Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reactivation by light of UV-irradiated DNA. It breaks two carbon-carbon bonds in PYRIMIDINE DIMERS in DNA.
Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.
The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.
A plant photo regulatory protein that exists in two forms that are reversibly interconvertible by LIGHT. In response to light it moves to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates transcription of target genes. Phytochrome B plays an important role in shade avoidance and mediates plant de-etiolation in red light.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. They combine with CLOCK PROTEINS to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation.
The primary plant photoreceptor responsible for perceiving and mediating responses to far-red light. It is a PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to light signals.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The directional growth of organisms in response to light. In plants, aerial shoots usually grow towards light. The phototropic response is thought to be controlled by auxin (= AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Blue-light receptors that regulate a range of physiological responses in PLANTS. Examples include: PHOTOTROPISM, light-induced stomatal opening, and CHLOROPLAST movements in response to changes in light intensity.
The branch of biology dealing with the effect of light on organisms.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.
The absence of light.
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).
Antiphospholipid antibodies found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. The antibodies are detected by solid-phase IMMUNOASSAY employing the purified phospholipid antigen CARDIOLIPIN.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Areas of attractive or repulsive force surrounding MAGNETS.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.

Regulation of the mammalian pineal by non-rod, non-cone, ocular photoreceptors. (1/564)

In mammals, ocular photoreceptors mediate an acute inhibition of pineal melatonin by light. The effect of rod and cone loss on this response was assessed by combining the rd mutation with a transgenic ablation of cones (cl) to produce mice lacking both photoreceptor classes. Despite the loss of all known retinal photoreceptors, rd/rd cl mice showed normal suppression of pineal melatonin in response to monochromatic light of wavelength 509 nanometers. These data indicate that mammals have additional ocular photoreceptors that they use in the regulation of temporal physiology.  (+info)

Antagonistic actions of Arabidopsis cryptochromes and phytochrome B in the regulation of floral induction. (2/564)

The Arabidopsis photoreceptors cry1, cry2 and phyB are known to play roles in the regulation of flowering time, for which the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We have previously hypothesized that phyB mediates a red-light inhibition of floral initiation and cry2 mediates a blue-light inhibition of the phyB function. Studies of the cry2/phyB double mutant provide direct evidence in support of this hypothesis. The function of cryptochromes in floral induction was further investigated using the cry2/cry1 double mutants. The cry2/cry1 double mutants showed delayed flowering in monochromatic blue light, whereas neither monogenic cry1 nor cry2 mutant exhibited late flowering in blue light. This result suggests that, in addition to the phyB-dependent function, cry2 also acts redundantly with cry1 to promote floral initiation in a phyB-independent manner. To understand how photoreceptors regulate the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive development, we examined the effect of sequential illumination by blue light and red light on the flowering time of plants. We found that there was a light-quality-sensitive phase of plant development, during which the quality of light exerts a profound influence on flowering time. After this developmental stage, which is between approximately day-1 to day-7 post germination, plants are committed to floral initiation and the quality of light has little effect on the flowering time. Mutations in either the PHYB gene or both the CRY1 and CRY2 genes resulted in the loss of the light-quality-sensitive phase manifested during floral development. The commitment time of floral transition, defined by a plant's sensitivity to light quality, coincides with the commitment time of inflorescence development revealed previously by a plant's sensitivity to light quantity - the photoperiod. Therefore, the developmental mechanism resulting in the commitment to flowering appears to be the direct target of the antagonistic actions of the photoreceptors.  (+info)

Photomophogenesis: Phytochrome takes a partner! (3/564)

How light signals are transduced by phytochromes is still poorly understood. Recent studies have provided evidence that a PAS domain protein, PIF3, physically interacts with phytochromes, plays a role in phytochrome signal transduction and might be a component of a novel signalling pathway in plants.  (+info)

Circadian rhythms: Something to cry about? (4/564)

Recent studies suggest that a class of proteins known as cryptochromes have an evolutionarily conserved role in the entrainment of circadian rhythms to the night-day cycle. While the evidence reported is intriguing, the notion that cryptochromes have the same role in all species requires further investigation.  (+info)

An extraretinally expressed insect cryptochrome with similarity to the blue light photoreceptors of mammals and plants. (5/564)

Photic entrainment of insect circadian rhythms can occur through either extraretinal (brain) or retinal photoreceptors, which mediate sensitivity to blue light or longer wavelengths, respectively. Although visual transduction processes are well understood in the insect retina, almost nothing is known about the extraretinal blue light photoreceptor of insects. We now have identified and characterized a candidate blue light photoreceptor gene in Drosophila (DCry) that is homologous to the cryptochrome (Cry) genes of mammals and plants. The DCry gene is located in region 91F of the third chromosome, an interval that does not contain other genes required for circadian rhythmicity. The protein encoded by DCry is approximately 50% identical to the CRY1 and CRY2 proteins recently discovered in mammalian species. As expected for an extraretinal photoreceptor mediating circadian entrainment, DCry mRNA is expressed within the adult brain and can be detected within body tissues. Indeed, tissue in situ hybridization demonstrates prominent expression in cells of the lateral brain, which are close to or coincident with the Drosophila clock neurons. Interestingly, DCry mRNA abundance oscillates in a circadian manner in Drosophila head RNA extracts, and the temporal phasing of the rhythm is similar to that documented for the mouse Cry1 mRNA, which is expressed in clock tissues. Finally, we show that changes in DCry gene dosage are associated predictably with alterations of the blue light resetting response for the circadian rhythm of adult locomotor activity.  (+info)

Light-dependent sequestration of TIMELESS by CRYPTOCHROME. (6/564)

Most organisms have circadian clocks consisting of negative feedback loops of gene regulation that facilitate adaptation to cycles of light and darkness. In this study, CRYPTOCHROME (CRY), a protein involved in circadian photoperception in Drosophila, is shown to block the function of PERIOD/TIMELESS (PER/TIM) heterodimeric complexes in a light-dependent fashion. TIM degradation does not occur under these conditions; thus, TIM degradation is uncoupled from abrogation of its function by light. CRY and TIM are part of the same complex and directly interact in yeast in a light-dependent fashion. PER/TIM and CRY influence the subcellular distribution of these protein complexes, which reside primarily in the nucleus after the perception of a light signal. Thus, CRY acts as a circadian photoreceptor by directly interacting with core components of the circadian clock.  (+info)

mCRY1 and mCRY2 are essential components of the negative limb of the circadian clock feedback loop. (7/564)

We determined that two mouse cryptochrome genes, mCry1 and mCry2, act in the negative limb of the clock feedback loop. In cell lines, mPER proteins (alone or in combination) have modest effects on their cellular location and ability to inhibit CLOCK:BMAL1 -mediated transcription. This suggested cryptochrome involvement in the negative limb of the feedback loop. Indeed, mCry1 and mCry2 RNA levels are reduced in the central and peripheral clocks of Clock/Clock mutant mice. mCRY1 and mCRY2 are nuclear proteins that interact with each of the mPER proteins, translocate each mPER protein from cytoplasm to nucleus, and are rhythmically expressed in the suprachiasmatic circadian clock. Luciferase reporter gene assays show that mCRY1 or mCRY2 alone abrogates CLOCK:BMAL1-E box-mediated transcription. The mPER and mCRY proteins appear to inhibit the transcriptional complex differentially.  (+info)

Blue light-directed destabilization of the pea Lhcb1*4 transcript depends on sequences within the 5' untranslated region. (8/564)

Pea seedlings grown in continuous red light accumulate significant levels of Lhcb1 RNA. When treated with a single pulse of blue light with a total fluence >10(4) micromol m(-2), the rate of Lhcb1 transcription is increased, whereas the level of Lhcb1 RNA is unchanged from that in control seedlings. This RNA destabilization response occurs in developing leaves but not in the apical bud. The data presented here indicate that the same response occurs in the cotyledons of etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. The blue light-induced destabilization response persists in long hypocotyl hy4 and phytochrome phyA, phyB, and hy1 mutants as well as in far-red light-grown seedlings, indicating that neither CRY1 (encoded by the hy4 locus) nor phytochrome is the sole photoreceptor. Studies with transgenic plants indicate that the destabilization element in the pea Lhcb1*4 transcript resides completely in the 5' untranslated region.  (+info)

