Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella bacillispora.
Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.
Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.
An acute, diffuse, and suppurative inflammation of loose connective tissue, particularly the deep subcutaneous tissues, and sometimes muscle, which is most commonly seen as a result of infection of a wound, ulcer, or other skin lesions.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long, often branched chains of repeating monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic bonds, which serve as energy storage molecules (e.g., glycogen), structural components (e.g., cellulose), and molecular recognition sites in various biological systems.
A peripheral vasodilator that was formerly used in the management of peripheral and cerebral vascular disorders. It is hepatotoxic and fatalities have occurred. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1312)
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
Mycoses are a group of diseases caused by fungal pathogens that can infect various tissues and organs, potentially leading to localized or systemic symptoms, depending on the immune status of the host.
Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.
Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
Any type of abortion, induced or spontaneous, that is associated with infection of the UTERUS and its appendages. It is characterized by FEVER, uterine tenderness, and foul discharge.
Triazoles are a class of antifungal drugs that contain a triazole ring in their chemical structure and work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell membranes, thereby disrupting the integrity and function of the membrane.
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)

In-vivo therapeutic efficacy in experimental murine mycoses of a new formulation of deoxycholate-amphotericin B obtained by mild heating. (1/1120)

Heat-induced 'superaggregation' of deoxycholate-amphotericin B (AmB-DOC, Fungizone) was shown previously to reduce the in-vitro toxicity of this antifungal agent. We compared AmB-DOC with the formulation obtained by heating the commercial form (Fungizone, Bristol Myers Squibb, Paris, France) for 20 min at 70 degrees C, in the treatment of murine infections. An improvement of antifungal activity was obtained with heated AmB-DOC formulations due to a lower toxicity which allowed the administration of higher drug doses than those achievable with the commercial preparation. Single intravenous injections of heated AmB-DOC solutions were demonstrated to be two-fold less toxic than unheated ones to healthy mice. For mice infected with Candida albicans, the maximum tolerated dose was higher with heated than with unheated AmB-DOC solutions. In the model of murine candidiasis, following a single dose of heated AmB-DOC 0.5 mg/kg, 85% of mice survived for 3 weeks, whereas at this dose the immediate toxicity of the standard formulation in infected mice restricted the therapeutic efficacy to 25% survival. Both formulations were equally effective in increasing the survival time for murine cryptococcal pneumonia and meningoencephalitis. Injection of heated AmB-DOC solutions at a dose two-fold higher than the maximal tolerated dose observed with the unheated preparation (1.2 mg/kg) increased the survival time by a factor of 1.4 in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. These results indicate that mild heat treatment of AmB-DOC solutions could provide a simple and economical method to improve the therapeutic index of this antifungal agent by reducing its toxicity on mammalian cells.  (+info)

A comparison of itraconazole versus fluconazole as maintenance therapy for AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. (2/1120)

This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of fluconazole vs. itraconazole as maintenance therapy for AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. HIV-infected patients who had been successfully treated (achieved negative culture of CSF) for a first episode of cryptococcal meningitis were randomized to receive fluconazole or itraconazole, both at 200 mg/d, for 12 months. The study was stopped prematurely on the recommendation of an independent Data Safety and Monitoring Board. At the time, 13 (23%) of 57 itraconazole recipients had experienced culture-positive relapse, compared with 2 relapses (4%) noted among 51 fluconazole recipients (P = .006). The factor best associated with relapse was the patient having not received flucytosine during the initial 2 weeks of primary treatment for cryptococcal disease (relative risk = 5.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-27.14; P = .04). Fluconazole remains the treatment of choice for maintenance therapy for AIDS-associated cryptococcal disease. Flucytosine may contribute to the prevention of relapse if used during the first 2 weeks of primary therapy.  (+info)

Cryptococcosis in children with AIDS. (3/1120)

We compiled the clinical and immunologic features of Cryptococcus neoformans infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children from 1985 to 1996 in a retrospective case series. Thirty cases of cryptococcosis were identified. These children had a median age of 9.8 years, a median CD4+ cell count of 54/microL at the time of diagnosis, and either a culture positive for C. neoformans or cryptococcal antigen in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Sixty-three percent of the cases occurred in children vertically infected with HIV and in children between 6 and 12 years of age. The clinical and laboratory characteristics of this pediatric cohort were similar to those of adults with AIDS and cryptococcosis. On the basis of a subset of the cases, a 10-year point prevalence of cryptococcosis among children with AIDS of approximately 1% was estimated.  (+info)

Variants of a Cryptococcus neoformans strain elicit different inflammatory responses in mice. (4/1120)

The virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates with high and low extracellular proteolytic activity was investigated in mice. No consistent relationship between proteolytic activity and virulence was observed, but isolates derived from one strain were shown to elicit different inflammatory responses.  (+info)

Serotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from clinical and environmental sources in Spain. (5/1120)

We determined biovars and serotypes of 154 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from clinical and environmental sources from different areas of Spain. All clinical isolates belonged to C. neoformans var. neoformans. Serotypes showed an irregular distribution. C. neoformans var. gattii serotype B was isolated from necropsy specimens from goats with pulmonary disease.  (+info)

Heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) as a major target of the antibody response in patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. (6/1120)

Cryptococcus neoformans causes infection in individuals with defective T cell function, such as AIDS, as well as without underlying disease. It has been suggested that humoral as well as cellular immunity might play an important role in the immune response to C. neoformans infection. We have recently shown, using immunoblotting, that the 70-kD hsp family of C. neoformans was the major target molecule of the humoral response in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis. In this study we also used immunoblotting to define the antibody responses in the sera of 24 patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis: 21 proven and three suspected diagnoses. Anti-C. neoformans hsp70 antibody was detected in 16 of 24 (66.7%) patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. Fourteen of 17 (82.3%) patients with high antigen titres (> or = 1:8) and two of seven (28.6%) patients with low titres (< or = 1:4) had detectable levels of anti-hsp70 antibody. Sera from patients positive for anti-hsp70 antibody showed high titres in the Eiken latex agglutination test for the detection of serum cryptococcal antigen. Our results indicate that the 70-kD hsp family from C. neoformans appears to be a major target molecule of the humoral response, not only in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis, but also in human patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis.  (+info)

Role of the C-C chemokine, TCA3, in the protective anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune response. (7/1120)

Activated T lymphocytes play a crucial role in orchestrating cellular infiltration during a cell-mediated immune (CMI) reaction. TCA3, a C-C chemokine, is produced by Ag-activated T cells and is chemotactic for neutrophils and macrophages, two cell types in a murine CMI reaction. Using a gelatin sponge model for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), we show that TCA3 is a component of the expression phase of an anticryptococcal CMI response in mice. TCA3 mRNA levels are augmented in anticryptococcal DTH reactions at the same time peak influxes of neutrophils and lymphocytes are observed. Neutralization of TCA3 in immunized mice results in reduced numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes at DTH reaction sites. However, when rTCA3 is injected into sponges in naive mice, only neutrophils are attracted into the sponges, indicating TCA3 is chemotactic for neutrophils, but not lymphocytes. We show that TCA3 is indirectly attracting lymphocytes into DTH-reactive sponges by affecting at least one other chemokine that is chemotactic for lymphocytes. Of the two lymphocyte-attracting chemokines assessed, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), only MIP-1alpha was reduced when TCA3 was neutralized, indicating that TCA3 affects the levels of MIP-1alpha, which attracts lymphocytes into the sponges. TCA3 also plays a role in protection against Cryptococcus neoformans in the lungs and brains of infected mice, as evidenced by the fact that neutralization of TCA3 results in increased C. neoformans CFU in those two organs.  (+info)

Antibody response to Cryptococcus neoformans proteins in rodents and humans. (8/1120)

The prevalence and specificity of serum antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans proteins was studied in mice and rats with experimental infection, in individuals with or without a history of potential laboratory exposure to C. neoformans, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals who developed cryptococcosis, in matched samples from HIV-positive individuals who did not develop cryptococcosis, and in HIV-negative individuals. Rodents had little or no serum antibody reactive with C. neoformans proteins prior to infection. The intensity and specificity of the rodent antibody response were dependent on the species, the mouse strain, and the viability of the inoculum. All humans had serum antibodies reactive with C. neoformans proteins regardless of the potential exposure, the HIV infection status, or the subsequent development of cryptococcosis. Our results indicate (i) a high prevalence of antibodies reactive with C. neoformans proteins in the sera of rodents after cryptococcal infection and in humans with or without HIV infection; (ii) qualitative and quantitative differences in the antibody profiles of HIV-positive individuals; and (iii) similarities and differences between humans, mice, and rats with respect to the specificity of the antibodies reactive with C. neoformans proteins. The results are consistent with the view that C. neoformans infections are common in human populations, and the results have implications for the development of vaccination strategies against cryptococcosis.  (+info)

Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by the yeast-like fungus Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii. It can affect people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, organ transplants, or long-term steroid use. The infection typically starts in the lungs and can spread to other parts of the body, including the brain (meningitis), causing various symptoms like cough, fever, chest pain, headache, confusion, and vision problems. Treatment usually involves antifungal medications, and the prognosis depends on the patient's immune status and the severity of the infection.

