Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.
The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
The transformation of a liquid to a glassy solid i.e., without the formation of crystals during the cooling process.
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
A method of providing future reproductive opportunities before a medical treatment with known risk of loss of fertility. Typically reproductive organs or tissues (e.g., sperm, egg, embryos and ovarian or testicular tissues) are cryopreserved for future use before the medical treatment (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation) begins.
A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.
A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.
The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Centers for acquiring and storing semen.
Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing organs or tissue for future use.
The process by which blood or its components are kept viable outside of the organism from which they are derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
Procedures to obtain viable sperm from the male reproductive tract, including the TESTES, the EPIDIDYMIS, or the VAS DEFERENS.
The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
The span of viability of a tissue or an organ.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).
Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
Damages to the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN or the FETUS before BIRTH. Damages can be caused by any factors including biological, chemical, or physical.
An organic amine proton acceptor. It is used in the synthesis of surface-active agents and pharmaceuticals; as an emulsifying agent for cosmetic creams and lotions, mineral oil and paraffin wax emulsions, as a biological buffer, and used as an alkalizer. (From Merck, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1424)
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.
The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of SPERM HEAD. Acrosome, derived from LYSOSOMES, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in FERTILIZATION.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.
The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.
Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide composed of two glucose molecules linked by an alpha, alpha-1,1-glycosidic bond, naturally found in some plants and microorganisms, serving as a cryoprotectant and providing cellular protection against various stress conditions.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Below normal weather temperatures that may lead to serious health problems. Extreme cold is a dangerous situation that can bring on health emergencies in susceptible people.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).
A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
A plant genus of the family Gentianaceae whose members contain SECOIRIDOIDS and have been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE for suppressing INFLAMMATION.
The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.
The process of protecting various samples of biological material.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.
An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
A family of marsupials in the order Diprotodontia, native to Australia and possessing vestigial tails. There is a single living genus and species: Phascolarctos cinereus, the koala.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.
The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.
Aquaporin 3 is an aquaglyceroporin that is expressed in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS and is constitutively localized at the basolateral MEMBRANE.
The capability of bearing live young (rather than eggs) in nonmammalian species. Some species of REPTILES and FISHES exhibit this.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The techniques used to select and/or place only one embryo from FERTILIZATION IN VITRO into the uterine cavity to establish a singleton pregnancy.
A branch of embryology for the study of congenital malformations and developmental abnormalities.
Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.
Inbred ICR mice are a strain of albino laboratory mice that have been selectively bred for consistent genetic makeup and high reproductive performance, making them widely used in biomedical research for studies involving reproduction, toxicology, pharmacology, and carcinogenesis.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.
A complication of OVULATION INDUCTION in infertility treatment. It is graded by the severity of symptoms which include OVARY enlargement, multiple OVARIAN FOLLICLES; OVARIAN CYSTS; ASCITES; and generalized EDEMA. The full-blown syndrome may lead to RENAL FAILURE, respiratory distress, and even DEATH. Increased capillary permeability is caused by the vasoactive substances, such as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS, secreted by the overly-stimulated OVARIES.

Nuclear chromatin variations in human spermatozoa undergoing swim-up and cryopreservation evaluated by the flow cytometric sperm chromatin structure assay. (1/2910)

The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) is a flow cytometric (FCM) technique which exploits the metachromatic properties of Acridine Orange to monitor the susceptibility of sperm chromatin DNA to in-situ acid denaturation. SCSA was used to study the chromatin structure variations of human spermatozoa in semen, both before and after swim-up and after cryopreservation. Semen samples were provided by 19 healthy normozoospermic subjects attending pre-marriage checks. Each sample was divided into three aliquots: the first aliquot was evaluated without further treatment, the second underwent swim-up, and the third was stored according to standard cryopreservation techniques in liquid nitrogen at -196 degrees C. Samples were also analysed by light and fluorescence microscopy (after Acridine Orange staining to evaluate the number of green fluorescent sperm heads), and by computer-assisted semen analysis. The results showed that post-rise spermatozoa represent a subpopulation characterized by a general improvement of the morphological (reduction of the percentage of abnormal forms and heads, increase of the green head sperm percentage) and kinetic parameters. This subpopulation also exhibited improved chromatin structure properties, confirming that these cells have the best structural and functional characteristics, indicative of optimal fertilizing ability. On the other hand, overall sperm quality deteriorates after cryopreservation. When thawed spermatozoa underwent an additional swim-up round, a general improvement of nuclear maturity was seen in the post-rise spermatozoa.  (+info)

Arterial damage induced by cryopreservation is irreversible following organ culture. (2/2910)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes which occur to the arterial wall following cryopreservation and thawing and to determine whether these changes are reversible after a week of culture in an organ bath. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat iliac arterial segments were cryopreserved. Once thawed, the arterial segments were cultured for a period of 0, 1, 2, 4 or 7 days. Freshly isolated rat iliac vessels cultured for 7 days served as the control group. Evaluation was made of ultrastructural changes, the expression of metalloproteinase activity (MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9) and the apoptotic state of cells. RESULTS: The freezing-thawing process induced damage to the arterial segments compared to fresh control vessels. After 1 week of culture, arteries showed a high degree of tissue degeneration. Only a few individual endothelial cells remained on the luminal surface. There was a gradual increase in the proportion of apoptotic cells. The sequential expression of MMP-1 during the first 2 days and subsequent expression of MMP-3 and MMP-9 were of most significance. CONCLUSIONS: Cryopreservation induced damage to the vessels which could not be reversed by organ culture. The changes observed in the expression of metalloproteinases may be indicative of the degenerative process which occurs in the extracellular matrix.  (+info)

Effect of cryopreservation on cytochrome P-450 enzyme induction in cultured rat hepatocytes. (3/2910)

In the present study, we evaluated the inducibility of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP3A, and CYP4A by beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital, dexamethasone, and clofibric acid, respectively, in primary hepatocyte cultures prepared from both fresh and cryopreserved rat hepatocytes. Rat hepatocytes were successfully thawed and cultured after cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen for up to 1 month. Percentage of total recovery, viable cell recovery, and final viability of the cells were 68%, 72%, and 85%, respectively. Regardless of whether they were cryopreserved or not, cultured hepatocytes exhibited near-normal morphology. Treatment of cryopreserved hepatocytes with beta-naphthoflavone caused an 8-fold increase in 7-ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (CYP1A1/2) activity, with an EC50 of 1.5 microM; treatment with phenobarbital caused a 26-fold increase in 7-pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (CYP2B1/2) activity, with an EC50 of 10 microM; treatment with dexamethasone caused a 10-fold increase in testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase (CYP3A1/2) activity, with an EC50 of 1.3 microM, whereas treatment with clofibric acid caused a 3-fold increase in lauric acid 12-hydroxylase (CYP4A1-3) activity, with an EC50 of 170 microM. The induction of CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP3A, and CYP4A enzymes by these inducers was confirmed by Western immunoblotting. The patterns of P-450 induction in cryopreserved rat hepatocytes, in terms of concentration response, reproducibility, magnitude, and specificity of response, were similar to those observed in freshly isolated hepatocytes. Additionally, the magnitude and specificity of induction was similar to that observed in vivo in rats. In conclusion, under the conditions examined, cryopreserved rat hepatocytes appear to be a suitable in vitro system for evaluating xenobiotics as inducers of P-450 enzymes.  (+info)

Binding of annexin V to plasma membranes of human spermatozoa: a rapid assay for detection of membrane changes after cryostorage. (4/2910)

When the cell membrane is disturbed, phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) is translocated from the inner to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. This is one of the earliest signs of apoptosis and can be monitored by the calcium-dependent binding of annexin V. Therefore, annexin V-binding, in conjunction with flow cytometry, was used to evaluate the integrity of the sperm plasma membrane after different cryostorage protocols: i.e. 10% (v/v) glycerol; sperm maintenance medium (MM); freezing medium TEST yolk buffer (TYB); or cryostorage without protection (cryoshock). Using a combination of two fluorescent dyes, annexin V and propidium iodide (PI), led to three groups of spermatozoa being identified: (i) viable spermatozoa (annexin V-negative and PI-negative); (ii) dead spermatozoa (annexin V-positive and PI-positive); and (iii) cells with impaired but integer plasma membrane (annexin V-positive and PI-negative). The percentage of vital annexin V-negative spermatozoa increased significantly (P < 0.05) from spermatozoa treated by cryoshock (15.0+/-1.2%) to spermatozoa cryopreserved by TYB (26.6+/-2.2%) via cryopreservation by 10% (v/v) glycerol (19.9+/-1.6%) and by MM (22.2 1.8%) and was associated with the percentage of motile spermatozoa (17.6+/-3.4% by glycerol; 19.6+/-3.7% by MM and 22.6+/-3.9% by TYB; P = 0.0001). Of the spermatozoa, 12-22% were annexin V-positive even though they did not bind to PI, indicating viability before as well as after cryostorage. The percentage of vital annexin V-positive spermatozoa was significantly correlated with different sperm motility parameters (velocity straight linear, r = 0.601, P = 0.018; percentage of linearly motile spermatozoa: r = 0.549, P = 0.034). We, therefore, concluded that annexin V-binding is more sensitive in detecting a deterioration of membrane functions than PI staining, and that a considerable percentage of spermatozoa might have dysfunctional plasma membranes besides dead or moribund cells. Of the cryopreservation protocols tested, TYB yielded the most viable spermatozoa. Therefore, we advocate the use of the annexin V-binding assay for the evaluation of the quality and integrity of spermatozoa.  (+info)

Freezer anthropology: new uses for old blood. (5/2910)

Archived blood fractions (plasma, settled red cells, white cells) have proved to be a rich and valuable source of DNA for human genetic studies. Large numbers of such samples were collected between 1960 and the present for protein and blood group studies, many of which are languishing in freezers or have already been discarded. More are discarded each year because the usefulness of these samples is not widely understood. Data from DNA derived from 10-35-year-old blood samples have been used to address the peopling of the New World and of the Pacific. Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from studies using this source DNA support a single wave of migration into the New World (or a single source population for the New World), and that Mongolia was the likely source of the founding population. Data from Melanesia have shown that Polynesians are recent immigrants into the Pacific and did not arise from Melanesia.  (+info)

Preparation of endometrium for egg donation. (6/2910)

Nowadays oocyte donation is a well established method of assisted reproduction and offers the unique opportunity to treat patients with various clinical indications, with or without ovarian function, in a novel way. In women with ovarian failure, artificial menstrual cycles are required before proceeding to oocyte donation. Oestrogen may be delivered in the form of oral tablets, transdermal patches in order to bypass the gastrointestinal tract thus avoiding first pass metabolism and by vaginal application. Our regimen is oestradiol valerate given in various concentrations, in order to mimic the regular cyclic fluctuations throughout the cycle. Progesterone may be administered in the form of oral tablets, intravaginal suppositories or rings and i.m. injections. Our results, as of most other groups, strongly support the vaginal route of progesterone administration. In women with retained ovarian function, synchronization of donor-recipient cycle presents a special problem, as there is strong evidence that a temporal window of maximal endometrial receptivity exists. Cryopreservation of donated embryos may be used to overcome the problem, but this approach has the important drawback of embryonic loss occurring after freezing and thawing. The method of choice is the administration of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) to render the patients functionally agonadal in order to circumvent cycle asynchrony between the donor and recipient.  (+info)

Turner's syndrome and pregnancies after oocyte donation. (7/2910)

A total of 20 clinical pregnancies was achieved among 18 women with Turner's syndrome who were treated in an oocyte donation programme. The oocytes were donated by voluntary unpaid donors. A mean of 1.8 embryos per transfer was given to each recipient by way of 28 fresh and 25 frozen embryo transfers. With fresh and frozen embryos, 13 and seven pregnancies respectively were achieved. The clinical pregnancy rate per fresh embryo transfer was 46%, and the implantation rate 30%, being similar to the corresponding rates among our oocyte recipients with primary ovarian failure in general. The corresponding rates with frozen embryos were 28 and 19%. Of these pregnancies, 40% ended in miscarriage. This high rate may be explained by uterine factors. Six women were hypertensive during pregnancy, a rate comparable with that in other oocyte donation pregnancies. All these women delivered by Caesarean section. Pregnancy and implantation rates after oocyte donation were high in women with Turner's syndrome, but the risk of cardiovascular and other complications is high. Careful assessment before and during follow-up of pregnancy are important. Transfer of only one embryo at a time to avoid the additional complications caused by twin pregnancy is recommended.  (+info)

Primitive hematopoietic progenitors within mobilized blood are spared by uncontrolled rate freezing. (8/2910)

Uncontrolled-rate freezing techniques represent an attractive alternative to controlled-rate cryopreservation procedures which are time-consuming and require high-level technical expertise. In this study, we report our experience using uncontrolled-rate cryopreservation and mechanical freezer storage at -140 degrees C. Twenty-eight PBPC samples (10 cryovials, 18 freezing bags) from 23 patients were cryopreserved in a cryoprotectant solution composed of phosphate-buffered saline (80%, v/v) supplemented with human serum albumin (10%, v/v) and dimethylsulfoxide (10%, v/v). The cryopreservation procedure required on average 1.5 h. The mean (+/- s.e.m.) storage time of cryovials and bags was 344+/-40 and 299+57 days, respectively. Although cell thawing was associated with a statistically significant reduction of the absolute number of nucleated cells (vials: 0.3x10(9) vs. 0.2x10(9), P< or =0.02; bags: 14x10(9) vs. 11x10(9), P< or =0.0003), the growth of committed progenitors was substantially unaffected by the freezing-thawing procedure, with mean recoveries of CFU-Mix, BFU-E, and CFU-GM ranging from 60+/- 29% to 134+/-15%. Mean recoveries of LTC-IC from cryovials and bags were 262+/-101% and 155+/-27% (P< or =0.2), respectively. In 14 out of 23 patients who underwent high-dose chemotherapy and PBPC reinfusion, the pre-and post-freezing absolute numbers of hematopoietic progenitors cryopreserved in bags were compared. A significant reduction was detected for CFU-Mix (11 vs. 7.4x10(5)), but no significant loss of BFU-E (180 vs. 150x10(5)), CFU-GM (400 vs. 290x10(5)) and LTC-IC (15 vs. 16x10(5)) could be demonstrated. When these patients were reinfused with uncontrolled-rate cryopreserved PBPC, the mean number of days to reach 1x10(9)/l white blood cells and 50x10(9)/l platelets were 9 and 13, respectively. In conclusion, the procedure described here is characterized by short execution time, allows a substantial recovery of primitive and committed progenitors and is associated with prompt hematopoietic recovery following myeloablative therapy even after long-term storage.  (+info)

Cryopreservation is a medical procedure that involves the preservation of cells, tissues, or organs by cooling them to very low temperatures, typically below -150°C. This is usually achieved using liquid nitrogen. The low temperature slows down or stops biological activity, including chemical reactions and cellular metabolism, which helps to prevent damage and decay.