Role of Mouse Cryptochrome Blue-Light Photoreceptor in Circadian Photoresponses. Does the p53 up-regulated Gadd45 protein have a role in excision repair?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cryptochrome photoreceptors cry1 and cry2 antagonistically regulate primary root elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Canamero, Roberto C.. AU - Bakrim, Nadia. AU - Bouly, Jean Pierre. AU - Garay, Alvaro. AU - Dudkin, Elizabeth Anne. AU - Habricot, Yvette. AU - Ahmad, Margaret. PY - 2006/10/1. Y1 - 2006/10/1. N2 - Cryptochromes are blue-light receptors controlling multiple aspects of plant growth and development. They are flavoproteins with significant homology to photolyases, but instead of repairing DNA they function by transducing blue light energy into a signal that can be recognized by the cellular signaling machinery. Here we report the effect of cry1 and cry2 blue light receptors on primary root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, through analysis of both cryptochrome-mutant and cryptochrome-overexpressing lines. Cry1 mutant seedlings show reduced root elongation in blue light while overexpressing seedlings show significantly increased elongation as compared to ...
Birds use the magnetic field of the Earth to navigate during their annual migratory travel. The possible mechanism to explain the biophysics of this compass sense involves electron transfers within the photoreceptive protein cryptochrome. A study (Qin et al., 2016) claimed that the sensitivity to changes in the magnetic field is enhanced by a coupling to an iron rich polymer complex which couples to multiple cryptochromes. For the iron sulphur clusters to participate in the compass sense, they either need to donate an electron to a specific tryptophane in the cryptochome or accept an electron from the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) co-factor in the cryptochrome. To validate the claim, it is needed to independently reconstruct this complex and describe its interaction with Drosophila melanogaster cryptochromes. The polymer complex consists of iron sulphur containing assembly ISCA1 protein monomers with internally bound iron sulphur clusters and simultaneously binds ten cryptochromes, shown in ...
The Drosophila melanogaster circadian clock is generated by interlocked feedback loops, and null mutations in core genes such as period and timeless generate behavioral arrhythmicity in constant darkness. In light-dark cycles, the elevation in locomotor activity that usually anticipates the light on or off signals is severely compromised in these mutants. Light transduction pathways mediated by the rhodopsins and the dedicated circadian blue light photoreceptor cryptochrome are also critical in providing the circadian clock with entraining light signals from the environment. The cryb mutation reduces the light sensitivity of the flys clock, yet locomotor activity rhythms in constant darkness or light-dark cycles are relatively normal, because the rhodopsins compensate for the lack of cryptochrome function. Remarkably, when we combined a period-null mutation with cryb, circadian rhythmicity in locomotor behavior in light-dark cycles, as measured by a number of different criteria, was restored. ...
Genetic variations in circadian clock genes may serve as molecular adaptations, allowing populations to adapt to local environments. Here, we carried out a survey of genetic variation in Drosophila cryptochrome (cry), the flys dedicated circadian photoreceptor. An initial screen of 10 European cry alleles revealed substantial variation, including seven non-synonymous changes. The SNP frequency spectra and the excessive linkage disequilibrium in this locus suggested that this variation is maintained by natural selection. We focused on a non-conservative SNP involving a leucine - histidine replacement (L232H) and found that this polymorphism is common, with both alleles at intermediate frequencies across 27 populations surveyed in Europe, irrespective of latitude. Remarkably, we were able to reproduce this natural observation in the laboratory using replicate population cages where the minor allele frequency was initially set to 10%. Within 20 generations, the two allelic variants converged to ...
Cryptochrome 2 is a flavin-type blue light receptor mediating floral induction in response to photoperiod and a blue light-induced hypocotyl growth inhibition. cry2 is required for the elevated expression of the flowering-time gene CO in response to long-day photoperiods, but the molecular mechanism …
Seventeen years after it was originally suggested, the photoreceptor protein cryptochrome remains the most probable host for the radical pair intermediates that are thought to be the sensors in the avian magnetic compass. Although evidence in favour of this hypothesis is accumulating, the intracellular interaction partners of the sensory protein are still unknown. It has been suggested that ascorbate ions could interact with surface-exposed tryptophan radicals in photoactivated cryptochromes, and so lead to the formation of a radical pair comprised of the reduced form of the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor, FAD*- , and the ascorbate radical, Asc*-. This species could provide a more sensitive compass than a FAD- tryptophan radical pair. In this study of Drosophila melanogaster cryptochrome and Erithacus rubecula (European robin) cryptochrome 1a, we use molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the transient encounters of ascorbate ions with tryptophan radicals in cryptochrome in order ...
article{cc3cb4f6-4ad0-44a5-be93-7ca320851d0c, abstract = {Migratory birds can use a magnetic compass for orientation during their migratory journeys covering thousands of kilometers. But how do they sense the reference direction provided by the Earths magnetic field? Behavioral evidence and theoretical considerations have suggested that radical-pair processes in differently oriented, light-sensitive molecules of the retina could enable migratory birds to perceive the magnetic field as visual patterns. The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina of migratory birds? Here, we show that at least one CRY1 and one CRY2 exist in the retina of migratory garden warblers and that garden-warbler CRY1 (gwCRY1) is cytosolic. We also show that gwCRY1 is concentrated in specific cells, particularly in ganglion cells and in large displaced ganglion cells, which also showed high levels of neuronal activity at night, when our ...
We isolated and characterized mouse photolyase-like genes, mCRY1 (mPHLL1) and mCRY2 (mPHLL2), which belong to the photolyase family including plant blue-light receptors. The mCRY1 and mCRY2 genes are located on chromosome 10C and 2E, respectively, and are expressed in all mouse organs examined. We raised antibodies specific against each gene product using its C-terminal sequence, which differs completely between the genes. Immunofluorescent staining of cultured mouse cells revealed that mCRY1 is localized in mitochondria whereas mCRY2 was found mainly in the nucleus. The subcellular distribution of CRY proteins was confirmed by immunoblot analysis of fractionated mouse liver cell extracts. Using green fluorescent protein fused peptides we showed that the C-terminal region of the mouse CRY2 protein contains a unique nuclear localization signal, which is absent in the CRY1 protein. The N-terminal region of CRY1 was shown to contain the mitochondrial transport signal. Recombinant as well as native CRY1
Mazzotta GM, Bellanda M, Minervini G, Damulewicz M, Cusumano P, Aufiero S, Stefani M, Zambelli B, Mammi S, Costa R, Tosatto SCE.. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, 2018. Light is the main environmental stimulus that synchronizes the endogenous timekeeping systems in most terrestrial organisms. Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY) is a light-responsive flavoprotein that detects changes in light intensity and wavelength around dawn and dusk. We have previously shown that dCRY acts through Inactivation No Afterpotential D (INAD) in a light-dependent manner on the Signalplex, a multiprotein complex that includes visual-signaling molecules, suggesting a role for dCRY in fly vision. Here, we predict and demonstrate a novel Ca2+-dependent interaction between dCRY and calmodulin (CaM). Through yeast two hybrid, coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and calorimetric analyses we were able to identify and characterize a CaM binding motif in the dCRY C-terminus. Similarly, we also ...
Cryptochromes, Cry, are photoreceptors that absorb blue light and mediate signaling events to modulate a wide range of biological functions such as circadian entrainment and phototropism. The signaling activation is triggered by excitation of the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor, followed by protein conformational changes that mediate protein-protein interaction with downstream partners. In this presentation, I will discuss the conditions and functional dynamics of drosophila cryptochrome through a plethora of molecular dynamics simulation and analysis tools. Our model recapitulates various experimental evidence of dCry activation, and the mechanism may be applicable to other cryptochromes.. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The perception of light is essential to many organisms, as it is an important source of spatial and temporal information. Accordingly, there are many photosensitive proteins that regulate behavioural and physiological responses. It is because of this that the investigation of photoreceptor proteins has garnered continued scientific interest. One important aspect of a photosensors mechanism is the conformation of the signalling state. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been established as a useful tool for probing the structure of a protein in solution. This work utilises EPR to investigate three different proteins, YF1, cryptochrome-2 and channelrhodopsin- 2\. YF1 is an example of a LOV protein, a diverse group of blue-light sensing pro- teins using a flavin chromophore. This work tries to elucidate the structure of the LOV domains signalling state as well as investigate the molecular basis for LOV proteins wide range of photocycle kinetics. Using EPR double resonance tech- niques, a ...
van Wilderen LJ, Silkstone G, Mason M, van Thor JJ, Wilson MT (2015) Kinetic studies on the oxidation of semiquinone and hydroquinone forms of Arabidopsis cryptochrome by molecular oxygen FEBS Open Bio. 5:885-892 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fob.2015.10.007 Open Access. This study is a collaborative effort between researchers from Imperial College and the University of Essex, led by emeritus biochemistry Professor Michael Wilson and is an in vitro analysis of the oxidation of the Arabidopsis cryptochrome (CRY) photoreceptor in the presence and absence of an external electron donor. They show that a more complex model than previously thought is required to explain the mechanism by which the CRY-associated flavin molecule is oxidised. The authors propose that the final steps in this reaction require cooperative interaction between partners in a CRY homodimer or between separate CRY molecules.. Evans-Roberts KM, Mitchenall LA, Wall MK, Leroux J, Mylne JS, Maxwell A (2015) DNA Gyrase is the Target ...
Barclay, J. L.; Shostak, A.; Leliavski, A.; Tsang, A. H.; Jöhren, O.; Müller-Fielitz, H.; Landgraf, D.; Naujokat, N.; van der Horst, G.; Oster, H.: High-fat diet-induced hyperinsulinemia and tissue-specific insulin resistance in Cry-deficient mice. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 304 (10), pp. E1053 - E1063 (2013 ...
Product Pig Cryptochrome 1 ELISA kit From B-Gene - A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Cryptochrome 1 in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species. Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP SOLUTION*1 vial 12. WASH SOLUTION (100 x)*1 vial 13. BALANCE SOLUTION*1 vial 14. INSTRUCTION*1
The molecular clock of the fruit fly is sensitive to magnetic fields in a manner dependent on blue light and the photopigment cryptochrome.