'Cryptococcus neoformans' is a species of encapsulated, budding yeast that is an important cause of fungal infections in humans and animals. The capsule surrounding the cell wall is composed of polysaccharides and is a key virulence factor, allowing the organism to evade host immune responses. C. neoformans is found worldwide in soil, particularly in association with bird droppings, and can be inhaled, leading to pulmonary infection. In people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, hematological malignancies, or organ transplants, C. neoformans can disseminate from the lungs to other sites, most commonly the central nervous system (CNS), causing meningitis. The infection can also affect other organs, including the skin, bones, and eyes.

The diagnosis of cryptococcosis typically involves microscopic examination and culture of clinical specimens, such as sputum, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), followed by biochemical and molecular identification of the organism. Treatment usually consists of a combination of antifungal medications, such as amphotericin B and fluconazole, along with management of any underlying immunodeficiency. The prognosis of cryptococcosis depends on various factors, including the patient's immune status, the extent and severity of infection, and the timeliness and adequacy of treatment.

'Cryptococcus' is a genus of encapsulated, budding yeast that are found in the environment, particularly in soil and bird droppings. The most common species that causes infection in humans is Cryptococcus neoformans, followed by Cryptococcus gattii.

Infection with Cryptococcus can occur when a person inhales the microscopic yeast cells, which can then lead to lung infections (pneumonia) or disseminated disease, particularly in people with weakened immune systems. The most common form of disseminated cryptococcal infection is meningitis, an inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

Cryptococcal infections can be serious and even life-threatening, especially in individuals with HIV/AIDS or other conditions that weaken the immune system. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, such as amphotericin B and fluconazole.

Fungal lung diseases, also known as fungal pneumonia or mycoses, refer to a group of respiratory disorders caused by the infection of fungi in the lungs. These fungi are commonly found in the environment, such as soil, decaying organic matter, and contaminated materials. People can develop lung diseases from fungi after inhaling spores or particles that contain fungi.

There are several types of fungal lung diseases, including:

1. Aspergillosis: This is caused by the Aspergillus fungus and can affect people with weakened immune systems. It can cause allergic reactions, lung infections, or invasive aspergillosis, which can spread to other organs.
2. Cryptococcosis: This is caused by the Cryptococcus fungus and is usually found in soil contaminated with bird droppings. It can cause pneumonia, meningitis, or skin lesions.
3. Histoplasmosis: This is caused by the Histoplasma capsulatum fungus and is commonly found in the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys. It can cause flu-like symptoms, lung infections, or disseminated histoplasmosis, which can spread to other organs.
4. Blastomycosis: This is caused by the Blastomyces dermatitidis fungus and is commonly found in the southeastern and south-central United States. It can cause pneumonia, skin lesions, or disseminated blastomycosis, which can spread to other organs.
5. Coccidioidomycosis: This is caused by the Coccidioides immitis fungus and is commonly found in the southwestern United States. It can cause flu-like symptoms, lung infections, or disseminated coccidioidomycosis, which can spread to other organs.

Fungal lung diseases can range from mild to severe, depending on the type of fungus and the person's immune system. Treatment may include antifungal medications, surgery, or supportive care. Prevention measures include avoiding exposure to contaminated soil or dust, wearing protective masks in high-risk areas, and promptly seeking medical attention if symptoms develop.

'Cryptococcus gattii' is a species of encapsulated, yeast-like fungi belonging to the family Tremellaceae. It is an environmental pathogen that can cause pulmonary and central nervous system infections in humans and animals. The organism is typically found in soil and on trees in tropical and subtropical regions, but it has also been identified in temperate climates. Infection usually occurs through inhalation of the spores or desiccated yeast cells.

The disease caused by 'Cryptococcus gattii' is called cryptococcosis, which can manifest as a pulmonary infection (pneumonia) or a disseminated infection involving the central nervous system (meningitis). The symptoms of cryptococcosis may include cough, chest pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss, headache, stiff neck, confusion, and altered mental status.

Risk factors for developing cryptococcosis caused by 'Cryptococcus gattii' include underlying lung disease, immunosuppression (such as HIV/AIDS), and exposure to the fungus in endemic areas. Diagnosis typically involves microscopic examination of clinical specimens (e.g., sputum, cerebrospinal fluid) and culture isolation of the organism, followed by confirmation using biochemical or molecular methods. Treatment usually consists of antifungal therapy with agents such as amphotericin B and fluconazole.

Cryptococcal meningitis is a specific type of meningitis, which is an inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known as the meninges. This condition is caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii.

In cryptococcal meningitis, the fungal cells enter the bloodstream and cross the blood-brain barrier, causing infection in the central nervous system. The immune system's response to the infection leads to inflammation of the meninges, resulting in symptoms such as headache, fever, neck stiffness, altered mental status, and sometimes seizures or focal neurological deficits.

Cryptococcal meningitis is a serious infection that can be life-threatening if left untreated. It primarily affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, organ transplant recipients, and individuals receiving immunosuppressive therapy for cancer or autoimmune diseases. Early diagnosis and appropriate antifungal treatment are crucial to improve outcomes in patients with cryptococcal meningitis.

Antifungal agents are a type of medication used to treat and prevent fungal infections. These agents work by targeting and disrupting the growth of fungi, which include yeasts, molds, and other types of fungi that can cause illness in humans.

There are several different classes of antifungal agents, including:

1. Azoles: These agents work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes. Examples of azole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole.
2. Echinocandins: These agents target the fungal cell wall, disrupting its synthesis and leading to fungal cell death. Examples of echinocandins include caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.
3. Polyenes: These agents bind to ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to fungal cell death. Examples of polyene antifungals include amphotericin B and nystatin.
4. Allylamines: These agents inhibit squalene epoxidase, a key enzyme in ergosterol synthesis. Examples of allylamine antifungals include terbinafine and naftifine.
5. Griseofulvin: This agent disrupts fungal cell division by binding to tubulin, a protein involved in fungal cell mitosis.

Antifungal agents can be administered topically, orally, or intravenously, depending on the severity and location of the infection. It is important to use antifungal agents only as directed by a healthcare professional, as misuse or overuse can lead to resistance and make treatment more difficult.

Fluconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat and prevent various fungal infections, such as candidiasis (yeast infections), cryptococcal meningitis, and other fungal infections that affect the mouth, throat, blood, lungs, genital area, and other parts of the body. It works by inhibiting the growth of fungi that cause these infections. Fluconazole is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and intravenous (IV) solutions, and is typically prescribed to be taken once daily.

The medical definition of Fluconazole can be found in pharmacological or medical dictionaries, which describe it as a triazole antifungal agent that inhibits fungal cytochrome P450-dependent synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of the fungal cell membrane. This results in increased permeability and leakage of cellular contents, ultimately leading to fungal death. Fluconazole has a broad spectrum of activity against various fungi, including Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, and others.