The cells, tissues, or organs that are being cryopreserved must be treated with a cryoprotectant solution before cooling to prevent the formation of ice crystals, which can cause significant damage. Once cooled, the samples are stored in specialized containers or tanks until they are needed for use.

Cryopreservation is commonly used in assisted reproductive technologies, such as the preservation of sperm, eggs, and embryos for fertility treatments. It is also used in research, including the storage of cell lines and stem cells, and in clinical settings, such as the preservation of skin grafts and corneas for transplantation.

Cryoprotective agents are substances that are used to protect biological material from damage during freezing and thawing. These agents work by reducing the amount of ice that forms in the cells, which can help to prevent the formation of damaging ice crystals. Commonly used cryoprotective agents include dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), glycerol, and ethylene glycol.

When biological material, such as cells or tissues, is cooled to very low temperatures for storage or transportation, the water in the cells can freeze and form ice crystals. These ice crystals can damage the cell membranes and other structures within the cell, leading to cell death. Cryoprotective agents help to prevent this by lowering the freezing point of the solution that the cells are stored in, which reduces the amount of ice that forms.

Cryoprotective agents are often used in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART) to protect sperm, eggs, and embryos during freezing and thawing. They are also used in research settings to preserve cells and tissues for later use. It is important to note that while cryoprotective agents can help to reduce the amount of damage that occurs during freezing and thawing, they cannot completely prevent it. Therefore, it is important to carefully control the freezing and thawing process to minimize any potential harm to the biological material.

Semen preservation is the process of collecting, liquefying, testing, and storing semen samples for future use in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as artificial insemination (AI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The semen sample is usually collected through masturbation, and then it is mixed with a cryoprotectant solution to prevent damage during the freezing and thawing process. After that, the sample is divided into straws or vials and frozen in liquid nitrogen tanks at temperatures below -196°C. Properly preserved semen can be stored for many years without significant loss of quality or fertility potential. Semen preservation is often recommended for men who are about to undergo medical treatments that may affect their sperm production or fertility, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, or for those who wish to postpone fatherhood for personal or medical reasons.

Vitrification is a process used in cryopreservation, where a liquid or semi-liquid biological material is transformed into a glass-like solid state by cooling it to extremely low temperatures at a rate that suppresses the formation of ice crystals. This technique is often used in assisted reproductive technology (ART) for preserving oocytes (human eggs), embryos, and ovarian or testicular tissues.

During vitrification, the biological material is exposed to high concentrations of cryoprotectants, which help prevent ice crystal formation and minimize cellular damage during cooling. The sample is then rapidly cooled using liquid nitrogen, achieving temperatures below -150°C (-238°F) in a matter of seconds or minutes.

The primary advantage of vitrification over traditional slow-freezing methods is the elimination of ice crystal formation, which can cause significant damage to cellular structures and organelles. Vitrified samples maintain their structural integrity and have higher survival rates upon thawing, making them more suitable for use in ART procedures.

However, it's important to note that vitrification also has potential risks, such as the toxicity of high cryoprotectant concentrations and the possibility of cracking during cooling or warming due to thermal stress. Proper technique and careful handling are crucial to ensure successful vitrification and subsequent use in clinical applications.

Propylene glycol is not a medical term, but rather a chemical compound. However, it does have various applications in the medical field. Medically, propylene glycol can be used as a:

1. Vehicle for intravenous (IV) medications: Propylene glycol helps dissolve drugs that are not water-soluble and allows them to be administered intravenously. It is used in the preparation of some IV medications, including certain antibiotics, antivirals, and chemotherapeutic agents.
2. Preservative: Propylene glycol acts as a preservative in various medical products, such as topical ointments, eye drops, and injectable solutions, to prevent bacterial growth and increase shelf life.
3. Humectant: In some medical devices and pharmaceutical formulations, propylene glycol is used as a humectant, which means it helps maintain moisture and prevent dryness in the skin or mucous membranes.

The chemical definition of propylene glycol (C3H8O2) is:

A colorless, nearly odorless, viscous liquid belonging to the alcohol family. It is a diol, meaning it contains two hydroxyl groups (-OH), and its molecular formula is C3H8O2. Propylene glycol is miscible with water and most organic solvents and has applications in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, food processing, cosmetics, and industrial manufacturing.

"Freezing" is a term used in the medical field to describe a phenomenon that can occur in certain neurological conditions, most notably in Parkinson's disease. It refers to a sudden and temporary inability to move or initiate movement, often triggered by environmental factors such as narrow spaces, turning, or approaching a destination. This can increase the risk of falls and make daily activities challenging for affected individuals.

Freezing is also known as "freezing of gait" (FOG) when it specifically affects a person's ability to walk. During FOG episodes, the person may feel like their feet are glued to the ground, making it difficult to take steps forward. This can be very distressing and debilitating for those affected.

It is important to note that "freezing" has different meanings in different medical contexts, such as in the field of orthopedics, where it may refer to a loss of joint motion due to stiffness or inflammation. Always consult with a healthcare professional for accurate information tailored to your specific situation.

Fertility preservation is a medical procedure or treatment that is aimed at protecting and preserving the reproductive function and potential of an individual, typically before undergoing medical treatments that can potentially compromise their fertility. This may involve the cryopreservation (freezing) and storage of gametes (sperm or eggs), embryos, or reproductive tissues, such as ovarian or testicular tissue, for future use.

Fertility preservation is often recommended for individuals who are facing medical treatments that can have a negative impact on their fertility, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgical removal of reproductive organs. It may also be considered for individuals with conditions that can affect their fertility, such as certain genetic disorders or autoimmune diseases.

The goal of fertility preservation is to allow individuals to have biological children in the future, even if their fertility is compromised by medical treatments or conditions. The success of fertility preservation depends on several factors, including the age and health of the individual at the time of preservation, the type and duration of the medical treatment, and the quality of the preserved gametes or tissues.

Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, syrupy liquid with a sweet taste, which makes it appealing to animals and children. It is commonly used in the manufacture of antifreeze, coolants, deicers, hydraulic brake fluids, solvents, and other industrial products. Ethylene glycol is also found in some household items such as certain types of wood stains, paints, and cosmetics.

Ingesting even small amounts of ethylene glycol can be harmful or fatal to humans and animals. It is metabolized by the body into toxic substances that can cause damage to the central nervous system, heart, kidneys, and other organs. Symptoms of ethylene glycol poisoning may include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, decreased level of consciousness, seizures, coma, acidosis, increased heart rate, low blood pressure, and kidney failure.

If you suspect that someone has ingested ethylene glycol, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment typically involves administering a medication called fomepizole or ethanol to inhibit the metabolism of ethylene glycol, as well as providing supportive care such as fluid replacement and dialysis to remove the toxic substances from the body.

Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO. It is a polar aprotic solvent, which means it can dissolve both polar and nonpolar compounds. DMSO has a wide range of uses in industry and in laboratory research, including as a cryoprotectant, a solvent for pharmaceuticals, and a penetration enhancer in topical formulations.

In medicine, DMSO is used as a topical analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. It works by increasing the flow of blood and other fluids to the site of application, which can help to reduce pain and inflammation. DMSO is also believed to have antioxidant properties, which may contribute to its therapeutic effects.

It's important to note that while DMSO has been studied for various medical uses, its effectiveness for many conditions is not well established, and it can have side effects, including skin irritation and a garlic-like taste or odor in the mouth after application. It should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

Tissue preservation is the process of preventing decomposition or autolysis (self-digestion) of tissues after they have been removed from a living organism. This is typically achieved through the use of fixatives, such as formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde, which stabilize proteins and other cellular structures by creating cross-links between them. Other methods of tissue preservation include freezing, dehydration, and embedding in paraffin or plastic resins. Properly preserved tissues can be stored for long periods of time and used for various research and diagnostic purposes, such as histology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular biology studies.

Sperm motility is the ability of sperm to move actively and effectively through the female reproductive tract towards the egg for fertilization. It is typically measured as the percentage of moving sperm in a sample, and their progressiveness or velocity. Normal human sperm motility is generally defined as forward progression of at least 25 micrometers per second, with at least 50% of sperm showing progressive motility. Reduced sperm motility, also known as asthenozoospermia, can negatively impact fertility and reproductive outcomes.

Spermatozoa are the male reproductive cells, or gametes, that are produced in the testes. They are microscopic, flagellated (tail-equipped) cells that are highly specialized for fertilization. A spermatozoon consists of a head, neck, and tail. The head contains the genetic material within the nucleus, covered by a cap-like structure called the acrosome which contains enzymes to help the sperm penetrate the female's egg (ovum). The long, thin tail propels the sperm forward through fluid, such as semen, enabling its journey towards the egg for fertilization.

Fertilization in vitro, also known as in-vitro fertilization (IVF), is a medical procedure where an egg (oocyte) and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish to facilitate fertilization. The fertilized egg (embryo) is then transferred to a uterus with the hope of establishing a successful pregnancy. This procedure is often used when other assisted reproductive technologies have been unsuccessful or are not applicable, such as in cases of blocked fallopian tubes, severe male factor infertility, and unexplained infertility. The process involves ovarian stimulation, egg retrieval, fertilization, embryo culture, and embryo transfer. In some cases, additional techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) may be used to increase the chances of success.

Embryo transfer is a medical procedure that involves the transfer of an embryo, which is typically created through in vitro fertilization (IVF), into the uterus of a woman with the aim of establishing a pregnancy. The embryo may be created using the intended parent's own sperm and eggs or those from donors. After fertilization and early cell division, the resulting embryo is transferred into the uterus of the recipient mother through a thin catheter that is inserted through the cervix. This procedure is typically performed under ultrasound guidance to ensure proper placement of the embryo. Embryo transfer is a key step in assisted reproductive technology (ART) and is often used as a treatment for infertility.

A sperm bank is a facility that collects, stores, and distributes semen from donors for the purpose of artificial insemination. The sperm samples are typically collected through masturbation and then frozen in liquid nitrogen to preserve them for long-term storage. Potential donors undergo rigorous screening processes, including medical examinations, genetic testing, and background checks, to ensure that their sperm is healthy and free from infectious diseases.

Sperm banks may be used by individuals or couples who are unable to conceive naturally due to male infertility, same-sex female couples, single women, or those with genetic disorders who wish to avoid passing on certain genetic conditions to their offspring. Recipients can choose a donor based on various factors such as physical characteristics, ethnicity, education level, and personality traits.

It is important to note that the regulations governing sperm banks vary by country and even by state or province within countries. Therefore, it is essential to research and understand the specific laws and guidelines that apply in your location before using a sperm bank.

Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are medical procedures that involve the handling of human sperm and ova to establish a pregnancy. These techniques are used when other methods of achieving pregnancy have failed or are not available. Examples of ART include in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT). These procedures may be used to treat infertility, prevent genetic disorders, or to help same-sex couples or single people have children. It is important to note that the use of ART can involve significant physical, emotional, and financial costs, and it may not always result in a successful pregnancy.

An oocyte, also known as an egg cell or female gamete, is a large specialized cell found in the ovary of female organisms. It contains half the number of chromosomes as a normal diploid cell, as it is the product of meiotic division. Oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and are responsible for the production of female offspring upon fertilization with sperm. The term "oocyte" specifically refers to the immature egg cell before it reaches full maturity and is ready for fertilization, at which point it is referred to as an ovum or egg.

Organ preservation is a medical technique used to maintain the viability and functionality of an organ outside the body for a certain period, typically for transplantation purposes. This process involves cooling the organ to slow down its metabolic activity and prevent tissue damage, while using specialized solutions that help preserve the organ's structure and function. Commonly preserved organs include hearts, livers, kidneys, lungs, and pancreases. The goal of organ preservation is to ensure that the transplanted organ remains in optimal condition until it can be successfully implanted into a recipient.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

A Tissue Bank is a specialized facility that collects, stores, and distributes human tissues for medical research, transplantation, or therapeutic purposes. These tissues can include organs, bones, skin, heart valves, tendons, and other bodily tissues that can be used for various medical applications.

Tissue banks follow strict regulations and guidelines to ensure the safety and quality of the tissues they handle. They implement rigorous screening and testing procedures to minimize the risk of disease transmission and maintain the integrity of the tissues. The tissues are stored under specific conditions, such as temperature and humidity, to preserve their function and viability until they are needed for use.

Tissue banks play a critical role in advancing medical research and improving patient outcomes by providing researchers and clinicians with access to high-quality human tissues for study and transplantation.

Blood preservation refers to the process of keeping blood viable and functional outside of the body for transfusion purposes. This is typically achieved through the addition of various chemical additives, such as anticoagulants and nutrients, to a storage solution in which the blood is contained. The preserved blood is then refrigerated or frozen until it is needed for transfusion.

The goal of blood preservation is to maintain the structural integrity and functional capacity of the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, as well as the coagulation factors, in order to ensure that the transfused blood is safe and effective. Different storage conditions and additives are used for the preservation of different components of blood, depending on their specific requirements.

It's important to note that while blood preservation extends the shelf life of donated blood, it does not last indefinitely. The length of time that blood can be stored depends on several factors, including the type of blood component and the storage conditions. Regular testing is performed to ensure that the preserved blood remains safe and effective for transfusion.

Cell survival refers to the ability of a cell to continue living and functioning normally, despite being exposed to potentially harmful conditions or treatments. This can include exposure to toxins, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, or other stressors that can damage cells or interfere with their normal processes.

In scientific research, measures of cell survival are often used to evaluate the effectiveness of various therapies or treatments. For example, researchers may expose cells to a particular drug or treatment and then measure the percentage of cells that survive to assess its potential therapeutic value. Similarly, in toxicology studies, measures of cell survival can help to determine the safety of various chemicals or substances.