The photoreceptor cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) has become a powerful optogenetic tool that allows light-inducible manipulation of various signaling pathways and cellular processes in mammalian cells with high spatiotemporal precision and ease of application. However, it has also been shown that the behavior of CRY2 under blue light is complex, as the photoexcited CRY2 can both undergo homo-oligomerization and heterodimerization by binding to its dimerization partner CIB1. To better understand the light-induced CRY2 activities in mammalian cells, this article systematically characterizes CRY2 homo-oligomerization in different cellular compartments, as well as how CRY2 homo-oligomerization and heterodimerization activities affect each other. Quantitative analysis reveals that membrane-bound CRY2 has drastically enhanced oligomerization activity compared to that of its cytoplasmic form. While CRY2 homo-oligomerization and CRY2-CIB1 heterodimerization could happen concomitantly, the presence of certain ...
As Morse code enables information to be transmitted as a series of on-off tones and clicks, which can be decoded into words and text, in a somewhat similar manner, calcium (Ca2+) signals are encoded as distinct patterns of input with varying amplitudes, frequencies, and durations. As (Ca2+) is involved in literally every single cellular process in our body, it has been tempting to manipulate intracellular (Ca2+) levels for research or therapeutic purposes.. Recently, in high profile work, researchers have succeeded in developing a blue-light-dependent endogenous (Ca2+) channel activator, named OptoSTIM1 (an optically activated STIM1 protein). In this work, a light-responsive oligomerization plant protein, Cryptochrome2, was conjugated with a (Ca2+) channel activator, STIM1, which binds to (Ca2+) channels only when oligomerized by themselves. Depending on the power and exposure time of blue-light, (Ca2+) levels in the cell could be quantitatively controlled; varied levels of (Ca2+) could be ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Here, we show that the Neurospora protein VVD is a blue light photoreceptor. Following the heterologous expression in E.coli, VVD was found to be associated with a flavin‐type chromophore (Figure 3). Upon illumination, the native VVD protein underwent a blue light‐induced absorbance change that was fully reversible in the dark (Figure 4). This photocycle was also reported for the LOV domains of the plant blue light photoreceptor phototropin and indicates the formation of a reversible covalent bond between the conserved cysteine in the VVD LOV domain and the flavin chromophore (Briggs and Christie, 2002). The formation of the cysteinyl‐flavin adduct results in subtle structural changes of the flavin‐binding pocket (Crosson and Moffat, 2002). The latter changes are thought to represent the initial event in light signal transduction and seem to lead to the activation of the intra‐molecular kinase in phototropins. However, VVD is different in this respect since it only contains the LOV ...
Biological rhythms are driven by circadian oscillators, which are ultimately controlled by the cyclic expression of clock genes. Cryptochromes (CRY), blue light photoreceptors, belong to the negative elements of the transcriptional feedback loop into the molecular clock. This paper describes the cloning and characterization of two cryptochromes (cry1 and 2) in European seabass, which is considered an interesting chronobiology model due to its dual (diurnal/nocturnal) behavior. The cloned cDNA fragments encoded for two proteins of 567 and 668 amino acids, which included the FAD-binding and the DNA-photolyase domains. Moreover, both proteins had a high homology with cryptochrome proteins (Cry) of other teleost fish. These cry1 and 2 genes were expressed in several tissues of seabass (brain, liver, heart, retina, muscle, spleen, gill and intestine). In addition, the daily expression of cry1 was rhythmic in brain, heart and liver with the acrophase around ZT 03:15 h (after the onset of lights). ...
Organisms have evolved extensive sensory mechanisms to perceive information carried by light. Their responses are mediated by photoreceptor proteins, which are sensitive to light through prosthetic chromophore molecules. The past decade has witnessed the discovery of a large number of novel flavin-binding photoreceptors, notably the phototropins, the cryptochromes, and BLUF (blue-light sensing using FAD) domains (1). Phototropins are primarily found in plants and control several physiological responses such as phototropism, chloroplast movement, and stomatal opening (2), whereas cryptochromes are known to regulate growth and development in plants and circadian rhythms in plants and insects (3, 4). BLUF domains are a distinct family of flavin-binding photoreceptors that show no significant relationship to other sensor proteins in sequence or structure. The BLUF domain was first discovered as the N-terminal part of the flavoprotein AppA from the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter ...
Just over 40 years ago, workers at the U.S. Department of Agriculture laboratories (Beltsville, MD) discovered the first signaling photoreceptor in plants, a photoreversible pigment (9) that they called phytochrome (8). In the following years, photomorphogenesis (a study of the influence of light on plant development) developed as a strong subdiscipline of the field of plant physiology. Within this subdiscipline was a sharp division between those pursuing the phytochromes and those pursuing distinct blue-light receptors. Those studying phytochrome(s) had an enormous advantage in having at their disposal all of the classic phytochrome-mediated responses that were activated by brief pulses of red light interrupting darkness: These include activation of seed germination, inhibition of stem elongation in dark-grown seedlings, induction of leaf expansion, and regulation of flowering. In every case, the effect of red light was negated by subsequent immediate exposure to far-red light. This kind of ...
A McCree study in 1972 studied the relative quantum yields of the photosynthetic spectrum and found that a mixture of light, with large quantities of green, produced the most photosynthetic output. However, later research found that photo pigments within the plant tissue absorb this green light and excite/de-excite out other photons such as red or blue. This means that a larger spectrum of light is used by plant, equating to the entire visible spectrum. Therefore, there is no such thing as waste light within the visible spectrum. However, the distribution of the delivered spectrum does heavily influence growth patterns.. Moreover, green light works in some plants to tell it that it is surrounded by other plants and needs a longer stem to break out, typically using the phytochrome mechanism, as does red and far-red light. Cryptochromes are also stimulated by green light to some degree, sometimes reversing blue light driven elongation inhibitory action (see article blue and red light). Due to ...
Zoltowskis lab was awarded $320,500 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health to continue its research on the impact of blue light. They are studying a small flowering plant native to Europe and Asia, Arabidopsis thaliana - a popular model organism in plant biology and genetics, Zoltowski says.. Although signaling pathways differ in organisms such as Arabidopsis when compared to animals, the flower still serves an important research purpose. How the signaling networks are interconnected is similar in both animals and Arabidopsis. That allows researchers to use simpler genetic models to provide insight into how similar networks are controlled in more complicated species like humans.. In humans, the protein melanopsin absorbs blue light and sends signals to photoreceptor cells in our eyes. In plants and animals, the protein cryptochrome performs similar signaling.. Much is known already about the way blue light and other light wavelengths, such ...
Blue light can be beneficial to the human body if it is the right time of the day. However, when exposed to blue light at night, the health of an individual can be greatly impacted. There are simple ways a person can reduce their exposure to blue light during the wrong hours of the day. This article we will look at the effects blue light has on the body and how someone can reduce blue light exposure.. What Does Blue light do to the Body. Blue light has an array of effects upon the body. To begin, improper balance or night exposure to blue light can significantly reduce the quality of sleep an individual gets each night. Exposure to blue light at night is not natural. Blue light signals the portion of the brain that tells us we should be awake. As you can imagine, this is not an idea situation at night.. The body is naturally tuned to an internal clock and is also linked with nature. In the morning, blue light from the sun wakes us up. However, with the advancement of technology and the exposure ...
Some fairly elementary questions remain, however, for instance, if one tests a reasonable number of birds, will there be a small population of lefthanders that has the compass processing on the other side ? Also, if a young bird lost the right eye in a fight, would the brain find a way to process compass data from the left eye? And lest we forget, the precise molecular details of the molecular compass also remain to be uncovered, see my pieces on the bird compass from last year, in Oxford Today (as a sidebar to the ESR feature) and, in German, in Chemie in unserer Zeit. A significant 2009 paper that I missed when I researched those articles comes from Stefan Webers group at Freiburg and reports the observation that light can stimulate the formation of radical pairs in the most promising candidate molecules believed to host the chemical compass, namely cryptochromes (2). This adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting that the bird compass really is a radical pair mechanism residing in ...
They are the bodys natural steroid hormones that regulate blood sugar levels-their job is to make sure peoples blood sugar levels are lowered while they sleep and then raised when they wake; this allows people to maximize the efficiency their energy use. Glucocortids also interact with anti-inflammatory drugs and this has exposed the missing-link between cryptochromes and Glucocortids. Together, they regulate the blood sugar and the biological rhythms or what is often called the biological clock.. While scientists and doctors plan to harness this information for pharmaceutical purposes, it can also be used to help people understand their bodys natural rhythms. This way, people can be more conscious of both what they eat and how their body is using what they eat based on their sleep and rest patterns. Think about it. When are people most active during the day? When are they least active? It is important for people to take the time to get to know their activity levels and then find a way to eat ...
To better understand links between the clock, environmental sensing pathways, and growth regulation, we are now collaborating with the Blackman Lab to study growth regulation in sunflower. Sunflower is well-known for diaheliotropism or solar tracking, with plants changing the angle of their leaves and stems over the day so that they remain perpendicular to the suns rays. This special type of rhythmic growth is found in many plants (including various crop and pasture species) and is associated with increased yield, likely due to increases in photosynthetic and water use efficiency [16, 17, 18]. The conspicuous movement of aerial organs from east to west during the day is likely mediated by activity of the phototropin blue light photoreceptors [19]. Much more mysterious is the reorientation that occurs during the night so that sunflower leaves and apices face east well before the sun rises (Figure 4) (see also Plants-In-Motion for a wonderful movie of a solar-tracking sunflower). Thus solar ...
There is an upgrade version of the CRYSFIRE Powder Indexing Suite by Robin Shirley. This minor version has bugfix updates of the UDI2crys, WF2crys and XF2crys file converter programs. There were circumstances that made them act incorrectly if the user didnt want to overwrite an existing dataset. This has been fixed. Crysfire Tutorials at: http://www.ccp14.ac.uk/tutorial/crys/ UK: http://www.ccp14.ac.uk/ccp/web-mirrors/crys-r-shirley/crysinst.zip CA: http://ccp14.sims.nrc.ca/ccp/web-mirrors/crys-r-shirley/crysinst.zip US: http://ccp14.semo.edu/ccp/web-mirrors/crys-r-shirley/crysinst.zip AU: http://ccp14.minerals.csiro.au/ccp/web-mirrors/crys-r-shirley/crysinst.zip ---- Crysfire also interlinks with the Chekcell graphical helper indexing tool for Windows by Jean Laugier and Bernard Bochu. There is a new 7th July 2002 version of Chekcell available with improved LePage - Chekcell interconnectivity for evaluating sub-cells and super-cells. Chekcell Tutorials ...
