A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.
The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)
Macrocyclic polyethers with the repeating unit of (-CH2-CH2-O)n where n is greater than 2 and some oxygens may be replaced by nitrogen, sulfur or phosphorus. These compounds are useful for coordinating CATIONS. The nomenclature uses a prefix to indicate the size of the ring and a suffix for the number of heteroatoms.
The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)
Technique combining controlled eruptive tooth movement and incision of the supracrestal gingival attachment to allow for proper restoration of a destroyed or damaged crown of a tooth. Controlled eruption of the tooth is obtained using ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES. During this eruptive phase, repeated incisions are made at the junctional epithelium of the sulcus and the supracrestal connective tissue to prevent coronal displacement of the gingiva and of the attachment apparatus.
The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The use of a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or acrylic resin, applied to the surface of natural teeth, crowns, or pontics by fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention.
The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.
Holding a DENTAL PROSTHESIS in place by its design, or by the use of additional devices or adhesives.
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.
Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
Use of a metal casting, usually with a post in the pulp or root canal, designed to support and retain an artificial crown.
The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.
Measurement of tooth characteristics.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
A material used for cementation of inlays, crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances and occasionally as a temporary restoration. It is prepared by mixing zinc oxide and magnesium oxide powders with a liquid consisting principally of phosphoric acid, water, and buffers. (From Bouchers' Clinical Dental Terminology, 3d ed)
The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.
A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.
Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.
Occlusal wear of the surfaces of restorations and surface wear of dentures.
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
A denture replacing one or more (but not all) natural teeth. It is supported and retained by underlying tissue and some or all of the remaining teeth.
The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.
The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)
The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
The joining of objects by means of a cement (e.g., in fracture fixation, such as in hip arthroplasty for joining of the acetabular component to the femoral component). In dentistry, it is used for the process of attaching parts of a tooth or restorative material to a natural tooth or for the attaching of orthodontic bands to teeth by means of an adhesive.
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Y, atomic number 39, and atomic weight 88.91. In conjunction with other rare earths, yttrium is used as a phosphor in television receivers and is a component of the yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers.
Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Material from which the casting mold is made in the fabrication of gold or cobalt-chromium castings. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p168)
A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.
A partial denture intended for short-term use in a temporary or emergency situation.
The plan, delineation, and location of actual structural elements of dentures. The design can relate to retainers, stress-breakers, occlusal rests, flanges, framework, lingual or palatal bars, reciprocal arms, etc.
Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.
The constricted part of the tooth at the junction of the crown and root or roots. It is often referred to as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), the line at which the cementum covering the root of a tooth and the enamel of the tooth meet. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p530, p433)
Any restorative and replacement device that is used as a therapeutic aid in the treatment of periodontal disease. It is an adjunct to other forms of periodontal therapy and does not cure periodontal disease by itself. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 3d ed)
A partial denture attached to prepared natural teeth, roots, or implants by cementation.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)
A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Procedures carried out with regard to the teeth or tooth structures preparatory to specified dental therapeutic and surgical measures.
An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.
The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.
The wearing away of a tooth as a result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It is chiefly associated with aging. It is differentiated from TOOTH ABRASION (the pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by friction, as brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes) and from TOOTH EROSION (the loss of substance caused by chemical action without bacterial action). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p86)
Macrocyclic compounds analogous to CROWN ETHERS but which lack any OXYGEN atoms.
A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.
Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)
A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.
A normal developing tooth which has not yet perforated the oral mucosa or one that fails to erupt in the normal sequence or time interval expected for the type of tooth in a given gender, age, or population group.
The retention of a denture in place by design, device, or adhesion.
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Restorations of metal, porcelain, or plastic made to fit a cavity preparation, then cemented into the tooth. Onlays are restorations which fit into cavity preparations and overlay the occlusal surface of a tooth or teeth. Onlays are retained by frictional or mechanical factors.
The process of reuniting or replacing a broken or worn dental prosthesis or its part.
The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
A prosthesis that gains its support, stability, and retention from a substructure that is implanted under the soft tissues of the basal seat of the device and is in contact with bone. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processes
The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Coloring, shading, or tinting of prosthetic components, devices, and materials.
Methods of preparing tissue specimens for visualization using an electron microscope, usually a scanning electron microscope. The methods involve the creation of exact copies of the specimens by making a mold or cast (i.e., replica) of the specimen.
The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
Devices, usually alloplastic, surgically inserted into or onto the jawbone, which support a single prosthetic tooth and serve either as abutments or as cosmetic replacements for missing teeth.
The 32 teeth of adulthood that either replace or are added to the complement of deciduous teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.

In vitro comparison of peak polymerization temperatures of 5 provisional restoration resins. (1/265)

BACKGROUND: The heat produced by provisional restoration materials may injure the dental pulp. This study measured and compared peak temperatures during polymerization of 5 materials used in the fabrication of provisional restorations. METHODS: The tested materials were 2 self-curing resins (Integrity and Protemp) and 3 dual-cure resins (Iso-Temp, TCB Dual Cure and Provipont DC). A mould the size of a maxillary molar tooth was fabricated to contain 0.5 cc of resin. The temperature rise of the different materials was recorded every 10 seconds over a 10-minute period. RESULTS: The rise in temperature of Integrity (peak temperature of 33.8 degrees C) and Protemp Garant (35.6 degrees C) was significantly higher than the rise in temperature of Iso-Temp (29.5 degrees C), TCB Dual Cure (28.4 degrees C) and Provipont DC (29.5 degrees C). CONCLUSION: Use of the dual-cure resins in provisional restorations may reduce the risk of pulp injury.  (+info)

The use of resin cements in restorative dentistry to overcome retention problems. (2/265)