It's important to note that cell survival is not the same as cell proliferation, which refers to the ability of cells to divide and multiply. While some treatments may promote cell survival, they may also inhibit cell proliferation, making them useful for treating diseases such as cancer. Conversely, other treatments may be designed to specifically target and kill cancer cells, even if it means sacrificing some healthy cells in the process.

Semen analysis is a laboratory test that evaluates various characteristics of semen, the fluid that is released during ejaculation. These characteristics include:

1. Volume: The amount of semen produced in one ejaculation.
2. Liquefaction time: The time it takes for the semen to change from a gel-like consistency to a liquid state.
3. pH: The acidity or alkalinity of the semen.
4. Sperm concentration: The number of sperm present in each milliliter of semen.
5. Total sperm count: The total number of sperm in the entire ejaculate.
6. Motility: The percentage of sperm that are moving and their forward progression.
7. Morphology: The shape and size of the sperm.
8. Vitality: The percentage of live sperm in the sample.
9. White blood cell count: The presence of white blood cells, which can indicate an infection.

Semen analysis is often used to help diagnose male infertility, as well as to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for infertility. It may also be used to detect abnormalities in the reproductive system or to evaluate the effects of certain medications on sperm production and quality.

A mammalian embryo is the developing offspring of a mammal, from the time of implantation of the fertilized egg (blastocyst) in the uterus until the end of the eighth week of gestation. During this period, the embryo undergoes rapid cell division and organ differentiation to form a complex structure with all the major organs and systems in place. This stage is followed by fetal development, which continues until birth. The study of mammalian embryos is important for understanding human development, evolution, and reproductive biology.

A blastocyst is a stage in the early development of a fertilized egg, or embryo, in mammals. It occurs about 5-6 days after fertilization and consists of an outer layer of cells called trophoblasts, which will eventually form the placenta, and an inner cell mass, which will give rise to the fetus. The blastocyst is characterized by a fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoel. This stage is critical for the implantation of the embryo into the uterine lining.

Sperm retrieval is a medical procedure that involves obtaining sperm from a male patient, usually for the purpose of assisted reproduction. This can be indicated in cases where the man has obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia (absence of sperm in the semen), ejaculatory dysfunction, or other conditions that prevent the successful collection of sperm through conventional means, such as masturbation.

There are several methods for sperm retrieval, including:

1. Testicular sperm aspiration (TESA): A procedure where a fine needle is inserted into the testicle to aspirate (or draw out) sperm.
2. Percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA): Similar to TESA, but the needle is inserted into the epididymis, a small structure that stores and transports sperm from the testicle.
3. Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA): A more invasive procedure where an incision is made in the scrotum to directly visualize the epididymis with a surgical microscope, allowing for the careful removal of sperm.
4. Testicular sperm extraction (TESE): Involves making a small incision in the testicle and removing a piece of tissue containing sperm-producing tubules. The tissue is then processed to extract viable sperm.
5. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (microTESE): A refined version of TESE, where a surgical microscope is used to identify and isolate individual seminiferous tubules containing sperm in men with non-obstructive azoospermia.

The retrieved sperm can then be used for various assisted reproductive techniques, such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), where a single sperm is injected directly into an egg to facilitate fertilization.

Embryo culture techniques refer to the methods and procedures used to maintain and support the growth and development of an embryo outside of the womb, typically in a laboratory setting. These techniques are often used in the context of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

The process typically involves fertilizing an egg with sperm in a laboratory dish and then carefully monitoring and maintaining the resulting embryo in a specialized culture medium that provides the necessary nutrients, hormones, and other factors to support its development. The culture medium is usually contained within an incubator that maintains optimal temperature, humidity, and gas concentrations to mimic the environment inside the body.

Embryologists may use various embryo culture techniques depending on the stage of development and the specific needs of the embryo. For example, some techniques involve culturing the embryo in a single layer, while others may use a technique called "co-culture" that involves growing the embryo on a layer of cells to provide additional support and nutrients.

The goal of embryo culture techniques is to promote the healthy growth and development of the embryo, increasing the chances of a successful pregnancy and live birth. However, it's important to note that these techniques are not without risk, and there are potential ethical considerations surrounding the use of ART and embryo culture.

An ovarian follicle is a fluid-filled sac in the ovary that contains an immature egg or ovum (oocyte). It's a part of the female reproductive system and plays a crucial role in the process of ovulation.

Ovarian follicles start developing in the ovaries during fetal development, but only a small number of them will mature and release an egg during a woman's reproductive years. The maturation process is stimulated by hormones like follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

There are different types of ovarian follicles, including primordial, primary, secondary, and tertiary or Graafian follicles. The Graafian follicle is the mature follicle that ruptures during ovulation to release the egg into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm.

It's important to note that abnormal growth or development of ovarian follicles can lead to conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and ovarian cancer.

Tissue survival, in the context of medical and surgical sciences, refers to the ability of tissues to maintain their structural and functional integrity after being subjected to various stressors such as injury, surgery, ischemia (restriction in blood supply), or disease. The maintenance of tissue survival is crucial for ensuring proper healing, reducing the risk of complications, and preserving organ function.

Factors that contribute to tissue survival include adequate blood flow, sufficient oxygen and nutrient supply, removal of waste products, maintenance of a healthy cellular environment (pH, temperature, etc.), and minimal exposure to harmful substances or damaging agents. In some cases, therapeutic interventions such as hypothermia, pharmacological treatments, or tissue engineering strategies may be employed to enhance tissue survival in challenging clinical scenarios.

Glycerol, also known as glycerine or glycerin, is a simple polyol (a sugar alcohol) with a sweet taste and a thick, syrupy consistency. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is slightly soluble in water and freely miscible with ethanol and ether.

In the medical field, glycerol is often used as a medication or supplement. It can be used as a laxative to treat constipation, as a source of calories and energy for people who cannot eat by mouth, and as a way to prevent dehydration in people with certain medical conditions.

Glycerol is also used in the production of various medical products, such as medications, skin care products, and vaccines. It acts as a humectant, which means it helps to keep things moist, and it can also be used as a solvent or preservative.

In addition to its medical uses, glycerol is also widely used in the food industry as a sweetener, thickening agent, and moisture-retaining agent. It is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Propylene glycol is not a medical term, but rather a chemical compound. Medically, it is classified as a humectant, which means it helps retain moisture. It is used in various pharmaceutical and cosmetic products as a solvent, preservative, and moisturizer. In medical settings, it can be found in topical creams, oral and injectable medications, and intravenous (IV) fluids.

The chemical definition of propylene glycol is:

Propylene glycol (IUPAC name: propan-1,2-diol) is a synthetic organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)CH2OH. It is a viscous, colorless, and nearly odorless liquid that is miscible with water, acetone, and chloroform. Propylene glycol is used as an antifreeze when mixed with water, as a solvent in the production of polymers, and as a moisturizer in various pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. It has a sweet taste and is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a food additive.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI), also known as Premature Ovarian Failure, is a condition characterized by the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 40. This results in decreased estrogen production and loss of fertility. It is often associated with menstrual irregularities or amenorrhea (absence of menstruation). The exact cause can vary, including genetic factors, autoimmune diseases, toxins, and iatrogenic causes such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a specialized form of assisted reproductive technology (ART), specifically used in the context of in vitro fertilization (IVF). It involves the direct injection of a single sperm into the cytoplasm of a mature egg (oocyte) to facilitate fertilization. This technique is often used when there are issues with male infertility, such as low sperm count or poor sperm motility, to increase the chances of successful fertilization. The resulting embryos can then be transferred to the uterus in hopes of achieving a pregnancy.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

The pregnancy rate is a measure used in reproductive medicine to determine the frequency or efficiency of conception following certain treatments, interventions, or under specific conditions. It is typically defined as the number of pregnancies per 100 women exposed to the condition being studied over a specified period of time. A pregnancy is confirmed when a woman has a positive result on a pregnancy test or through the detection of a gestational sac on an ultrasound exam.

In clinical trials and research, the pregnancy rate helps healthcare professionals evaluate the effectiveness of various fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), or ovulation induction medications. The pregnancy rate can also be used to assess the impact of lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, or medical conditions on fertility and conception.

It is important to note that pregnancy rates may vary depending on several factors, including age, the cause of infertility, the type and quality of treatment provided, and individual patient characteristics. Therefore, comparing pregnancy rates between different studies should be done cautiously, considering these potential confounding variables.

Reproductive techniques refer to various methods and procedures used to assist individuals or couples in achieving pregnancy, carrying a pregnancy to term, or preserving fertility. These techniques can be broadly categorized into assisted reproductive technology (ART) and fertility preservation.

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) includes procedures such as:

1. In vitro fertilization (IVF): A process where an egg is fertilized by sperm outside the body in a laboratory dish, and then the resulting embryo is transferred to a woman's uterus.
2. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): A procedure where a single sperm is directly injected into an egg to facilitate fertilization.
3. Embryo culture and cryopreservation: The process of growing embryos in a laboratory for a few days before freezing them for later use.
4. Donor gametes: Using eggs, sperm, or embryos from a known or anonymous donor to achieve pregnancy.
5. Gestational surrogacy: A method where a woman carries and gives birth to a baby for another individual or couple who cannot carry a pregnancy themselves.

Fertility preservation techniques include:

1. Sperm banking: The process of freezing and storing sperm for future use in artificial reproduction.
2. Egg (oocyte) freezing: A procedure where a woman's eggs are extracted, frozen, and stored for later use in fertility treatments.
3. Embryo freezing: The cryopreservation of embryos created through IVF for future use.
4. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation: The freezing and storage of ovarian tissue to restore fertility after cancer treatment or other conditions that may affect fertility.
5. Testicular tissue cryopreservation: The collection and storage of testicular tissue in prepubertal boys undergoing cancer treatment to preserve their future fertility potential.

Oocyte retrieval is a medical procedure that is performed to obtain mature eggs (oocytes) from the ovaries of a female patient, typically for the purpose of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

During the procedure, which is usually done under sedation or anesthesia, a thin needle is inserted through the vaginal wall and guided into the ovarian follicles using ultrasound imaging. The mature eggs are then gently aspirated from the follicles and collected in a test tube.

Oocyte retrieval is typically performed after several days of hormonal stimulation, which helps to promote the development and maturation of multiple eggs within the ovaries. After the procedure, the eggs are examined for maturity and quality before being fertilized with sperm in the laboratory. The resulting embryos are then transferred to the uterus or frozen for future use.

It's important to note that oocyte retrieval carries some risks, including bleeding, infection, and damage to surrounding organs. However, these complications are generally rare and can be minimized with careful monitoring and skilled medical care.

Infertility is a reproductive health disorder defined as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or due to an impairment of a person's capacity to reproduce either as an individual or with their partner. It can be caused by various factors in both men and women, including hormonal imbalances, structural abnormalities, genetic issues, infections, age, lifestyle factors, and others. Infertility can have significant emotional and psychological impacts on individuals and couples experiencing it, and medical intervention may be necessary to help them conceive.

Prenatal injuries, also known as antenatal injuries, refer to damages or harm that occur to a fetus during pregnancy. These injuries can result from various factors such as maternal infections, exposure to toxic substances, genetic disorders, or physical trauma. Some common examples of prenatal injuries include cerebral palsy, intellectual disabilities, blindness, deafness, and limb deformities. It is essential to monitor and manage the health of both the mother and fetus during pregnancy to reduce the risk of prenatal injuries.

Tromethamine is a chemical compound with the formula (CH2OH)3CNH2. It is also known as tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane or THAM. Tromethamine is a tertiary amine that acts as a buffer, maintaining a stable pH in various solutions.

In medical terms, tromethamine is used as a medication to correct acid-base imbalances in the body. It works by binding hydrogen ions and converting them into water and carbon dioxide, which can then be eliminated from the body. Tromethamine is often used in critically ill patients who have severe metabolic acidosis, a condition characterized by an excess of acid in the body that can lead to organ dysfunction and failure.

Tromethamine is available as a sterile solution for injection or as a powder to be reconstituted with sterile water for injection. It may also be used as an additive to intravenous fluids to help maintain a stable pH. Common side effects of tromethamine include local irritation at the injection site, nausea, vomiting, and headache.

Semen is a complex, whitish fluid that is released from the male reproductive system during ejaculation. It is produced by several glands, including the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands. Semen contains several components, including sperm (the male reproductive cells), as well as various proteins, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals. Its primary function is to transport sperm through the female reproductive tract during sexual intercourse, providing nutrients and aiding in the protection of the sperm as they travel toward the egg for fertilization.

"Ice" is a slang term that is commonly used to refer to crystal methamphetamine, which is a powerful and highly addictive stimulant drug. It gets its name from its crystalline appearance. Medically, methamphetamine is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity, but only under strict medical supervision due to its potential for abuse and serious side effects.

Crystal methamphetamine, on the other hand, is an illegal drug that is produced and sold on the black market. It can be smoked, injected, snorted or swallowed, and it produces a euphoric rush followed by a long-lasting high. Long-term use of crystal methamphetamine can lead to serious health consequences, including addiction, psychosis, dental problems (meth mouth), memory loss, aggression, and cardiovascular damage.

Raffinose is a complex carbohydrate, specifically an oligosaccharide, that is composed of three sugars: galactose, fructose, and glucose. It is a non-reducing sugar, which means it does not undergo oxidation reactions like reducing sugars do.

Raffinose is found in various plants, including beans, cabbage, brussels sprouts, broccoli, and whole grains. It is a member of the class of carbohydrates known as alpha-galactosides.

In humans, raffinose cannot be digested because we lack the enzyme alpha-galactosidase, which is necessary to break down the bond between galactose and glucose in raffinose. As a result, it passes through the small intestine intact and enters the large intestine, where it is fermented by gut bacteria. This fermentation process can lead to the production of gases such as methane and hydrogen, which can cause digestive discomfort, bloating, and flatulence in some individuals.

It's worth noting that raffinose has been studied for its potential prebiotic properties, as it can promote the growth of beneficial gut bacteria. However, excessive consumption may lead to digestive issues in sensitive individuals.

Embryo implantation is the process by which a fertilized egg, or embryo, becomes attached to the wall of the uterus (endometrium) and begins to receive nutrients from the mother's blood supply. This process typically occurs about 6-10 days after fertilization and is a critical step in the establishment of a successful pregnancy.

During implantation, the embryo secretes enzymes that help it to burrow into the endometrium, while the endometrium responds by producing receptors for the embryo's enzymes and increasing blood flow to the area. The embryo then begins to grow and develop, eventually forming the placenta, which will provide nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus throughout pregnancy.

