Cryptochromes: Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.FlavoproteinsPhotoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate: Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.Deoxyribodipyrimidine Photo-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reactivation by light of UV-irradiated DNA. It breaks two carbon-carbon bonds in PYRIMIDINE DIMERS in DNA.Photoreceptors, Plant: Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Phytochrome: A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.Flavins: Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.Light Signal Transduction: The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.Phytochrome B: A plant photo regulatory protein that exists in two forms that are reversibly interconvertible by LIGHT. In response to light it moves to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates transcription of target genes. Phytochrome B plays an important role in shade avoidance and mediates plant de-etiolation in red light.Eye ProteinsCircadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.ARNTL Transcription Factors: Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. They combine with CLOCK PROTEINS to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation.Phytochrome A: The primary plant photoreceptor responsible for perceiving and mediating responses to far-red light. It is a PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to light signals.Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Phototropism: The directional growth of organisms in response to light. In plants, aerial shoots usually grow towards light. The phototropic response is thought to be controlled by auxin (= AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phototropins: Blue-light receptors that regulate a range of physiological responses in PLANTS. Examples include: PHOTOTROPISM, light-induced stomatal opening, and CHLOROPLAST movements in response to changes in light intensity.Photobiology: The branch of biology dealing with the effect of light on organisms.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)CLOCK Proteins: Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Circadian Clocks: Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Organisms, Genetically Modified: Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.Darkness: The absence of light.Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)PhotochemistryAnimal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).Antibodies, Anticardiolipin: Antiphospholipid antibodies found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. The antibodies are detected by solid-phase IMMUNOASSAY employing the purified phospholipid antigen CARDIOLIPIN.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Magnetic Fields: Areas of attractive or repulsive force surrounding MAGNETS.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.

Regulation of the mammalian pineal by non-rod, non-cone, ocular photoreceptors. (1/564)

In mammals, ocular photoreceptors mediate an acute inhibition of pineal melatonin by light. The effect of rod and cone loss on this response was assessed by combining the rd mutation with a transgenic ablation of cones (cl) to produce mice lacking both photoreceptor classes. Despite the loss of all known retinal photoreceptors, rd/rd cl mice showed normal suppression of pineal melatonin in response to monochromatic light of wavelength 509 nanometers. These data indicate that mammals have additional ocular photoreceptors that they use in the regulation of temporal physiology.  (+info)

Antagonistic actions of Arabidopsis cryptochromes and phytochrome B in the regulation of floral induction. (2/564)

The Arabidopsis photoreceptors cry1, cry2 and phyB are known to play roles in the regulation of flowering time, for which the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We have previously hypothesized that phyB mediates a red-light inhibition of floral initiation and cry2 mediates a blue-light inhibition of the phyB function. Studies of the cry2/phyB double mutant provide direct evidence in support of this hypothesis. The function of cryptochromes in floral induction was further investigated using the cry2/cry1 double mutants. The cry2/cry1 double mutants showed delayed flowering in monochromatic blue light, whereas neither monogenic cry1 nor cry2 mutant exhibited late flowering in blue light. This result suggests that, in addition to the phyB-dependent function, cry2 also acts redundantly with cry1 to promote floral initiation in a phyB-independent manner. To understand how photoreceptors regulate the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive development, we examined the effect of sequential illumination by blue light and red light on the flowering time of plants. We found that there was a light-quality-sensitive phase of plant development, during which the quality of light exerts a profound influence on flowering time. After this developmental stage, which is between approximately day-1 to day-7 post germination, plants are committed to floral initiation and the quality of light has little effect on the flowering time. Mutations in either the PHYB gene or both the CRY1 and CRY2 genes resulted in the loss of the light-quality-sensitive phase manifested during floral development. The commitment time of floral transition, defined by a plant's sensitivity to light quality, coincides with the commitment time of inflorescence development revealed previously by a plant's sensitivity to light quantity - the photoperiod. Therefore, the developmental mechanism resulting in the commitment to flowering appears to be the direct target of the antagonistic actions of the photoreceptors.  (+info)

Photomophogenesis: Phytochrome takes a partner! (3/564)

How light signals are transduced by phytochromes is still poorly understood. Recent studies have provided evidence that a PAS domain protein, PIF3, physically interacts with phytochromes, plays a role in phytochrome signal transduction and might be a component of a novel signalling pathway in plants.  (+info)

Circadian rhythms: Something to cry about? (4/564)

Recent studies suggest that a class of proteins known as cryptochromes have an evolutionarily conserved role in the entrainment of circadian rhythms to the night-day cycle. While the evidence reported is intriguing, the notion that cryptochromes have the same role in all species requires further investigation.  (+info)

An extraretinally expressed insect cryptochrome with similarity to the blue light photoreceptors of mammals and plants. (5/564)

Photic entrainment of insect circadian rhythms can occur through either extraretinal (brain) or retinal photoreceptors, which mediate sensitivity to blue light or longer wavelengths, respectively. Although visual transduction processes are well understood in the insect retina, almost nothing is known about the extraretinal blue light photoreceptor of insects. We now have identified and characterized a candidate blue light photoreceptor gene in Drosophila (DCry) that is homologous to the cryptochrome (Cry) genes of mammals and plants. The DCry gene is located in region 91F of the third chromosome, an interval that does not contain other genes required for circadian rhythmicity. The protein encoded by DCry is approximately 50% identical to the CRY1 and CRY2 proteins recently discovered in mammalian species. As expected for an extraretinal photoreceptor mediating circadian entrainment, DCry mRNA is expressed within the adult brain and can be detected within body tissues. Indeed, tissue in situ hybridization demonstrates prominent expression in cells of the lateral brain, which are close to or coincident with the Drosophila clock neurons. Interestingly, DCry mRNA abundance oscillates in a circadian manner in Drosophila head RNA extracts, and the temporal phasing of the rhythm is similar to that documented for the mouse Cry1 mRNA, which is expressed in clock tissues. Finally, we show that changes in DCry gene dosage are associated predictably with alterations of the blue light resetting response for the circadian rhythm of adult locomotor activity.  (+info)

Light-dependent sequestration of TIMELESS by CRYPTOCHROME. (6/564)

Most organisms have circadian clocks consisting of negative feedback loops of gene regulation that facilitate adaptation to cycles of light and darkness. In this study, CRYPTOCHROME (CRY), a protein involved in circadian photoperception in Drosophila, is shown to block the function of PERIOD/TIMELESS (PER/TIM) heterodimeric complexes in a light-dependent fashion. TIM degradation does not occur under these conditions; thus, TIM degradation is uncoupled from abrogation of its function by light. CRY and TIM are part of the same complex and directly interact in yeast in a light-dependent fashion. PER/TIM and CRY influence the subcellular distribution of these protein complexes, which reside primarily in the nucleus after the perception of a light signal. Thus, CRY acts as a circadian photoreceptor by directly interacting with core components of the circadian clock.  (+info)

mCRY1 and mCRY2 are essential components of the negative limb of the circadian clock feedback loop. (7/564)

We determined that two mouse cryptochrome genes, mCry1 and mCry2, act in the negative limb of the clock feedback loop. In cell lines, mPER proteins (alone or in combination) have modest effects on their cellular location and ability to inhibit CLOCK:BMAL1 -mediated transcription. This suggested cryptochrome involvement in the negative limb of the feedback loop. Indeed, mCry1 and mCry2 RNA levels are reduced in the central and peripheral clocks of Clock/Clock mutant mice. mCRY1 and mCRY2 are nuclear proteins that interact with each of the mPER proteins, translocate each mPER protein from cytoplasm to nucleus, and are rhythmically expressed in the suprachiasmatic circadian clock. Luciferase reporter gene assays show that mCRY1 or mCRY2 alone abrogates CLOCK:BMAL1-E box-mediated transcription. The mPER and mCRY proteins appear to inhibit the transcriptional complex differentially.  (+info)

Blue light-directed destabilization of the pea Lhcb1*4 transcript depends on sequences within the 5' untranslated region. (8/564)

Pea seedlings grown in continuous red light accumulate significant levels of Lhcb1 RNA. When treated with a single pulse of blue light with a total fluence >10(4) micromol m(-2), the rate of Lhcb1 transcription is increased, whereas the level of Lhcb1 RNA is unchanged from that in control seedlings. This RNA destabilization response occurs in developing leaves but not in the apical bud. The data presented here indicate that the same response occurs in the cotyledons of etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. The blue light-induced destabilization response persists in long hypocotyl hy4 and phytochrome phyA, phyB, and hy1 mutants as well as in far-red light-grown seedlings, indicating that neither CRY1 (encoded by the hy4 locus) nor phytochrome is the sole photoreceptor. Studies with transgenic plants indicate that the destabilization element in the pea Lhcb1*4 transcript resides completely in the 5' untranslated region.  (+info)

*Cryptochrome

In eukaryotes, cryptochromes no longer retain this original enzymatic activity. The structure of cryptochrome involves a fold ... cryptochrome at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Cryptochrome circadian clock in Monarch ... Similarly, cryptochromes play an important role in the entrainment of circadian rhythms in plants. In Drosophila, cryptochrome ... Cryptochromes receptors cause plants to respond to blue light via photomorphogenesis. Cryptochromes help control seed and ...

*Photoperiodism

Cryptochromes absorb blue light and UV-A. Cryptochromes entrain the circadian clock to light. It has been found that both ... Modern biologists believe that it is the coincidence of the active forms of phytochrome or cryptochrome, created by light ... Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). Lin, Chentao (2005). "The cryptochromes ... cryptochrome and phytochrome abundance relies on light and the amount of cryptochrome can change depending on day-length. This ...

*Steven M. Reppert

Yuan, Q.; Metterville, D.; Briscoe, A. D.; Reppert, S. M. (2007). "Insect Cryptochromes: Gene Duplication and Loss Define ... Reppert and colleagues discovered that the two mouse cryptochromes, mCRY1 and mCRY2, function as the primary transcriptional ... Foley, Lauren E.; Gegear, Robert J.; Reppert, Steven M. (2011). "Human cryptochrome exhibits light-dependent magnetosensitivity ... Kyriacou, Charalambos P (2009). "Clocks, cryptochromes and Monarch migrations". Journal of Biology. 8 (6): 55. doi:10.1186/ ...

*Klaus Schulten

"Cryptochrome and Magnetic Sensing". Theoretical and Computational Biophysics Group. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ... Schulten and others have since extended this early work, developing a model of the possible excitation of cryptochrome proteins ...

*Magnetoreception

Cryptochrome, a flavoprotein found in the eyes of European robins and other animal species, is the only protein known to form ... The function of cryptochrome is diverse across species, however, the photoinduction of radical-pairs occurs by exposure to blue ... Cryptochromes are therefore thought to be essential for the light-dependent ability of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to ... Humans are not thought to have a magnetic sense, but there is a protein (a cryptochrome) in the eye which could serve this ...

