Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.
A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.
The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The process of protecting various samples of biological material.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
A family of nonbiting midges, in the order DIPTERA. Salivary glands of the genus Chironomus are used in studies of cellular genetics and biochemistry.
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.
Activities associated with the disposition of the dead. It excludes cultural practices such as funeral rites.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.
A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
An infraorder of CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA comprising the hermit crabs and characterized by a small fifth pair of legs.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
A plant genus of the family ANNONACEAE. It has edible fruit and seeds which contain acetogenins and benzoquinazoline and other alkaloids.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
The transformation of a liquid to a glassy solid i.e., without the formation of crystals during the cooling process.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.

Freeze-fracture replication of organized tissue without cryoprotection. (1/576)

Fresh pieces of rat liver and pancreas were rapidly frozen without prior chemical fixation or cryoprotection, and replicated folloing freeze-fracture. Replicas revealed small peripheral areas free of ice crystals or damage and, within such areas, general ultrastructural morphology was essentially similar to that seen in conventionally processed material. On fracture faces of plasma and nuclear membranes a population of less prominent particles in addition to conventional membrane-associated particles was seen, and smooth areas devoid of particles of any type were seen on some nuclear membranes. These smooth areas did not appear to be similar to smooth areas allegedly arising as artifacts of conventional processing. Tight junctions and gap junctions appeared as they do in cryoprotected specimens. The results provide a base-line for assessing the possible effects of processing steps or agents on the ultrastructure of organized tissues as revealed in freeze-fracture replicas.  (+info)

Vitrification of mouse germinal vesicle oocytes: effect of treatment temperature and egg yolk on chromatin and spindle normality and cumulus integrity. (2/576)

The success rates for cryopreservation of immature oocytes from several species including human remain low, in contrast to major improvements with mature oocytes. In this study, a new approach has been developed using a short exposure ultra-rapid freezing protocol, examining the effect of temperature and egg yolk (two factors which may be expected to influence membrane flexibility) on the cryostability of immature mouse oocytes and cumulus complexes. These two factors were tested in various patterns for their cryoprotective effect using ethylene glycol as the principal cryoprotectant. The results showed that 37 degrees C pre- and post-freeze exposure significantly improved both survival and normal spindle configuration after in-vitro maturation. Egg yolk was found to produce further beneficial effects on both the oocyte and cumulus cell integrity, with the best effects being obtained at 37 degrees C with inclusion of egg yolk both before and after the freezing. This protocol produced > 80% normal survival post-thaw with intact and attached cumulus complex, 84% maturation rate and 45% normal metaphase configuration. In summary, a unique combination of high survival and meiotic normality together with good preservation of the attached cumulus cell mass has been achieved using a simple new vitrification procedure.  (+info)

Effects of commonly used cryoprotectants on glycogen phosphorylase activity and structure. (3/576)

The effects of a number of cryoprotectants on the kinetic and structural properties of glycogen phosphorylase b have been investigated. Kinetic studies showed that glycerol, one of the most commonly used cryoprotectants in X-ray crystallographic studies, is a competitive inhibitor with respect to substrate glucose-1-P with an apparent Ki value of 3.8% (v/v). Cryogenic experiments, with the enzyme, have shown that glycerol binds at the catalytic site and competes with glucose analogues that bind at the catalytic site, thus preventing the formation of complexes. This necessitated a change in the conditions for cryoprotection in crystallographic binding experiments with glycogen phosphorylase. It was found that 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD), polyethylene glycols (PEGs) of various molecular weights, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) activated glycogen phosphorylase b to different extents, by stabilizing its most active conformation, while sucrose acted as a noncompetitive inhibitor and ethylene glycol as an uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to glucose-1-P. A parallel experimental investigation by X-ray crystallography showed that, at 100 K, both MPD and DMSO do not bind at the catalytic site, do not induce any significant conformational change on the enzyme molecule, and hence, are more suitable cryoprotectants than glycerol for binding studies with glycogen phosphorylase.  (+info)

The cryopreservation protocol optimal for progenitor recovery is not optimal for preservation of marrow repopulating ability. (4/576)

The efficiency of five different cryopreservation protocols (our original controlled-rate and noncontrolled-rate protocols) was evaluated on the basis of the recovery after thawing of very primitive pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (MRA(CFU-GM), pluripotent progenitors (CFU-Sd12) and committed granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (CFU-GM) in mouse bone marrow. Although the nucleated cell recovery and viability determined immediately after the thawing and washing of the cells were found to be similar, whether controlled-rate or noncontrolled-rate cryopreservation protocols were used, the recovery of MRA(CFU-GM), CFU-Sd12 and CFU-GM varied depending on the type of protocol and the cryoprotector (DMSO) concentrations used. It was shown that the controlled-rate protocol was more efficient, enabling better MRA(CFU-GM), CFU-Sd12 and CFU-GM recovery from frozen samples. The most efficient was the controlled-rate protocol of cryopreservation designed to compensate for the release of fusion heat, which enabled a better survival of CFU-Sd12 and CFU-GM when combined with a lower (5%) DMSO concentration. On the contrary, a satisfactory survival rate of very primitive stem cells (MRA(CFU-GM)) was achieved only when 10% DMSO was included with a five-step protocol of cryopreservation. These results point to adequately used controlled-rate freezing as essential for a highly efficient cryopreservation of some of the categories of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. At the same time, it was obvious that a higher DMSO concentration was necessary for the cryopreservation of very primitive stem cells, but not, however, for more mature progenitor cells (CFU-S, CFU-GM). These results imply the existence of a mechanism that decreases the intracellular concentration of DMSO in primitive MRA cells, which is not the case for less primitive progenitors.  (+info)

Differences in the width of the intercellular spaces in the epithelial basal infolding and the renal glomerular filtration site between freeze-substitution and conventional fixation. (5/576)

After aldehyde prefixation, pretreatment with cryoprotectant and subsequent freeze-substitution with OsO4 in acetone (AC-FS), extensive gap junction-like close membrane appositions are frequently found in the basal infolding of the salivary gland epithelium, although the desmosomal intercellular space had the same width as with conventional electron microscopy. The intercellular space between podocyte pedicles and endothelial cells at the renal glomerular filtration site was narrower by the total width of 2 laminae lucidae following AC-FS than with conventional electron microscopy and was occupied by a homogeneous lamina densa without a lamina lucida, although no marked difference was discernable in the thickness of the lamina densa itself between the 2 preparative procedures. In addition, a decrease in the thickness of the glycocalyx was evident in the intestinal epithelial microvilli following AC-FS. It is thus likely that osmication in acetone at freezing temperatures remove the glycocalyx and related structures to a variable extent, and that this loss is responsible for reducing the intercellular spaces at some of the simple appositions narrower to the dimensions of the gap junction. It is also responsible for disappearance of the lamina lucida of the basement membrane.  (+info)

Ooplasmic injections of rabbit round spermatid nuclei or intact round spermatids from fresh, cryopreserved and cryostored samples. (6/576)

We compared the outcome of ooplasmic round spermatid nuclear injections (ROSNI) versus intact round spermatid injections (ROSI). Rabbit round spermatid nuclei and intact round spermatids were recovered and injected into rabbit oocytes (groups A and B, respectively). Fertilization, cleavage and embryonic development rates were compared. In additional studies, five protocols for cryopreservation of round spermatids and two protocols for cryostorage of round spermatids were applied. The outcome of ROSNI techniques using frozen-thawed or cryostored-warmed round spermatids was evaluated. The cleavage rate and the overall morula plus blastocyst development rate were significantly larger in group A than group B. ROSNI procedures are superior to ROSI techniques in the rabbit. The largest fertilization, cleavage and embryonic development rates after ROSNI techniques using cryopreserved or cryostored round spermatids were demonstrated in groups of round spermatids in which a mixture of seminal plasma plus test yolk buffer was employed as an extender, and dimethyl sulphoxide plus a high concentration of glycerol served as cryoprotectants. It appears that the seminal plasma contains factors protecting round spermatids during cryopreservation or cryostorage, and/or the employment of two cryoprotectants has a beneficial role in the maintenance of round spermatid reproductive capacity.  (+info)

Effects of cryoprotectants and ice-seeding temperature on intracellular freezing and survival of human oocytes. (7/576)