It is important to note that while Fluconazole is an effective antifungal medication, it may have side effects and interactions with other medications. Therefore, it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Fungal antigens are substances found on or produced by fungi that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. They can be proteins, polysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system. Fungal antigens can be used in diagnostic tests to identify fungal infections, and they can also be targets of immune responses during fungal infections. In some cases, fungal antigens may contribute to the pathogenesis of fungal diseases by inducing inflammatory or allergic reactions. Examples of fungal antigens include the cell wall components of Candida albicans and the extracellular polysaccharide galactomannan produced by Aspergillus fumigatus.

Amphotericin B is an antifungal medication used to treat serious and often life-threatening fungal infections. It works by binding to the ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to the loss of essential cell components and ultimately cell death.

The medical definition of Amphotericin B is:

A polyene antifungal agent derived from Streptomyces nodosus, with a broad spectrum of activity against various fungi, including Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and Histoplasma capsulatum. Amphotericin B is used to treat systemic fungal infections, such as histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, candidiasis, and aspergillosis, among others. It may be administered intravenously or topically, depending on the formulation and the site of infection.

Adverse effects associated with Amphotericin B include infusion-related reactions (such as fever, chills, and hypotension), nephrotoxicity, electrolyte imbalances, and anemia. These side effects are often dose-dependent and may be managed through careful monitoring and adjustment of the dosing regimen.

Fungal antibodies are a type of protein called immunoglobulins that are produced by the immune system in response to the presence of fungi in the body. These antibodies are specifically designed to recognize and bind to antigens on the surface of fungal cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

There are several types of fungal antibodies, including IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgE, each with a specific role in the immune response. For example, IgG antibodies are the most common type of antibody found in the blood and provide long-term immunity to fungi, while IgE antibodies are associated with allergic reactions to fungi.

Fungal antibodies can be measured in the blood or other bodily fluids to help diagnose fungal infections, monitor the effectiveness of treatment, or assess immune function in individuals who are at risk for fungal infections, such as those with weakened immune systems due to HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation.

Dermatomycoses are a group of fungal infections that affect the skin, hair, and nails. These infections are caused by various types of fungi, including dermatophytes, yeasts, and molds. Dermatophyte infections, also known as tinea, are the most common type of dermatomycoses and can affect different areas of the body, such as the scalp (tinea capitis), beard (tinea barbae), body (tinea corporis), feet (tinea pedis or athlete's foot), hands (tinea manuum), and nails (tinea unguium or onychomycosis). Yeast infections, such as those caused by Candida albicans, can lead to conditions like candidal intertrigo, vulvovaginitis, and balanitis. Mold infections are less common but can cause skin disorders like scalded skin syndrome and phaeohyphomycosis. Dermatomycoses are typically treated with topical or oral antifungal medications.

AIDS-related opportunistic infections (AROIs) are infections that occur more frequently or are more severe in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with advanced HIV infection or AIDS. These infections take advantage of a weakened immune system and can affect various organs and systems in the body.

Common examples of AROIs include:

1. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii
2. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection, caused by a type of bacteria called mycobacteria
3. Candidiasis, a fungal infection that can affect various parts of the body, including the mouth, esophagus, and genitals
4. Toxoplasmosis, caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii
5. Cryptococcosis, a fungal infection that affects the lungs and central nervous system
6. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, caused by a type of herpes virus
7. Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis
8. Cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic infection that affects the intestines
9. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a viral infection that affects the brain

Preventing and treating AROIs is an important part of managing HIV/AIDS, as they can cause significant illness and even death in people with weakened immune systems. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is used to treat HIV infection and prevent the progression of HIV to AIDS, which can help reduce the risk of opportunistic infections. In addition, medications to prevent specific opportunistic infections may be prescribed for people with advanced HIV or AIDS.

Flucytosine is an antifungal medication used to treat serious and life-threatening fungal infections, such as cryptococcal meningitis and candidiasis. It works by interfering with the production of DNA and RNA in the fungal cells, which inhibits their growth and reproduction.

The medical definition of Flucytosine is:

A synthetic fluorinated pyrimidine nucleoside analogue that is converted to fluorouracil after uptake into susceptible fungal cells. It is used as an antifungal agent in the treatment of serious systemic fungal infections, particularly those caused by Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans. Flucytosine has both fungistatic and fungicidal activity, depending on the concentration achieved at the site of infection and the susceptibility of the organism.

Flucytosine is available in oral form and is often used in combination with other antifungal agents to increase its effectiveness and prevent the development of resistance. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and bone marrow suppression. Regular monitoring of blood counts and liver function tests is necessary during treatment to detect any potential toxicity.

Immunocompetence is the condition of having a properly functioning immune system that can effectively respond to the presence of foreign substances, such as pathogens (like bacteria, viruses, and parasites) and other potentially harmful agents. It involves the ability of the immune system to recognize, attack, and eliminate these foreign substances while also maintaining tolerance to self-tissues and promoting tissue repair.

Immunocompetence is essential for overall health and wellbeing, as it helps protect the body from infections and diseases. Factors that can affect immunocompetence include age, genetics, stress, nutrition, sleep, and certain medical conditions or treatments (like chemotherapy or immunosuppressive drugs) that can weaken the immune system.

A transplant is a medical procedure where an organ or tissue is removed from one person (the donor) and placed into another person (the recipient) for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or failing organ or tissue with a healthy functioning one. The transplanted organ or tissue can come from a deceased donor, a living donor who is genetically related to the recipient, or a living donor who is not genetically related to the recipient.

Transplantation is an important medical intervention for many patients with end-stage organ failure or severe tissue damage, and it can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity. However, transplantation is a complex and risky procedure that requires careful matching of donor and recipient, rigorous evaluation and preparation of the recipient, and close monitoring and management of the transplanted organ or tissue to prevent rejection and other complications.

Cellulitis is a medical condition characterized by an infection and inflammation of the deeper layers of the skin (dermis and subcutaneous tissue) and surrounding soft tissues. It's typically caused by bacteria, most commonly group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus.

The affected area often becomes red, swollen, warm, and painful, and may be accompanied by systemic symptoms such as fever, chills, and fatigue. Cellulitis can spread rapidly and potentially become life-threatening if left untreated, so it's important to seek medical attention promptly if you suspect you have this condition. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, rest, elevation of the affected limb (if applicable), and pain management.

An immunocompromised host refers to an individual who has a weakened or impaired immune system, making them more susceptible to infections and decreased ability to fight off pathogens. This condition can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developed during one's lifetime).

Acquired immunocompromised states may result from various factors such as medical treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunosuppressive drugs), infections (e.g., HIV/AIDS), chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes, malnutrition, liver disease), or aging.

Immunocompromised hosts are at a higher risk for developing severe and life-threatening infections due to their reduced immune response. Therefore, they require special consideration when it comes to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases.

Meningoencephalitis is a medical term that refers to an inflammation of both the brain (encephalitis) and the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (meninges), known as the meninges. It is often caused by an infection, such as bacterial or viral infections, that spreads to the meninges and brain. In some cases, it can also be caused by other factors like autoimmune disorders or certain medications.

The symptoms of meningoencephalitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, seizures, and changes in mental status. If left untreated, this condition can lead to serious complications, such as brain damage, hearing loss, learning disabilities, or even death. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial infections or antiviral medications for viral infections, along with supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long chains of monosaccharide units (simple sugars) bonded together by glycosidic linkages. They can be classified based on the type of monosaccharides and the nature of the bonds that connect them.

Polysaccharides have various functions in living organisms. For example, starch and glycogen serve as energy storage molecules in plants and animals, respectively. Cellulose provides structural support in plants, while chitin is a key component of fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons.

Some polysaccharides also have important roles in the human body, such as being part of the extracellular matrix (e.g., hyaluronic acid) or acting as blood group antigens (e.g., ABO blood group substances).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but Suloctidil is not a medication that has been approved or marketed for medical use. It was an experimental drug candidate in the past, studied primarily in the 1980s and 1990s for its potential to treat peripheral arterial disease (PAD). However, the development of Suloctidil was discontinued, and it is not currently used in medical practice.