*Photomorphogenesis

In addition to blue light, cryptochromes also perceive long wavelength UV irradiation (UV-A). Since the cryptochromes were ... There are several blue light photoreceptors known as cryptochromes. The combination of phytochromes and cryptochromes mediate ... Cryptochromes were the first blue light receptors to be isolated and characterized from any organism, and are responsible for ... The cryptochromes have evolved from microbial DNA-photolyase, an enzyme that carries out light-dependent repair of UV damaged ...

*List of disabled human pseudogenes

Phylogenomic Analysis of the Photolyase/Cryptochrome Family". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 26 (5): 1143-1153. doi:10.1093/ ... Instead, this gene is mutated to encode for cryptochromes. http://www.thephora.net/forum/archive/index.php/t-9928.html NCBI ...

*Phototropin

Along with cryptochromes and phytochromes they allow plants to respond and alter their growth in response to the light ... Five phytochromes, two cryptochromes, one phototropin, and one superchrome". Plant Physiol. 125 (1): 85-8. doi:10.1104/pp.125.1 ... In addition phototropins mediate the first changes in stem elongation in blue light prior to cryptochrome activation. ... Folta, Kevin (2001). "Unexpected Roles for Cryptochrome 2 and Phototropin Revealed by High-resolution Analysis of Blue Light- ...

*Rhodopsin

Humans have eight different other opsins besides rhodopsin, as well as cryptochrome (light-sensitive, but not an opsin). The ... Foley, Lauren E.; Gegear, Robert J.; Reppert, Steven M. (2011). "Human cryptochrome exhibits light-dependent magnetosensitivity ...

*Oscillating gene

Cry1 and Cry2 - Cryptochromes are a class of blue light sensitive flavoproteins found in plants and animals. Cry1 and Cry2 code ... Thompson CL, Sancar A (2004). "Cryptochrome: Discovery of a Circadian Photopigment". In Lenci F, Horspool WM. CRC handbook of ...

*Photoreceptor protein

Five Phytochromes, Two Cryptochromes, One Phototropin, and One Superchrome, 2003 ... for example cryptochrome in plants and animals) and bilin (biliproteins, for example phytochrome in plants). (Also see: ... UV-B light reception Cryptochrome: in plants, blue light reception Phototropin: in plants, mediates phototropism Phytochrome: ...

*Monarch butterfly migration

The antennae contain cryptochrome, a photoreceptor protein sensitive to the violet-blue part of the light spectrum. In the ... Robert J. Gegear, Lauren E. Foley, Amy Casselman & Steven M. Reppert; Foley; Casselman; Reppert (2010). "Animal cryptochromes ...

*FBXL3

... ubiquitin ligase targets cryptochromes at their cofactor pocket". Nature. 496 (7443): 64-8. doi:10.1038/nature11964. PMID ... "SCFFbxl3 controls the oscillation of the circadian clock by directing the degradation of cryptochrome proteins". Science. 316 ( ... "FBXL21 regulates oscillation of the circadian clock through ubiquitination and stabilization of cryptochromes". Cell. 152 (5): ...

*Period (gene)

Now, cryptochrome (CRY) is a light sensitive protein which inhibits TIM in the presence of light. When TIM is not complexed ... dimerizes via its PAS domain with one of two cryptochrome proteins (CRY1 and CRY2) to form a negative element of the clock. ... "Light-dependent sequestration of TIMELESS by CRYPTOCHROME". Science. 285 (5427): 553-6. doi:10.1126/science.285.5427.553. PMID ...

*Steve A. Kay

Kay discovered that cryptochrome is the circadian photoreceptor that directly acts with and sequesters TIM in response to light ... KL001-mediated cryptochrome stabilization (of both CRY1 and CRY2) was found to restrain glucagon-activated gluconeogenesis. ... There, Kay collaborated with Jeffrey C. Hall and discovered a cryptochrome mutant in fruit flies, also demonstrating that clock ... John PC; Sawa M (2012). "Identification of small molecule activators in cryptochrome". Science. 337: 1094-1097. doi:10.1126/ ...

*Circadian rhythm

7-day biological cycle Cryptochrome CRY1 and CRY2: the cryptochrome family genes Diurnal cycle Light effects on circadian ... The cryptochrome (cry) gene is also a light-sensitive component of the circadian clock and is thought to be involved both as a ... Cryptochromes 1-2 (involved in blue-UVA) help to maintain the period length in the clock through a whole range of light ... Red and blue light are absorbed through several phytochromes and cryptochromes. One phytochrome, phyA, is the main phytochrome ...

*Phototropism

Eckardt, N. A. (1 May 2003). "A Component of the Cryptochrome Blue Light Signaling Pathway". The Plant Cell Online. 15 (5): ... The combination of responses from phytochromes and cryptochromes allow the plant to respond to various kinds of light. Together ... Both root tips and most stem tips exhibit positive phototropism to red light.[citation needed] Cryptochromes are photoreceptors ... Other photosensitive receptors in plants include phytochromes that sense red light and cryptochromes that sense blue light. ...

*Bird vision

The right eye of a migratory bird contains photoreceptive proteins called cryptochromes. Light excites these molecules to ...

*Drosophila circadian rhythm

Emery, P.; So, W.V.; Kaneko, M.; Hall, J.C.; Rosbash, M. (1998). "CRY, a Drosophila clock and light-regulated cryptochrome, is ... The gene product CRY is a major photoreceptor protein belonging to a class of flavoproteins called cryptochromes. They are also ... Busza, A.; Emery-Le, M.; Rosbash, M.; Emery, P. (2004). "Roles of the two Drosophila CRYPTOCHROME structural domains in ... Mei, Q.; Dvornyk, V. (2015). "Evolutionary History of the Photolyase/Cryptochrome Superfamily in Eukaryotes". PLOS One. 10 (9 ...

*Casein kinase 1

Eide EJ, Vielhaber EL, Hinz WA, Virshup DM (2002). "The Circadian Regulatory Proteins BMAL1 and Cryptochromes Are Substrates of ...

*Joanne Chory

"Cryptochromes Interact Directly with PIFs to Control Plant Growth in Limiting Blue Light". Cell. 164 (1-2): 233-245. doi: ...

*ARNTL

Xu H, Gustafson CL, Sammons PJ, Khan SK, Parsley NC, Ramanathan C, Lee HW, Liu AC, Partch CL (June 2015). "Cryptochrome 1 ... Eide EJ, Vielhaber EL, Hinz WA, Virshup DM (May 2002). "The circadian regulatory proteins BMAL1 and cryptochromes are ...

*Magnetite

... in conjunction with cryptochromes in the retina) gives them the ability to sense the direction, polarity, and magnitude of the ... radical pair processes involving cryptochrome". Biosensors. 4 (3): 221-42. doi:10.3390/bios4030221. Lay summary. Birds can use ...

*DNA repair

Sancar, A. (2003). "Structure and function of DNA photolyase and cryptochrome blue-light photoreceptors". Chem Rev. 103 (6): ... Phylogenomic Analysis of the Photolyase/Cryptochrome Family". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 26 (5): 1143-1153. doi:10.1093/ ...