The accurate determination of the freezing conditions that promote intracellular ice formation (IIF) is crucial for designing cryopreservation protocols for cells. In this paper, the range of temperatures at which IIF occurs in human oocytes was determined. Fresh oocytes with a germinal vesicle, failed-to-fertilize (metaphase I and metaphase II stages) and polyspermic eggs were used for this study. The occurrence of IIF was first visualized at a cooling rate of 120 degrees C/min using a programmable thermal microscope stage connected to a videomicroscope. Then, with a cooling rate of 0.2 degrees C/min, the seeding temperature of the extracellular ice was modified to decrease the incidence of IIF and increase the survival rate of frozen-thawed human oocytes. After adding different cryoprotectants, the median temperature of IIF (TMED) was decreased by approximately 23 degrees C in mouse and only by approximately 6.5 degrees C in human oocytes. Using 1.5 M propylene glycol and seeding temperatures of -8.0, -6.0 and -4.5 degrees C, the incidence of IIF was 22/28 (78%), 8/24 (33%) and 0/33 (0%) and the 24 h post-thaw survival rate was 10/31(32%), 19/34 (56%) and 52/56 (93%) respectively. The results show that IIF occurs more readily in human oocytes, and that ice seeding between -6 degrees C and -8 degrees C triggers IIF in a large number of human oocytes. Undesirable IIF can be prevented and survival rates maximized by raising the seeding temperature as close as possible to the melting point of the solution, which in our instrument was -4.5 degrees C.  (+info)

Subzero water permeability parameters of mouse spermatozoa in the presence of extracellular ice and cryoprotective agents. (8/576)

Optimization of techniques for cryopreservation of mammalian sperm is limited by a lack of knowledge regarding water permeability characteristics during freezing in the presence of extracellular ice and cryoprotective agents (CPAs). Cryomicroscopy cannot be used to measure dehydration during freezing in mammalian sperm because they are highly nonspherical and their small dimensions are at the limits of light microscopic resolution. Using a new shape-independent differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) technique, volumetric shrinkage during freezing of ICR mouse epididymal sperm cell suspensions was obtained at cooling rates of 5 and 20 degrees C/min in the presence of extracellular ice and CPAs. Using previously published data, the mouse sperm cell was modeled as a cylinder (122-microm long, radius 0.46 microm) with an osmotically inactive cell volume (V(b)) of 0.61V(o), where V(o) is the isotonic cell volume. By fitting a model of water transport to the experimentally obtained volumetric shrinkage data, the best-fit membrane permeability parameters (L(pg) and E(Lp)) were determined. The "combined best-fit" membrane permeability parameters at 5 and 20 degrees C/min for mouse sperm cells in solution are as follows: in D-PBS: L(pg) = 1.7 x 10(-15) m(3)/Ns (0.01 microm/min-atm) and E(Lp) = 94.1 kJ/mole (22.5 kcal/mole) (R(2) = 0.94); in "low" CPA media (consisting of 1% glycerol, 6% raffinose, and 15% egg yolk in D-PBS): L(pg)[cpa] = 1.7 x 10(-15) m(3)/Ns (0.01 microm/min-atm) and E(Lp)[cpa] = 122.2 kJ/mole (29.2 kcal/mole) (R(2) = 0.98); and in "high" CPA media (consisting of 4% glycerol, 16% raffinose, and 15% egg yolk in D-PBS): L(pg)[cpa] = 0.68 x 10(-15) m(3)/Ns (0.004 microm/min-atm) and E(Lp)[cpa] = 63.6 kJ/mole (15.2 kcal/mole) (R(2) = 0.99). These parameters are significantly different than previously published parameters for mammalian sperm obtained at suprazero temperatures and at subzero temperatures in the absence of extracellular ice. The parameters obtained in this study also suggest that damaging intracellular ice formation (IIF) could occur in mouse sperm cells at cooling rates as low as 25-45 degrees C/min, depending on the concentrations of the CPAs. This may help to explain the discrepancy between the empirically determined optimal cryopreservation cooling rates, 10-40 degrees C/min, and the numerically predicted optimal cooling rates, greater than 5000 degrees C/min, obtained using suprazero mouse sperm permeability parameters that do not account for the presence of extracellular ice. As an independent test of this prediction, the percentages of viable and motile sperm cells were obtained after freezing at two different cooling rates ("slow" or 5 degrees C/min; "fast," or 20 degrees C/min) in both the low and high CPA media. The greatest sperm motility and viability was found with the low CPA media under fast (20 degrees C/min) cooling conditions.  (+info)

