Hepatitis C, Chronic
Endocarditis, Subacute Bacterial
Vasculitis, Leukocytoclastic, Cutaneous
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived
Immune Complex Diseases
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune
Hepatitis C Antibodies
Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.)
Cryoglobulinaemia and rheumatic manifestations in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. (1/282)OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of cryoglobulinaemia and rheumatic manifestations in Korean patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: Forty nine Korean patients with HCV infection were recruited. The prevalence, concentration, and type of cryoglobulin (by immunofixation), rheumatoid factor (RF), antinuclear antibody (ANA), and various rheumatological symptoms were investigated and HCV genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction with genotype specific primer. RESULTS: The prevalence of cryoglobulin was 59% in Korean HCV patients and the concentration of cryoglobulin was 9.8 (7.9) g/l (mean (SD)). The type of cryoglobulinaemia was identified in 23 (80%) of 29 HCV patients with cryoglobulinaemia and they were all type III. There were no differences in age, sex, history of operation and transfusion, proportion of liver cirrhosis between the patients with cryoglobulinaemia and those without cryoglobulinaemia. The frequencies of RF and ANA were 14% and 3.4% respectively in HCV patients with cryoglobulinaemia. There was no difference in HCV genotype between the patients with cryoglobulinaemia and those without cryoglobulinaemia. Clinical features of HCV patients were as follows: arthralgia/arthritis (35%), cutaneous manifestation (37%), Raynaud's phenomenon (8%), paresthesia (44%), dry eyes (22%), dry mouth (10%), oral ulcer (33%), and abdominal pain (14%). However, these rheumatological symptoms did not differ between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Although the rheumatological symptoms were not different between HCV patients with and without cryoglobulinaemia, HCV patients showed various rheumatological manifestations. These result suggests that HCV infection could be included as one of the causes in patients with unexplained rheumatological symptoms. (+info)
Interferon-alpha may exacerbate cryoblobulinemia-related ischemic manifestations: an adverse effect potentially related to its anti-angiogenic activity. (2/282)The discovery of the strong association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the development of mixed cryoglobulinemia has motivated active testing of antiviral-directed alternative therapies. Several trials have demonstrated that classic cryoglobulinemia-associated manifestations improve with interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) treatment. Herein we report on 3 HCV-infected patients with severe cryoglobulinemia-related ischemic manifestations who were closely followed up during IFNalpha therapy. Clinical evaluations with special attention to ischemic lesions, liver function tests, and cryocrit determinations were serially performed. In addition to prednisone and immunosuppressive agents, the patients received IFNalpha at 3 x 10(6) units, 3 times per week for 2 months, 3 months, and 4 months, respectively. In all 3 patients, systemic features improved, liver function results returned to normal, and cryocrit values decreased. However, ischemic lesions became less vascularized and ischemia progressed, leading to transmetatarsal and subcondylar amputation, respectively, in 2 of the patients and fingertip necrosis and ulcer enlargement in the third. Skin biopsies performed before IFNalpha therapy and after 2 months of IFNalpha therapy in the third patient showed a significant decrease in subepidermal microvessels. When IFNalpha was discontinued, the lesions finally healed. Cryoglobulinemia-related ischemic lesions may worsen during IFNalpha treatment, presumably through a decrease in inflammation-induced angiogenesis. The anti-angiogenic activity of IFNalpha may delay the appropriate healing of ischemic lesions. (+info)
Response to interferon alpha treatment and disappearance of cryoglobulinaemia in patients infected by hepatitis C virus. (3/282)BACKGROUND: Mixed cryoglobulinaemia is closely associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. AIM: To assess in a prospective open study the efficiency of interferon alpha treatment of cryoglobulinaemia, as reflected by the disappearance of cryoglobulins and clinical manifestations of the disease, and to analyse the factors predictive of a response to interferon. METHOD: Eighty seven consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C treated for the first time with interferon at a dose of 3 x 10(6) international units three times a week for six months were studied. Forty three patients had cryoglobulins, which were responsible for clinical manifestations in 12. RESULTS: At the end of interferon treatment, cryoglobulins had disappeared in 39% of the patients. A clinical improvement (except for neuropathies) was observed in all patients. Six months after interferon treatment was stopped, the same rate of response (normal alanine aminotransferase values and undectable HCV RNA) was observed in patients with or without cryoglobulins. Only 14% of patients still had undetectable cryoglobulins, and all of them also had undetectable serum HCV RNA. The disappearance of cryoglobulins was found less frequently in patients with clinical symptoms than in asymptomatic ones, but the difference was not significant. Sustained responders were more often men, infected by genotype 2 or 3, with a lower pretreatment viral load. CONCLUSION: The presence of cryoglobulins does not seem to affect the response to interferon in HCV infected patients. The improvement in cryoglobulinaemia is strongly associated with a virological response, reinforcing the hypothesis of a direct role for HCV in the pathogenesis of this disease. (+info)