(Cotton) Evaluation under field conditions of sub-clover stunt virus promoters driving an insect tolerance gene (Cry1Ab) from bacillus thuringiesis
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Light is a crucial environmental signal that controls many photomorphogenic and circadian responses in plants1. Perception and transduction of light is achieved by at least two principal groups of photoreceptors, phytochromes and cryptochromes2,3. Phytochromes are red/far-red light-absorbing receptors encoded by a gene family of five members (phyA to phyE)2,4 in Arabidopsis. Cryptochrome 1 (cry1), cryptochrome 2 (cry2) and phototropin are the blue/ultraviolet-A light receptors that have been characterized in Arabidopsis5. Previous studies showed that modulation of many physiological responses in plants is achieved by genetic interactions between different photoreceptors6; however, little is known about the nature of these interactions and their roles in the signal transduction pathway. Here we show the genetic interaction that occurs between the Arabidopsis photoreceptors phyB and cry2 in the control of flowering time, hypocotyl elongation and circadian period by the clock. PhyB interacts directly
Phototropins are photoreceptor proteins (more specifically, flavoproteins) that mediate phototropism responses in higher plants. Along with cryptochromes and phytochromes they allow plants to respond and alter their growth in response to the light environment. Phototropins may also be important for the opening of stomata[citation needed] and the movement of chloroplasts. Phototropins are part of the phototropic sensory system in plants that causes various environmental responses in plants. Phototropins specifically will cause stems to bend towards light[citation needed] and stomata to open.[citation needed] Phototropins have been shown to impact the movement of chloroplast inside the cell. In addition phototropins mediate the first changes in stem elongation in blue light prior to cryptochrome activation. Phototropin is also required for blue light mediated transcript destabilization of specific mRNAs in the cell.[citation needed] Wada M, Kagawa T, Sato Y (2003). Chloroplast movement. Annu Rev ...
Ophthalmologic manifestations commonly misdiagnosed as demyelinating events in multiple sclerosis patients. This retrospective review evaluates the success of such outpatient management, including the complications encountered. Manipulation of the blue light photoreceptor cryptochrome 2 in tomato affects vegetative development, flowering time, and fruit antioxidant content. Autoradiographic studies on 3H-fucose incorporation into manubria and its translocation to antheridial space during spermatogenesis in Chara vulgaris L. This question has been addressed by a model and a methodology that uses only very basic constituents to capture the relevant features of folding. This study demonstrates the presence of molly generic viagra a rich plexus of neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactive fibers in the hypothalamus and in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary of Xenopus laevis. However, sonography is becoming the preferred modality, primarily because of the superior anatomic detail provided. A ...
Define crystalizer. crystalizer synonyms, crystalizer pronunciation, crystalizer translation, English dictionary definition of crystalizer. also crys·tal·ize v. crys·tal·lized , crys·tal·liz·ing , crys·tal·liz·es also crys·tal·ized or crys·tal·iz·ing or crys·tal·iz·es v. tr. 1. To cause to form...
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Rabbit polyclonal Cryptochrome I antibody validated for WB, IHC, ICC and tested in Human and Mouse. With 1 independent review. Immunogen corresponding to…
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
Anyways when I was at boot camp I think I trained too hard in the second week and I ended up feeling sick and I vomited. After I did that I went back to the group and they stopped me they go um your lips are blue!!! Also at that time I had partial hearing loss. Went to the doctor she told me I was fine so I continued on. Four days later ended up really sick had a Nasty blood infection ( septicaemia) so I decided to quit boot camp and let my body rest ...
Were all overexposed to artificial blue light thanks to our mobile phone addiction and during covid-19 lockdowns, its even worse. Here are some ways to reduce your exposure.
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Five Phytochromes, Two Cryptochromes, One Phototropin, and One Superchrome". Plant Physiology. 125 (1): 85-88. doi:10.1104/pp. ... Lin, Chentao; Todo, Takeshi (2005-04-29). "The cryptochromes". Genome Biology. 6 (5): 220. doi:10.1186/gb-2005-6-5-220. ISSN ... for example cryptochrome in plants and animals) and bilin (biliproteins, for example phytochrome in plants). The plant protein ... UV-B light reception Cryptochrome: blue and UV-A light reception Phototropin: blue and UV-A light perception (to mediate ...
Cryptochromes absorb blue light and UV-A. Cryptochromes entrain the circadian clock to light. It has been found that both ... Modern biologists believe that it is the coincidence of the active forms of phytochrome or cryptochrome, created by light ... ISBN 978-0-374-28873-0. Lin, Chentao (2005). "The cryptochromes". Genome Biology. 6 (5): 220. doi:10.1186/gb-2005-6-5-220. PMC ... cryptochrome and phytochrome abundance relies on light and the amount of cryptochrome can change depending on day-length. This ...
Yuan, Q.; Metterville, D.; Briscoe, A. D.; Reppert, S. M. (2007). "Insect Cryptochromes: Gene Duplication and Loss Define ... Reppert and colleagues discovered that the two mouse cryptochromes, mCRY1 and mCRY2, function as the primary transcriptional ... Foley, Lauren E.; Gegear, Robert J.; Reppert, Steven M. (2011). "Human cryptochrome exhibits light-dependent magnetosensitivity ... Gegear, Robert J.; Casselman, Amy; Waddell, Scott; Reppert, Steven M. (2008). "Cryptochrome mediates light-dependent ...
Class 3 CPD lyases make up a sister group to the plant cryptochromes, which in turn are a sister group to class 1 CPDs. The Cry ... The cryptochromes have their own detailed grouping. Bacterial 6-4 lyases (InterPro: IPR007357), also known as the FeS-BCP group ... The cryptochromes form a polyphyletic group including photolyases that have lost their DNA repair activity and instead control ... The "Cry" part of their name was due to initial assumptions that they were cryptochromes. Eukaryotic (6-4)DNA photolyases form ...
"Cryptochrome and Magnetic Sensing". Theoretical and Computational Biophysics Group. Retrieved 24 February 2015. Ingersoll, p. ...
Green's research on cryptochromes began in 2003, when she and colleagues investigated the role of cryptochrome in suppressing ... Cryptochrome proteins are essential for the proper functioning of the circadian clock in insects and mammals, and for proper ... Green's lab has focused heavily on a class of proteins known as cryptochromes, which are blue light receptor proteins found in ... This study provides a model for the evolutionary mechanism by which the structure of cryptochromes, and thus clock regulatory ...
In addition to blue light, cryptochromes also perceive long wavelength UV irradiation (UV-A). Since the cryptochromes were ... There are several blue light photoreceptors known as cryptochromes. The combination of phytochromes and cryptochromes mediate ... Cryptochromes were the first blue light receptors to be isolated and characterized from any organism, and are responsible for ... The cryptochromes have evolved from microbial DNA-photolyase, an enzyme that carries out light-dependent repair of UV damaged ...
Phylogenomic Analysis of the Photolyase/Cryptochrome Family". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 26 (5): 1143-1153. doi:10.1093/ ... Instead, this gene is mutated to encode for cryptochromes. http://www.thephora.net/forum/archive/index.php/t-9928.html NCBI ...
Along with cryptochromes and phytochromes they allow plants to respond and alter their growth in response to the light ... Five phytochromes, two cryptochromes, one phototropin, and one superchrome". Plant Physiol. 125 (1): 85-8. doi:10.1104/pp.125.1 ... In addition phototropins mediate the first changes in stem elongation in blue light prior to cryptochrome activation. ... Folta, Kevin (2001). "Unexpected Roles for Cryptochrome 2 and Phototropin Revealed by High-resolution Analysis of Blue Light- ...
Humans have eight other opsins besides rhodopsin, as well as cryptochrome (light-sensitive, but not an opsin). The photopsins ... Foley LE, Gegear RJ, Reppert SM (June 2011). "Human cryptochrome exhibits light-dependent magnetosensitivity". Nature ...
Cry1 and Cry2 - Cryptochromes are a class of blue light sensitive flavoproteins found in plants and animals. Cry1 and Cry2 code ... Thompson CL, Sancar A (2004). "Cryptochrome: Discovery of a Circadian Photopigment". In Lenci F, Horspool WM. CRC handbook of ...
... ubiquitin ligase targets cryptochromes at their cofactor pocket". Nature. 496 (7443): 64-8. doi:10.1038/nature11964. PMC ... ubiquitin ligase targets cryptochromes at their cofactor pocket". Nature. 496 (7443): 64-8. doi:10.1038/nature11964. PMC ... "SCFFbxl3 controls the oscillation of the circadian clock by directing the degradation of cryptochrome proteins". Science. 316 ( ... "FBXL21 regulates oscillation of the circadian clock through ubiquitination and stabilization of cryptochromes". Cell. 152 (5): ...
Now, cryptochrome (CRY) is a light sensitive protein which inhibits TIM in the presence of light. When TIM is not complexed ... dimerizes via its PAS domain with one of two cryptochrome proteins (CRY1 and CRY2) to form a negative element of the clock. ... "Light-dependent sequestration of TIMELESS by CRYPTOCHROME". Science. 285 (5427): 553-6. doi:10.1126/science.285.5427.553. PMID ...
Kay discovered that cryptochrome is the circadian photoreceptor that directly acts with and sequesters TIM in response to light ... KL001-mediated cryptochrome stabilization (of both CRY1 and CRY2) was found to restrain glucagon-activated gluconeogenesis. ... There, Kay collaborated with Jeffrey C. Hall and discovered a cryptochrome mutant in fruit flies, also demonstrating that clock ... John PC; Sawa M (2012). "Identification of small molecule activators in cryptochrome". Science. 337 (6098): 1094-1097. Bibcode: ...
7-day biological cycle Cryptochrome CRY1 and CRY2: the cryptochrome family genes Diurnal cycle Light effects on circadian ... The cryptochrome (cry) gene is also a light-sensitive component of the circadian clock and is thought to be involved both as a ... Cryptochromes 1-2 (involved in blue-UVA) help to maintain the period length in the clock through a whole range of light ... Red and blue light are absorbed through several phytochromes and cryptochromes. One phytochrome, phyA, is the main phytochrome ...
Eckardt, N. A. (1 May 2003). "A Component of the Cryptochrome Blue Light Signaling Pathway". The Plant Cell Online. 15 (5): ... The combination of responses from phytochromes and cryptochromes allow the plant to respond to various kinds of light. Together ... Both root tips and most stem tips exhibit positive phototropism to red light.[citation needed] Cryptochromes are photoreceptors ... Other photosensitive receptors in plants include phytochromes that sense red light and cryptochromes that sense blue light. ...
Many larval sponges possess neuron-less eyes that are based on cryptochromes. They mediate phototaxic behavior. Water flow Main ... "Blue-light-receptive cryptochrome is expressed in a sponge eye lacking neurons and opsin". The Journal of Experimental Biology ...
The right eye of a migratory bird contains photoreceptive proteins called cryptochromes. Light excites these molecules to ...
Schulten and others have since extended this early work, developing a model of the possible excitation of cryptochrome proteins ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Cryptochrome and Magnetic Sensing". Theoretical and Computational Biophysics Group. ...
"Arabidopsis cryptochrome is responsive to Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields". Scientific Reports. 10 (1): 11260. doi: ...
