Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella bacillispora.
Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.
Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.
An acute, diffuse, and suppurative inflammation of loose connective tissue, particularly the deep subcutaneous tissues, and sometimes muscle, which is most commonly seen as a result of infection of a wound, ulcer, or other skin lesions.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
A peripheral vasodilator that was formerly used in the management of peripheral and cerebral vascular disorders. It is hepatotoxic and fatalities have occurred. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1312)
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.
Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
Any type of abortion, induced or spontaneous, that is associated with infection of the UTERUS and its appendages. It is characterized by FEVER, uterine tenderness, and foul discharge.
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)

In-vivo therapeutic efficacy in experimental murine mycoses of a new formulation of deoxycholate-amphotericin B obtained by mild heating. (1/1120)

Heat-induced 'superaggregation' of deoxycholate-amphotericin B (AmB-DOC, Fungizone) was shown previously to reduce the in-vitro toxicity of this antifungal agent. We compared AmB-DOC with the formulation obtained by heating the commercial form (Fungizone, Bristol Myers Squibb, Paris, France) for 20 min at 70 degrees C, in the treatment of murine infections. An improvement of antifungal activity was obtained with heated AmB-DOC formulations due to a lower toxicity which allowed the administration of higher drug doses than those achievable with the commercial preparation. Single intravenous injections of heated AmB-DOC solutions were demonstrated to be two-fold less toxic than unheated ones to healthy mice. For mice infected with Candida albicans, the maximum tolerated dose was higher with heated than with unheated AmB-DOC solutions. In the model of murine candidiasis, following a single dose of heated AmB-DOC 0.5 mg/kg, 85% of mice survived for 3 weeks, whereas at this dose the immediate toxicity of the standard formulation in infected mice restricted the therapeutic efficacy to 25% survival. Both formulations were equally effective in increasing the survival time for murine cryptococcal pneumonia and meningoencephalitis. Injection of heated AmB-DOC solutions at a dose two-fold higher than the maximal tolerated dose observed with the unheated preparation (1.2 mg/kg) increased the survival time by a factor of 1.4 in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. These results indicate that mild heat treatment of AmB-DOC solutions could provide a simple and economical method to improve the therapeutic index of this antifungal agent by reducing its toxicity on mammalian cells.  (+info)

A comparison of itraconazole versus fluconazole as maintenance therapy for AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. (2/1120)

This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of fluconazole vs. itraconazole as maintenance therapy for AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. HIV-infected patients who had been successfully treated (achieved negative culture of CSF) for a first episode of cryptococcal meningitis were randomized to receive fluconazole or itraconazole, both at 200 mg/d, for 12 months. The study was stopped prematurely on the recommendation of an independent Data Safety and Monitoring Board. At the time, 13 (23%) of 57 itraconazole recipients had experienced culture-positive relapse, compared with 2 relapses (4%) noted among 51 fluconazole recipients (P = .006). The factor best associated with relapse was the patient having not received flucytosine during the initial 2 weeks of primary treatment for cryptococcal disease (relative risk = 5.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-27.14; P = .04). Fluconazole remains the treatment of choice for maintenance therapy for AIDS-associated cryptococcal disease. Flucytosine may contribute to the prevention of relapse if used during the first 2 weeks of primary therapy.  (+info)

Cryptococcosis in children with AIDS. (3/1120)

We compiled the clinical and immunologic features of Cryptococcus neoformans infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children from 1985 to 1996 in a retrospective case series. Thirty cases of cryptococcosis were identified. These children had a median age of 9.8 years, a median CD4+ cell count of 54/microL at the time of diagnosis, and either a culture positive for C. neoformans or cryptococcal antigen in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Sixty-three percent of the cases occurred in children vertically infected with HIV and in children between 6 and 12 years of age. The clinical and laboratory characteristics of this pediatric cohort were similar to those of adults with AIDS and cryptococcosis. On the basis of a subset of the cases, a 10-year point prevalence of cryptococcosis among children with AIDS of approximately 1% was estimated.  (+info)

Variants of a Cryptococcus neoformans strain elicit different inflammatory responses in mice. (4/1120)

The virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates with high and low extracellular proteolytic activity was investigated in mice. No consistent relationship between proteolytic activity and virulence was observed, but isolates derived from one strain were shown to elicit different inflammatory responses.  (+info)

Serotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from clinical and environmental sources in Spain. (5/1120)

We determined biovars and serotypes of 154 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from clinical and environmental sources from different areas of Spain. All clinical isolates belonged to C. neoformans var. neoformans. Serotypes showed an irregular distribution. C. neoformans var. gattii serotype B was isolated from necropsy specimens from goats with pulmonary disease.  (+info)

Heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) as a major target of the antibody response in patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. (6/1120)

Cryptococcus neoformans causes infection in individuals with defective T cell function, such as AIDS, as well as without underlying disease. It has been suggested that humoral as well as cellular immunity might play an important role in the immune response to C. neoformans infection. We have recently shown, using immunoblotting, that the 70-kD hsp family of C. neoformans was the major target molecule of the humoral response in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis. In this study we also used immunoblotting to define the antibody responses in the sera of 24 patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis: 21 proven and three suspected diagnoses. Anti-C. neoformans hsp70 antibody was detected in 16 of 24 (66.7%) patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. Fourteen of 17 (82.3%) patients with high antigen titres (> or = 1:8) and two of seven (28.6%) patients with low titres (< or = 1:4) had detectable levels of anti-hsp70 antibody. Sera from patients positive for anti-hsp70 antibody showed high titres in the Eiken latex agglutination test for the detection of serum cryptococcal antigen. Our results indicate that the 70-kD hsp family from C. neoformans appears to be a major target molecule of the humoral response, not only in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis, but also in human patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis.  (+info)

Role of the C-C chemokine, TCA3, in the protective anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune response. (7/1120)

Activated T lymphocytes play a crucial role in orchestrating cellular infiltration during a cell-mediated immune (CMI) reaction. TCA3, a C-C chemokine, is produced by Ag-activated T cells and is chemotactic for neutrophils and macrophages, two cell types in a murine CMI reaction. Using a gelatin sponge model for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), we show that TCA3 is a component of the expression phase of an anticryptococcal CMI response in mice. TCA3 mRNA levels are augmented in anticryptococcal DTH reactions at the same time peak influxes of neutrophils and lymphocytes are observed. Neutralization of TCA3 in immunized mice results in reduced numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes at DTH reaction sites. However, when rTCA3 is injected into sponges in naive mice, only neutrophils are attracted into the sponges, indicating TCA3 is chemotactic for neutrophils, but not lymphocytes. We show that TCA3 is indirectly attracting lymphocytes into DTH-reactive sponges by affecting at least one other chemokine that is chemotactic for lymphocytes. Of the two lymphocyte-attracting chemokines assessed, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), only MIP-1alpha was reduced when TCA3 was neutralized, indicating that TCA3 affects the levels of MIP-1alpha, which attracts lymphocytes into the sponges. TCA3 also plays a role in protection against Cryptococcus neoformans in the lungs and brains of infected mice, as evidenced by the fact that neutralization of TCA3 results in increased C. neoformans CFU in those two organs.  (+info)

Antibody response to Cryptococcus neoformans proteins in rodents and humans. (8/1120)

The prevalence and specificity of serum antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans proteins was studied in mice and rats with experimental infection, in individuals with or without a history of potential laboratory exposure to C. neoformans, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals who developed cryptococcosis, in matched samples from HIV-positive individuals who did not develop cryptococcosis, and in HIV-negative individuals. Rodents had little or no serum antibody reactive with C. neoformans proteins prior to infection. The intensity and specificity of the rodent antibody response were dependent on the species, the mouse strain, and the viability of the inoculum. All humans had serum antibodies reactive with C. neoformans proteins regardless of the potential exposure, the HIV infection status, or the subsequent development of cryptococcosis. Our results indicate (i) a high prevalence of antibodies reactive with C. neoformans proteins in the sera of rodents after cryptococcal infection and in humans with or without HIV infection; (ii) qualitative and quantitative differences in the antibody profiles of HIV-positive individuals; and (iii) similarities and differences between humans, mice, and rats with respect to the specificity of the antibodies reactive with C. neoformans proteins. The results are consistent with the view that C. neoformans infections are common in human populations, and the results have implications for the development of vaccination strategies against cryptococcosis.  (+info)