Sustained response to interferon-alpha or to interferon-alpha plus ribavirin in hepatitis C virus-associated symptomatic mixed cryoglobulinaemia. (4/282)BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with mixed cryoglobulinaemia. AIM: To investigate the efficacy of anti-viral therapy on the eradication of HCV and its clinical manifestations in patients with HCV-associated symptomatic mixed cryoglobulinaemia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 18 out of 32 patients with symptomatic mixed cryoglobulinaemia (MC group) received a 12-month course of interferon (3 MU three times a week, subcutaneously). Nonresponders or relapsers to this therapy were treated with interferon plus ribavirin (1200 mg/day, orally) for 12-months. 226 patients with HCV infection and without cryoglobulins were studied in comparison (Hepatitis C group). Serial quantification of serum HCV-RNA and cryoglobulins were performed. RESULTS: In the MC group, 10 out of 18 patients (55%) receiving interferon showed an end of treatment response, but at the end of follow-up, only five (28%) patients had a sustained response. In the hepatitis C group, 91 patients (47%) showed an end of treatment response but only 42 (20%) a sustained response. In the MC group alanine transaminase, cryocrit and rheumatoid factor decreased significantly in responders, with an improvement or disappearance of the MC-associated clinical manifestations. Alanine transaminase, cryocrit and rheumatoid factor increased in the relapsers and the clinical manifestations reappeared. Nonresponders and relapsers to interferon in the MC group were retreated with interferon plus ribavirin. Five out of eight nonresponders showed a end of treatment response but it was sustained in three of them. In the relapsers, treatment with combined therapy achieved a sustained response in four out of the five patients (80%). CONCLUSIONS: Interferon as monotherapy or combined with ribavirin is a safe and effective treatment in patients with HCV-associated MC. The presence of cryoglobulins does not affect the response to anti-viral treatment in patients with HCV infection. The eradication of HCV is associated with an improvement or disappearance of MC-associated clinical manifestations. (+info)
Hepatitis C virus but not GB virus C/hepatitis G virus has a role in type II cryoglobulinemia. (5/282)OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with type II cryoglobulinemia. HCV is specifically concentrated in type II cryoglobulins and has been implicated in the cutaneous vasculitis associated with the disease. In contrast to HCV, a role for hepatitis G virus (HGV) in type II cryoglobulinemia has not been defined, although prevalences as high as 43% of HGV infections in type II cryoglobulinemia have also been reported. METHODS: We studied 34 patients with type II and 29 patients with type III cryoglobulinemia associated with HCV infection, 6 patients with essential mixed cryoglobulinemia (EMC; all with type II), 50 hospital control patients, and 125 normal individuals. Serum HCV and HGV RNA were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In coinfected sera, HCV and HGV were quantitated by competitive RT-PCR assays. One coinfected patient was studied longitudinally for 6 years. RESULTS: Two (5.9%) of 34 patients with HCV-infected type II cryoglobulinemia, none of 29 patients with type III cryoglobulinemia, and none of 6 patients with EMC were positive for HGV RNA, for an overall prevalence of 3.0% in mixed cryoglobulinemia. None of the control populations were positive for HGV. No statistical difference was seen between the prevalence in patients with type II cryoglobulinemia and the other populations studied. In coinfected sera, HCV, but not HGV, was concentrated in cryoglobulins, and HCV, but not HGV, correlated with cryoglobulinemia in a longitudinal study. CONCLUSION: There is a low prevalence of coinfection with HGV in patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia and HCV infection in the United States. HCV is selectively precipitated by type II cryoglobulins in coinfected sera. HGV infection does not appear to have a role in mixed cryoglobulinemia. (+info)
Mixed cryoglobulinemia secondary to visceral Leishmaniasis. (6/282)We describe a case of type II mixed cryoglobulinemia, with monoclonal IgMkappa rheumatoid factor, associated with visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum. Involvement of Leishmania antigen(s) in the formation of cryoprecipitable immune complexes was suggested by the fact that cryoglobulinemic vasculitis subsided after antiparasite therapy and that anti-Leishmania antibodies, as well as rheumatoid factor, were enriched in the cryoprecipitate. We observed 2 additional patients with visceral leishmaniasis and cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. All 3 patients had seemingly contracted leishmaniasis in Italy, were hepatitis C virus negative, and were initially diagnosed as having autoimmune disorders. These findings indicate that Leishmania can be an etiologic agent of type II mixed cryoglobulinemia. This parasitosis should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of vasculitides in endemic areas. (+info)
Prevalence and clinical features of cryoglobulinaemia in multitransfused beta-thalassaemia patients. (7/282)OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of cryoglobulinaemia and its clinical features among beta-thalassaemia patients. METHODS: Eighty eight multitransfused beta-thalassaemia patients were studied. They were physically examined and asked about the presence of cryoglobulinaemia related symptoms. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) serology, HCV-RNA, HCV subtypes, viraemia, serum ferritin, liver and kidney function tests, rheumatoid factor (RF), circulating immune complexes (CIC), complement levels and autoantibodies were all evaluated. The patients were divided into four groups: HCV-RNA positive patients with and without cryoglobulinaemia (groups A and B), HCV-Ab positive/HCV-RNA negative patients (group C), HCV-Ab negative patients (group D). RESULTS: Cryoglobulinaemia was present in 35 of 53 (66.0%) patients with chronic HCV infection. They had higher viraemia than non-cryoglobulinaemic viral carriers, but no statistical difference relating to sex or HCV subtypes was found. In comparison with the other groups, group A patients were older, had undergone transfusion therapy for a longer period, had received a higher number of transfusions, and had increased levels of RF and CIC, as well as consumption of C4; in addition, they had a higher prevalence of cirrhosis. Cutaneous lesions (purpura, Raynaud's phenomenon, nodules and leg rash), peripheral neuropathy and sicca syndrome symptoms were present only in group A. Musculoskeletal symptoms (bone pain, arthralgia and myalgia), weakness, splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, skin ulcers and proteinuria were also commoner in group A, but the difference did not reach statistical significance, possibly because of partial overlap between cryoglobulinaemia and beta-thalassaemia syndromes. CONCLUSION: Because of its high prevalence in multitransfused beta-thalassaemia patients, cryoglobulinaemia needs to be systematically studied and considered in the differential diagnosis of various beta-thalassaemia manifestations. (+info)