The use of resin cements in combination with dentin bonding agents can result in superior attachment of prostheses to tooth structure. This paper describes four clinical cases in which dentin-bonded resin cements were used to overcome retention problems. In the first case, a detached fixed partial denture, which was in good condition when separated, was recemented to abutment teeth prepared with less-than-ideal angle of convergence. In the second case, a detached all-porcelain crown was recemented with a dentin-bonded resin cement after appropriate surface treatment. In the third case, a porcelain-fused-to-metal crown made for a molar tooth was cemented to a short clinical crown, avoiding crown-lengthening surgery. In the fourth case, a 3-unit fixed partial denture was recemented to abutments with less-than-ideal supporting features. Dentin-bonded resin cements can help to extend the life of detached prostheses until the patient is financially prepared for replacement or it can help to avoid crown-lengthening surgery.  (+info)

The use of real time video magnification for the pre-clinical teaching of crown preparations. (3/265)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect on the undergraduate learning process of using an alternative method designed to enhance the visual demonstration of taper on full veneer crown preparations (better understanding of the value of taper on preparations early in the teaching programme in restorative dentistry). DESIGN: A comparison between the conventional teaching of full veneer crown preparations and the same teaching with the additional use of a magnified real time video display using a surgical microscope was investigated in this study. OUTCOME MEASURES: The degree of taper was measured for replica full crown preparations and results compared between different cohorts of undergraduates and experimental conditions. RESULT: Undergraduates taught using the real time video produced more accurately tapered preparations. This ability was retained over one year. CONCLUSIONS: A possible explanation for the result was that the use of magnification improved the undergraduates' precise understanding of taper by enhancing their ability to evaluate this critical measurement during the teaching process.  (+info)

An unusual case of talon cusp on geminated tooth. (4/265)

A rare case of talon cusp on geminated permanent central incisor is described. These developmental anomalies cause clinical problems including unsightly dental appearance, occlusal interference, displacement of the affected tooth, attrition, periodontopathy, irritation of the tongue, loss of space and malocclusion. Clinical and radiographic characteristics of these anomalies and modes of treatment are presented. Recognition of this condition and early diagnosis are important to avoid complications.  (+info)

Adverse reactions triggered by dental local anesthetics: a clinical survey. (5/265)

One hundred and seventy-nine patients completed a questionnaire focusing on adverse reactions to dental local anesthetics as manifested by 16 signs and symptoms. Twenty-six percent of the participants reported having at least 1 adverse reaction. It was found that most of the adverse reactions occurred within the first 2 hours following the injection of local anesthetics. Pallor, palpitations, diaphoresis, and dizziness were the most common adverse reactions reported in the study. The results pointed to a significant relationship between anxiety, gender, injection technique, and procedure with a higher incidence of adverse reactions.  (+info)

Casting accuracy of experimental Ti-Cu alloys. (6/265)

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the casting accuracy and the dimensional change of experimental titanium-copper alloys (3.0 and 5.0 mass% Cu; hereafter, only "%" will be used) and to compare the findings with those of pure titanium. Castings were made using an argon-arc melting/pressure difference-casting unit. The fit of the metals cast in both full crown and MOD inlay dies was evaluated by measuring the distance between the shoulder margin and the cervical shoulder of the die. The changes in the inner diameter of castings were determined. In addition, surface roughness measurements inside the castings were carried out using a conventional profilometer, and thermal expansion measurements were made on cast cylindrical specimens using a differential dilatometer. There were no significant differences in dimensional change between pure titanium and the titanium-copper alloys. The fit of the titanium-copper alloys was inferior to pure titanium. The results of surface roughness measurements showed significance differences between the roughness of the pure titanium and titanium-copper alloys.  (+info)

Integrating posterior crowns with partial dentures. (7/265)

This article outlines those considerations which are important in integrating posterior crowns with partial dentures. Planning the support and retention of the denture prior to crown construction will enhance patient treatment. Modification of the crown preparation to incorporate rest seats, retentive areas, guide planes and a planned path of insertion may be necessary.  (+info)

The shear bond strength of composite brackets on porcelain teeth. (8/265)

Recent advances in materials and techniques suggest that direct bonding of orthodontic attachments to surfaces other than enamel may now be possible. To test the effectiveness of bonding orthodontic attachments to porcelain teeth, composite brackets (Spirit MB) were bonded to 64 porcelain teeth by means of a self-cure non-mixed resin system (Unite). The 64 porcelain teeth were divided into groups of eight and after roughening with a green stone they were subjected to a combination of treatments. Some were etched, some primed with a silane coupling agent and some received both treatments before the brackets were bonded to them. Half of the teeth were then thermally-cycled 500 times between 4 and 60 degrees C before all the brackets were removed in a shear test. The shear data was analysed by one way analysis of variance and the Student-Newman-Keul test. The results showed that the highest bond strength existed in the group which had been both etched and primed but not thermocycled (P < 0.05). The factors that affected the bond strength, beginning with the most significant, were acid etching, primer application, and then thermocycling. A mechanical based composite bracket can offer good bond strength to porcelain teeth.  (+info)

A dental crown is a type of dental restoration that completely caps or encircles a tooth or dental implant. Crowns are used to restore the strength, functionality, and appearance of teeth that have been damaged or weakened due to various reasons such as decay, fracture, or large fillings. They can be made from various materials including porcelain, ceramic, metal, or a combination of these. The crown is custom-made to fit over the prepared tooth and is cemented into place, becoming a permanent part of the tooth. Crowns are also used for cosmetic purposes to improve the appearance of discolored or misshapen teeth.

A tooth crown is a type of dental restoration that covers the entire visible portion of a tooth, restoring its shape, size, and strength. It is typically made of materials like porcelain, ceramic, or metal alloys and is custom-made to fit over the prepared tooth. The tooth crown is cemented in place and becomes the new outer surface of the tooth, protecting it from further damage or decay.

The process of getting a tooth crown usually involves two dental appointments. During the first appointment, the dentist prepares the tooth by removing any decay or damaged tissue and shaping the tooth to accommodate the crown. An impression is then taken of the prepared tooth and sent to a dental laboratory where the crown is fabricated. In the meantime, a temporary crown is placed over the prepared tooth to protect it until the permanent crown is ready. At the second appointment, the temporary crown is removed, and the permanent crown is cemented in place.