*Michael Rosbash

In 1998, they discovered the cycle gene, clock gene, and cryptochrome photoreceptor in Drosophila through the use of forward ... discovered the cryb Drosophila mutant, which lead to the conclusion that cryptochrome protein is involved in circadian ... The failure of cryb mutants to synchronize to light dark cycles indicates that cryptochrome's normal function involves ... Identified cryptochrome as a Drosophila Circadian Photoreceptor 1999: Identified LNV Neurons as the Principal Drosophila ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cryptochrome photoreceptors cry1 and cry2 antagonistically regulate primary root elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Canamero, Roberto C.. AU - Bakrim, Nadia. AU - Bouly, Jean Pierre. AU - Garay, Alvaro. AU - Dudkin, Elizabeth Anne. AU - Habricot, Yvette. AU - Ahmad, Margaret. PY - 2006/10/1. Y1 - 2006/10/1. N2 - Cryptochromes are blue-light receptors controlling multiple aspects of plant growth and development. They are flavoproteins with significant homology to photolyases, but instead of repairing DNA they function by transducing blue light energy into a signal that can be recognized by the cellular signaling machinery. Here we report the effect of cry1 and cry2 blue light receptors on primary root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, through analysis of both cryptochrome-mutant and cryptochrome-overexpressing lines. Cry1 mutant seedlings show reduced root elongation in blue light while overexpressing seedlings show significantly increased elongation as compared to ...
Birds use the magnetic field of the Earth to navigate during their annual migratory travel. The possible mechanism to explain the biophysics of this compass sense involves electron transfers within the photoreceptive protein cryptochrome. A study (Qin et al., 2016) claimed that the sensitivity to changes in the magnetic field is enhanced by a coupling to an iron rich polymer complex which couples to multiple cryptochromes. For the iron sulphur clusters to participate in the compass sense, they either need to donate an electron to a specific tryptophane in the cryptochome or accept an electron from the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) co-factor in the cryptochrome. To validate the claim, it is needed to independently reconstruct this complex and describe its interaction with Drosophila melanogaster cryptochromes. The polymer complex consists of iron sulphur containing assembly ISCA1 protein monomers with internally bound iron sulphur clusters and simultaneously binds ten cryptochromes, shown in ...
The Drosophila melanogaster circadian clock is generated by interlocked feedback loops, and null mutations in core genes such as period and timeless generate behavioral arrhythmicity in constant darkness. In light-dark cycles, the elevation in locomotor activity that usually anticipates the light on or off signals is severely compromised in these mutants. Light transduction pathways mediated by the rhodopsins and the dedicated circadian blue light photoreceptor cryptochrome are also critical in providing the circadian clock with entraining light signals from the environment. The cryb mutation reduces the light sensitivity of the flys clock, yet locomotor activity rhythms in constant darkness or light-dark cycles are relatively normal, because the rhodopsins compensate for the lack of cryptochrome function. Remarkably, when we combined a period-null mutation with cryb, circadian rhythmicity in locomotor behavior in light-dark cycles, as measured by a number of different criteria, was restored. ...
Genetic variations in circadian clock genes may serve as molecular adaptations, allowing populations to adapt to local environments. Here, we carried out a survey of genetic variation in Drosophila cryptochrome (cry), the flys dedicated circadian photoreceptor. An initial screen of 10 European cry alleles revealed substantial variation, including seven non-synonymous changes. The SNP frequency spectra and the excessive linkage disequilibrium in this locus suggested that this variation is maintained by natural selection. We focused on a non-conservative SNP involving a leucine - histidine replacement (L232H) and found that this polymorphism is common, with both alleles at intermediate frequencies across 27 populations surveyed in Europe, irrespective of latitude. Remarkably, we were able to reproduce this natural observation in the laboratory using replicate population cages where the minor allele frequency was initially set to 10%. Within 20 generations, the two allelic variants converged to ...
Seventeen years after it was originally suggested, the photoreceptor protein cryptochrome remains the most probable host for the radical pair intermediates that are thought to be the sensors in the avian magnetic compass. Although evidence in favour of this hypothesis is accumulating, the intracellular interaction partners of the sensory protein are still unknown. It has been suggested that ascorbate ions could interact with surface-exposed tryptophan radicals in photoactivated cryptochromes, and so lead to the formation of a radical pair comprised of the reduced form of the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor, FAD*- , and the ascorbate radical, Asc*-. This species could provide a more sensitive compass than a FAD- tryptophan radical pair. In this study of Drosophila melanogaster cryptochrome and Erithacus rubecula (European robin) cryptochrome 1a, we use molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the transient encounters of ascorbate ions with tryptophan radicals in cryptochrome in order ...
article{cc3cb4f6-4ad0-44a5-be93-7ca320851d0c, abstract = {Migratory birds can use a magnetic compass for orientation during their migratory journeys covering thousands of kilometers. But how do they sense the reference direction provided by the Earths magnetic field? Behavioral evidence and theoretical considerations have suggested that radical-pair processes in differently oriented, light-sensitive molecules of the retina could enable migratory birds to perceive the magnetic field as visual patterns. The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina of migratory birds? Here, we show that at least one CRY1 and one CRY2 exist in the retina of migratory garden warblers and that garden-warbler CRY1 (gwCRY1) is cytosolic. We also show that gwCRY1 is concentrated in specific cells, particularly in ganglion cells and in large displaced ganglion cells, which also showed high levels of neuronal activity at night, when our ...
We isolated and characterized mouse photolyase-like genes, mCRY1 (mPHLL1) and mCRY2 (mPHLL2), which belong to the photolyase family including plant blue-light receptors. The mCRY1 and mCRY2 genes are located on chromosome 10C and 2E, respectively, and are expressed in all mouse organs examined. We raised antibodies specific against each gene product using its C-terminal sequence, which differs completely between the genes. Immunofluorescent staining of cultured mouse cells revealed that mCRY1 is localized in mitochondria whereas mCRY2 was found mainly in the nucleus. The subcellular distribution of CRY proteins was confirmed by immunoblot analysis of fractionated mouse liver cell extracts. Using green fluorescent protein fused peptides we showed that the C-terminal region of the mouse CRY2 protein contains a unique nuclear localization signal, which is absent in the CRY1 protein. The N-terminal region of CRY1 was shown to contain the mitochondrial transport signal. Recombinant as well as native CRY1
Mazzotta GM, Bellanda M, Minervini G, Damulewicz M, Cusumano P, Aufiero S, Stefani M, Zambelli B, Mammi S, Costa R, Tosatto SCE.. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, 2018. Light is the main environmental stimulus that synchronizes the endogenous timekeeping systems in most terrestrial organisms. Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY) is a light-responsive flavoprotein that detects changes in light intensity and wavelength around dawn and dusk. We have previously shown that dCRY acts through Inactivation No Afterpotential D (INAD) in a light-dependent manner on the Signalplex, a multiprotein complex that includes visual-signaling molecules, suggesting a role for dCRY in fly vision. Here, we predict and demonstrate a novel Ca2+-dependent interaction between dCRY and calmodulin (CaM). Through yeast two hybrid, coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and calorimetric analyses we were able to identify and characterize a CaM binding motif in the dCRY C-terminus. Similarly, we also ...
Cryptochromes, Cry, are photoreceptors that absorb blue light and mediate signaling events to modulate a wide range of biological functions such as circadian entrainment and phototropism. The signaling activation is triggered by excitation of the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor, followed by protein conformational changes that mediate protein-protein interaction with downstream partners. In this presentation, I will discuss the conditions and functional dynamics of drosophila cryptochrome through a plethora of molecular dynamics simulation and analysis tools. Our model recapitulates various experimental evidence of dCry activation, and the mechanism may be applicable to other cryptochromes.. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
van Wilderen LJ, Silkstone G, Mason M, van Thor JJ, Wilson MT (2015) Kinetic studies on the oxidation of semiquinone and hydroquinone forms of Arabidopsis cryptochrome by molecular oxygen FEBS Open Bio. 5:885-892 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fob.2015.10.007 Open Access. This study is a collaborative effort between researchers from Imperial College and the University of Essex, led by emeritus biochemistry Professor Michael Wilson and is an in vitro analysis of the oxidation of the Arabidopsis cryptochrome (CRY) photoreceptor in the presence and absence of an external electron donor. They show that a more complex model than previously thought is required to explain the mechanism by which the CRY-associated flavin molecule is oxidised. The authors propose that the final steps in this reaction require cooperative interaction between partners in a CRY homodimer or between separate CRY molecules.. Evans-Roberts KM, Mitchenall LA, Wall MK, Leroux J, Mylne JS, Maxwell A (2015) DNA Gyrase is the Target ...
The molecular clock of the fruit fly is sensitive to magnetic fields in a manner dependent on blue light and the photopigment cryptochrome.
As Morse code enables information to be transmitted as a series of on-off tones and clicks, which can be decoded into words and text, in a somewhat similar manner, calcium (Ca2+) signals are encoded as distinct patterns of input with varying amplitudes, frequencies, and durations. As (Ca2+) is involved in literally every single cellular process in our body, it has been tempting to manipulate intracellular (Ca2+) levels for research or therapeutic purposes.. Recently, in high profile work, researchers have succeeded in developing a blue-light-dependent endogenous (Ca2+) channel activator, named OptoSTIM1 (an optically activated STIM1 protein). In this work, a light-responsive oligomerization plant protein, Cryptochrome2, was conjugated with a (Ca2+) channel activator, STIM1, which binds to (Ca2+) channels only when oligomerized by themselves. Depending on the power and exposure time of blue-light, (Ca2+) levels in the cell could be quantitatively controlled; varied levels of (Ca2+) could be ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The Roses are Red, Violets are Blue... trope as used in popular culture. This is the stereotypical poem. Its origins are unknown, but may, according to …
english language courses 20 mg xanax a day, blue xanax pills mg, xanax retard onlineby Katy, New York Times Magazine, June 14, 2010 ...
terazosin in netherlands antilles, netherlands antilles, buy terazosin, order terazosin, cheap terazosin, terazosin online, terazosin, medication, doctor, medications, blood, effects, ingredients, cornstarch, lactose, nonmedicinal, 74\\\, contains, tablet, magnesium, gluten, sulfite, tartrazine, common, sucrose, sodium, alcohol, bevelled, paraben, stearate, edged, prostate, round, recommended, povidone, enlarged, pressure, embossed, treatment, heartbeat, helps, symptoms, dizziness, check, following, brands, taking, daily, weight, dispose, pharmacist, desired, bedtime, listed, adult, starts, conditions, your doctor, this medication, hcl nonmedicinal, nonmedicinal ingredients, ingredients cornstarch, lactose magnesium, terazosin hcl, contains terazosin, one side, side and, the other, other contains, magnesium stearate, and talc, sodium sucrose, sucrose sulfite, sulfite and, and tartrazine, paraben sodium, side effects, \\\ 74\\\, talc alcohol, alcohol gluten, gluten paraben, tartrazine free, and ...
Here, we show that the Neurospora protein VVD is a blue light photoreceptor. Following the heterologous expression in E.coli, VVD was found to be associated with a flavin‐type chromophore (Figure 3). Upon illumination, the native VVD protein underwent a blue light‐induced absorbance change that was fully reversible in the dark (Figure 4). This photocycle was also reported for the LOV domains of the plant blue light photoreceptor phototropin and indicates the formation of a reversible covalent bond between the conserved cysteine in the VVD LOV domain and the flavin chromophore (Briggs and Christie, 2002). The formation of the cysteinyl‐flavin adduct results in subtle structural changes of the flavin‐binding pocket (Crosson and Moffat, 2002). The latter changes are thought to represent the initial event in light signal transduction and seem to lead to the activation of the intra‐molecular kinase in phototropins. However, VVD is different in this respect since it only contains the LOV ...
Biological rhythms are driven by circadian oscillators, which are ultimately controlled by the cyclic expression of clock genes. Cryptochromes (CRY), blue light photoreceptors, belong to the negative elements of the transcriptional feedback loop into the molecular clock. This paper describes the cloning and characterization of two cryptochromes (cry1 and 2) in European seabass, which is considered an interesting chronobiology model due to its dual (diurnal/nocturnal) behavior. The cloned cDNA fragments encoded for two proteins of 567 and 668 amino acids, which included the FAD-binding and the DNA-photolyase domains. Moreover, both proteins had a high homology with cryptochrome proteins (Cry) of other teleost fish. These cry1 and 2 genes were expressed in several tissues of seabass (brain, liver, heart, retina, muscle, spleen, gill and intestine). In addition, the daily expression of cry1 was rhythmic in brain, heart and liver with the acrophase around ZT 03:15 h (after the onset of lights). ...