Increased serum concentrations of soluble HLA-class I antigens in hepatitis C virus related mixed cryoglobulinaemia. (8/282)OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether quantitative alterations of both beta(2)microglobulin (beta(2)micro) associated HLA class I heavy chains (sHLA-I) and beta(2) micro free class I heavy chains (sHLA-FHC) in sera of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection occur and whether they distinguish patients with mixed cryoglobulinaemia (MC). METHODS: 83 HCV infected patients were studied and divided into three groups: (A) without cryoglobulinaemia (n=21), (B) with polyclonal MC (n=20), (C) with monoclonal MC (n=42). Serum sHLA-I and sHLA-FHC were measured by double determinant radioimmunoassay using monoclonal antibodies: TP25.99 as catching antibody, and NAMB-1 and HC-10 as revealing antibodies. Western blot identified HLA-I isoforms. RESULTS: The serum concentrations of sHLA-I and of sHLA-FHC in HCV infected patients versus controls were respectively 1.3(0.5) microg/ml (mean (SD)) versus 0.8 (0.3) (p<0. 001) and 13.9 (7.1) ng/ml versus 9.2 (5) (p<0.001). sHLA-I were 1.01 (0.4) microg/ml in group A, 1.04 (0.4) microg/ml in group B, and 1. 47 (0.4) microg/ml in group C (p=0.001). Statistical analysis showed a significant difference versus controls for groups B (p<0.02) and C (p<0.001). sHLA-FHC were 12.8 (8.3) ng/ml in group A, 17.2 (7.1) ng/ml in group B, and 12.9 (6.2) ng/ml in group C (p<0.02). A significant difference versus controls for each group was found (p<0. 02, p<0.001, and p<0.02, respectively). Different patterns of sHLA-I isoforms were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Increased serum concentrations of sHLA-I and sHLA-FHC characterise HCV infected patients. The highest sHLA-I concentrations seem to distinguish patients with monoclonal MC. In this last condition sHLA could play a part in the HCV escape and in B cell proliferation. The significance of sHLA-FHC is still undefined. (+info)
Cryoglobulinemia is a medical condition characterized by the presence of abnormal proteins called cryoglobulins in the blood. Cryoglobulins are proteins that form deposits in the blood vessels, particularly in the small blood vessels of the skin, kidneys, and other organs. Cryoglobulinemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain types of cancer. The symptoms of cryoglobulinemia can vary depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, joint pain, skin rashes, and Raynaud's phenomenon (a condition in which the blood vessels in the fingers and toes constrict, causing them to turn white or blue when exposed to cold temperatures). There are several types of cryoglobulinemia, including primary and secondary cryoglobulinemia. Primary cryoglobulinemia is a rare autoimmune disorder that is characterized by the production of abnormal cryoglobulins by the immune system. Secondary cryoglobulinemia is caused by an underlying condition, such as hepatitis C infection or lymphoma. Treatment for cryoglobulinemia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, treatment may involve medications to manage symptoms or to treat the underlying condition. In more severe cases, treatment may involve plasma exchange or other forms of blood therapy.
Cryoglobulins are abnormal proteins that form deposits in the blood vessels when the temperature drops. They are typically found in the blood plasma and can cause a variety of symptoms, including joint pain, skin rashes, and fatigue. Cryoglobulins are often associated with certain medical conditions, such as hepatitis C, lymphoma, and autoimmune disorders. Treatment for cryoglobulinemia typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition and managing the symptoms.
Hepatitis C is a viral infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is transmitted through contact with infected blood or body fluids. The virus can be transmitted through sharing needles or other equipment used to inject drugs, sexual contact, or from mother to child during childbirth. Hepatitis C can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain, and jaundice. In some cases, the virus can cause chronic liver disease, which can lead to liver failure, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. There are several different strains of the hepatitis C virus, and the severity of the infection can vary depending on the strain and the individual's immune system. Treatment for hepatitis C typically involves antiviral medications, which can help to eliminate the virus from the body and prevent further liver damage. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary for people with severe liver damage.
Rheumatoid factor (RF) is an antibody that is produced by the immune system in response to certain types of infections or autoimmune diseases. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic inflammatory disorder that affects the joints, RF is often present in the blood of affected individuals. RF is a type of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody that binds to the Fc portion of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody. This binding can lead to the formation of immune complexes, which can deposit in the joints and other tissues, causing inflammation and damage. RF levels can be measured in the blood using a blood test. While the presence of RF is not diagnostic of RA, it is often used as a marker of disease activity and can be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. Additionally, some people with RA may have high levels of RF even after their symptoms have improved, indicating that the disease may not be in remission.