Suloctidil is a vasodilator, which means it works by relaxing and widening blood vessels, thereby improving blood flow. It also has some antiplatelet properties, which can help prevent the formation of blood clots. Despite its promising early results, further development of Suloctidil was halted due to concerns about its safety profile, particularly related to liver toxicity.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. It acts as a shock absorber for the central nervous system and provides nutrients to the brain while removing waste products. CSF is produced by specialized cells called ependymal cells in the choroid plexus of the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) inside the brain. From there, it circulates through the ventricular system and around the outside of the brain and spinal cord before being absorbed back into the bloodstream. CSF analysis is an important diagnostic tool for various neurological conditions, including infections, inflammation, and cancer.

Organ transplantation is a surgical procedure where an organ or tissue from one person (donor) is removed and placed into another person (recipient) whose organ or tissue is not functioning properly or has been damaged beyond repair. The goal of this complex procedure is to replace the non-functioning organ with a healthy one, thereby improving the recipient's quality of life and overall survival.

Organs that can be transplanted include the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, pancreas, and intestines. Tissues such as corneas, skin, heart valves, and bones can also be transplanted. The donor may be deceased or living, depending on the type of organ and the medical circumstances.

Organ transplantation is a significant and life-changing event for both the recipient and their families. It requires careful evaluation, matching, and coordination between the donor and recipient, as well as rigorous post-transplant care to ensure the success of the procedure and minimize the risk of rejection.

Parasitic lung diseases refer to conditions caused by infection of the lungs by parasites. These are small organisms that live on or in a host organism and derive their sustenance at the expense of the host. Parasitic lung diseases can be caused by various types of parasites, including helminths (worms) and protozoa.

Examples of parasitic lung diseases include:

1. Pulmonary echinococcosis (hydatid disease): This is a rare infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The larvae form cysts in various organs, including the lungs.
2. Paragonimiasis: This is a food-borne lung fluke infection caused by Paragonimus westermani and other species. Humans become infected by eating raw or undercooked crustaceans (such as crabs or crayfish) that contain the larval stage of the parasite.
3. Toxocariasis: This is a soil-transmitted helminth infection caused by the roundworm Toxocara canis or T. cati, which are found in the intestines of dogs and cats. Humans become infected through accidental ingestion of contaminated soil, undercooked meat, or through contact with an infected animal's feces. Although the primary site of infection is the small intestine, larval migration can lead to lung involvement in some cases.
4. Amebic lung disease: This is a rare complication of amebiasis, which is caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. The parasite usually infects the large intestine, but it can spread to other organs, including the lungs, through the bloodstream.
5. Cryptosporidiosis: This is a waterborne protozoan infection caused by Cryptosporidium parvum or C. hominis. Although the primary site of infection is the small intestine, immunocompromised individuals can develop disseminated disease, including pulmonary involvement.

Symptoms of parasitic lung diseases vary depending on the specific organism and the severity of infection but may include cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, fever, and sputum production. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and laboratory tests, such as stool or blood examinations for parasites or their antigens. Treatment depends on the specific organism but may include antiparasitic medications, supportive care, and management of complications.

HIV seronegativity is a term used to describe a person who has tested negative for HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) antibodies in their blood. This means that the individual does not show evidence of current or past infection with HIV, which can cause AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). However, it's important to note that there is a window period after initial infection during which a person may test negative for HIV antibodies, even though they are indeed infected. This window period typically lasts between 2-6 weeks but can extend up to 3 months in some cases. Therefore, if someone believes they have been exposed to HIV, they should consider getting tested again after this window period has passed.

Mycoses are a group of diseases caused by fungal infections. These infections can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, nails, hair, lungs, and internal organs. The severity of mycoses can range from superficial, mild infections to systemic, life-threatening conditions, depending on the type of fungus and the immune status of the infected individual. Some common types of mycoses include candidiasis, dermatophytosis, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, which can be topical or systemic, depending on the location and severity of the infection.

Infectious bone diseases are a category of medical conditions that result from an infection or inflammation caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. These infections can affect the bones directly or spread to the bones from nearby tissues. Some common infectious bone diseases include:

1. Osteomyelitis: This is a bone infection that can occur in any bone in the body, but it most commonly affects the long bones of the arms and legs, as well as the vertebrae in the spine. It is usually caused by bacterial infections, such as Staphylococcus aureus, but it can also be caused by fungal or viral infections.
2. Septic arthritis: This is an infection of the joints that can spread to the nearby bones. It is usually caused by bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae or Staphylococcus aureus.
3. Tuberculosis (TB): This is a bacterial infection that can affect any part of the body, including the bones and joints. When it affects the bones, it is called skeletal tuberculosis.
4. Brucellosis: This is a bacterial infection that can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected animals or contaminated food products. It can cause fever, fatigue, and joint pain, and can also affect the bones.
5. Coccidioidomycosis: This is a fungal infection that is common in the southwestern United States. It can cause respiratory symptoms, such as cough and shortness of breath, and can also spread to the bones and joints.
6. Echinococcosis: This is a parasitic infection that is caused by tapeworms. It can affect various organs in the body, including the bones and joints.

Infectious bone diseases can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and difficulty moving the affected limb. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or antifungal medications to eliminate the infection, as well as pain management and supportive care to help manage symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or drain abscesses.

Mycological typing techniques are methods used to identify and classify fungi at the species or strain level, based on their unique biological characteristics. These techniques are often used in clinical laboratories to help diagnose fungal infections and determine the most effective treatment approaches.

There are several different mycological typing techniques that may be used, depending on the specific type of fungus being identified and the resources available in the laboratory. Some common methods include:

1. Phenotypic methods: These methods involve observing and measuring the physical characteristics of fungi, such as their growth patterns, colonial morphology, and microscopic features. Examples include macroscopic and microscopic examination, as well as biochemical tests to identify specific metabolic properties.

2. Genotypic methods: These methods involve analyzing the DNA or RNA of fungi to identify unique genetic sequences that can be used to distinguish between different species or strains. Examples include PCR-based methods, such as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, as well as sequencing-based methods, such as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST).

3. Proteotypic methods: These methods involve analyzing the proteins expressed by fungi to identify unique protein profiles that can be used to distinguish between different species or strains. Examples include matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS).

Mycological typing techniques are important tools for understanding the epidemiology of fungal infections, tracking outbreaks, and developing effective treatment strategies. By accurately identifying the specific fungi causing an infection, healthcare providers can tailor their treatments to target the most vulnerable aspects of the pathogen, improving patient outcomes and reducing the risk of drug resistance.

Adrenal gland diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the function or structure of the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are small, triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney. They are responsible for producing several essential hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenaline (epinephrine).

There are various types of adrenal gland diseases, some of which include:

1. Adrenal Insufficiency: A condition where the adrenal glands do not produce enough hormones, particularly cortisol and aldosterone. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, low blood pressure, and skin hyperpigmentation.
2. Cushing's Syndrome: A condition characterized by an excess of cortisol in the body. It can be caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland or adrenal glands, or it can result from long-term use of steroid medications.
3. Adrenal Cancer: A rare type of cancer that affects the adrenal glands. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, weight loss, and high blood pressure.
4. Pheochromocytoma: A tumor that develops in the adrenal glands and causes an overproduction of adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). Symptoms may include high blood pressure, headaches, sweating, and anxiety.
5. Adrenal Hemorrhage: A condition where bleeding occurs in the adrenal glands, often as a result of severe trauma or infection. This can lead to adrenal insufficiency and other complications.
6. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: An inherited disorder that affects the production of cortisol and other hormones in the adrenal glands. Symptoms may include ambiguous genitalia, precocious puberty, and short stature.

Treatment for adrenal gland diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Aspergillosis is a medical condition that is caused by the infection of the Aspergillus fungi. This fungus is commonly found in decaying organic matter, such as leaf litter and compost piles, and can also be found in some indoor environments like air conditioning systems and old buildings with water damage.