Cryptococcus neoformans, the causative fungal agent of cryptococcosis remain a common cause of infectious morbidity and mortality, especially among HIV-positive patients living in Sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia. This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence and clinical presentation of Cryptococcus infections among HIV positive and negative patients in RIMS, Manipur. Specimens like CSF, sputum, urine, blood, tissue biopsy or aspirates from clinically suspected cryptococcosis cases from RIMS hospital, were subjected to mycological examination. Out of the 48 patients enrolled for the study, Cryptococcus spp were isolated from 16 (33.33%) patients. Among these 16 cryptococcosis patients, majority of them presented with cryptococcal meningitis 13 (81.25%), while 1 (6.25%) patient each presented with cryptococcal lymphadenitis, disseminated cutaneous cryptococcosis and osseous cryptococcosis respectively. Also, of these 16 cryptococcosis patients, 14 (87.5%) were HIV positive. Among these HIV
Cryptococcosis, also known as cryptococcal disease, is a potentially fatal fungal disease. It is caused by one of two species; Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. These were all previously thought to be subspecies of C. neoformans but have now been identified as distinct species. Cryptococcosis is believed to be acquired by inhalation of the infectious propagule from the environment. Although the exact nature of the infectious propagule is unknown, the leading hypothesis is the basidiospore created through sexual or asexual reproduction. Cryptococcosis is a defining opportunistic infection for AIDS, and is the second-most-common AIDS-defining illness in Africa. Other conditions that pose an increased risk include certain lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkins lymphoma), sarcoidosis, liver cirrhosis, and patients on long-term corticosteroid therapy. Distribution is worldwide in soil. The prevalence of cryptococcosis has been increasing over the past 20 years for many reasons, including the ...
Cryptococcosis, also known as cryptococcal disease is a potentially fatal fungal disease. It is caused by inhalation of an encapsulated yeast called Cryptococcus neoformans. Cryptococcosis is believed to be acquired by inhalation of the infectious propagule from the environment. Although the exact nature of the infectious propagule is unknown, the leading hypothesis is the basidiospore created through sexual or asexual reproduction.. Cryptococcosis market: Types of infection. There are three identified Cryptococcus strains that causes disease worldwide namely Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus grubii and Cryptococcus gattii. Exposure via respiratory or the gastrointestinal tract are considered as the most common and opportunistic pathway for the organism entry in the host. Cryptococcus neoformans can be found worldwide in soil, birds, animals and humans. Whereas, alternative route of administration can be through transplant of infected tissue, surgical instrument or laboratory instruments. ...
Background Cryptococcus neoformans causes life-threatening meningitis. A recently introduced lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) to detect cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) is reportedly more rapid and convenient than standard latex agglutination (LA), but has not yet been evaluated in a diagnostic laboratory setting. Methods One hundred and six serum, 42 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and 20 urine samples from 92 patients with known or suspected cryptococcosis were tested by LA and LFA, and titres were compared. Results were correlated with laboratory-confirmed cryptococcosis. Serial samples were tested in nine treated patients. Results Twenty-five of 92 patients had confirmed cryptococcosis; all sera (n = 56) from these patients were positive by LFA (sensitivity 100%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 93.6-100%) compared with 51/56 positive by LA (sensitivity 91.1%, 95% CI 80.7-96.1%). Fifty sera from 67 patients without cryptococcosis tested negative in both assays. While LA yielded more false negative results (5/56
Global Cryptococcosis Treatment Market Analysis. Global Cryptococcosis Treatment Market Analysis According to Verified Market Research, the Global Cryptococcosis Treatment Market was valued at USD 4.2 Billion in 2018 and is projected to reach USD 6.6 Billion by 2026, growing at a CAGR of 4.4% from 2019 to 2026.The latest survey on Global Cryptococ
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of IL-12 and IFN-γ are required for initiating the protective Th1 response to pulmonary cryptococcosis in resistant C.B-17 Mice. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The global cryptococcosis market was calculated to reach US$4.31 bn by the end of 2016, and is projected to reach US$6.2 bn by the end of 2024, cryptococcosis market is after expanding at a CAGR of 4.8% from 2016 to 2024.
Cryptococcosis, an emerging highly infectious respiratory mycosis, is mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, which exist as saprobe in the envi..
Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused specifically by the fungus cryptococcus neofromans, which is usually found in soil and bird droppings or less commonly, the fungus cryptococcus gatti, found in sub-tropical regions. An individual usually contracts this infection through the air by breathing in the spores. Cryptococcocsis is most commonly associated with HIV and with people with weakened immune systems such as Hodgkins disease, individuals taking high doses of corticosteroid medications or undergoing chemotherapy. However, cryptococcocsis may affect individuals with normal immune systems as well. In some cases, there are no symptoms at all, however because the fungus is typically inhaled, the lungs are most commonly infected. It is more likely to spread beyond the lungs to the brain (and cause meningitis) in individuals with weakened immune systems. Symptoms may include blurred vision, chest pain, fatigue, dry coughs, fever, headache, nausea, sweating, and skin rashes. Other symptoms ...
Cryptococcosis is a yeast-like fungal infection. Symptoms include weight loss, lethargy, and fight-like wounds on the nose and skin. Treatment includes oral antifungal medication and possibly surgery, depending on severity of wounds.
Cryptococcosis is a yeast-like fungal infection. Symptoms include weight loss, lethargy, fight-like wounds on the nose and skin. Treatment includes oral antifungal medication and possibly surgery, depending on severity of wounds.
Cryptococcosis is the most common systemic fungal disease of domestic cats worldwide. It is caused by a fungus belonging to the genus Cryptococcous.
The latest report on Cryptococcosis Treatment market as Added by Market Study Report, LLC, offers comprehensive details on industry size, regional spectrum and revenue estimates of the business. In addition, the report stresses on major challenges as well as the latest growth strategies implemented by significant players of the industry.
SummaryThe computed tomographic (CT) scans and chest radiographs of 10 patients with AIDS and proven pulmonary cryptococcal infections were reviewed. In seven patients (70%), CT demonstrated pulmonary opacities that ranged in appearance from a perihilar interstitial pattern to an area of dense alveo
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast. In 1894, Busse, a pathologist, first described the yeast in a paper he presented to the Greifswald Medical Society.
An acute or chronic, localized or disseminated infection by cryptococcus neoformans. Sites of involvement include the lungs, central nervous system and meninges, skin, and visceral organs ...
Jones FX Fracture line extends to 4-5 intermetatarsal space. Cryptococcosis is the most common fungal disease in HIV -infected persons, and it is the AIDS-defining illness for 60-70% of HIV-infected patients.. In addition to invading the lung and CNS, cryptococci also invade the skin, bone, and genitourinary tract, but meninges appear to be the preferred site.. Cryptococcal disease usually develops only when CD4+ lymphocyte counts fall below 100 cells/microL.. Disease onset is usually insidious; time from symptom onset to diagnosis is, on average, 30 days or more. The delay also may be due to the waxing-and-waning course and the nonspecificity of symptoms. Headache, fever, malaise, nonspecific mental status sx, uncommonly CN palsies, seizures, focal neuro sx. Also uncommon to see meningismus (no immune system).. CSF analysis may yield normal (ie, reference) results in 25% of patients and may be minimally abnormal in as many as 50%; therefore, identifying the organism via India Ink and serology ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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The terms above describe general types of diseases because they dont provide specific information about the cause of the disease process. Once the cause has been determined, the name may change. For example, the veterinarian may determine that a patient has inflammation of the meninges (i.e. meningitis). Once it has been determined that the meningitis is caused by an infection from the fungus, coccidiomycosis, the name will change to Cocci meningitis and the patient can be specifically treated for this disease process. Also, the suffix -us denotes an organism and -osis denotes a condition. Therefore, Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by the fungus Cryptococcus.. If multiple areas are being affected by a process, two or more prefixes can be combined. For example ...
The researchers analyzed clinical cultures collected during a prospective study on cryptococcosis. Using molecular analysis of unpurified isolates they uncovered an unexpectedly high frequency (almost 20 percent) of mixed infections. They further demonstrated that these mixed infections could result from infestation by multiple strains acquired from the environment and that the strains were also evolving during infection.. The concept of one strain/one infection does not hold true for C neoformans and may apply to other environmentally acquired fungal pathogens. The possibility of mixed and/or evolving infections should be taken into account when developing therapeutic strategies against these pathogens, says Dromer.. mBio™ is a new open access online journal published by the American Society for Microbiology to make microbiology research broadly accessible. The focus of the journal is on rapid publication of cutting-edge research spanning the entire spectrum of microbiology and related ...
The primary study outcome was the death rate 24 weeks after starting treatment. Intent to treat analysis which counted everyone randomised showed that enhanced prophylaxis was associated with a significantly reduced risk of death. 8.9% of those in the enhanced prophylaxis arm died compared to 12.2% of those in the standard of care arm, a risk reduction of 27% (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.54-0.97, p = 0.03) and this difference was sustained at week 48 (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0. 58-0.98, p = 0.04).. Analysis of the primary causes of death showed that death due to Cryptococcus was significantly reduced in the enhanced prophylaxis arm (p = 0.03) but there was no difference in rates of death due to TB or bacterial infections. The investigators concluded that, in most cases, the causes of death were multifactorial. Nevertheless, the study found that enhanced prophylaxis was associated with a reduction in new cases of TB, cryptococcal disease or candida, but not of bacterial infections. Hospitalisation for any cause ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Monoclonal antibodies can affect complement deposition on the capsule of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans by both classical pathway activation and steric hindrance. AU - Zaragoza, Oscar. AU - Casadevall, Arturo. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2006/12. Y1 - 2006/12. N2 - The capsule of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans presents the immune system with a formidable problem for phagocytosis. Capsule-mediated activation of the alternative complement (C) pathway results in component 3 (particularly, C3) binding to the capsule near the cell wall surface. Hence, for cells with large capsule, C3 cannot interact with the complement receptor (CR) and is not opsonic. However, C activation in either immune serum or in the presence of monoclonal antibody (mAb) to capsular polysaccharide localizes C3 to the capsular edge. When C.neoformans cells were coated with both C and antibody (Ab) opsonins, Ab bound first and ...
The lysis of infected cells by disease-causing microorganisms is an efficient but risky strategy for disseminated infection, as it exposes the pathogen to the full repertoire of the hosts immune system. Cryptococcus neoformans is a widespread fungal pathogen that causes a fatal meningitis in HIV and other immunocompromised patients. Following intracellular growth, cryptococci are able to escape their host cells by a non-lytic expulsive mechanism that may contribute to the invasion of the central nervous system. Non-lytic escape is also exhibited by some bacterial pathogens and is likely to facilitate long-term avoidance of the host immune system during latency. Here we show that phagosomes containing intracellular cryptococci undergo repeated cycles of actin polymerisation. These actin flashes occur in both murine and human macrophages and are dependent on classical WASP-Arp2/3 complex mediated actin filament nucleation. Three dimensional confocal imaging time lapse revealed that such flashes ...
Unique clinical characteristics and other variables influencing the outcome of Cryptococcus neoformans infection in organ transplant recipients have not been well defined. From a review of published reports, we found that C. neoformans infection was documented in 2.8% of organ transplant recipients (overall death rate 42%). The type of primary immunosuppressive agent used in transplantation influenced the predominant clinical manifestation of cryptococcosis. Patients receiving tacrolimus were significantly less likely to have central nervous system involvement (78% versus 11%, p =0.001) and more likely to have skin, soft-tissue, and osteoarticular involvement (66% versus 21%, p = 0.006) than patients receiving nontacrolimus-based immunosuppression. Renal failure at admission was the only independently significant predictor of death in these patients (odds ratio 16.4, 95% CI 1.9 - 143, p = 0.004). Hypotheses based on these data may elucidate the pathogenesis and may ultimately guide the management of C.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antibody-mediated protection in murine Cryptococcus neoformans infection is associated with pleotrophic effects on cytokine and leukocyte responses. AU - Feldmesser, Marta. AU - Mednick, Aron. AU - Casadevall, Arturo. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Cryptococcus neoformans, an encapsulated yeast, is a common cause of life-threatening meningoencephalitis in immunosuppressed patients. We previously observed that administration of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to the capsular polysaccharide to mice with pulmonary infection prolonged survival and enhanced granulomatous inflammation without reducing lung CFU. To understand the mechanism of MAb action, we studied leukocyte recruitment and cytokine profiles in lungs of A/JCr mice. B lymphocytes were the predominant cell type in lung infiltrates, comprising 15 to 30% of the leukocytes. Despite alterations in histological appearance, fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis revealed no significant difference in total numbers of lung ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - First identification of autochthonous Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii isolated from goats with predominantly severe pulmonary disease in Spain. AU - Baró, Teresa. AU - Torres-Rodríguez, Josep M.. AU - De Mendoza, Miguel Hermoso. AU - Morera, Yolanda. AU - Alía, Concepción. PY - 1998/2/1. Y1 - 1998/2/1. N2 - Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii is associated with Eucalyptus trees growing in various tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The identification of 13 autochthonous strains of C. neoformans var. gattii in Spain is reported. These strains were isolated from lung (10 samples), liver (1 sample), and brain (2 samples) tissue specimens from six goats suffering from predominantly severe pulmonary disease that were autopsied. The animals were members of five different herds of goats grazing in rural areas of the province of Caceres (Extremadura, Spain). Between 1990 and 1994, there were five outbreaks, in which between 2.5 and 12% of the goats were affected. ...
Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii ATCC ® 208821D-2™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii strain H99JP [ATCC ® 208821™] Application:
TY - JOUR. T1 - Host immunity to Cryptococcus neoformans. AU - Rohatgi, Soma. AU - Pirofski, Liise-anne. PY - 2015/4/1. Y1 - 2015/4/1. N2 - Cryptococcosis is caused by the fungal genus Cryptococcus. Cryptococcosis, predominantly meningoencephalitis, emerged with the HIV pandemic, primarily afflicting HIV-infected patients with profound T-cell deficiency. Where in use, combination antiretroviral therapy has markedly reduced the incidence of and risk for disease, but cryptococcosis continues to afflict those without access to therapy, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. However, cryptococcosis also occurs in solid organ transplant recipients and patients with other immunodeficiencies as well as those with no known immunodeficiency. This article reviews innate and adaptive immune responses to C. neoformans, with an emphasis on recent studies on the role of B cells, natural IgM and Fc gamma receptor polymorphisms in resistance to cryptococcosis.. AB - Cryptococcosis is caused by the fungal ...
Innate immunity plays an important role for fungal recognition and initiation of fungicidal activity. We hypothesize that subtle differences in different molecules of innate immunity may contribute to either the predisposition or clinical course of infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. To test this hypothesis, we propose to analyze the allelic frequencies of 15 different genes (mannose binding lectin, Fc-gamma receptor IIa and IIb, Fc-gamma receptors IIIa and IIIb, myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and -beta, interleukin 1A and 1B, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-10, NRAMP-1, chitotriosidase, and chemokine receptor 5) and their intragenic polymorphic forms and to compare this data to the incidence and severity of C neoformans infection. With this study we hope to identify a group of molecules of innate immunity which influence the risk and severity of invasive C neoformans infection ...
Innate immunity plays an important role for fungal recognition and initiation of fungicidal activity. We hypothesize that subtle differences in different molecules of innate immunity may contribute to either the predisposition or clinical course of infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. To test this hypothesis, we propose to analyze the allelic frequencies of 15 different genes (mannose binding lectin, Fc-gamma receptor IIa and IIb, Fc-gamma receptors IIIa and IIIb, myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and -beta, interleukin 1A and 1B, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-10, NRAMP-1, chitotriosidase, and chemokine receptor 5) and their intragenic polymorphic forms and to compare this data to the incidence and severity of C neoformans infection. With this study we hope to identify a group of molecules of innate immunity which influence the risk and severity of invasive C neoformans infection ...
Diagnosis of invasive cryptococcal infection in apparently nonimmunocompromised patients is difficult and often delayed. Human immunodeficiency virus- (HIV-) negative patients with decompensated hepatic cirrhosis might be at high risk of cryptococcal infection. We report here an 82-year-old Japanese female with end-stage hepatic failure and undergoing renal dialysis, hospitalized with septic shock-like symptoms. The patient had had hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the past. She survived only 4 days following admission. During hospitalization, she was found to have pleural effusion and ascites.|i| Cryptococcus neoformans|/i| was obtained from blood culture but not from pleural effusion culture. Consequently, the patient was diagnosed as having invasive cryptococcosis in association with HBV-related hepatic cirrhosis. Unfortunately, the patient died prior to receiving antifungal agents. Twelve Japanese cases of hepatic cirrhosis-related invasive cryptococcal infection, consisting of previously
A polysaccharide capsule is one of the most important virulence factors for the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. We previously characterized two capsule-associated genes,CAP59 and CAP64. To further dissect the molecular mechanism of capsule synthesis, 16 acapsular mutants induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide were obtained. The acapsular phenotype of one of these mutants was complemented. The cloned gene was designatedCAP60, and deletion of this newly described capsule-associated gene resulted in an acapsular phenotype. The proposed 67-kDa Cap60p contains 592 amino acids and appears to have a putative transmembrane domain close to the N terminus. DNA sequence analysis revealed that CAP60 has similarity toCAP59 at the center portion of its coding regions. Contour-clamped homogeneous electric field blot analysis suggested that these two genes are on the same chromosome. CAP60 andCAP59, however, could not be functionally substituted for each other by direct complementation or by domain swap ...
The main principles for the genetic pathophysiology of cryptococcosis will probably be consistent among all three varieties. In this chapter the author considers the yeasts to be different varieties or serotypes. Seven major areas are examined to support the potential molecular insights into this pathogenic yeast which will allow one to identify drug targets, define drug resistance mechanisms, and/or prepare mutants or fungal products for protective fungal vaccines. Initial molecular biology studies focused on distinguishing molecular strain differences with the use of karyotypes, repetitive elements, and eventually randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs, amplification fragment length polymorphisms, and PCR fingerprinting for strain genotyping. Cryptococcus neoformans has several well-characterized virulence phenotypes which have been approached in their understanding by both genetic and molecular tools. Experimental cryptococcosis in animal models has tended to be associated with large inocula or some
Cryptococcal infection is acquired from the environment. C. neoformans and C. gattii inhabit different ecologic niches. C. neoformans is frequently found in soils contaminated with avian excreta and can easily be recovered from shaded and humid soils contaminated with pigeon droppings. In contrast, C. gattii is not found in bird feces. Instead, it inhabits a variety of arboreal species, including several types of eucalyptus tree. C. neoformans strains are found throughout the world; however, var. grubii (serotype A) strains are far more common than var. neoformans (serotype D) strains among both clinical and environmental isolates. The geographic distribution of C. gattii was thought to be largely limited to tropical regions until an outbreak of cryptococcosis caused by a new serotype B strain began in Vancouver in 1999. This outbreak has extended into the United States, and C. gattii infections are being encountered increasingly in several states in the Pacific Northwest. ...
In Japan, most cases of cryptococcosis are caused by Cryptococcus neoformans(C. neoformans). Until now, only three cases which the infectious agent was Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii(C. gattii)have been reported. As compared with cryptococcosis caused by C. neoformans, which is often observed in immunocompromised hosts, cryptococcosis caused by C. gattii occurs predominantly in immunocompetent hosts and is resistant to antifungal drugs. Here, we report a case of refractory cerebral cryptococcoma that was successfully treated by surgical resection of the lesions. A 33-year-old man with no medical history complained of headache, hearing disturbance, and irritability. Pulmonary CT showed a nodular lesion in the left lung. Cerebrospinal fluid examination with Indian ink indicated cryptococcal meningitis, and PCR confirmed infection with C. gattii. C. gattii is usually seen in the tropics and subtropics. Since this patient imported trees and soils from abroad to feed stag beetles, parasite or ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plays a critical role in the control of cryptococcal infection, and its insufficiency promotes cryptococcal persistence. To explore the therapeutic potential of TNF-α supplementation as a booster of host anti-cryptococcal responses, we engineered a C. neoformans strain expressing murine TNF-α. Using a murine model of pulmonary cryptococcosis, we demonstrated that TNF-α-producing C. neoformans strain enhances protective elements of host response including preferential T-cell accumulation and improved Th1/Th2 cytokine balance, diminished pulmonary eosinophilia and alternative activation of lung macrophages at the adaptive phase of infection compared to wild type strain-infected mice. Furthermore, TNF-α expression by C. neoformans enhanced the fungicidal activity of macrophages in vitro. Finally, mice infected with the TNF-α-producing C. neoformans strain showed improved fungal control and considerably prolonged survival compared to wild type strain-infected mice,
Our studies define the elements of a signal transduction cascade that controls the production of virulence factors and pathogenicity ofC. neoformans. The Pka1 catalytic subunit of PKA regulates mating, melanin and capsule production, and virulence. The Pkr1 regulatory subunit of PKA is also a critical component, and mutants lacking Pkr1 overproduced capsule and were hypervirulent by several measures in two different animal models. pkr1 mutant cells also produced dramatically enlarged capsules during infection, and both the larger capsule size and the increased release of immunosuppressive capsular polysaccharides likely contribute to enhanced virulence.. Epistasis analysis further supports the conclusion that the Gα protein Gpa1 is an upstream controlling element for this signaling pathway and that the Ste12α transcription factor may represent one of several downstream targets of PKA that regulate differentiation and virulence. One interesting finding is that mutants with defects in an ...
The study by Baughman and colleagues comprises 2 parts. The first part was a retrospective analysis of 51 patients, the results of which yielded 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The second part was a prospective study of 220 patients. 15 were positive for cryptococcal antigen in their BAL fluid, but only 8 of them had culture-proven cryptococcal pneumonia. On the basis of a 3.6% prevalence of cryptococcal infection in this group of patients, a negative predictive value of 100% was calculated. The authors also calculated a positive predictive value of 53% to 67% depending on the cut-point titer of antigen used. Because of the 7 false-positive antigen tests obtained from the prospective study, all antigen-positive and 10 antigen-negative BAL specimens were retested after they were stored at -80 °C for at least 3 months. All culture-positive specimens were antigen positive, but none of the 7 initially false-positive specimens remained positive, thus providing a 100% sensitivity and 100% ...
An article in a recent issue of this journal reported the use of intravenous miconazole in cryptococcosis (1). Use of this new antifungal drug in the treatment of systemic candidiasis as well as cryptococcosis appears to be increasing. Whereas relatively few infectious disease specialists use intravenous miconazole for these indications, we believe that this drug is used much more frequently by physicians working outside the subspecialty of infectious disease. If our impression is correct, then these groups differ in the interpretation of the meager data on the efficacy of miconazole in treating these diseases. Alternatively, some physicians may be relying ...
The case below of systemic cryptococcal infection and meningitis, an opportunistic fungal infection, in a pwMS on fingolimod is one of many cases reported worldwide. The problem with fingolimod is that you cant derisk the risk of opportunistic infections. All cases of opportunistic infection on fingolimod, to the best of my knowledge, have occurred in pwMS with lymphocyte counts above 200/mm3 or 0.2x109/L (the action level ti disruot dosing in the EU). In addition, infections in pwMS on fingolimod are not linked to the peripheral lymphocyte counts. Therefore, the only way to deal with the opportunistic infection risk on fingolimod is to remain vigilant and be aware of symptoms suggsetive of an infection. In the case of cryptococcal meningitis this may be very subtle symptoms; for example a non-specific headache or visual symptoms. The reason why cryptococcal infection is very indolent is simply because people who are immunosuppressed are unable to mount a vigorous immune response against the ...
The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) plays a crucial role in the transportation and degradation of proteins. We determined that Vps27, a key protein of the ESCRT-0 complex, is required for the transport of the virulence factor laccase to the cell wall in Cryptococcus neoformans. Laccase activity was perturbed, as was melanin production, in ... ...
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Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by fungi that belong to the genus Cryptococcus.The two species are Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii.
Aritreyee Datta*, Vikas Yadav*, ............, Kaustuv Sanyal, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy and Anirban Bhunia, Mode of Action of a Designed Antimicrobial Peptide: High Efficiency in Killing of the Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, Biophysical Journal 111, 1724 - 1737 (2016 ...
Cryptococcus neoformans is a human-pathogenic fungus that has evolved into three distinct varieties that infect most prominently the central nervous system. A sexual cycle involving haploid cells of a and alpha mating types has been reported for two varieties (C. neoformans var. neoformans, serotype …