Pyroglobulins, also known as haptoglobin, are a type of protein found in the blood that binds to hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. Pyroglobulins are produced by the liver and are primarily found in the plasma, or liquid portion, of the blood. Pyroglobulins play an important role in the body's immune system. When the body is infected or injured, white blood cells called neutrophils release a substance called heme, which is a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown. Pyroglobulins bind to heme and help to remove it from the bloodstream, preventing it from causing damage to other cells and tissues. Pyroglobulins can also be elevated in response to inflammation or infection, and their levels can be used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions, such as sepsis or liver disease. Additionally, pyroglobulins have been studied for their potential use in treating certain types of cancer, as they have been shown to have anti-tumor effects in some laboratory studies.
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a type of kidney disease that affects the glomeruli, which are the tiny filtering units in the kidneys. In MPGN, there is inflammation and proliferation of cells in the glomerular basement membrane, which can lead to thickening and scarring of the membrane. This can impair the glomeruli's ability to filter waste products from the blood, leading to a buildup of toxins in the body. MPGN can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications. Treatment typically involves managing symptoms and addressing the underlying cause of the disease.
Vasculitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels. It can affect any type of blood vessel, including arteries, veins, and capillaries, and can occur in any part of the body. Vasculitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications. Symptoms of vasculitis can vary depending on the location and severity of the inflammation, but may include pain, swelling, redness, and skin ulcers. Treatment for vasculitis typically involves managing symptoms and addressing the underlying cause of the inflammation. In some cases, medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, or biologic agents may be used to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage to the blood vessels.
Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) is a long-term infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is a serious health condition that can lead to liver damage, cirrhosis, and liver cancer if left untreated. CHC is characterized by the persistence of the HCV virus in the liver for more than six months, despite the body's immune system attempting to clear the virus. The virus can remain dormant for years, and symptoms may not appear until significant liver damage has occurred. CHC is primarily transmitted through contact with infected blood, such as through sharing needles or through sexual contact with an infected person. It can also be transmitted from mother to child during childbirth. Treatment for CHC typically involves antiviral medications that can help the body clear the virus and prevent further liver damage. However, some people may not respond to treatment or may experience side effects, so treatment decisions are made on an individual basis.
Paraproteinemias are a group of disorders characterized by the presence of an abnormal amount of one or more paraproteins in the blood. Paraproteins are abnormal proteins produced by plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell that normally produce antibodies to fight infections. There are several types of paraproteinemias, including multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that affects plasma cells and is characterized by the production of large amounts of a single abnormal protein called a monoclonal protein or M protein. Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia is a type of lymphoma that also produces an abnormal protein, but the protein is smaller than the M protein produced in multiple myeloma. MGUS is a condition in which a single clone of abnormal plasma cells produces a small amount of an abnormal protein, but the cells do not cause any symptoms or damage to organs. Paraproteinemias can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the type and severity of the disorder. Some common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, bone pain, kidney problems, and anemia. Treatment for paraproteinemias depends on the specific type and severity of the disorder, and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, or targeted therapies.
Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare autoimmune disorder that involves inflammation of small and medium-sized blood vessels (arterioles) throughout the body. It is characterized by the formation of nodules or masses of inflamed tissue in the walls of the affected arteries, which can lead to damage to the blood vessels and the organs they supply. PAN can affect any part of the body, but it most commonly affects the kidneys, stomach, and nervous system. The symptoms of PAN can vary depending on which organs are affected, but they may include fever, fatigue, joint pain, abdominal pain, and skin rashes. PAN is usually diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, imaging studies, and a biopsy of the affected tissue. Treatment for PAN typically involves the use of high-dose corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive medications to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage to the blood vessels and organs. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged blood vessels.
Endocarditis, Subacute Bacterial is a type of infection that affects the inner lining of the heart (endocardium) and the heart valves. It is caused by bacteria that enter the bloodstream and attach themselves to the heart valves, causing inflammation and damage to the tissue. Subacute bacterial endocarditis typically occurs in people who have an existing heart condition, such as a heart valve defect or a history of rheumatic fever. Symptoms may include fever, chills, sweats, fatigue, and a new or changing heart murmur. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria and surgery to repair or replace damaged heart valves.
Vasculitis, leukocytoclastic, cutaneous is a type of inflammation that affects the blood vessels in the skin. It is characterized by the presence of white blood cells, called leukocytes, in the walls of the blood vessels, which can lead to damage to the vessels and the formation of small blood clots. This can cause a variety of skin symptoms, such as redness, swelling, and ulcers. Vasculitis, leukocytoclastic, cutaneous can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications. It is typically treated with medications that help to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage to the blood vessels.
