Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reactivation by light of UV-irradiated DNA. It breaks two carbon-carbon bonds in PYRIMIDINE DIMERS in DNA.
Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.
The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.
A plant photo regulatory protein that exists in two forms that are reversibly interconvertible by LIGHT. In response to light it moves to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates transcription of target genes. Phytochrome B plays an important role in shade avoidance and mediates plant de-etiolation in red light.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. They combine with CLOCK PROTEINS to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation.
The primary plant photoreceptor responsible for perceiving and mediating responses to far-red light. It is a PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to light signals.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The directional growth of organisms in response to light. In plants, aerial shoots usually grow towards light. The phototropic response is thought to be controlled by auxin (= AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Blue-light receptors that regulate a range of physiological responses in PLANTS. Examples include: PHOTOTROPISM, light-induced stomatal opening, and CHLOROPLAST movements in response to changes in light intensity.
The branch of biology dealing with the effect of light on organisms.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.
The absence of light.
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).
Antiphospholipid antibodies found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. The antibodies are detected by solid-phase IMMUNOASSAY employing the purified phospholipid antigen CARDIOLIPIN.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Areas of attractive or repulsive force surrounding MAGNETS.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.

Regulation of the mammalian pineal by non-rod, non-cone, ocular photoreceptors. (1/564)

In mammals, ocular photoreceptors mediate an acute inhibition of pineal melatonin by light. The effect of rod and cone loss on this response was assessed by combining the rd mutation with a transgenic ablation of cones (cl) to produce mice lacking both photoreceptor classes. Despite the loss of all known retinal photoreceptors, rd/rd cl mice showed normal suppression of pineal melatonin in response to monochromatic light of wavelength 509 nanometers. These data indicate that mammals have additional ocular photoreceptors that they use in the regulation of temporal physiology.  (+info)

Antagonistic actions of Arabidopsis cryptochromes and phytochrome B in the regulation of floral induction. (2/564)

The Arabidopsis photoreceptors cry1, cry2 and phyB are known to play roles in the regulation of flowering time, for which the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We have previously hypothesized that phyB mediates a red-light inhibition of floral initiation and cry2 mediates a blue-light inhibition of the phyB function. Studies of the cry2/phyB double mutant provide direct evidence in support of this hypothesis. The function of cryptochromes in floral induction was further investigated using the cry2/cry1 double mutants. The cry2/cry1 double mutants showed delayed flowering in monochromatic blue light, whereas neither monogenic cry1 nor cry2 mutant exhibited late flowering in blue light. This result suggests that, in addition to the phyB-dependent function, cry2 also acts redundantly with cry1 to promote floral initiation in a phyB-independent manner. To understand how photoreceptors regulate the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive development, we examined the effect of sequential illumination by blue light and red light on the flowering time of plants. We found that there was a light-quality-sensitive phase of plant development, during which the quality of light exerts a profound influence on flowering time. After this developmental stage, which is between approximately day-1 to day-7 post germination, plants are committed to floral initiation and the quality of light has little effect on the flowering time. Mutations in either the PHYB gene or both the CRY1 and CRY2 genes resulted in the loss of the light-quality-sensitive phase manifested during floral development. The commitment time of floral transition, defined by a plant's sensitivity to light quality, coincides with the commitment time of inflorescence development revealed previously by a plant's sensitivity to light quantity - the photoperiod. Therefore, the developmental mechanism resulting in the commitment to flowering appears to be the direct target of the antagonistic actions of the photoreceptors.  (+info)

Photomophogenesis: Phytochrome takes a partner! (3/564)

How light signals are transduced by phytochromes is still poorly understood. Recent studies have provided evidence that a PAS domain protein, PIF3, physically interacts with phytochromes, plays a role in phytochrome signal transduction and might be a component of a novel signalling pathway in plants.  (+info)

Circadian rhythms: Something to cry about? (4/564)

Recent studies suggest that a class of proteins known as cryptochromes have an evolutionarily conserved role in the entrainment of circadian rhythms to the night-day cycle. While the evidence reported is intriguing, the notion that cryptochromes have the same role in all species requires further investigation.  (+info)

An extraretinally expressed insect cryptochrome with similarity to the blue light photoreceptors of mammals and plants. (5/564)

Photic entrainment of insect circadian rhythms can occur through either extraretinal (brain) or retinal photoreceptors, which mediate sensitivity to blue light or longer wavelengths, respectively. Although visual transduction processes are well understood in the insect retina, almost nothing is known about the extraretinal blue light photoreceptor of insects. We now have identified and characterized a candidate blue light photoreceptor gene in Drosophila (DCry) that is homologous to the cryptochrome (Cry) genes of mammals and plants. The DCry gene is located in region 91F of the third chromosome, an interval that does not contain other genes required for circadian rhythmicity. The protein encoded by DCry is approximately 50% identical to the CRY1 and CRY2 proteins recently discovered in mammalian species. As expected for an extraretinal photoreceptor mediating circadian entrainment, DCry mRNA is expressed within the adult brain and can be detected within body tissues. Indeed, tissue in situ hybridization demonstrates prominent expression in cells of the lateral brain, which are close to or coincident with the Drosophila clock neurons. Interestingly, DCry mRNA abundance oscillates in a circadian manner in Drosophila head RNA extracts, and the temporal phasing of the rhythm is similar to that documented for the mouse Cry1 mRNA, which is expressed in clock tissues. Finally, we show that changes in DCry gene dosage are associated predictably with alterations of the blue light resetting response for the circadian rhythm of adult locomotor activity.  (+info)

Light-dependent sequestration of TIMELESS by CRYPTOCHROME. (6/564)

Most organisms have circadian clocks consisting of negative feedback loops of gene regulation that facilitate adaptation to cycles of light and darkness. In this study, CRYPTOCHROME (CRY), a protein involved in circadian photoperception in Drosophila, is shown to block the function of PERIOD/TIMELESS (PER/TIM) heterodimeric complexes in a light-dependent fashion. TIM degradation does not occur under these conditions; thus, TIM degradation is uncoupled from abrogation of its function by light. CRY and TIM are part of the same complex and directly interact in yeast in a light-dependent fashion. PER/TIM and CRY influence the subcellular distribution of these protein complexes, which reside primarily in the nucleus after the perception of a light signal. Thus, CRY acts as a circadian photoreceptor by directly interacting with core components of the circadian clock.  (+info)

mCRY1 and mCRY2 are essential components of the negative limb of the circadian clock feedback loop. (7/564)

We determined that two mouse cryptochrome genes, mCry1 and mCry2, act in the negative limb of the clock feedback loop. In cell lines, mPER proteins (alone or in combination) have modest effects on their cellular location and ability to inhibit CLOCK:BMAL1 -mediated transcription. This suggested cryptochrome involvement in the negative limb of the feedback loop. Indeed, mCry1 and mCry2 RNA levels are reduced in the central and peripheral clocks of Clock/Clock mutant mice. mCRY1 and mCRY2 are nuclear proteins that interact with each of the mPER proteins, translocate each mPER protein from cytoplasm to nucleus, and are rhythmically expressed in the suprachiasmatic circadian clock. Luciferase reporter gene assays show that mCRY1 or mCRY2 alone abrogates CLOCK:BMAL1-E box-mediated transcription. The mPER and mCRY proteins appear to inhibit the transcriptional complex differentially.  (+info)

Blue light-directed destabilization of the pea Lhcb1*4 transcript depends on sequences within the 5' untranslated region. (8/564)

Pea seedlings grown in continuous red light accumulate significant levels of Lhcb1 RNA. When treated with a single pulse of blue light with a total fluence >10(4) micromol m(-2), the rate of Lhcb1 transcription is increased, whereas the level of Lhcb1 RNA is unchanged from that in control seedlings. This RNA destabilization response occurs in developing leaves but not in the apical bud. The data presented here indicate that the same response occurs in the cotyledons of etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. The blue light-induced destabilization response persists in long hypocotyl hy4 and phytochrome phyA, phyB, and hy1 mutants as well as in far-red light-grown seedlings, indicating that neither CRY1 (encoded by the hy4 locus) nor phytochrome is the sole photoreceptor. Studies with transgenic plants indicate that the destabilization element in the pea Lhcb1*4 transcript resides completely in the 5' untranslated region.  (+info)