Hepatocytes are an important physiological model for evaluation of metabolic and biological effects of xenobiotics. They do not proliferate in culture and are extremely sensitive to damage during freezing and thawing, even after the addition of classical cryoprotectants. Thus improved cryopreservation techniques are needed to reduce cell injury and functional impairment. Here, we describe a new and efficient cryopreservation method, which permits long‐term storage and recovery of large quantities of healthy cells that maintain high hepatospecific functions. In culture, the morphology of hepatocytes cryopreserved with wheat protein extracts (WPE) was similar to that of fresh cells. Furthermore, hepatospecific functions such as albumin secretion and biotransformation of ammonium to urea were well maintained during 4 days in culture. Inductions of CYP1A1 and CYP2B in hepatocytes cryopreserved with WPEs were similar to those in fresh hepatocytes. These findings clearly show that WPEs are an excellent
Vitrification is a promising approach for cryopreservation of adherent cells because it allows complete avoidance of ice formation. However, high cryoprotectant (CPA) concentrations are required to prevent freezing, and exposure to high CPA concentrations increases the risk of osmotic and toxic damage. Although cell membrane transport modeling can be used for rational design of CPA equilibration procedures, the necessary permeability data is extremely scarce for adherent cells. This study validates a method for in situ measurement of water and CPA permeability in adherent cells based on the fluorescence quenching of intracellular calcein. Permeability parameters for endothelial monolayers were measured during exposure to four common cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol and glycerol) at temperatures of 4°C, 21°C and 37°C. Propylene glycol exhibited the highest permeability and glycerol the lowest. The data was fit using an Arrhenius model, yielding activation ...
Objective: To determine the permeability of unfertilized human oocytes to water and the cryoprotectant propane-1,2-diol over a range of temperatures and to use these data to predict osmotic responses under given conditions. Design: Laboratory-based study. Setting: Teaching hospital. Patient(s): Infertility patients donating unfertilized oocytes in excess of those required for treatment. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Water and cryoprotectant permeability were determined from measurements of oocyte volume excursions on exposure to 1.5 M propane-1,2-diol at 30°C, 24°C, and 10°C. Result(s): Permeability of human oocytes to water and cryoprotectant increased as temperature increased. The predicted response of oocytes, based on these data, closely matched the measured response of an oocyte on exposure to a widely used method for addition of cryoprotectant before freezing. Conclusion(s): Commonly used cryopreservation protocols involving slow cooling in the presence of ...
Cryoprotective Efficiency of Medium Combining Non-Penetrating and Penetrating Cryoprotectants When Freezing Erythrocyte Suspensions of Various Volumes
Microbial communities enriched from diverse environments have shown considerable promise for the targeted discovery of microorganisms and enzymes for bioconversion of lignocellulose to liquid fuels. While preservation of microbial communities is important for commercialization and research, few studies have examined storage conditions ideal for preservation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of preservation method on composition of microbial communities enriched on switchgrass before and after storage. The enrichments were completed in a high-solid and aerobic environment at 55 °C. Community composition was examined for each enrichment to determine when a stable community was achieved. Preservation methods included cryopreservation with the cryoprotective agents DMSO and glycerol, and cryopreservation without cryoprotective agents. Revived communities were examined for their ability to decompose switchgrass under high-solid and thermophilic conditions. High-throughput 16S rRNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential recovery of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes from ruminal digesta in response to glycerol as cryoprotectant. AU - McKain, Nest. AU - Genc, Buğra. AU - Snelling, Timothy J.. AU - Wallace, R. John. PY - 2013/12. Y1 - 2013/12. N2 - Bacteria and archaea in frozen (− 20 °C) ruminal digesta were analysed by qPCR and cloning/sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Samples frozen with and without glycerol as cryoprotectant indicated a major loss of Bacteroidetes in unprotected samples, resulting in higher proportions of Firmicutes. Archaeal numbers and diversity were unaffected.. AB - Bacteria and archaea in frozen (− 20 °C) ruminal digesta were analysed by qPCR and cloning/sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Samples frozen with and without glycerol as cryoprotectant indicated a major loss of Bacteroidetes in unprotected samples, resulting in higher proportions of Firmicutes. Archaeal numbers and diversity were unaffected.. KW - cryoprotection. KW - glycerol. KW - rumen. KW - ...
Before freezing, embryos are first equilibrated in special solutions containing cryoprotecting agents. These agents protect the embryos from intracellular ice formation, which would be detrimental to their viability. The embryos are then placed in special straws, sealed and put in a machine with an integrated computer. This machine, the programmable freezer, lowers the temperature in a slow controlled manner until -196oC. There are several protocols of slow freezing, depending on the stage of the embryos and the type of cryoprotectant solutions used. The embryos are then plunged in liquid nitrogen and are stored until used.. Usually 1-3 embryos are placed in each straw. In this state, embryos may be preserved for a very long period of time. Embryos can be frozen at the 2PN stage (Day 1), cleavage stage (2-8 cells; Days 2-3), or blastocyst stage (Days 5-6 post oocyte retrieval).. Cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen at a temperature of -196oC does not require electric power. The only requirement ...
On Tue, 6 Jul 1999, jim wrote much, including: , Now to your point: A cryoprotectant which only surrounds and not infiltrates , the specimen can only be useful for the second method, since such a medium , contributes to the bulk of the specimen and does not lower the freezing point , of the specimen itself. Obviously this is true. I dont think even the makers of OCT compound and other such goo would claim a cryoprotective action. These materials serve to glue the frozen specimen to the cryostat chuck or bit of cork, and also provide some protection against sublimation of the ice (freeze drying) in stored frozen specimens. Gelatin (approx 2%) has a similar consistency and does the same job more cheaply. , To be effective during vitrification the cryoprotectant , must infiltrate the specimen. It must indeed. A.G.E.Pearse (Histochemistry Vol 1) makes the point that most of the cryoprotectives used with tissues - sucrose being the most popular one - penetrate only the extracellular spaces. He ...
The effect of cryoprotectant components on the pregnancy rate of the vitrified-thawed Formosan sambar deer embryos. Hsin-Hung Lin, Chih-Hua Wang, Shann-Ren Kang, Chin-Hui Tseng, Mu-Jung Cheng, Wen-Lin Song, Ting-Chieh Kang, Shyh-Shyan Liu, and Perng-Chih Shen. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cryoprotectant components on the pregnancy rate of the vitrified-thawed Formosan Sambar deer blastocysts. The does were implanted with CIDR for 12 days and superovulated by intramuscular injection with eCG at day 10. The 4- to 8-cell stage embryos were collected by flushing the oviduct through midventral laparotomy at day 4 after mating. After collection, these embryos were subsequently cultured in the synthetic oviduct fluid solution (SOF) medium. Results showed that the blastocyst rate of cultured embryos was 29.6%. Thereafter, the blastocysts were vitrified with freeze medium containing 16.5% EG plus 16.5% DMSO (A) and 6.8 M EG (B), respectively. The pregnancy rate of vitrified ...
You might find some useful information in The Zebrafish Book, Chapter 7: http://zfin.org/zf_info/zfbook/cont.html#cont7 ======= Carrie R. Jones Zebrafish International Resource Center 5274 University of Oregon Eugene, OR 97403-5274 Phone: (541) 346-6028 ext. 22 Fax: (541) 346-6151 Email: cjones at zfin.org ======= May-Su YOU wrote: , I am Maysu You, now working at IMCB (Institute of Molecular and Cell , Biology) in Singapore. We are now working on sperm , squeezing,freezing and in vitro fertilization of Zebrafish. We got , around 90% of IVF successful rate when we used fresh sperm (from , both squeezed sperm and dissected testes) . So we moved to freezing , step. We tried two different cryoprotectants (methanol and BSMIS: , Buffered sperm motality inhibitor solution). After thawing, we , cannt get any IVF embryo. Therefore, we doubt about the freezing , procedure which we used at the moment. We also tried to observe the , sperm, but even with trypan blue, we are not sure wheather the , sperm ...
Cryoprotective solutions have been supplemented with macromolecules such as sucrose and human serum albumin (HSA). Several studies have shown that such molecules help to reduce physical damage and help to maintain osmotic pressure of the extracellular fluid (Shaw, et al. 2000). Besides its cryoprotective role, HSA facilitates gamete or embryo manipulation by preventing adsorption to the surface of petri dishes and pipettes through saturation of the potential binding sites. Also, the increased viscosity of the media, caused by the addition of HSA, promotes the ease of embryo handling and manipulation (Trounson and Gardner 2000 ...
Cryobiology: International Journal of Low Temperature Biology and Medicine is the official journal of the Society for Cryobiology.. It is published bi-monthly by Elsevier and contains research articles on all aspects of low temperature biology and medicine including:. ...
Dear Patsy, Your cryoprotectant solution sounds suspiciously like the solution we use to store vibratomed sections at -20C to actually keep them FROM freezing. It allows us to keep them very cold but without the damage of actually freezing them. The only difference is that we add glycerine to the solution. I suspect the ethylene glycol is the problem, I dont think it will allow the tissue to freeze. Try leaving it out of the mix and just make a 30% sucrose/0.1M phosphate buffered solution. Just my thoughts. Take care, Jo Dee Jo Dee Fish Research Technologist III Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease Telephone: (415) 734-2567 Fax: (415) 355-0824 E-mail: [email protected] Mailing address: The J. David Gladstone Institutes 1650 Owens Street San Francisco, CA 94158 -----Original Message----- From: [email protected] [mailto:[email protected]] On Behalf Of Patsy Ruegg Sent: Friday, January 12, 2007 12:54 PM To: histonet Subject: ...