Strains and cell growth: C. neoformans was grown with continuous shaking at 30° in YPD medium [1% (w/v) Bacto yeast extract; 2% (w/v) peptone, 2% dextrose] or minimal medium lacking uracil (Ausubelet al. 2001). Low adenine plates contained yeast nitrogen base supplemented with (per liter) 20 g glucose; 24 mg uracil; 40 mg each arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, and tryrosine; 60 mg phenylalanine and tryptophan; 120 mg homoserine; 180 mg valine; and 10 mg adenine. For experiments using 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA), plates contained the same medium with adenine raised to 40 mg/liter and the addition of 1 g/liter 5-FOA. Wild-type serotype D strain B4500 and cap59 strain TYCC33 (Chang and Kwon-Chung 1994) were from Dr. June Kwon-Chung (National Institutes of Health), and ura5 strain JEC43 (Wickeset al. 1997) was from Dr. Joseph Heitman (Duke University Medical Center). JEC43 cells transformed with a control plasmid alone (CIP-GUST.Cla.Kpn; see below) are designated ...
Fungal infection 대장경 정리 ,Cryptococcosis, Cryptococcus neoformans 1. Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis 대부분 환자들이 진단당시에 meningoencephalitis를 가진다. fever, nuchal rigidity: 없거나 경하다. papilledema, cranial nerve palsy(25%): asymmetric * CSF: glucose↓, protein↑, lymphocyte pelocytosis serum, CSF capsular antigen test: 90%에서 detect가능(확인은 culture) 2. Cryptococcosis의 치료: Amphotericin-B, flucytosine 치료기간, AIDS가 없을 때: CSF tapping매주하여, India ink(-), glucose normal, 적어도 4주간 배양되지 않을때까지, 대략 6주정도 3. Cryptococcosis의 poor Px mentality↓, CSF WBC , 20/uL, cryptococcal Ag ,1:1024 ,Candidiasis, 4. Candida esophagitis 치료: Fluconazole(Diflucan) 1T qd × 7-14T 5. chronic disseminated candidiasis or hepatosplenic candidiasis neutropenia회복됨에도 불구하고 광범위 항균제 치료에 반응하지 않는 지속적 발열이 있을 때 의심 6. neutropenia환자의 acute ...
Antibody-mediated defense against pathogens typically requires complex interactions between antibodies and other constituents of the humoral and cellular immune systems. However, recent evidence indicates that some antibodies alone can inhibit pathogen function in the absence of complement, phagocytes, or NK cells. In this issue of the JCI, McClelland et al. have begun to elucidate the molecular bases by which antibodies alone can impact pathogen growth and metabolism. They show that mAbs specific for the polysaccharide capsule of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans elicit diverse effects on fungal gene expression, lipid biosynthesis, susceptibility to amphotericin B, cellular metabolism, and protein phosphorylation. These data suggest that pathogens have the capacity to generate broad metabolic responses as a result of surface binding by pathogen-specific antibodies, effects that may hold therapeutic promise. ...
Antibody-mediated defense against pathogens typically requires complex interactions between antibodies and other constituents of the humoral and cellular immune systems. However, recent evidence indicates that some antibodies alone can inhibit pathogen function in the absence of complement, phagocytes, or NK cells. In this issue of the JCI, McClelland et al. have begun to elucidate the molecular bases by which antibodies alone can impact pathogen growth and metabolism. They show that mAbs specific for the polysaccharide capsule of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans elicit diverse effects on fungal gene expression, lipid biosynthesis, susceptibility to amphotericin B, cellular metabolism, and protein phosphorylation. These data suggest that pathogens have the capacity to generate broad metabolic responses as a result of surface binding by pathogen-specific antibodies, effects that may hold therapeutic promise. ...
Infection wif C. neoformans is termed cryptococcosis. Most infections wif C. neoformans occur in de wungs.[12] However, fungaw meningitis and encephawitis, especiawwy as a secondary infection for AIDS patients, are often caused by C. neoformans, making it a particuwarwy dangerous fungus. Infections wif dis fungus are rare in dose wif fuwwy functioning immune systems.[13] So, C. neoformans is sometimes referred to as an opportunistic fungus.[13] It is a facuwtative intracewwuwar padogen[14] dat can utiwize host phagocytes to spread widin de body.[15][16] Cryptococcus neoformans was de first intracewwuwar padogen for which de non-wytic escape process termed vomocytosis was observed.[17][18] It has been specuwated dat dis abiwity to manipuwate host cewws resuwts from environmentaw sewective pressure by amoebae, a hypodesis first proposed by Arturo Casadevaww under de term accidentaw viruwence.[19]. In human infection, C. neoformans is spread by inhawation of aerosowized basidiospores, and can ...
The researchers findings, printed within the Worldwide Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, indicate that fendiline hydrochloride can stimulate white-colored bloodstream cells to battle cryptococcosis, which can be more efficient than using drugs to directly get rid of the fungus.. Despite its effectiveness, a lesser dose (1 µM) of fendiline hydrochloride well suited for clinical use unsuccessful to avoid C. neoformans growth.. In reaction, the scientists screened 1,200 Food and drug administration-approved drugs to recognize effective compounds that could stimulate white-colored bloodstream cells to acknowledge and kill C. neoformans residing in cells, the discharge stated. Throughout a preliminary screening, 19 compounds put together to considerably hinder intra cellular development of C. neoformans. After additional screening processes ruling out compounds with host cell toxicity, the scientists discovered that fendiline hydrochloride, dosed at 5 µM, considerably enhanced phagosomal ...
The difference between these strains could make a difference in treatment, clinical course, and outcome, said Joseph Heitman, MD, PhD, senior author of the study and chair of the Duke Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology.. The study was published September 1 in PLoS Pathogens.. The study emphasizes that health professionals need to record the cryptococcal species more carefully to understand different clinical courses and possibly to change treatment strategies.. Researchers at Duke University Medical Center discovered that in the Los Angeles area, more than 12 percent of AIDS patients diagnosed with Crypotococcus were infected with C. gattii, much higher than earlier studies, which suggested that only about 1 percent have C. gattii. The researchers based these figures on molecular testing of fungal DNA barcodes.. This discovery comes at the same time as a C. gattii outbreak is expanding in the Pacific Northwest, spreading southward from Vancouver, British Columbia, through ...
Cryptococcus neoformans causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis in humans, but its overall biological and pathogenic regulatory circuits remain elusive,
Poster: ECR 2018 / C-0919 / Central nervous system cryptococcosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients: clinical presentations and imaging features by: F. LEITÃO1, P. COIMBRA2, P. M. Brasil1, J. Benevides Lima1, D. Brilhante1, T. Camara da Silva1, K. portela luz1, L. P. PEREIRA1, C. Leite Macedo Filho1; 1Fortaleza/BR, 2Fortaleza, CEARA/BR
Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) is a major opportunistic fungal pathogen in individuals with impaired T cell-mediated immunity. Notch pathway is an important signaling component of immunological synapse during APC/T-cell engagement. Little is known about the role of Notch signaling in fungal infections. We sought to determine the role of Notch signaling in C. neoformans infection. Wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) and CD4-Cre+×ROSA DNMAML (DNMAML) mice were infected intratracheally infected with C. neoformans. The fungal burden, leukocyte recruitment, and cytokine profile were assessed at 3 and 6 weeks post-infection (wpi). A 50-fold greater fungal burden was detected in both lungs and brains of DNMAML mice compared to those in the WT mice at 6 wpi. Although, equivalent fungal burdens were found at 3 wpi in WT and DNMAML groups, the production of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-13 was significantly decreased in lung leukocytes of DNMAML mice. In contrast, an equivalent induction of IL-17 was observed in both ...
To the editor: In their evaluation of fine-needle aspiration biopsies of lymph nodes in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related conditions, Bottles and colleagues (1) emphasize the usefulness of this method for diagnosing malignancy, Kaposi sarcoma, and mycobacterial infection. We report a case in which the diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcosis was made on the basis of a routine May-Grünwald-Giemsa-stained lymph node specimen from fine-needle aspiration biopsy.. A 33-year-old black patient from Angola had lost weight and had night sweats and fever. Physical examination showed cervical, nontender small lymph nodes (0.5 to 1 cm). Mild splenomegaly was present. ...
Cryptococcus laurentii ATCC ® 18803™ Designation: CBS 139 [CCRC 20527, CCY 17-3-2, DBVPG 6265, IFO 0609, IFO 0906, MUCL 30398, NRRL Y-2536, VKM Y-1665, VKPM Y-219] Application: Produces xylan endo-1,3-beta-xylosidase xylan hydrolase, xylanase Quality control strain Quality control strain for API products Control strain for identification
Giant cells called titan cells created by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans protect the fungus during infection, according to two University of Minnesota researchers. Kirsten Nielsen, Ph.D., an assistant professor in the department of microbiology, and recent Ph.D. recipient Laura Okagaki believe their discovery could help develop new ways to fight infections caused by Cryptococcus. The findings will be published in the June 2012 issue of the journal Eukaryotic Cell. Cryptococcus, a fungus frequently found in dust and dirt, is responsible for the deaths of more than 650,000 AIDS patients worldwide each year. It is also a potentially deadly concern among chemotherapy and organ transplant patients. Currently, Cryptococcus causes more annual deaths in sub-Saharan Africa than tuberculosis. While most healthy individuals are resistant to Cryptococcus infections, the fungus can cause deadly disease for those with already weak immune systems, said Dr. Nielsen. When inhaled, Cryptococcus can cause ...
Inhalation of the airborne C.gattii fungus from the environment. The fungus can be found in the environment, in the soil and trees in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world (Australia, Papua New Guinea, Africa, Asia, Europe, Mexico and South America). In the united states, C. gattii has been found in Washington, Oregon, California and Hawaii.. There is no human to human or human and animal spread of infection. Infection is only via inhalation of the yeast cells or spores.. ...
폐 효모균증 치료의 목적은 폐렴의 증상과 징후의 조절, 파종의 예방, 그리고 재발의 방지 등이다. 일반적으로 면역기능과 증상의 정도에 따라 기간과 용량에 차이가 있으며, 가장 흔하게 사용되는 항진균제는 fluconazole를 비롯하여 심각한 증상의 경우에는 amphotericin B, flucytocin 등을 사용하며, itraconazole을 대체제로 사용할 수 있다[2,14,15]. 그러나 면역기능이 정상인 환자에서는 파종성의 증거가 없거나 전신적 증상이 없는 경우는 항진균제 치료 없이도 호전될 수 있음을 보여준 경우도 있으나 [6] , 경증 이상의 경우는 fluconazole을 하루에 400 mg, 3-6개월 또는 12개월까지 사용함을 추천하고 있다 [15] . 국내의 증례에서는 고립성 폐결절로 발현된 면역기능이 정상인 환자에서 초기 내원 시 조직검사를 거부한 환자에서 3개월 뒤 2배 이상 커진 증례가 있었다 [12] . 본 ...
The development of new drugs to fight a common fungal pathogen which kills half a million people globally each year is a step closer thanks to a University of Queensland-led study.. UQ PhD student Jessica Chitty of the Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, said the study targeted the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, which had shown signs of becoming resistant to current medications.. This is a fungus that can be found around the world and when inhaled, its microscopic cells can cause infection in people with a weakened immune system, she said.. Infections are particularly prevalent in people with advanced AIDS but can also occur in transplant recipients and those on immunosuppressive medication.. Recently two rare cases of Cryptococcus neoformans infections occurred in Australia in immunocompetent people.. Co-author Associate Professor James Fraser said drugs used to treat the disease have been around for a few decades and consequently ...
Pheromones and pheromone receptors have long been known to affect virulence of the opportunistic pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, yet it is still entirely uncl...
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Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungus that causes cryptococcosis, which can lead to pulmonary infection as well as nervous system ... Maziarz EK, Perfect JR (March 2016). "Cryptococcosis". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 30 (1): 179-206. doi: ... the etiologic agents of cryptococcosis". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine. 4 (7): a019760. doi:10.1101/cshperspect. ...
Benham, Rhoda (1950). "Cryptococcosis and Blastomycosis". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 50 (10): 1299. Bibcode: ...
It is capable of causing disease (cryptococcosis) in nonimmunocompromised people. It has been isolated from eucalyptus trees in ... "What is Cryptococcus infection (cryptococcosis)?". Center for Disease Control and Prevention. April 28, 2010. Retrieved 8 March ... A few species in the Cryptococcus genus cause a disease called cryptococcosis. The cells of these species are covered in a thin ...
The most commonly known pathogen is Candida albicans, causing roughly 70% of fungemias, followed by Candida glabrata with 10%, Aspergillus with 1% and Saccharomyces as the fourth most common.[citation needed] However, the frequency of infection by C. glabrata, Saccharomyces boulardii, Candida tropicalis, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis is increasing, perhaps because significant use of fluconazole is common or due to increase in antibiotic use.[citation needed]. New emerging pathogen: Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) yeast that can cause invasive infections and is associated with high mortality. It was first described in 2009 after being isolated from external ear discharge of a patient in Japan. Since the 2009 report, C. auris infections, specifically fungemia, have been reported from South Korea, India, South Africa, and Kuwait. Although published reports are not available, C. auris has also been identified in Colombia, Venezuela, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom.[3]. ...
Primary infection, although poorly understood due to lack of data, is thought to occur through inhalation of the conidia through the respiratory tract, after inhaling fungal conidia produced by the mycelial form of P. brasiliensis.[10][16] This occurs predominantly in childhood and young adulthood, after exposure to agricultural activity.[9] Infection may occur through direct skin inoculation, although this is rare.[11] After inhalation into the alveoli, there is rapid multiplication of the organism in the lung tissue, sometimes spreading via the venous and lymphatic systems.[10] Approximately 2% of people develop clinical features after the initial asymptomatic infection.[11] The type of immune response determines the clinical manifestation of the infection, with children and HIV co-infected individuals most commonly developing the acute/subacute disseminated disease.[10] Most of those infected develop a Type 1 T-cell (Th1) mediated immune response, resulting in alveolitis and compact granuloma ...