Role of Mouse Cryptochrome Blue-Light Photoreceptor in Circadian Photoresponses. Does the p53 up-regulated Gadd45 protein have a role in excision repair?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cryptochrome photoreceptors cry1 and cry2 antagonistically regulate primary root elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Canamero, Roberto C.. AU - Bakrim, Nadia. AU - Bouly, Jean Pierre. AU - Garay, Alvaro. AU - Dudkin, Elizabeth Anne. AU - Habricot, Yvette. AU - Ahmad, Margaret. PY - 2006/10/1. Y1 - 2006/10/1. N2 - Cryptochromes are blue-light receptors controlling multiple aspects of plant growth and development. They are flavoproteins with significant homology to photolyases, but instead of repairing DNA they function by transducing blue light energy into a signal that can be recognized by the cellular signaling machinery. Here we report the effect of cry1 and cry2 blue light receptors on primary root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, through analysis of both cryptochrome-mutant and cryptochrome-overexpressing lines. Cry1 mutant seedlings show reduced root elongation in blue light while overexpressing seedlings show significantly increased elongation as compared to ...
Birds use the magnetic field of the Earth to navigate during their annual migratory travel. The possible mechanism to explain the biophysics of this compass sense involves electron transfers within the photoreceptive protein cryptochrome. A study (Qin et al., 2016) claimed that the sensitivity to changes in the magnetic field is enhanced by a coupling to an iron rich polymer complex which couples to multiple cryptochromes. For the iron sulphur clusters to participate in the compass sense, they either need to donate an electron to a specific tryptophane in the cryptochome or accept an electron from the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) co-factor in the cryptochrome. To validate the claim, it is needed to independently reconstruct this complex and describe its interaction with Drosophila melanogaster cryptochromes. The polymer complex consists of iron sulphur containing assembly ISCA1 protein monomers with internally bound iron sulphur clusters and simultaneously binds ten cryptochromes, shown in ...
The Drosophila melanogaster circadian clock is generated by interlocked feedback loops, and null mutations in core genes such as period and timeless generate behavioral arrhythmicity in constant darkness. In light-dark cycles, the elevation in locomotor activity that usually anticipates the light on or off signals is severely compromised in these mutants. Light transduction pathways mediated by the rhodopsins and the dedicated circadian blue light photoreceptor cryptochrome are also critical in providing the circadian clock with entraining light signals from the environment. The cryb mutation reduces the light sensitivity of the flys clock, yet locomotor activity rhythms in constant darkness or light-dark cycles are relatively normal, because the rhodopsins compensate for the lack of cryptochrome function. Remarkably, when we combined a period-null mutation with cryb, circadian rhythmicity in locomotor behavior in light-dark cycles, as measured by a number of different criteria, was restored. ...
Genetic variations in circadian clock genes may serve as molecular adaptations, allowing populations to adapt to local environments. Here, we carried out a survey of genetic variation in Drosophila cryptochrome (cry), the flys dedicated circadian photoreceptor. An initial screen of 10 European cry alleles revealed substantial variation, including seven non-synonymous changes. The SNP frequency spectra and the excessive linkage disequilibrium in this locus suggested that this variation is maintained by natural selection. We focused on a non-conservative SNP involving a leucine - histidine replacement (L232H) and found that this polymorphism is common, with both alleles at intermediate frequencies across 27 populations surveyed in Europe, irrespective of latitude. Remarkably, we were able to reproduce this natural observation in the laboratory using replicate population cages where the minor allele frequency was initially set to 10%. Within 20 generations, the two allelic variants converged to ...
Cryptochrome 2 is a flavin-type blue light receptor mediating floral induction in response to photoperiod and a blue light-induced hypocotyl growth inhibition. cry2 is required for the elevated expression of the flowering-time gene CO in response to long-day photoperiods, but the molecular mechanism …
Seventeen years after it was originally suggested, the photoreceptor protein cryptochrome remains the most probable host for the radical pair intermediates that are thought to be the sensors in the avian magnetic compass. Although evidence in favour of this hypothesis is accumulating, the intracellular interaction partners of the sensory protein are still unknown. It has been suggested that ascorbate ions could interact with surface-exposed tryptophan radicals in photoactivated cryptochromes, and so lead to the formation of a radical pair comprised of the reduced form of the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor, FAD*- , and the ascorbate radical, Asc*-. This species could provide a more sensitive compass than a FAD- tryptophan radical pair. In this study of Drosophila melanogaster cryptochrome and Erithacus rubecula (European robin) cryptochrome 1a, we use molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the transient encounters of ascorbate ions with tryptophan radicals in cryptochrome in order ...
article{cc3cb4f6-4ad0-44a5-be93-7ca320851d0c, abstract = {Migratory birds can use a magnetic compass for orientation during their migratory journeys covering thousands of kilometers. But how do they sense the reference direction provided by the Earths magnetic field? Behavioral evidence and theoretical considerations have suggested that radical-pair processes in differently oriented, light-sensitive molecules of the retina could enable migratory birds to perceive the magnetic field as visual patterns. The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina of migratory birds? Here, we show that at least one CRY1 and one CRY2 exist in the retina of migratory garden warblers and that garden-warbler CRY1 (gwCRY1) is cytosolic. We also show that gwCRY1 is concentrated in specific cells, particularly in ganglion cells and in large displaced ganglion cells, which also showed high levels of neuronal activity at night, when our ...
We isolated and characterized mouse photolyase-like genes, mCRY1 (mPHLL1) and mCRY2 (mPHLL2), which belong to the photolyase family including plant blue-light receptors. The mCRY1 and mCRY2 genes are located on chromosome 10C and 2E, respectively, and are expressed in all mouse organs examined. We raised antibodies specific against each gene product using its C-terminal sequence, which differs completely between the genes. Immunofluorescent staining of cultured mouse cells revealed that mCRY1 is localized in mitochondria whereas mCRY2 was found mainly in the nucleus. The subcellular distribution of CRY proteins was confirmed by immunoblot analysis of fractionated mouse liver cell extracts. Using green fluorescent protein fused peptides we showed that the C-terminal region of the mouse CRY2 protein contains a unique nuclear localization signal, which is absent in the CRY1 protein. The N-terminal region of CRY1 was shown to contain the mitochondrial transport signal. Recombinant as well as native CRY1
Mazzotta GM, Bellanda M, Minervini G, Damulewicz M, Cusumano P, Aufiero S, Stefani M, Zambelli B, Mammi S, Costa R, Tosatto SCE.. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, 2018. Light is the main environmental stimulus that synchronizes the endogenous timekeeping systems in most terrestrial organisms. Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY) is a light-responsive flavoprotein that detects changes in light intensity and wavelength around dawn and dusk. We have previously shown that dCRY acts through Inactivation No Afterpotential D (INAD) in a light-dependent manner on the Signalplex, a multiprotein complex that includes visual-signaling molecules, suggesting a role for dCRY in fly vision. Here, we predict and demonstrate a novel Ca2+-dependent interaction between dCRY and calmodulin (CaM). Through yeast two hybrid, coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and calorimetric analyses we were able to identify and characterize a CaM binding motif in the dCRY C-terminus. Similarly, we also ...
Cryptochromes, Cry, are photoreceptors that absorb blue light and mediate signaling events to modulate a wide range of biological functions such as circadian entrainment and phototropism. The signaling activation is triggered by excitation of the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor, followed by protein conformational changes that mediate protein-protein interaction with downstream partners. In this presentation, I will discuss the conditions and functional dynamics of drosophila cryptochrome through a plethora of molecular dynamics simulation and analysis tools. Our model recapitulates various experimental evidence of dCry activation, and the mechanism may be applicable to other cryptochromes.. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The perception of light is essential to many organisms, as it is an important source of spatial and temporal information. Accordingly, there are many photosensitive proteins that regulate behavioural and physiological responses. It is because of this that the investigation of photoreceptor proteins has garnered continued scientific interest. One important aspect of a photosensors mechanism is the conformation of the signalling state. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been established as a useful tool for probing the structure of a protein in solution. This work utilises EPR to investigate three different proteins, YF1, cryptochrome-2 and channelrhodopsin- 2\. YF1 is an example of a LOV protein, a diverse group of blue-light sensing pro- teins using a flavin chromophore. This work tries to elucidate the structure of the LOV domains signalling state as well as investigate the molecular basis for LOV proteins wide range of photocycle kinetics. Using EPR double resonance tech- niques, a ...
van Wilderen LJ, Silkstone G, Mason M, van Thor JJ, Wilson MT (2015) Kinetic studies on the oxidation of semiquinone and hydroquinone forms of Arabidopsis cryptochrome by molecular oxygen FEBS Open Bio. 5:885-892 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fob.2015.10.007 Open Access. This study is a collaborative effort between researchers from Imperial College and the University of Essex, led by emeritus biochemistry Professor Michael Wilson and is an in vitro analysis of the oxidation of the Arabidopsis cryptochrome (CRY) photoreceptor in the presence and absence of an external electron donor. They show that a more complex model than previously thought is required to explain the mechanism by which the CRY-associated flavin molecule is oxidised. The authors propose that the final steps in this reaction require cooperative interaction between partners in a CRY homodimer or between separate CRY molecules.. Evans-Roberts KM, Mitchenall LA, Wall MK, Leroux J, Mylne JS, Maxwell A (2015) DNA Gyrase is the Target ...
Barclay, J. L.; Shostak, A.; Leliavski, A.; Tsang, A. H.; Jöhren, O.; Müller-Fielitz, H.; Landgraf, D.; Naujokat, N.; van der Horst, G.; Oster, H.: High-fat diet-induced hyperinsulinemia and tissue-specific insulin resistance in Cry-deficient mice. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 304 (10), pp. E1053 - E1063 (2013 ...
Product Pig Cryptochrome 1 ELISA kit From B-Gene - A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Cryptochrome 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species. Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP SOLUTION*1 vial 12. WASH SOLUTION (100 x)*1 vial 13. BALANCE SOLUTION*1 vial 14. INSTRUCTION*1
The molecular clock of the fruit fly is sensitive to magnetic fields in a manner dependent on blue light and the photopigment cryptochrome.
The photoreceptor cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) has become a powerful optogenetic tool that allows light-inducible manipulation of various signaling pathways and cellular processes in mammalian cells with high spatiotemporal precision and ease of application. However, it has also been shown that the behavior of CRY2 under blue light is complex, as the photoexcited CRY2 can both undergo homo-oligomerization and heterodimerization by binding to its dimerization partner CIB1. To better understand the light-induced CRY2 activities in mammalian cells, this article systematically characterizes CRY2 homo-oligomerization in different cellular compartments, as well as how CRY2 homo-oligomerization and heterodimerization activities affect each other. Quantitative analysis reveals that membrane-bound CRY2 has drastically enhanced oligomerization activity compared to that of its cytoplasmic form. While CRY2 homo-oligomerization and CRY2-CIB1 heterodimerization could happen concomitantly, the presence of certain ...