Emery, P.; So, W.V.; Kaneko, M.; Hall, J.C.; Rosbash, M. (1998). "CRY, a Drosophila clock and light-regulated cryptochrome, is ... The gene product CRY is a major photoreceptor protein belonging to a class of flavoproteins called cryptochromes. They are also ... Busza, A.; Emery-Le, M.; Rosbash, M.; Emery, P. (2004). "Roles of the two Drosophila CRYPTOCHROME structural domains in ... Mei, Q.; Dvornyk, V. (2015). "Evolutionary History of the Photolyase/Cryptochrome Superfamily in Eukaryotes". PLOS ONE. 10 (9 ...
Eide EJ, Vielhaber EL, Hinz WA, Virshup DM (May 2002). "The circadian regulatory proteins BMAL1 and cryptochromes are ...
"Cryptochromes Interact Directly with PIFs to Control Plant Growth in Limiting Blue Light". Cell. 164 (1-2): 233-245. doi: ...
June 2015). "Cryptochrome 1 regulates the circadian clock through dynamic interactions with the BMAL1 C terminus". Nature ... Eide EJ, Vielhaber EL, Hinz WA, Virshup DM (May 2002). "The circadian regulatory proteins BMAL1 and cryptochromes are ...
However, CLOCK mutant, cryptochrome (Cry) knockout, period (Per) knockout, and SCN knockout mice all had FAA present, so the ... A frequent circadian timekeeping mechanism involves CLOCK/BMAL genes, cryptochrome/period genes, and a transcription/ ... October 2009). "AMPK regulates the circadian clock by cryptochrome phosphorylation and degradation". Science. 326 (5951): 437- ...
... in conjunction with cryptochromes in the retina) gives them the ability to sense the direction, polarity, and magnitude of the ... radical pair processes involving cryptochrome". Biosensors. 4 (3): 221-42. doi:10.3390/bios4030221. PMC 4264356. PMID 25587420 ...
In addition, many cryptochromes, especially those from animals, bind no cofactors at this domain. Even though few eukaryotes ( ... This domain binds a light harvesting chromophore that enhanced the spectrum of photolyase or cryptochrome light absorption, i.e ... Sancar A (June 2003). "Structure and function of DNA photolyase and cryptochrome blue-light photoreceptors". Chemical Reviews. ...
Lucas-Lledó JI, Lynch M (May 2009). "Evolution of mutation rates: phylogenomic analysis of the photolyase/cryptochrome family ... Sancar A (June 2003). "Structure and function of DNA photolyase and cryptochrome blue-light photoreceptors". Chemical Reviews. ...
In 1998, they discovered the cycle gene, clock gene, and cryptochrome photoreceptor in Drosophila through the use of forward ... discovered the cryb Drosophila mutant, which lead to the conclusion that cryptochrome protein is involved in circadian ... The failure of cryb mutants to synchronize to light dark cycles indicates that cryptochrome's normal function involves ... Identified cryptochrome as a Drosophila Circadian Photoreceptor 1999: Identified LNV Neurons as the Principal Drosophila ...
The first discovery involved the role Cryptochrome (CRY) plays in entrainment. Hall found that CRY is a key photoreceptor for ...
Mus musculus cryptochrome 1 (Cry1) mRNA, complete cds. P. BC022174.1. Mus musculus cryptochrome 1 (photolyase-like), mRNA (cDNA ... cryptochrome 1a isoform 1. D. rerio. 93.2. 618. NP_477188.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * Protein sequence * * ... cryptochrome 1 (photolyase-like). X. laevis. 95.3. 615. NP_001070765.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * Protein ... Mus musculus cryptochrome 1 (photolyase-like) (Cry1), mRNA. PA. AF156986.1. ...
In eukaryotes, cryptochromes no longer retain this original enzymatic activity. The structure of cryptochrome involves a fold ... cryptochrome at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Cryptochrome circadian clock in Monarch ... Similarly, cryptochromes play an important role in the entrainment of circadian rhythms in plants. In Drosophila, cryptochrome ... suggesting that plant cryptochromes do not respond to magnetic fields. Cryptochrome forms a pair of radicals with correlated ...
Circadian clock cryptochrome proteins regulate autoimmunity. Qi Cao, Xuan Zhao, Jingwen Bai, Sigal Gery, Haibo Sun, De-Chen Lin ... 2010) Cryptochrome mediates circadian regulation of cAMP signaling and hepatic gluconeogenesis. Nat Med 16:1152-1156. ... 2011) Cryptochromes mediate rhythmic repression of the glucocorticoid receptor. Nature 480:552-556. ... 2010) Mammalian clock gene Cryptochrome regulates arthritis via proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. J Immunol 184:1560-1565. ...
Cryptochrome 1 (cry1), cryptochrome 2 (cry2) and phototropin are the blue/ultraviolet-A light receptors that have been ... Cryptochrome 1 (cry1), cryptochrome 2 (cry2) and phototropin are the blue/ultraviolet-A light receptors that have been ... Enhancement of blue-light sensitivity of Arabidopsis seedlings by blue light receptor cryptochrome 2. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA ... Guo, H., Duong, H., Ma, N. & Lin, C. The Arabidopsis blue light receptor cryptochrome 2 is a nuclear protein regulated by a ...
Cryptochrome 1 (cry1), cryptochrome 2 (cry2) and phototropin are the blue/ultraviolet-A light receptors that have been ... Functional interaction of phytochrome B and cryptochrome 2.. Más P1, Devlin PF, Panda S, Kay SA. ... phytochromes and cryptochromes. Phytochromes are red/far-red light-absorbing receptors encoded by a gene family of five members ...
... a magnetically sensitive protein called cryptochrome that mediates circadian rhythms in plants and animals. ... Cryptochrome protein helps birds navigate via magnetic field. American Physical Society. Meeting. American Physical Society ... Cryptochrome protein helps birds navigate via magnetic field To be presented at the 2015 APS March Meeting in San Antonio, ... This would suggest that the radical pairs in cryptochrome preserve their quantum coherence for much longer than previously ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cryptochrome I antibody validated for WB, IHC, ICC and tested in Human and Mouse. With 1 independent review. ... Cryptochromes (Cry 1 and 2) are blue, ultraviolet-A photoreceptor pigment proteins that are involved circadian rhythm ... Detects a band of approximately 70 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 66 kDa).Can be blocked with Cryptochrome I peptide (ab5005) ... Detects recombinant human Cryptochrome 1 (Cry 1) (not tested on endogenous protein yet). ...
Photolyase/cryptochrome alpha/betaAdd BLAST. 130. Region. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. Length ... "Cryptochromes mediate rhythmic repression of the glucocorticoid receptor.". Lamia K.A., Papp S.J., Yu R.T., Barish G.D., ... "Cryptochromes mediate rhythmic repression of the glucocorticoid receptor.". Lamia K.A., Papp S.J., Yu R.T., Barish G.D., ... "Identification of small molecule activators of cryptochrome.". Hirota T., Lee J.W., St John P.C., Sawa M., Iwaisako K., Noguchi ...
Mouse polyclonal Cryptochrome I/CRY1 antibody. Validated in WB and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant full ... All lanes : Anti-Cryptochrome I/CRY1 antibody (ab171860) at 1 µg/ml. Lane 1 : Cryptochrome I/CRY1-transfected 293T cell lysate ... Anti-Cryptochrome I/CRY1 antibody. See all Cryptochrome I/CRY1 primary antibodies. ... Primary - Mouse Anti-Cryptochrome I/CRY1 antibody (ab171860) WB Secondary - Goat Anti-Mouse IgG H&L (HRP) (ab205719) WB, IP, ...
Photolyase/cryptochrome alpha/betaInterPro annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic ... Cryptochrome 2 (Photolyase-like), isoform CRA_aImported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... Cryptochrome 2 (Photolyase-like)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,B2GUU9,B2GUU9_RAT Cryptochrome 2 (Photolyase-like) OS=Rattus norvegicus OX=10116 GN=Cry2 PE=1 SV=1 ...
... thaliana cryptochrome in water for (a) cryptochrome with oxidized flavin, i.e., FAD + W400(H), and (b) cryptochrome in the ... Cryptochrome active site model. The quantum chemical description of the W377 →W400 + electron transfer in cryptochrome includes ... However, the structure of cryptochrome from a plant (Arabidopsis thaliana) is available, and the cryptochromes of plants and ... Although cryptochromes have been extensively studied during the last years, the photoactivation reactions in cryptochromes from ...
However, the role of cryptochrome as a magnetoreceptor remains cont … ... The photoreceptor protein cryptochrome has risen to prominence as a candidate magnetoreceptor molecule based on multiple ... Magnetic Fields Modulate Blue-Light-Dependent Regulation of Neuronal Firing by Cryptochrome J Neurosci. 2016 Oct 19;36(42): ... The photoreceptor protein cryptochrome has risen to prominence as a candidate magnetoreceptor molecule based on multiple ...
Homologous flavoproteins from the photolyase (PHR)/cryptochrome (CRY) family use the FAD cofactor in PHRs to catalyze DNA ... photolyase crystal structure make a comparative framework for DNA repair photolyases and clock cryptochromes. Kenichi Hitomi, ... photolyase crystal structure make a comparative framework for DNA repair photolyases and clock cryptochromes ... photolyase crystal structure make a comparative framework for DNA repair photolyases and clock cryptochromes ...
1A). Mutation of S71, which is conserved in all non-light-sensitive insect cryptochromes (6) and higher organisms (fig. S2), to ... AMPK Regulates the Circadian Clock by Cryptochrome Phosphorylation and Degradation. By Katja A. Lamia, Uma M. Sachdeva, Luciano ... AMPK Regulates the Circadian Clock by Cryptochrome Phosphorylation and Degradation. By Katja A. Lamia, Uma M. Sachdeva, Luciano ... If AMPK-directed cryptochrome phosphorylation regulates the phase of peripheral clocks, the activity, expression, and/or ...
Flavin cycle of cryptochrome. N, N-terminus of the protein; C, C-terminus of the protein; the antiserum-binding epitope is in ... 2011). The cryptochromes: blue light photoreceptors in plants and animals. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 62, 335-364. ... Cryptochrome is a blue light receptor, with flavin as the chromophore (for review, see Chaves et al., 2011). Flavin undergoes a ... Cryptochrome 1a, located in the UV/violet-sensitive cones in the avian retina, is discussed as receptor molecule for the ...
The currently most probable sensor candidates are cryptochromes (Cry) which are sensitive to submillitesla MF. Here, we propose ... The currently most probable sensor candidates are plant cryptochromes (Cry) which are sensitive to submillitesla MF. Here, we ... 2010). Cryptochrome as a sensor of the blue/green ratio of natural radiation in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 154, 401-409. doi: ... Could magnetic fields affect the circadian clock function of cryptochromes? Testing the basic premise of the cryptochrome ...
Showing Protein Cryptochrome-2 (HMDBP08265). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene propertiesProtein propertiesExternal links ... SCFFbxl3 controls the oscillation of the circadian clock by directing the degradation of cryptochrome proteins. Science. 2007 ...
... Mouritsen, H.; Janssen-Bienhold, U. ... The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina ... The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina ... The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina ...
We conclude that modulation of intracellular ROS via cryptochromes represents a general response to weak EMFs, which can ... Low-intensity electromagnetic fields induce human cryptochrome to modulate intracellular reactive oxygen species Rachel M. ... Low-intensity EMF induce human cryptochrome to modulate intracellular reactive oxygen species. zaterdag, 06 oktober 2018 - ... These effects require the presence of cryptochrome, a putative magnetosensor that synthesizes ROS. ...
Unique Aspects of Cryptochrome in Chronobiology and Metabolism, Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction, and Regeneration: Research into ... Cryptochrome proteins (CRYs), which can bind noncovalently to cofactor (chromophore) flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), occur ... presents reported results and recent findings related to molecular processes associated with mammalian cryptochromes, ...
We have identified and analyzed cry, a novel Drosophila cryptochrome gene. All characterized family members are directly ... CRY, a Drosophila clock and light-regulated cryptochrome, is a major contributor to circadian rhythm resetting and ... We have identified and analyzed cry, a novel Drosophila cryptochrome gene. All characterized family members are directly ...