... (also known as "rose gardener's disease"[1]) is a disease caused by the infection of the fungus Sporothrix schenckii.[2] This fungal disease usually affects the skin, although other rare forms can affect the lungs, joints, bones, and even the brain. Because roses can spread the disease, it is one of a few diseases referred to as rose-thorn or rose-gardeners' disease.[3] Because S. schenckii is naturally found in soil, hay, sphagnum moss, and plants, it usually affects farmers, gardeners, and agricultural workers.[2] It enters through small cuts and abrasions in the skin to cause the infection. In case of sporotrichosis affecting the lungs, the fungal spores enter through the respiratory pathways. Sporotrichosis can also be acquired from handling cats with the disease; it is an occupational hazard for veterinarians. Sporotrichosis progresses slowly - the first symptoms may appear 1 to 12 weeks (average 3 weeks) after the initial exposure to the fungus. Serious complications can ...
C. krusei grows at a maximum temperature of 43-45 °C. Although most of the medically important Candida spp. require biotin for growth and some have additional vitamin requirements, only C. krusei can grow in vitamin-free media. However, of the medically important Candida spp., C. krusei is perhaps the only species which grows on Sabouraud's dextrose agar as spreading colonies with a matte or a rough whitish yellow surface, in contrast to the convex colonies of other Candida spp. This characteristic, together with its "long grain rice" appearance on microscopy, helps the definitive identification of the species. A complex variety of fatty acids has been demonstrated as metabolites when C. krusei is grown in culture media containing lactose, it is also able to produce a number of short-chain carboxylic acids when cultured in saliva supplemented with glucose; these include acetate, pyruvate, succinate, propionate, formate and lactate. The biological role of these, if any, is as yet unknown. ...
Cryptococcosis Cryptococcus neoformans Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium species Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) usually ...
Toxoplasmosis is becoming a global health hazard as it infects 30-50% of the world human population. Clinically, the life-long presence of the parasite in tissues of a majority of infected individuals is usually considered asymptomatic. However, a number of studies show that this 'asymptomatic infection' may also lead to development of other human pathologies. ... The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with various disease burden. Statistical associations does not necessarily mean causality. The precautionary principle suggests however that possible role of toxoplasmosis as a triggering factor responsible for development of several clinical entities deserves much more attention and financial support both in everyday medical practice and future clinical research ...
Candida yeasts are generally present in healthy humans, frequently part of the human body's normal oral and intestinal flora, and particularly on the skin; however, their growth is normally limited by the human immune system and by competition of other microorganisms, such as bacteria occupying the same locations in the human body.[41] Candida requires moisture for growth, notably on the skin.[42] For example, wearing wet swimwear for long periods of time is believed to be a risk factor.[43] Candida can also cause diaper rashes in babies.[35] In extreme cases, superficial infections of the skin or mucous membranes may enter the bloodstream and cause systemic Candida infections. Factors that increase the risk of candidiasis include HIV/AIDS, mononucleosis, cancer treatments, steroids, stress, antibiotic usage, diabetes, and nutrient deficiency. Hormone replacement therapy and infertility treatments may also be predisposing factors.[44] Use of inhaled corticosteroids increases risk of candidiasis ...
Rapid in office testing can be done with scraping of the nail, skin, or scalp. Characteristic hyphae can be seen interspersed among the epithelial cells. Trichophyton tonsurans, the causative agent of tinea capitis (scalp infection) can be seen as solidly packed arthrospores within the broken hairshafts scraped from the plugged black dots of the scalp.. Fungal culture medium is used for positive identification of the species. Usually fungal growth is noted in 5 to 14 days. Microscopic morphology of the micro- and macroconidia is the most reliable identification character, but a good slide preparation is needed, and also needed is the stimulation of sporulation in some strains. Culture characteristics such as surface texture, topography and pigmentation are variable so they are the least reliable criteria for identification. Clinical information such as the appearance of the lesion, site, geographic location, travel history, animal contacts and race is also important, especially in identifying ...
Recent debate has centered on whether the Basidiobolaceae should be included in the Entomophthorales, or raised to ordinal status. Molecular systematics approaches so far give an ambiguous answer. Some analyses suggest the Basdiobolaceae are more closely related to certain chytrid fungi than to the Entomophthorales.[3] Others find weak support to maintain them in the Entomophthorales.[4] Morphological characters can be found to support either hypothesis. ...
Not every hospital in the USA is required to publicize details of infectious outbreaks which occur within their facilities. In 2014, details of a lethal mucormycosis outbreak[13] which occurred in 2008 emerged after television and newspaper reports responded to an article in a pediatric medical journal.[14] Contaminated hospital linen was found to be spreading the infection. A cluster of infections occurred in the wake of the 2011 Joplin tornado. As of July 19, a total of 18 suspected cases of cutaneous mucormycosis had been identified, of which 13 were confirmed. A confirmed case was defined as 1) necrotizing soft-tissue infection requiring antifungal treatment or surgical debridement in a person injured in the tornado, 2) with illness onset on or after May 22 and 3) positive fungal culture or histopathology and genetic sequencing consistent with a Mucormycete. No additional cases related to that outbreak have been reported since June 17. Ten patients required admission to an intensive-care ...
For patients who are unresponsive to fluconazole, options are limited. Several case reports have studied the efficacy of three newer antifungal agents in the treatment of disease that is refractory to first-line therapy: posaconazole and voriconazole (triazole compounds similar in structure to fluconazole) and caspofungin (glucan synthesis inhibitor of the echinocandin structural class). However, these drugs have not been FDA approved, and clinical trials are lacking. Susceptibility testing of Coccidioides species in one report revealed uniform susceptibility to most antifungal agents, including these newer drugs. In very severe cases, combination therapy with amphotericin B and an azole have been postulated, although no trials have been conducted. Caspofungin in combination with fluconazole has been cited as beneficial in a case report of a 31-year-old Asian patient with coccidioidal pneumonia. In a case report of a 23-year-old Black male with HIV and coccidioidal meningitis, combination ...
Infection with C. neoformans is termed cryptococcosis. Most infections with C. neoformans occur in the lungs. However, fungal ... If cryptococcal meningitis occurs, mortality rate is between 10-30%. Cryptococcosis that does not affect the central nervous ... "Efficient phagocytosis and laccase activity affect the outcome of HIV-associated cryptococcosis". The Journal of Clinical ...
In a later study of a long-nosed potoroo, the same symptoms were found and were likened to a fatal disease, cryptococcosis, ... "Cryptococcosis in Gilbert's and long-nosed potoroo". Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 38 (4): 567-73. doi:10.1638/2007- ...
CryptococcosisEdit. When Cryptococcus infection occurs in persons whose immune systems are intact, granulomatous inflammation ... cryptococcosis, coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis and cat scratch disease. Examples of non-infectious granulomatous diseases ...
Lay summary - Medical Xpress (August 30, 2014). CNS Cryptococcosis in HIV at eMedicine Tsuda, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Ishimi, Y. ( ... resulting in an AIDS-defining illness such as cryptococcosis, representing 60% to 70% of all AIDS-defining cases, but not ...
Cryptococcosis, in: Infectious disease clinics of North America. Vol. 16, nº 4; 837-874. 2001, with JN Steenbergen and HA ... Urease as a virulence factor in experimental cryptococcosis, in: Infection and Immunity. Vol. 68, nº 2; 443-448. 1999, with ...
Cryptococcosis, Trichosporonosis and Geotrichosis". JDDG: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft. 11 (5): 381-394 ...
"Urease as a Virulence Factor in Experimental Cryptococcosis". Infection and Immunity. 68 (2): 443-448. doi:10.1128/IAI.68.2.443 ...
In 1894 Busse was the first to provide a written account of cryptococcosis, caused by a yeast-like fungus now known as ... Hanns von Meyenburg NCBI One hundred years of cryptococcosis. Medical mycology in the 19th century in Greifswald ...
Examples of opportunistic mycoses include Candidiasis, Cryptococcosis and Aspergillosis.[citation needed] In ICD-10CM, mycoses ... B41 Paracoccidioidomycosis B42 Sporotrichosis B43 Chromomycosis and pheomycotic abscess B44 Aspergillosis B45 Cryptococcosis ...
These include aspergillosis, candidiasis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, mycetomas, and ...
It is now the third most common opportunistic infection (after extrapulmonary tuberculosis and cryptococcosis) in HIV-positive ... Cryptococcosis, Histoplasmosis, Coccidiodomycosis, and Talaromycosis". Current Infectious Disease Reports. 19 (10): 36. doi: ... Cryptococcosis, Histoplasmosis, Coccidiodomycosis, and Talaromycosis". Current Infectious Disease Reports. 19 (10): 36. doi: ...
Cryptococcosis, Histoplasmosis, Coccidiodomycosis, and Talaromycosis". Current Infectious Disease Reports. 19 (10): 36. doi: ... with fever and anaemia similar to disseminated cryptococcosis. This contrasted with related Penicillium species that are ...
This includes candidiasis, blastomycosis, coccidiodomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, dermatophytosis, and pityriasis ...
A similar appearance can be associated with histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and coccidioidomycosis. This begins as infection is ...
Barron MA, Madinger NE (November 18, 2008). "Opportunistic Fungal Infections, Part 3: Cryptococcosis, Histoplasmosis, ...
The National Institutes of Health is looking for cryptococcosis patients to join a study to explore susceptibility and new ...
Cryptococcosis is infection with the fungi Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. ... Cryptococcosis (Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, ... Robles WS, Ameen M. Cryptococcosis. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann WR, Berth-Jones J, Coulson IH, eds. Treatment of Skin Disease: ... Kauffman CA, Chen SC-A. Cryptococcosis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...
Wound or cutaneous cryptococcosis Pulmonary cryptococcosis Cryptococcal meningitis. Primary Cutaneous Cryptococcosis (PCC) is a ... Cryptococcosis can rarely occur in the non-immunosuppressed people, particularly with Cryptococcus gattii. Cryptococcosis is a ... Any person who is found to have cryptococcosis at a site outside of the central nervous system (e.g., pulmonary cryptococcosis ... are especially susceptible to disseminated cryptococcosis. Cryptococcosis is often fatal, even if treated. It is estimated that ...
Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by the Cryptococcus fungus. Symptoms and signs include fever, cough, skin lesions, ... Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by the Cryptococcus fungus. Cryptococcus is spread through inhalation of airborne fungi. ...
... by inhaling contaminated dust although a large number of patients with immunosuppression develop disseminated cryptococcosis. ... Cryptococcosis is a condition that is caused by infection with a fungus from the Cryptococcus family. There are over 30 types ... What is Cryptococcosis?. News-Medical, viewed 16 May 2021, https://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Cryptococcosis.aspx. ... What is Cryptococcosis?. News-Medical. 16 May 2021. ,https://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Cryptococcosis.aspx,. ...
... is an infectious disease caused by two species of fungus, the Cryptococcus gattii and the ... Transmission of Cryptococcosis can occur through inhalation of basidiospores and yeast cells. There is no national surveillance ... Approximately eighty-five percent of Cryptococcosis cases in the United States are people who have an HIV infection. The early ... Meningitis as a sequela can cause permanent neurological damage for individuals with Cryptococcosis. A little over ten percent ...
encoded search term (Cryptococcosis) and Cryptococcosis What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * ... Cryptococcosis. Updated: Sep 11, 2018 * Author: John W King, MD; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD more ... Pulmonary cryptococcosis can be treated with observation only, if the following criteria are met:. * CSF chemistry parameters ... Most cases of cryptococcosis involve serotypes A and D. Serotypes B and C, C gattii, are most common in tropical and ...
... Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2002 Dec;16(4):837-74, v-vi. doi: 10.1016/s0891-5520(02)00036-3. ... article collates and analyzes both new and old knowledge about the pathogen to help frame the meaning of human cryptococcosis ...
This is an example of cryptococcus skin lesions on the forehead. Cryptococcus is a yeast (type of fungus) that seldom causes infection and is considered opportunistic (affecting individuals with weakened
L. Kaufman and S. Blumer, "Cryptococcosis: the awakening giant," in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on the ... J. R. Perfect, "The triple threat of cryptococcosis: its the body site, the strain, and/or the host," mBio, vol. 3, no. 4, pp ... S. E. Kidd, F. Hagen, R. L. Tscharke et al., "A rare genotype of Cryptococcus gattii caused the cryptococcosis outbreak on ... C. B. Severo, M. O. Xavier, A. F. Gazzoni, and L. C. Severo, "Cryptococcosis in children," Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, vol ...
Cryptococcosis is the most common systemic fungal disease found in cats, and is most often seen along the Pacific coast of ... Cats with cutaneous cryptococcosis show single or multiple non-painful, non-itchy nodules on or right below their skin, and may ... Nasal cryptococcosis can lead to difficulty breathing, weight loss, loss of appetite, or problems with a cats ears and balance ... Feline cryptococcosis can often be diagnosed through an antigen detection test, known as a Latex Agglutination Test (LAT), on a ...