Tooth crowns are often recommended for several reasons, including:

* To restore a broken or fractured tooth
* To protect a weakened tooth from further damage or decay
* To support a large filling when there isn't enough natural tooth structure left
* To cover a dental implant
* To improve the appearance of a discolored or misshapen tooth

Overall, a tooth crown is an effective and long-lasting solution for restoring damaged or decayed teeth and improving oral health.

Crown ethers are a type of organic compound that contain a ring of atoms, typically oxygen and carbon, with alternating single and double bonds. The name "crown ether" comes from the crown-like shape of these molecules, which have a central cavity that can bind to metal ions or other positively charged species through a process called coordination.

The size of the cavity in a crown ether determines which ions it can bind to. For example, smaller crown ethers with cavities that are just a few angstroms across may be able to bind to small metal ions like lithium or sodium, while larger crown ethers with cavities up to about 10 angstroms across may be able to bind to larger ions like potassium or ammonium.

Crown ethers have a variety of uses in chemistry and biology. For example, they can be used as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions, or as tools for studying the properties of metal ions and other charged species. They also have potential applications in medicine, as drugs that can selectively bind to and inhibit the activity of certain proteins or enzymes.

Tooth preparation in prosthodontics refers to the process of altering the clinical crown of a tooth or teeth to receive a restoration, such as a crown, veneer, or bridge. This procedure involves removing a portion of the enamel and dentin to create a suitable foundation for the prosthetic device. The preparation aims to achieve proper retention, resistance form, and marginal fit, ensuring the successful integration and longevity of the restoration. The process may also include the management of tooth structure loss due to decay, trauma, or wear, and the establishment of harmonious occlusion with the opposing teeth.

Crown lengthening is a dental procedure that involves the reshaping of the gum tissue and/or bone surrounding a tooth to expose more of its crown (the part of the tooth that is visible above the gum line). This procedure may be recommended for various reasons, such as:

1. To improve the appearance of a "gummy" smile, where an excessive amount of gum tissue covers the teeth, making them appear short or stubby.
2. To prepare a tooth for a dental crown or restoration when there is not enough natural tooth structure above the gum line to support the restoration.
3. To treat gum recession and exposed root surfaces, which can be caused by periodontal disease or aggressive brushing habits.
4. To remove decay or damaged tissue from below the gum line and provide access for a more effective dental treatment.

Crown lengthening is typically performed under local anesthesia and may involve the use of specialized dental instruments, such as surgical scalpels, drills, or lasers. The procedure can take anywhere from 30 minutes to two hours, depending on the number of teeth involved and the complexity of the case. After the procedure, patients may experience some discomfort, swelling, or sensitivity, which can be managed with over-the-counter pain relievers, ice packs, and a soft diet. Full recovery usually takes about two to four weeks, during which time it is essential to maintain good oral hygiene and follow the dentist's instructions carefully.

A dental prosthesis is a device that replaces missing teeth or parts of teeth and restores their function and appearance. The design of a dental prosthesis refers to the plan and specifications used to create it, including the materials, shape, size, and arrangement of the artificial teeth and any supporting structures.

The design of a dental prosthesis is typically based on a variety of factors, including:

* The number and location of missing teeth
* The condition of the remaining teeth and gums
* The patient's bite and jaw alignment
* The patient's aesthetic preferences
* The patient's ability to chew and speak properly

There are several types of dental prostheses, including:

* Dentures: A removable appliance that replaces all or most of the upper or lower teeth.
* Fixed partial denture (FPD): Also known as a bridge, this is a fixed (non-removable) appliance that replaces one or more missing teeth by attaching artificial teeth to the remaining natural teeth on either side of the gap.
* Removable partial denture (RPD): A removable appliance that replaces some but not all of the upper or lower teeth.
* Implant-supported prosthesis: An artificial tooth or set of teeth that is supported by dental implants, which are surgically placed in the jawbone.

The design of a dental prosthesis must be carefully planned and executed to ensure a good fit, proper function, and natural appearance. It may involve several appointments with a dentist or dental specialist, such as a prosthodontist, to take impressions, make measurements, and try in the finished prosthesis.

A plant tumor, also known as a gall or neoplasm, is an abnormal growth that occurs in plants. These growths can be caused by various factors such as genetic mutations, bacterial or viral infections, and physical injuries. However, the most well-known cause of plant tumors are crown galls, which are induced by the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

When this bacterium infects a plant through a wound, it transfers a portion of its DNA (T-DNA) into the plant's cells. The T-DNA contains genes that encode enzymes responsible for the production of auxins and cytokinins, two types of plant hormones that promote cell division and growth. As a result, the infected plant cells start to divide uncontrollably, leading to the formation of a tumor-like growth.

Plant tumors can vary in size and appearance, ranging from small bumps to large, disfigured growths. While they are not typically harmful to the plant, they can reduce its aesthetic value and economic productivity. In some cases, plant tumors may also provide a habitat for pests and diseases, which can further harm the plant.

Dental porcelain is a type of biocompatible ceramic material that is commonly used in restorative and cosmetic dentistry to create tooth-colored restorations such as crowns, veneers, inlays, onlays, and bridges. It is made from a mixture of powdered porcelain and water, which is heated to high temperatures to form a hard, glass-like substance. Dental porcelain has several desirable properties for dental restorations, including:

1. High strength and durability: Dental porcelain is strong enough to withstand the forces of biting and chewing, making it suitable for use in load-bearing restorations such as crowns and bridges.
2. Natural appearance: Dental porcelain can be matched closely to the color, translucency, and texture of natural teeth, allowing for highly aesthetic restorations that blend seamlessly with the surrounding dentition.
3. Biocompatibility: Dental porcelain is biologically inert and does not cause adverse reactions or toxicity in the body, making it a safe choice for dental restorations.
4. Chemical resistance: Dental porcelain is resistant to staining and chemical attack from substances such as coffee, tea, red wine, and acidic foods and drinks.
5. Low thermal conductivity: Dental porcelain has low thermal conductivity, which means it does not transmit heat or cold readily, reducing the risk of temperature sensitivity in dental restorations.