Among these transcribed clock genes are cryptochrome (CRY) family members, which comprise Cry1 and Cry2. While the metabolic ... Among these transcribed clock genes are cryptochrome (CRY) family members, which comprise Cry1 and Cry2. While the metabolic ... Mice deficient in cryptochrome 1 (Cry1−/−) exhibit resistance to obesity induced by a high-fat diet. Guy Griebel1*, Christine ... Differential regulation of mammalian period genes and circadian rhythmicity by cryptochromes 1 and 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ...
Critical cholangiocarcinogenesis control by cryptochrome clock genes. Publication. Publication. International Journal of Cancer ... Critical cholangiocarcinogenesis control by cryptochrome clock genes. International Journal of Cancer. doi:10.1002/ijc.30663 ...
... clock of the fruit fly is sensitive to magnetic fields in a manner dependent on blue light and the photopigment cryptochrome. ...
Cryptochromes. It was not until 1993 that Ahmad and Cashmore (2) first reported the discovery of cryptochrome 1 (cry1) in ... Five Phytochromes, Two Cryptochromes, One Phototropin, and One Superchrome Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Five Phytochromes, Two Cryptochromes, One Phototropin, and One Superchrome. Winslow R. Briggs, Margaret A. Olney ... There is evidence that cryptochromes are localized to the nucleus, but to date no interacting partner has been identified (for ...
Five phytochromes, two cryptochromes, one phototropin, and one superchrome. Plant Physiol. 125, 85-88. (doi:10.1104/pp.125.1.85 ... 2003 Cryptochromes and flavoprotein blue-light photoreceptors. In Handbook of photochemistry and photobiology (ed. Nalwa H.S), ... 1998) and regulates a group of blue light and cryptochrome-regulated genes including CHS (Ma et al. 2001; Ohgishi et al. 2004; ... 2003 Light-induced electron transfer in a cryptochrome blue-light photoreceptor. Nat. Struct. Biol. 10, 489-490. (doi:10.1038/ ...
Interaction between Cryptochrome and Phytochrome Pathways. Based on the observations leading to their model, Ahmad and Cashmore ... Genetic Interactions between Phytochrome A, Phytochrome B, and Cryptochrome 1 during Arabidopsis Development. Michael M. Neff, ... The cloning of specific or shared phytochrome and cryptochrome signal transduction components will allow us to test their ... It is possible that phytochromes and cryptochromes have a similar method of coordinating their signal transduction pathways. ...
Mammalian Cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, function as principal regulators of a transcription-translation-based negative feedback ...
Cryptochromes in insects are particularly interesting in that the role of the Drosophila cryptochromes is closer to that of the ... phyB can act in light input independently of cryptochrome, as evidenced by the normal response of the cryptochrome mutants at ... This is consistent with a phylogenetic analysis of the animal and plant cryptochromes that suggests that cryptochromes arose ... Loss of the cryptochromes in red light also affects the lower end of the range of fluence rates over which phyB acts in light ...
Cryptochromes are blue light photoreceptors involved in development and circadian clock regulation. They are found in both ... and the blue/UVA light receptors cryptochromes (cry1, cry2, cry-DASH) and phototropins (phot1 and phot2). Cryptochromes are ... To-date, three cryptochromes (cry1, cry2 and cry-DASH) have been found in plants. Both cry2 and cry-DASH were shown to have DNA ... Guo H,Duong H,Ma N,Lin C. 1999;The Arabidopsis blue light receptor cryptochrome 2 is a nuclear protein regulated by a blue ...
  • The two genes Cry1 and Cry2 code the two cryptochrome proteins CRY1 and CRY2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptochromes (CRY1, CRY2) are evolutionarily old and highly conserved proteins that belong to the flavoproteins superfamily that exists in all kingdoms of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptochrome 1 (cry1), cryptochrome 2 (cry2) and phototropin are the blue/ultraviolet-A light receptors that have been characterized in Arabidopsis 5 . (nature.com)
  • Among these transcribed clock genes are cryptochrome (CRY) family members, which comprise Cry1 and Cry2 . (frontiersin.org)
  • In mammals, it comprises a complex circuitry of transcriptional and translational regulatory feedback loops, including the core transcriptional activators CLOCK and BMAL1, which activate expression of three Period ( Per1-3 ) and two cryptochrome ( Cry1 and Cry2 ) genes ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We demonstrate that the phytochromes phyA, phyB, phyD, and phyE act as photoreceptors in red light input to the clock and that phyA and the cryptochromes cry1 and cry2 act as photoreceptors in blue light input. (plantcell.org)
  • Importantly, Arabidopsis cry1 cry2 double mutants still show robust rhythmicity, indicating that cryptochromes do not form a part of the central circadian oscillator in plants as they do in mammals. (plantcell.org)
  • In the core feedback loop, the transcription factors CLOCK and BMAL1 activate expression of Period ( Per1 and Per2 ) and Cryptochrome ( Cry1 and Cry2 ) genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • The current study examined Cryptochrome 2 ( CRY2 ), a core circadian gene and transcriptional repressor, as a potential circadian biomarker for NHL. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The core circadian gene cryptochrome 2 ( CRY2 ) is essential for proper circadian timing, and is a key component of the negative arm of the circadian feedback loop. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we report the effect of cry1 and cry2 blue light receptors on primary root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, through analysis of both cryptochrome-mutant and cryptochrome-overexpressing lines. (elsevier.com)
  • Abstract Leaf epidermal peels of Arabidopsis Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking either phototropins 1 and 2 phot1 and phot2 or cryptochromes 1 and 2 cry1 and cry2 exposed to a background of red light show severely impaired stomatal opening responses to blue light. (ptizi.ru)
  • Cryptochrome 1 cry1 and 2 cry2 increase stomatal index Kang et al. (ptizi.ru)
  • McCarthy, E.V., Baggs, J.E., Geskes, J.M., Hogenesch, J.B. and Green, C.B. (2009) Generation of a novel allelic series of cryptochrome mutants via mutagenesis reveals residues involved in protein:protein interaction and CRY2-specific repression . (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Phylogenetic analyses show at least 2 rounds of gene duplication at the base of the metazoan radiation, as well as several losses, gave rise to 2 cryptochrome (cry) gene families in insects, a Drosophila-like cry1 gene family and a vertebrate-like cry2 family. (umassmed.edu)
  • By mapping the functional data onto a cryptochrome/6-4 photolyase gene tree, we find that the transcriptional repressive function of insect CRY2 descended from a light-sensitive photolyase-like ancestral gene, probably lacking the ability to repress CLOCK:CYCLE-mediated transcription. (umassmed.edu)
  • The circadian transcriptional repressors cryptochromes 1 (Cry1) and 2 (Cry2) interact with the C-terminus of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and are required for transrepression in response to the synthetic GR ligand dexamethasone (Dex) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. (omicsdi.org)
  • Cryptochrome (Cry) 1 and Cry2 are regarded as critical components for circadian rhythm generation in mammals. (hokudai.ac.jp)
  • We report that Amphimedon queenslandica, a demosponge, possesses two cryptochrome/photolyase genes, Aq-Cry1 and Aq-Cry2. (unh.edu)
  • Chickens' Cry2: molecular analysis of an avian cryptochrome in retinal and pineal photoreceptors. (uky.edu)
  • We have identified and characterized an ortholog of the putative mammalian clock gene cryptochrome 2 (Cry2) in the chicken, Gallus domesticus. (uky.edu)
  • In mice, the cryptochromes Cry1 and Cry2 are integral components of the circadian oscillator within the brain and contribute to circadian photoreception in the retina. (utmb.edu)
  • Besides chlorophylls, cryptochromes are the only proteins known to form photoinduced radical-pairs in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptochromes (Cry 1 and 2) are blue, ultraviolet-A photoreceptor pigment proteins that are involved circadian rhythm regulation in plants and animals. (abcam.com)
  • Cryptochrome proteins (CRYs), which can bind noncovalently to cofactor (chromophore) flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), occur widely among organisms. (hindawi.com)
  • In response to blue and red light exposure, this animal-like cryptochrome (aCRY) alters the light-dependent expression of various genes encoding proteins involved in chlorophyll and carotenoid biosynthesis, light-harvesting complexes, nitrogen metabolism, cell cycle control, and the circadian clock. (plantcell.org)
  • Addgene: Dual modes of CLOCK:BMAL1 inhibition mediated by Cryptochrome and Period proteins in the mammalian circadian clock. (addgene.org)
  • Diatoms possess several genes for proteins of the cryptochrome/photolyase family. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Of all P.tricornutum proteins, it is the most similar in sequence to a plant cryptochrome, and is involved in the regulation of light-harvesting protein expression, but shows spectroscopic features and a chromophore composition that are most typical of a DASH cryptochrome. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Residues at a Single Site Differentiate Animal Cryptochromes from Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Photolyases by Affecting the Proteins' Preferences for Reduced FAD. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Homology modelling and crystal packing structure of the used proteins is used to construct the large cryptochrome-ISCA1 complex, which reveals that the iron sulphur clusters are too far away to participate in any electron transfer whatsoever. (quantbiolab.com)
  • The Cryptochrome proteins are critical transcriptional repressors that are necessary for a functioning circadian clock. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • The Green Lab has been interested in various structure/function aspects of the cryptochromes and have shown that these proteins have two distinct functional domains - a core photolyase-like domain that is necessary and sufficient for repression, and a C-terminal tail that is necessary for nuclear localization. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Cryptochrome (CRY) proteins are components of the central circadian clockwork of metazoans. (umassmed.edu)
  • Cryptochromes are photosensing proteins closely related to photolyases. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Magnetically sensitive radical pairs are thought to be generated in cryptochrome proteins contained in magnetoreceptor cells in the retina. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • During a conversation after the talk, he mentioned the recently discovered class of proteins called cryptochromes . (blogspot.com)
  • By using time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy, we have studied the mechanism of light-induced reduction of the FAD cofactor of cryptochrome/photolyase family proteins. (scripps.edu)
  • Cryptochromes are blue-light photoreceptor proteins, which provide input to circadian clocks. (jyu.fi)
  • Cryptochromes are flavin/pterin-containing proteins that are involved in circadian clock function in Drosophila and mice. (utmb.edu)
  • Pigments found in photoreceptors include retinal (retinylidene proteins, for example rhodopsin in animals), flavin (flavoproteins, for example cryptochrome in plants and animals) and bilin (biliproteins, for example phytochrome in plants). (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the proteins affecting photosynthesis gene expression is the blue light photoreceptor cryptochrome CryB. (duhnnae.com)
  • This raises the question, why PhrB positions a tyrosine at this location, having a less favourable ionisation potential than tryptophan, which occurs at this position in many proteins of the photolyase/cryptochrome family. (rsc.org)