Polyneuropathy is a medical condition that affects multiple nerves in the body. It is a type of peripheral neuropathy, which means that it affects the nerves that are located outside of the brain and spinal cord. Polyneuropathy can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, infections, toxins, metabolic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and long-term exposure to certain medications. It can affect any part of the body, but is most commonly seen in the hands and feet. Symptoms of polyneuropathy can include tingling, numbness, weakness, and pain in the affected areas. In severe cases, it can lead to muscle wasting, difficulty with coordination and balance, and loss of reflexes. Diagnosis of polyneuropathy typically involves a physical examination, nerve conduction studies, and blood tests to rule out other potential causes. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes.
Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is a type of cytokine, which is a signaling protein produced by immune cells in response to viral infections or other stimuli. IFN-alpha has antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory effects, and is used in the treatment of various medical conditions, including viral infections such as hepatitis B and C, certain types of cancer, and autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. IFN-alpha is typically administered as an injection or infusion, and can cause a range of side effects, including flu-like symptoms, fatigue, and depression.
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived are laboratory-made proteins that are designed to mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful substances, such as viruses and bacteria. They are produced by genetically engineering mouse cells to produce a single type of antibody that is specific to a particular target, such as a protein on the surface of a virus or bacteria. These antibodies are then harvested and purified for use in medical treatments, such as cancer therapy or as a diagnostic tool.
Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is produced by B cells in response to an infection or foreign substance. It is the first antibody to be produced during an immune response and is present in the blood and other body fluids in relatively low concentrations. IgM antibodies are large, Y-shaped molecules that can bind to multiple antigens at once, making them highly effective at neutralizing pathogens and marking them for destruction by other immune cells. They are also able to activate the complement system, a series of proteins that can directly destroy pathogens or mark them for destruction by immune cells. IgM antibodies are often used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, as they are typically the first antibodies to be produced in response to a new infection. They can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of vaccines and to detect the presence of certain diseases, such as viral or bacterial infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain types of cancer.
In the medical field, paraproteins refer to abnormal proteins that are produced by the body's plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell. These proteins are also known as monoclonal proteins or M-proteins. Paraproteins can be either monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or multiple myeloma. MGUS is a condition in which a person has an abnormal level of paraprotein in their blood, but they do not have any symptoms or signs of cancer. Multiple myeloma, on the other hand, is a type of cancer in which the plasma cells produce large amounts of abnormal paraprotein, which can lead to a variety of symptoms and complications. Paraproteins can be detected through blood tests, and their presence can be an indication of a variety of medical conditions, including MGUS, multiple myeloma, and other types of plasma cell disorders. Treatment for paraproteins depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.
Lymphoproliferative disorders are a group of conditions characterized by the abnormal growth and proliferation of lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune system. These disorders can affect any part of the lymphatic system, including the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and thymus. Lymphoproliferative disorders can be classified into two main categories: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, while non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a more general term that encompasses a wide range of lymphatic system disorders, including lymphoma, leukemia, and myeloma. Lymphoproliferative disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral infections, genetic mutations, and exposure to certain chemicals or radiation. Symptoms of these disorders can vary widely depending on the specific type and location of the affected lymphatic tissue, but may include swelling of the lymph nodes, fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Treatment for lymphoproliferative disorders typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or immunotherapy, depending on the specific type and stage of the disorder. In some cases, a stem cell transplant may also be necessary. The prognosis for lymphoproliferative disorders varies depending on the specific type and stage of the disorder, as well as the age and overall health of the patient.
Immune complex diseases are a group of disorders characterized by the formation of immune complexes, which are aggregates of antibodies and antigens that circulate in the blood and tissues. These immune complexes can deposit in various organs and tissues, leading to inflammation and damage. Examples of immune complex diseases include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis. In these conditions, the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells and tissues, leading to symptoms such as joint pain, fatigue, fever, and skin rashes. The formation of immune complexes is thought to be triggered by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and exposure to certain drugs or environmental toxins. Treatment for immune complex diseases typically involves the use of immunosuppressive drugs to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage to tissues.
Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare type of cancer that affects the bone marrow and produces abnormal antibodies called immunoglobulin M (IgM). These antibodies can accumulate in the blood and cause a variety of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, and frequent infections. WM is typically diagnosed through a combination of blood tests, imaging studies, and a bone marrow biopsy. Treatment options for WM include chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and stem cell transplantation. While WM is a serious condition, it is generally slow-growing and can be managed with effective treatment.
Ribavirin is an antiviral medication that is used to treat a variety of viral infections, including hepatitis C, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and some types of influenza. It works by inhibiting the replication of the virus, which can help to reduce the severity and duration of the infection. Ribavirin is typically administered orally or intravenously, and it can be used alone or in combination with other antiviral medications. It is important to note that ribavirin can cause side effects, including anemia, nausea, and headache, and it may not be suitable for everyone. It is always important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of any medication with a healthcare provider before starting treatment.
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune is a type of anemia that occurs when the immune system attacks and destroys red blood cells, leading to their premature destruction or breakdown. This type of anemia is also known as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). In AIHA, the immune system produces antibodies that target red blood cells, causing them to be destroyed by the spleen or liver. This leads to a decrease in the number of red blood cells in the body, which can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and pale skin. There are several types of AIHA, including warm antibody AIHA, cold antibody AIHA, and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria. Treatment for AIHA typically involves medications to suppress the immune system, such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs, as well as blood transfusions in severe cases.