Overall, dental porcelain is a versatile and reliable material for creating high-quality, natural-looking, and durable dental restorations.

Dental veneers, also known as dental porcelain laminates or just veneers, are thin custom-made shells of tooth-colored materials designed to cover the front surface of teeth to improve their appearance. These shells are bonded to the front of the teeth, changing their color, shape, size, or length.

Dental veneers can be made from porcelain or resin composite materials. Porcelain veneers are more stain-resistant and generally last longer than resin veneers. They also better mimic the light-reflecting properties of natural teeth. Resin veneers, on the other hand, are thinner and require less removal of the tooth's surface before placement.

Dental veneers are often used to treat dental conditions like discolored teeth, worn down teeth, chipped or broken teeth, misaligned teeth, irregularly shaped teeth, or gaps between teeth. The procedure usually requires three visits to the dentist: one for consultation and treatment planning, another to prepare the tooth and take an impression for the veneer, and a final visit to bond the veneer to the tooth.

It is important to note that while dental veneers can greatly improve the appearance of your teeth, they are not suitable for everyone. Your dentist will evaluate your oral health and discuss whether dental veneers are the right option for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Metal Ceramic Alloys" is not a recognized medical term. It is, however, a term used in the field of materials science and engineering. Metal ceramic alloys, also known as cermets, are materials that combine properties of both metals and ceramics. They are typically composed of a metal or alloy matrix with embedded ceramic particles.

In the context of medical devices or dental restorations, the term you might be looking for is "porcelain-fused-to-metal" (PFM). PFM restorations are a type of dental crown or bridge that combines a metal substructure with a ceramic outer layer. The metal provides strength and durability, while the ceramic layer mimics the appearance of natural teeth.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or definitions, please don't hesitate to ask!

Dental prosthesis retention refers to the means by which a dental prosthesis, such as a denture, is held in place in the mouth. The retention can be achieved through several methods, including:

1. Suction: This is the most common method of retention for lower dentures, where the shape and fit of the denture base create suction against the gums to hold it in place.
2. Mechanical retention: This involves the use of mechanical components such as clasps or attachments that hook onto remaining natural teeth or dental implants to hold the prosthesis in place.
3. Adhesive retention: Dental adhesives can be used to help secure the denture to the gums, providing additional retention and stability.
4. Implant retention: Dental implants can be used to provide a more secure and stable retention of the dental prosthesis. The implant is surgically placed in the jawbone and acts as an anchor for the prosthesis.

Proper retention of a dental prosthesis is essential for optimal function, comfort, and speech. A well-retained prosthesis can help prevent sore spots, improve chewing efficiency, and enhance overall quality of life.

In the context of dentistry, a molar is a type of tooth found in the back of the mouth. They are larger and wider than other types of teeth, such as incisors or canines, and have a flat biting surface with multiple cusps. Molars are primarily used for grinding and chewing food into smaller pieces that are easier to swallow. Humans typically have twelve molars in total, including the four wisdom teeth.

In medical terminology outside of dentistry, "molar" can also refer to a unit of mass in the apothecaries' system of measurement, which is equivalent to 4.08 grams. However, this usage is less common and not related to dental or medical anatomy.

Computer-Aided Design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design. CAD software is used to create and manage designs in a variety of fields, such as architecture, engineering, and manufacturing. It allows designers to visualize their ideas in 2D or 3D, simulate how the design will function, and make changes quickly and easily. This can help to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the design process, and can also facilitate collaboration and communication among team members.

Zirconium is not a medical term, but it is a chemical element with the symbol Zr and atomic number 40. It is a gray-white, strong, corrosion-resistant transition metal that is used primarily in nuclear reactors, as an opacifier in glazes for ceramic cookware, and in surgical implants such as artificial joints due to its biocompatibility.

In the context of medical devices or implants, zirconium alloys may be used for their mechanical properties and resistance to corrosion. For example, zirconia (a form of zirconium dioxide) is a popular material for dental crowns and implants due to its durability, strength, and natural appearance.

However, it's important to note that while zirconium itself is not considered a medical term, there are various medical applications and devices that utilize zirconium-based materials.

Dental restoration failure refers to the breakdown or loss of functionality of a dental restoration, which is a procedure performed to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of a tooth that has been damaged due to decay, trauma, or wear. The restoration can include fillings, crowns, veneers, bridges, and implants. Failure of dental restorations can occur due to various reasons such as recurrent decay, fracture, poor fit, or material failure, leading to further damage or loss of the tooth.

An incisor is a type of tooth that is primarily designed for biting off food pieces rather than chewing or grinding. They are typically chisel-shaped, flat, and have a sharp cutting edge. In humans, there are eight incisors - four on the upper jaw and four on the lower jaw, located at the front of the mouth. Other animals such as dogs, cats, and rodents also have incisors that they use for different purposes like tearing or gnawing.

The post and core technique is a dental restorative procedure that involves the use of a post made of metal or other materials, which is placed inside the root canal of a severely damaged tooth, to provide support and retention for a dental core. The dental core is then built up using various materials such as composite resin, glass ionomer cement, or amalgam, to restore the missing portion of the tooth structure. This technique is often used as a foundation for a dental crown in cases where there is not enough remaining tooth structure to support the crown on its own. The post and core restoration helps to reinforce the tooth, prevent fractures, and improve the overall functionality and esthetics of the restored tooth.

The dental casting technique is a method used in dentistry to create accurate replicas or reproductions of teeth and oral structures. This process typically involves the following steps:

1. Making an impression: A dental professional takes an impression of the patient's teeth and oral structures using a special material, such as alginate or polyvinyl siloxane. The impression material captures the precise shape and contours of the teeth and surrounding tissues.
2. Pouring the cast: The impression is then filled with a casting material, such as gypsum-based stone, which hardens to form a positive model or replica of the teeth and oral structures. This model is called a dental cast or die.
3. Examining and modifying the cast: The dental cast can be used for various purposes, such as analyzing the patient's bite, planning treatment, fabricating dental appliances, or creating study models for teaching or research purposes. Dental professionals may also modify the cast to simulate various conditions or treatments.
4. Replicating the process: In some cases, multiple casts may be made from a single impression, allowing dental professionals to create identical replicas of the patient's teeth and oral structures. This can be useful for comparing changes over time, creating duplicate appliances, or sharing information with other dental professionals involved in the patient's care.