Cryobiology: International Journal of Low Temperature Biology and Medicine publishes research articles on all aspects of low temperature biology and...
Audrey U. Smith, circa 1960s Audrey U. Smith (1915-1981), the mother of Cryobiology, was born in India on 21 May 1915. She was educated Kings College, London (first-class B.Sc., 1935); Bedford College for Women (first-class B.Sc. in physiology, 1936); registered … Continue reading →. ...
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Excellent freezing of the specimens intended for examination in the electron microscope is one of the most important prerequisites for achieving reproducible results from the various subsequent cryopreparation methods.. The freezing method should produce microcrystalline or amorphous ice from the specimen water. To achieve this, the specimens must be frozen as quickly as possible at a freezing rate no lower than 10 000°C/s.. The conventional freezing methods in use are plunge freezing, jet spray and cold block (slamming) cryo fixation. However, due to the poor heat conductance of water, these methods can only satisfactorily freeze specimens measuring up to between 10 and 20µm.. Thicker specimens (such as tissue samples) could only be frozen in the past, if a cryoprotectant was added to lower the freezing point of the water in the specimen. The disadvantage of chemical cryoprotectants is that they often affect certain cell structures, causing different types of undesirable artefacts.. By using ...
On the strategy of reimbursing after the years premiums are paid, I also believe thats a crap shoot. It may not have been challenged yet under audit (Ive not heard of any cases), maybe because it hasnt been found (after all you have personal checks to vouch you paid personally, right?) If it gets caught AFTER one becomes disabled....that annual benefit will be a HUGE incentive for the IRS to attack that strategy. Thats a headache I dont want if my family is relying on ALL that tax free income ...
Mazur, who led the Theoretical and Applied Cryobiology Group in the Biology Division, concentrated his research on fundamental mechanisms responsible for injury to cells during freezing and warming. This research and other basic findings were described in his review paper Freezing of Living Cells: Mechanisms and Implications ...
Mazur, who led the Theoretical and Applied Cryobiology Group in the Biology Division, concentrated his research on fundamental mechanisms responsible for injury to cells during freezing and warming. This research and other basic findings were described in his review paper Freezing of Living Cells: Mechanisms and Implications ...
A novel model capable of quantitatively describing and predicting Intracellular Ice Formation (IIF) as a function of temperature in a cell population during the cooling stage of a cryopreservation protocol, without Cryo-Protective Agent (CPA) is proposed. The model accounts for water osmosis and IIF occurrence during freezing of the cell population, whose size distribution dynamics is simulated by means of a suitable population balance approach. It is found that IIF temperature depends upon the cell size, i.e. it is higher for larger cells. Correspondingly, the Probability of IIF (PIIF) results to be dependent on the initial size distribution of the cell population. Model reliability is successfully verified by predicting experimental data available in the literature of PIIF at different, constant cooling rates with better accuracy as compared to previous theoretical approaches.. ...
Populations of Redside Dace Clinostomus elongatus have declined in many areas across the speciesNorth American range. Therefore, the development of sperm cryopreservation technology would provide an invaluable means of preserving genetic diversity in populations that are in imminent danger of extirpation.We developed cryopreservation protocols by testing the effects of diluent (buffered sperm motility-inhibiting saline solution [BSMIS]; BSMIS + glycine; sucrose; and Hanks balanced salt solution [HBSS]), cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO]; propylene glycol [PG]; N,N-dimethylacetamide [DMA]; and methanol), freezing rate (1, 5, and 10◦C/min), and male-to-male variation on sperm quality. Incubating sperm in extenders affected motility;BSMIS + glycine + methanol,BSMIS + glycine + PG, and HBSS + methanol were the only treatments for which motility was not significantly different from that of fresh sperm. Sperm frozen with sucrose had higher motility than sperm frozen with BSMIS + glycine, ...
Hepatocytes are widely used in the pharmaceutical and medical fields for drug metabolism studies, bioartificial liver devices, and repopulation of damaged livers as an alternative to transplantation. However, these cells are scarce and difficult to maintain in culture for prolonged periods of time. Banks of cryopreserved liver cells would significantly alleviate issues of hepatocyte availability, and efforts are being made to improve the viability and functionality of frozen hepatocytes. Previously, most work on improving post-thaw viability has hinged on limiting the physical damage of freezing by adding cryoprotective agents and optimizing cooling rates. Membrane-permeable cryoprotectants, such as dimethyl sulfoxide, though widely used, can be extremely toxic to the cell. More natural, non-membrane-permeable cryoprotectants, inspired by freeze-tolerant animals have also been used. A non-metabolizable glucose analog, 3-0-methyl- glucose (30MG), has shown promise with hepatocytes and was used in ...
Jenderek, M.M.; Ambruzs, B.; Tanner, J.; Holman, G.; Ledbetter, C.; Postman, J.; Ellis, D.; Leslie, C. 2014. Extending the dormant bud cryopreservation method to new tree species. In: Reed, B.M. (ed). Proceedings of the International Conference. 2. International Symposium on Plant Cryopreservation. Fort Collins (USA). 11-14 Aug 2013. Conference Paper International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS). ISBN 978-94-62610-27-9. pp. 133-136. Acta Horticulturae. ISSN 0567-7572. no.1039 ...
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I15 Should Cryoprotectants be Formulated According to the Mouse Genome?. Mike Legge, Mat Byers and Stephen Bird. Molecular Embryology Group, Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, PO BOX 56 Dunedin, New Zealand. The use of penetrating cryporotectants such as dimethyl sulphoxide and I,2-propanediol is well established for mouse embryo cryopreservation. However, the sensitivity of both oocytes and embryos to adverse effects of both cryoprotectants and the freezing process is well documented (Duliquost et al. 1999). For mouse genome cryopreservation this is especially important as there is a correlation between mouse embryo genotype and cryopreservation success. (Schmidt et al. 1985). With the increasing necessity to archive mouse genomes by embryo and gamete cryopreservation the improvement in cryoprotectant formulations is becoming increasingly important. Recently we identified the non-enzymatic formation of formaldehyde in cryoprotectant solutions and that at the micro-molar ...
The use of mixed microbial communities (microbiomes) for biotechnological applications has steadily increased over the past decades. However, these microbiomes are not readily available from public culture collections, hampering their potential for widespread use. The main reason for this lack of availability is the lack of an effective cryopreservation protocol. Due to this critical need, we evaluated the functionality as well as the community structure of three different types of microbiomes before and after cryopreservation with two cryoprotective agents (CPA). Microbiomes were selected based upon relevance towards applications: (1) a methanotrophic co-culture (MOB), with potential for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, environmental pollutants removal and bioplastics production; (2) an oxygen limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND) biofilm, with enhanced economic and ecological benefits for wastewater treatment, and (3) fecal material from a human donor, with potential ...
Development of effective cryopreservation protocols will be essential to realizing the potential for clinical application of neural stem and progenitor cells. Current cryopreservation protocols have been largely employed in research, which does not require as stringent consideration of viability and sterility. Therefore, these protocols involve the use of serum and protein additives, which can potentially introduce contaminants, and slow cooling with DMSO/glycerol-based cryopreservation solutions, which impairs cell survival. We investigated whether serum- and protein-free vitrification is effective for functional cryopreservation of neurosphere cultures of neural stem or progenitor cells. To protect the samples from introduction of other contaminants during handling and cryostorage, an original straw-in-straw method (250 l sterile straw placed in 500 l straw) for direct immersion into liquid nitrogen and storing the samples was also introduced. The protocol employed brief step-wise ...
View details for Studies on the effect of certain supplements in cryoprotective medium on zebrafish (Danio rerio) oocytes quality after controlled slow cooling..
Background Simple and effective cryopreservation of human oocytes would have an enormous impact on the financial and ethical constraints of human assisted reproduction. Recently, studies have demonstrated the potential for cryopreservation in an ice-free glassy state by equilibrating oocytes with high concentrations of cryoprotectants (CPAs) and rapidly cooling to liquid nitrogen temperatures. A major difficulty with this approach is that the high concentrations required for the avoidance of crystal formation (vitrification) also increase the risk of osmotic and toxic damage. We recently described a mathematical optimization approach for designing CPA equilibration procedures that avoid osmotic damage and minimize toxicity, and we presented optimized procedures for human oocytes involving continuous changes in solution composition. Methods Here we adapt and refine our previous algorithm to predict piecewise-constant changes in extracellular solution concentrations in order to make the predicted ...