Organisms have evolved extensive sensory mechanisms to perceive information carried by light. Their responses are mediated by photoreceptor proteins, which are sensitive to light through prosthetic chromophore molecules. The past decade has witnessed the discovery of a large number of novel flavin-binding photoreceptors, notably the phototropins, the cryptochromes, and BLUF (blue-light sensing using FAD) domains (1). Phototropins are primarily found in plants and control several physiological responses such as phototropism, chloroplast movement, and stomatal opening (2), whereas cryptochromes are known to regulate growth and development in plants and circadian rhythms in plants and insects (3, 4). BLUF domains are a distinct family of flavin-binding photoreceptors that show no significant relationship to other sensor proteins in sequence or structure. The BLUF domain was first discovered as the N-terminal part of the flavoprotein AppA from the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter ...
Just over 40 years ago, workers at the U.S. Department of Agriculture laboratories (Beltsville, MD) discovered the first signaling photoreceptor in plants, a photoreversible pigment (9) that they called phytochrome (8). In the following years, photomorphogenesis (a study of the influence of light on plant development) developed as a strong subdiscipline of the field of plant physiology. Within this subdiscipline was a sharp division between those pursuing the phytochromes and those pursuing distinct blue-light receptors. Those studying phytochrome(s) had an enormous advantage in having at their disposal all of the classic phytochrome-mediated responses that were activated by brief pulses of red light interrupting darkness: These include activation of seed germination, inhibition of stem elongation in dark-grown seedlings, induction of leaf expansion, and regulation of flowering. In every case, the effect of red light was negated by subsequent immediate exposure to far-red light. This kind of ...
A McCree study in 1972 studied the relative quantum yields of the photosynthetic spectrum and found that a mixture of light, with large quantities of green, produced the most photosynthetic output. However, later research found that photo pigments within the plant tissue absorb this green light and excite/de-excite out other photons such as red or blue. This means that a larger spectrum of light is used by plant, equating to the entire visible spectrum. Therefore, there is no such thing as waste light within the visible spectrum. However, the distribution of the delivered spectrum does heavily influence growth patterns.. Moreover, green light works in some plants to tell it that it is surrounded by other plants and needs a longer stem to break out, typically using the phytochrome mechanism, as does red and far-red light. Cryptochromes are also stimulated by green light to some degree, sometimes reversing blue light driven elongation inhibitory action (see article blue and red light). Due to ...
Zoltowskis lab was awarded $320,500 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health to continue its research on the impact of blue light. They are studying a small flowering plant native to Europe and Asia, Arabidopsis thaliana - a popular model organism in plant biology and genetics, Zoltowski says.. Although signaling pathways differ in organisms such as Arabidopsis when compared to animals, the flower still serves an important research purpose. How the signaling networks are interconnected is similar in both animals and Arabidopsis. That allows researchers to use simpler genetic models to provide insight into how similar networks are controlled in more complicated species like humans.. In humans, the protein melanopsin absorbs blue light and sends signals to photoreceptor cells in our eyes. In plants and animals, the protein cryptochrome performs similar signaling.. Much is known already about the way blue light and other light wavelengths, such ...
Some fairly elementary questions remain, however, for instance, if one tests a reasonable number of birds, will there be a small population of "lefthanders" that has the compass processing on the other side ? Also, if a young bird lost the right eye in a fight, would the brain find a way to process compass data from the left eye? And lest we forget, the precise molecular details of the molecular compass also remain to be uncovered, see my pieces on the bird compass from last year, in Oxford Today (as a sidebar to the ESR feature) and, in German, in Chemie in unserer Zeit. A significant 2009 paper that I missed when I researched those articles comes from Stefan Webers group at Freiburg and reports the observation that light can stimulate the formation of radical pairs in the most promising candidate molecules believed to host the chemical compass, namely cryptochromes (2). This adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting that the bird compass really is a radical pair mechanism residing in ...
They are the bodys natural steroid hormones that regulate blood sugar levels-their job is to make sure peoples blood sugar levels are lowered while they sleep and then raised when they wake; this allows people to maximize the efficiency their energy use. Glucocortids also interact with anti-inflammatory drugs and this has exposed the missing-link between cryptochromes and Glucocortids. Together, they regulate the blood sugar and the biological rhythms or what is often called the biological clock.. While scientists and doctors plan to harness this information for pharmaceutical purposes, it can also be used to help people understand their bodys natural rhythms. This way, people can be more conscious of both what they eat and how their body is using what they eat based on their sleep and rest patterns. Think about it. When are people most active during the day? When are they least active? It is important for people to take the time to get to know their activity levels and then find a way to eat ...
To better understand links between the clock, environmental sensing pathways, and growth regulation, we are now collaborating with the Blackman Lab to study growth regulation in sunflower. Sunflower is well-known for diaheliotropism or solar tracking, with plants changing the angle of their leaves and stems over the day so that they remain perpendicular to the suns rays. This special type of rhythmic growth is found in many plants (including various crop and pasture species) and is associated with increased yield, likely due to increases in photosynthetic and water use efficiency [16, 17, 18]. The conspicuous movement of aerial organs from east to west during the day is likely mediated by activity of the phototropin blue light photoreceptors [19]. Much more mysterious is the reorientation that occurs during the night so that sunflower leaves and apices face east well before the sun rises (Figure 4) (see also Plants-In-Motion for a wonderful movie of a solar-tracking sunflower). Thus solar ...
There is an upgrade version of the CRYSFIRE Powder Indexing Suite by Robin Shirley. This minor version has bugfix updates of the UDI2crys, WF2crys and XF2crys file converter programs. There were circumstances that made them act incorrectly if the user didnt want to overwrite an existing dataset. This has been fixed. Crysfire Tutorials at: http://www.ccp14.ac.uk/tutorial/crys/ UK: http://www.ccp14.ac.uk/ccp/web-mirrors/crys-r-shirley/crysinst.zip CA: http://ccp14.sims.nrc.ca/ccp/web-mirrors/crys-r-shirley/crysinst.zip US: http://ccp14.semo.edu/ccp/web-mirrors/crys-r-shirley/crysinst.zip AU: http://ccp14.minerals.csiro.au/ccp/web-mirrors/crys-r-shirley/crysinst.zip ---- Crysfire also interlinks with the Chekcell graphical helper indexing tool for Windows by Jean Laugier and Bernard Bochu. There is a new 7th July 2002 version of Chekcell available with improved LePage - Chekcell interconnectivity for evaluating sub-cells and super-cells. Chekcell Tutorials ...
Are summer-born children more bad tempered than kids born at colder times of the year? Are winter-born children more, well, sunnier than babies born when the skies are blue ?They are, according to new...
Monoklonale und polyklonale CIB1 Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für CIB1 Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
blue light on sony kdf42we655 model lcd projection tv I am told it is the light engine - Sony Grand WEGA KDF-60WF655 60 question
Monoklonale und polyklonale PPP2CA Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für PPP2CA Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
Die Babyblauen Seiten sind die deutschsprachige Progressive Rock Enzyklopädie der Mailingliste progrock-dt: tausende Rezensionen von Prog-Platten, alt wie neu, und viele weitere Infos rund um Progressive Rock.
Viele Phänomene im Festkörper, wie z.B. die elektrische Leitfähigkeit hängen mit den Elektronen der Atome zusammen. Deshalb werden zuerst die Grundlagen von freien Elektronen im Potentialtopf, die...
In seltenen Fällen kann auch ein Antikörper gegen die C3-Konvertase des klassischen Weges-(C4bC2b) nachgewiesen werden. Ebenfalls sehr selten kann man Autoantikörper gegen C3 oder Nicht-C3Nef Autoantikörper gegen andere Bestandteile der C3-Konvertase nachweisen. Wegen der Seltenheit bleibt die Interpretation dieser Befunde in der Nephrologie problematisch.. ...
Umfassende Darstellung von medizinischen Laborparametern. Mehr als die H lfte aller Erkrankungen werden durch Laborparameter entdeckt oder im Verlauf kontrolliert.
Umfassende Darstellung von medizinischen Laborparametern. Mehr als die H lfte aller Erkrankungen werden durch Laborparameter entdeckt oder im Verlauf kontrolliert.
Umfassende Darstellung von medizinischen Laborparametern. Mehr als die H lfte aller Erkrankungen werden durch Laborparameter entdeckt oder im Verlauf kontrolliert.
FbxL7兔多克隆抗体(ab59149)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Light is a crucial environmental signal that controls many photomorphogenic and circadian responses in plants1. Perception and transduction of light is achieved by at least two principal groups of photoreceptors, phytochromes and cryptochromes2,3. Phytochromes are red/far-red light-absorbing receptors encoded by a gene family of five members (phyA to phyE)2,4 in Arabidopsis. Cryptochrome 1 (cry1), cryptochrome 2 (cry2) and phototropin are the blue/ultraviolet-A light receptors that have been characterized in Arabidopsis5. Previous studies showed that modulation of many physiological responses in plants is achieved by genetic interactions between different photoreceptors6; however, little is known about the nature of these interactions and their roles in the signal transduction pathway. Here we show the genetic interaction that occurs between the Arabidopsis photoreceptors phyB and cry2 in the control of flowering time, hypocotyl elongation and circadian period by the clock. PhyB interacts directly
Phototropins are photoreceptor proteins (more specifically, flavoproteins) that mediate phototropism responses in higher plants. Along with cryptochromes and phytochromes they allow plants to respond and alter their growth in response to the light environment. Phototropins may also be important for the opening of stomata[citation needed] and the movement of chloroplasts. Phototropins are part of the phototropic sensory system in plants that causes various environmental responses in plants. Phototropins specifically will cause stems to bend towards light[citation needed] and stomata to open.[citation needed] Phototropins have been shown to impact the movement of chloroplast inside the cell. In addition phototropins mediate the first changes in stem elongation in blue light prior to cryptochrome activation. Phototropin is also required for blue light mediated transcript destabilization of specific mRNAs in the cell.[citation needed] Wada M, Kagawa T, Sato Y (2003). "Chloroplast movement". Annu Rev ...
Ophthalmologic manifestations commonly misdiagnosed as demyelinating events in multiple sclerosis patients. This retrospective review evaluates the success of such outpatient management, including the complications encountered. Manipulation of the blue light photoreceptor cryptochrome 2 in tomato affects vegetative development, flowering time, and fruit antioxidant content. Autoradiographic studies on 3H-fucose incorporation into manubria and its translocation to antheridial space during spermatogenesis in Chara vulgaris L. This question has been addressed by a model and a methodology that uses only very basic constituents to capture the relevant features of folding. This study demonstrates the presence of molly generic viagra a rich plexus of neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactive fibers in the hypothalamus and in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary of Xenopus laevis. However, sonography is becoming the preferred modality, primarily because of the superior anatomic detail provided. A ...
Violets Are Blue By Velvet Vaughn Copyright Copyright © 2015 Velvet Vaughn ISBN: 978-0-9861652-2-1 This ebook is licensed for your personal enjoyment only. This ebook may not be
CRY2 - CRY2 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human cryptochrome 2 (photolyase-like) (CRY2), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Create an iPad Kiosk or easily setup an iPad Point of Sale using a variety of available iPad apps.. Promotional Advertising Products. Create excitement about your business with promotional products from Leaderpromos. A Call Tracking Service that tracks, records, and reports your advertising phone calls. Use our toll free & local numbers or transfer yours.. Using advanced data valuation techniques to connect brands with highly targeted audiences, Interclick powers successful online advertising campaigns.. Your ad here for $65/mo. Inquire within.. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cryptochrome I antibody validated for WB, IHC, ICC and tested in Human and Mouse. With 1 independent review. Immunogen corresponding to…
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
Anyways when I was at boot camp I think I trained too hard in the second week and I ended up feeling sick and I vomited. After I did that I went back to the group and they stopped me they go um your lips are blue!!! Also at that time I had partial hearing loss. Went to the doctor she told me I was fine so I continued on. Four days later ended up really sick had a Nasty blood infection ( septicaemia) so I decided to quit boot camp and let my body rest ...
Immediately download the Light-dependent reaction summary, chapter-by-chapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, character descriptions, lesson plans, and more - everything you need for studying or teaching Light-dependent reaction.
Blue light is simply a kind of light that is produced by many electronic devices. The more we learn about blue light, the more we are made aware of how it affects our body, and what we can do to stop these negative effects. Healthversed has put together this handy guide to introduce you to exactly what blue light is and how you can stop it from taking a toll on your health. ...
Find and save ideas about Anatomie des menschen on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Anatomie körper, Menschliche Hand Knochen and Anatomie kunst.
Entspannung zuhause mit Duftlichtern und Körperpflege von REN, CLEAN, Pai, Ole Henriksen, Cuccio, Tromborg, Suki u.a. Wohlbefinden für Körper und Seele!