As Morse code enables information to be transmitted as a series of on-off tones and clicks, which can be decoded into words and text, in a somewhat similar manner, calcium (Ca2+) signals are encoded as distinct patterns of input with varying amplitudes, frequencies, and durations. As (Ca2+) is involved in literally every single cellular process in our body, it has been tempting to manipulate intracellular (Ca2+) levels for research or therapeutic purposes.. Recently, in high profile work, researchers have succeeded in developing a blue-light-dependent endogenous (Ca2+) channel activator, named OptoSTIM1 (an optically activated STIM1 protein). In this work, a light-responsive oligomerization plant protein, Cryptochrome2, was conjugated with a (Ca2+) channel activator, STIM1, which binds to (Ca2+) channels only when oligomerized by themselves. Depending on the power and exposure time of blue-light, (Ca2+) levels in the cell could be quantitatively controlled; varied levels of (Ca2+) could be ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Here, we show that the Neurospora protein VVD is a blue light photoreceptor. Following the heterologous expression in E.coli, VVD was found to be associated with a flavin‐type chromophore (Figure 3). Upon illumination, the native VVD protein underwent a blue light‐induced absorbance change that was fully reversible in the dark (Figure 4). This photocycle was also reported for the LOV domains of the plant blue light photoreceptor phototropin and indicates the formation of a reversible covalent bond between the conserved cysteine in the VVD LOV domain and the flavin chromophore (Briggs and Christie, 2002). The formation of the cysteinyl‐flavin adduct results in subtle structural changes of the flavin‐binding pocket (Crosson and Moffat, 2002). The latter changes are thought to represent the initial event in light signal transduction and seem to lead to the activation of the intra‐molecular kinase in phototropins. However, VVD is different in this respect since it only contains the LOV ...
Biological rhythms are driven by circadian oscillators, which are ultimately controlled by the cyclic expression of clock genes. Cryptochromes (CRY), blue light photoreceptors, belong to the negative elements of the transcriptional feedback loop into the molecular clock. This paper describes the cloning and characterization of two cryptochromes (cry1 and 2) in European seabass, which is considered an interesting chronobiology model due to its dual (diurnal/nocturnal) behavior. The cloned cDNA fragments encoded for two proteins of 567 and 668 amino acids, which included the FAD-binding and the DNA-photolyase domains. Moreover, both proteins had a high homology with cryptochrome proteins (Cry) of other teleost fish. These cry1 and 2 genes were expressed in several tissues of seabass (brain, liver, heart, retina, muscle, spleen, gill and intestine). In addition, the daily expression of cry1 was rhythmic in brain, heart and liver with the acrophase around ZT 03:15 h (after the onset of lights). ...
Organisms have evolved extensive sensory mechanisms to perceive information carried by light. Their responses are mediated by photoreceptor proteins, which are sensitive to light through prosthetic chromophore molecules. The past decade has witnessed the discovery of a large number of novel flavin-binding photoreceptors, notably the phototropins, the cryptochromes, and BLUF (blue-light sensing using FAD) domains (1). Phototropins are primarily found in plants and control several physiological responses such as phototropism, chloroplast movement, and stomatal opening (2), whereas cryptochromes are known to regulate growth and development in plants and circadian rhythms in plants and insects (3, 4). BLUF domains are a distinct family of flavin-binding photoreceptors that show no significant relationship to other sensor proteins in sequence or structure. The BLUF domain was first discovered as the N-terminal part of the flavoprotein AppA from the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter ...
Just over 40 years ago, workers at the U.S. Department of Agriculture laboratories (Beltsville, MD) discovered the first signaling photoreceptor in plants, a photoreversible pigment (9) that they called phytochrome (8). In the following years, photomorphogenesis (a study of the influence of light on plant development) developed as a strong subdiscipline of the field of plant physiology. Within this subdiscipline was a sharp division between those pursuing the phytochromes and those pursuing distinct blue-light receptors. Those studying phytochrome(s) had an enormous advantage in having at their disposal all of the classic phytochrome-mediated responses that were activated by brief pulses of red light interrupting darkness: These include activation of seed germination, inhibition of stem elongation in dark-grown seedlings, induction of leaf expansion, and regulation of flowering. In every case, the effect of red light was negated by subsequent immediate exposure to far-red light. This kind of ...
A McCree study in 1972 studied the relative quantum yields of the photosynthetic spectrum and found that a mixture of light, with large quantities of green, produced the most photosynthetic output. However, later research found that photo pigments within the plant tissue absorb this green light and excite/de-excite out other photons such as red or blue. This means that a larger spectrum of light is used by plant, equating to the entire visible spectrum. Therefore, there is no such thing as waste light within the visible spectrum. However, the distribution of the delivered spectrum does heavily influence growth patterns.. Moreover, green light works in some plants to tell it that it is surrounded by other plants and needs a longer stem to break out, typically using the phytochrome mechanism, as does red and far-red light. Cryptochromes are also stimulated by green light to some degree, sometimes reversing blue light driven elongation inhibitory action (see article blue and red light). Due to ...
Zoltowskis lab was awarded $320,500 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health to continue its research on the impact of blue light. They are studying a small flowering plant native to Europe and Asia, Arabidopsis thaliana - a popular model organism in plant biology and genetics, Zoltowski says.. Although signaling pathways differ in organisms such as Arabidopsis when compared to animals, the flower still serves an important research purpose. How the signaling networks are interconnected is similar in both animals and Arabidopsis. That allows researchers to use simpler genetic models to provide insight into how similar networks are controlled in more complicated species like humans.. In humans, the protein melanopsin absorbs blue light and sends signals to photoreceptor cells in our eyes. In plants and animals, the protein cryptochrome performs similar signaling.. Much is known already about the way blue light and other light wavelengths, such ...
Some fairly elementary questions remain, however, for instance, if one tests a reasonable number of birds, will there be a small population of lefthanders that has the compass processing on the other side ? Also, if a young bird lost the right eye in a fight, would the brain find a way to process compass data from the left eye? And lest we forget, the precise molecular details of the molecular compass also remain to be uncovered, see my pieces on the bird compass from last year, in Oxford Today (as a sidebar to the ESR feature) and, in German, in Chemie in unserer Zeit. A significant 2009 paper that I missed when I researched those articles comes from Stefan Webers group at Freiburg and reports the observation that light can stimulate the formation of radical pairs in the most promising candidate molecules believed to host the chemical compass, namely cryptochromes (2). This adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting that the bird compass really is a radical pair mechanism residing in ...
They are the bodys natural steroid hormones that regulate blood sugar levels-their job is to make sure peoples blood sugar levels are lowered while they sleep and then raised when they wake; this allows people to maximize the efficiency their energy use. Glucocortids also interact with anti-inflammatory drugs and this has exposed the missing-link between cryptochromes and Glucocortids. Together, they regulate the blood sugar and the biological rhythms or what is often called the biological clock.. While scientists and doctors plan to harness this information for pharmaceutical purposes, it can also be used to help people understand their bodys natural rhythms. This way, people can be more conscious of both what they eat and how their body is using what they eat based on their sleep and rest patterns. Think about it. When are people most active during the day? When are they least active? It is important for people to take the time to get to know their activity levels and then find a way to eat ...
To better understand links between the clock, environmental sensing pathways, and growth regulation, we are now collaborating with the Blackman Lab to study growth regulation in sunflower. Sunflower is well-known for diaheliotropism or solar tracking, with plants changing the angle of their leaves and stems over the day so that they remain perpendicular to the suns rays. This special type of rhythmic growth is found in many plants (including various crop and pasture species) and is associated with increased yield, likely due to increases in photosynthetic and water use efficiency [16, 17, 18]. The conspicuous movement of aerial organs from east to west during the day is likely mediated by activity of the phototropin blue light photoreceptors [19]. Much more mysterious is the reorientation that occurs during the night so that sunflower leaves and apices face east well before the sun rises (Figure 4) (see also Plants-In-Motion for a wonderful movie of a solar-tracking sunflower). Thus solar ...
There is an upgrade version of the CRYSFIRE Powder Indexing Suite by Robin Shirley. This minor version has bugfix updates of the UDI2crys, WF2crys and XF2crys file converter programs. There were circumstances that made them act incorrectly if the user didnt want to overwrite an existing dataset. This has been fixed. Crysfire Tutorials at: http://www.ccp14.ac.uk/tutorial/crys/ UK: http://www.ccp14.ac.uk/ccp/web-mirrors/crys-r-shirley/crysinst.zip CA: http://ccp14.sims.nrc.ca/ccp/web-mirrors/crys-r-shirley/crysinst.zip US: http://ccp14.semo.edu/ccp/web-mirrors/crys-r-shirley/crysinst.zip AU: http://ccp14.minerals.csiro.au/ccp/web-mirrors/crys-r-shirley/crysinst.zip ---- Crysfire also interlinks with the Chekcell graphical helper indexing tool for Windows by Jean Laugier and Bernard Bochu. There is a new 7th July 2002 version of Chekcell available with improved LePage - Chekcell interconnectivity for evaluating sub-cells and super-cells. Chekcell Tutorials ...
(Cotton) Evaluation under field conditions of sub-clover stunt virus promoters driving an insect tolerance gene (Cry1Ab) from bacillus thuringiesis
Are summer-born children more bad tempered than kids born at colder times of the year? Are winter-born children more, well, sunnier than babies born when the skies are blue ?They are, according to new...
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Light is a crucial environmental signal that controls many photomorphogenic and circadian responses in plants1. Perception and transduction of light is achieved by at least two principal groups of photoreceptors, phytochromes and cryptochromes2,3. Phytochromes are red/far-red light-absorbing receptors encoded by a gene family of five members (phyA to phyE)2,4 in Arabidopsis. Cryptochrome 1 (cry1), cryptochrome 2 (cry2) and phototropin are the blue/ultraviolet-A light receptors that have been characterized in Arabidopsis5. Previous studies showed that modulation of many physiological responses in plants is achieved by genetic interactions between different photoreceptors6; however, little is known about the nature of these interactions and their roles in the signal transduction pathway. Here we show the genetic interaction that occurs between the Arabidopsis photoreceptors phyB and cry2 in the control of flowering time, hypocotyl elongation and circadian period by the clock. PhyB interacts directly