Implantation is a complex process that requires precise timing and coordination between the embryo and the mother's body. Factors such as age, hormonal imbalances, and uterine abnormalities can affect implantation and increase the risk of miscarriage or difficulty becoming pregnant.

The egg yolk is the nutrient-rich, inner portion of an egg that is surrounded by a protective layer of egg white. It is typically yellowish-orange and has a creamy consistency. The egg yolk contains various essential nutrients such as proteins, fats, vitamins (like A, D, E, and K), minerals (such as calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and iron), and antioxidants (like lutein and zeaxanthin). It is also a significant source of cholesterol. The egg yolk plays an essential role in the development of embryos in birds and reptiles, providing them with necessary nutrients for growth and energy. In culinary applications, egg yolks are often used as emulsifiers, thickeners, and leavening agents in various dishes.

Sperm count, also known as sperm concentration, is the number of sperm present in a given volume of semen. The World Health Organization (WHO) previously defined a normal sperm count as at least 20 million sperm per milliliter of semen. However, more recent studies suggest that fertility may be affected even when sperm counts are slightly lower than this threshold. It's important to note that sperm count is just one factor among many that can influence male fertility. Other factors, such as sperm motility (the ability of sperm to move properly) and morphology (the shape of the sperm), also play crucial roles in successful conception.

Female infertility is a condition characterized by the inability to conceive after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or the inability to carry a pregnancy to a live birth. The causes of female infertility can be multifactorial and may include issues with ovulation, damage to the fallopian tubes or uterus, endometriosis, hormonal imbalances, age-related factors, and other medical conditions.

Some common causes of female infertility include:

1. Ovulation disorders: Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, premature ovarian failure, and hyperprolactinemia can affect ovulation and lead to infertility.
2. Damage to the fallopian tubes: Pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, or previous surgeries can cause scarring and blockages in the fallopian tubes, preventing the egg and sperm from meeting.
3. Uterine abnormalities: Structural issues with the uterus, such as fibroids, polyps, or congenital defects, can interfere with implantation and pregnancy.
4. Age-related factors: As women age, their fertility declines due to a decrease in the number and quality of eggs.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, celiac disease, and autoimmune disorders, can contribute to infertility.

In some cases, female infertility can be treated with medications, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). A thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional is necessary to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Dry ice is not a medical term, but rather a common term used to describe solid carbon dioxide (CO2) when it is at a temperature below -109°F (-78.5°C). When dry ice is exposed to room temperature, it sublimates, or turns directly from a solid into a gas, bypassing the liquid phase.

In some medical applications, dry ice is used as a coolant for transporting temperature-sensitive biological samples, such as organs for transplantation, because of its extremely low temperature and ability to maintain that temperature for extended periods. However, it is important to handle dry ice with caution, as direct contact can cause frostbite or cold burns, and prolonged exposure to the gas can lead to suffocation due to the depletion of oxygen in the surrounding air.

The acrosome is a specialized structure located on the anterior part of the sperm head in many species of animals, including humans. It contains enzymes that help the sperm penetrate the outer covering of the egg (zona pellucida) during fertilization. The acrosome reaction is the process by which the acrosome releases its enzymes, allowing the sperm to digest a path through the zona pellucida and reach the egg plasma membrane for fusion and fertilization.

The acrosome is formed during spermatogenesis, the process of sperm production in the testis, from the Golgi apparatus, a cellular organelle involved in protein trafficking and modification. The acrosome contains hydrolytic enzymes such as hyaluronidase, acrosin, and proteases that are activated during the acrosome reaction to facilitate sperm-egg fusion.

Abnormalities in acrosome formation or function can lead to infertility in males.

Blastomeres are early stage embryonic cells that result from the initial rounds of cell division in a fertilized egg, also known as a zygote. These cells are typically smaller and have a more simple organization compared to more mature cells. They are important for the normal development of the embryo and contribute to the formation of the blastocyst, which is an early stage embryonic structure that will eventually give rise to the fetus. The process of cell division that produces blastomeres is called cleavage.

The cleavage stage of an ovum, also known as a fertilized egg, refers to the series of rapid cell divisions that occur after fertilization. During this stage, the single cell (zygote) divides into multiple cells, forming a blastomere. This process occurs in the fallopian tube and continues until the blastocyst reaches the uterus, typically around 5-6 days after fertilization. The cleavage stage is a critical period in early embryonic development, as any abnormalities during this time can lead to implantation failure or developmental defects.

Ejaculation is the discharge of semen, typically accompanied by orgasm, during sexual activity. It occurs when the male reproductive system releases semen from the penis. This process is usually brought on by sexual arousal and stimulation, which cause the sperm-carrying vas deferens to contract and push the semen into the urethra, from where it is expelled through the tip of the penis.

There are two types of ejaculation:

1. **Reflex ejaculation**: This occurs when there is a high level of sexual excitement or stimulation, leading to an involuntary and automatic response.
2. **Premature ejaculation**: This refers to the condition where ejaculation happens too quickly, often before or shortly after penetration, causing distress and affecting sexual satisfaction for both partners.

It is essential to understand that a healthy male can experience variations in the timing of ejaculation throughout their life, influenced by factors such as age, stress levels, and overall health. If you have concerns about your ejaculation patterns or any related issues, it is recommended to consult a healthcare professional for advice and treatment options.

Trehalose is a type of disaccharide, which is a sugar made up of two monosaccharides. It consists of two glucose molecules joined together in a way that makes it more stable and resistant to breakdown by enzymes and heat. This property allows trehalose to be used as a protectant for biological materials during freeze-drying and storage, as well as a food additive as a sweetener and preservative.

Trehalose is found naturally in some plants, fungi, insects, and microorganisms, where it serves as a source of energy and protection against environmental stresses such as drought, heat, and cold. In recent years, there has been interest in the potential therapeutic uses of trehalose for various medical conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and cancer.

Medically speaking, trehalose may be used in some pharmaceutical formulations as an excipient or stabilizer, and it is also being investigated as a potential therapeutic agent for various diseases. However, its use as a medical treatment is still not widely established, and further research is needed to determine its safety and efficacy.

Sucrose is a type of simple sugar, also known as a carbohydrate. It is a disaccharide, which means that it is made up of two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. Sucrose occurs naturally in many fruits and vegetables and is often extracted and refined for use as a sweetener in food and beverages.

The chemical formula for sucrose is C12H22O11, and it has a molecular weight of 342.3 g/mol. In its pure form, sucrose is a white, odorless, crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water. It is commonly used as a reference compound for determining the sweetness of other substances, with a standard sucrose solution having a sweetness value of 1.0.

Sucrose is absorbed by the body through the small intestine and metabolized into glucose and fructose, which are then used for energy or stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. While moderate consumption of sucrose is generally considered safe, excessive intake can contribute to weight gain, tooth decay, and other health problems.

Extreme cold is a term used to describe abnormally low temperatures that can be harmful or dangerous to human health. According to the National Weather Service, "extreme cold" is defined as temperatures that fall below 0 degrees Fahrenheit (-18 degrees Celsius) or wind chill readings that are lower than -20 degrees Fahrenheit (-29 degrees Celsius).

Prolonged exposure to extreme cold can lead to hypothermia, which occurs when the body loses heat faster than it can produce it, causing a dangerously low body temperature. Symptoms of hypothermia include shivering, exhaustion, confusion, fumbling hands, memory loss, slurred speech, and eventually unconsciousness.

Extreme cold can also cause frostbite, which is the freezing of the skin and underlying tissues. Frostbite typically affects the extremities, such as the fingers, toes, ears, and nose, and can cause numbness, tingling, aching, and blistering of the skin. In severe cases, frostbite can lead to tissue damage and loss of limbs.

To protect against extreme cold, it is important to dress in layers, wear warm clothing, cover exposed skin, stay dry, and avoid prolonged exposure to cold temperatures. It is also recommended to stay indoors during extreme cold weather events and to have a emergency plan in place in case of power outages or other emergencies.

Pregnancy outcome refers to the final result or status of a pregnancy, including both the health of the mother and the newborn baby. It can be categorized into various types such as:

1. Live birth: The delivery of one or more babies who show signs of life after separation from their mother.
2. Stillbirth: The delivery of a baby who has died in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
3. Miscarriage: The spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the 20th week.
4. Abortion: The intentional termination of a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the uterus.
5. Ectopic pregnancy: A pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, which is not viable and requires medical attention.
6. Preterm birth: The delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to various health issues for the newborn.
7. Full-term birth: The delivery of a baby between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation.
8. Post-term pregnancy: The delivery of a baby after 42 weeks of gestation, which may increase the risk of complications for both mother and baby.

The pregnancy outcome is influenced by various factors such as maternal age, health status, lifestyle habits, genetic factors, and access to quality prenatal care.

A live birth is the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of human conception, irrespective of the duration of the pregnancy, that, after such separation, breathes or shows any other evidence of life - such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles - whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut or the placenta is attached.

This definition is used by the World Health Organization (WHO) and most national statistical agencies to distinguish live births from stillbirths. It's important to note that in some medical contexts, a different definition of live birth may be used.

Zona pellucida is a term used in the field of reproductive biology and it refers to the glycoprotein membrane that surrounds mammalian oocytes (immature egg cells). This membrane plays a crucial role in the fertilization process. It has receptors for sperm, and upon binding with the sperm, it undergoes changes that prevent other sperm from entering, a process known as the zona reaction. This membrane is also involved in the early development of the embryo.

Cell culture is a technique used in scientific research to grow and maintain cells from plants, animals, or humans in a controlled environment outside of their original organism. This environment typically consists of a sterile container called a cell culture flask or plate, and a nutrient-rich liquid medium that provides the necessary components for the cells' growth and survival, such as amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and hormones.

There are several different types of cell culture techniques used in research, including:

1. Adherent cell culture: In this technique, cells are grown on a flat surface, such as the bottom of a tissue culture dish or flask. The cells attach to the surface and spread out, forming a monolayer that can be observed and manipulated under a microscope.
2. Suspension cell culture: In suspension culture, cells are grown in liquid medium without any attachment to a solid surface. These cells remain suspended in the medium and can be agitated or mixed to ensure even distribution of nutrients.
3. Organoid culture: Organoids are three-dimensional structures that resemble miniature organs and are grown from stem cells or other progenitor cells. They can be used to study organ development, disease processes, and drug responses.
4. Co-culture: In co-culture, two or more different types of cells are grown together in the same culture dish or flask. This technique is used to study cell-cell interactions and communication.
5. Conditioned medium culture: In this technique, cells are grown in a medium that has been conditioned by previous cultures of other cells. The conditioned medium contains factors secreted by the previous cells that can influence the growth and behavior of the new cells.

Cell culture techniques are widely used in biomedical research to study cellular processes, develop drugs, test toxicity, and investigate disease mechanisms. However, it is important to note that cell cultures may not always accurately represent the behavior of cells in a living organism, and results from cell culture experiments should be validated using other methods.

"Gentiana" is a term that refers to a genus of plants in the family Gentianaceae. These plants are often characterized by their beautiful, trumpet-shaped flowers and are found primarily in the Northern Hemisphere, with some species located in tropical mountains in Africa and South America. The name "Gentiana" comes from the Illyrian king Genius, who is said to have discovered the medicinal properties of this plant.

In a medical context, certain species of Gentiana have been used in traditional medicine for their anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and bitter digestive stimulant properties. For example, Gentiana lutea (yellow gentian) is commonly used in herbal medicine to treat digestive disorders such as loss of appetite, heartburn, and flatulence. However, it's important to note that the use of Gentiana in modern medicine is not well-studied, and more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy.

It's worth noting that "Gentiana" is primarily a botanical term and is not commonly used as a medical diagnosis or treatment. If you have any health concerns, it's always best to consult with a qualified healthcare professional for advice.

Thermal conductivity is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a physical property of materials that refers to their ability to conduct heat. However, in the context of medicine, thermal conductivity may be relevant when discussing certain medical treatments or devices that involve heating or cooling tissues. For example, some ablation techniques used to destroy cancerous tissue use probes with high thermal conductivity to deliver radiofrequency energy and generate heat.

Here is a general definition of thermal conductivity:

Thermal conductivity (k) is the measure of a material's ability to transfer heat energy conducted through it due to a temperature difference. It is expressed as the amount of heat energy (in watts, W) transferred per unit of time (second, s) through a unit area (square meter, m²) with a given temperature difference (kelvin, K) between the two faces. The formula for thermal conductivity is:

k = Q x L / (A x ΔT)


* k is the thermal conductivity (in W/mK)
* Q is the heat transfer rate (in watts, W)
* L is the length of the material through which the heat is transferred (in meters, m)
* A is the cross-sectional area of the material perpendicular to the heat flow (in square meters, m²)
* ΔT is the temperature difference between the two faces of the material (in kelvin, K)

Spermatogonia are a type of diploid germ cells found in the seminiferous tubules of the testis. They are the stem cells responsible for sperm production (spermatogenesis) in males. There are two types of spermatogonia: A-dark (Ad) and A-pale (Ap). The Ad spermatogonia function as reserve stem cells, while the Ap spermatogonia serve as the progenitor cells that divide to produce type B spermatogonia. Type B spermatogonia then differentiate into primary spermatocytes, which undergo meiosis to form haploid spermatozoa.

Artificial insemination (AI) is a medical procedure that involves the introduction of sperm into a female's cervix or uterus for the purpose of achieving pregnancy. This procedure can be performed using sperm from a partner or a donor. It is often used when there are issues with male fertility, such as low sperm count or poor sperm motility, or in cases where natural conception is not possible due to various medical reasons.

There are two types of artificial insemination: intracervical insemination (ICI) and intrauterine insemination (IUI). ICI involves placing the sperm directly into the cervix, while IUI involves placing the sperm directly into the uterus using a catheter. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, including the cause of infertility and the preferences of the individuals involved.

Artificial insemination is a relatively simple and low-risk procedure that can be performed in a doctor's office or clinic. It may be combined with fertility drugs to increase the chances of pregnancy. The success rate of artificial insemination varies depending on several factors, including the age and fertility of the individuals involved, the cause of infertility, and the type of procedure used.

Male infertility is a condition characterized by the inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. It is typically defined as the failure to achieve a pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.