Evaluation and Follow-up of Patients With Cryptococcosis. *Cryptococcosis. Observational. *National Institute of Allergy and ... treatment of pulmonary cryptococcosis. 260. All. Child, Adult, Senior. NCT02503449. LYN-316. MCTOPCIC. December 2014. December ... Serological response (evaluated by approved diagnostic serological tests [cryptococcosis, coccidiomycosis, and histoplasmosis ... differences in clinical manifestations of pulmonary cryptococcosis. * ...
Cryptococcosis. Last Updated: November 6, 2013; Last Reviewed: November 6, 2013. Panels Recommendations for Cryptococcosis. ... Cryptococcosis. The information in the brief version is excerpted directly from the full-text guidelines. The brief version is ... IRIS related to cryptococcosis can present within weeks (such as meningitis) or months (such as lymphadenitis) after start of ... Most cases of cryptococcosis in HIV-infected patients are caused by Cryptococcus neoformans; Cryptococcus gattii (formerly ...
SERUM PROTEIN ENHANCEMENT OF ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY IN CRYPTOCOCCOSIS.. GORDON MA, LAPA E. ...
... of HIV-infected patients in developed countries acquired disseminated cryptococcosis (591Aberg JA, Powderly WG. Cryptococcosis ... Cryptococcosis. In: Dolin R, Masur H, Saag MS, eds. AIDS Therapy. New York, NY: Churcill Livingstone 2002:498-510.). Classic ... When cryptococcosis occurs in the HIV-infected patient, disseminated disease is common. Virtually any organ can be involved, ... Cryptococcosis. In: Dolin R, Masur H, Saag MS, eds. AIDS Therapy. New York, NY: Churcill Livingstone 2002:498-510. ...
Most cases of human cryptococcosis are caused by this variety. C. neoformans var. gattii has recently been isolated in nature ... Because exposure to C. neoformans is probably common and clinically apparent cases of cryptococcosis in healthy hosts are rare ... The ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans and the epidemiology of cryptococcosis are reviewed. Two varieties of C. neoformans have ... The ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans and the epidemiology of cryptococcosis.. Levitz SM1. ...
encoded search term (Imaging in CNS Cryptococcosis) and Imaging in CNS Cryptococcosis What to Read Next on Medscape. Related ... Imaging in CNS Cryptococcosis. Updated: Dec 18, 2015 * Author: Farhood Saremi, MD; Chief Editor: James G Smirniotopoulos, MD ... Several studies have shown that MRI is superior to CT in detecting abnormalities in patients with CNS cryptococcosis, [4] but ... AIDS-related CNS cryptococcosis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1992 Sep-Oct. 13(5):1477-86. [ ...
It was cryptococcosis. Poppy did not survive. I later learned that the disease is spread via pigeon droppings. What else can ... Ask Elizabeth: What is Cryptococcosis Suggested Articles Lung Ailments: A Widespread Source of Feline Woe ... In some studies, cats with cryptococcosis were more likely to be infected with feline leukemia virus or feline immunodeficiency ... However, underlying disease is usually not found in cats with cryptococcosis, so the reasons why some cats become infected with ...
Global Cryptococcosis Treatment Market Analysis According to Verified Market Research, the Global Cryptococcosis Treatment ... What is Cryptococcosis Treatment?. Cryptococcosis is a fungal disease. It is caused either by Cryptococcus neoformans or ... Global Cryptococcosis Treatment Market Analysis. According to Verified Market Research, the Global Cryptococcosis Treatment ... Global Cryptococcosis Treatment Market Competitive Landscape. The "Global Cryptococcosis Treatment Market" study report will ...
How can cryptococcosis be prevented?. There is no vaccine for cryptococcosis. Routine prophylaxis with fluconazole is generally ... Are you sure your patient has cryptococcosis? What are the typical findings for this disease?. Headache and fever are the most ... If you are able to confirm that the patient has cryptococcosis, what treatment should be initiated?. In addition to antifungal ... Disseminated cryptococcosis and severe pulmonary disease. Amphotericin B deoxycholate (1 mg/kg) combined with flucytosine 100 ...
Cryptococcosis is a yeast-like fungal infection. Symptoms include weight loss, lethargy, fight-like wounds on the nose and skin ... Keeping your cat away from areas with large volumes of pigeon droppings is one way to avoid cryptococcosis. ...
... clinicaltrials.gov This 5-year study will follow the course of disease in previously healthy patients with cryptococcosis who ... Treatment of cryptococcosis in non-HIV immunocompromised patients.. Cryptococcosis has become a common opportunistic infection ... Pulmonary cryptococcosis: A review of pathobiology and clinical aspects.. Pulmonary cryptococcosis is an important ... Cryptococcosis is a common invasive fungal infection (IFI) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Little is known about ...
European cryptococcosis, European blastomycosis, Busse Buschkes disease, Busse Buschke disease. Authoritative facts from ... Cryptococcosis, Torula, European Blastomycosis, Torulosis, Infection by Cryptococcus neoformans, ... What is cryptococcosis?. Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by inhaling the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, which is ... What are the causes and risk factors for cryptococcosis?. The most common cryptococcosis infections (C. neoformans var ...
phenotypic diversity to clinical presentation and outcome in human cryptococcosis. Methods.. Sixty-five C. neoformans. isolates ... Efficient phagocytosis and laccase activity affect the outcome of HIV-associated cryptococcosis. ... Efficient phagocytosis and laccase activity affect the outcome of HIV-associated cryptococcosis. ...
oa Cutaneous Cryptococcosis Mimicking Leishmaniasis * Alexandre Moretti de Lima1, Milena Marchini Rodrigues2, Carmelia Matos ... Disseminated cryptococcosis induced skin ulcers in a patient with autoimmune hepatitis. Case Rep Dermatol 20: 98-102.. [Google ... Cutaneous cryptococcosis in a diabetic renal transplant recipient. J Med Microbiol 53: 4459.. [Google Scholar] ... Cutaneous manifestations of disseminated cryptococcosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 32: 844-850.. [Google Scholar] ...
... cryptococcosis market is after expanding at a CAGR of 4.8% from 2016 to 2024. ... The global cryptococcosis market was calculated to reach US$4.31 bn by the end of 2016, and is projected to reach US$6.2 bn by ... One of the key factors driving the global cryptococcosis market is the increasing incidence of cryptococcosis infections across ... Middle East and Africa HIV Numbers Boost Demand for Cryptococcosis Treatment. The global cryptococcosis market is segmented ...
Pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients: HRCT characteristics. J Clin Imaging 2004;28:191-5. ... Figure 2 Microscopic examination of the lung tissue showing pulmonary cryptococcosis (arrow). HE, haematoxylin-eosin stain; GMS ... The high-resolution CT characteristics of pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients are multiple nodules and ... A transbronchial biopsy specimen provided a pathological diagnosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis (fig 2). There were no malignant ...
Pulmonary cryptococcosis after initiation of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy. Chest. 2003;124:2395-7. DOIPubMed ... The association between cryptococcosis and use of TFN-α antagonists can be explained by the immune response to C. neoformans, ... Invasive Cryptococcosis and Adalimumab Treatment. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):953-955. doi:10.3201/eid1306.070154. ... However, as in our case, some infections associated with adalimumab are severe and difficult to treat (3). Cryptococcosis has ...
Synthetic Peptides as an Alternative Tool for the Diagnosis of Cryptococcosis. By Rafael M.S. de S. Brandão, Liline M.S. ... www.intechopen.com/embed/fungal-pathogenicity/synthetic-peptides-as-an-alternative-tool-for-the-diagnosis-of-cryptococcosis /, ... www.intechopen.com/embed/fungal-pathogenicity/synthetic-peptides-as-an-alternative-tool-for-the-diagnosis-of-cryptococcosis /, ... Synthetic Peptides as an Alternative Tool for the Diagnosis of Cryptococcosis, Fungal Pathogenicity Sadia Sultan, IntechOpen, ...
  • Pulmonary cryptococcosis resolves without specific therapy in most immunocompetent patients. (medscape.com)
  • citation needed] In humans, C. neoformans causes three types of infections:[citation needed] Wound or cutaneous cryptococcosis Pulmonary cryptococcosis Cryptococcal meningitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulmonary cryptococcosis has a worldwide distribution and is commonly underdiagnoses due to limitations in diagnostic capabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, pulmonary cryptococcosis worsen the prognosis of cryptococcal meningitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with severe pulmonary disease or disseminated cryptococcosis should be treated with amphotericin B with or without the addition of flucytosine, as for CNS disease (AIII) . (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of the study:1.Improve the understanding of the risk factors of pulmonary cryptococcosis;2.Improve the awareness of pulmonary cryptococcosis clinical and imaging manifestations. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Pulmonary cryptococcosis: A review of pathobiology and clinical aspects. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Pulmonary cryptococcosis is an important opportunistic invasive mycosis in immunocompromised patients, but it is also increasingly seen in immunocompetent patients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A transbronchial biopsy specimen provided a pathological diagnosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis ( fig 2 ). (bmj.com)
  • Figure 2 Microscopic examination of the lung tissue showing pulmonary cryptococcosis (arrow). (bmj.com)
  • The high-resolution CT characteristics of pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients are multiple nodules and solitary nodules. (bmj.com)
  • Pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients: HRCT characteristics. (bmj.com)
  • Miliary pulmonary cryptococcosis in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (bmj.com)
  • The fluconazole, being a less toxic drug, is recommended for the management of pulmonary cryptococcosis. (omicsonline.org)
  • Disseminated cryptococcosis begins as an infection in the respiratory tract that spreads hematogenously from the primary pulmonary site to the skin, prostate, liver, kidneys, bone, and peritoneum. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Using a murine model of pulmonary cryptococcosis, we demonstrated that TNF-α-producing C. neoformans strain enhances protective elements of host response including preferential T-cell accumulation and improved Th1/Th2 cytokine balance, diminished pulmonary eosinophilia and alternative activation of lung macrophages at the adaptive phase of infection compared to wild type strain-infected mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • Disseminated cryptococcosis carries significant morbidity for transplant recipients, especially of the pulmonary and central nervous systems, and carries a high mortality risk. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pulmonary cryptococcosis caused by C. laurentii is rare, but should also be considered in certain contexts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Evaluation of host immune responses to pulmonary cryptococcosis using a temperature-sensitive C. neoformans calcineurin A mutant strain. (duke.edu)
  • Cryptococcosis is infection with the fungi Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by the Cryptococcus fungus. (medicinenet.com)
  • Cryptococcosis is a condition that is caused by infection with a fungus from the Cryptococcus family. (news-medical.net)
  • Approximately eighty-five percent of Cryptococcosis cases in the United States are people who have an HIV infection. (medic8.com)
  • Cryptococcosis represents a major life-threatening fungal infection in patients with severe HIV infection and may also complicate organ transplantation, reticuloendothelial malignancy, corticosteroid treatment, or sarcoidosis. (medscape.com)
  • The presentation in cryptococcosis varies with the site of infection and the patient's immune status. (medscape.com)
  • After lung and CNS infection, the next most commonly involved organs in disseminated cryptococcosis include the skin, the prostate, and the medullary cavity of bones. (medscape.com)
  • Systemic cryptococcosis occurs when the infection spreads through the bloodstream, and can involve changes to the eyes and bones, joint inflammation, and multi-organ system disease. (cornell.edu)
  • Cryptococcosis is a defining opportunistic infection for AIDS, and is the second-most-common AIDS-defining illness in Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary Cutaneous Cryptococcosis (PCC) is a distinct clinical diagnosis separate from the secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis that is spread from systematic infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the most common presentation of cryptococcosis is of C. neoformans infection in an immunocompromised person (such as persons living with AIDS), the C. gattii is being increasingly recognized as a pathogen in what is presumed to be immunocompetent hosts, especially in Canada and Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the diagnosis of CNS cryptococcosis is made on the basis of a series of microbiologic investigations, computed tomography (CT) scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are important diagnostic techniques in any patient with HIV infection or a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and neurologic dysfunction. (medscape.com)
  • [ 5 ] Normal MRI findings do not exclude CNS cryptococcosis, because the typical features of this infection occur in only 40% of patients. (medscape.com)
  • A number of reports of cryptococcosis (disease caused by infection with the Cryptococcus fungus) have been published since the early 1950's when the disease was first described in cats. (cornell.edu)
  • Cryptococcosis has become a common opportunistic infection among non-HIV immunocompromised hosts. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Multi-locus sequence typing as a tool to investigate environmental sources of infection for cryptococcosis in captive birds. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A systematic investigation into environmental sources of infection was conducted at an Australian zoological park after cryptococcosis, caused by Cryptococcus gattii VGI, was diagnosed in a red-tailed. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Cryptococcosis is a common invasive fungal infection (IFI) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by inhaling the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans , which is primarily found in soils enriched with pigeon droppings. (dermnetnz.org)
  • The most common cryptococcosis infections ( C. neoformans var neoformans ) affect people with immunodeficiency , for example, patients on high doses of corticosteroids , cancer chemotherapy patients, organ transplantation patients, and patients with acquired immune deficiency (AIDS) and HIV infection. (dermnetnz.org)
  • North America accounted for the leading share on the global cryptococcosis market for 2015, due to the rising prevalence of the infection in endemic areas of the U.S., coupled with a higher penetration of healthcare services across the country. (sbwire.com)