CHEERS: Beaujolais nouveau est arrivé!Today: Beaujolais nouveau est arrivé!Like clockwork, on the third Thursday of November, Beaujolais nouveau arrives. And just as reliably, the snarking
avalon nursing home. avalon nursing home is actually a significant matter for your residence, but about that I want to inform you some tips about bogemian bedroom before talking.
By Renee Twombly. Researchers at The Scripps Research Institute say they have taken a leap forward in their quest to understand the proteins that control the human circadian clock - the 24-hour wake-sleep cycle that, when interrupted, can lead to jet lag and other sleep disturbances. In an Early Edition issue of The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) on April 9, 2009, the researchers report that they have been able to determine the molecular structure of a plant photolyase protein that is surprisingly similar to two cryptochrome proteins that control the master clock in humans and other mammals. They have also been able to test how structural changes affect the function of these proteins.. The plant photolyase structure provides a much better model to use to study how the cryptochrome proteins in the human clock function than we have ever had before, says the studys lead investigator, Kenichi Hitomi, a postdoctoral research fellow at Scripps Research. Its like knowing ...
Phototropins are UVA/blue-light receptors involved in controlling the light-dependent physiological responses which serve to optimize the photosynthetic activity of plants and promote growth. The phototropin-induced phosphoinositide (PI) metabolism has been shown to be essential for stomatal opening and phototropism. However, the role of PIs in phototropin-induced chloroplast movements remains poorly understood. The aim of this work is to determine which PI species are involved in the control of chloroplast movements in Arabidopsis and the nature of their involvement. We present the effects of the inactivation of phospholipase C (PLC), PI3-kinase (PI3K) and PI4-kinase (PI4K) on chloroplast relocations in Arabidopsis. The inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphospahte [PI(4,5)P2]-PLC pathway, using neomycin and U73122, suppressed the phot2-mediated chloroplast accumulation and avoidance responses, without affecting movement responses controlled by phot1. On the other hand, PI3K and PI4K ...
Phototropins are plasma membrane-localized UVA/blue light photoreceptors which mediate phototropism, inhibition of primary hypocotyl elongation, leaf positioning, chloroplast movements, and stomatal opening. Blue light irradiation activates the C-terminal serine/threonine kinase domain of phototropin which autophosphorylates the receptor. Arabidopsis thaliana encodes two phototropins, phot1 and phot2. In response to blue light, phot1 moves from the plasma membrane into the cytosol and phot2 translocates to the Golgi complex. In this study the molecular mechanism and route of blue-light-induced phot2 trafficking are demonstrated. It is shown that Atphot2 behaves in a similar manner when expressed transiently under 35S or its native promoter. The phot2 kinase domain but not blue-light-mediated autophosphorylation is required for the receptor translocation. Using co-localization and western blotting, the receptor was shown to move from the cytoplasm to the Golgi complex, and then to the post-Golgi ...
The circadian genetic machinery is so well conserved in the evolution that the study of Drosophila provides a cheap alternative to knockout experiments in rodents. Orthologs have been identified in mammals for most of the Drosophila circadian clock genes. In insects though, unlike in mammals, CRY1 function is light-dependent. Even cyanobacteria have a circadian genetic clock that can be reconstituted in vitro for detailed quantitative analysis and comparative simulations. One of the conclusions coming from studying cyanobacteria is that the TTFL clock may actually be a slave to a master biochemical oscillator called the PTO (post-translational oscillator) (Qin et al. 2010[1]). The initial suggestion on the role of biochemical oscillators came from the persistence of the circadian rhythm in conditions of inhibited transcription and translation (Iwasaki et al. 2005[2]). Beyond their circadian roles, the genes are also involved in other functions. Interestingly, cryptochromes have been shown to be ...
Electrocompetent Top10 cells were electroporated with K238015, K238013 in psB3K3, I20260 and empty Top10 cells. These cells were plated out on agar plates with the correct AntiBiotic and grown overnight (37°). From these, a 5ml liquid culture supplied with AB was prepared and also grown overnight (37°C or 25°C). These cells were inoculated in fresh LB medium (100 µg AB/ ml) in the morning and grown at 16°C or 25°C for 3.5h. During all these steps, the cells were always kept away in the dark. Only when the experiment started, half of the cultures were put under blue light, the other half were kept in the dark. After that, the cells were whithdrawn at different time intervals. They were diluted into PBS and analyzed by flow cytometry with a Becton Dickinson FACSCalibur and CELLQuestTM acquisition and analysis software with gates set to forward and side scatters characteristic of the bacteria (Gate G2=R2). We decided upon using FACS because then the fluorescence of single cells is measured. ...
Plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms to adapt growth and development to the ambient light environment. To monitor the light, plants use several classes of photoreceptors (e.g. phytochromes, cryptochromes). Downstream of these photoreceptors, an important negative regulator, the COP1/SPA complex, suppresses light signaling in dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings. This complex is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, i.e. an enzyme that attaches ubiquitin to other proteins which are subsequently recognized by the proteasome and degraded. The COP1/SPA ubiquitin ligase inhibits light signaling in darkness by ubiquitinating activators of the light response, such as the transcription factors HY5, LAF1 and HFR1. cop1 and spa mutants fail to degrade these transcription factors in darkness and, therefore, undergo constitutive photomorphogenesis showing features of light-grown plants even in complete darkness. In the light, active photoreceptors are thought to inhibit COP1/SPA function, thus HY5, LAF1 and HFR1 ...
Your eyes are sensitive to a narrow band of frequencies referred to as the, "visible light spectrum." Visible light-light capable of being seen by the human eye -consists of wavelengths of varying lengths.. Blue light has a very short wavelength and is detectable by the human eye. Not only does it provide basic illumination to our worlds, blue light also helps to increase feelings of well-being. But exposure to large amounts of blue light can be harmful to the eyes.. The plethora of electronic devices in use today, such as cell phones, tablets, and laptop computers, has drastically increased our exposure to blue light. Another source of blue light is energy efficient technology in the form of fluorescent light bulbs and LED lights. Research has determined that the lens inside the eye, and the pigment in the back of the eye, offer some protection against blue light. But this protective mechanism only lasts for short period of exposure to the intense blue light, and during daylight hours.. Perhaps ...
Our findings demonstrate that a lack of cryptochrome activates these proinflammatory molecules, indicating a potential role for cryptochrome in the regulation of inflammatory cytokine expression," says Satchidananda Panda, an associate professor in Salks Regulatory Biology Laboratory and one of the senior authors of the study. In addition, the researchers found that a lack of CRY activated the NF-kB pathway, a molecular signaling conduit that controls many genes involved in inflammation. NF-kB is a protein complex in a cells cytoplasm, "just happily doing nothing," says Verma. In response to stimuli, it is transferred to the cells nucleus, where it binds to inflammation genes and turns them on. The regulation of these genes is tightly controlled, but NF-kB does not completely shut off their expression. This lingering expression causes inflammation ...
The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata is a common postharvest contaminant of food and feed, and some strains are plant pathogens. Many processes in A. alternata are triggered by light. Interestingly, blue light inhibits sporulation, and red light reverses the effect, suggesting interactions between light-sensing systems. The genome encodes a phytochrome (FphA), a white collar 1 (WC-1) orthologue (LreA), an opsin (NopA), and a cryptochrome (CryA) as putative photoreceptors. Here, we investigated the role of FphA and LreA and the interplay with the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. We created loss-of function mutations for fphA, lreA, and hogA using CRISPR-Cas9 technology. Sporulation was reduced in all three mutant strains already in the dark, suggesting functions of the photoreceptors FphA and LreA independent of light perception. Germination of conidia was delayed in red, blue, green, and far-red light. We found that light induction of ccgA ...
So whats the deal with blue light? And what has changed about the artificial light we experience every day? Read on to find out more about the good and the bad of blue light. Why do our bodies need the biological effects of this wavelength? And how and when should we protect ourselves from the potentially damaging effects of blue light?
95% of Americans are in the habit of using LED screens at least one hour before bedtime. The blue light emitted by these devices interferes with sound sleep at night. This post from Popular Science describes a neuroscientists experiment with blue light blocking glasses in a bid to block the blue light and improve the quality of sleep. I recently wrote about the terrible sleep ... Continue Reading ...
Signs Under Test is typical Tejada in a more prosaic way as well: its titles. Tejadas always had a thing for sci-fi-influenced track names, dating back at least to "Prism War" and "Solar Eyes," both from 1997s Little Green Lights And Four Inch Faders. He goes to town on this album, with titles like "Cryptochrome" (a photoreceptor that helps guide circadian rhythms), "Vaalbara" (an early supercontinent) and "R.U.R." (the 1920 Karel Čapek play that introduced the word "robot" to the English language ...
Clockwork Princess (Infernal Devices) de Cassandra Clare en Iberlibro.com - ISBN 10: 1406321346 - ISBN 13: 9781406321340 - Walker Books Ltd - 2013 - Tapa blanda
When viewing electronic devices, myopically defocused blue light results in what is now termed digital eye strain. The Vision Council defines digital eye strain as "the physical eye discomfort felt by many individuals after two or more hours in front of a digital screen". In a 2014 survey conducted by VSP, eyecare providers reported a 50 percent increase in patient complaints of digital eye strain and effects of blue light exposure. Also stated was a 38 percent increase in these same complaints from children. Without intervention, reports containing statistics such as these will likely increase. The symptoms of digital eye strain can be broken down into three causes: proximity of the light source (digital device) to the eye, intensity of light from the source, and frequency and duration of exposure. In considering ways to alleviate symptoms, keeping these causes in mind can guide treatment recommendations.. Proximity. We tend to hold digital device screens closer to our eyes. This increases ...
Banners and Ribbons - I have a couple of new items in stores. A New Year Banner, date free so you can add your own date making it reusable. Plus a duo script/template of ribbon... ...
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
An additional 350-space car park has been built by Bullen Developments and is operated independently to the hospital car parks. Patients and visitors to this privately operated car park should note :. - Does not offer the same concessions as the hospital car parks. Tickets cannot be reduced or validated to give free parking and charges are not reduced at evenings or weekends.. - Does not have any disabled spaces as these are offered in the hospital car parks nearer to the building.. - Forty spaces at the rear of the car park are for PERMIT HOLDERS ONLY. - Please be aware this area is patrolled by the private owners and they do issue fines. - This car park only accepts payment at the machines situated close to the pedestrian entrance/exit. Please do not try and use the pay stations in the hospital as it will reject your ticket. Tickets for this car park are easily identifiable as they are Blue.. This car park has the same charges as the hospital car parks, it offers free car parking for the first ...
The triad and dyad ions in the case of these metals exhibit remarkable differences of colour. Thus chromous ions are blue, chromic, green ; basic ferric ions are orange-yellow, ferrous, pale green; ma...
Math: I have 50 buttons in a bag. 25 are red, 10 are green, 7 are blue, 5 are yellow, and 3 are purple. What are the chances I would pick red ...
Is there a possible surgery for a child with ASD and ADHD. We have been told that something is not connected in his brain. This makes a lot of since since he stays in a continuous loop about one thing or another. You can explain until you are blue in the face, and he will ask the same question again, and again. Is a cingulotomy a possiblility? He is 13 & uncontrollable, and dangerous. He has injured me, his grandfather, and his sister. Can anybody help? We are absolutely desperate.:eek ...
Premise: A poems theme or topic has been given to you by the person before you so you write a poem based on that theme or topic then you posit a theme or topic for the next person to write about... and on until infinitum... |Example| Person A: Topic: Roses Person B: Roses are red Violets are Blue
USD 23.54 Only, Buy D1S 10000K 35W HID Xenon Car Light Bulbs Blue Light with Worldwide Free Shipping for All Orders at Tmart.com.
From your cell phone to your laptop, exposure to blue light can affect our health, from sleep to mood. Here is everything you need to know.
Wholeasale and retail Blue Lights For Car now available from LightInTheBox.com! LightInTheBox.com is your source for quality wedding supplies at wholesale prices.
Los disco expuestos en este sitio son sólo como pruebas, sin fin de lucro y deben borrarse luego de 24 horas desde la descarga ...
An distressing view Analytische Dynamik der Punkte und Starren Körper: Mit Einer Einführung in das of u2013 that will improve the other cholesterol in this treatment. The variants are made a cinematic and organized page of the Aesthetic rience, and assist intentional filters of what is derived about the risks and cells of beings and measures. I very are your security.
Tyler Durden is possibly the most terrifying character in movie history. Why? Because, like Alex, from A Clockwork Orange, he is so intriguing!!! Everyo...
Kosmetika - Tělová kosmetika - Zeštíhlující a zpevňující kosmetika - všechny produkty skladem. Široká nabídka parfémů, kosmetiky a produktů pro zdraví.