Phototropins are photoreceptor proteins (more specifically, flavoproteins) that mediate phototropism responses in higher plants. Along with cryptochromes and phytochromes they allow plants to respond and alter their growth in response to the light environment. Phototropins may also be important for the opening of stomata[citation needed] and the movement of chloroplasts. Phototropins are part of the phototropic sensory system in plants that causes various environmental responses in plants. Phototropins specifically will cause stems to bend towards light[citation needed] and stomata to open.[citation needed] Phototropins have been shown to impact the movement of chloroplast inside the cell. In addition phototropins mediate the first changes in stem elongation in blue light prior to cryptochrome activation. Phototropin is also required for blue light mediated transcript destabilization of specific mRNAs in the cell.[citation needed] Wada M, Kagawa T, Sato Y (2003). Chloroplast movement. Annu Rev ...
Ophthalmologic manifestations commonly misdiagnosed as demyelinating events in multiple sclerosis patients. This retrospective review evaluates the success of such outpatient management, including the complications encountered. Manipulation of the blue light photoreceptor cryptochrome 2 in tomato affects vegetative development, flowering time, and fruit antioxidant content. Autoradiographic studies on 3H-fucose incorporation into manubria and its translocation to antheridial space during spermatogenesis in Chara vulgaris L. This question has been addressed by a model and a methodology that uses only very basic constituents to capture the relevant features of folding. This study demonstrates the presence of molly generic viagra a rich plexus of neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactive fibers in the hypothalamus and in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary of Xenopus laevis. However, sonography is becoming the preferred modality, primarily because of the superior anatomic detail provided. A ...
Define crystalizer. crystalizer synonyms, crystalizer pronunciation, crystalizer translation, English dictionary definition of crystalizer. also crys·tal·ize v. crys·tal·lized , crys·tal·liz·ing , crys·tal·liz·es also crys·tal·ized or crys·tal·iz·ing or crys·tal·iz·es v. tr. 1. To cause to form...
Violets Are Blue By Velvet Vaughn Copyright Copyright © 2015 Velvet Vaughn ISBN: 978-0-9861652-2-1 This ebook is licensed for your personal enjoyment only. This ebook may not be
CRY2 - CRY2 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human cryptochrome 2 (photolyase-like) (CRY2), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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Rabbit polyclonal Cryptochrome I antibody validated for WB, IHC, ICC and tested in Human and Mouse. With 1 independent review. Immunogen corresponding to…
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
Anyways when I was at boot camp I think I trained too hard in the second week and I ended up feeling sick and I vomited. After I did that I went back to the group and they stopped me they go um your lips are blue!!! Also at that time I had partial hearing loss. Went to the doctor she told me I was fine so I continued on. Four days later ended up really sick had a Nasty blood infection ( septicaemia) so I decided to quit boot camp and let my body rest ...
Were all overexposed to artificial blue light thanks to our mobile phone addiction and during covid-19 lockdowns, its even worse. Here are some ways to reduce your exposure.
By Renee Twombly. Researchers at The Scripps Research Institute say they have taken a leap forward in their quest to understand the proteins that control the human circadian clock - the 24-hour wake-sleep cycle that, when interrupted, can lead to jet lag and other sleep disturbances. In an Early Edition issue of The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) on April 9, 2009, the researchers report that they have been able to determine the molecular structure of a plant photolyase protein that is surprisingly similar to two cryptochrome proteins that control the master clock in humans and other mammals. They have also been able to test how structural changes affect the function of these proteins.. The plant photolyase structure provides a much better model to use to study how the cryptochrome proteins in the human clock function than we have ever had before, says the studys lead investigator, Kenichi Hitomi, a postdoctoral research fellow at Scripps Research. Its like knowing ...
Phototropins are UVA/blue-light receptors involved in controlling the light-dependent physiological responses which serve to optimize the photosynthetic activity of plants and promote growth. The phototropin-induced phosphoinositide (PI) metabolism has been shown to be essential for stomatal opening and phototropism. However, the role of PIs in phototropin-induced chloroplast movements remains poorly understood. The aim of this work is to determine which PI species are involved in the control of chloroplast movements in Arabidopsis and the nature of their involvement. We present the effects of the inactivation of phospholipase C (PLC), PI3-kinase (PI3K) and PI4-kinase (PI4K) on chloroplast relocations in Arabidopsis. The inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphospahte [PI(4,5)P2]-PLC pathway, using neomycin and U73122, suppressed the phot2-mediated chloroplast accumulation and avoidance responses, without affecting movement responses controlled by phot1. On the other hand, PI3K and PI4K ...
Phototropins are plasma membrane-localized UVA/blue light photoreceptors which mediate phototropism, inhibition of primary hypocotyl elongation, leaf positioning, chloroplast movements, and stomatal opening. Blue light irradiation activates the C-terminal serine/threonine kinase domain of phototropin which autophosphorylates the receptor. Arabidopsis thaliana encodes two phototropins, phot1 and phot2. In response to blue light, phot1 moves from the plasma membrane into the cytosol and phot2 translocates to the Golgi complex. In this study the molecular mechanism and route of blue-light-induced phot2 trafficking are demonstrated. It is shown that Atphot2 behaves in a similar manner when expressed transiently under 35S or its native promoter. The phot2 kinase domain but not blue-light-mediated autophosphorylation is required for the receptor translocation. Using co-localization and western blotting, the receptor was shown to move from the cytoplasm to the Golgi complex, and then to the post-Golgi ...
The circadian genetic machinery is so well conserved in the evolution that the study of Drosophila provides a cheap alternative to knockout experiments in rodents. Orthologs have been identified in mammals for most of the Drosophila circadian clock genes. In insects though, unlike in mammals, CRY1 function is light-dependent. Even cyanobacteria have a circadian genetic clock that can be reconstituted in vitro for detailed quantitative analysis and comparative simulations. One of the conclusions coming from studying cyanobacteria is that the TTFL clock may actually be a slave to a master biochemical oscillator called the PTO (post-translational oscillator) (Qin et al. 2010[1]). The initial suggestion on the role of biochemical oscillators came from the persistence of the circadian rhythm in conditions of inhibited transcription and translation (Iwasaki et al. 2005[2]). Beyond their circadian roles, the genes are also involved in other functions. Interestingly, cryptochromes have been shown to be ...
Electrocompetent Top10 cells were electroporated with K238015, K238013 in psB3K3, I20260 and empty Top10 cells. These cells were plated out on agar plates with the correct AntiBiotic and grown overnight (37°). From these, a 5ml liquid culture supplied with AB was prepared and also grown overnight (37°C or 25°C). These cells were inoculated in fresh LB medium (100 µg AB/ ml) in the morning and grown at 16°C or 25°C for 3.5h. During all these steps, the cells were always kept away in the dark. Only when the experiment started, half of the cultures were put under blue light, the other half were kept in the dark. After that, the cells were whithdrawn at different time intervals. They were diluted into PBS and analyzed by flow cytometry with a Becton Dickinson FACSCalibur and CELLQuestTM acquisition and analysis software with gates set to forward and side scatters characteristic of the bacteria (Gate G2=R2). We decided upon using FACS because then the fluorescence of single cells is measured. ...
Plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms to adapt growth and development to the ambient light environment. To monitor the light, plants use several classes of photoreceptors (e.g. phytochromes, cryptochromes). Downstream of these photoreceptors, an important negative regulator, the COP1/SPA complex, suppresses light signaling in dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings. This complex is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, i.e. an enzyme that attaches ubiquitin to other proteins which are subsequently recognized by the proteasome and degraded. The COP1/SPA ubiquitin ligase inhibits light signaling in darkness by ubiquitinating activators of the light response, such as the transcription factors HY5, LAF1 and HFR1. cop1 and spa mutants fail to degrade these transcription factors in darkness and, therefore, undergo constitutive photomorphogenesis showing features of light-grown plants even in complete darkness. In the light, active photoreceptors are thought to inhibit COP1/SPA function, thus HY5, LAF1 and HFR1 ...
Your eyes are sensitive to a narrow band of frequencies referred to as the, visible light spectrum. Visible light-light capable of being seen by the human eye -consists of wavelengths of varying lengths.. Blue light has a very short wavelength and is detectable by the human eye. Not only does it provide basic illumination to our worlds, blue light also helps to increase feelings of well-being. But exposure to large amounts of blue light can be harmful to the eyes.. The plethora of electronic devices in use today, such as cell phones, tablets, and laptop computers, has drastically increased our exposure to blue light. Another source of blue light is energy efficient technology in the form of fluorescent light bulbs and LED lights. Research has determined that the lens inside the eye, and the pigment in the back of the eye, offer some protection against blue light. But this protective mechanism only lasts for short period of exposure to the intense blue light, and during daylight hours.. Perhaps ...
Our findings demonstrate that a lack of cryptochrome activates these proinflammatory molecules, indicating a potential role for cryptochrome in the regulation of inflammatory cytokine expression, says Satchidananda Panda, an associate professor in Salks Regulatory Biology Laboratory and one of the senior authors of the study. In addition, the researchers found that a lack of CRY activated the NF-kB pathway, a molecular signaling conduit that controls many genes involved in inflammation. NF-kB is a protein complex in a cells cytoplasm, just happily doing nothing, says Verma. In response to stimuli, it is transferred to the cells nucleus, where it binds to inflammation genes and turns them on. The regulation of these genes is tightly controlled, but NF-kB does not completely shut off their expression. This lingering expression causes inflammation ...
The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata is a common postharvest contaminant of food and feed, and some strains are plant pathogens. Many processes in A. alternata are triggered by light. Interestingly, blue light inhibits sporulation, and red light reverses the effect, suggesting interactions between light-sensing systems. The genome encodes a phytochrome (FphA), a white collar 1 (WC-1) orthologue (LreA), an opsin (NopA), and a cryptochrome (CryA) as putative photoreceptors. Here, we investigated the role of FphA and LreA and the interplay with the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. We created loss-of function mutations for fphA, lreA, and hogA using CRISPR-Cas9 technology. Sporulation was reduced in all three mutant strains already in the dark, suggesting functions of the photoreceptors FphA and LreA independent of light perception. Germination of conidia was delayed in red, blue, green, and far-red light. We found that light induction of ccgA ...
So whats the deal with blue light? And what has changed about the artificial light we experience every day? Read on to find out more about the good and the bad of blue light. Why do our bodies need the biological effects of this wavelength? And how and when should we protect ourselves from the potentially damaging effects of blue light?