CryoSearch was created by BioCision in order to help standardize the field of cryopreservation through the sharing of protocols and encouraging discussion about protocols and methods. At BioCision, our mission is to standardize sample handling. While our products help do that, products are only one part of reducing variability. The other part is how those products get used; in other words, protocols. Since we have somewhat of a specialty in cryopreservation, and there arent any other resources like CryoSearch, we thought this would be a great place to start.. Like the site? Wed love for you to check out our cryopreservation products as well. We have leak-proof and barcoded cryovials, a line of containers for slow, controlled-rate cell freezing, and tube racks that ensure precise temperature control and can also be used for snap-freezing as they are liquid-nitrogen compatible. We have a bunch of other products as well, all designed to help make your science more reliable.. Even if youre not in ...
Cryobiology is the branch of biology that studies the effects of low temperatures on living things within Earths cryosphere or in science. The word cryobiology is derived from the Greek words κρῧος [kryos], cold, βίος [bios], life, and λόγος [logos], word (hence science). In practice, cryobiology is the study of biological material or systems at temperatures below normal. Materials or systems studied may include proteins, cells, tissues, organs, or whole organisms. Temperatures may range from moderately hypothermic conditions to cryogenic temperatures. At least six major areas of cryobiology can be identified: 1) study of cold-adaptation of microorganisms, plants (cold hardiness), and animals, both invertebrates and vertebrates (including hibernation), 2) cryopreservation of cells, tissues, gametes, and embryos of animal and human origin for (medical) purposes of long-term storage by cooling to temperatures below the freezing point of water. This usually requires the ...
Embryo cryopreservation involves the generation of pre-implantation embryos using males provided by the investigator and the controlled rate cooling of collected embryos to -30°C followed by rapid freezing of embryos in liquid nitrogen to -196°C.. While embryo cryopreservation is the gold standard for preserving mouse germplasm, not all mouse strains are suitable for embryo cryopreservation. However, we have been successful at cryopreserving embryos from several different mouse strains.. Embryos for cryopreservation can be obtained in two basic ways: ...
The UK Cryonics and Cryopreservation Research Network is a group of UK researchers who, together with international advisors, aim to advance research in cryopreservation and its applications. Although we are a small group, we hope to promote academic and industrial activity on cryopreservation, and discuss its potential applications, including the idea of cryopreserving whole humans, commonly known as cryonics. We acknowledge that cryonics is a controversial topic, but like any unprovable approach we think its scientific discussion is necessary to permit its understanding by the public and by the wider scientific community, and it allows us to address many of the misunderstandings surrounding cryonics. We also think that cryopreservation, cryogenics and cryonics are fields with a huge potential impact on human medicine whose societal implications should be considered and debated. We hope to attract and excite students and other researchers about cryobiology, contribute to knowledge exchange and ...
The UK Cryonics and Cryopreservation Research Network is a group of UK researchers who, together with international advisors, aim to advance research in cryopreservation and its applications. Although we are a small group, we hope to promote academic and industrial activity on cryopreservation, and discuss its potential applications, including the idea of cryopreserving whole humans, commonly known as cryonics. We acknowledge that cryonics is a controversial topic, but like any unprovable approach we think its scientific discussion is necessary to permit its understanding by the public and by the wider scientific community, and it allows us to address many of the misunderstandings surrounding cryonics. We also think that cryopreservation, cryogenics and cryonics are fields with a huge potential impact on human medicine whose societal implications should be considered and debated. We hope to attract and excite students and other researchers about cryobiology, contribute to knowledge exchange and ...
In the past two decades, laboratories around the world have produced thousands of mutant, transgenic, and wild-type zebrafish lines for biomedical research. Although slow-freezing cryopreservation of zebrafish sperm has been available for 30 years, current protocols lack standardization and yield inconsistent post-thaw fertilization rates. Cell cryopreservation cannot be improved without basic physiological knowledge, which was lacking for zebrafish sperm. The first goal was to define basic cryobiological values for wild-type zebrafish sperm and to evaluate how modern physiological methods could aid in developing improved cryopreservation protocols. Coulter counting methods measured an osmotically inactive water fraction (Vb) of 0.37+/-0.02 (SEM), an isosmotic cell volume (V(o)) of 12.1+/-0.2mum(3) (SEM), a water permeability (L(p)) in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide of 0.021+/-0.001(SEM)mum/min/atm, and a cryoprotectant permeability (P(s)) of 0.10+/-0.01 (SEM)x10(-3)cm/min. Fourier transform infrared ...
There are many benefits of oocyte and embryo cryopreservation. When used as part of the IVF treatment process, cryopreservation can increase the likelihood of achieving pregnancy for many patients. Cryopreservation also allows couples to continue to see their families grow as IVF cycles can be repeated, years later, from the same group of eggs originally recovered for treatment.. During an IVF cycle, between 10 and 30 eggs can typically be recovered from the ovary. While it is likely that not all of these eggs will be deemed appropriate for cryopreservation, the process frequently allows couples to save a number of eggs for multiple conception attempts. In some cases, this can lead to successful treatment without the use of fertility drugs. It also reduces the likelihood that another egg retrieval procedure will be required. The number of embryos transferred depends on the number of eggs available, age, and other factors that are unique to each patient. In some cases, cryopreservation makes ...
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A device for use in cryopreservation of blood vessels comprising a pair of styles insertable into the ends of a dissected blood vessel segment. The styles are mountable on a support track whereby the blood vessel can be distended and supported during cryopreservation procedures. Also disclosed is a freezing and thawing profile capable of maximizing endothelial cell survival. The use of chondroitin sulfate or similar compound is discussed as a novel cryoprotectant.
Citation: Jenderek, M.M., Ambruzs, B.D., Holman, G.E., Skogerboe, D.M., Staats, E.R., Turner, M., Ellis, D.D. 2007. Germplasm Preservation of Vegetatively-propagated Crops at the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation. American Society for Horticultural Science, HortScience. July 16-19, 2007.Scottsdale, Arizona. 42:962. Meeting Abstract. Interpretive Summary: Out of 476,049 germpaslm accessions maintained by the USDA, ARS, National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), ca. 30,000 are vegetaively-propagated and as such require preservation as non seed propagules. Numerous research reports demonstrated the advantages of long term storage of plant tissues in liquid nitrogen over field only maintained collections. While successful cryopreservation protocols were established for many plant species, the protocols are usually not applicable for the entire collection of a species or genus they were developed, and have to be modified for accessions not responding to the procedure. Currently, the ...
1. Perrotti M, Badger WJ, McLeod D et al. Does laparo-scopy beget underuse of partial nephrectomy for T(1) renal masses? Competing treatment decision pathways may influence utilization. J Endourol 2007; 21(10): 1223-1128. 2. Phillips B, Ball C, Sackett D et al. Levels of evidence and grades of recommendation. Oxford Centre for Evi-dence based Medicine. Downloaded at http://www. cebm.net/levels_of_evidence.asp. 3. Acker JP, Larese A, Yang H et al. Intracellular ice formation is affected by cell interactions. Cryobiology 1999; 38(4): 363-371. 4. Hoffmann NE, Bischof JC. The cryobiology of cryo-surgical injury. Urology 2002; 60 (2 Suppl 1): 40-49. 5. Baust JG, Gage AA. The molecular basis of cryo-sur-gery. BJU Int 2005; 95(9): 1187-1191. 6. Mouraviev V, Joniau S, Van Poppel H et al. Current status of minimally invasive ablative techniques in the treatment of small renal tumors. Eur Urol 2007; 51(2): 328-336. 7. Woolley ML, Schulsinger DA, Durand DB et al. Effect of freezing parameters (freeze cycle ...
So does it really make sense to preserve the body of a person if, for some reason, perfusion has not been done? Lets imagine that the deceased person was taken without any perfusion and placed in regular water ice or in dry ice and then sent, for example, by plane from the USA to Russia, after which that person was cooled to the temperature of dry ice and then even further to -196°C.. To understand the situation, we need to return to the past, to the early days of the cryonics history. Its history began in the 1960-s when the book The Prospects of Immortality by Robert Ettinger was published. I hope everyone reading this have read the book by the father of cryonics, because its really accessible and contains just a minimum of technical and biomedical details. The book focuses more on moral and philosophical questions, arguing for the benefits of cryonics, while raising questions about why it should be done and how it will be done in the future, how is it compatible with religion.... This ...
This advisory is written for those who would like to understand the processes of mouse strain cryopreservation, why it is important and how to take advantage of the services offered. The most efficient method to protect mouse strains is by cryopreservation of gametes or embryos. Cryopreservation, and especially re-animation from frozen material, is not a trivial exercise, nor is the establishment of a cryopreservation and IVF laboratory cheap. There are numerous laboratories around the world that offer these services.
Recently, Ive heard of something called Oocyte cryopreservation, where a (fertilized, I think) egg from a woman is extracted, frozen and later thawed and reinserted into the woman to delay pregnancy.. Now, this is just an idea, I dont know if this is actually possible, but can this frozen egg be implanted into a different woman, who isnt the original owner of the egg? If yes, whose genes would the child inherit? Would it get genes from all three parents, or just from the original owner of the sperm and egg?. ...