The dental casting technique is an essential part of many dental procedures, as it enables dentists to accurately assess, plan, and implement treatments based on the unique characteristics of each patient's oral structures.

Odontometry is a term used in dentistry that refers to the measurement of teeth, particularly the size and length of teeth or tooth roots. It is often used in forensic dentistry for identification purposes, such as in age estimation, sex determination, or individual identification of human remains. The measurements can be taken using various methods, including radiographs (x-rays), calipers, or specialized software.

In some contexts, odontometry may also refer to the process of measuring the amount of dental work required for a particular treatment plan, although this usage is less common.

Dental alloys are materials made by combining two or more metals to be used in dental restorations, such as crowns, bridges, fillings, and orthodontic appliances. These alloys can be classified into three main categories based on their composition:

1. Precious Alloys: Predominantly composed of precious metals like gold, platinum, palladium, and silver. They are highly corrosion-resistant, biocompatible, and durable, making them suitable for long-term use in dental restorations. Common examples include high noble (gold) alloys and noble alloys.
2. Base Metal Alloys: Contain primarily non-precious metals like nickel, chromium, cobalt, and beryllium. They are more affordable than precious alloys but may cause allergic reactions or sensitivities in some patients. Common examples include nickel-chromium alloys and cobalt-chromium alloys.
3. Castable Glass Ionomer Alloys: A combination of glass ionomer cement (GIC) powder and metal liquid, which can be cast into various dental restorations. They have the advantage of being both strong and adhesive to tooth structure but may not be as durable as other alloy types.

Each type of dental alloy has its unique properties and applications, depending on the specific clinical situation and patient needs. Dental professionals consider factors like cost, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and esthetics when selecting an appropriate alloy for a dental restoration.

A bicuspid valve, also known as a mitral valve in the heart, is a heart valve that has two leaflets or cusps. It lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle and helps to regulate blood flow between these two chambers of the heart. In a healthy heart, the bicuspid valve opens to allow blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle and closes tightly to prevent blood from flowing back into the left atrium during contraction of the ventricle.

A congenital heart defect known as a bicuspid aortic valve occurs when the aortic valve, which normally has three leaflets or cusps, only has two. This can lead to narrowing of the valve (aortic stenosis) or leakage of the valve (aortic regurgitation), which can cause symptoms and may require medical treatment.

Dental stress analysis is a method used in dentistry to evaluate the amount and distribution of forces that act upon teeth and surrounding structures during biting, chewing, or other functional movements. This analysis helps dental professionals identify areas of excessive stress or strain that may lead to dental problems such as tooth fracture, mobility, or periodontal (gum) disease. By identifying these areas, dentists can develop treatment plans to reduce the risk of dental issues and improve overall oral health.

Dental stress analysis typically involves the use of specialized equipment, such as strain gauges, T-scan occlusal analysis systems, or finite element analysis software, to measure and analyze the forces that act upon teeth during various functional movements. The results of the analysis can help dentists determine the best course of treatment, which may include adjusting the bite, restoring damaged teeth with crowns or fillings, or fabricating custom-made oral appliances to redistribute the forces evenly across the dental arch.

Overall, dental stress analysis is an important tool in modern dentistry that helps dental professionals diagnose and treat dental problems related to occlusal (bite) forces, ensuring optimal oral health and function for their patients.

Zinc phosphate cement is a type of dental cement that is created through the chemical reaction between zinc oxide and a phosphoric acid solution. It is commonly used as a base or liner under dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and fillings. The setting process of zinc phosphate cement involves the formation of a hard, stable material that can effectively bond to tooth structure and provide a solid foundation for dental restorations.

Zinc phosphate cement has several desirable properties, including good compressive strength, resistance to dissolution in oral fluids, and low solubility in water. It is also relatively easy to manipulate and handle during dental procedures. However, it does have some limitations, such as a potential for shrinkage during setting, which can lead to marginal gaps and microleakage. Additionally, zinc phosphate cement may not be as durable or long-lasting as some newer types of dental cements.

Overall, zinc phosphate cement remains a widely used and reliable choice for many dental applications, particularly in cases where a strong, stable foundation is required for dental restorations.

A tooth root is the part of a tooth that is embedded in the jawbone and cannot be seen when looking at a person's smile. It is the lower portion of a tooth that typically has a conical shape and anchors the tooth to the jawbone through a periodontal ligament. The tooth root is covered by cementum, a specialized bone-like tissue, and contains nerve endings and blood vessels within its pulp chamber.

The number of roots in a tooth can vary depending on the type of tooth. For example, incisors typically have one root, canines may have one or two roots, premolars usually have one or two roots, and molars often have two to four roots. The primary function of the tooth root is to provide stability and support for the crown of the tooth, allowing it to withstand the forces of biting and chewing.

In the field of medicine, ceramics are commonly referred to as inorganic, non-metallic materials that are made up of compounds such as oxides, carbides, and nitrides. These materials are often used in medical applications due to their biocompatibility, resistance to corrosion, and ability to withstand high temperatures. Some examples of medical ceramics include:

1. Bioceramics: These are ceramic materials that are used in medical devices and implants, such as hip replacements, dental implants, and bone grafts. They are designed to be biocompatible, which means they can be safely implanted into the body without causing an adverse reaction.
2. Ceramic coatings: These are thin layers of ceramic material that are applied to medical devices and implants to improve their performance and durability. For example, ceramic coatings may be used on orthopedic implants to reduce wear and tear, or on cardiovascular implants to prevent blood clots from forming.
3. Ceramic membranes: These are porous ceramic materials that are used in medical filtration systems, such as hemodialysis machines. They are designed to selectively filter out impurities while allowing essential molecules to pass through.
4. Ceramic scaffolds: These are three-dimensional structures made of ceramic material that are used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. They provide a framework for cells to grow and multiply, helping to repair or replace damaged tissues.