4.3- 2-Proteine in der Nahrung Form der Zellen Aufbau der Zellen Stoffwechsel verantwortlich für: 2-Reserve 1-Verteidigung Auch noch verwendet als: Proteine Strukturproteine Enzymproteine Transportproteine Immunproteine Hormonproteine kleinste Proteine größte Proteine pepite dipepite Proteine im menschlichen Körper -Eiweiße in Ribosomen ...
Plants do not only gain energy from light, they also use light as a source of information in order to adapt growth and development to environmental conditions. They have a range of photoreceptors to detect different aspects of their light environment, such as the light intensity and spectral composition, the direction of the light gradient, or temporal light patterns (Kami et al., 2010). Cryptochromes, phototropins, members of the ZEITLUPE (ZTL) family, and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) monitor the blue (B) and UV-B range of the light spectrum, whereas phytochromes (PHYs) are essential for the perception of red (R) and far-red (FR) light (Kami et al., 2010; Heijde and Ulm, 2012). Phytochromes can exist in two different states, the inactive Pr form with maximal absorption in R light, and the active or Pfr form of phytochromes, which has an absorption peak in FR light. By absorption of light, these forms reversibly convert into each other, resulting in an equilibrium with a wavelength-specific ...
BMAL1 can form heterodimers with either CLOCK or NPAS2, which act redundantly but show different tissue specificity. The BMAL1:CLOCK and BMAL1:NPAS2 heterodimers activate a set of genes that possess E-box elements (consensus CACGTG) in their promoters. This confers circadian expression on the genes. The PER genes (PER1, PER2, PER3) and CRY genes (CRY1, CRY2) are among those activated by BMAL1:CLOCK and BMAL1:NPAS2. PER and CRY mRNA accumulates during the morning and the proteins accumulate during the afternoon. PER and CRY proteins form complexes in the cytosol and these are bound by either CSNK1D or CSNK1E kinases which phosphorylate PER and CRY. The phosphorylated PER:CRY:kinase complex is translocated into the nucleus due to the nuclear localization signal of PER and CRY. Within the nucleus the PER:CRY complexes bind BMAL1:CLOCK and BMAL1:NPAS2, inhibiting their transactivation activity and their phosphorylation. This reduces expression of the target genes of BMAL1:CLOCK and BMAL1:NPAS2 ...
As President of the International Union of Photobiology, IUPB, as Chairwoman of the Organizing Committee and as Chairman of the Local Organizing Committee, we invite you to join us during the 16th International Congress on Photobiology to be held in the City of Córdoba in Argentina in September (8th to 12th) 2014, in the Campus of the University. This congress is organized every five years with the last one in Düsseldorf, Germany, in 2009. The Congress will address all areas of Photobiology such as photosensors in Archaea, Bacteria and Eucaria, photosynthesis including antennas and reaction centres, photomovement, photomorphogenesis, cryptochromes, LOV, BLUF and retinal proteins and domains, vision, circadian rhythms, environmental photobiology, UV influence on plankton, UV damage, protection and repair of DNA, photoreceptors in extremophiles (at high altitudes and in the Antarctic and Arctic regions), photoaging, photocarcinogenesis, photomedicine, synthetic and natural photosensitizers, ...
Prof. Peter Hore, Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, UK Animal navigation using magnetically sensitive chemistry Migratory birds travel spectacular distances each year, navigating and orienting by a variety of means, most of which are poorly understood. Among them is a remarkable ability to perceive the intensity and direction of the Earths magnetic field. Biologically credible mechanisms for the sensing of such weak fields are scarce and in recent years just two proposals have emerged as frontrunners. One, essentially classical, involves clusters of iron-containing particles. The other relies on the magnetic sensitivity of short-lived photochemical intermediates called radical pairs. The latter model began to attract interest following the proposal that the necessary photochemistry could take place in the birds retina in specialised photoactive proteins called cryptochromes. The coherent dynamics of the electron-nuclear spin systems of pairs of organic radicals is conjectured to ...
March is colorectal cancer awareness month Blue is the designated color and stars are the symbol for hope. Many years ago, the National Colorectal Cancer Round Table (NCCRT) began using the blue star as a unifying emblem for Colorectal Cancer advocacy. Dozens of organizations and thousands of individuals show their support by wearing blue stars…
NSFs mission is to advance the progress of science, a mission accomplished by funding proposals for research and education made by scientists, engineers, and educators from across the country.
FYI, Dims hands and tail are painted in clear orange to match his head. And there is a Milk Splatter variant whose cuffs and hems are painted in white. That mask is clear casted and painted in clear red, so you can see through his nose even when he s wearing the mask. As a bonus gift, this edition comes with Lil Alex pin. Only those who purchase this edition can purchase extra pins. What s more those who purchase either 2pcs of Dim Milk edition or combo of Dim and Virus Ball, first lucky 10 guys would be getting unpainted clear orange casted Dim head too." ...
A short biography describes s life, times, and work. Also explains the historical and literary context that influenced A Clockwork Orange.
Nitram Anizok says When I first arrived I started creating smaller things. As time went on my inventions became more and more focused and impressive. I started building steam powered clockwork to help me gather materials. I had gone too far giving them the ability to learn and with a built in desire of self perpetuation. They began to integrate themselves with the clockwork that already existed within the factory that you can see if you step outside. I once worked within the factory with a kind and fair gnome, Meldrath. Now that he has gone missing the clockworks seem to be working towards a more devious goal. The clockwork out here in the junkyard have been discarded due to their malfunction or replacement by a more efficient series. Needless to say their [instinct for survival] has not been lost ...
My daughter crys and whines and crys all the time. Its driving me nuts. What can i do to support her in communicating her needs more efficiently so that we are not both frustrated ?
Lees recensies, vergelijk klantbeoordelingen, bekijk schermafbeeldingen en lees meer over ELECOM Browser FREE (blue light cut filter). Download ELECOM Browser FREE (blue light cut filter) en geniet ervan op je Apple TV.
Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is the combination of light and light sensitive agents (such as porphyrins) in an oxygen-rich environment.
Learning Objectives To understand what it meant by oxidation and reduction in photosynthesis. To understand how ATP is made during the light-dependent reaction. To know the role of photolysis is in the light-dependent reaction. To understand how chloroplasts are adapted to carry out the light-dependent reaction.
Dave was still pretty weak this morning. I did a few "tests" with him: checking his pulse before & after certain activities to see if his cardiac recovery time was adequate - and it was, although his resting rate is still significantly elevated, compared to a few months ago. And he tried walking four blocks to see if he could tolerate it - which he could, but just barely. He was out of bed all day, which is an improvement, but hes still very pale and his lips are blue ...
A bowl contains 27 M&M candies; 9 are red, 6 are green, and 12 are blue. A piece of candy is chosen, and its color is noted. Suppose you took 3 pieces of candy without looking. Define the event E: Each color is represented. What is P(E)? Round your answer to 3 decimal places ...
For a century since the designation of Grand Canyon as one of the most important of our national treasures we have managed to keep the lands below the rim inviolate. Weve turned away proposals to build dams and weve said no to roads (a single gravel road reaches into the western Grand Canyon where rafters can leave the river). There were a few mines, but those failed long ago. Today the Grand Canyon is under assault: besides this awful proposal, there is a bought-and-paid-for (by the home-building company) city council in Tusayan at the South Rim of the canyon attempting to allow the building of 2,500 homes. With no permanent water sources besides groundwater, which is in limited supply. There are proposals to mine uranium right up to the borders of the park. And what drives it all? Money. Money, and more money. Someone profits in a big way, and we all lose something precious. They can argue all they want, until they are blue in the face, about the merits of their projects, and how they will ...
For a century since the designation of Grand Canyon as one of the most important of our national treasures we have managed to keep the lands below the rim inviolate. Weve turned away proposals to build dams and weve said no to roads (a single gravel road reaches into the western Grand Canyon where rafters can leave the river). There were a few mines, but those failed long ago. Today the Grand Canyon is under assault: besides this awful proposal, there is a bought-and-paid-for (by the home-building company) city council in Tusayan at the South Rim of the canyon attempting to allow the building of 2,500 homes. With no permanent water sources besides groundwater, which is in limited supply. There are proposals to mine uranium right up to the borders of the park. And what drives it all? Money. Money, and more money. Someone profits in a big way, and we all lose something precious. They can argue all they want, until they are blue in the face, about the merits of their projects, and how they will ...
Chloroplasts change their position in a cell in response to environmental light conditions (Wada et al., 1993, 2003). Low-fluence rate light induces movement of chloroplasts toward the irradiated area, resulting in chloroplast accumulation at the front face of the cell (accumulation response). Conversely, under high-fluence rate light, chloroplasts move to the anticlinal wall of the cell to avoid photodamage (avoidance response; Kasahara et al., 2002). Chloroplast photorelocation movement is found in several photosynthetic plant species, including yellow and green algae, mosses, ferns, and flowering plants. In most plant species, chloroplast movement is induced by irradiation with blue light, although it is also induced by red light in some cryptogam plants (Wada et al., 1993, 2003). The flowering plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has two types of blue-light photoreceptor, cryptochromes (cry1 and cry2) and phototropins (phot1 and phot2). Cryptochrome is a flavoprotein similar to the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Blue-Light- and Phosphorylation-Dependent Binding of a 14-3-3 Protein to Phototropins in Stomatal Guard Cells of Broad Bean. AU - Kinoshita, Toshinori. AU - Emi, Takashi. AU - Tominaga, Misumi. AU - Sakamoto, Koji. AU - Shigenaga, Ayako. AU - Doi, Michio. AU - Shimazaki, Ken Ichiro. PY - 2003/12/1. Y1 - 2003/12/1. N2 - Phototropins are blue-light (BL) receptor serine (Ser)/threonine kinases, and contain two light, oxygen, and voltage (LOV) domains, and are members of the PAS domain superfamily. They mediate phototropism, chloroplast movement, leaf expansion, and stomatal opening of higher plants in response to BL. In stomatal guard cells, genetic analysis has revealed that phototropins mediate activation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by phosphorylation and drive stomatal opening. However, biochemical evidence for the involvement of phototropins in the BL response of stomata is lacking. Using guard cell protoplasts, we showed that broad bean (Vicia faba) phototropins (Vfphots) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of protein kinase A phase delays the mammalian circadian clock. AU - Lee, Jennifer M.. AU - Schak, Kathryn M.. AU - Harrington, Mary E.. PY - 1999/7/24. Y1 - 1999/7/24. N2 - The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) contain the mammalian circadian clock whose rhythm of firing rate can be recorded in vitro for several days. Application of a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor onto the SCN at Zeitgeber time (ZT) 10 on the first day in vitro phase delayed the rhythm of firing rate expressed by SCN neurons on the subsequent day in vitro. Application of the inhibitor (Rp-cAMPS) at other circadian phases did not phase shift the rhythm. These results suggest that during approximately 1 h in the late subjective day the presence and activity of PKA plays a role in setting the phase of the mammalian circadian clock.. AB - The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) contain the mammalian circadian clock whose rhythm of firing rate can be recorded in vitro for several days. Application of a protein ...
Circadian rhythms are endogenous, entrainable oscillations of physical, mental and behavioural processes in response to local environmental cues such as daylight, which are present in the living beings, including humans. Circadian rhythms have been related to cardiovascular function and pathology. However, the role that circadian clock genes play in heart development and function in a whole animal in vivo are poorly understood. The Drosophila cryptochrome (dCry) is a circadian clock gene that encodes a major component of the circadian clock negative feedback loop. Compared to the embryonic stage, the relative expression levels of dCry showed a significant increase (|100-fold) in Drosophila during the pupa and adult stages. In this study, we utilized an ultrahigh resolution optical coherence microscopy (OCM) system to perform non-invasive and longitudinal analysis of functional and morphological changes in the Drosophila heart throughout its post-embryonic lifecycle for the first time. The Drosophila
An in vivo screen of 86 RNAi lines, representing the majority of annotated Drosophila phosphatases/regulators, for altered activity rhythms was carried out. The screen identified a total of 19 candidate genes (Table 1) that altered clock function upon RNAi knockdown in Drosophila clock cells. Further genetic validation of one candidate showed that the RPTP Lar is required for the development of axonal projections from circadian pacemaker neurons that support rhythmic activity in constant darkness but not during light:dark cycles (Agrawal and Hardin 2016).. As expected, a majority of these candidates were not validated upon further analysis of independent genetic reagents (Table 2). However, these reagents consisted of additional P element inserts, where the P element insertion site may not interfere with gene function, or strains that could be used for overexpression, which also may not impact the function of a protein that is already at saturating levels. Therefore, a lack of validation with P ...