  • Among these, cryptococcosis (Busse Buschke's disease, European blastomycosis, Torulosis) is one of the major respiratory mycotic diseases, which has emerged as a leading cause of life threatening infection, especially in immunocompromised hosts [ 2 , 3 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus species. (bmj.com)
  • Cryptococcosis is a systemic, fungal, life-threatening infection caused by encapsulated yeast-like fungus - Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans), a compelling pathogen which can be found worldwide [1]. (termedia.pl)
  • Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by the fungus Cryptococcus gattii formerly known as Cryptococcus neoformans var gattii . (hawaii.gov)
  • miliary lung shadow, disseminated cryptococcosis, child INTRODUCTION Cryptococcosis is a life-threatening systemic fungal infection caused by capsulated yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans. (deepdyve.com)
  • Cellulitis is an unusual presentation of disseminated cryptococcosis, a serious infection seen predominantly in immunocompromised hosts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused specifically by the fungus cryptococcus neofromans, which is usually found in soil and bird droppings or less commonly, the fungus cryptococcus gatti, found in sub-tropical regions. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • We then review cases of cutaneous cryptococcosis and the clinical presentations and treatments of C. laurentii infection from the literature. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Impact of antiretroviral therapy on the relapse of cryptococcosis and survival of HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gandii. (lecturio.com)
  • Cryptococcosis is therefore known as an opportunistic infection. (lecturio.com)
  • Cryptococcosis remains a significant opportunistic infection in solid organ transplant recipients. (oup.com)
  • Cryptococcosis is infection with Cryptococcus neoformans fungus. (coordinatedhealth.com)
  • Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by fungi that belong to the genus Cryptococcus . (assignmentpoint.com)
  • Filobasidiella neoformans is a causative agent of cryptococcosis , also known as Busse-Buschke disease , a disease that ranges from asymptomatic infection of airways to severe meningitis. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • Once inhaled, infection with cryptococcosis may go away on its own, remain in the lungs only, or spread throughout the body. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • Infection from C. Neoformans is called cryptococcosis. (crittercontrolhamiltoncounty.com)
  • Disseminated cryptococcosis is considered to be the most severe form of infection caused by two fungal species - Cryptococcus neoformans and less commonly Cryptococcus gattii. (symptoma.com)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans , a ubiquitously distributed (found in soil and bird feces) fungal pathogen, and Cryptococcus gattii (an increasingly prevalent microorganism) are the two species that may cause an infection of virtually every organ termed cryptococcosis [1] [2]. (symptoma.com)
  • Because exposure to C. neoformans is probably common and clinically apparent cases of cryptococcosis in healthy hosts are rare, it is presumed that most people can mount adequate host defenses upon exposure to the organism. (nih.gov)
  • The Spanish registry of adverse events of biologic therapies in rheumatic diseases reported that 1,080 patients were treated with adalimumab from 2003 through 2006 and no cases of cryptococcosis were recorded ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • No cases of cryptococcosis have been detected in 10,050 treated patients in the US postmarketing database for adalimumab ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • No acid-fast staining was seen in cases of cryptococcosis or candidiasis. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Seventy cases of cryptococcosis were diagnosed in HU-FURG in seven years of study. (em-consulte.com)
  • Seventy cases of cryptococcosis were diagnosis from 2010 to 2016 in the UH-FURG in the seven years of the study. (em-consulte.com)
  • Of the 1,057 cases of cryptococcosis (1,013 patients), 827 (86%) involved patients with AIDS. (pasteur.fr)
  • Perfect JR. Cryptococcosis ( Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii ). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cryptococcosis is an infectious disease caused by two species of fungus, the Cryptococcus gattii and the Cryptococcus neoformans. (medic8.com)
  • Cryptococcosis, sometimes informally called crypto, is a potentially fatal fungal disease caused by a few species of Cryptococcus (most often Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans and the epidemiology of cryptococcosis. (nih.gov)
  • The ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans and the epidemiology of cryptococcosis are reviewed. (nih.gov)
  • We profiled a large set of clinical isolates for established cryptococcal virulence traits to evaluate the contribution of C. neoformans phenotypic diversity to clinical presentation and outcome in human cryptococcosis. (jci.org)
  • Cryptococcosis, an emerging highly infectious respiratory mycosis, is mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, which exist as saprobe in the environment. (omicsonline.org)
  • The recorded history of cryptococcosis goes back to year 1894 when Sanfelice recovered the yeast like fungus from peach juice in Italy, and he named it as Saccharomyces neoformans . (omicsonline.org)
  • Common pathogens responsible for cryptococcosis include Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gatti. (termedia.pl)
  • Cryptococcosis ( Cryptococcus neoformans - Cryptococcus gattii species complex) is caused by a dimorphic fungus that can grow as a mold in the environment and as a yeast at the higher temperatures within the tissues of infected hosts. (vetstream.com)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii (VNI) is the most common cause of cryptococcosis in dogs in the USA (except for the Pacific Northwest) and of dogs and cats overall in Australia. (vetstream.com)
  • Comparison of CLSI and EUCAST Antifungal Susceptibility Profile with Therapeutic Outcome in HIV-positive Cryptococcosis Patients Due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • The mortality rates were equal in both treatment groups with higher fatalities among patients with disseminated cryptococcosis Conclusions: This is the first study comparing the CLSI and EUCAST methods for C. neoformans var. (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • The most common causes of cryptococcosis in humans are Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gatti. (lecturio.com)
  • A vaccine capable of protecting at-risk persons against infections due to Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii could reduce the substantial global burden of human cryptococcosis. (umassmed.edu)
  • En busqueda del habitat de Cryptococcus neoformans var. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The global cryptococcosis market is segmented on the basis of treatment, primarily into Amphotericin B, Flucytosine and Fluconazole. (sbwire.com)
  • No data exist on which to base specific recommendations for children, but lifelong suppressive therapy with fluconazole after an episode of cryptococcosis is appropriate. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Treatment of experimental cryptococcosis with SCH 39304 and fluconazole. (asm.org)
  • The efficacy of two triazoles, SCH 39304 and fluconazole, in the treatment of disseminated cryptococcosis in Wistar rats was determined. (asm.org)
  • During 2-year follow-up, there were no differences of survival rates and occurrences of newly diagnosed cryptococcosis between patients with and without fluconazole for primary prophylaxis of cryptococcosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 2008. The impact of primary prophylaxis for cryptococcosis on fluconazole resistance in Candida species. (asmscience.org)
  • By Type, Cryptococcosis market has been segmented into Amphotericin B (Amphocin and Fungizone) Flucytosine (Ancobon) Fluconazole (Diflucan) Voriconazole By Application, Cryptococcosis has been segmented into: Hospital Pharmacies Retail Pharmacies Drug Store Mail Order Pharmacies Regions and Countries Level Analysis Regional analysis is another highly comprehensive part of the research and analysis study of the global Cryptococcosis market presented in the report. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • The changing epidemiology of cryptococcosis: an update from population-based active surveillance in 2 large metropolitan areas, 1992-2000," Clinical Infectious Diseases , vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 789-794, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • AIDS-associated cryptococcosis: a comparison of epidemiology, clinical features and outcome in the pre- and post-HAART eras. (hindawi.com)
  • What are the clinical features of cryptococcosis? (dermnetnz.org)
  • For this purpose, we analyzed 483 isolates and the corresponding clinical data from 234 patients enrolled during the CryptoA/D study or the nationwide survey on cryptococcosis in France. (asm.org)
  • For this purpose, we used clinical data and strains from patients diagnosed with cryptococcosis in France. (asm.org)
  • We aimed to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological profile of cryptococcosis in a reference service for HIV-AIDS patients in the South region of Brazil, over seven years. (em-consulte.com)
  • Neurocryptococcosis was the major clinical manifestation and cryptococcosis was the HIV- defining condition in 40% of patients. (em-consulte.com)
  • Finding the right clinical trial for Cryptococcosis can be challenging. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • Cryptococcosis in patients with hematological diseases: a 14-year retrospective clinical analysis in a Chinese tertiary hospital. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • However, the majority of HIV specialists recommend that antifungal prophylaxis not be used routinely to prevent cryptococcosis because of the relative infrequency of cryptococcal disease, lack of survival benefits associated with prophylaxis, possibility of drug interactions, potential antifungal drug resistance, and cost ( DIII ). (ucsf.edu)
  • Use of this new antifungal drug in the treatment of systemic candidiasis as well as cryptococcosis appears to be increasing. (annals.org)
  • Despite the availability of antifungal agents with anticryptococcal activity, the mortality and treatment-failure rates associated with cryptococcosis remain unacceptably high. (elsevier.com)
  • For complex and obstructive cases, laser ablation coupled with antifungal therapy can successfully manage laryngeal cryptococcosis in select patients. (pubfacts.com)
  • Despite aggressive antifungal therapies, outcomes of CNS cryptococcosis in people without HIV are characterized by substantial long-term neurological sequelae. (elsevier.com)
  • In Thailand, prior to the AIDS epidemic, Cryptococcus gattii was the most common cause of cryptococcosis and accounted for over half of all isolates that were recovered from human patients. (asmscience.org)
  • 2019. What is Cryptococcosis? . (news-medical.net)
  • According to Verified Market Research, the Global Cryptococcosis Treatment Market was valued at USD 4.2 Billion in 2018 and is projected to reach USD 6.6 Billion by 2026, growing at a CAGR of 4.4% from 2019 to 2026. (bccresearch.com)
  • Market Overview The global Cryptococcosis market size is expected to gain market growth in the forecast period of 2020 to 2025, with a CAGR of 3.4% in the forecast period of 2020 to 2025 and will expected to reach USD 64200 million by 2025, from USD 56060 million in 2019. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • Chapter 2, to profile the top manufacturers of Cryptococcosis, with price, sales, revenue and global market share of Cryptococcosis in 2018 and 2019. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • 2020. "Cutaneous cryptococcosis: an underlying immunosuppression? (termedia.pl)
  • Global Cryptococcosis Market 2020 by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Applicatio. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • For the period 2015-2020, this study provides the Cryptococcosis sales, revenue and market share for each player covered in this report. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • Chapter 4, the Cryptococcosis breakdown data are shown at the regional level, to show the sales, revenue and growth by regions, from 2015 to 2020. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • Call your provider if you develop symptoms of cryptococcosis, especially if you have a weakened immune system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The early stage of Cryptococcosis typically displays no symptoms. (medic8.com)
  • It's likely you won't notice any signs or symptoms after contracting cryptococcosis. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • This case suggests that cutaneous cryptococcosis in immunosuppressed patients warrants a low threshold for investigation for disseminated disease even in the absence of other symptoms or signs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fortunately, most people never experience symptoms of Cryptococcosis. (crittercontrolhamiltoncounty.com)
  • Virtually every organ can be affected, but the lungs, the central nervous system (CNS), and the skin are main sites where disseminated cryptococcosis exerts symptoms. (symptoma.com)
  • Declining number of patients with cryptococcosis in the Netherlands in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy," AIDS , vol. 14, no. 17, pp. 2787-2788, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • The prevalence of cryptococcosis has been increasing over the past 20 years for many reasons, including the increase in incidence of AIDS and the expanded use of immunosuppressive drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with defects in their cell-mediated immunity, for example, people with AIDS, are especially susceptible to disseminated cryptococcosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upwards of 5-10% of human AIDS patients develop cryptococcosis at some time during their illness because of suppression of their immune system. (cornell.edu)
  • With the global emergence of AIDS, cryptococcosis is now one of the most common life-threatening fungal infections in these patients. (dermnetnz.org)
  • The epidemiology of cryptococcosis has changed over the years because of the AIDS epidemic. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • In conclusion, the results of the present series showed that the incidence of cryptococcosis is on the rise in this part of India and this can be attributed to an increase in AIDS cases. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Cryptococcosis was the AIDS-defining illnesses in 40% of patients. (em-consulte.com)
  • The present study showed the importance of cryptococcosis as an AIDS-defining disease in HIV-AIDS patients in a tertiary hospital from Southern Brazil. (em-consulte.com)
  • MOLINA J, OKSENHENDLER E, DANIEL M, CLAUVEL J. Fine-Needle Aspiration and Cryptococcosis in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). (annals.org)