Overall, medical ceramics play an important role in modern healthcare, providing safe and effective solutions for a wide range of medical applications.

Paleodontology is not a medical field, but rather a subfield of archaeology and paleontology. It is the study of fossil teeth and dental tissues from extinct animals or ancient human populations to understand their evolutionary history, diet, health status, and lifestyle. By analyzing tooth wear patterns, growth rates, and pathologies, paleodontologists can gain insights into the ecological adaptations and environmental conditions experienced by these organisms throughout their lives.

A nonvital tooth is one that no longer has a living or viable pulp, which contains the nerves and blood vessels inside the tooth. This condition can occur due to various reasons such as tooth decay that has progressed deeply into the tooth, dental trauma, or previous invasive dental procedures. As a result, the tooth loses its sensitivity to temperature changes and may darken in color. Nonvital teeth typically require root canal treatment to remove the dead pulp tissue, disinfect the canals, and fill them with an inert material to preserve the tooth structure and function.

A dental abutment is a component of a dental implant restoration that connects the implant to the replacement tooth or teeth. It serves as a support structure and is attached to the implant, which is surgically placed in the jawbone. The abutment provides a stable foundation for the placement of a crown, bridge, or denture, depending on the patient's individual needs.

Dental abutments can be made from various materials such as titanium, zirconia, or other biocompatible materials. They come in different shapes and sizes to accommodate the specific requirements of each implant case. The selection of an appropriate dental abutment is crucial for ensuring a successful and long-lasting dental implant restoration.

A tooth fracture is a dental health condition characterized by a break or crack in the tooth structure. It can occur in different parts of the tooth, including the crown (the visible part), root, or filling. Tooth fractures can result from various factors such as trauma, biting or chewing on hard objects, grinding or clenching teeth, and having large, old amalgam fillings that weaken the tooth structure over time. Depending on the severity and location of the fracture, it may cause pain, sensitivity, or affect the tooth's functionality and appearance. Treatment options for tooth fractures vary from simple bonding to root canal treatment or even extraction in severe cases. Regular dental check-ups are essential for early detection and management of tooth fractures.

Dental restoration wear refers to the progressive loss of structure and function of a dental restoration, such as a filling or crown, due to wear and tear over time. This can be caused by factors such as chewing, grinding, or clenching of teeth, as well as chemical dissolution from acidic foods and drinks. The wear can lead to changes in the shape and fit of the restoration, which may result in discomfort, sensitivity, or even failure of the restoration. Regular dental check-ups are important for monitoring dental restorations and addressing any issues related to wear before they become more serious.

Dental cements are materials used in dentistry to bond or seal restorative dental materials, such as crowns, fillings, and orthodontic appliances, to natural tooth structures. They can be made from various materials including glass ionomers, resin-modified glass ionomers, zinc oxide eugenol, polycarboxylate, and composite resins. The choice of cement depends on the specific clinical situation and the properties required, such as strength, durability, biocompatibility, and esthetics.

A partial denture is a type of removable dental prosthesis that replaces one or more missing teeth on a jaw while the remaining natural teeth remain intact. It is designed to fit securely and comfortably among the existing teeth, filling in the gaps created by tooth loss and helping to restore normal biting, chewing, and speaking functions.

Partial dentures typically consist of an acrylic base that resembles the color of gum tissue, with artificial teeth attached to it. The base is often held in place by metal or plastic clasps that hook around the existing teeth for support. In some cases, precision attachments may be used instead of clasps for a more discreet and natural-looking fit.

Partial dentures can help prevent several dental issues associated with tooth loss, such as drifting, tilting, or rotating of adjacent teeth, which can lead to further tooth loss and bite problems over time. They also help maintain the overall shape and structure of the face, preventing sagging or collapsing of facial muscles that may occur due to missing teeth.

Regular dental check-ups are essential for individuals wearing partial dentures to ensure proper fit, function, and oral health. Dentists will often examine the denture, the remaining natural teeth, and the gums to monitor any changes or issues and make necessary adjustments as needed.

A deciduous tooth, also known as a baby tooth or primary tooth, is a type of temporary tooth that humans and some other mammals develop during childhood. They are called "deciduous" because they are eventually shed and replaced by permanent teeth, much like how leaves on a deciduous tree fall off and are replaced by new growth.

Deciduous teeth begin to form in the womb and start to erupt through the gums when a child is around six months old. By the time a child reaches age three, they typically have a full set of 20 deciduous teeth, including incisors, canines, and molars. These teeth are smaller and less durable than permanent teeth, but they serve important functions such as helping children chew food properly, speak clearly, and maintain space in the jaw for the permanent teeth to grow into.

Deciduous teeth usually begin to fall out around age six or seven, starting with the lower central incisors. This process continues until all of the deciduous teeth have been shed, typically by age 12 or 13. At this point, the permanent teeth will have grown in and taken their place, with the exception of the wisdom teeth, which may not erupt until later in adolescence or early adulthood.

A cuspid, also known as a canine tooth or cuspid tooth, is a type of tooth in mammals. It is the pointiest tooth in the dental arch and is located between the incisors and bicuspids (or premolars). Cuspids have a single cusp or pointed tip that is used for tearing and grasping food. In humans, there are four cuspids, two on the upper jaw and two on the lower jaw, one on each side of the dental arch.

Dental marginal adaptation refers to the way in which a dental restoration, such as a filling or crown, fits precisely and accurately along the margin or edge where it meets the tooth structure. The term "marginal" describes the border between the restoration and the tooth. Ideally, this junction should be tight and smooth, without any gaps or spaces that could allow for the accumulation of bacteria, food debris, or dental plaque.