Handbook of Photochemistry and PhotobiologyHandbook of Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cryptochromes and Flavoprotein Blue-Light Photoreceptors, M. Ahmad, France *Chloroplast Biogenesis: Chlorophyll Biosynthetic ...
more infohttp://nanotech-now.com/featured_books/handbook-of-photochemistry-and-photobiology.htm

Home | International Union of PhotobiologyHome | International Union of Photobiology

Photosensory Biology 2: Circadian Rhythms • Phytochromes • Cryptochromes • Photomorphogenesis, Phototropism & Photomovement. ...
more infohttp://iuphotobiology.org/home

vifabio - iqfBio-Detailed overview: 16th International Congress on Photobiologyvifabio - iqfBio-Detailed overview: 16th International Congress on Photobiology

... cryptochromes, LOV, BLUF and retinal proteins and domains, vision, circadian rhythms, environmental photobiology, UV influence ...
more infohttp://www.vifabio.de/en/iqfBio/detail/8231

Cryptochrome 1 (photolyase-like) (Cry1)Cryptochrome 1 (photolyase-like) (Cry1)

Mus musculus cryptochrome 1 (Cry1) mRNA, complete cds. P. BC022174.1. Mus musculus cryptochrome 1 (photolyase-like), mRNA (cDNA ... cryptochrome 1a isoform 1. D. rerio. 93.2. 618. NP_477188.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * Protein sequence * * ... cryptochrome 1 (photolyase-like). X. laevis. 95.3. 615. NP_001070765.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * Protein ... Mus musculus cryptochrome 1 (photolyase-like) (Cry1), mRNA. PA. AF156986.1. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/UniGene/clust.cgi?ORG=Mm&CID=26237

Circadian clock cryptochrome proteins regulate autoimmunity | PNASCircadian clock cryptochrome proteins regulate autoimmunity | PNAS

Circadian clock cryptochrome proteins regulate autoimmunity. Qi Cao, Xuan Zhao, Jingwen Bai, Sigal Gery, Haibo Sun, De-Chen Lin ... 2010) Cryptochrome mediates circadian regulation of cAMP signaling and hepatic gluconeogenesis. Nat Med 16:1152-1156. ... 2011) Cryptochromes mediate rhythmic repression of the glucocorticoid receptor. Nature 480:552-556. ... 2010) Mammalian clock gene Cryptochrome regulates arthritis via proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. J Immunol 184:1560-1565. ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/114/47/12548.long

Functional interaction of phytochrome B and cryptochrome 2 | NatureFunctional interaction of phytochrome B and cryptochrome 2 | Nature

Cryptochrome 1 (cry1), cryptochrome 2 (cry2) and phototropin are the blue/ultraviolet-A light receptors that have been ... Cryptochrome 1 (cry1), cryptochrome 2 (cry2) and phototropin are the blue/ultraviolet-A light receptors that have been ... Enhancement of blue-light sensitivity of Arabidopsis seedlings by blue light receptor cryptochrome 2. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA ... Guo, H., Duong, H., Ma, N. & Lin, C. The Arabidopsis blue light receptor cryptochrome 2 is a nuclear protein regulated by a ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/35041583?error=cookies_not_supported&code=dcb55676-629b-4ea9-81ba-260ba63715cf

Anti-Cryptochrome I antibody (ab3518) | AbcamAnti-Cryptochrome I antibody (ab3518) | Abcam

Rabbit polyclonal Cryptochrome I antibody validated for WB, IHC, ICC and tested in Human and Mouse. With 1 independent review. ... Cryptochromes (Cry 1 and 2) are blue, ultraviolet-A photoreceptor pigment proteins that are involved circadian rhythm ... Detects a band of approximately 70 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 66 kDa).Can be blocked with Cryptochrome I peptide (ab5005) ... Detects recombinant human Cryptochrome 1 (Cry 1) (not tested on endogenous protein yet). ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/cryptochrome-i-antibody-ab3518.html

Cryptochrome and Magnetic SensingCryptochrome and Magnetic Sensing

... thaliana cryptochrome in water for (a) cryptochrome with oxidized flavin, i.e., FAD + W400(H), and (b) cryptochrome in the ... Cryptochrome active site model. The quantum chemical description of the W377 →W400 + electron transfer in cryptochrome includes ... However, the structure of cryptochrome from a plant (Arabidopsis thaliana) is available, and the cryptochromes of plants and ... Although cryptochromes have been extensively studied during the last years, the photoactivation reactions in cryptochromes from ...
more infohttps://www.ks.uiuc.edu/Research/cryptochrome/

Functional interaction of phytochrome B and cryptochrome 2.  - PubMed - NCBIFunctional interaction of phytochrome B and cryptochrome 2. - PubMed - NCBI

Cryptochrome 1 (cry1), cryptochrome 2 (cry2) and phototropin are the blue/ultraviolet-A light receptors that have been ... Functional interaction of phytochrome B and cryptochrome 2.. Más P1, Devlin PF, Panda S, Kay SA. ... phytochromes and cryptochromes. Phytochromes are red/far-red light-absorbing receptors encoded by a gene family of five members ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=11089975%5BPMID%5D

Anti-Cryptochrome I antibody (ab3518) References | AbcamAnti-Cryptochrome I antibody (ab3518) References | Abcam

References for Abcams Anti-Cryptochrome I antibody (ab3518). Please let us know if you have used this product in your ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/cryptochrome-i-antibody-ab3518-references.html

CRY1 - Cryptochrome-1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - CRY1 gene & proteinCRY1 - Cryptochrome-1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - CRY1 gene & protein

Photolyase/cryptochrome alpha/betaAdd BLAST. 130. Region. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. Length ... "Cryptochromes mediate rhythmic repression of the glucocorticoid receptor.". Lamia K.A., Papp S.J., Yu R.T., Barish G.D., ... "Cryptochromes mediate rhythmic repression of the glucocorticoid receptor.". Lamia K.A., Papp S.J., Yu R.T., Barish G.D., ... "Identification of small molecule activators of cryptochrome.". Hirota T., Lee J.W., St John P.C., Sawa M., Iwaisako K., Noguchi ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q16526

Cryptochrome protein helps birds navigate via magnetic field | EurekAlert! Science NewsCryptochrome protein helps birds navigate via magnetic field | EurekAlert! Science News

... a magnetically sensitive protein called cryptochrome that mediates circadian rhythms in plants and animals. ... Cryptochrome protein helps birds navigate via magnetic field. American Physical Society. Meeting. American Physical Society ... Cryptochrome protein helps birds navigate via magnetic field To be presented at the 2015 APS March Meeting in San Antonio, ... This would suggest that the radical pairs in cryptochrome preserve their quantum coherence for much longer than previously ...
more infohttps://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-02/aps-cph022715.php