There are several types of aspergillosis, including:

1. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA): This type of aspergillosis occurs when a person's immune system overreacts to the Aspergillus fungi, causing inflammation in the airways and lungs. ABPA is often seen in people with asthma or cystic fibrosis.
2. Invasive aspergillosis: This is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when the Aspergillus fungi invade the bloodstream and spread to other organs, such as the brain, heart, or kidneys. Invasive aspergillosis typically affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy or organ transplantation.
3. Aspergilloma: Also known as a "fungus ball," an aspergilloma is a growth of the Aspergillus fungi that forms in a preexisting lung cavity, such as one caused by previous lung disease or injury. While an aspergilloma itself is not typically harmful, it can cause symptoms like coughing up blood or chest pain if it grows too large or becomes infected.

Symptoms of aspergillosis can vary depending on the type and severity of the infection. Treatment may include antifungal medications, surgery to remove the fungal growth, or management of underlying conditions that increase the risk of infection.

A fungal vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity against fungal infections. It contains one or more fungal antigens, which are substances that can stimulate an immune response, along with adjuvants to enhance the immune response. The goal of fungal vaccines is to protect against invasive fungal diseases, especially in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy, organ transplantation, or HIV/AIDS treatment.

Fungal vaccines can work by inducing both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Humoral immunity involves the production of antibodies that recognize and neutralize fungal antigens, while cell-mediated immunity involves the activation of T cells to directly attack infected cells.

Currently, there are no licensed fungal vaccines available for human use, although several candidates are in various stages of development and clinical trials. Some examples include vaccines against Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Pneumocystis jirovecii.

Central nervous system (CNS) diseases refer to medical conditions that primarily affect the brain and spinal cord. The CNS is responsible for controlling various functions in the body, including movement, sensation, cognition, and behavior. Therefore, diseases of the CNS can have significant impacts on a person's quality of life and overall health.

There are many different types of CNS diseases, including:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites that infect the brain or spinal cord. Examples include meningitis, encephalitis, and polio.
2. Neurodegenerative diseases: These are characterized by progressive loss of nerve cells in the brain or spinal cord. Examples include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.
3. Structural diseases: These involve damage to the physical structure of the brain or spinal cord, such as from trauma, tumors, or stroke.
4. Functional diseases: These affect the function of the nervous system without obvious structural damage, such as multiple sclerosis and epilepsy.
5. Genetic disorders: Some CNS diseases are caused by genetic mutations, such as spinal muscular atrophy and Friedreich's ataxia.

Symptoms of CNS diseases can vary widely depending on the specific condition and the area of the brain or spinal cord that is affected. They may include muscle weakness, paralysis, seizures, loss of sensation, difficulty with coordination and balance, confusion, memory loss, changes in behavior or mood, and pain. Treatment for CNS diseases depends on the specific condition and may involve medications, surgery, rehabilitation therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Central nervous system (CNS) fungal infections refer to invasive fungal diseases that affect the brain and/or spinal cord. These types of infections are relatively uncommon but can be serious and potentially life-threatening, especially in individuals with weakened immune systems due to conditions such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation.

There are several types of fungi that can cause CNS infections, including:

1. Candida species: These are yeast-like fungi that can cause a range of infections, from superficial to systemic. When they invade the CNS, they can cause meningitis or brain abscesses.
2. Aspergillus species: These are mold-like fungi that can cause invasive aspergillosis, which can affect various organs, including the brain.
3. Cryptococcus neoformans: This is a yeast-like fungus that primarily affects people with weakened immune systems. It can cause meningitis or brain abscesses.
4. Coccidioides species: These are mold-like fungi that can cause coccidioidomycosis, also known as Valley Fever. While most infections are limited to the lungs, some people may develop disseminated disease, which can affect the CNS.
5. Histoplasma capsulatum: This is a mold-like fungus that causes histoplasmosis, which primarily affects the lungs but can disseminate and involve the CNS.

Symptoms of CNS fungal infections may include headache, fever, altered mental status, seizures, stiff neck, and focal neurologic deficits. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as MRI or CT), and laboratory tests (such as cerebrospinal fluid analysis or fungal cultures). Treatment usually involves long-term antifungal therapy, often with a combination of drugs, and may also include surgical intervention in some cases.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Meningitis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation of the meninges, which are the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. This inflammation can be caused by various infectious agents, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, or by non-infectious causes like autoimmune diseases, cancer, or certain medications.

The symptoms of meningitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and sensitivity to light. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures, coma, or even death if not treated promptly and effectively. Bacterial meningitis is usually more severe and requires immediate medical attention, while viral meningitis is often less severe and may resolve on its own without specific treatment.

It's important to note that meningitis can be a serious and life-threatening condition, so if you suspect that you or someone else has symptoms of meningitis, you should seek medical attention immediately.

Fungemia is the presence of fungi (fungal organisms) in the blood. It's a type of bloodstream infection, which can be serious and life-threatening, particularly for people with weakened immune systems. The fungi that cause fungemia often enter the bloodstream through medical devices like catheters or from a fungal infection somewhere else in the body.

Fungemia is often associated with conditions like candidemia (caused by Candida species) and aspergillemia (caused by Aspergillus species). Symptoms can vary widely but often include fever, chills, and other signs of infection. It's important to diagnose and treat fungemia promptly to prevent serious complications like sepsis.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Opportunistic infections (OIs) are infections that occur more frequently or are more severe in individuals with weakened immune systems, often due to a underlying condition such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation. These infections are caused by microorganisms that do not normally cause disease in people with healthy immune function, but can take advantage of an opportunity to infect and cause damage when the body's defense mechanisms are compromised. Examples of opportunistic infections include Pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis, candidiasis (thrush), and cytomegalovirus infection. Preventive measures, such as antimicrobial medications and vaccinations, play a crucial role in reducing the risk of opportunistic infections in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Septic abortion is a medical term used to describe a spontaneous abortion or miscarriage that is associated with infection. This occurs when the products of conception, such as the fetal tissue and placenta, are not completely expelled from the uterus, leading to an infection of the uterine lining and potentially the pelvic cavity.

The infection can cause fever, chills, severe abdominal pain, foul-smelling vaginal discharge, and heavy bleeding. If left untreated, septic abortion can lead to serious complications such as sepsis, infertility, and even death. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect a septic abortion. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection and possibly surgical intervention to remove any remaining products of conception.

Triazoles are a class of antifungal medications that have broad-spectrum activity against various fungi, including yeasts, molds, and dermatophytes. They work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell membranes, leading to increased permeability and disruption of fungal growth. Triazoles are commonly used in both systemic and topical formulations for the treatment of various fungal infections, such as candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, and dermatophytoses. Some examples of triazole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole.

Latex fixation tests are diagnostic procedures used to detect the presence of certain antigens or antibodies in a patient's sample, such as blood or serum. These tests use latex particles that are coated with specific antigens or antibodies that can bind to complementary antigens or antibodies present in the sample. When the sample is added to the latex reagent, if the specific antigen or antibody is present, they will bind to the latex particles, forming an agglutination reaction that can be seen as a visible clumping or agglutination of the latex particles.

Latex fixation tests are commonly used in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and genetic disorders. For example, a latex fixation test may be used to detect the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae antigens in a patient's sputum sample or to identify the presence of rheumatoid factor (RF) antibodies in a patient's blood sample. These tests are known for their simplicity, speed, and sensitivity, making them a valuable tool in clinical laboratories.