Speaking of brains. Currently, among other things, I develop software for viewing serial block-face microscopy data, on a contract. This is my private opinion, of course - and I am not a neurologist, my main specialization is graphics, I look at neurons to tune and test the software, I dont quite know what all the little bits around are - I look at a bit and Im like, what is it? And then I go to re-read description by one of other people at the project, and I am like, ohh, I think its a mitochondrion inside a dendrite. And then I wonder - why is it here? What does it matter where it is? What is this thing that connects it to the wall? Is it some weird imaging artifact? I do not claim to speak for everyone. Im doing my part which, among other things, can help to figure out how to preserve brains or how to digitize them ...
Techniques of controlled-rate freezing are utilized that slowly cool embryos in cryoprotectant fluid (anti-freeze solution) from body temperature down to -196°C, at which temperature they are stored in containers of liquid nitrogen called dewars. The embryos are actually contained within special indelibly labeled plastic vials, or straws, that are sealed prior to freezing. Once frozen, they are placed inside labeled tubes attached to aluminum canes and stored in numbered canisters within the liquid nitrogen dewar. Site and label designations are stored in three separate file systems to avoid confusion and misidentification of cryopreserved embryos. When it comes time to thaw the embryos, all available identifiers of the stored specimen must match and be confirmed before thawing commences. The embryos are thawed out at room temperature, which takes about one to two minutes. However, the most critical element of the thaw procedure is not the timing but the careful dilution of the cryoprotectant ...
Is the exposure time of bovine embryos to ethylene glycol (EG) prior to freezing and/or after thawing critical to survival?. John F. Hasler. Efficient and efficacious cryopreservation of bovine embryos is critical to the commercial ET industry because, as shown by the most recent AETA statistics (2011), 72% of embryos were frozen following collection versus only 28% that were transferred fresh into recipients. Following the published report of Voelkel and Hu in 1992 on cryopreservation with EG, the commercial bovine ET industry rather quickly switched from glycerol to EG as the major cryoprotectant in freezing media. The overall percentage of embryos frozen in EG rose rapidly starting in 1992 and reached 97% in 2008, the last year that the AETA collected data on this specific statistic.. During the past 20 years there has been a continuing debate among ET practitioners regarding the question of whether EG is more toxic than glycerol to bovine embryos. This concern has led some practitioners to ...
Stem cells are the basic cells which have the capacity to develop into almost all types of cells of the body. If given correct environment and necessary stimulus, each stem cell can develop into a specialized tissue/organ. Stem cells can be stored or cryopreserved for years using cryopreservation methods.
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From: Mike Darwin <. Date: 31 May 95 00:03:14 EDT Subject: SCI.CRYONICS BPI Tech Brief 16: Canine Brain Cryopreservation A Brief Lay-Level Summary of Biopreservations Canine Brain Cryopreservation Results by Charles Platt In the 1950s, experiments showed that the damage caused when the cells of a mammal are frozen can be reduced if the cells are first treated with a solution of glycerol. More recently, work by Leaf, Darwin, et. al. suggested that damage to cryonics patients might be further minimized if perfusion with glycerol was carefully monitored and controlled, using a solution whose concentration gradually increased during the perfusion process to a very high concentration where much less ice will form than is the case when no cryoprotectant or lower levels of cryoprotectant are used. Until now, there has been no systematic study to verify that this kind of controlled perfusion of cryonics patients really does result in less freezing damage than a simpler protocol. In particular, no ...
Date: 19 Mar 96 00:18:15 EST From: Mike Darwin ,. , Subject: BPI TECH BRIEF #18 Cryopreservation of CryoCare Patient #C-2150 by Mike Darwin Introduction On December 12th, 1995 James Gallagher, a 55-year-old software developer from Sunset Beach, California, became CryoCares first member to enter cryopreservation. He also became the first patient ever to benefit from new technologies developed to reduce three forms of injury: * pre-mortem shock * warm ischemia (the time interval between pronouncement of death and restoration of adequate blood circulation) * cold ischemia experienced during initial blood washout and cooling, and also during iced-transport from the location where legal death occurred to the facility where cryoprotective perfusion is carried out. The following is not quite a full technical report, but neither is it simply a lay-level of summary of key events without reference to the technical details and the impact those details had upon this patients care and potentially, future ...
One of the critical elements for the clinical availability of cells for use in immunotherapy is cryopreservation. However, cryopreserving cells relies on antiquated protocols which raise serious safety concerns. DMSO has been associated with post-thaw morphological and epigenetic changes, weakened biodistribution and acute toxicity ...
Efficient cryopreservation of stem cells is essential for the maintenance of consistent stem cell stocks. Many of the existing formulations of cryopreservation media rely on high percentages of poorly defined serum or albumin.
Today, more than 3000 babies have been born worldwide with the use of frozen eggs. Cryopreservation is helping with IVF treatment to fight infertility problems and issues
Fifty years ago, scientists performed the first-ever cryopreservation procedure on a recently-deceased human patient: James Bedford, who had died of pancreatic cancer earlier that day. As per his will, his body was frozen in liquid nitrogen within hours of his clinical death. Kept at a temperature of -196 degrees Celsius for five decades, Bedfords hope was that he could be resuscitated in the future, at a time when our technological advancements had brought about the cure for cancer and... Death itself. January 12th is celebrated by proponents of cryopreservation as Bedford Day . This year is a particularly significant milestone: since Bedford was frozen in 1967, this marks a half century since his death and subsequent preservation. Unfortunately for him, the envisioned future in which cryopreserved corpses can be brought back from the dead-and subsequently the past-has yet to materialize.
Tyler talks with Pedro about his research on aging, the new class of drugs aiming to ameliorate age-related diseases, the recently-won Brain Preservation Prize, the state of cryobiology…
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Cryopreservation of cultured cells is an important step in the workflow of researchers that often requires trial and error in order to achieve satisfactory levels of cell viability and recovery after thawing. In addition to cell culture grade DMSO, ATCC also offers a line of serum-free cryopreservation media that are hassle-free and ready-to-use.
IV. EFFECTS OF CRYOPRESERVATION ON THE HISTOLOGY OF SELECTED TISSUES (Liver and Kidneys) Histology was evaluated in two animals each from the FIG and FIGP groups, and in one control animal. Only brain histology was evaluated in the straight-frozen control … Continue reading →. ...
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From Cryonics, June, 1993. by Tanya L. Jones. Easter Sunday (April 11th), a day usually associated with the death and resurrection of a prominent religious figure, saw the deanimation of Alcor member A-1399, a man who may now have one of the better chances at resurrection of the cryonics patient population. The suspension of Edward Davis was significant for more than one reason: it was Alcors first suspension in over eight months to require stand-by, transport, and cryoprotective perfusion; it was our first ever without the skills of either Jerry Leaf or Michael Darwin; and it was our first opportunity to test an unproven emergency response capability, and an equally unproven Suspension Team Leader.. Its difficult for me to find a place to begin. Part of my initial speechlessness stems from my desire to accurately convey the events of this suspension and its four day stand-by in conjunction with the emotions that prevailed, everything from the constant nervousness of inexperience and ...
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"Wheat extracts as an efficient cryoprotective agent for primary cultures of rat hepatocytes". Biotechnology and Bioengineering ... in which calcium is removed to disrupt cell-cell tight junctions by the use of a calcium chelating agent. Next, a solution ...
TT is then placed into cryotubes, most often containing sucrose; a non-penetrating cryoprotective agent (CPA).CPAs are added to ...
... by the Cryonics Institute begins with a process called vitrification where the body is perfused with cryoprotective agents to ...
Enzymes that degrade the biofilm matrix may be useful as anti-biofilm agents. Evidence has shown that a fatty acid messenger, ... and Evidence for a Cryoprotective Role for EPS". J. Phycol. 48 (6): 1494-509. doi:10.1111/jpy.12004. PMID 27009999. S2CID ... Lewis K (April 2001). "Riddle of biofilm resistance". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 45 (4): 999-1007. doi:10.1128/AAC. ... Ciofu, Oana; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim (2019). "Tolerance and Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms to Antimicrobial Agents- ...
... cardiotonic agents MeSH D27.720.799.113 - cariostatic agents MeSH D27.720.799.180 - cryoprotective agents MeSH D27.720.799.763 ... cariostatic agents MeSH D27.505.696.706.320 - cryoprotective agents MeSH D27.505.696.706.548 - neuroprotective agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 - anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 - anti-hiv agents MeSH ... tocolytic agents MeSH D27.505.954.016 - anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 - anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122. ...
Slow cooling methods rely on the fact that cells contain few nucleating agents, but contain naturally occurring vitrifying ... cryoprotective compounds, medical applications of reduced temperature, cryosurgery, hypothermia, and perfusion of organs). Cryo ...