Hepatitis antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of hepatitis viruses in the body. There are several types of hepatitis viruses, including hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E, and each type of virus can produce different types of antibodies. Hepatitis A antibodies are produced in response to infection with the hepatitis A virus and indicate that the person has been exposed to the virus or has developed immunity to it. Hepatitis B antibodies are produced in response to infection with the hepatitis B virus and can indicate that the person has been infected with the virus, has received a vaccination against the virus, or has developed immunity to it. Hepatitis C antibodies are produced in response to infection with the hepatitis C virus and can indicate that the person has been infected with the virus or has developed immunity to it. Hepatitis D antibodies are produced in response to infection with the hepatitis D virus and can indicate that the person has been infected with the virus or has developed immunity to it. Hepatitis E antibodies are produced in response to infection with the hepatitis E virus and can indicate that the person has been infected with the virus or has developed immunity to it. Hepatitis antibodies are typically detected through blood tests and can be used to diagnose hepatitis infections, determine the type of hepatitis virus that is causing an infection, and monitor the effectiveness of treatments for hepatitis infections.
Lymphoma, B-Cell is a type of cancer that affects the B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune system. B cells are responsible for producing antibodies that help the body fight off infections and diseases. In lymphoma, B cells grow and divide uncontrollably, forming tumors in the lymph nodes, bone marrow, and other parts of the body. There are several subtypes of B-cell lymphoma, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The symptoms of B-cell lymphoma can vary depending on the subtype and the location of the tumors, but may include swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Treatment for B-cell lymphoma typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapies. The specific treatment plan will depend on the subtype of lymphoma, the stage of the disease, and the overall health of the patient. In some cases, a stem cell transplant may also be recommended.
Hepatitis C antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. These antibodies are detectable in the blood and can be used as a diagnostic tool to confirm a current or past HCV infection. There are two types of hepatitis C antibodies: anti-HCV antibodies and HCV core antibodies. Anti-HCV antibodies are the most commonly used marker for HCV infection and are usually the first to appear after infection. HCV core antibodies are produced later in the course of infection and are often used as a confirmatory test. The presence of hepatitis C antibodies indicates that a person has been infected with the virus, but it does not necessarily mean that they are currently infected or that they will develop liver disease. Some people may clear the virus on their own without any treatment, while others may develop chronic infection and require treatment to prevent liver damage. It is important to note that hepatitis C antibodies do not protect against future infection, and people who have been infected with HCV should take precautions to prevent transmission to others.
Glomerulonephritis is a type of kidney disease that involves inflammation of the glomeruli, which are tiny blood vessels in the kidneys responsible for filtering waste products from the blood. This inflammation can cause damage to the glomeruli, leading to a range of symptoms and complications. There are many different types of glomerulonephritis, which can be classified based on their underlying cause. Some common causes include infections (such as strep throat or hepatitis B), autoimmune disorders (such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis), and certain medications or toxins. Symptoms of glomerulonephritis can vary depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition. Common symptoms may include blood in the urine, swelling in the legs or feet, high blood pressure, fatigue, and changes in urine output. Treatment for glomerulonephritis typically involves managing symptoms and addressing the underlying cause of the inflammation. This may include medications to reduce inflammation, control blood pressure, and prevent further damage to the kidneys. In some cases, more aggressive treatments such as dialysis or kidney transplantation may be necessary.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of protein that is produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. It is the most abundant type of immunoglobulin in the blood and is responsible for the majority of the body's defense against infections. IgG is produced by B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. When a B cell encounters a foreign substance, it produces IgG antibodies that can recognize and bind to the substance, marking it for destruction by other immune cells. IgG antibodies can also be transferred from mother to child through the placenta during pregnancy, providing the baby with some protection against infections during the first few months of life. In addition, some vaccines contain IgG antibodies to help stimulate the immune system and provide protection against specific diseases. Overall, IgG is an important component of the immune system and plays a critical role in protecting the body against infections and diseases.
Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS) is a group of health problems that can occur in people who regularly use vibrating power tools or operate machinery that generates vibration. The syndrome is caused by prolonged exposure to vibration, which can damage the blood vessels and nerves in the hands and arms. HAVS can cause a range of symptoms, including numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hands and fingers, as well as pain, reduced grip strength, and difficulty with fine motor skills. In severe cases, HAVS can lead to permanent damage to the hands and fingers, including the loss of sensation and movement. HAVS is a preventable condition, and steps can be taken to reduce exposure to vibration, such as using vibration-dampening tools, taking regular breaks, and using protective gloves and clothing. If you suspect that you may have HAVS, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible to prevent further damage and to receive appropriate treatment.
Raynaud's disease, also known as Raynaud's phenomenon, is a medical condition characterized by a temporary decrease in blood flow to the fingers, toes, and sometimes other parts of the body, such as the nose and ears. This can cause the affected area to feel cold, numb, and painful, and may turn white or blue in color. Raynaud's disease is usually triggered by cold temperatures, stress, or emotional stress, and can also be caused by certain medications or medical conditions, such as lupus, scleroderma, or thyroid disorders. In severe cases, Raynaud's disease can lead to tissue damage and even gangrene if blood flow is not restored quickly. Treatment for Raynaud's disease typically involves lifestyle changes, such as avoiding cold temperatures and stress, and medications to improve blood flow and reduce pain. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat underlying medical conditions that are causing the symptoms of Raynaud's disease.