Achieving good marginal adaptation is crucial to ensure the longevity and success of a dental restoration. When the margin is well-adapted, it helps prevent microleakage, secondary tooth decay, and sensitivity. It also contributes to the overall seal and integrity of the restoration, minimizing the risk of recurrent caries or other complications.

The process of achieving optimal marginal adaptation involves careful preparation of the tooth structure, precise impression-taking techniques, and meticulous fabrication of the dental restoration. The use of high-quality materials and modern technologies, such as digital impressions and CAD/CAM systems, can further enhance the accuracy and predictability of the marginal adaptation.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

A tooth is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (upper and lower) of many vertebrates and used for biting and chewing food. In humans, a typical tooth has a crown, one or more roots, and three layers: the enamel (the outermost layer, hardest substance in the body), the dentin (the layer beneath the enamel), and the pulp (the innermost layer, containing nerves and blood vessels). Teeth are essential for proper nutrition, speech, and aesthetics. There are different types of teeth, including incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, each designed for specific functions in the mouth.

In the medical field, cementation refers to the process of using a type of dental cement or bonding agent to attach a dental restoration (such as a crown, bridge, or false tooth) to a natural tooth or implant. The cement helps to create a strong and secure attachment, while also helping to seal the restoration and prevent the entry of bacteria and saliva.

Dental cement can be made from various materials, including glass ionomers, resin-modified glass ionomers, zinc phosphate, and polycarboxylate cements. The choice of cement depends on several factors, such as the type of restoration being attached, the location in the mouth, and the patient's individual needs and preferences.

Cementation is an important step in many dental procedures, as it helps to ensure the longevity and success of the restoration. Proper technique and material selection are crucial for achieving a successful cementation that will last for years to come.

Composite resins, also known as dental composites or filling materials, are a type of restorative material used in dentistry to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure. They are called composite resins because they are composed of a combination of materials, including a resin matrix (usually made of bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate or urethane dimethacrylate) and filler particles (commonly made of silica, quartz, or glass).

The composite resins are widely used in modern dentistry due to their excellent esthetic properties, ease of handling, and ability to bond directly to tooth structure. They can be used for a variety of restorative procedures, including direct and indirect fillings, veneers, inlays, onlays, and crowns.

Composite resins are available in various shades and opacities, allowing dentists to match the color and translucency of natural teeth closely. They also have good wear resistance, strength, and durability, making them a popular choice for both anterior and posterior restorations. However, composite resins may be prone to staining over time and may require more frequent replacement compared to other types of restorative materials.

Dental materials are substances that are used in restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, endodontics, orthodontics, and preventive dentistry to restore or replace missing tooth structure, improve the function and esthetics of teeth, and protect the oral tissues from decay and disease. These materials can be classified into various categories based on their physical and chemical properties, including metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, cements, and alloys.

Some examples of dental materials include:

1. Amalgam: a metal alloy used for dental fillings that contains silver, tin, copper, and mercury. It is strong, durable, and resistant to wear but has been controversial due to concerns about the toxicity of mercury.
2. Composite: a tooth-colored restorative material made of a mixture of glass or ceramic particles and a bonding agent. It is used for fillings, veneers, and other esthetic dental treatments.
3. Glass ionomer cement: a type of cement used for dental restorations that releases fluoride ions and helps prevent tooth decay. It is often used for fillings in children's teeth or as a base under crowns and bridges.
4. Porcelain: a ceramic material used for dental crowns, veneers, and other esthetic restorations. It is strong, durable, and resistant to staining but can be brittle and prone to fracture.
5. Gold alloy: a metal alloy used for dental restorations that contains gold, copper, and other metals. It is highly biocompatible, corrosion-resistant, and malleable but can be expensive and less esthetic than other materials.
6. Acrylic resin: a type of polymer used for dental appliances such as dentures, night guards, and orthodontic retainers. It is lightweight, flexible, and easy to modify but can be less durable than other materials.

The choice of dental material depends on various factors, including the location and extent of the restoration, the patient's oral health status, their esthetic preferences, and their budget. Dental professionals must consider these factors carefully when selecting the appropriate dental material for each individual case.

Resin cements are dental materials used to bond or cement restorations, such as crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances, to natural teeth or implants. They are called "resin" cements because they are made of a type of synthetic resin material that can be cured or hardened through the use of a chemical reaction or exposure to light.

Resin cements typically consist of three components: a base, a catalyst, and a filler. The base and catalyst are mixed together to create a putty-like consistency, which is then applied to the restoration or tooth surface. Once the cement is in place, it is exposed to light or allowed to chemically cure, which causes it to harden and form a strong bond between the restoration and the tooth.

Resin cements are known for their excellent adhesive properties, as well as their ability to withstand the forces of biting and chewing. They can also be color-matched to natural teeth, making them an aesthetically pleasing option for dental restorations. However, they may not be suitable for all patients or situations, and it is important for dental professionals to carefully consider the specific needs and conditions of each patient when choosing a cement material.

In medical terms, "fossils" do not have a specific or direct relevance to the field. However, in a broader scientific context, fossils are the remains or impressions of prehistoric organisms preserved in petrified form or as a mold or cast in rock. They offer valuable evidence about the Earth's history and the life forms that existed on it millions of years ago.

Paleopathology is a subfield of paleontology that deals with the study of diseases in fossils, which can provide insights into the evolution of diseases and human health over time.

Dental enamel is the hard, white, outermost layer of a tooth. It is a highly mineralized and avascular tissue, meaning it contains no living cells or blood vessels. Enamel is primarily composed of calcium and phosphate minerals and serves as the protective covering for the crown of a tooth, which is the portion visible above the gum line.

Enamel is the hardest substance in the human body, and its primary function is to provide structural support and protection to the underlying dentin and pulp tissues of the tooth. It also plays a crucial role in chewing and biting by helping to distribute forces evenly across the tooth surface during these activities.

Despite its hardness, dental enamel can still be susceptible to damage from factors such as tooth decay, erosion, and abrasion. Once damaged or lost, enamel cannot regenerate or repair itself, making it essential to maintain good oral hygiene practices and seek regular dental checkups to prevent enamel damage and protect overall oral health.