95% of Americans are in the habit of using LED screens at least one hour before bedtime. The blue light emitted by these devices interferes with sound sleep at night. This post from Popular Science describes a neuroscientists experiment with blue light blocking glasses in a bid to block the blue light and improve the quality of sleep. I recently wrote about the terrible sleep ... Continue Reading ...
Signs Under Test is typical Tejada in a more prosaic way as well: its titles. Tejadas always had a thing for sci-fi-influenced track names, dating back at least to Prism War and Solar Eyes, both from 1997s Little Green Lights And Four Inch Faders. He goes to town on this album, with titles like Cryptochrome (a photoreceptor that helps guide circadian rhythms), Vaalbara (an early supercontinent) and R.U.R. (the 1920 Karel Čapek play that introduced the word robot to the English language ...
Your skin has a lot to be worried about. First, we learned about the dangers of UVA and UVB rays. Then we heard pollution is taking a toll on our complexion. Now, its all about blue-light damage. Also called high-energy visible (HEV) light, blue light is emitted from electronic devices like smartphones
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When viewing electronic devices, myopically defocused blue light results in what is now termed digital eye strain. The Vision Council defines digital eye strain as the physical eye discomfort felt by many individuals after two or more hours in front of a digital screen. In a 2014 survey conducted by VSP, eyecare providers reported a 50 percent increase in patient complaints of digital eye strain and effects of blue light exposure. Also stated was a 38 percent increase in these same complaints from children. Without intervention, reports containing statistics such as these will likely increase. The symptoms of digital eye strain can be broken down into three causes: proximity of the light source (digital device) to the eye, intensity of light from the source, and frequency and duration of exposure. In considering ways to alleviate symptoms, keeping these causes in mind can guide treatment recommendations.. Proximity. We tend to hold digital device screens closer to our eyes. This increases ...
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Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
An additional 350-space car park has been built by Bullen Developments and is operated independently to the hospital car parks. Patients and visitors to this privately operated car park should note :. - Does not offer the same concessions as the hospital car parks. Tickets cannot be reduced or validated to give free parking and charges are not reduced at evenings or weekends.. - Does not have any disabled spaces as these are offered in the hospital car parks nearer to the building.. - Forty spaces at the rear of the car park are for PERMIT HOLDERS ONLY. - Please be aware this area is patrolled by the private owners and they do issue fines. - This car park only accepts payment at the machines situated close to the pedestrian entrance/exit. Please do not try and use the pay stations in the hospital as it will reject your ticket. Tickets for this car park are easily identifiable as they are Blue.. This car park has the same charges as the hospital car parks, it offers free car parking for the first ...
The triad and dyad ions in the case of these metals exhibit remarkable differences of colour. Thus chromous ions are blue, chromic, green ; basic ferric ions are orange-yellow, ferrous, pale green; ma...
Math: I have 50 buttons in a bag. 25 are red, 10 are green, 7 are blue, 5 are yellow, and 3 are purple. What are the chances I would pick red ...
Is there a possible surgery for a child with ASD and ADHD. We have been told that something is not connected in his brain. This makes a lot of since since he stays in a continuous loop about one thing or another. You can explain until you are blue in the face, and he will ask the same question again, and again. Is a cingulotomy a possiblility? He is 13 & uncontrollable, and dangerous. He has injured me, his grandfather, and his sister. Can anybody help? We are absolutely desperate.:eek ...
Premise: A poems theme or topic has been given to you by the person before you so you write a poem based on that theme or topic then you posit a theme or topic for the next person to write about... and on until infinitum... |Example| Person A: Topic: Roses Person B: Roses are red Violets are Blue
These heavy duty surface wipes are blue and impregnated with a biocidal formulation which is effective against most bacteria, fungi and viruses.
Boyle-Mariottes lov (også kalt konstant temperatur-loven) gjelder eksakt for ideelle gasser, men er en god tilnærming for andre gasser ved lavt trykk. Boyle-Mariottes lov: - Trykk og volum (P x V = K). Ifølge Boyles gasslov vil utvidelse av lungene under inspirasjon føre til. Respirasjonen stimuleres bare når pOfaller til verdier under 8kPa. Trykket av en gass ved en bestemt temperatur er omvendt proporsjonal med volumet av gassen.. Boyles lov slår fast at øker volumet av en gass ved en konstant temperatur, eller reduseres, når trykket . Boyles lov (også kjent som Mariottes lov) sier at ved konstant temperatur er volumet. Han studerte forbrenning og respirasjon og syrer og basers egenskaper. Hjertet (det kardiovaskulære system) og respirasjon. Derfor er volum, der en gitt anel av gass er presset sammen, omvendt proposjonal med trykk.. Det er et inverst (omvendt proporsjonalt) forhold mellom gassvolum (V) og trykk (P), som uttrykt i Boyles lov: PV=K hvor K er en konstant. Denne sensoren ...
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From your cell phone to your laptop, exposure to blue light can affect our health, from sleep to mood. Here is everything you need to know.
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Los disco expuestos en este sitio son sólo como pruebas, sin fin de lucro y deben borrarse luego de 24 horas desde la descarga ...
Blue light ( 430 - 450 nm ) Bacteria in skin contains Porphyrins; the blue light is able to kill Porphyrins due to the high affinity with this wavelength. The blue light furthermore has calming action which is very effective for hypersensitivity. ...
"Arabidopsis cryptochrome is responsive to Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields". Scientific Reports. 10 (1): 11260. doi: ...
Eide EJ, Vielhaber EL, Hinz WA, Virshup DM (May 2002). "The circadian regulatory proteins BMAL1 and cryptochromes are ...
... in conjunction with cryptochromes in the retina) gives them the ability to sense the direction, polarity, and magnitude of the ... radical pair processes involving cryptochrome". Biosensors. 4 (3): 221-42. doi:10.3390/bios4030221. PMC 4264356. PMID 25587420 ...
Lucas-Lledó JI, Lynch M (May 2009). "Evolution of mutation rates: phylogenomic analysis of the photolyase/cryptochrome family ...
2011-01-21). "Delay in feedback repression by cryptochrome 1 is required for circadian clock function" (PDF). Cell. 144 (2): ...
"Cryptochrome and Magnetic Sensing". Theoretical and Computational Biophysics Group. Retrieved 24 February 2015.. ...
... which have been applied to plant cryptochromes and bacteria light-harvesting complexes, respectively. Both quantum and ... "Multidimensional Quantum Mechanical Modeling of Electron Transfer and Electronic Coherence in Plant Cryptochromes: The Role of ...
The seedlings sense light through the light receptors phytochrome (red and far-red light) and cryptochrome (blue light). ...
Along with cryptochromes and phytochromes they allow plants to respond and alter their growth in response to the light ... Five phytochromes, two cryptochromes, one phototropin, and one superchrome". Plant Physiol. 125 (1): 85-8. doi:10.1104/pp.125.1 ... In addition phototropins mediate the first changes in stem elongation in blue light prior to cryptochrome activation. ... Folta, Kevin (2001). "Unexpected Roles for Cryptochrome 2 and Phototropin Revealed by High-resolution Analysis of Blue Light- ...
Cryptochromes absorb blue light and UV-A. Cryptochromes entrain the circadian clock to light.[6] It has been found that both ... Many flowering plants (angiosperms) use a photoreceptor protein, such as phytochrome or cryptochrome,[1] to sense seasonal ... Modern biologists believe[12] that it is the coincidence of the active forms of phytochrome or cryptochrome, created by light ... cryptochrome and phytochrome abundance relies on light and the amount of cryptochrome can change depending on day-length. This ...
The most unique aspect of the monarch clock mechanism is that it involves two cryptochrome proteins - CRY1 and CRY2 - with ...
The Cryptochromes: Blue Light Photoreceptors in Plants and Animals. *LITE http://www.sci-news.com/biology/lite-1-new-type- ...
İlk keşif, Cryptochrome (CRY) 'ların bu çalışmada rolünü bulmak olmuştur. Hall, CRY'nin lokomotor aktivitenin ayarlanması hem ...
Cryptochrome, Phototropin, Phytochrome r and Phytochrome fr. Light can control morphogenic processes such as leaf size and ...
Cryptochrome structure and signal transduction. Annu Rev Plant Biol, 54, 469-496. doi: 10.1146/annurev.arplant.54.110901.160901 ... Phytochromes and cryptochromes in the entrainment of the arabidopsis circadian clock. Science, 282, 1488-1490. PMID: 9822379 ... Cryptochromes: blue light receptors for plants and animals. Science, 284, 760-765. PMID: 10221900 ... Structure and function of DNA photolyase and cryptochrome blue-light photoreceptors. Chem Rev, 103, 2203-2237.DOI: 10.1021/ ...
Cryptochrome is also known as the UV-A photoreceptor, because it absorbs ultraviolet light in the long wave "A" region. The UV- ... Plants use four kinds of photoreceptors:[1] phytochrome, cryptochrome, a UV-B photoreceptor, and protochlorophyllide a. The ... first two of these, phytochrome and cryptochrome, are photoreceptor proteins, complex molecular structures formed by joining a ...
Examples of photoreceptor pigments include: retinal (in rhodopsin) flavin (in cryptochrome) bilin (in phytochrome) In medical ...
... cryptochromes in addition to phytochromes. The photomorphogenic process of phytochome-mediated flavonoid biosynthesis has been ...
"Cryptochrome 1 in Retinal Cone Photoreceptors Suggests a Novel Functional Role in Mammals". Scientific Reports. 6: 21848. ...
붉은 빛이나 푸른 빛은 각각 피토크롬(phytochrome)과 크립토크롬(cryptochrome)을 통해 흡수된다. 특히 크립토크롬(cry) 유전자는 빛에 의해 생체 리듬에 관여하는 중요한 요인 중 하나이다. 크립토크롬 1-2는 ...
... and two cryptochrome genes (CRY1 and CRY2). Negative feedback is achieved by PER:CRY heterodimers that translocate back to the ...
Cryptochrome. *Cytochrome b5 reductase. *Cytokinin dehydrogenase. *Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. *Flavodoxin. *Methemoglobin ...
... cryptochromes, phototropin, and zeiltupe. Each receptor is able to sense different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. ...
Arabidopsis has also been important in understanding the functions of another blue light receptor, cryptochrome, which is ...
... opsins and cryptochromes)found in the animal kingdom.[83] ...
... clock of the fruit fly is sensitive to magnetic fields in a manner dependent on blue light and the photopigment cryptochrome. ...
Cryptochromes and activity markers co-localize in bird retina during magnetic orientation. Mouritsen, H.; Janssen-Bienhold, U. ... The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina ... The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina ... The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina ...
Cryptochrome 2 is a flavin-type blue light receptor mediating floral induction in response to photoperiod and a blue light- ... Cryptochrome 2 is a flavin-type blue light receptor mediating floral induction in response to photoperiod and a blue light- ... The Arabidopsis blue light receptor cryptochrome 2 is a nuclear protein regulated by a blue light-dependent post- ...
Here, we carried out a survey of genetic variation in Drosophila cryptochrome (cry), the flys dedicated circadian ... Molecular evolution of a pervasive natural amino-acid substitution in Drosophila cryptochrome. ...
Disruption of Cryptochrome partially restores circadian rhythmicity to the arrhythmic period mutant of Drosophila. ... Light transduction pathways mediated by the rhodopsins and the dedicated circadian blue light photoreceptor cryptochrome are ... because the rhodopsins compensate for the lack of cryptochrome function. Remarkably, when we combined a period-null mutation ...
... through analysis of both cryptochrome-mutant and cryptochrome-overexpressing lines. Cry1 mutant seedlings show reduced root ... through analysis of both cryptochrome-mutant and cryptochrome-overexpressing lines. Cry1 mutant seedlings show reduced root ... through analysis of both cryptochrome-mutant and cryptochrome-overexpressing lines. Cry1 mutant seedlings show reduced root ... through analysis of both cryptochrome-mutant and cryptochrome-overexpressing lines. Cry1 mutant seedlings show reduced root ...