A laboratory infection is an infection that occurs in a laboratory setting, typically as a result of exposure to infectious agents or contaminated materials. Laboratory infections can occur in a variety of settings, including research laboratories, clinical laboratories, and diagnostic laboratories. Laboratory infections can be caused by a wide range of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. They can be transmitted through various routes, including direct contact with infected individuals or contaminated materials, inhalation of infectious particles, or ingestion of contaminated food or water. Symptoms of laboratory infections can vary depending on the pathogen causing the infection. Common symptoms may include fever, cough, sore throat, headache, fatigue, and body aches. In some cases, laboratory infections can be severe and even life-threatening, particularly if the pathogen is highly contagious or resistant to treatment. Preventing laboratory infections is critical to maintaining a safe and healthy work environment for laboratory personnel. This can be achieved through proper infection control practices, including the use of personal protective equipment, proper handling and disposal of infectious materials, and regular cleaning and disinfection of laboratory surfaces and equipment.
Occupational diseases are illnesses or injuries that are caused by exposure to hazards or conditions in the workplace. These hazards or conditions can include chemicals, dusts, fumes, radiation, noise, vibration, and physical demands such as repetitive motions or awkward postures. Occupational diseases can affect various systems in the body, including the respiratory system, skin, eyes, ears, cardiovascular system, and nervous system. Examples of occupational diseases include asbestosis, silicosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and hearing loss. Occupational diseases are preventable through proper safety measures and regulations in the workplace. Employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthy work environment for their employees, and workers have the right to report hazards and seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms related to their work.
Cold sensitive antibodies
Andrew Almon Fletcher
Signs and symptoms
Monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance
Plasma cell dyscrasias
Edward C. Franklin
List of diseases (C)
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- Cryoglobulinemia is characterized by the presence of cryoglobulins in the serum. (medscape.com)
- Types II and III cryoglobulinemia represent 80% of all cryoglobulins. (medscape.com)
- Cryoglobulinemia produces immunoglobulins that precipitate when plasma is cooled (ie, cryoglobulins) while flowing through the skin and subcutaneous tissues of the extremities. (msdmanuals.com)
- The cryoglobulins were tested by immunofixation, which detected monoclonal IgM and polyclonal IgG with only traces of IgA (i.e. type II mixed cryoglobulinaemia) ( Figure 1 ). (who.int)
- The spectrum of type I cryoglobulinemia vasculitis: new insights based on 64 cases. (medscape.com)
- Karlsberg PL, Lee WM, Casey DL, Cockerell CJ, Cruz PD Jr. Cutaneous vasculitis and rheumatoid factor positivity as presenting signs of hepatitis C virus-induced mixed cryoglobulinemia. (medscape.com)
- Cryoglobulinemia is part of a group of diseases that cause damage and inflammation of the blood vessels throughout the body (vasculitis). (medlineplus.gov)
- Severe cryoglobulinemia vasculitis involves vital organs or large areas of skin. (medlineplus.gov)
- In another study, of 64 patients with type I cryoglobulinemia vasculitis, Terrier et al identified 28 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance and 36 with hematologic malignancy. (medscape.com)
- Type I monoclonal cryoglobulinemia vasculitis was characterized by severe cutaneous involvement (necrosis and ulcers) in almost 50% the patients, as well as high serum cryoglobulin levels. (medscape.com)
- Some of the sequelae of cryoglobulinemia are thought to be related to immune-complex disease (eg, glomerulonephritis, chronic vasculitis), but not all persons with cryoglobulinemia present with these manifestations. (medscape.com)
- 15. Central nervous system involvement in hepatitis C virus cryoglobulinemia vasculitis: a multicenter case-control study using magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological tests. (nih.gov)
- Long-term outcome of monoclonal (type 1) cryoglobulinemia. (medscape.com)
- The actual RF may be monoclonal (in type II cryoglobulinemia) or polyclonal (in type III cryoglobulinemia) immunoglobulin. (medscape.com)
- Type I cryoglobulinemia is comprised simply of monoclonal immunoglobulins, typically IgM but less frequently IgG, IgA, or serum light chains. (renalfellow.org)
- Type II cryoglobulinemia is when a monoclonal IgM recognizes and binds to polyclonal IgG's, explaining why Type II cryos are IgM-IgG complexes. (renalfellow.org)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with type II cryoglobulinemia. (medscape.com)
- Abel G, Zhang QX, Agnello V. Hepatitis C virus infection in type II mixed cryoglobulinemia. (medscape.com)
- Sansonno D, Cornacchiulo V, Iacobelli AR, Di Stefano R, Lospalluti M, Dammacco F. Localization of hepatitis C virus antigens in liver and skin tissues of chronic hepatitis C virus-infected patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia. (medscape.com)
- Types II and III are most often found in people who have a long-lasting (chronic) inflammatory condition, such as an autoimmune disease or hepatitis C. Most people with the type II form of cryoglobulinemia have a chronic hepatitis C infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- You have hepatitis C and develop symptoms of cryoglobulinemia. (medlineplus.gov)