Any person who is found to have cryptococcosis at a site outside of the central nervous system (e.g., pulmonary cryptococcosis ... Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis (PCC) is a distinct clinical diagnosis separate from the secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis ... are especially susceptible to disseminated cryptococcosis. Cryptococcosis is often fatal, even if treated. It is estimated that ... Cryptococcosis was rare before the 1970s which saw an increase in at-risk groups such as people with organ transplant or on ...
Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungus that causes cryptococcosis, which can lead to pulmonary infection as well as nervous system ... Maziarz EK, Perfect JR (March 2016). "Cryptococcosis". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 30 (1): 179-206. doi: ... the etiologic agents of cryptococcosis". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine. 4 (7): a019760. doi:10.1101/cshperspect. ...
With F. C. Bocobo.) Cryptococcosis and blastomycosis. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 50: 1299-1314. 1950. The Laboratory of Medical ... Benham, Rhoda W. (September 1950). "Cryptococcosis and Blastomycosis". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 50 (10): ...
"What is Cryptococcus infection (cryptococcosis)?". Center for Disease Control and Prevention. April 28, 2010. Retrieved 8 March ... Some Cryptococcus species cause a disease called cryptococcosis. The genus was described by French mycologist Jean Paul ...
Boulware, David R. (2021-04-29). "Clinical & Translational Research in Cryptococcosis" (PDF). Mycoses Study Group Education & ...
Infection with C. neoformans is termed cryptococcosis. Most infections with C. neoformans occur in the lungs. However, fungal ... If cryptococcal meningitis occurs, mortality rate is between 10 and 30%. Cryptococcosis that does not affect the central ... "Efficient phagocytosis and laccase activity affect the outcome of HIV-associated cryptococcosis". The Journal of Clinical ...
In a later study of a long-nosed potoroo, the same symptoms were found and were likened to a fatal disease, cryptococcosis, ... "Cryptococcosis in Gilbert's and long-nosed potoroo". Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 38 (4): 567-73. doi:10.1638/2007- ...
Cryptococcosis, in: Infectious disease clinics of North America. Vol. 16, nº 4; 837-874. 2001, with JN Steenbergen and HA ... Urease as a virulence factor in experimental cryptococcosis, in: Infection and Immunity. Vol. 68, nº 2; 443-448. 1999, with ...
Cryptococcosis, Trichosporonosis and Geotrichosis". JDDG: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft. 11 (5): 381-394 ...
"Urease as a Virulence Factor in Experimental Cryptococcosis". Infection and Immunity. 68 (2): 443-448. doi:10.1128/IAI.68.2.443 ...
Examples of opportunistic mycoses include Candidiasis, Cryptococcosis and Aspergillosis.[citation needed] Most common mild ... Systemic fungal infections are more serious and include cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, pneumocystis pneumonia, aspergillosis ... Systemic fungal infections include histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis, mucormycosis, ... 1F22 Blastomycosis 1F23 Candidosis 1F24 Chromoblastomycosis 1F25 Coccidioidomycosis 1F26 Conidiobolomycosis 1F27 Cryptococcosis ...
In 1894 Busse was the first to provide a written account of cryptococcosis, caused by a yeast-like fungus now known as ... Hanns von Meyenburg NCBI One hundred years of cryptococcosis. Medical mycology in the 19th century in Greifswald ...
These include aspergillosis, candidiasis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, mycetomas, and ...
Cryptococcosis, Histoplasmosis, Coccidiodomycosis, and Talaromycosis". Current Infectious Disease Reports. 19 (10): 36. doi: ... after extrapulmonary tuberculosis and cryptococcosis) in HIV-positive individuals within the endemic area of Southeast Asia. ...
Cryptococcosis, Histoplasmosis, Coccidiodomycosis, and Talaromycosis". Current Infectious Disease Reports. 19 (10): 36. doi: ... with fever and anaemia similar to disseminated cryptococcosis. This contrasted with related Penicillium species that are ...
This includes candidiasis, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, dermatophytosis, and tinea ...
A similar appearance can be associated with histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and coccidioidomycosis. This begins as infection is ...
Barron MA, Madinger NE (November 18, 2008). "Opportunistic Fungal Infections, Part 3: Cryptococcosis, Histoplasmosis, ...
Barron MA, Madinger NE (November 18, 2008). "Opportunistic Fungal Infections, Part 3: Cryptococcosis, Histoplasmosis, ...
CNS Cryptococcosis in HIV at eMedicine Tsuda H, Matsumoto T, Ishimi Y (2011). "Biotin, niacin, and pantothenic acid assay using ... resulting in an AIDS-defining illness such as cryptococcosis, representing 60% to 70% of all AIDS-defining cases, but not ...
... and cryptococcosis. For certain infections it is given with flucytosine. It is typically given intravenously (injection into a ... and Abelcet for treatment of systemic murine cryptococcosis". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 42 (4): 899-902. doi: ...
Ecevit IZ, Clancy CJ, Schmalfuss IM, Nguyen MH (May 2006). "The poor prognosis of central nervous system cryptococcosis among ... Common infections associated with IRIS in these patients are cryptococcosis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and tuberculosis. ... Common infections associated with IRIS in these patients include cryptococcosis, human papillomavirus reactivation, herpes ... "Incidence and risk factors of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome complicating HIV-associated cryptococcosis in France ...
It is specifically used, together with amphotericin B, for serious Candida infections and cryptococcosis. It may be used by ...
Bennett researches pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and epidemiology of mycoses, particularly cryptococcosis and ... these patients are surprisingly difficult to treat compared to those with AIDS and cryptococcosis. A major cause of morbidity ... searching for genetic markers in the patients and their families that might have predisposed patients to cryptococcosis, ... and evaluating potential new treatments for cryptococcosis. Bennett's honors include master in the American College of ...
She studies the immune response to the mycosis Cryptococcosis and the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. She has explored ...
They have also been found to carry Cryptococcus neoformans, which can cause cryptococcosis in humans. House crows in Tanzania ...
Typical examples of sapronotic agents are fungal such as coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, ...
Cryptococcosis* is a fungal disease caused by Cryptococcus neoformans that affects both dogs and humans. It is a rare disease ...
Infections characterized by granulomas include tuberculosis, leprosy, histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, coccidioidomycosis, ...
Typical examples of sapronotic agents are fungal such as coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, ...
The National Institutes of Health is looking for cryptococcosis patients to join a study to explore susceptibility and new ...
Any person who is found to have cryptococcosis at a site outside of the central nervous system (e.g., pulmonary cryptococcosis ... Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis (PCC) is a distinct clinical diagnosis separate from the secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis ... are especially susceptible to disseminated cryptococcosis. Cryptococcosis is often fatal, even if treated. It is estimated that ... Cryptococcosis was rare before the 1970s which saw an increase in at-risk groups such as people with organ transplant or on ...
Cryptococcosis is infection with the fungi Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii. ... Cryptococcosis (Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, ... Kauffman CA, Chen SC-A. Cryptococcosis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Robles WS, Ameen M. Cryptococcosis. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann WR, Murrell DF, eds. Treatment of Skin Disease: Comprehensive ...
encoded search term (Cryptococcosis) and Cryptococcosis What to Read Next on Medscape ... Pulmonary cryptococcosis can be treated with observation only, if the following criteria are met:. * CSF chemistry parameters ... Most cases of cryptococcosis involve serotypes A and D. Serotypes B and C, C gattii, are most common in tropical and ... Cryptococcosis. Updated: May 11, 2021 * Author: Pradeep Kumar Mada, MD, MRCP(UK); Chief Editor: Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar ...
The Drug Repurposing Hub is one of the most comprehensive and up-to-date biologically annotated collections of FDA-approved compounds in the world. Researchers anywhere can explore more than 6,000 drugs in the hub and search for possible new uses for them to jump-start new drug discovery.. ...
CNS cryptococcosis, and (4) disseminated nonpulmonary non-CNS cryptococcosis. Although pulmonary cryptococcosis resolves ... encoded search term (Cryptococcosis) and Cryptococcosis What to Read Next on Medscape ... These include (1) pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompetent hosts, (2) pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunosuppressed hosts, (3 ... Cryptococcosis Treatment & Management. Updated: May 11, 2021 * Author: Pradeep Kumar Mada, MD, MRCP(UK); Chief Editor: ...