Cryptochrome interaction Birds use the magnetic field of the Earth to navigate during their annual migratory travel. The ... A: Ten different cryptochromes are shown attached to the ISCA1-polymer. The surface of the ISCA1-polymer is shown in pale blue ... A more interesting interaction partner to cryptochrome is still sought after. Figure 2. Interaction energy between ... The mean interaction energy is shown in B for each individual cryptochrome in their original simulation, and in C for each ...
Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY) is a light-responsive flavoprotein that detects changes in light intensity and wavelength around ...
A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Cryptochrome 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture ... Product Pig Cryptochrome 1 ELISA kit From B-Gene - ... Pig Cryptochrome 1 ELISA kit E07C0568-48 B-Gene. 1 plate of 48 ... Pig Cryptochrome 1 ELISA kit. Supplier B-Gene · Catalog number: E07C0568-96 Price. 685.00EUR. Size. 1 plate of 96 wells ... A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Cryptochrome 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture ...
Cryptochrome sind mit Photolyasen eng verwandte Lichtrezeptoren. Wie LOV- Proteine enthalten sie ein Flavin als Chromophor. Die ... Cryptochromes are photosensing proteins closely related to photolyases. They, too, contain a flavin chromophore, and the ... However, recent experiments on cryptochrome vari- ants that found them to be functional in vivo but lack photoreduction in ... Correlating Structure and Function: An EPR Study on Cryptochromes, LOV Proteins and Channelrhodopsin. Title: Correlating ...
Role of Mouse Cryptochrome Blue-Light Photoreceptor in Circadian Photoresponses. Does the p53 up-regulated Gadd45 protein have ... Role of Mouse Cryptochrome Blue-Light Photoreceptor in Circadian Photoresponses. Article Abstract:. Research on the biological ...
The photoreceptor cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) has become a powerful optogenetic tool that allows light-inducible manipulation of ... The Dual Characteristics of Light-Induced Cryptochrome 2, Homo-oligomerization and Heterodimerization, for Optogenetic ...
Cryptochromes, Cry, are photoreceptors that absorb blue light and mediate signaling events to modulate a wide range of ... In this presentation, I will discuss the conditions and functional dynamics of drosophila cryptochrome through a plethora of ... and the mechanism may be applicable to other cryptochromes. ...
Mus musculus cryptochrome 1 (Cry1) mRNA, complete cds. P. BC022174.1. Mus musculus cryptochrome 1 (photolyase-like), mRNA (cDNA ... cryptochrome 1a isoform 1. D. rerio. 93.2. 618. NP_477188.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * Protein sequence * * ... cryptochrome 1 (photolyase-like). X. laevis. 95.3. 615. NP_001070765.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * Protein ... Mus musculus cryptochrome 1 (photolyase-like) (Cry1), mRNA. PA. AF156986.1. ...
Circadian clock cryptochrome proteins regulate autoimmunity. Qi Cao, Xuan Zhao, Jingwen Bai, Sigal Gery, Haibo Sun, De-Chen Lin ... 2010) Cryptochrome mediates circadian regulation of cAMP signaling and hepatic gluconeogenesis. Nat Med 16:1152-1156. ... 2011) Cryptochromes mediate rhythmic repression of the glucocorticoid receptor. Nature 480:552-556. ... 2010) Mammalian clock gene Cryptochrome regulates arthritis via proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. J Immunol 184:1560-1565. ...
Cryptochrome 1 (cry1), cryptochrome 2 (cry2) and phototropin are the blue/ultraviolet-A light receptors that have been ... Cryptochrome 1 (cry1), cryptochrome 2 (cry2) and phototropin are the blue/ultraviolet-A light receptors that have been ... Enhancement of blue-light sensitivity of Arabidopsis seedlings by blue light receptor cryptochrome 2. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA ... Guo, H., Duong, H., Ma, N. & Lin, C. The Arabidopsis blue light receptor cryptochrome 2 is a nuclear protein regulated by a ...
Cryptochrome 1 (cry1), cryptochrome 2 (cry2) and phototropin are the blue/ultraviolet-A light receptors that have been ... Functional interaction of phytochrome B and cryptochrome 2.. Más P1, Devlin PF, Panda S, Kay SA. ... phytochromes and cryptochromes. Phytochromes are red/far-red light-absorbing receptors encoded by a gene family of five members ...
... a magnetically sensitive protein called cryptochrome that mediates circadian rhythms in plants and animals. ... Cryptochrome protein helps birds navigate via magnetic field. American Physical Society. Meeting. American Physical Society ... Cryptochrome protein helps birds navigate via magnetic field To be presented at the 2015 APS March Meeting in San Antonio, ... This would suggest that the radical pairs in cryptochrome preserve their quantum coherence for much longer than previously ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cryptochrome I antibody validated for WB, IHC, ICC and tested in Human and Mouse. With 1 independent review. ... Cryptochromes (Cry 1 and 2) are blue, ultraviolet-A photoreceptor pigment proteins that are involved circadian rhythm ... Detects a band of approximately 70 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 66 kDa).Can be blocked with Cryptochrome I peptide (ab5005) ... Detects recombinant human Cryptochrome 1 (Cry 1) (not tested on endogenous protein yet). ...
Photolyase/cryptochrome alpha/betaAdd BLAST. 130. Region. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. Length ... "Cryptochromes mediate rhythmic repression of the glucocorticoid receptor.". Lamia K.A., Papp S.J., Yu R.T., Barish G.D., ... "Cryptochromes mediate rhythmic repression of the glucocorticoid receptor.". Lamia K.A., Papp S.J., Yu R.T., Barish G.D., ... "Identification of small molecule activators of cryptochrome.". Hirota T., Lee J.W., St John P.C., Sawa M., Iwaisako K., Noguchi ...
Mouse polyclonal Cryptochrome I/CRY1 antibody. Validated in WB and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant full ... All lanes : Anti-Cryptochrome I/CRY1 antibody (ab171860) at 1 µg/ml. Lane 1 : Cryptochrome I/CRY1-transfected 293T cell lysate ... Anti-Cryptochrome I/CRY1 antibody. See all Cryptochrome I/CRY1 primary antibodies. ... Primary - Mouse Anti-Cryptochrome I/CRY1 antibody (ab171860) WB Secondary - Goat Anti-Mouse IgG H&L (HRP) (ab205719) WB, IP, ...
... thaliana cryptochrome in water for (a) cryptochrome with oxidized flavin, i.e., FAD + W400(H), and (b) cryptochrome in the ... Cryptochrome active site model. The quantum chemical description of the W377 →W400 + electron transfer in cryptochrome includes ... However, the structure of cryptochrome from a plant (Arabidopsis thaliana) is available, and the cryptochromes of plants and ... Although cryptochromes have been extensively studied during the last years, the photoactivation reactions in cryptochromes from ...
1A). Mutation of S71, which is conserved in all non-light-sensitive insect cryptochromes (6) and higher organisms (fig. S2), to ... AMPK Regulates the Circadian Clock by Cryptochrome Phosphorylation and Degradation. By Katja A. Lamia, Uma M. Sachdeva, Luciano ... AMPK Regulates the Circadian Clock by Cryptochrome Phosphorylation and Degradation. By Katja A. Lamia, Uma M. Sachdeva, Luciano ... If AMPK-directed cryptochrome phosphorylation regulates the phase of peripheral clocks, the activity, expression, and/or ...
Flavin cycle of cryptochrome. N, N-terminus of the protein; C, C-terminus of the protein; the antiserum-binding epitope is in ... 2011). The cryptochromes: blue light photoreceptors in plants and animals. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 62, 335-364. ... Cryptochrome is a blue light receptor, with flavin as the chromophore (for review, see Chaves et al., 2011). Flavin undergoes a ... Cryptochrome 1a, located in the UV/violet-sensitive cones in the avian retina, is discussed as receptor molecule for the ...
The currently most probable sensor candidates are cryptochromes (Cry) which are sensitive to submillitesla MF. Here, we propose ... The currently most probable sensor candidates are plant cryptochromes (Cry) which are sensitive to submillitesla MF. Here, we ... 2010). Cryptochrome as a sensor of the blue/green ratio of natural radiation in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 154, 401-409. doi: ... Could magnetic fields affect the circadian clock function of cryptochromes? Testing the basic premise of the cryptochrome ...
Showing Protein Cryptochrome-2 (HMDBP08265). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene propertiesProtein propertiesExternal links ... SCFFbxl3 controls the oscillation of the circadian clock by directing the degradation of cryptochrome proteins. Science. 2007 ...
Unique Aspects of Cryptochrome in Chronobiology and Metabolism, Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction, and Regeneration: Research into ... Cryptochrome proteins (CRYs), which can bind noncovalently to cofactor (chromophore) flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), occur ... presents reported results and recent findings related to molecular processes associated with mammalian cryptochromes, ...
We have identified and analyzed cry, a novel Drosophila cryptochrome gene. All characterized family members are directly ... CRY, a Drosophila clock and light-regulated cryptochrome, is a major contributor to circadian rhythm resetting and ... We have identified and analyzed cry, a novel Drosophila cryptochrome gene. All characterized family members are directly ...
Among these transcribed clock genes are cryptochrome (CRY) family members, which comprise Cry1 and Cry2. While the metabolic ... Among these transcribed clock genes are cryptochrome (CRY) family members, which comprise Cry1 and Cry2. While the metabolic ... Mice deficient in cryptochrome 1 (Cry1−/−) exhibit resistance to obesity induced by a high-fat diet. Guy Griebel1*, Christine ... Differential regulation of mammalian period genes and circadian rhythmicity by cryptochromes 1 and 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ...
Critical cholangiocarcinogenesis control by cryptochrome clock genes. Publication. Publication. International Journal of Cancer ... Critical cholangiocarcinogenesis control by cryptochrome clock genes. International Journal of Cancer. doi:10.1002/ijc.30663 ...
Cryptochromes. It was not until 1993 that Ahmad and Cashmore (2) first reported the discovery of cryptochrome 1 (cry1) in ... Five Phytochromes, Two Cryptochromes, One Phototropin, and One Superchrome Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Five Phytochromes, Two Cryptochromes, One Phototropin, and One Superchrome. Winslow R. Briggs, Margaret A. Olney ... There is evidence that cryptochromes are localized to the nucleus, but to date no interacting partner has been identified (for ...
Five phytochromes, two cryptochromes, one phototropin, and one superchrome. Plant Physiol. 125, 85-88. (doi:10.1104/pp.125.1.85 ... 2003 Cryptochromes and flavoprotein blue-light photoreceptors. In Handbook of photochemistry and photobiology (ed. Nalwa H.S), ... 1998) and regulates a group of blue light and cryptochrome-regulated genes including CHS (Ma et al. 2001; Ohgishi et al. 2004; ... 2003 Light-induced electron transfer in a cryptochrome blue-light photoreceptor. Nat. Struct. Biol. 10, 489-490. (doi:10.1038/ ...
Interaction between Cryptochrome and Phytochrome Pathways. Based on the observations leading to their model, Ahmad and Cashmore ... Genetic Interactions between Phytochrome A, Phytochrome B, and Cryptochrome 1 during Arabidopsis Development. Michael M. Neff, ... The cloning of specific or shared phytochrome and cryptochrome signal transduction components will allow us to test their ... It is possible that phytochromes and cryptochromes have a similar method of coordinating their signal transduction pathways. ...
Mammalian Cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, function as principal regulators of a transcription-translation-based negative feedback ...
Cryptochromes in insects are particularly interesting in that the role of the Drosophila cryptochromes is closer to that of the ... phyB can act in light input independently of cryptochrome, as evidenced by the normal response of the cryptochrome mutants at ... This is consistent with a phylogenetic analysis of the animal and plant cryptochromes that suggests that cryptochromes arose ... Loss of the cryptochromes in red light also affects the lower end of the range of fluence rates over which phyB acts in light ...
Cryptochromes are blue light photoreceptors involved in development and circadian clock regulation. They are found in both ... and the blue/UVA light receptors cryptochromes (cry1, cry2, cry-DASH) and phototropins (phot1 and phot2). Cryptochromes are ... To-date, three cryptochromes (cry1, cry2 and cry-DASH) have been found in plants. Both cry2 and cry-DASH were shown to have DNA ... Guo H,Duong H,Ma N,Lin C. 1999;The Arabidopsis blue light receptor cryptochrome 2 is a nuclear protein regulated by a blue ...