- However, the discovery of a close association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and mixed cryoglobulinemia has cast doubt on the existence of essential, or idiopathic, cryoglobulinemia. (medscape.com)
- The role of interleukin (IL) 28B in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) has recently been examined in many studies, while a possible relationship between IL28B and the presence of mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) remains to be clarified. (nih.gov)
- Obtaining a sustained virologic response (SVR) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) can decrease hepatic complications and be curative, however, extrahepatic manifestations including mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCN) may persist with interferon-based therapy. (nih.gov)
- 1. Impact of mixed cryoglobulinemia on patients with spontaneous hepatitis C virus clearance: A 13-year prospective cohort study. (nih.gov)
- 2. Rheumatoid factor and immunoglobulin M mark hepatitis C-associated mixed cryoglobulinaemia: an 8-year prospective study. (nih.gov)
- 4. Cryoglobulinemia in chronic hepatitis C virus infection: prevalence, clinical manifestations, response to interferon treatment and analysis of cryoprecipitates. (nih.gov)
- 7. Anti-endothelial cell auto-antibodies in hepatitis C virus mixed cryoglobulinemia. (nih.gov)
- 9. The etiology and pathophysiology of mixed cryoglobulinemia secondary to hepatitis C virus infection. (nih.gov)
- 10. Mixed cryoglobulinemia and hepatitis C virus. (nih.gov)
- 14. Interferon-alpha treatment of hepatitis C virus-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia. (nih.gov)
- 16. Clinical, biochemical, and histological changes in hepatitis C virus infection-associated cryoglobulinemia. (nih.gov)
- 17. Somatic hypermutations confer rheumatoid factor activity in hepatitis C virus-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia. (nih.gov)
- 18. Influence of HLA-DR phenotype on the risk of hepatitis C virus-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia. (nih.gov)
- 19. Prevalence of ANCA in mixed cryoglobulinemia and chronic hepatitis C virus infection. (nih.gov)
- 20. Parvovirus B19 infection, hepatitis C virus infection, and mixed cryoglobulinaemia. (nih.gov)
- Together, Type II & III cryoglobulinemia are referred to as "Mixed Cryoglobulinemia", and these are the types most commonly associated with hepatitis C. (renalfellow.org)
- Solving the mystery of HBV-related mixed cryoglobulinemia: potential biomarkers of disease progression. (medscape.com)
- Mixed cryoglobulinemia: clinical aspects and long-term follow-up of 40 patients. (medscape.com)
- Most of the time, mixed cryoglobulinemia does not lead to death. (medlineplus.gov)
- Types II and III cryoglobulinemia (mixed cryoglobulinemia) contain rheumatoid factors (RFs), which are usually IgM and, rarely, IgG or IgA. (medscape.com)
- Classical interstitial pneumonitis and mixed cryoglobulinemia in a male with Turner phenotype. (houstonmethodist.org)
- 6. Different biochemical patterns in type II and type III mixed cryoglobulinemia in HCV positive patients. (nih.gov)
- 8. Mixed cryoglobulinemia: demographic, clinical, and serologic features and survival in 231 patients. (nih.gov)
- Cryoglobulinemia without an associated disease has been known as essential, or idiopathic, cryoglobulinemia. (medscape.com)
- In a study of patients with type II cryoglobulinemia, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 18 patients were separated into CD3 + (T cells), CD19 + (B cells), and CD14 + (monocytes) and analyzed for the presence of negative-strand HCV RNA and for HCV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3). (medscape.com)
- Type III cryoglobulinemia is when a polyclonal Ig recognizes polyclonal Ig. (renalfellow.org)
- A transgenic mouse model of autoimmune glomerulonephritis and necrotizing arteritis associated with cryoglobulinemia. (medscape.com)
- Cryoglobulinemia is characterized by the presence of circulating antibodies which precipitate at cooler temperatures, and not infrequently leads to renal failure/glomerulonephritis. (renalfellow.org)
- The stereotypical histologic lesion of cryoglobulinemia is membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, which takes the appearance on light microscopy of this heavily lobulated glomerulus. (renalfellow.org)
- At that time, the lesion was believed to be related to the cryoglobulinemia. (cdc.gov)
- There are no CT scan findings associated with cryoglobulinemia. (wikidoc.org)
- [ 4 ] Cryoglobulinemia associated with a particular disease (lymphoproliferative disorder, autoimmune disease, infectious disease) is known as secondary cryoglobulinemia. (medscape.com)
- Type I cryoglobulinemia is most often related to cancer of the blood or immune systems. (medlineplus.gov)
- Cryoglobulinemia can manifest with acral hemorrhagic necrosis, palpable purpura, livedo reticularis, and leg ulcers. (msdmanuals.com)
- Cryoglobulinemia may also be classified based on the association of the syndrome with an underlying disease. (medscape.com)
- Type I MPGN is a pattern which can be associated with many different diseases, of which cryoglobulinemia is one. (renalfellow.org)
- Cryoglobulinemia is the presence of abnormal proteins in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
- 5. Prevalence of cryoglobulinemia and serological markers of autoimmunity in human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals: a cross-sectional study of 97 patients. (nih.gov)
- We describe a patient with cryoglobulinemia refractory to standard therapy who died of GAE after receiving rituximab. (cdc.gov)