Downloading a figure as powerpoint requires a browser with javascript support. Enable javascript and try again For help please contact [email protected] ...
Pulmonary cryptococcosis after initiation of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy. Chest. 2003;124:2395-7. DOIPubMedGoogle ... The association between cryptococcosis and use of TFN-α antagonists can be explained by the immune response to C. neoformans, ... Invasive Cryptococcosis and Adalimumab Treatment. Volume 13, Number 6-June 2007. Article Views: 320. Data is collected weekly ... Invasive Cryptococcosis and Adalimumab Treatment. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(6):953-955. doi:10.3201/eid1306.070154. ...
"Cryptococcosis" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Akilimali NA, Muema DM, Specht C, Chang CC, Moosa MS, Levitz SM, Lewin SR, French MA, Ndungu T. Cryptococcosis-Associated ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Cryptococcosis" by people in this website by year, and whether ... Protection of Mice against Experimental Cryptococcosis by Synthesized Peptides Delivered in Glucan Particles. mBio. 2021 02 22 ...
"Instead, I suspect Teddy has a fungal disease called cryptococcosis.". How Susceptible Are Cats to Cryptococcosis?. ... Cryptococcosis in Cats. Its the most common systemic fungal disease of cats throughout the world, and its primary carrier is ... Cryptococcosis is the most common systemic fungal disease of domestic cats worldwide. It is caused by a fungus belonging to the ...
Cryptococcosis on the forehead. This is an example of Cryptococcus skin lesions on the forehead. Cryptococcus is a yeast (type ... Once inhaled, infection with cryptococcosis may go away on its own, remain in the lungs only, or spread throughout the body ( ...
Pleural effusion is an unusual manifestation of cryptococcosis. Cryptococcal infection must be considered in the case of ... only 4 cases of pleural effusion as the initial clinical presentation in cryptococcosis have been reported in English-language ... who was initially misdiagnosed with tuberculous pleuritis but who then developed fungaemia and disseminated cryptococcosis. The ... From: Pleural effusion as the initial clinical presentation in disseminated cryptococcosis and fungaemia: an unusual ...
Children with cryptococcosis presented for care mainly with headache (60.5%), vomiting (59.5%) and fever (43.2%). Twenty-four ( ... Conclusion: Paediatric cryptococcosis is a rare condition. HIV infection is an important predisposing condition to cryptococcal ... Method: Records of patients younger than 14 years of age who were diagnosed with cryptococcosis (as identified by review of the ... of the 38 HIV positive children with cryptococcosis were not sent home on fluconazole prophylaxis. Ten (20.8%) children died ...
Cryptococcosis was diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the liver mass. The serum cryptococcal antigen titer was ... To control the cryptococcosis, a laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed, followed by antifungal therapy. After the ... Adrenal cryptococcosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients with bilateral adrenal masses with ... Although the adrenal glands can be involved in disseminated cryptococcosis, primary adrenal insufficiency caused by the fungal ...
Cryptococcosis. This fungal infection enters the body through the lungs, leading to pneumonia. It can then spread to the brain ...
Cryptococcosis (cryptococcal meningitis) answers are found in the Diagnosaurus powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for ... Zeiger, Roni F.. "Cryptococcosis (cryptococcal Meningitis)." Diagnosaurus, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill Education, 2014. Medicine ... TY - ELEC T1 - Cryptococcosis (cryptococcal meningitis) ID - 114805 A1 - Zeiger,Roni F, Y1 - 2014/12/01/ BT - Diagnosaurus UR ... Cryptococcosis (cryptococcal Meningitis) [Internet]. In: Diagnosaurus. McGraw-Hill Education; 2014. [cited 2023 December 08]. ...
Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by fungi that belong to the genus Cryptococcus. The fungus (Cryptococcus neoformans) that ... Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by fungi that belong to the genus Cryptococcus. The fungus (Cryptococcus neoformans) that ... Once inhaled, infection with cryptococcosis may go away on its own, remain in the lungs only, or spread throughout the body. ...
Control guidelines and supporting information to help clinicians manage the risks associated with the spread of Cryptococcosis. ... Cryptococcosis is a disease caused by the yeast-like fungus, Cryptococcosis neoformans. The fungus is found frequently in the ... Naturally acquired cryptococcosis occurs in humans and in animals although there is no evidence of transmission from animals to ...
Cryptococcosis - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... Symptoms of Cryptococcosis Cryptococcosis usually causes mild and vague symptoms. Other symptoms vary depending on where the ... To diagnose cryptococcosis, a doctor takes samples of tissue and body fluids to be cultured and examined. A spinal tap Spinal ... However, cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus gattii can also develop in people with a normal immune system. It is also more ...
IMPACT/DISCUSSION: Pulmonary cryptococcosis is most often seen in immunocompromised patients, either as a primary infection or ... In HIV positive patients, the presentation of pulmonary cryptococcosis is more severe, with symptoms inversely proportional to ... CONCLUSION: Our patient highlights how pulmonary cryptococcosis presents in a patient with uncontrolled HIV. In this population ... Conditions that increase risk for pulmonary cryptococcosis include HIV infection, malignancies, chronic lung disease, and ...
We experienced a case of cryptococcosis in a 13-year-old female who had been admitted to our hospital because of intermittent ... Key Words: Cryptococcosis, Subcutaneous Nodular Eruption, Generalized Lymphadenopathy, Amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine ...
Cryptococcosis. Histoplasmosis. Coccidioidomycosis. Cytomegalovirus Disease. Herpes Simplex Virus Disease. Varicella-Zoster ... Cryptococcosis. Prevention of Exposure (1) Although HIV-infected persons cannot completely avoid exposure to Cryptococcus ... Doses of fluconazole ranging from 400 mg once a week to 200 mg daily are effective as prophylaxis against cryptococcosis; ... The need for prophylaxis or suppressive therapy for other fungal infections (e.g., cryptococcosis and candidiasis) should be ...
Pulmonary cryptococcosis occurred in two patients with Cushings syndrome, both of whom were successfully treated with ... Pulmonary Cryptococcosis and Cushings Syndrome. Martin Kramer, MD; Michael L. Corrado, MD; Vincenzo Bacci, MD; et al Anne C. ... Pulmonary cryptococcosis occurred in two patients with Cushings syndrome, both of whom were successfully treated with ... Pulmonary Cryptococcosis and Cushings Syndrome. Arch Intern Med. 1983;143(11):2179-2180. doi:10.1001/archinte. ...
New recommendations against a major opportunistic infection: cryptococcosis. Cryptococcosis ranks second among fatal ...
Haraga, J., LeBlanc, M., & Chiovaro, J. (2018). Not All Its CrAged Up to Be: Disseminated Cryptococcosis. American Journal of ... Haraga, J, LeBlanc, M & Chiovaro, J 2018, Not All Its CrAged Up to Be: Disseminated Cryptococcosis, American Journal of ... Not All Its CrAged Up to Be: Disseminated Cryptococcosis. / Haraga, Jessica; LeBlanc, Melissa; Chiovaro, Joseph. In: American ... Not All Its CrAged Up to Be: Disseminated Cryptococcosis. American Journal of Medicine. 2018 Dec;131(12):1452-1455. doi: ...
Ringworm in pets may often be asymptomatic, resulting in a carrier condition which infects other pets. In some cases, the disease only appears when the animal develops an immunodeficiency condition. Circular bare patches on the skin suggest the diagnosis, but no lesion is truly specific to the fungus. Similar patches may result from allergies, sarcoptic mange, and other conditions. Three species of fungi cause 95% of dermatophytosis in pets:[citation needed] these are Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Veterinarians have several tests to identify ringworm infection and identify the fungal species that cause it: Woods test: This is an ultraviolet light with a magnifying lens. Only 50% of M. canis will show up as an apple-green fluorescence on hair shafts, under the UV light. The other fungi do not show. The fluorescent material is not the fungus itself (which does not fluoresce), but rather an excretory product of the fungus which sticks to hairs. Infected ...
Cryptococcosis. 6837 Cushings syndrome. 7907 Cutaneous manifestations of collagen-vascular diseases not listed elsewhere. 7821 ...
Cryptococcosis. 04/2018. Cryptosporidiosis. 01/2019. Diphtheria. 02/2023. Ebola. 10/2022. ...
Dr. Amy Blanchard, MD is a critical care medicine specialist in Augusta, GA. Dr. Blanchard has extensive experience in Sleep Apnea. She is affiliated with Augusta University Medical Center. Her office accepts new patients and telehealth appointments.
  • Cryptococcosis is infection with the fungi Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Perfect JR. Cryptococcosis ( Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii ). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Vaccination with Recombinant Cryptococcus Proteins in Glucan Particles Protects Mice against Cryptococcosis in a Manner Dependent upon Mouse Strain and Cryptococcal Species. (umassmed.edu)
  • Cryptococcosis is infection with Cryptococcus neoformans fungus. (health32.com)
  • Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by fungi that belong to the genus Cryptococcus. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii . (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus gattii can also develop in people with a normal immune system. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Manifestaciones neuropsiquiátricas en pacientes con meningitis a cryptococcus. (psiquiatria.com)
  • Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis (PCC) is a distinct clinical diagnosis separate from the secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis that is spread from systematic infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis (PCC) is a clinical entity, differing from secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis and systematic infection. (medihelp.life)
  • These include (1) pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompetent hosts, (2) pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunosuppressed hosts, (3) CNS cryptococcosis, and (4) disseminated nonpulmonary non-CNS cryptococcosis. (medscape.com)
  • Cryptococcosis is a disease caused by the yeast-like fungus, Cryptococcosis neoformans . (qld.gov.au)
  • C. neoformans causes cryptococcosis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • C. neoformans causes cryptococcosis and is often found in bird manure accumulations. (cdc.gov)
  • Pulmonary cryptococcosis resolves without specific therapy in most immunocompetent patients. (medscape.com)
  • Although pulmonary cryptococcosis resolves without specific therapy in most immunocompetent patients, patients with infections who fall under the remaining 3 categories require antifungal therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Background: We evaluated the role played by surgery in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary cryptococcosis (PC) in immunocompetent subjects. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • Cryptococcosis is a potentially fatal fungal infection of mainly the lungs, presenting as a pneumonia, and brain, where it appears as a meningitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meningitis and meningoencephalitis, the most common manifestations of CNS cryptococcosis, are usually subacute or chronic in nature. (medscape.com)
  • With possible CNS cryptococcosis, especially in patients who present with focal neurologic deficits or a history compatible with slowly progressive meningitis, consider obtaining a computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain prior to performing a lumbar puncture. (medscape.com)
  • Patients who have AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis account for more than 80% of the patients with cryptococcosis. (medscape.com)
  • Zeiger, Roni F.. "Cryptococcosis (cryptococcal Meningitis). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Cryptococcosis is the most common potentially fatal fungal infection in people with AIDS. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Cryptococcosis is a common opportunistic infection for AIDS, and is particularly common among people living with AIDS in Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nineteen (39.6%) patients were started on anti-tuberculosis treatment during the course of their hospitalisation with cryptococcosis. (wits.ac.za)
  • Association of neurotropic viruses in HIV-infected individuals who died of secondary complications of tuberculosis, cryptococcosis, or toxoplasmosis in South India. (bvsalud.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Worldwide, cryptococcosis impacts around 1 million people each year and kills even more HIV/AIDS patients each year than tuberculosis. (careersfromscience.org)
  • Cryptococcosis represents a major life-threatening fungal infection in patients with severe HIV infection and may also complicate organ transplantation, reticuloendothelial malignancy, corticosteroid treatment, or sarcoidosis. (medscape.com)
  • Cryptococcosis has rarely been reported from Egypt although a number of factors would predict the country to be an area where the fungus would be common. (who.int)
  • Pulmonary cryptococcosis occurred in two patients with Cushing's syndrome, both of whom were successfully treated with amphotericin B and flucytosine. (jamanetwork.com)
  • The prevalence of cryptococcosis has been increasing over the past 50 years for many reasons, including the increase in incidence of AIDS and the expanded use of immunosuppressive drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once inhaled, infection with cryptococcosis may go away on its own, remain in the lungs only, or spread throughout the body (disseminate). (health32.com)
  • Thus, cryptococcosis typically affects the lungs. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Contact your provider if you develop symptoms of cryptococcosis, especially if you have a weakened immune system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cryptococcosis usually causes mild and vague symptoms. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In HIV positive patients, the presentation of pulmonary cryptococcosis is more severe, with symptoms inversely proportional to CD4 count. (henryford.com)
  • Formerly a rare infectious disease, the incidence of cryptococcosis has increased because of its frequent occurrence among HIV-infected persons. (cdc.gov)
  • A Case of Cryptococcosis with Cutaneous Manifestation. (e-cep.org)
  • The presentation in cryptococcosis varies with the site of infection and the patient's immune status. (medscape.com)
  • Cryptococcosis" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • Conditions that increase risk for pulmonary cryptococcosis include HIV infection, malignancies, chronic lung disease, and treatment with immunomodulating medications. (henryford.com)
  • The National Institutes of Health is looking for cryptococcosis patients to join a study to explore susceptibility and new treatments. (cdc.gov)
  • The Spanish registry of adverse events of biologic therapies in rheumatic diseases reported that 1,080 patients were treated with adalimumab from 2003 through 2006 and no cases of cryptococcosis were recorded ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • No cases of cryptococcosis have been detected in 10,050 treated patients in the US postmarketing database for adalimumab ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Method: Records of patients younger than 14 years of age who were diagnosed with cryptococcosis (as identified by review of the GERMS-SA surveillance) over the 10 year study period were reviewed using a structured data collection tool. (wits.ac.za)
  • IMPACT/DISCUSSION: Pulmonary cryptococcosis is most often seen in immunocompromised patients, either as a primary infection or reactivation of a latent infection. (henryford.com)
  • Serum cryptococcal antigen is an excellent screening test, as it is positive in virtually all HIV patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. (henryford.com)
  • After lung and CNS infection, the next most commonly involved organs in disseminated cryptococcosis include the skin, the prostate, and the medullary cavity of bones. (medscape.com)
  • How Susceptible Are Cats to Cryptococcosis? (tuftscatnip.com)
  • Cryptococcosis is the most common systemic fungal disease of domestic cats worldwide. (tuftscatnip.com)
  • To diagnose cryptococcosis, a doctor takes samples of tissue and body fluids to be cultured and examined. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Cryptococcosis has rarely been reported transfusions. (who.int)
  • Naturally acquired cryptococcosis occurs in humans and in animals although there is no evidence of transmission from animals to humans. (qld.gov.au)
  • Conclusion: Paediatric cryptococcosis is a rare condition. (wits.ac.za)
  • CONCLUSION: Our patient highlights how pulmonary cryptococcosis presents in a patient with uncontrolled HIV. (henryford.com)
  • Aim: To describe the demographics, management and outcomes of children admitted with laboratory-confirmed cryptococcosis at three Johannesburg hospitals from 2002-2011. (wits.ac.za)
  • Cryptococcosis was rare before the 1970s which saw an increase in at-risk groups such as people with organ transplant or on immunosuppressant medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, I suspect Teddy has a fungal disease called cryptococcosis. (tuftscatnip.com)
  • The precious metal regular therapy for cryptococcosis is certainly amphotericin B plus 5-flucytosine, but this program is not easily available in locations where assets are limited and where in fact the burden of disease is certainly highest. (careersfromscience.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Cryptococcosis" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cryptococcosis" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • We experienced a case of cryptococcosis in a 13-year-old female who had been admitted to our hospital because of intermittent high fever and generalized lymphadenopathy accompanied by multiple nodular eruptions with erosions on the face, scalp, neck and back. (e-cep.org)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Cryptococcosis" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
  • Recently, has surfaced as the etiologic agent of a continuing outbreak of cryptococcosis in immune-competent people in the Pacific Northwest area of THE UNITED STATES (3). (careersfromscience.org)
  • We report invasive cryptococcosis in a patient receiving adalimumab. (cdc.gov)
  • As there was no previous history of pulmonary cryptococcosis, we diagnosed PPC. (medihelp.life)