  • Coexistent Kaposi sarcoma, cryptococcosis, and Mycobacterium avium intracellulare in a solitary cutaneous nodule in a patient with AIDS: report of a case and literature review. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cryptococcosis is one of the leading causes of death in individuals living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • Recent studies highlight the high incidence of cryptococcosis among patients in certain resource-poor areas, where there is also a high incidence of AIDS. (elsevier.com)
  • Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) has greatly improved the prognosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients globally, opportunistic infections (OIs) are still common in Chinese AIDS patients, especially cryptococcosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The stability of its completeness (approximately 50%) and its representativity were assessed by the capture-recapture method after we cross-checked our data on cryptococcosis (as a presenting manifestation of AIDS) against those of the national registry of AIDS. (pasteur.fr)
  • The increasing number of cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related cryptococcosis over time paralleled the AIDS epidemic except for a higher male-to-female ratio. (pasteur.fr)
  • The occurrence of cryptococcosis is increasing over the years for various reasons, such as increase in prevalence of AIDS as well as extended use of immunosuppressive drugs. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • Rise in the prevalence of diseases such as AIDS will further amplify the demand for the cryptococcosis treatment. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • In fact, cryptococcosis is the leading cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related death from fungi [2]. (symptoma.com)
  • F. Dromer, S. Mathoulin, B. Dupont, and A. Laporte, "Epidemiology of cryptococcosis in France: a 9-year survey (1985-1993). (hindawi.com)
  • The changing epidemiology of cryptococcosis: an update from population-based active surveillance in 2 large metropolitan areas, 1992-2000. (ucsf.edu)
  • Epidemiology of cryptococcosis in France: a 9-year survey (1985-1993). (pasteur.fr)
  • Cryptococcosis or cryptococcal disease is a fungal disease, which in severe cases can be fatal. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • Cryptococcosis, or cryptococcal disease, is a potentially fatal fungal disease. (symcat.com)
  • Meningitis and meningoencephalitis, the most common manifestations of CNS cryptococcosis, are usually subacute or chronic in nature. (medscape.com)
  • The region is projected to continue to dominate the global cryptococcosis market till 2024, a fact attributed to the rising numbers of the HIV infected population in the region, a highly structured and advanced healthcare industry, and well-defined reimbursement policies from public as well as private health insurance firms. (sbwire.com)
  • North America could dominate the global cryptococcosis market with an exact 50.0% share by 2024. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Meningitis as a sequela can cause permanent neurological damage for individuals with Cryptococcosis. (medic8.com)
  • With possible CNS cryptococcosis, especially in patients who present with focal neurologic deficits or a history compatible with slowly progressive meningitis, consider obtaining a computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain prior to performing a lumbar puncture. (medscape.com)
  • What is a feature of the chronic meningitis in cryptococcosis? (brainscape.com)
  • The authors of the global cryptococcosis market report have pointed out cryptococcal meningitis and pneumocystis pneumonia as the top two fungal infections causing deaths worldwide. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Asymptomatic Meningitis and Lung Cavity in a Case of Cryptococcosis. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • Cryptococcosis (cryptococcal meningitis) is a topic covered in the Diagnosaurus . (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Zeiger, Roni F.. "Cryptococcosis (cryptococcal Meningitis). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The National Institutes of Health is looking for cryptococcosis patients to join a study to explore susceptibility and new treatments. (cdc.gov)
  • The influence of the bgJ and bg2J mutations on the susceptibility of mice to experimental cryptococcosis was studied in inbred mice of the C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ strains. (asm.org)
  • Susceptibility to cryptococcosis can be broadly categorised as a defect in adaptive immune responses, especially in T cell immunity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This article collates and analyzes both new and old knowledge about the pathogen to help frame the meaning of human cryptococcosis as it starts to evolve in the new millennium. (nih.gov)
  • Most cases of human cryptococcosis are caused by this variety. (nih.gov)
  • There are four forms of feline cryptococcosis - nasal, nervous system, cutaneous (skin), and systemic. (cornell.edu)
  • Feline cryptococcosis can often be diagnosed through an antigen detection test, known as a Latex Agglutination Test (LAT), on a cat's blood, urine, or cerebrospinal fluid. (cornell.edu)
  • prognosis for feline cryptococcosis overall is good. (vetstream.com)
  • Protection against Experimental Cryptococcosis following Vaccination w" by Charles A. Specht, Chrono K. Lee et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • By using key terms " Cryptococcosis among HIV patients in sub-saharan Africa countries", articles that published in different journals from 2010-2017 searched on Pub-Med and Google scholar database. (ajol.info)
  • 2017. https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/746339/all/cryptococcosis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • 2017. https://harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623285/all/CRYPTOCOCCOSIS. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Recent reports have shown the incidence of Cryptococcosis among HIV-negative immunocompromised patient. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The latest survey on Global Cryptococcosis Treatment Market is conducted covering various organizations of the industry from different geographies to come up with a 100+ page report. (bccresearch.com)
  • The "Global Cryptococcosis Treatment Market" is mainly bifurcated into sub-segments which can provide a classified data regarding latest trends in the market. (bccresearch.com)
  • The need for primary prophylaxis or suppressive therapy for other fungal infections (e.g., candidiasis, histoplasmosis, or coccidioidomycosis) should be considered when making decisions concerning primary prophylaxis for cryptococcosis. (ucsf.edu)
  • The need for prophylaxis or suppressive therapy for other fungal infections should be considered in making decisions about prophylaxis for cryptococcosis. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • What are the causes and risk factors for cryptococcosis? (dermnetnz.org)
  • Comparison and temporal trends of three groups with cryptococcosis: HIV-infected, solid organ transplant, and HIV-negative/non-transplant," PLoS One , vol. 7, Article ID e43582, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • Cryptococcosis can involve many different organ systems - thus, the term systemic - including the skin, the brain and spinal cord, the nasal passages and other parts of the respiratory system , the eyes, the bone marrow, the liver, and the kidneys . (cornell.edu)
  • Cryptococcosis mostly applies to those patients, in particular HIV-positive and solid organ transplant recipients [3]. (termedia.pl)
  • One of the key factors driving the global cryptococcosis market is the increasing incidence of cryptococcosis infections across the world. (sbwire.com)
  • A similar phenomenon is seen with other infections, such as leprosy, leishmaniasis, and fungal diseases including cryptococcosis and sporotrichosis. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • More importantly, an increasing frequency of both HIV drug resistance and new infections suggests that morbidity and mortality due to cryptococcosis could increase again in the near future. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Cryptococcosis includes a high proportion of proven or probable infections (21.5%) due to a mixture of genotypes, serotypes, and/or ploidies. (asm.org)
  • In terms of treatment, Flucytosine was the leading segment in the global cryptococcosis market in terms of revenue for 2015, driven by its large scale adoption in the U.S. (sbwire.com)
  • By treatment, the global cryptococcosis market has been foreseen to witness the flucytosine segment earn revenue at a higher CAGR of 5.4% during the forecast period. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Amphotericin B plus oral flucytosine, presently the golden yardstick for cryptococcosis treatment, has been projected to be in the vanguard of the demand in the global cryptococcosis market. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The study is a perfect mix of qualitative and quantitative information highlighting key market developments, challenges that industry and competition are facing along with gap analysis and new opportunities available and trend in the Cryptococcosis Treatment Market. (bccresearch.com)
  • If you are able to confirm that the patient has cryptococcosis, what treatment should be initiated? (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Treatment of cryptococcosis in non-HIV immunocompromised patients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This segment is also expected to continue dominating the market till 2024, owing to the growing contribution of long-term medication needed for successful cryptococcosis treatment. (sbwire.com)
  • Government efforts directed toward the development of pipeline drugs, availability of advanced treatment alternatives, and improvement in the distribution of existing drugs have been prophesied to propel the growth in the global cryptococcosis market. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • This article reviews current treatment strategies and the basis for these strategies, as well as prospects for future approaches to the treatment of cryptococcosis. (elsevier.com)
  • 0391_Drug development for cryptococcosis treatment: what can patents tell us? (fiocruz.br)
  • 25. Santos-Gandelman J, Rodrigues ML, Machado Silva A. Future perspectives for cryptococcosis treatment. (fiocruz.br)
  • The report on Cryptococcosis market provides detailed analysis of segments in the market based on Treatment, and Distribution Channel. (infiniumglobalresearch.com)
  • These factors are likely to propel the growth of the overall cryptococcosis treatment market in the near future. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • Therefore, the cryptococcosis treatment market will also show a considerable growth. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • The major factor working for the increase of the worldwide cryptococcosis treatment market is the rising count of people being contaminated by the disease. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • This will further aid the global market of cryptococcosis treatment to increase at a steady pace. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • 108 109 110 111 112 113 115 116 119 120 128 133 145 147 167 427 436 440 441 Should not be used alone for treatment of cryptococcosis. (drugs.com)
  • Cryptococcosis is a global invasive mycosis associated with significant morbidity and mortality. (guidelinecentral.com)
  • The Cryptococcosis: Management GUIDELINES Pocket Guide is based on the latest guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and was developed with their collaboration. (guidelinecentral.com)
  • A review of the English-language international medical literature was conducted using the terms ("larynx" or "laryngeal diseases") and ("Cryptococcus" or "cryptococcosis") to identify reported cases of laryngeal cryptococcosis. (pubfacts.com)
  • In man, cryptococcosis is characterized by predominant affection of the lungs, central nervous system, skin, and subcutaneous tissue, with subsequent metastases to the viscera. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In cattle, cryptococcosis produces alternate chills and fever, swelling and soreness in the udders, a sharp decrease in milk production, and, with metastasis to the lungs, pneumonia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cryptococcosis is believed to be acquired by inhalation of the infectious propagule from the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptococcosis is an infectious disease that is caused by pathogenic encapsulated yeasts that belong to the genus Cryptococcus. (lecturio.com)
  • People at risk can become infected after inhaling microscopic, airborne fungal spores.Cryptococcosis is believed to be acquired by inhalation of the infectious propagule from the environment. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • Occasionally, people with no apparent immune-system problems develop cryptococcosis, particularly with Cryptococcus var. (bmj.com)
  • Lethargy and anorexia are common in cats suffering from prolonged systemic cryptococcosis. (cornell.edu)
  • Fourteen cases of systemic cryptococcosis were admitted to Siriraj Hospital during 1987 to 1989. (bvsalud.org)
  • We report invasive cryptococcosis in a patient receiving adalimumab. (cdc.gov)
  • Those freely accessible and included the prevalence of Cryptococcosis in the result section, their PDF file was downloaded and the result extracted manually and presented in table. (ajol.info)
  • Articles that did not report the prevalence of Cryptococcosis , with a study design otherthan cross sectional, or a sample size less than 100, and those duplicated in the same study area and period by the same authors were excluded. (ajol.info)
  • According to CDC, in 2009, there were an estimated 720,000 cases of HIV related cryptococcosis in the Sub-Saharan Africa, which is about three times the prevalence of the disease in all other parts of the world, combined. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • We analyzed the data collected during a nationwide survey of cryptococcosis (1985-1993). (pasteur.fr)
  • Disseminated cryptococcosis (DC), however, is a systemic and most severe form of disorder caused by these fungi, primarily because mortality rates rise rapidly in the absence of early recognition and proper therapy [1] [2]. (symptoma.com)
  • Little is known about cryptococcosis in lung transplant (LTx) recipients despite having one of th. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It is being increasingly recognized that rapid reversal of immunosuppression in transplant recipients treated for cryptococcosis incurs the risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, which resembles worsening disease or relapse. (oup.com)
  • This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding cryptococcosis in transplant recipients and highlights areas. (oup.com)
  • This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding cryptococcosis in transplant recipients and highlights areas where future investigations are needed to further optimize outcomes for these patients. (oup.com)