasis, and fungal diseases including cryptococcosis and sporotrichosis. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • More importantly, an increasing frequency of both HIV drug resistance and new infections suggests that morbidity and mortality due to cryptococcosis could increase again in the near future. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • The need for prophylaxis or suppressive therapy for other fungal infections should be considered in making decisions about prophylaxis for cryptococcosis. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Cryptococcosis has been one of the most common opportunistic infections and causes of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comparison and temporal trends of three groups with cryptococcosis: HIV-infected, solid organ transplant, and HIV-negative/non-transplant," PLoS One , vol. 7, Article ID e43582, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • 2017. https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/746339/all/cryptococcosis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • According to CDC, in 2009, there were an estimated 720,000 cases of HIV related cryptococcosis in the Sub-Saharan Africa, which is about three times the prevalence of the disease in all other parts of the world, combined. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • Cryptococcosis was first described in the 1890s but remained relatively rare until the mid-twentieth century, when advances in diagnosis and increases in the number of immunosuppressed individuals markedly raised its reported prevalence. (mhmedical.com)
  • If you are able to confirm that the patient has cryptococcosis, what treatment should be initiated? (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Treatment of cryptococcosis in non-HIV immunocompromised patients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This segment is also expected to continue dominating the market till 2024, owing to the growing contribution of long-term medication needed for successful cryptococcosis treatment. (sbwire.com)
  • 0391_Drug development for cryptococcosis treatment: what can patents tell us? (fiocruz.br)
  • 25. Santos-Gandelman J, Rodrigues ML, Machado Silva A. Future perspectives for cryptococcosis treatment. (fiocruz.br)
  • The report on Cryptococcosis market provides detailed analysis of segments in the market based on Treatment, and Distribution Channel. (infiniumglobalresearch.com)
  • These factors are likely to propel the growth of the overall cryptococcosis treatment market in the near future. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • Therefore, the cryptococcosis treatment market will also show a considerable growth. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • The major factor working for the increase of the worldwide cryptococcosis treatment market is the rising count of people being contaminated by the disease. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • This will further aid the global market of cryptococcosis treatment to increase at a steady pace. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • 108 109 110 111 112 113 115 116 119 120 128 133 145 147 167 427 436 440 441 Should not be used alone for treatment of cryptococcosis. (drugs.com)
  • Without appropriate treatment, cryptococcosis is fatal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report a fatal case of disseminated cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent host presenting as fever of unknown origin with miliary shadows on chest radiograph, mimicking tuberculosis. (deepdyve.com)
  • We analyzed the data collected during a nationwide survey of cryptococcosis (1985-1993). (pasteur.fr)
  • The Cryptococcosis: Management GUIDELINES Pocket Guide is based on the latest guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and was developed with their collaboration. (guidelinecentral.com)
  • An integrated therapy of both cryptococcosis and HIV based on the current evidence of studies from both diseases can yield better survival. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, underlying disease is usually not found in cats with cryptococcosis, so the reasons why some cats become infected with the organism while the vast majority do not are simply not known at this time. (cornell.edu)
  • What is the causative organism of cryptococcosis? (brainscape.com)
  • Cryptococcosis is an infectious disease that is caused by pathogenic encapsulated yeasts that belong to the genus Cryptococcus. (lecturio.com)