The causes of male infertility can be varied and include issues with sperm production, such as low sperm count or poor sperm quality, problems with sperm delivery, such as obstructions in the reproductive tract, or hormonal imbalances that affect sperm production. Other factors that may contribute to male infertility include genetic disorders, environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions or treatments.

It is important to note that male infertility can often be treated or managed with medical interventions, such as medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies (ART). A healthcare provider can help diagnose the underlying cause of male infertility and recommend appropriate treatment options.

The testis, also known as the testicle, is a male reproductive organ that is part of the endocrine system. It is located in the scrotum, outside of the abdominal cavity. The main function of the testis is to produce sperm and testosterone, the primary male sex hormone.

The testis is composed of many tiny tubules called seminiferous tubules, where sperm are produced. These tubules are surrounded by a network of blood vessels, nerves, and supportive tissues. The sperm then travel through a series of ducts to the epididymis, where they mature and become capable of fertilization.

Testosterone is produced in the Leydig cells, which are located in the interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules. Testosterone plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It also supports sperm production and sexual function.

Abnormalities in testicular function can lead to infertility, hormonal imbalances, and other health problems. Regular self-examinations and medical check-ups are recommended for early detection and treatment of any potential issues.

Organ preservation solutions are specialized fluids used to maintain the viability and functionality of organs ex vivo (outside the body) during the process of transplantation. These solutions are designed to provide optimal conditions for the organ by preventing tissue damage, reducing metabolic activity, and minimizing ischemic injuries that may occur during the time between organ removal from the donor and implantation into the recipient.

The composition of organ preservation solutions typically includes various ingredients such as:

1. Cryoprotectants: These help prevent ice crystal formation and damage to cell membranes during freezing and thawing processes, especially for organs like the heart and lungs that require deep hypothermia for preservation.
2. Buffers: They maintain physiological pH levels and counteract acidosis caused by anaerobic metabolism in the absence of oxygen supply.
3. Colloids: These substances, such as hydroxyethyl starch or dextran, help preserve oncotic pressure and prevent cellular edema.
4. Electrolytes: Balanced concentrations of ions like sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, and bicarbonate are essential for maintaining physiological osmolarity and membrane potentials.
5. Energy substrates: Glucose, lactate, or other energy-rich compounds can serve as fuel sources to support the metabolic needs of the organ during preservation.
6. Antioxidants: These agents protect against oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation induced by ischemia-reperfusion injuries.
7. Anti-inflammatory agents and immunosuppressants: Some solutions may contain substances that mitigate the inflammatory response and reduce immune activation in the transplanted organ.

Examples of commonly used organ preservation solutions include University of Wisconsin (UW) solution, Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate (HTK) solution, Custodiol HTK solution, and Euro-Collins solution. The choice of preservation solution depends on the specific organ being transplanted and the duration of preservation required.

Biological preservation is the process of preventing decomposition or decay of biological materials, such as tissues, cells, organs, or organisms, in order to maintain their structural and functional integrity for further studies, research, education, or conservation purposes. This can be achieved through various methods, including fixation, freezing, drying, or the use of chemical preservatives. The goal is to maintain the samples in a stable state so that they can be examined, analyzed, or used in experiments at a later time.

Embryonic development is the series of growth and developmental stages that occur during the formation and early growth of the embryo. In humans, this stage begins at fertilization (when the sperm and egg cell combine) and continues until the end of the 8th week of pregnancy. During this time, the fertilized egg (now called a zygote) divides and forms a blastocyst, which then implants into the uterus. The cells in the blastocyst begin to differentiate and form the three germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. These germ layers will eventually give rise to all of the different tissues and organs in the body.

Embryonic development is a complex and highly regulated process that involves the coordinated interaction of genetic and environmental factors. It is characterized by rapid cell division, migration, and differentiation, as well as programmed cell death (apoptosis) and tissue remodeling. Abnormalities in embryonic development can lead to birth defects or other developmental disorders.

It's important to note that the term "embryo" is used to describe the developing organism from fertilization until the end of the 8th week of pregnancy in humans, after which it is called a fetus.

Oligospermia is a medical term used to describe a condition in which the semen contains a lower than normal number of sperm. Generally, a sperm count of less than 15 million sperm per milliliter (ml) of semen is considered to be below the normal range.

Oligospermia can make it more difficult for a couple to conceive naturally and may require medical intervention such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF). The condition can result from various factors, including hormonal imbalances, genetic abnormalities, varicocele, environmental factors, and certain medications.

It's important to note that oligospermia is not the same as azoospermia, which is a condition where there is no sperm present in the semen at all.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Specimen handling is a set of procedures and practices followed in the collection, storage, transportation, and processing of medical samples or specimens (e.g., blood, tissue, urine, etc.) for laboratory analysis. Proper specimen handling ensures accurate test results, patient safety, and data integrity. It includes:

1. Correct labeling of the specimen container with required patient information.
2. Using appropriate containers and materials to collect, store, and transport the specimen.
3. Following proper collection techniques to avoid contamination or damage to the specimen.
4. Adhering to specific storage conditions (temperature, time, etc.) before testing.
5. Ensuring secure and timely transportation of the specimen to the laboratory.
6. Properly documenting all steps in the handling process for traceability and quality assurance.

Ovulation induction is a medical procedure that involves the stimulation of ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries) in women who have difficulties conceiving due to ovulatory disorders. This is typically achieved through the use of medications such as clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins, which promote the development and maturation of follicles in the ovaries containing eggs. The process is closely monitored through regular ultrasounds and hormone tests to ensure appropriate response and minimize the risk of complications like multiple pregnancies. Ovulation induction may be used as a standalone treatment or in conjunction with other assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Oocyte donation is a medical procedure in which mature oocytes (or immature oocytes that are matured in the lab) are donated by one woman to another woman for the purpose of assisted reproduction. The recipient woman typically receives hormonal treatments to prepare her uterus for embryo implantation. The donated oocytes are then fertilized with sperm from the recipient's partner or a sperm donor in a laboratory, and the resulting embryos are transferred into the recipient's uterus.

Oocyte donation is often recommended for women who have poor ovarian function or who have a high risk of passing on genetic disorders to their offspring. It is also used in cases where previous attempts at in vitro fertilization (IVF) using the woman's own eggs have been unsuccessful.

The process of oocyte donation involves rigorous screening and evaluation of both the donor and recipient, including medical, psychological, and genetic evaluations, to ensure the safety and success of the procedure. The donor's ovaries are stimulated with hormonal medications to produce multiple mature oocytes, which are then retrieved through a minor surgical procedure.

Overall, oocyte donation is a complex and emotionally charged process that requires careful consideration and counseling for both the donor and recipient. It offers hope for many women who would otherwise be unable to conceive a biological child.

Fertilization is the process by which a sperm cell (spermatozoon) penetrates and fuses with an egg cell (ovum), resulting in the formation of a zygote. This fusion of genetic material from both the male and female gametes initiates the development of a new organism. In human biology, fertilization typically occurs in the fallopian tube after sexual intercourse, when a single sperm out of millions is able to reach and penetrate the egg released from the ovary during ovulation. The successful fusion of these two gametes marks the beginning of pregnancy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "antelopes" is a common name that refers to a group of hoofed mammals in the family Bovidae. They are not a medical term or concept. Antelopes are known for their speed and agility, and they are found primarily in Africa, with a few species in Asia.

If you have any questions related to biology, veterinary medicine, or any other scientific field, I would be happy to help answer them to the best of my ability!

A morula is a term used in embryology, which refers to the early stage of development in mammalian embryos. It is formed after fertilization when the zygote (a single cell resulting from the fusion of sperm and egg) undergoes several rounds of mitotic divisions to form a solid mass of 16 or more cells called blastomeres. At this stage, the cells are tightly packed together and have a compact, mulberry-like appearance, hence the name "morula" which is derived from the Latin word for "mulberry."

The morula stage typically occurs about 4-5 days after fertilization in humans and is marked by the beginning of blastulation, where the cells start to differentiate and become organized into an outer layer (trophoblast) and an inner cell mass. The trophoblast will eventually form the placenta, while the inner cell mass will give rise to the embryo proper.

It's important to note that the morula stage is a transient phase in embryonic development, and it represents a critical period of growth and differentiation as the embryo prepares for implantation into the uterine wall.

A zygote is the initial cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg, also known as an oocyte. This occurs in the process of human reproduction and marks the beginning of a new genetic identity, containing 46 chromosomes - 23 from the sperm and 23 from the egg. The zygote starts the journey of cell division and growth, eventually developing into a blastocyst, then an embryo, and finally a fetus over the course of pregnancy.

I could not find a medical definition specifically for "Cocos." However, Cocos is a geographical name that may refer to:

* The Cocos (Keeling) Islands, an Australian territory in the Indian Ocean.
* Cocos nucifera, the scientific name for the coconut palm tree.

There are some medical conditions related to the consumption of coconuts or exposure to the coconut palm tree, such as allergies to coconut products, but there is no specific medical term "Cocos."

Osmotic pressure is a fundamental concept in the field of physiology and biochemistry. It refers to the pressure that is required to be applied to a solution to prevent the flow of solvent (like water) into it, through a semi-permeable membrane, when the solution is separated from a pure solvent or a solution of lower solute concentration.

In simpler terms, osmotic pressure is the force that drives the natural movement of solvent molecules from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration, across a semi-permeable membrane. This process is crucial for maintaining the fluid balance and nutrient transport in living organisms.

The osmotic pressure of a solution can be determined by its solute concentration, temperature, and the ideal gas law. It is often expressed in units of atmospheres (atm), millimeters of mercury (mmHg), or pascals (Pa). In medical contexts, understanding osmotic pressure is essential for managing various clinical conditions such as dehydration, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and dialysis treatments.

Phascolarctidae is a family of marsupials commonly known as koalas or koala bears, although they are not actually bears. They are native to Australia and are recognized by their thick, woolly fur, large ears, and distinctive nose. The medical definition related to Phascolarctidae might refer to any health issues specifically affecting koalas, such as diseases that impact their unique gut microbiome or conservation efforts addressing threats to their population.

Embryonic and fetal development is the process of growth and development that occurs from fertilization of the egg (conception) to birth. The terms "embryo" and "fetus" are used to describe different stages of this development:

* Embryonic development: This stage begins at fertilization and continues until the end of the 8th week of pregnancy. During this time, the fertilized egg (zygote) divides and forms a blastocyst, which implants in the uterus and begins to develop into a complex structure called an embryo. The embryo consists of three layers of cells that will eventually form all of the organs and tissues of the body. During this stage, the basic structures of the body, including the nervous system, heart, and gastrointestinal tract, begin to form.
* Fetal development: This stage begins at the end of the 8th week of pregnancy and continues until birth. During this time, the embryo is called a fetus, and it grows and develops rapidly. The organs and tissues that were formed during the embryonic stage continue to mature and become more complex. The fetus also begins to move and kick, and it can hear and respond to sounds from outside the womb.

Overall, embryonic and fetal development is a complex and highly regulated process that involves the coordinated growth and differentiation of cells and tissues. It is a critical period of development that lays the foundation for the health and well-being of the individual throughout their life.

Tissue culture techniques refer to the methods used to maintain and grow cells, tissues or organs from multicellular organisms in an artificial environment outside of the living body, called an in vitro culture. These techniques are widely used in various fields such as biology, medicine, and agriculture for research, diagnostics, and therapeutic purposes.

The basic components of tissue culture include a sterile growth medium that contains nutrients, growth factors, and other essential components to support the growth of cells or tissues. The growth medium is often supplemented with antibiotics to prevent contamination by microorganisms. The cells or tissues are cultured in specialized containers called culture vessels, which can be plates, flasks, or dishes, depending on the type and scale of the culture.

There are several types of tissue culture techniques, including:

1. Monolayer Culture: In this technique, cells are grown as a single layer on a flat surface, allowing for easy observation and manipulation of individual cells.
2. Organoid Culture: This method involves growing three-dimensional structures that resemble the organization and function of an organ in vivo.
3. Co-culture: In co-culture, two or more cell types are grown together to study their interactions and communication.
4. Explant Culture: In this technique, small pieces of tissue are cultured to maintain the original structure and organization of the cells within the tissue.
5. Primary Culture: This refers to the initial culture of cells directly isolated from a living organism. These cells can be further subcultured to generate immortalized cell lines.

Tissue culture techniques have numerous applications, such as studying cell behavior, drug development and testing, gene therapy, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine.

Tissue and organ harvesting is the surgical removal of healthy tissues or organs from a living or deceased donor for the purpose of transplantation into another person in need of a transplant. This procedure is performed with great care, adhering to strict medical standards and ethical guidelines, to ensure the safety and well-being of both the donor and the recipient.

In the case of living donors, the harvested tissue or organ is typically removed from a site that can be safely spared, such as a kidney, a portion of the liver, or a segment of the lung. The donor must undergo extensive medical evaluation to ensure they are physically and psychologically suitable for the procedure.

For deceased donors, tissue and organ harvesting is performed in a manner that respects their wishes and those of their family, as well as adheres to legal and ethical requirements. Organs and tissues must be recovered promptly after death to maintain their viability for transplantation.

Tissue and organ harvesting is an essential component of the transplant process, allowing individuals with terminal illnesses or severe injuries to receive life-saving or life-enhancing treatments. It is a complex and highly regulated medical practice that requires specialized training, expertise, and coordination among healthcare professionals, donor families, and recipients.

Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) is a type of aquaglyceroporin, which is a subclass of aquaporins - water channel proteins that facilitate the transport of water and small solutes across biological membranes. AQP3 is primarily expressed in the epithelial cells of various tissues, including the skin, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract.

In the skin, AQP3 plays a crucial role in maintaining skin hydration by facilitating water transport across the cell membrane. It also transports small neutral solutes like glycerol and urea, which contribute to skin moisturization and elasticity. In addition, AQP3 has been implicated in several physiological processes, such as wound healing, epidermal proliferation, and cutaneous sensory perception.

In the kidneys, AQP3 is involved in water reabsorption in the collecting ducts, helping to regulate body fluid homeostasis. In the gastrointestinal tract, it facilitates water absorption and secretion, contributing to maintaining proper hydration and electrolyte balance. Dysregulation of AQP3 has been associated with various pathological conditions, such as skin disorders, kidney diseases, and cancer.