A Flavin Binding Cryptochrome Photoreceptor Responds to Both Blue and Red Light in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Benedikt Beel, ... 2011). The cryptochromes: Blue light photoreceptors in plants and animals. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 62: 335-364. ... 2007). Cryptochrome blue light photoreceptors are activated through interconversion of flavin redox states. J. Biol. Chem. 282 ... 2009). A cryptochrome-like protein is involved in the regulation of photosynthesis genes in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Mol. ...
Cryptochromes mediate rhythmic repression of the glucocorticoid receptor. Nature 480, 552 (2011). doi:10.1038/nature10700 pmid: ... Cryptochrome mediates circadian regulation of cAMP signaling and hepatic gluconeogenesis. Nat. Med. 16, 1152 (2010). doi: ... Delay in feedback repression by cryptochrome 1 is required for circadian clock function. Cell 144, 268 (2011). doi:10.1016/j. ... Identification of Small Molecule Activators of Cryptochrome. By Tsuyoshi Hirota, Jae Wook Lee, Peter C. St. John, Mariko Sawa, ...
Differential regulation of mammalian period genes and circadian rhythmicity by cryptochromes 1 and 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ... Gauger MA, Sancar A. Cryptochrome, circadian cycle, cell cycle checkpoints, and cancer. Cancer Res 2005; 65: 6828-34. ... The current study examined Cryptochrome 2 (CRY2), a core circadian gene and transcriptional repressor, as a potential circadian ... A Genetic Association Study and Pathway Analysis of the Circadian Gene Cryptochrome 2. Aaron E. Hoffman, Tongzhang Zheng, ...
Cryptochromes. Arabidopsis thaliana and Cryptochromes. Cryptochromes are flavoprotein photoreceptors first discovered in ... Cryptochrome has also been implicated in plant magneto-sensing that alters growths rates in different magnetic field ... We propose that cryptochrome photoreceptors respond to appropriate magnetic field strengths by modulation of singlet-triplet ... Blue-light dependent ROS formation by Arabidopsis cryptochrome may define a novel evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanism. ...
  • Here, we carried out a survey of genetic variation in Drosophila cryptochrome (cry), the fly's dedicated circadian photoreceptor. (le.ac.uk)
  • Here we report the effect of cry1 and cry2 blue light receptors on primary root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, through analysis of both cryptochrome-mutant and cryptochrome-overexpressing lines. (elsevier.com)
  • The photoreceptor cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) has become a powerful optogenetic tool that allows light-inducible manipulation of various signaling pathways and cellular processes in mammalian cells with high spatiotemporal precision and ease of application. (cdc.gov)
  • Light transduction pathways mediated by the rhodopsins and the dedicated circadian blue light photoreceptor cryptochrome are also critical in providing the circadian clock with entraining light signals from the environment. (le.ac.uk)
  • Cryptochromes are photosensing proteins closely related to photolyases. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Cryptochrome 2 is a flavin-type blue light receptor mediating floral induction in response to photoperiod and a blue light-induced hypocotyl growth inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • Primary root elongation in blue light may thereby involve interaction between cryptochrome and auxin signaling pathways. (elsevier.com)
  • Cryptochromes are blue-light receptors controlling multiple aspects of plant growth and development. (elsevier.com)
  • The site of cryptochrome signal perception is within the shoot, and the inhibitor of auxin transport, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid, abolishes the differential effect of cryptochromes on root growth, suggesting the blue-light signal is transmitted from the shoot to the root by a mechanism that involves auxin. (elsevier.com)
  • However, recent experiments on cryptochrome vari- ants that found them to be functional in vivo but lack photoreduction in vitro, have called this interpretation into question. (fu-berlin.de)
  • A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Cryptochrome 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Cryptochromes (Cry 1 and 2) are blue, ultraviolet-A photoreceptor pigment proteins that are involved circadian rhythm regulation in plants and animals. (abcam.com)
  • Cryptochrome proteins (CRYs), which can bind noncovalently to cofactor (chromophore) flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), occur widely among organisms. (hindawi.com)
  • In response to blue and red light exposure, this animal-like cryptochrome (aCRY) alters the light-dependent expression of various genes encoding proteins involved in chlorophyll and carotenoid biosynthesis, light-harvesting complexes, nitrogen metabolism, cell cycle control, and the circadian clock. (plantcell.org)
  • Addgene: Dual modes of CLOCK:BMAL1 inhibition mediated by Cryptochrome and Period proteins in the mammalian circadian clock. (addgene.org)
  • Diatoms possess several genes for proteins of the cryptochrome/photolyase family. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Of all P.tricornutum proteins, it is the most similar in sequence to a plant cryptochrome, and is involved in the regulation of light-harvesting protein expression, but shows spectroscopic features and a chromophore composition that are most typical of a DASH cryptochrome. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Residues at a Single Site Differentiate Animal Cryptochromes from Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Photolyases by Affecting the Proteins' Preferences for Reduced FAD. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Homology modelling and crystal packing structure of the used proteins is used to construct the large cryptochrome-ISCA1 complex, which reveals that the iron sulphur clusters are too far away to participate in any electron transfer whatsoever. (quantbiolab.com)
  • The Cryptochrome proteins are critical transcriptional repressors that are necessary for a functioning circadian clock. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • The Green Lab has been interested in various structure/function aspects of the cryptochromes and have shown that these proteins have two distinct functional domains - a core photolyase-like domain that is necessary and sufficient for repression, and a C-terminal tail that is necessary for nuclear localization. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Cryptochrome (CRY) proteins are components of the central circadian clockwork of metazoans. (umassmed.edu)
  • Cryptochromes are photosensing proteins closely related to photolyases. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Magnetically sensitive radical pairs are thought to be generated in cryptochrome proteins contained in magnetoreceptor cells in the retina. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • During a conversation after the talk, he mentioned the recently discovered class of proteins called cryptochromes . (blogspot.com)
  • By using time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy, we have studied the mechanism of light-induced reduction of the FAD cofactor of cryptochrome/photolyase family proteins. (scripps.edu)
  • Among the proteins affecting photosynthesis gene expression is the blue light photoreceptor cryptochrome CryB. (duhnnae.com)
  • This raises the question, why PhrB positions a tyrosine at this location, having a less favourable ionisation potential than tryptophan, which occurs at this position in many proteins of the photolyase/cryptochrome family. (rsc.org)
  • Cryptochromes and photolyases are homologous proteins with a central flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) chromophore that fulfil different biological functions, which are most often triggered by light. (rsc.org)
  • In cryptochromes, which often function as photoreceptor proteins, FAD adopts the oxidised form in darkness. (rsc.org)
  • Formation of a repressive complex, defined by the core clock proteins cryptochrome 1 (CRY1):CLOCK:BMAL1, plays an important role controlling the switch from repression to activation each day. (pnas.org)
  • examples of plants' light-sensing proteins are phytochrome and cryptochrome). (newyorker.com)
  • The Swedish researchers were examining proteins in the eyes of zebrafinches when they discovered that one of them differs from the others: only the cryptochrome Cry4 protein maintains a constant level throughout the day and in different lighting conditions. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • A radical pair mechanism within the protein cryptochrome may underlie both phenomena. (uiuc.edu)
  • The protein cryptochrome is thought to be the magnetosensor in migratory birds, i.e. the protein responsible for the avain magnetic compass. (quantbiolab.com)
  • The possible mechanism to explain the biophysics of this compass sense involves electron transfers within the photoreceptive protein cryptochrome. (quantbiolab.com)
  • Largely ignored for 20 years, this hypothesis was revived in 2000 when it was proposed [ 15 ] that the required chemistry could be hosted by molecules of the photo-active protein cryptochrome [ 16 ] contained in specialized magnetoreceptor cells in the retina. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Suppression of Circadian Clock Protein Cryptochrome 2 Promotes Osteoarthritis. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • 9, 3618-3623 (2018)] that something else must be going on inside cryptochrome - perhaps that FAD is not the only small embedded molecule, but that a secondary photoreception may exist within the type of cryptochrome that may be responsible for avain magnetoreception. (quantbiolab.com)
  • As seen in Fig. 2, the interaction energy is non-homologues along the ISCA1-rod it, revealing that the complex does likely not exist in the proposed form, and the large distance between the cofactors participating in electron factors rules out that this cryptochrome interaction has any relevance to magnetoreception. (quantbiolab.com)
  • They were working on the hypothesis that retinal cryptochromes involved in magnetoreception should be expressed at a constant level because birds use a light-dependent magnetic compass for orientation not only during migration, but also daily for spatial awareness. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • The first blue-light receptors to be identified were the two cryptochromes, chromoproteins that mediate several responses. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Cryptochromes are flavoproteins that act as sensory blue light receptors in insects, plants, fungi, and bacteria. (plantcell.org)
  • Cryptochromes are blue-light receptors controlling multiple aspects of plant growth and development. (elsevier.com)
  • ii) Each cell contains multiple, identical receptors (i.e. cryptochrome molecules). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Cryptochromes are blue/ultraviolet-A (UV-A) light receptors involved in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Essen LO, Franz S, Banerjee A (2017) - Structural and evolutionary aspects of algal blue light receptors of the cryptochrome and aurechrome type. (uni-marburg.de)
  • The broad spectral response implies that the neutral radical state functions as a dark form in aCRY and expands the paradigm of flavoproteins and cryptochromes as blue light sensors to include other light qualities. (plantcell.org)
  • Cryptochromes are large flavoproteins with a curiously complex evolutionary history, beginning billions of years ago as dna repair enzymes (or even earlier as replication primase). (ucsc.edu)
  • Cryptochromes (Crys) and photolyases (Phrs) are flavoproteins that contain an identical cofactor (flavin adenine dinucleotide, FAD) within the same protein architecture but whose physiological functions are entirely different. (scripps.edu)
  • We have identified and analyzed cry, a novel Drosophila cryptochrome gene. (nih.gov)
  • However, the gene targets that are regulated by HFR1 in cryptochrome 1 (cry1)-mediated blue light signaling have not been globally addressed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The next round of gene duplication of the 6-4 photolyase gave rise to a cryptochrome which retained the conformational change induced by FAD binding of blue light but lost dna repair capacity, instead specializing in entraining the day/night circadian rhythm cycle. (ucsc.edu)