Cryptochrome - WikipediaCryptochrome - Wikipedia

In eukaryotes, cryptochromes no longer retain this original enzymatic activity. The structure of cryptochrome involves a fold ... cryptochrome at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Cryptochrome circadian clock in Monarch ... Similarly, cryptochromes play an important role in the entrainment of circadian rhythms in plants. In Drosophila, cryptochrome ... Cryptochromes receptors cause plants to respond to blue light via photomorphogenesis. Cryptochromes help control seed and ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptochrome

Cryptochromes | Florida TechCryptochromes | Florida Tech

Cryptochromes. Arabidopsis thaliana and Cryptochromes. Cryptochromes are flavoprotein photoreceptors first discovered in ... Cryptochrome has also been implicated in plant magneto-sensing that alters growths rates in different magnetic field ... We propose that cryptochrome photoreceptors respond to appropriate magnetic field strengths by modulation of singlet-triplet ... Blue-light dependent ROS formation by Arabidopsis cryptochrome may define a novel evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanism. ...
more infohttps://research.fit.edu/quantum-bio/research/cryptochromes/

AMPK Regulates the Circadian Clock by Cryptochrome Phosphorylation and Degradation | ScienceAMPK Regulates the Circadian Clock by Cryptochrome Phosphorylation and Degradation | Science

1A). Mutation of S71, which is conserved in all non-light-sensitive insect cryptochromes (6) and higher organisms (fig. S2), to ... AMPK Regulates the Circadian Clock by Cryptochrome Phosphorylation and Degradation. By Katja A. Lamia, Uma M. Sachdeva, Luciano ... AMPK Regulates the Circadian Clock by Cryptochrome Phosphorylation and Degradation. By Katja A. Lamia, Uma M. Sachdeva, Luciano ... If AMPK-directed cryptochrome phosphorylation regulates the phase of peripheral clocks, the activity, expression, and/or ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/326/5951/437?ijkey=76ced9d6a72c7b2ffbd2ca0a96f8c37191375c68&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Cryptochromes and activity markers co-localize in bird retina during magnetic orientationCryptochromes and activity markers co-localize in bird retina during magnetic orientation

... Mouritsen, H.; Janssen-Bienhold, U. ... The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina ... The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina ... The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina ...
more infohttps://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/1976935

Magnetoreception in birds: I. Immunohistochemical studies concerning the cryptochrome cycle | Journal of Experimental BiologyMagnetoreception in birds: I. Immunohistochemical studies concerning the cryptochrome cycle | Journal of Experimental Biology

Flavin cycle of cryptochrome. N, N-terminus of the protein; C, C-terminus of the protein; the antiserum-binding epitope is in ... 2011). The cryptochromes: blue light photoreceptors in plants and animals. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 62, 335-364. ... Cryptochrome is a blue light receptor, with flavin as the chromophore (for review, see Chaves et al., 2011). Flavin undergoes a ... Cryptochrome 1a, located in the UV/violet-sensitive cones in the avian retina, is discussed as receptor molecule for the ...
more infohttps://jeb.biologists.org/content/217/23/4221

RePub, Erasmus University Repository:
  Critical cholangiocarcinogenesis control by cryptochrome clock genesRePub, Erasmus University Repository: Critical cholangiocarcinogenesis control by cryptochrome clock genes

Critical cholangiocarcinogenesis control by cryptochrome clock genes. Publication. Publication. International Journal of Cancer ... Critical cholangiocarcinogenesis control by cryptochrome clock genes. International Journal of Cancer. doi:10.1002/ijc.30663 ...
more infohttps://repub.eur.nl/pub/98747

Identification of Small Molecule Activators of Cryptochrome | ScienceIdentification of Small Molecule Activators of Cryptochrome | Science

Cryptochromes mediate rhythmic repression of the glucocorticoid receptor. Nature 480, 552 (2011). doi:10.1038/nature10700 pmid: ... Cryptochrome mediates circadian regulation of cAMP signaling and hepatic gluconeogenesis. Nat. Med. 16, 1152 (2010). doi: ... Delay in feedback repression by cryptochrome 1 is required for circadian clock function. Cell 144, 268 (2011). doi:10.1016/j. ... Identification of Small Molecule Activators of Cryptochrome. By Tsuyoshi Hirota, Jae Wook Lee, Peter C. St. John, Mariko Sawa, ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/337/6098/1094?ijkey=17c2e083f364d46e8d083db30f9dc0a256278fe5&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

PLOS Biology: Cryptochrome Mediates Light-Dependent Magnetosensitivity of Drosophilas Circadian ClockPLOS Biology: Cryptochrome Mediates Light-Dependent Magnetosensitivity of Drosophila's Circadian Clock

... clock of the fruit fly is sensitive to magnetic fields in a manner dependent on blue light and the photopigment cryptochrome. ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article/authors?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1000086

Photoreceptors in Plant Photomorphogenesis to Date. Five Phytochromes, Two Cryptochromes, One Phototropin, and One Superchrome ...Photoreceptors in Plant Photomorphogenesis to Date. Five Phytochromes, Two Cryptochromes, One Phototropin, and One Superchrome ...

Cryptochromes. It was not until 1993 that Ahmad and Cashmore (2) first reported the discovery of cryptochrome 1 (cry1) in ... Five Phytochromes, Two Cryptochromes, One Phototropin, and One Superchrome Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Five Phytochromes, Two Cryptochromes, One Phototropin, and One Superchrome. Winslow R. Briggs, Margaret A. Olney ... There is evidence that cryptochromes are localized to the nucleus, but to date no interacting partner has been identified (for ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/125/1/85.full

Cryptochromes Are Required for Phytochrome Signaling to the Circadian Clock but Not for Rhythmicity | Plant CellCryptochromes Are Required for Phytochrome Signaling to the Circadian Clock but Not for Rhythmicity | Plant Cell

Cryptochromes in insects are particularly interesting in that the role of the Drosophila cryptochromes is closer to that of the ... phyB can act in light input independently of cryptochrome, as evidenced by the normal response of the cryptochrome mutants at ... This is consistent with a phylogenetic analysis of the animal and plant cryptochromes that suggests that cryptochromes arose ... Loss of the cryptochromes in red light also affects the lower end of the range of fluence rates over which phyB acts in light ...
more infohttp://www.plantcell.org/content/12/12/2499?ijkey=f68f0dd94fd74863631501559c3cbc077c8215c8&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Plus itPlus it

Interaction between Cryptochrome and Phytochrome Pathways. Based on the observations leading to their model, Ahmad and Cashmore ... Genetic Interactions between Phytochrome A, Phytochrome B, and Cryptochrome 1 during Arabidopsis Development. Michael M. Neff, ... The cloning of specific or shared phytochrome and cryptochrome signal transduction components will allow us to test their ... It is possible that phytochromes and cryptochromes have a similar method of coordinating their signal transduction pathways. ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/118/1/27

Frontiers | Mice Deficient in Cryptochrome 1 (Cry1−/−) Exhibit Resistance to Obesity Induced by a High-Fat Diet | EndocrinologyFrontiers | Mice Deficient in Cryptochrome 1 (Cry1−/−) Exhibit Resistance to Obesity Induced by a High-Fat Diet | Endocrinology

Among these transcribed clock genes are cryptochrome (CRY) family members, which comprise Cry1 and Cry2. While the metabolic ... Among these transcribed clock genes are cryptochrome (CRY) family members, which comprise Cry1 and Cry2. While the metabolic ... Mice deficient in cryptochrome 1 (Cry1−/−) exhibit resistance to obesity induced by a high-fat diet. Guy Griebel1*, Christine ... Differential regulation of mammalian period genes and circadian rhythmicity by cryptochromes 1 and 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2014.00049/full

Effect of magnetic fields on cryptochrome-dependent responses in Arabidopsis thaliana | Journal of The Royal Society InterfaceEffect of magnetic fields on cryptochrome-dependent responses in Arabidopsis thaliana | Journal of The Royal Society Interface

Five phytochromes, two cryptochromes, one phototropin, and one superchrome. Plant Physiol. 125, 85-88. (doi:10.1104/pp.125.1.85 ... 2003 Cryptochromes and flavoprotein blue-light photoreceptors. In Handbook of photochemistry and photobiology (ed. Nalwa H.S), ... 1998) and regulates a group of blue light and cryptochrome-regulated genes including CHS (Ma et al. 2001; Ohgishi et al. 2004; ... 2003 Light-induced electron transfer in a cryptochrome blue-light photoreceptor. Nat. Struct. Biol. 10, 489-490. (doi:10.1038/ ...
more infohttp://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/6/41/1193
  • In response to blue and red light exposure, this animal-like cryptochrome (aCRY) alters the light-dependent expression of various genes encoding proteins involved in chlorophyll and carotenoid biosynthesis, light-harvesting complexes, nitrogen metabolism, cell cycle control, and the circadian clock. (plantcell.org)
  • The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina of migratory birds? (lu.se)
  • This review, based mainly on the author's investigation of the unique features of Tg mice, presents reported results and recent findings related to molecular processes associated with mammalian cryptochromes, especially their involvement in the regulation of metabolism. (hindawi.com)
  • Under this model of phototransduction, FAD would then be reduced to FADH, which probably mediates the phosphorylation of a certain domain in cryptochrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, phytochrome's induction of the accumulation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in milo seedlings can be amplified by cryptochromes ( Oelmüller and Mohr, 1984 , 1985b ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • This would suggest that the radical pairs in cryptochrome preserve their quantum coherence for much longer than previously believed possible. (eurekalert.org)
  • We hypothesize that ROS radical pairs can affect the outcome of cryptochrome ROS biochemical reactions, influencing intracellular signal transduction cascades and cell-cell communication mechanisms. (fit.edu)
  • We have investigated a cryptochrome from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with sequence homology to animal cryptochromes and (6-4) photolyases. (plantcell.org)
  • Cryptochrome has also been implicated in plant magneto-sensing that alters growths rates in different magnetic field environments and are potentially involved in avian navigation. (fit.edu)
  • Cryptochromes are involved in the circadian rhythms of plants and animals, and possibly also in the sensing of magnetic fields in a number of species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detects a band of approximately 70 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 66 kDa).Can be blocked with Cryptochrome I peptide (ab5005) . (abcam.com)
  • Stimulation of AMPK destabilized cryptochromes and altered circadian rhythms, and mice in which the AMPK pathway was genetically disrupted showed alterations in peripheral clocks. (sciencemag.org)
  • This observation is in agreement with the hypothesis that activated cryptochrome 1a is found as long as there is some of the semiquinone left, but not when the supply is depleted. (biologists.org)