Nonmammalian viviparity is a reproductive strategy in which offspring are born alive and have undergone some degree of embryonic development inside the mother's body, receiving nutrients through a placenta or similar organ. This mode of reproduction is found in certain non-mammal species, such as some reptiles (like some snakes and lizards), fish (like the guppy and platypus), and invertebrates (like certain spiders and insects). In these cases, the offspring are not nourished by milk, which is a key characteristic that differentiates nonmammalian viviparity from mammalian viviparity.

"Cold temperature" is a relative term and its definition can vary depending on the context. In general, it refers to temperatures that are lower than those normally experienced or preferred by humans and other warm-blooded animals. In a medical context, cold temperature is often defined as an environmental temperature that is below 16°C (60.8°F).

Exposure to cold temperatures can have various physiological effects on the human body, such as vasoconstriction of blood vessels near the skin surface, increased heart rate and metabolic rate, and shivering, which helps to generate heat and maintain body temperature. Prolonged exposure to extreme cold temperatures can lead to hypothermia, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a drop in core body temperature below 35°C (95°F).

It's worth noting that some people may have different sensitivities to cold temperatures due to factors such as age, health status, and certain medical conditions. For example, older adults, young children, and individuals with circulatory or neurological disorders may be more susceptible to the effects of cold temperatures.

Centrifugation is a laboratory technique that involves the use of a machine called a centrifuge to separate mixtures based on their differing densities or sizes. The mixture is placed in a rotor and spun at high speeds, causing the denser components to move away from the center of rotation and the less dense components to remain nearer the center. This separation allows for the recovery and analysis of specific particles, such as cells, viruses, or subcellular organelles, from complex mixtures.

The force exerted on the mixture during centrifugation is described in terms of relative centrifugal force (RCF) or g-force, which represents the number of times greater the acceleration due to centrifugation is than the acceleration due to gravity. The RCF is determined by the speed of rotation (revolutions per minute, or RPM), the radius of rotation, and the duration of centrifugation.

Centrifugation has numerous applications in various fields, including clinical laboratories, biochemistry, molecular biology, and virology. It is a fundamental technique for isolating and concentrating particles from solutions, enabling further analysis and characterization.

Single embryo transfer (SET) is a medical procedure that involves the transplantation of a single embryo into a woman's uterus during in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments. The aim of SET is to reduce the risk of multiple pregnancies, which can pose significant health risks to both the mother and the babies.

In IVF, multiple eggs are typically fertilized in the laboratory, resulting in several embryos. Traditionally, multiple embryos have been transferred into the uterus to increase the chances of a successful pregnancy. However, this approach also increases the risk of multiple pregnancies, which can lead to complications such as preterm labor, low birth weight, and gestational diabetes.

With SET, only one embryo is transferred, reducing the risk of multiple pregnancies while still providing a good chance of success in appropriately selected patients. The decision to perform SET is based on several factors, including the age and health of the patient, the quality of the embryos, and previous reproductive history.

Overall, single embryo transfer is a safe and effective way to increase the chances of a healthy singleton pregnancy while minimizing the risks associated with multiple pregnancies.

Teratology is the study of abnormalities of growth and development, especially those that are caused by exogenous agents during pregnancy such as drugs, chemicals, infections, or radiation. These abnormalities may result in structural malformations, functional deficits, or behavioral disorders in the developing fetus. The term "teratology" is derived from the Greek word "teras," which means monster or marvel, and "logos," which means study. In medical contexts, teratology often refers to the production of monstrous or malformed offspring.

A Biological Specimen Bank, also known as a biobank or tissue bank, is a type of medical facility that collects, stores, and distributes biological samples for research purposes. These samples can include tissues, cells, DNA, blood, and other bodily fluids, and are often collected during medical procedures or from donors who have given their informed consent. The samples are then cataloged and stored in specialized conditions to preserve their quality and integrity.

Biobanks play a critical role in advancing medical research by providing researchers with access to large numbers of well-characterized biological samples. This allows them to study the underlying causes of diseases, develop new diagnostic tests and treatments, and evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs and other therapies. Biobanks may be established for specific research projects or as part of larger, more comprehensive efforts to build biomedical research infrastructure.

It is important to note that the use of biological specimens in research is subject to strict ethical guidelines and regulations, which are designed to protect the privacy and interests of donors and ensure that the samples are used responsibly and for legitimate scientific purposes.

ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) is a strain of albino Swiss mice that are widely used in scientific research. They are an outbred strain, which means that they have been bred to maintain maximum genetic heterogeneity. However, it is also possible to find inbred strains of ICR mice, which are genetically identical individuals produced by many generations of brother-sister mating.

Inbred ICR mice are a specific type of ICR mouse that has been inbred for at least 20 generations. This means that they have a high degree of genetic uniformity and are essentially genetically identical to one another. Inbred strains of mice are often used in research because their genetic consistency makes them more reliable models for studying biological phenomena and testing new therapies or treatments.

It is important to note that while inbred ICR mice may be useful for certain types of research, they do not necessarily represent the genetic diversity found in human populations. Therefore, it is important to consider the limitations of using any animal model when interpreting research findings and applying them to human health.

Cell membrane permeability refers to the ability of various substances, such as molecules and ions, to pass through the cell membrane. The cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin, flexible barrier that surrounds all cells, controlling what enters and leaves the cell. Its primary function is to protect the cell's internal environment and maintain homeostasis.

The permeability of the cell membrane depends on its structure, which consists of a phospholipid bilayer interspersed with proteins. The hydrophilic (water-loving) heads of the phospholipids face outward, while the hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails face inward, creating a barrier that is generally impermeable to large, polar, or charged molecules.

However, specific proteins within the membrane, called channels and transporters, allow certain substances to cross the membrane. Channels are protein structures that span the membrane and provide a pore for ions or small uncharged molecules to pass through. Transporters, on the other hand, are proteins that bind to specific molecules and facilitate their movement across the membrane, often using energy in the form of ATP.

The permeability of the cell membrane can be influenced by various factors, such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain chemicals or drugs. Changes in permeability can have significant consequences for the cell's function and survival, as they can disrupt ion balances, nutrient uptake, waste removal, and signal transduction.

Multiple pregnancy is a type of gestation where more than one fetus is carried simultaneously in the uterus. The most common forms of multiple pregnancies are twins (two fetuses), triplets (three fetuses), and quadruplets (four fetuses). Multiple pregnancies can occur when a single fertilized egg splits into two or more embryos (monozygotic) or when more than one egg is released and gets fertilized during ovulation (dizygotic). The risk of multiple pregnancies increases with the use of assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization. Multiple pregnancies are associated with higher risks for both the mother and the fetuses, including preterm labor, low birth weight, and other complications.

Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) is a medical condition characterized by the enlargement of the ovaries and the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, which can occur as a complication of fertility treatments that involve the use of medications to stimulate ovulation.

In OHSS, the ovaries become swollen and may contain multiple follicles (small sacs containing eggs) that have developed in response to the hormonal stimulation. This can lead to the release of large amounts of vasoactive substances, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which can cause increased blood flow to the ovaries and fluid leakage from the blood vessels into the abdominal cavity.

Mild cases of OHSS may cause symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain or discomfort, nausea, and diarrhea. More severe cases can lead to more serious complications, including blood clots, kidney failure, and respiratory distress. In extreme cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage the symptoms of OHSS and prevent further complications.

OHSS is typically managed by monitoring the patient's symptoms and providing supportive care, such as fluid replacement and pain management. In severe cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to drain excess fluid from the abdominal cavity. Preventive measures, such as adjusting the dosage of fertility medications or canceling treatment cycles, may also be taken to reduce the risk of OHSS in high-risk patients.