  • Even ten years into the whole genome era, the comparative genomics of cryptochromes and photolyases has never been considered, perhaps because of a narrow experimental focus on 'model' organisms such as mouse and fruit fly that, as it turns out, have rather restricted and unrepresentative gene family complements. (ucsc.edu)
  • The Influence of a Cryptochrome on the Gene Expression Profile in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under Blue Light and in Darkness. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Insect cryptochromes: gene duplication and loss define diverse ways to" by Quan Yuan, Danielle Metterville et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • Here we present molecular and biochemical data on cryptochrome, a candidate gene for functional involvement in sponge pigment ring eyes. (unh.edu)
  • Furthermore, the activity of the tim gene in the MTs of cry b flies, reported by luciferase, seemed stimulated by lights-on and suppressed by lights-off, suggesting that the absence of functional cryptochrome uncovered an additional light-sensitive pathway synchronizing the expression of TIM in this tissue. (uni-muenster.de)
  • Period (PER) and cryptochrome (CRY) rhythmically repress activity of the circadian transcription factor, CLOCK:BMAL1 (brain and muscle Arnt-like protein 1), to establish daily patterns of gene expression. (pnas.org)
  • Dex induction of many genes was increased in Cry-deficient fibroblasts suggesting that cryptochromes oppose transactivation in addition to contributing to transrepression. (omicsdi.org)
  • En esta revisión, mostramos los resultados más recientes sobre los mecanismos involucrados en la biosíntesis de carotenoides mediada por luz y el efecto de la luz sobre la expresión de genes carotenogénicos en plantas. (scielo.cl)
  • Los estudios moleculares en torno a la expresión de genes carotenogénicos inducidos por luz permitirán facilitar el entendimiento de la regulación de la biosíntesis de carotenoides. (scielo.cl)
  • The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina of migratory birds? (lu.se)
  • We are currently focused on the following projects: (1) Analyses of the regulation and function of the circadian deadenylase nocturnin, (2) Circadian regulation of metabolism, and (3) Structure/function studies of the core circadian clock components Cryptochromes (CRYs). (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • The N termini of cryptochrome molecules show strong homology with the type II photolyase DNA repair enzymes. (plantcell.org)
  • Cryptochrome so far lack antenna molecules but retain the binding domain and substrate pocket. (ucsc.edu)
  • Many types of cryptochrome does not only consist of amino acids, but have smaller molecules embedded inside the peptide chain, and many cryptochromes are known to possess a specific molecule, namely an FAD molecule which has some interesting photochemical properties. (quantbiolab.com)
  • A prerequisite of the current model is for some degree of rotational ordering of both the cryptochromes within the cells and of the cells within the retina so that the directional responses of individual molecules do not average to zero. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • It's possible to modify the signal coming from the [cell] phones and the base station in such a way that it doesn't produce the frequencies that disturb the cryptochrome molecules,' Goldsworthy said. (cnn.com)
  • We are currently interested in defining the structural aspects of cryptochrome that make it a repressor and are doing this by making chimeric constructs between cryptochrome and the non-repressive but closely related photolyase and via a random mutagenesis screen. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Since most annotation effort goes into human (which are very deficient in their repertoire), the lack of a suitable homology probe there lets novel photolyases and cryptochromes in other species go undiscovered. (ucsc.edu)
  • Photoreduction of PhrB differs from the typical pattern because the amino acid of the electron cascade next to FAD is a tyrosine (Tyr391), whereas photolyases and cryptochromes of other groups have a tryptophan as direct electron donor of FAD. (rsc.org)
  • Somers, D. E., Devlin, P. F. & Kay, S. A. Phytochromes and cryptochromes in the entrainment of the Arabidopsis circadian clock. (nature.com)
  • Light transduction pathways mediated by the rhodopsins and the dedicated circadian blue light photoreceptor cryptochrome are also critical in providing the circadian clock with entraining light signals from the environment. (le.ac.uk)
  • Primary root elongation in blue light may thereby involve interaction between cryptochrome and auxin signaling pathways. (elsevier.com)
  • Whether cryptochrome and visual transduction pathways play a role in entrainment of noninnervated, directly photosensitive peripheral clocks is not known and the subject of this study. (uni-muenster.de)
  • We have investigated a cryptochrome from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with sequence homology to animal cryptochromes and (6-4) photolyases. (plantcell.org)
  • A: Ten different cryptochromes are shown attached to the ISCA1-polymer. (quantbiolab.com)
  • Here, we carried out a survey of genetic variation in Drosophila cryptochrome (cry), the fly's dedicated circadian photoreceptor. (le.ac.uk)
  • Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY) is a light-responsive flavoprotein that detects changes in light intensity and wavelength around dawn and dusk. (sleeprhythm.org)
  • HFR1 is crucial for transcriptome regulation in the cryptochrome 1-mediated early response to blue light in Arabidopsis thaliana. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Juhas M, von Zadow A, Spexard M, Schmidt M, Kottke T, Büchel C. A novel cryptochrome in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum influences the regulation of light-harvesting protein levels. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • COP1-mediated ubiquitination of CONSTANS is implicated in cryptochrome regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Studies of a CRY1:CLOCK:BMAL1 complex highlight critical interfaces for the direct regulation of CLOCK:BMAL1 by cryptochromes. (pnas.org)
  • 15 ] suggested that photo-excitation of the fully oxidized form of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor in cryptochrome, followed by electron transfer along a chain of three tryptophan residues (the 'Trp triad') would give a magnetically sensitive radical pair comprising the semi-reduced FAD radical and a Trp radical. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This would suggest that the radical pairs in cryptochrome preserve their quantum coherence for much longer than previously believed possible. (eurekalert.org)
  • proposes that the sensing of magnetic direction in birds is based on radical pair processes, with cryptochrome as receptor molecule. (biologists.org)
  • We hypothesize that ROS radical pairs can affect the outcome of cryptochrome ROS biochemical reactions, influencing intracellular signal transduction cascades and cell-cell communication mechanisms. (fit.edu)
  • In recombinant CryP, however, the FAD chromophore was present in its neutral radical state and had a red-shifted absorption maximum at 637nm, which is more characteristic for a DASH cryptochrome than a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • This ability to sense magnetic fields is provided by a radical pair that can be generated inside cryptochrome after activation of the protein, and cryptochrome is thought to be activated by absorption of light. (quantbiolab.com)
  • FAD is well known to absorb light, mainly in the blue part of the visible spectrum, and it has been shown that the excited state of FAD can lead to formation of a radical pair inside cryptochrome. (quantbiolab.com)
  • Although there is some doubt about the exact identity of the radical pair [ 17 - 19 ], most of the experimental and theoretical studies over the last decade seem to support the involvement of cryptochrome [ 17 , 20 - 37 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Enhancement of blue-light sensitivity of Arabidopsis seedlings by blue light receptor cryptochrome 2. (nature.com)
  • Guo, H., Duong, H., Ma, N. & Lin, C. The Arabidopsis blue light receptor cryptochrome 2 is a nuclear protein regulated by a blue light-dependent post-transcriptional mechanism. (nature.com)
  • Our previous immunohistochemical studies of chicken retinae with an antiserum that labelled only activated cryptochrome 1a had shown activation of cryptochrome 1a under 373 nm UV, 424 nm blue, 502 nm turquoise and 565 nm green light. (biologists.org)
  • Cryptochrome 2 is a flavin-type blue light receptor mediating floral induction in response to photoperiod and a blue light-induced hypocotyl growth inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • Blue-light dependent ROS formation by Arabidopsis cryptochrome may define a novel evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanism. (fit.edu)
  • Blue light receptor cryptochromes (CRY) work together with PHY to regulate many light-controlled responses, including photomorphogenesis, floral induction, and entrainment of the circadian clock. (scialert.net)
  • The site of cryptochrome signal perception is within the shoot, and the inhibitor of auxin transport, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid, abolishes the differential effect of cryptochromes on root growth, suggesting the blue-light signal is transmitted from the shoot to the root by a mechanism that involves auxin. (elsevier.com)
  • In plants, cryptochromes are associated with light dependent growth (again blue light). (blogspot.com)
  • The photolyase harnesses blue light to fix the problems caused by excesses of uv light and the cryptochromes have established a nice working relationship between the daily appearance and disappearance of the sun and organismal growth and behaviour! (blogspot.com)
  • Blue-light-receptive cryptochrome is expressed in a sponge eye lacking neurons and opsin. (unh.edu)
  • Several lines of evidence indicate that light entrainment of the brain clock involves the blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY). (uni-muenster.de)
  • Cryptochromes absorb blue light and UV-A. Cryptochromes entrain the circadian clock to light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Role of Mouse Cryptochrome Blue-Light Photoreceptor in Circadian Photoresponses. (readabstracts.com)
  • Orth C, Niemann N, Hennig L, Essen LO, Batschauer A (2017) - Hyperactivity of the Arabidopsis cryptochrome (cry1) L407F mutant is caused by a structural alteration close to the cry1 ATP-binding site. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Circadian photoreception in Drosophila: Functions of cryptochrome in peripheral and central clocks. (uni-muenster.de)
  • A typical sequence for a plant cryptochrome was not found in our analysis of the Phaeodactylumtricornutum genome, but one protein grouped with higher plant and green algal cryptochromes. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • For example, phytochrome's induction of the accumulation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in milo seedlings can be amplified by cryptochromes ( Oelmüller and Mohr, 1984 , 1985b ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Cryptochromes and photolyases form a flavoprotein family in which the FAD chromophore undergoes light induced changes of its redox state. (rsc.org)
  • 2016) claimed that the sensitivity to changes in the magnetic field is enhanced by a coupling to an iron rich polymer complex which couples to multiple cryptochromes. (quantbiolab.com)
  • von Zadow A , Ignatz E , Pokorny R , Essen LO , Klug G (2016) - Rhodobacter sphaeroides CryB is a bacterial cryptochrome with (6-4) photolyase activity. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Physicists at the University of Oxford are exploring one possible explanation: a magnetically sensitive protein called cryptochrome that mediates circadian rhythms in plants and animals. (eurekalert.org)
  • However the recent excitement over Quantum Biology brought the cryptochromes to my attention again. (blogspot.com)
  • Cryptochrome is also an indispensable component of the endogenous clock mechanism in the examined peripheral tissue, but not in the brain. (uni-muenster.de)
  • Conversely, cryptochromes have been shown to amplify phytochrome-mediated responses. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Green light, however, does not allow the first step of photoreduction of oxidized cryptochromes to the semiquinone. (biologists.org)
  • During a process termed photoreduction, oxidised FAD of cryptochromes or photolyases takes up one or two electrons to convert to the semiquinone or the fully reduced state, respectively. (rsc.org)