  • Cryptochromes and photolyases are homologous proteins with a central flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) chromophore that fulfil different biological functions, which are most often triggered by light. (rsc.org)
  • In cryptochromes, which often function as photoreceptor proteins, FAD adopts the oxidised form in darkness. (rsc.org)
  • examples of plants' light-sensing proteins are phytochrome and cryptochrome). (newyorker.com)
  • In Arabidopsis, it has been shown that cryptochromes controls plant growth during sub-optimal blue-light conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite much research on the topic, cryptochrome photoreception and phototransduction in Drosophila and Arabidopsis thaliana is still poorly understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somers, D. E., Devlin, P. F. & Kay, S. A. Phytochromes and cryptochromes in the entrainment of the Arabidopsis circadian clock. (nature.com)
  • Enhancement of blue-light sensitivity of Arabidopsis seedlings by blue light receptor cryptochrome 2. (nature.com)
  • Guo, H., Duong, H., Ma, N. & Lin, C. The Arabidopsis blue light receptor cryptochrome 2 is a nuclear protein regulated by a blue light-dependent post-transcriptional mechanism. (nature.com)
  • Single, double, and triple null combinations of Arabidopsis mutants lacking the photoreceptors phytochrome (phy) A ( phyA-201 ), phyB ( phyB-5 ), and cryptochrome (cry) 1 ( hy4-2.23n ) were examined for de-etiolation responses in high-fluence red, far-red, blue, and broad-spectrum white light. (plantphysiol.org)
  • HFR1 is crucial for transcriptome regulation in the cryptochrome 1-mediated early response to blue light in Arabidopsis thaliana. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cryptochromes are flavoprotein photoreceptors first discovered in Arabidopsis thaliana, and subsequently in many organisms, where they mediate important signaling functions. (fit.edu)
  • Blue-light dependent ROS formation by Arabidopsis cryptochrome may define a novel evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanism. (fit.edu)
  • The image above is CRY1, a cryptochrome associated with circadian rhythm in the experimental plant, Arabidopsis thaliana . (blogspot.com)
  • DASH (Drosophila, Arabidopsis, Synechocystis, Human)-type cryp- tochromes (cry-DASH) belong to a family of flavoproteins acting as repair enzymes for UV-B-induced DNA lesions (photolyases) or as UV-A/blue light photoreceptors (cryptochromes). (openaire.eu)
  • Investigations of the structure and functions of cryptochromes in plants have largely focused on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pea (Pisum sativum), and rice (Oryza sativa). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Orth C, Niemann N, Hennig L, Essen LO, Batschauer A (2017) - Hyperactivity of the Arabidopsis cryptochrome (cry1) L407F mutant is caused by a structural alteration close to the cry1 ATP-binding site. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Direct interaction of Arabidopsis cryptochromes with COP1 in light control development. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • COP1-mediated ubiquitination of CONSTANS is implicated in cryptochrome regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cryptochromes receptors cause plants to respond to blue light via photomorphogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first blue-light receptors to be identified were the two cryptochromes, chromoproteins that mediate several responses. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Cryptochromes are flavoproteins that act as sensory blue light receptors in insects, plants, fungi, and bacteria. (plantcell.org)
  • Cryptochromes are blue-light receptors controlling multiple aspects of plant growth and development. (elsevier.com)
  • ii) Each cell contains multiple, identical receptors (i.e. cryptochrome molecules). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Cryptochromes are blue/ultraviolet-A (UV-A) light receptors involved in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Essen LO, Franz S, Banerjee A (2017) - Structural and evolutionary aspects of algal blue light receptors of the cryptochrome and aurechrome type. (uni-marburg.de)
  • A radical pair mechanism within the protein cryptochrome may underlie both phenomena. (uiuc.edu)
  • The photoreceptor protein cryptochrome has risen to prominence as a candidate magnetoreceptor molecule based on multiple reports derived from behavioral studies. (nih.gov)
  • The protein cryptochrome is thought to be the magnetosensor in migratory birds, i.e. the protein responsible for the avain magnetic compass. (quantbiolab.com)
  • The possible mechanism to explain the biophysics of this compass sense involves electron transfers within the photoreceptive protein cryptochrome. (quantbiolab.com)
  • Largely ignored for 20 years, this hypothesis was revived in 2000 when it was proposed [ 15 ] that the required chemistry could be hosted by molecules of the photo-active protein cryptochrome [ 16 ] contained in specialized magnetoreceptor cells in the retina. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Cryptochromes (from the Greek κρυπτός χρώμα, "hidden colour") are a class of flavoproteins found in plants and animals that are sensitive to blue light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homologous flavoproteins from the photolyase (PHR)/cryptochrome (CRY) family use the FAD cofactor in PHRs to catalyze DNA repair and in CRYs to tune the circadian clock and control development. (pnas.org)
  • The broad spectral response implies that the neutral radical state functions as a dark form in aCRY and expands the paradigm of flavoproteins and cryptochromes as blue light sensors to include other light qualities. (plantcell.org)
  • Cryptochromes are large flavoproteins with a curiously complex evolutionary history, beginning billions of years ago as dna repair enzymes (or even earlier as replication primase). (ucsc.edu)
  • Cryptochromes (Crys) and photolyases (Phrs) are flavoproteins that contain an identical cofactor (flavin adenine dinucleotide, FAD) within the same protein architecture but whose physiological functions are entirely different. (scripps.edu)
  • We have identified and analyzed cry, a novel Drosophila cryptochrome gene. (nih.gov)
  • However, the gene targets that are regulated by HFR1 in cryptochrome 1 (cry1)-mediated blue light signaling have not been globally addressed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The next round of gene duplication of the 6-4 photolyase gave rise to a cryptochrome which retained the conformational change induced by FAD binding of blue light but lost dna repair capacity, instead specializing in entraining the day/night circadian rhythm cycle. (ucsc.edu)
  • Even ten years into the whole genome era, the comparative genomics of cryptochromes and photolyases has never been considered, perhaps because of a narrow experimental focus on 'model' organisms such as mouse and fruit fly that, as it turns out, have rather restricted and unrepresentative gene family complements. (ucsc.edu)
  • The Influence of a Cryptochrome on the Gene Expression Profile in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under Blue Light and in Darkness. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Insect cryptochromes: gene duplication and loss define diverse ways to" by Quan Yuan, Danielle Metterville et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • Here we present molecular and biochemical data on cryptochrome, a candidate gene for functional involvement in sponge pigment ring eyes. (unh.edu)
  • Furthermore, the activity of the tim gene in the MTs of cry b flies, reported by luciferase, seemed stimulated by lights-on and suppressed by lights-off, suggesting that the absence of functional cryptochrome uncovered an additional light-sensitive pathway synchronizing the expression of TIM in this tissue. (uni-muenster.de)
  • We previously demonstrated a relationship between variation at two sites of a circadian clock gene cryptochrome (cry) (cry1212 and cry1865) and circadian behavior in the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). (elsevier.com)
  • Dex induction of many genes was increased in Cry-deficient fibroblasts suggesting that cryptochromes oppose transactivation in addition to contributing to transrepression. (omicsdi.org)
  • Thus, CryP cannot be directly grouped with known members of the cryptochrome/photolyase family. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • For the iron sulphur clusters to participate in the compass sense, they either need to donate an electron to a specific tryptophane in the cryptochome or accept an electron from the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) co-factor in the cryptochrome. (quantbiolab.com)
  • 15 ] suggested that photo-excitation of the fully oxidized form of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor in cryptochrome, followed by electron transfer along a chain of three tryptophan residues (the 'Trp triad') would give a magnetically sensitive radical pair comprising the semi-reduced FAD radical and a Trp radical. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The cryptochromes (CRYs) have been suggested as the most likely candidate class of molecules, but do CRYs exist in the retina of migratory birds? (lu.se)
  • We are currently focused on the following projects: (1) Analyses of the regulation and function of the circadian deadenylase nocturnin, (2) Circadian regulation of metabolism, and (3) Structure/function studies of the core circadian clock components Cryptochromes (CRYs). (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Detects a band of approximately 70 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 66 kDa).Can be blocked with Cryptochrome I peptide (ab5005) . (abcam.com)
  • This review, based mainly on the author's investigation of the unique features of Tg mice, presents reported results and recent findings related to molecular processes associated with mammalian cryptochromes, especially their involvement in the regulation of metabolism. (hindawi.com)
  • Experiments have shown that light of specific colors (specific wavelengths) is required for birds to utilize their magnetic compass sense, and this is a strong indication that certain molecular excitations inside cryptochrome must be triggered by light prior to generation of the radical pair. (quantbiolab.com)
  • Our structural photocycle un- ravels the first molecular events of signal transduction in an animal cryptochrome. (jyu.fi)
  • In Drosophila , the blue-light photoreceptor Cryptochrome (Cry) mediates a rapid light-dependent degradation of the clock protein Timeless (Tim) via the F box protein Jetlag (Jet) and the proteasome, which initiates the resetting of the molecular clock 2 and 3 . (uni-muenster.de)
  • 1 Cryptochrome of migrating birds functions as molecular compass, due to the radical pair formed in the semiquinone state. (rsc.org)
  • 9, 3618-3623 (2018)] that something else must be going on inside cryptochrome - perhaps that FAD is not the only small embedded molecule, but that a secondary photoreception may exist within the type of cryptochrome that may be responsible for avain magnetoreception. (quantbiolab.com)
  • Circadian photoreception in Drosophila: Functions of cryptochrome in peripheral and central clocks. (uni-muenster.de)
  • In plants, cryptochromes mediate phototropism, or directional growth toward a light source, in response to blue light. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are currently interested in defining the structural aspects of cryptochrome that make it a repressor and are doing this by making chimeric constructs between cryptochrome and the non-repressive but closely related photolyase and via a random mutagenesis screen. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Since most annotation effort goes into human (which are very deficient in their repertoire), the lack of a suitable homology probe there lets novel photolyases and cryptochromes in other species go undiscovered. (ucsc.edu)
  • Photoreduction of PhrB differs from the typical pattern because the amino acid of the electron cascade next to FAD is a tyrosine (Tyr391), whereas photolyases and cryptochromes of other groups have a tryptophan as direct electron donor of FAD. (rsc.org)
  • Light transduction pathways mediated by the rhodopsins and the dedicated circadian blue light photoreceptor cryptochrome are also critical in providing the circadian clock with entraining light signals from the environment. (le.ac.uk)