Aldehyde-stabilized cryopreservation Cells Alive System freezers Cryobiology Cryogenic processor Cryogenics Cryopreservation of ... Perry SF (1995). "Freeze-drying and cryopreservation of bacteria". Cryopreservation and Freeze-Drying Protocols. Methods in ... in embryo cryopreservation Ovarian tissue in ovarian tissue cryopreservation Plant seeds or shoots tips or dormant buds are ... Cryopreservation for embryos is used for embryo storage, e.g., when IVF has resulted in more embryos than is currently needed. ...
Panis B, Swennen R (1995). "Cryopreservation of Germplasm of Banana and Plantain (Musa Species)". Cryopreservation of Plant ... Aside from the challenges involved with cryopreservation in general, an important hurdle, when developing cryopreservation ... While this cryopreservation conservation strategy can be used on all plants, it is often only used under certain circumstances ... Plant cryopreservation is a genetic resource conservation strategy that allows plant material, such as seeds, pollen, shoot ...
The cryopreservation of embryos was first successfully attempted in 1984 in the case of Zoe Leyland, the first baby to be born ... Embryo cryopreservation is useful for leftover embryos after a cycle of in vitro fertilisation, as patients who fail to ... The practice of cryopreservation of embryos has increased in recent years. While the original purpose of freezing embryos was ... Cryopreservation enables the embryos to be safely stored for extensive periods of time. Individuals are then able choose the ...
Cryopreservation itself has always played a central role in assisted reproductive technology. With the first cryopreservation ... Oocyte cryopreservation is a procedure to preserve a woman's eggs (oocytes). This technique has been used to enable women to ... Oocyte cryopreservation can increase the chance of a future pregnancy for three key groups of women: those diagnosed with ... Oocyte cryopreservation is an option for individuals undergoing IVF who object, either for religious or ethical reasons, to the ...
Cryopreservation of animal genetic resources § Semen Frozen bovine semen Oocyte cryopreservation Reed, ML; Ezeh, PC; Hamic, A; ... Semen cryopreservation (commonly called sperm banking or sperm freezing) is a procedure to preserve sperm cells. Semen can be ... Di Santo, M; Tarozzi, N; Nadalini, M; Borini, A (2012). "Human Sperm Cryopreservation: Update on Techniques, Effect on DNA ... Kopeika, J.; Thornhill, A.; Khalaf, Y. (2014). "The effect of cryopreservation on the genome of gametes and embryos: principles ...
... is cryopreservation of tissue of the ovary of a female. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is ... Oktay K, Oktem O (November 2008). "Ovarian cryopreservation and transplantation for fertility preservation for medical ... Live birth after ovarian tissue autotransplantation following overnight transportation before cryopreservation. Fertil Steril. ...
... is a new technique for cryopreservation first demonstrated in 2016 by Robert L. McIntyre ... "Aldehyde-Stabilized Cryopreservation Wins Final Phase of Brain Preservation Prize". PRWeb. Ekpo, Marlene Davis; Boafo, George ... Cryonics McIntyre RL, Fahy GM (December 2015). "Aldehyde-stabilized cryopreservation". Cryobiology. 71 (3): 448-458. doi: ... "21st Century Medicine's Aldehyde-Stabilized Cryopreservation". Brain Preservation Foundation. 16 September 2015. " ...
In the future, cryopreservation of testicular tissue has the potential to be used to help transgender women have children. ... Cryopreservation can either be done by slow freezing or vitrification. Slow freezing allows the temperature of the cells and ... Cryopreservation of testicular tissue is an experimental method being used to preserve fertility in pre-pubescent males, or ... Instead, cryopreservation of testicular tissue prior to cancer treatment can be offered to preserve fertility. This is ...
"Cryopreservation". Archived from the original on 15 November 1999. "HFEA - Storage of Gametes and Embryos". Archived from the ... Sperm, eggs and embryos are stored in liquid nitrogen using cryopreservation (defined as the freezing of cells or whole tissues ... Includes safety procedure regulations at fertility clinics; includes safe cryopreservation of eggs and embryos. Eggs and ... A cryoprotective compound (a liquid called cryopreservation medium), along with carefully controlled cooling and warming cycles ...
Pai, H. D.; Baid, R.; Palshetkar, N. P.; Pai, A.; Pai, R. D.; Palshetkar, R. (2021). "Oocyte Cryopreservation". Journal of ... "Oocyte Cryopreservation - Current Scenario and Future Perspectives: A Narrative Review", 2021, Hrishikesh D Pai,1 Rashmi Baid,1 ...
Chian, Ri-Cheng (2010). Fertility Cryopreservation. Cambridge University Press. p. 52. ISBN 9780521517782. v t e (Male genital ...
Cryopreservation was applied to human cells beginning in 1954 with frozen sperm, which was thawed and used to inseminate three ... Cryopreservation has long been used by medical laboratories to maintain animal cells, human embryos, and even some organized ... Cryopreservation may be accomplished by freezing, freezing with cryoprotectant to reduce ice damage, or by vitrification to ... In London in 2016, the English High Court ruled in favor of a mother's right to seek cryopreservation of her terminally ill 14- ...
He was also Head of the Tissue Cryopreservation Section of the Transfusion and Cryopreservation Research Program of the U.S. ... He received the Cryopreservation Award from the International Longevity and Cryopreservation Summit held in Madrid, Spain in ... Fahy GM, Wowk B, Wu J, Phan J, Rasch C, Chang A, Zendejas E (2004). "Cryopreservation of organs by vitrification: perspectives ... As a scientist with the American Red Cross, Fahy was the originator of the first practical method of cryopreservation by ...
Pegg, DE (2007). "Principles of Cryopreservation". In Day JG, Stacey GN (eds.). Cryopreservation and Freeze-Drying Protocols. ...
ISBN 9783662035337., In Kubitzki & Huber (1998). Panis, Bart (2008). "Cryopreservation of monocots". Plant Cryopreservation: A ... 2008). Plant cryopreservation a practical guide. New York: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-72276-4. Short, Emma; George, Alex (2013). ...
Abazari A, Jomha NM, Elliott JA, McGann LE (2013). "Cryopreservation of articular cartilage". Cryobiology. 66 (3): 201-209. doi ...
Chen, C (April 1986). "Pregnancy after human oocyte cryopreservation". Lancet. 1 (8486): 884-6. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(86)90989 ... Gook, Debra A. (1 September 2011). "History of oocyte cryopreservation". Reproductive BioMedicine Online. 23 (3): 281-289. doi: ...
Cryopreservation of embryos is dependent on the species and the stage of development of the embryo. Pig embryos are the most ... There are two cryopreservation freezing methods: slow freezing and vitrification. During slow freezing, cells are placed in a ... Cryopreservation requires equipment to collect biological material and test tubes for storage. Price is highly variable based ... "Cryopreservation of the Germplasm of Animals Used in Biological and Medical Research: Importance, Impact, Status, and Future ...
It is also commonly used in cryopreservation of blood vessels along with the other glycosaminoglycans and protein suspensions. ... Müller-Schweinitzer E, Hasse J, Swoboda L (1993). "Cryopreservation of human bronchi". The Journal of Asthma. 30 (6): 451-457. ... Müller-Schweinitzer E, Ellis P (May 1992). "Sucrose promotes the functional activity of blood vessels after cryopreservation in ... Brockbank KG (February 1994). "Effects of cryopreservation upon vein function in vivo". Cryobiology. 31 (1): 71-81. doi:10.1006 ...
Crutchfield A, Diller K, Brand J (1999). "Cryopreservation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyta)". European Journal of ...
Some of the company founders had past experience in the field of cryopreservation. For instance, in 2003, Igor ARyukhov was the ... Almost as many as 200 Russian citizens have entered into cryopreservation agreements with the company. KrioRus is considered to ... José Luis Cordeiro (2016-03-09). "Immortality and Plan B: Cryopreservation". Archived from the original on ... Yuri Pichugin; Gregory M. Fahy; Robert Morin (April 2008). "Cryopreservation of rat hippocampal slices by vitrification". ...
Henkelman S, Lagerberg JW, Graaff R, Rakhorst G, Van Oeveren W (November 2010). "The effects of cryopreservation on red blood ... These techniques can be used to assess the success of cell culture techniques, cryopreservation techniques, the toxicity of ... Pichugin Y, Fahy GM, Morin R (April 2006). "Cryopreservation of rat hippocampal slices by vitrification". Cryobiology. 52 (2): ... Crutchfield A, Diller K, Brand J (1999-02-01). "Cryopreservation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyta)". European Journal ...
Cryopreservation Freeze-drying Pilhofer, Martin; Ladinsky, Mark S.; McDowall, Alasdair W.; Jensen, Grant J. (2010). Bacterial ...
He did important translational research on ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation. Gosden was born on 23 September ... Prasath, Ethiraj B. (1 January 2008). "Ovarian tissue cryopreservation: An update". Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences. 1 ( ... Silber, S. J. (1 February 2012). "Ovary cryopreservation and transplantation for fertility preservation". Molecular Human ... and he did important translational research on ovarian tissue cryopreservation and on ovary transplantation; his interests also ...
"Cryopreservation of Mammalian Cells - US". Retrieved 2022-12-02. Freed, Lisa E.; Guilak, Farshid (2007-01 ...
Donor blood cryopreservation also reduces the number of times a donor needs to have blood drawn for cross matching, making ... The implementation of the cryopreservation service allowed NKR centers to dramatically reduce the time to complete a cross ... "National Kidney Registry Initiates Donor Blood Cryo-Preservation" (Press release). National Kidney Registry. December 2, 2014. ... Berz; McCormack; Winer; Colvin; Quesenberry (November 12, 2007). "Cryopreservation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells". Am. J. Hematol ...
Porcu, Eleonora; Ciotti, Patrizia; Venturoli, Stefano (2012-12-06). Handbook of Human Oocyte Cryopreservation. Cambridge ... useful for applications such as sperm cryopreservation. The semi-solid mixture can also be called slush nitrogen or SN2. Solid ... in liquid and slush nitrogen by numerical simulation of cooling rates for French straws used for sperm cryopreservation". ...
2005) Biology of Plants, 7th ed., page 459 Reed, Barbara (2008). Plant cryopreservation a practical guide. New York: Springer. ...
The use of cryopreservation agents is also key to the freezing process. A common cryoprotection agent used is 10% solution of ... Coopman, K (2013). Cryopreservation: Technologies, Applications and Risks/Outcomes (PDF). Nova Science Publishers. pp. 91-108. ... Rapid thaws are recommend in bringing the cells out of cryopreservation and starting up their normal metabolic processes. ... Cell banks are commonly used within fields including stem cell research and pharmaceuticals, with cryopreservation being the ...
These methods include: Cryopreservation Mummification; the most well-known examples are from ancient Egypt Taxidermy; an ...
Aldehyde-stabilized cryopreservation Cells Alive System freezers Cryobiology Cryogenic processor Cryogenics Cryopreservation of ... Perry SF (1995). "Freeze-drying and cryopreservation of bacteria". Cryopreservation and Freeze-Drying Protocols. Methods in ... in embryo cryopreservation Ovarian tissue in ovarian tissue cryopreservation Plant seeds or shoots tips or dormant buds are ... Cryopreservation for embryos is used for embryo storage, e.g., when IVF has resulted in more embryos than is currently needed. ...
Bioethicist Art Caplan discusses the lack of evidence behind cryopreservation and feels it should be discouraged. ... Cite this: Cryopreservation to Wait for a Cure Is Crackpot Science but Is Still Being Promoted, Says Ethicist - Medscape - Nov ... Then hopefully, the cryopreservation idea will work, and you wont damage cells when you freeze and defrost, which is a real ... Cryopreservation to Wait for a Cure Is Crackpot Science but Is Still Being Promoted, Says Ethicist ...
The new cryopreservation techniques uses a chemical process to freeze the brain to -211 degrees Fahrenheit (-135 degrees ... Rabbit Brain Returns Successfully From Cryopreservation. By Anthony Cuthbertson On 2/10/16 at 6:02 AM EST. ... Researchers from 21st Century Medicine (21CM) used a new technique called Aldehyde-stabilized cryopreservation that filled the ...
Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue leads to successful birth in monkeys NIH-funded study is an early step in effort ... Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue leads to successful birth in monkeys. NIH/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National ...
... which made it practically unsuitable for cryopreservation. With that in mind, the team studied the characteristics of the ... scientists from the Australian Institute of Marine Science and the Taronga Conservation Society in coral reef cryopreservation ...
Cryopreservation of avian semen. Woelders, Henri Summary. Cryopreservation protocols for semen exist for bird species used in ... In: Cryopreservation and Freeze-Drying Protocols - Humana Press Inc. - ISBN: 9781071607824 - p. 379-399.. Department(s). WIAS ... Cryopreservation of avian semen is used for preserving (genetic diversity of) endangered species or breeds. Freezing semen can ... Success and efficiency of cryopreservation of bird semen differs among species and breeds or selection lines. This chapter ...
Date: Sun, 23 Jun 1996 01:01:07 -0500 Subject: Brain Cryopreservation Randy Smith ,. , writes: ,I seem to recall you saying ... Human Cryopreservation Services Rate This Message: ...
2014). Principles of Cryopreservation. Cryopreservation and Freeze-Drying Protocols Methods in Molecular Biology, Methods in ... Cryopreservation is a process that preserves cells and tissues by cooling the samples to very low temperatures. It is currently ... The key to successful cryopreservation is to avoid damaging ice formation inside and outside the cells, which can be achieved ... Although cryopreservation retains viability of frozen cells, it requires specialized equipment to maintain ultralow ...
Effective use of cryopreservation allows researchers to better utilize financial resources and space, while securing valuable ... Cryopreservation in Colony Management. Cryopreservation in Colony Management. Amarnath Dasari, PhD & Kenneth Albrecht, PhD. ... Brief History of Cryopreservation. Although the potential of cryopreservation was recognized as early as the 17th century, ... Cryopreservation of mouse embryos was first reported2,3 in the early 1970s and was quickly recognized as a cost-effective tool ...
Preserve your precious cells for the future with cryopreservation. Learn about labware, techniques, and best practices. Keep ... Why is Cryopreservation So Important?. Cryopreservation allows you to store cells for long periods without worrying about them ... cryopreservation is the way to go.. But as with any technique, cryopreservation has its challenges. One of the biggest ... Putting Cells into Cryopreservation. If you work with cells, you know that one of the biggest challenges is keeping good viable ...
Cryopreservation planned for farmed aquatic species. Eels Turbot Breeding & genetics +9 more ... To this end, exploratory research is first conducted into available protocols for cryopreservation (freezing in nitrogen) for ...
Once embryos have undergone the cryopreservation process (using cryo-vitrification), they are stored in secure containers under ... Over a third of our IVF patients have spare embryos that are suitable for cryopreservation (freezing). ...
Embryo Cryopreservation September 11, 2023 by Lucy Gardner Carson (SEPTEMBER 11, 2023) Bravos The Daily Dish spoke with Amanda ... Oocyte cryopreservation (egg-freezing), Kallen explained, is when a womans eggs are removed from the ovaries and stored for ...
FUJIFILM Irvine Scientific PRIME-XV Stem FreezIS DMSO-Free Cryopreservation Medium to be Used in FDA-Authorized Clinical Trial ... FUJIFILM Irvine Scientific PRIME-XV Stem FreezIS DMSO-Free Cryopreservation Medium to be Used in FDA-Authorized Clinical Trial ... FUJIFILM Irvine Scientific PRIME-XV Stem FreezIS DMSO-Free Cryopreservation Medium to be Used in FDA-Authorized Clinical Trial ... FUJIFILM Irvine Scientifics PRIME-XV Stem FreezIS DMSO-Free* cryopreservation medium is a complete and ready-to-use, ...
Home / News / Monterotondo laboratory course on cryopreservation of mouse germplasm (2013). *About Us *Overview. Get an ... Cryopreservation. EMMA archives your mouse/rat mutant free of charge. *Legal Questions. EMMA repository conditions, MTAs, ... The course is offered to teach methods in cryopreservation for banking of various strains of mice used in research, including ... Cryopreservation. Archiving of mutant mouse/rat models generated by researchers around the world ...
Semen Cryopreservation and Transcervical Insemination in the Mexican Gray Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) ...
Effect of cryopreservation on genome mutation rate - examples of grapevine At a glance * Project leader : Dr. Theo Smits ... This project will quantify cryopreservation process-induced genome mutation rate in grapevine by next generation sequencing . ...
Impactful and educational multimedia content relating to Cryopreservation from Technology Networks. ... Ice, Ice, Baby - An Intro to Cryopreservation. What is cryopreservation? What techniques are there and how do we do it? Dr. ... Cryopreservation Guide - The Basics of Cellular Cryopreservation for Research and Clinical Use. ... Optimizing Your Cryopreservation. This infographic highlights steps you can take to protect your samples and improve your ...
Kutluk H. Oktay on Preservation of fertility in cancer patients: BRCA mutations, ovarian tissue cryopreservation and ... Oktay, K.H. (2021, August 29). Preservation of fertility in cancer patients: BRCA mutations, ovarian tissue cryopreservation ... Preservation of fertility in cancer patients: BRCA mutations, ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation, and ... Preservation of fertility in cancer patients: BRCA mutations, ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation, and ...
Powerful cryopreservation salt-based solution, optimized for enhanced performance ... A salt-based, chemically defined, animal component-free, protein-free cryopreservation solution, optimal and specially designed ...
Oocyte Cryopreservation for Donor Oocyte In Vitro Fertilization and Planned Oocyte Cryopreservation. ... Oocyte Cryopreservation for Donor Oocyte In Vitro Fertilization and Planned Oocyte Cryopreservation ... Evidence-based outcomes after oocyte cryopreservation for donor oocyte in vitro fertilization and planned oocyte ... cryopreservation: a guideline. Fertil Steril. 2021 Jul;116(1):36-47. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2021.02.024. PMID: 34148587. ...
To preserve this diversity, cryopreservation has been identified as an appropriate conservation measure. The aim of this study ... for this species as viable cells were always encountered and could re-establish into vigorous cultures after cryopreservation. ... Cryopreservation of Pyramimonas mucifera: effect of DMSO and the slow cooling method on viability. ... Cryopreservation of Pyramimonas mucifera: effect of DMSO and the slow cooling method on viability. ...