January 2017). "Cryo-protective effect of an ice-binding protein derived from Antarctic bacteria". The FEBS Journal. 284 (1): ... C by using antifreeze agents that are not proteins. The rate of cooling can influence the thermal hysteresis value of AFPs. ... or antifreeze glycopeptides to distinguish them from newly discovered nonglycoprotein biological antifreeze agents (AFPs). ...
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been used for several decades as the most efficient cryoprotective agent (CPA) for many types of ... Polyampholytes as low toxic efficient cryoprotective agents with antifreeze protein properties.. Matsumura K1, Hyon SH. ...
Cryoprotective Agents / pharmacology*. Dimethyl Sulfoxide / pharmacology. Freezing*. Glycerol / pharmacology. Humans. Lectins ... 0/Cryoprotective Agents; 0/Lectins; 0/Mitogens; 11028-71-0/Concanavalin A; 56-81-5/Glycerol; 67-68-5/Dimethyl Sulfoxide ... The influence of different freezing procedures and different cryoprotective agents on the immunological capacity of frozen- ...
Dimethyl Sulfoxide may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic activities. Dimethyl Sulfoxide also readily penetrates cellular membranes. The membrane-penetrating ability of dimethyl sulfoxide may enhance diffusion of other substances through the skin. For this reason, mixtures of idoxuridine and dimethyl sulfoxide have been used for topical treatment of herpes zoster in the United Kingdom ...
Cryoprotective agent. DMSO. Dimethyl sulfoxide. FCS. Fetal calf serum. GvHD. Graft-versus-host disease ... as a rescue agent for severe refractory acute graft-versus-host disease in pediatric patients. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant J ...
WPEs have potential as a universal cryopreservant agent of mammalian cells. It is an economic, efficient and non‐toxic agent ... Wheat extracts as an efficient cryoprotective agent for primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. @article{Hamel2006WheatEA, title={ ... Wheat extracts as an efficient cryoprotective agent for primary cultures of rat hepatocytes}, author={F. Hamel and M. Grondin ... Wheat enolase demonstrates potential as a non-toxic cryopreservation agent for liver and pancreatic cells. ...
Cryoprotective Agents. *Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 Inducers. *Drugs for Constipation. *Organic Chemicals ... It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent. [PubChem]. ...
Any lipid lowering or hypoglycemic agents. *Will not donate blood three months before start or three months after completing ...
Cryoprotective Agents. Protective Agents. Neuromuscular Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Vasodilator Agents. ...
Cryoprotective Agents. Protective Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. To Top. *For Patients and Families ...
Sensory System Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Antipyretics. Cryoprotective Agents. ... Paracetamol is used widely as an antipyretic, analgesic, and anti inflammatory agent. It is effective, safe, inexpensive, and ... Various patient characteristics are taken into account as covariates, eg severity of illness, age, aetiological agent, ...
6.3.4 Penetrating cryoprotective substances. Commonly used penetrating cryoprotective agents are dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and ... the water content is lowered before cooling by adding high concentrations of cryoprotective agents (CPA). Thus, no ice is ... 6.3.3 Non-penetrating cryoprotective substances. Osmotic dehydration can be obtained through the application of non-penetrating ... Since plant cells rarely contain ice-nucleating agents, during a slow cooling process, crystallization is initiated first in ...
The addition and removal of a cryoprotective agent (CPA) are necessary steps in the cryopreservation of natural or engineered ... Intracellular pH changes in isolated bovine articular chondrocytes during the loading and removal of cryoprotective agents. ... The addition and removal of a cryoprotective agent (CPA) are necessary steps in the cryopreservation of natural or engineered ... Intracellular pH changes in isolated bovine articular chondrocytes during the loading and removal of cryoprotective agents. ...
Cryoprotective agents. Cryobiology 8: 173-183, 1971. *Rowe TWG, Snowman JW. Edwards Freeze-Drying Handbook. Grand Island, New ... Antibiotic production by bacterial biocontrol agents. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 81(1-4): 537-547, 2002. ...
Type segment includes consumable products (media, reagent, sera, contamination detection kits, cryoprotective agents) and ... Functional Clothing Fibers Protect Wearer from Chemical Agents. HemaShock Auto-Transfusion Tourniquet to Save Lives from Heart ...
"Wheat extracts as an efficient cryoprotective agent for primary cultures of rat hepatocytes". Biotechnology and Bioengineering ... in which calcium is removed to disrupt cell-cell tight junctions by the use of a calcium chelating agent. Next, a solution ...
Cryoprotective Agents * Surface-Active Agents * Vitamin E * Polylactic Acid-Polyglycolic Acid Copolymer ... Further, the PLGA nanoparticles were labeled with ⁹⁹(m)Tc using SnCl₂ as the reducing agent. ⁹⁹(m)Tc-labeling yield was not ...
0/Cryoprotective Agents; 0/Solutions; EC 3.4.23.15/Renin From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of ... Cryoprotective Agents. Female. Glomerular Filtration Rate. Kidney* / anatomy & histology, blood supply, physiology. Kidney ...
Cryoprotective Agents. 1. 1. Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor. 1. 1. ...
0 (Cryoprotective Agents); 0 (Dextrans); 0 (Ice); 22144-77-0 (Cytochalasin D); B8WCK70T7I (Trehalose); PDC6A3C0OX (Glycerol); ... 0 (Actins); 0 (Membrane Lipids); 0 (Peripheral Nervous System Agents); 0 (beta-Cyclodextrins); 0 (methyl-beta-cyclodextrin); ... whereas pre-treatment with the F-actin stabilizing agent jasplakinolide caused its full inhibition. When the microtubule ...
0 (Buffers); 0 (Cryoprotective Agents); 0 (Polymers); 0 (Solutions); 0 (Sugars); 059QF0KO0R (Water); 25702-74-3 (Ficoll); ... 0 (Cryoprotective Agents); 25104-18-1 (Polylysine); FC72KVT52F (Ethylene Glycol); YOW8V9698H (Dimethyl Sulfoxide). ... BACKGROUND: In the vitrification of embryos, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is one of the most effective cryoprotectant agents (CPAs ...
... the type and concentration of cryoprotective agents in the media; temperature and time of exposure to those agents, cooling ... Dimethylsulfoxide was found to be more effective than other cryoprotective agents tested including glycerol, hydroxyethyl ... Owner name: GENERAL ELECTRIC CAPITAL CORPORATION, AS AGENT, MA. Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:CRYOLIFE, INC.; ... Owner name: HEALTHCARE FINANCIAL SOLUTIONS, LLC, AS AGENT, MAR. Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:CRYOLIFE, INC., ...
Evaluating with its contents, it has been shown that propolis is an appropriate cryoprotective agent in fish semen. ... Methylglyoxal-augmented manuka honey as a topical anti-Staphylococcus aureus biofilm agent: safety and efficacy in an in vivo ... The mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of honey as chemopreventive and therapeutic agent has not been completely understood ... Our results suggest that AMCH might be beneficial as a potent agent for treatment of AD-like lesion. ...
Pharmacological action: cryoprotective agents, solvents, vehicles.. MediLexicon propylene glycol - Medical Dictionary ...
Polyampholytes as Low Toxic Efficient Cryoprotective Agents with Antifreeze Protein Properties. Kazuaki Matsumura; Suong-Hyu ...
This chemical is referred to as a "cryoprotective" agent. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is one of the most commonly used agents. ... Alkylating Agent. A type of chemotherapy used to kill cancer cells by interfering with cancer cell division. Alkylating agents ... Agents used to block blood clotting when abnormal blood clotting is occurring or is at risk of occurring. Heparin may be used ... Chemotherapy agents that interact directly with the DNA in the nucleus of cells, thus interfering with cell survival. ...
Cryoprotective agent.. In some cases, mannitol has been used for its scavenging properties. In this case, it allows to avoid ... As a physiological compatible pH regulation agent. Main characteristics of our SODIUM GLUCONATE PHARMA. *Crystalline, yellowish ... The function of dextrose as an isoosmotic isotonic agent is well established. ...
Cryopreservation of primary human hepatocytes: the benefit of trehalose as an additional cryoprotective agent. Liver Transpl ... Lentiviral vectors: turning a deadly foe into a therapeutic agent. Gene Ther 2000; 7: 20-23.. *CrossRef, ...
Combination medium of cryoprotective agents containing l‐glutamine and methyl‐{beta}‐cyclodextrin in a preincubation medium ... This has been made possible through the use of refined cryoprotective agents and the development of improved in vitro ... Support Protocol 1: Preparation of Sperm Cryoprotective Agent Supplemented with 100 mM L‐Glutamine. ... Support Protocol 1: Preparation of Sperm Cryoprotective Agent Supplemented with 100 mM L‐Glutamine ...
The use of tri-methylamine N-oxide as a primary precipitating agent and related methylamine osmolytes as cryoprotective agents ... In addition to TMAO, two other methylamine osmolytes, sarcosine and betaine, are shown to be effective cryoprotective agents ...
  • Preservation methods included cryopreservation with the cryoprotective agents DMSO and glycerol, and cryopreservation without cryoprotective agents. (osti.gov)
  • First, a cryoprotective agent which lowers the freezing point, such as glycerol or DMSO, is added. (umbc.edu)
  • This modification is prepared by adding glycerol, a cryoprotective agent, to red cells before freezing. (transfusion.com.au)
  • Lovelock JE (1953) The mechanism of the cryoprotective effect of glycerol against freezing and thawing. (springer.com)
  • We all know we prepare our samples for storage in LN2 with either glycerol, DMSO or some other cryopreservation agent. (wheaton.com)
  • First, this thesis presents a Langmuir monolayer study of the effects of four common cryoprotective agents (dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol, glycerol and dimethyl formamide) on phospholipid monolayers. (edu.au)
  • Hi there, Does anyone of you know if the use of 10% DMSO, rather than glycerol, as cryoprotective agent, in some way forces stem cells to undergo differentiation? (protocol-online.org)
  • Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been used for several decades as the most efficient cryoprotective agent (CPA) for many types of cells and tissues in spite of its cytotoxicity and its effects on differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • The osmotic behavior of an individual Jurkat cell to water and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a commonly used cryoprotective agent (CPA), under constant temperature, was recorded under a microscope utilizing the modified microfluidic system. (mdpi.com)
  • The experimental results were fitted using a two-parameter transport numeric model to calculate the Jurkat cell membrane permeability to water and DMSO at room temperature (22 °C). This model and the calculated parameters can help scientists optimize the cryopreservation protocol for any cell type with optimal cryoprotective agents and cooling rate for future experiments. (mdpi.com)
  • Frozen StemExpress® Human BM-MSCs are carefully cryopreserved in a medium containing 10% DMSO as a cryoprotective agent. (bioind.com)
  • DMSO is also a cryoprotective agent that helps protect frozen tissue. (petstruly.com)
  • Wheat Extracts as an Efficient Cryoprotective Agent for Primary Cultures of Rat Hepatocytes": published online 21 Aug 2006 in Wiley Interscience www.interscience.wiley.com. (wikidoc.org)
  • Indeed, the use of glycerophosphate has in part been responsible for allowing closed circuit, cryoprotective perfusion to proceed for as long as 7 hours in ischemic human patients before edema (tissue swelling) becomes a limiting factor. (alcor.org)
  • However, application of this method to whole brains met a big obstacle in a form of strong dehydration of the brains during cryoprotective perfusion. (cryonics.org)
  • Enough perfusion of the cryoprotective agents is important for simple freezing not to destroy the tissue structure. (nii.ac.jp)
  • a non-penetrating cryoprotective agent (CPA).CPAs are added to increase membrane stability during the dehydration phase and reduce damage to the cell structure when cryopreserving tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • This thesis aims to examine the critical molecular properties that lead to good cryoprotective performance and use this knowledge to test novel non-toxic compounds which can be optimized to use as cryoprotectants (CPAs). (edu.au)
  • This thesis presents a systematic investigation of these important properties, for both traditional CPAs and novel compounds with cryoprotective potential. (edu.au)
  • Cryoprotective agents (CPAs) function, in part, to lower the probability of intracellular ice formation. (planer.com)
  • The brain was then removed and saturated in ethylene glycol, a cryoprotective agent eliminating ice formation and allowing safe storage at -130 degrees C as a glasslike, inert solid. (michaelshermer.com)
  • Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) and poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) with poly(ethylene glycol) nanospheres (NSs) incorporating flurbiprofen (FB) were freeze-dried with several cryoprotective agents and sterilized by γ-irradiation. (dovepress.com)
  • Because of several disadvantages concerning serial subculturing such as high costs, time, genetic drift and possible contamination, several cryoprotective strategies were tested in this study to cryopreserve these algal species. (awi.de)
  • Pharmacological action: cryoprotective agents, solvents, vehicles. (scitoys.com)
  • The cause of this problem was a very low permeability of the blood-brain barrier for cryoprotective agents. (cryonics.org)
  • The influence of different freezing procedures and different cryoprotective agents on the immunological capacity of frozen-stored lymphocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This article describes two popular sperm freezing techniques employed by mouse repositories to archive spermatozoa using cryoprotective agents supplemented with either L ‐glutamine or monothioglycerol. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Freezing processes in cryoprotective solutions of ME 2 SO, trehalose and antifreeze protein APAFP752 and their impact on chromatin condition of cryopreserved cells. (cas.cz)
  • Previously, most work on improving post-thaw viability has hinged on limiting the physical damage of freezing by adding cryoprotective agents and optimizing cooling rates. (mit.edu)
  • The authors have established a technique of long-term preservation of composite tissue by cryopreservation and reported that cryopreserved vascular tissue can be transferred in animals without the use of immunosuppressive agents because of loss of antigenicity by freezing. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Slow freezing seems to preserve ovarian content better and therefore the vitrification of tissues needs to be improved by means of cryoprotective agents and carrying devices. (publish.csiro.au)
  • All known cryoprotective agents are toxic for live organs in high, vitrifiable concentrations (55−70%), or they cannot protect the organs from freezing injuries in lower concentrations. (cryonics.org)
  • These strategies include the treatment with cryoprotective agents (CPA) before freezing, the freezing and thawing method and the post-cryopreservation treatment. (awi.de)
  • Polyampholytes as low toxic efficient cryoprotective agents with antifreeze protein properties. (nih.gov)
  • Duman JG, Horwath K, Tomchaney A, Patterson JL (1982) Antifreeze agents in terrestrial arthropods. (springer.com)
  • Husby JA, Zachariassen KE (1980) Antifreeze agents in the body fluid of winter active insects and spiders. (springer.com)
  • Polyampholytes as cryoprotective agents for mammalian cell cryopreservation. (abnova.com)
  • Quantitative investigations on the effects of exposure durations to the combined cryoprotective agents on mouse oocyte vitrification procedures. (nih.gov)
  • The paradigm shift from mitigating ice damage to designing vitrification agents that further reduce toxicity is of such a nature that the possibility of reversible vitrification of humans merits serious scientific debate. (alcor.org)
  • Combinations of all best cryoprotective agents were tested as mixtures for vitrification using live rat brain slices and the functional K/Na ratio assay. (cryonics.org)
  • Wheat enolase demonstrates potential as a non-toxic cryopreservation agent for liver and pancreatic cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Due to the survival of cells changed with factors which cause damage to cells based on the dehydration and storage conditions, protective agents were added to decrease the damage of cells during dehydration and storage. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • At low storage temperature (-40℃), there was no significant difference among the survival of dried cells with three kinds of protective agents. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Although the protection of NFDMS was worse than MD and trehalose to dried cells' cytomembrane during storage at low storage temperature (-40℃), there was no significant difference among the survival of dried cells with three kinds of protective agents. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Tissue cryo-preservation methods require the replacements of intra-cellular water with penetrating cryo-protective agents. (planer.com)
  • With the ability to carry other substances through membranes it acts as an anti-inflammatory agent. (petstruly.com)
  • Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effect of different concentrations of various protective agents, storage temperatures and processing treatments on the survival of L. casei and its storage stability during storage, and try to find out their protective effects by the sensitivity of dried cells to sodium chloride and oxgall and the change of β-galactosidase activity in dried cells. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Third, this thesis presents similar studies on four trehalose derivatives in order to understand their cryoprotective potential. (edu.au)
  • Intracellular pH changes in isolated bovine articular chondrocytes during the loading and removal of cryoprotective agents. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The addition and removal of a cryoprotective agent (CPA) are necessary steps in the cryopreservation of natural or engineered tissue products. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Alkylating agents cause side effects because they also interfere with cell division in certain healthy tissues where cell division is frequent, such as the gastrointestinal tract. (lls.org)
  • tissues with supplementation of growth-promoting factors and other agents, including epidermal growth factor and concanavalin A (Lebel et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • I witnessed the infusion of a rabbit brain through its carotid arteries with a fixative agent called glutaraldehyde, which binds proteins together into a solid gel. (michaelshermer.com)
  • As reported by the BBC, the technique involves taking tiny slivers of tissue containing primordial follicles, which are then mixed with cryoprotective agents, slowly reduced in temperature to -196 C and stored under liquid nitrogen. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • In the first step, the liver is placed in an isotonic solution, in which calcium is removed to disrupt cell-cell tight junctions by the use of a calcium chelating agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Determination of Dielectric Properties of Cryoprotective Agent Solutions with a Resonant Cavity for the Electromagnetic Rewarming in Cryopreservation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In addition, the effects of protective agents and their concentrations were varied with different species of bacteria. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • The objectives of the study were to (1) optimize the concentration and duration of carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP-a mitochondrial uncoupling agent) exposures for biopsies of domestic cat ovarian tissue and (2) examine the effects of FCCP pre-exposures on follicle integrity after tissue culture and/or cryopreservation. (springermedizin.de)
  • The function of dextrose as an isoosmotic isotonic agent is well established. (roquette.com)
  • In principle, urea accumulating in response to water deficit could also serve a cryoprotective function in hibernating amphibians, but this contention has not been tested. (biologists.org)
  • The harness includes a first tube for removing at least one blood component from the bag while retaining another component, a second tube for moving a cryoprotective solution into and out of the bag, a third tube for conducting a wash solution into and out of the bag, and identification on the bag. (google.es)
  • Cryopreservation trials with some of these compounds are carried out to assess their cryoprotective potential. (edu.au)
  • The invention particularly relates to a process for the processing of en. (sumobrain.com)