  • Primary root elongation in blue light may thereby involve interaction between cryptochrome and auxin signaling pathways. (elsevier.com)
  • Whether cryptochrome and visual transduction pathways play a role in entrainment of noninnervated, directly photosensitive peripheral clocks is not known and the subject of this study. (uni-muenster.de)
  • As seen in Fig. 2, the interaction energy is non-homologues along the ISCA1-rod it, revealing that the complex does likely not exist in the proposed form, and the large distance between the cofactors participating in electron factors rules out that this cryptochrome interaction has any relevance to magnetoreception. (quantbiolab.com)
  • Thus, phosphorylation by AMPK enables cryptochrome to transduce nutrient signals to circadian clocks in mammalian peripheral organs. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cryptochromes are blue light photoreceptors involved in development and circadian clock regulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Juhas M, von Zadow A, Spexard M, Schmidt M, Kottke T, Büchel C. A novel cryptochrome in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum influences the regulation of light-harvesting protein levels. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The N termini of cryptochrome molecules show strong homology with the type II photolyase DNA repair enzymes. (plantcell.org)
  • Cryptochrome so far lack antenna molecules but retain the binding domain and substrate pocket. (ucsc.edu)
  • Many types of cryptochrome does not only consist of amino acids, but have smaller molecules embedded inside the peptide chain, and many cryptochromes are known to possess a specific molecule, namely an FAD molecule which has some interesting photochemical properties. (quantbiolab.com)
  • A prerequisite of the current model is for some degree of rotational ordering of both the cryptochromes within the cells and of the cells within the retina so that the directional responses of individual molecules do not average to zero. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Detects recombinant human Cryptochrome 1 (Cry 1) (not tested on endogenous protein yet). (abcam.com)
  • Recombinant full length protein corresponding to Human Cryptochrome I/CRY1 aa 1-586. (abcam.com)
  • In recombinant CryP, however, the FAD chromophore was present in its neutral radical state and had a red-shifted absorption maximum at 637nm, which is more characteristic for a DASH cryptochrome than a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • We further show that this response requires the function of a well-characterized, evolutionarily conserved flavoprotein receptor known as cryptochrome, which has been implicated in magnetic sensing in organisms ranging from plants to flies, including migratory birds. (stopumts.nl)
  • Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY) is a light-responsive flavoprotein that detects changes in light intensity and wavelength around dawn and dusk. (sleeprhythm.org)
  • Cryptochromes and photolyases form a flavoprotein family in which the FAD chromophore undergoes light induced changes of its redox state. (rsc.org)
  • The name cryptochrome was proposed as a portmanteau combining the cryptic nature of the photoreceptor, and the cryptogamic organisms on which many blue-light studies were carried out. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have investigated a cryptochrome from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with sequence homology to animal cryptochromes and (6-4) photolyases. (plantcell.org)
  • Here, we carried out a survey of genetic variation in Drosophila cryptochrome (cry), the fly's dedicated circadian photoreceptor. (le.ac.uk)
  • In Drosophila, cryptochrome (CRY) acts as a photoreceptor that mediates light input to circadian oscillators in both brain and peripheral tissue. (utmb.edu)
  • A: Ten different cryptochromes are shown attached to the ISCA1-polymer. (quantbiolab.com)
  • Cryptochromes are derived from and closely related to photolyases, which are bacterial enzymes that are activated by light and involved in the repair of UV-induced DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In animals and insects, cryptochromes are central to the management and control of the phenomenon called circadian rhythm. (blogspot.com)
  • Many flowering plants (angiosperms) use a photoreceptor protein , such as phytochrome or cryptochrome , [1] to sense seasonal changes in night length, or photoperiod, which they take as signals to flower. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blue light receptor cryptochromes (CRY) work together with PHY to regulate many light-controlled responses, including photomorphogenesis, floral induction, and entrainment of the circadian clock. (scialert.net)
  • A typical sequence for a plant cryptochrome was not found in our analysis of the Phaeodactylumtricornutum genome, but one protein grouped with higher plant and green algal cryptochromes. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • This would suggest that the radical pairs in cryptochrome preserve their quantum coherence for much longer than previously believed possible. (eurekalert.org)
  • We hypothesize that ROS radical pairs can affect the outcome of cryptochrome ROS biochemical reactions, influencing intracellular signal transduction cascades and cell-cell communication mechanisms. (fit.edu)
  • These effects require the presence of cryptochrome, a putative magnetosensor that synthesizes ROS. (stopumts.nl)
  • HFR1, a putative bHLH transcription factor, mediates both phytochrome A and cryptochrome signalling. (unil.ch)
  • For example, phytochrome's induction of the accumulation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in milo seedlings can be amplified by cryptochromes ( Oelmüller and Mohr, 1984 , 1985b ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Cryptochrome 1a, located in the UV/violet-sensitive cones in the avian retina, is discussed as receptor molecule for the magnetic compass of birds. (biologists.org)
  • A theoretical analysis shows that a viable compass magnetoreceptor could result from randomly oriented cryptochromes contained in randomly oriented cells distributed around the retina. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • 2016) claimed that the sensitivity to changes in the magnetic field is enhanced by a coupling to an iron rich polymer complex which couples to multiple cryptochromes. (quantbiolab.com)
  • von Zadow A , Ignatz E , Pokorny R , Essen LO , Klug G (2016) - Rhodobacter sphaeroides CryB is a bacterial cryptochrome with (6-4) photolyase activity. (uni-marburg.de)
  • However, the role of cryptochrome as a magnetoreceptor remains controversial primarily because of a lack of direct experimental evidence linking magnetic field (MF) exposure to a change in neuronal activity. (nih.gov)
  • it has a clear hypothesis-that seedling growth is magnetically sensitive as a result of photoinduced radical-pair reactions in cryptochrome photoreceptors-tested by measuring several cryptochrome-dependent responses, all of which proved to be enhanced in a magnetic field of intensity 500 μT. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Cryptochrome has also been implicated in plant magneto-sensing that alters growths rates in different magnetic field environments and are potentially involved in avian navigation. (fit.edu)
  • However the recent excitement over Quantum Biology brought the cryptochromes to my attention again. (blogspot.com)
  • Here, we show that exposure to an MF (100 mT) is sufficient to potentiate the ability of light-activated cryptochrome to increase neuronal action potential firing. (nih.gov)
  • Thus-cryptochromes, which originally evolved as blue-light photoreceptors in plants, act as chemical energy sensors in mammals. (sciencemag.org)
  • Our previous immunohistochemical studies of chicken retinae with an antiserum that labelled only activated cryptochrome 1a had shown activation of cryptochrome 1a under 373 nm UV, 424 nm blue, 502 nm turquoise and 565 nm green light. (biologists.org)
  • Green light, however, does not allow the first step of photoreduction of oxidized cryptochromes to the semiquinone. (biologists.org)
  • in the second two cases we found activated cryptochrome 1a only under UV to turquoise light, where the complete redox cycle of cryptochrome can run, but not under green light. (biologists.org)
  • Plants make use of both the phytochrome (phy) and cryptochrome (cry) families of photoreceptors in gathering information about the light environment for setting the clock. (plantcell.org)
  • The cryb mutation reduces the light sensitivity of the fly's clock, yet locomotor activity rhythms in constant darkness or light-dark cycles are relatively normal, because the rhodopsins compensate for the lack of cryptochrome function. (le.ac.uk)
  • The site of cryptochrome signal perception is within the shoot, and the inhibitor of auxin transport, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid, abolishes the differential effect of cryptochromes on root growth, suggesting the blue-light signal is transmitted from the shoot to the root by a mechanism that involves auxin. (elsevier.com)
  • This ability to sense magnetic fields is provided by a radical pair that can be generated inside cryptochrome after activation of the protein, and cryptochrome is thought to be activated by absorption of light. (quantbiolab.com)
  • FAD is well known to absorb light, mainly in the blue part of the visible spectrum, and it has been shown that the excited state of FAD can lead to formation of a radical pair inside cryptochrome. (quantbiolab.com)
  • The calculated absorption spectra of FAD embedded inside cryptochrome shows no absorption in the green-light region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and the vibronic couplings missing from our calculations are very unlikely to make such a large difference as would be necessary for FAD to absorb green light. (quantbiolab.com)
  • Plant growth and development are strongly affected by light signals perceived by phytochromes (phy) and cryptochromes (cry). (omicsdi.org)
  • In plants, cryptochromes are associated with light dependent growth (again blue light). (blogspot.com)
  • The photolyase harnesses blue light to fix the problems caused by excesses of uv light and the cryptochromes have established a nice working relationship between the daily appearance and disappearance of the sun and organismal growth and behaviour! (blogspot.com)
  • Taken together, our results demonstrate that light-induced electron transfer is a robust property of cryptochromes and more intricate than commonly anticipated. (scripps.edu)
  • Blue-light-receptive cryptochrome is expressed in a sponge eye lacking neurons and opsin. (unh.edu)
  • Several lines of evidence indicate that light entrainment of the brain clock involves the blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY). (uni-muenster.de)
  • In cryptochrome-depleted Drosophila ( cry b ), the entrainment of the brain clock by short light pulses is impaired but the clock is still entrainable by light-dark cycles, probably due to light input from the visual system. (uni-muenster.de)
  • Cryptochromes absorb blue light and UV-A. Cryptochromes entrain the circadian clock to light. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] It has been found that both cryptochrome and phytochrome abundance relies on light and the amount of cryptochrome can change depending on day-length. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern biologists believe [12] that it is the coincidence of the active forms of phytochrome or cryptochrome, created by light during the daytime, with the rhythms of the circadian clock that allows plants to measure the length of the night. (wikipedia.org)
  • Role of Mouse Cryptochrome Blue-Light Photoreceptor in Circadian Photoresponses. (readabstracts.com)
  • van der Schalie, E.A., Conte, F.E., Marz, K.E. and Green, C.B. (2007) Structure/function analysis of Xenopus CRYPTOCHROME 1 and 2 reveals differential nuclear localization mechanisms and functional domains important for interaction with and repression of CLOCK:BMAL1 . (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • However, recent experiments on cryptochrome vari- ants that found them to be functional in vivo but lack photoreduction in vitro, have called this interpretation into question. (fu-berlin.de)