Cryopreservation is the only mode of long-term storage of viable cells and tissues for cellular therapy, stem cell ... Cryopreservation influence in the WJCs Proteome. Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology, 119(1), 124. Retrieved from https ...
The human RBC cryopreservation tests displayed RBC recoveries of up to ∼40%, which is higher than that obtained via commonly ... This cryopreservation approach will inspire the design and utilization of MOF-derived nanoarchitectures for the effective ... 2019) Metal-Organic Framework Nanoparticle-Assisted Cryopreservation of Red Blood Cells. Journal of the American Chemical ... with well-defined surface chemistries for the cryopreservation of red blood cells (RBCs) without the need of any (toxic) ...
Gwo J.C., 2000, Cryopreservation of aquatic invertebrate semen: a review. Aquac. Res. 31, 259-271. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] ... Dong Q., Eudeline B., Huang C., Allen S.K.J., Tiersch T.R., 2005b, Commercial-scale sperm cryopreservation of diploid and ... Optimizing sperm cryopreservation in great scallop (Pecten maximus) Aquat. Living Resour. 29, 206 (2016). ... Kawamoto T., Narita T., Isowa K., Aoki H., Hayashi M., Komaru A., Ohta H., 2007, Effects of cryopreservation methods on post- ...
... (commonly called sperm banking or sperm freezing) is a procedure to preserve ... Oocyte cryopreservation. References. * Zhang, S (December 21, 2017). "A Woman Gave Birth From an Embryo Frozen for 24 Years". ... Reed, ML; Ezeh, PC; Hamic, A; Thompson, DJ; Caperton, CL (2009). "Soy lecithin replaces egg yolk for cryopreservation of human ... Treatment of sperm with heparin binding proteins prior to cryopreservation showed decreased cryoinjury and generation of ROS.[3 ...
... faster freeze rates in the dry shipper and at 1cm or 2 cm above liquid nitrogen consistently provided better cryopreservation ... faster freeze rates in the dry shipper and at 1cm or 2 cm above liquid nitrogen consistently provided better cryopreservation ...
Tag Archive: cryopreservation. InsideHook: Welcome to the Age of Male Fertility Testing April 9, 2020 5:45 pm Published by MSR ...
... is a technique used in fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), in which embryos ... Cryopreservation of embryos. Embryo cryopreservation, also known as embryo freezing, is the freezing and storage of embryos for ... What Embryo Cryopreservation?. Embryo cryopreservation entails in vitro fertilization, a method in which eggs are extracted ... What are the advantages of embryo cryopreservation?. Embryo cryopreservation has reduced the number of fresh embryo transfers ...
  • The accidental discovery of 'cryoprotective agents' kick-started the field of cryobiology and the cryopreservation of sperm and embryos in a variety of species. (
  • Cryopreservation of mouse embryos was first reported 2 , 3 in the early 1970s and was quickly recognized as a cost-effective tool for colony management and distribution of mouse stocks 4 . (
  • Over a third of our IVF patients have spare embryos that are suitable for cryopreservation (freezing). (
  • Once embryos have undergone the cryopreservation process (using cryo-vitrification), they are stored in secure containers under liquid nitrogen. (
  • From 21 to 25 October 2013 the CNR Monterotondo and The Jackson Laboratory offer a comprehensive course on cryopreservation of mouse embryos, sperm and ovaries. (
  • The course is designed primarily as a hands-on laboratory program in which participants learn techniques for the cryopreservation of cleavage stage embryos, spermatozoa and ovaries. (
  • Embryo cryopreservation, also known as embryo freezing, is the freezing and storage of embryos for future use. (
  • Embryo cryopreservation entails in vitro fertilization , a method in which eggs are extracted from a woman's ovary and joined with sperm in a laboratory to generate embryos. (
  • Other times, embryo cryopreservation allows women who are receiving medical procedures that may compromise fertility to freeze embryos and use them later. (
  • Prevents genetic drift by cryopreservation of gametes, embryos, etc. (
  • Cryopreservation techniques involve is basically freezing the sperms, eggs, or embryos at a very low temperature(sub-zero) in compounds like liquid nitrogen. (
  • Established in response to a need for in-house mouse services, the LUTCF provides expertise in cryopreservation of embryos by IVF or natural matings, sperm cryopreservation, rederivation services, strain expansion by IVF, ES morula/blastocyst injections, pronuclear DNA microinjections, and injection of CRISPR edited DNA. (
  • A fertilized egg is frozen during embryo cryopreservation. (
  • What Embryo Cryopreservation? (
  • Embryo cryopreservation is a kind of fertility preservation. (
  • The most successful method for preserving fertility in women is embryo cryopreservation. (
  • Because of the relatively high cost and high success rate of sperm cryopreservation options for men, embryo cryopreservation is reserved for use in maintaining fertility in women before or after cancer. (
  • Why people need Embryo Cryopreservation? (
  • What happens before Embryo Cryopreservation process? (
  • Cryopreservation procedure is one such method of sperm or egg freezing and even embryo freezing. (
  • Oocyte cryopreservation (egg-freezing), Kallen explained, is when a woman's eggs are removed from the ovaries and stored for future use as "a way of preserving reproductive ability in women (or individuals with ovaries)" and an alternative for "anyone who isn't planning pregnancy immediately" but might want to explore their options in the future. (
  • Evidence-based outcomes after oocyte cryopreservation for donor oocyte in vitro fertilization and planned oocyte cryopreservation: a guideline. (
  • All things egg freezing and back to help inspire, teach, educate women about oocyte cryopreservation. (
  • Although the potential of cryopreservation was recognized as early as the 17th century, cryopreservation of living cells had invariably resulted in lethality until a mislabeled reagent bottle led to the discovery that freezing chicken sperm in a solution of glycerol preserved their viability 1 . (
  • Although cryopreservation retains viability of frozen cells, it requires specialized equipment to maintain ultralow temperatures. (
  • The use of DMSO during cell therapies has historically been a process critical step used to maintain cell viability during cryopreservation, however DMSO toxicity has been well characterized in cells throughout the human body and can cause a wide range of undesirable side effects following stem cell therapy. (
  • Cryopreservation is a long-term storage technique, which is mainly used for preserving and maintaining viability of the biological samples for a longer duration. (
  • Plant cryopreservation involves the storage of plant tissues (usually seed or shoot tips) in liquid nitrogen (LN) at -196°C or in the vapour phase of LN at -135°C in such a way that the viability of stored tissues is retained following re-warming. (
  • With over 80% cell viability for most cell lines along with +10 years of viability data, it is one of the trusted cryopreservation medium on the market. (
  • We observed that cryopreservation of CB in HSA, undiluted autologous human plasma and 50% diluted plasma was equivalent in terms of cell recovery and cell viability . (
  • However, the viability of leukocytes after cryopreservation varied significantly (p (
  • There are many benefits of cryopreservation technique. (
  • Find out more about the benefits of cryopreservation today by scheduling an appointment online or by phone at Conceive Fertility Center. (
  • Semen cryopreservation (commonly called sperm banking or sperm freezing ) is a procedure to preserve sperm cells. (
  • Cryopreservation preserves structurally intact, living cells and tissues for storage at very low temperatures. (
  • Cryopreservation is the use of very low temperatures to preserve the cells and tissues that are structurally intact. (
  • The reason that vitrification is used instead of freezing is to prevent ice crystal formation, which damages the cell structure, and would result in poor-quality cryopreservation. (
  • Vitrification has already been successful in the cryopreservation of certain organs. (
  • Current advances in cryopreservation of oocytes indicate that high cooling methods (vitrification) achieve the best results since there is a minimum risk of intra/extra-celullar ice-formation. (
  • Cryopreservation is the only mode of long-term storage of viable cells and tissues for cellular therapy, stem cell transplantation and/or tissue engineering. (
  • The development of hybrid nanomaterials mimicking antifreeze proteins that can modulate/inhibit the growth of ice crystals for cell/tissue cryopreservation has attracted increasing interests. (
  • This cryopreservation approach will inspire the design and utilization of MOF-derived nanoarchitectures for the effective cryopreservation of various cell types as well as tissue samples. (
  • Cryopreservation Plant Tissue Culture By KAUSHAL KUMAR SAHU Assistant Professor (Ad Hoc) Department of Biotechnology Govt. (
  • Cryopreservation is the process of freezing tissue. (
  • Regarding oocytes, the cryopreservation of this gamete has increased in recent years due to the application of in vitro fertilization, nuclear transfer and the need to establish ova/gene banks worldwide. (
  • Cyagen provides three kinds of mammalian cell cryopreservation media: standard, noncontrolled-rate (NCR), and chemically-defined NCR protein-free. (
  • This is one of the first times that this class of solvents has been systematically tested for cryopreservation of mammalian cells. (
  • SANTA ANA, Calif. -- FUJIFILM Irvine Scientific, Inc., a world leader in the development and manufacture of serum-free and chemically defined cell culture media for bioproduction and cell therapy manufacturing, today announced that its PRIME-XV Stem FreezIS DMSO-Free* cryopreservation medium is to be used as an excipient in a FDA-authorized clinical trial conducted by Vitro Biopharma. (
  • The PTHS trial will utilize FUJIFILM Irvine Scientific's PRIME-XV Stem FreezIS DMSO-Free* cryopreservation medium as an excipient during the process. (
  • FUJIFILM Irvine Scientific's PRIME-XV Stem FreezIS DMSO-Free* cryopreservation medium is a complete and ready-to-use, chemically defined, animal component- and protein-free solution that does not contain DMSO. (
  • Erik Vaessen, chief business officer at FUJIFILM Irvine Scientific, said "We are pleased to support Vitro Biopharma's clinical trials via the provision of our PRIME-XV Stem FreezIS DMSO-Free cryopreservation medium. (
  • Freezing - Different methods of freezing are applied in this method of cryopreservation to protect cells from damage and cell death by their exposure to the warm solutions of cryoprotective agents. (
  • For the past 50 years cryopreservation practices have largely relied on the same two cryoprotective agents, but they don't work for organs and many cell types," she said. (
  • Cryopreservation or cryoconservation is a process where biological material - cells, tissues, or organs - are frozen to preserve the material for an extended period of time. (
  • Cryopreservation was applied to human materials beginning in 1954 with three pregnancies resulting from the insemination of previously frozen sperm. (
  • While cryopreservation may seem expensive initially, the cost of maintaining the line once frozen is significantly lower than the cost of maintaining a live colony. (
  • 0.005) of straws frozen after 0 and 24 hr storage at 4°C. The faster freeze rates in the dry shipper and at 1cm or 2 cm above liquid nitrogen consistently provided better cryopreservation than slower freezing rates. (
  • Cryopreservation of sperm is a process where sperm are safely frozen to stop biological activity and preserve sperm for future use in procedures like in vitro fertilization or intrauterine insemination. (
  • The new cryopreservation techniques uses a chemical process to freeze the brain to -211 degrees Fahrenheit (-135 degrees Celsius). (
  • Cryopreservation is a process that preserves cells and tissues by cooling the samples to very low temperatures. (
  • One of the best ways to do that is through cryopreservation, which is the process of freezing cells so that they can be thawed and used later. (
  • Ever since, the ideas behind human cryopreservation have been hijacked by popular media making the mainstream perception of the process different to what it actually is. (
  • Pop culture references incorrectly suggest that the cryopreservation process directly involves freezing people. (
  • What happens during the cryopreservation process? (
  • Cryopreservation is a process of cooling biological specimens down to very low temperatures so they can be stored for a long time. (
  • Cryopreservation is the method of keeping the live cells, tissues and other biological samples in a deep freeze at subzero temperatures for the storage or preservation. (
  • Storing cells through cryopreservation has had big benefits for the world - including boosting supplies at blood banks and assisting reproduction - but it is currently impossible to store organs and simple tissues. (
  • We also found that cryopreservation of CB samples in either cryovials or cryobags displayed equivalent thermal characteristics. (
  • Cryopreservation protocols for semen exist for bird species used in animal production, fancy and hobby species, and wild bird species. (
  • In: Cryopreservation and Freeze-Drying Protocols - Humana Press Inc. - ISBN: 9781071607824 - p. 379-399. (
  • To this end, exploratory research is first conducted into available protocols for cryopreservation (freezing in nitrogen) for the relevant aquatic species. (
  • The medium is validated for use in mesenchymal stromal cells and CD34+ cells, and optimized cryopreservation protocols for peripheral blood mononuclear cells and T cells have also been published. (
  • Then hopefully, the cryopreservation idea will work, and you won't damage cells when you freeze and defrost, which is a real problem these days even in trying to deal with human eggs. (
  • The key to successful cryopreservation is to avoid damaging ice formation inside and outside the cells, which can be achieved by the use of CPAs. (
  • Cryopreservation allows you to store cells for long periods without worrying about them dying. (
  • If you're working on a long-term project, want to store protein-expressing clones, or just need to keep cells around for future experiments, cryopreservation is the way to go. (
  • Cryogenic apparel is designed to protect your skin and the cells you are working with during cryopreservation. (
  • How do I prepare cells for cryopreservation? (
  • Cells need to be prepared carefully before cryopreservation to improve survival. (
  • A salt-based, chemically defined, animal component-free, protein-free cryopreservation solution, optimal and specially designed for the freezing and thawing of cells intended for cell therapies and clinical applications. (
  • However, the method was found to be acceptable for this species as viable cells were always encountered and could re-establish into vigorous cultures after cryopreservation. (
  • Herein, we describe the first utilization of zirconium (Zr)-based metal-organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles (NPs) with well-defined surface chemistries for the cryopreservation of red blood cells (RBCs) without the need of any (toxic) organic solvents. (
  • Cryopreservation helps the cells to survive freezing and thawing. (
  • Cryopreservation has been used for decades to ensure the maintenance of living cells and organisms. (
  • The cryopreservation protocol for sperm is important because cooling rates that are too high or too low can be detrimental for reproductive cells. (
  • Illustration of the team's cryoprotectant helping to protect a cell against damage during cryopreservation, primarily from dehydration and freezing by preventing the formation of ice crystals that can damage cells. (
  • This review deals with cells' cryobiological behavior, cryopreservation and cryoprotectants, emphasizing on stem cell and neuroglial populations as therapeutic target regarding nervous system diseases. (
  • This study examined the influence of the collection and cryopreservation of buccal cells on cell survival and DNA integrity. (
  • Cryopreservation of avian semen is used for preserving (genetic diversity of) endangered species or breeds. (
  • Success and efficiency of cryopreservation of bird semen differs among species and breeds or selection lines. (
  • RÉSUMÉ La présente étude menée en Turquie a évalué l'impact de la loi rendant obligatoire le transfert d'un embryon unique en fonction de l'âge et de l'augmentation consécutive des transferts d'embryons congelés-décongelés sur l'issue de la grossesse des patientes bénéficiant d'une fécondation in vitro. (
  • Le transfert d'un embryon unique, le transfert d'embryons congelés-décongelés et le transfert de deux embryons ont été réalisés chez 5632 patientes après l'entrée en vigueur de la loi, tandis que l'approche traditionnelle par fécondation in vitro et par transferts d'embryons congelés-décongelés a été utilisée chez 6029 patientes avant le vote de cette loi. (
  • Semen can be used successfully indefinitely after cryopreservation. (
  • To preserve this diversity, cryopreservation has been identified as an appropriate conservation measure. (
  • Gwo J.C., 2000, Cryopreservation of aquatic invertebrate semen: a review. (
  • When exploring cryopreservation as a storage solution, many factors must be considered, including, but not limited to: Critical Temperature, Storage Phase, and Capacity. (
  • Current technology only enables the storage of platelets for up to a week, but with successful cryopreservation they could be stored for years. (
  • However, it is unclear which are the best methodologies for cryopreservation and storage of the sample aliquots. (
  • Furthermore, recent advances in sperm cryopreservation and recovery methods allow recovery of five-to-eight cage breeding colonies directly out of cryoperservation in under ten weeks. (
  • The course is offered to teach methods in cryopreservation for banking of various strains of mice used in research, including inbred, transgenic and knock-out strains. (
  • She has also been training scientists from the Australian Institute of Marine Science and the Taronga Conservation Society in coral reef cryopreservation techniques so that they can continue to grow their Great Barrier Reef bank. (
  • Therefore, as nanotechnology advances , this increases the chance of overcoming current problems in cryopreservation. (
  • No one has been successfully revived after cryopreservation with today's technology, but it would be wrong to say that cryonics CAN'T work. (
  • chosen for cryopreservation should be as far as possible in meristematic state. (
  • Conceive Fertility Center in Irving, Texas, offers on-site consultations and cryopreservation of sperm services to give you the peace of mind you and your partner can achieve a future pregnancy. (
  • CloneLabs prides itself as being the foremost trusted provider of micropropagated cannabis starting material and cryopreservation services to licensed medical cannabis growers throughout Africa. (
  • Cryopreservation is currently considered the most promising and successful, long-term biological conservation method. (
  • The human RBC cryopreservation tests displayed RBC recoveries of up to ∼40%, which is higher than that obtained via commonly used hydroxyethyl starch polymers. (
  • We're also working with Lifeblood to investigate cryopreservation of blood products such as platelets, which are vital for the treatment of patients who have suffered significant blood loss," Bryant said. (