Yttrium is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical element with the symbol "Y" and atomic number 39. It is a silvery-metallic transition element that is found in rare earth minerals.

In the field of medicine, yttrium is used in the production of some medical devices and treatments. For example, yttrium-90 is a radioactive isotope that is used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as liver cancer and lymphoma. Yttrium-90 is often combined with other substances to form tiny beads or particles that can be injected directly into tumors, where they release radiation that helps to destroy cancer cells.

Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers are also used in medical procedures such as eye surgery and dental work. These lasers emit a highly concentrated beam of light that can be used to cut or coagulate tissue with great precision.

Overall, while yttrium is not a medical term itself, it does have important applications in the field of medicine.

Polycarboxylate cement is not a medical term, but rather refers to a type of hydraulic cement used in construction and engineering. It's a specialized kind of cement that contains polycarboxylate-based high-range water-reducing admixtures (HRWRAs). These admixtures improve the workability and durability of concrete by reducing the amount of water needed for mixing while maintaining or even enhancing the strength of the final product.

The use of polycarboxylate cement is not directly related to medical practice or patient care, but it may have indirect implications in medical fields such as construction safety, environmental health, and industrial medicine.

Aluminum oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Al2O3. It is also known as alumina and it is a white solid that is widely used in various industries due to its unique properties. Aluminum oxide is highly resistant to corrosion, has a high melting point, and is an electrical insulator.

In the medical field, aluminum oxide is used in a variety of applications such as:

1. Dental crowns and implants: Aluminum oxide is used in the production of dental crowns and implants due to its strength and durability.
2. Orthopedic implants: Aluminum oxide is used in some types of orthopedic implants, such as knee and hip replacements, because of its biocompatibility and resistance to wear.
3. Medical ceramics: Aluminum oxide is used in the production of medical ceramics, which are used in various medical devices such as pacemakers and hearing aids.
4. Pharmaceuticals: Aluminum oxide is used as an excipient in some pharmaceutical products, such as tablets and capsules, to improve their stability and shelf life.
5. Medical research: Aluminum oxide is used in medical research, for example, as a substrate material for growing cells or as a coating material for medical devices.

It's important to note that while aluminum oxide has many useful applications in the medical field, exposure to high levels of aluminum can be harmful to human health. Therefore, it is important to use aluminum oxide and other aluminum-containing materials safely and according to established guidelines.

Dental casting investment is a material used in the production of dental restorations, such as crowns and bridges, through the process of lost-wax casting. It is typically made of a gypsum-based substance that is poured into a mold containing a wax pattern of the desired restoration. Once the investment hardens, the mold is heated in a furnace to melt out the wax, leaving behind a cavity in the shape of the restoration. The molten metal alloy is then introduced into this cavity, and after it cools and solidifies, the investment is removed, revealing the finished restoration.

Prosthodontics is a specialized branch of dentistry that focuses on the diagnosis, restoration, and replacement of missing or damaged teeth. A prosthodontist is a dental professional who has completed additional training beyond dental school in this field, learning advanced techniques for creating and placing various types of dental prostheses, such as:

1. Dental crowns: Artificial restorations that cover damaged or weakened teeth to restore their function and appearance.
2. Dental bridges: Fixed or removable appliances used to replace one or more missing teeth by connecting artificial teeth to adjacent natural teeth or implants.
3. Complete dentures: Removable appliances that replace all the teeth in an arch, resting on the gums and supported by the underlying bone structure.
4. Partial dentures: Removable appliances that replace some missing teeth, typically attached to remaining natural teeth with clasps or precision attachments.
5. Dental implants: Titanium screws that are surgically placed into the jawbone to serve as anchors for crowns, bridges, or dentures, providing a more secure and stable solution for tooth replacement.
6. Maxillofacial prosthetics: Custom-made devices used to restore or improve the function and appearance of facial structures affected by congenital defects, trauma, or surgical removal of tumors.

Prosthodontists work closely with other dental specialists, such as oral surgeons, periodontists, and orthodontists, to develop comprehensive treatment plans for their patients, ensuring optimal functional and aesthetic outcomes.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Stainless Steel" is not a medical term. It is a type of steel that contains at least 10.5% chromium content by mass, and usually contains nickel as well. The chromium forms a passive film that protects the metal from corrosion and staining. Stainless steel is widely used in various industries including medicine, for example, in medical equipment and surgical instruments due to its resistance to rust and corrosion.

Root canal therapy, also known as endodontic treatment, is a dental procedure that involves the removal of infected or damaged pulp tissue from within a tooth's root canal system. The root canal system is a series of narrow channels that run from the center of the tooth (pulp chamber) down to the tip of the tooth roots, containing nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissues.

During the procedure, the dentist or endodontist will gain access to the pulp chamber, carefully clean and shape the root canals using specialized instruments, and then fill and seal them with a rubber-like material called gutta-percha. This helps prevent reinfection and preserves the structural integrity of the tooth. In many cases, a crown or other restoration is placed over the treated tooth to protect it and restore its function and appearance.

Root canal therapy is typically recommended when the pulp tissue becomes inflamed or infected due to deep decay, repeated dental procedures, cracks, or chips in the teeth. The goal of this treatment is to alleviate pain, preserve natural tooth structure, and prevent the need for extraction.

A partial, temporary denture is a removable dental appliance that is used to replace one or more missing teeth on a temporary basis. It is also known as an "interim" or "transitional" partial denture. This type of denture is typically made from acrylic resin and may be held in place with clasps that fit around remaining natural teeth or with the use of dental adhesives.

Partial, temporary dentures are used for a variety of reasons, such as to maintain the position of existing teeth while a patient waits for a permanent restoration, to allow gum tissue to heal after tooth extraction, or to provide an aesthetic solution for missing teeth during the healing process. They may also be used as a long-term solution for individuals who cannot tolerate a full denture or who are not candidates for other types of dental restorations.

It is important to note that while temporary partial dentures can help improve function and aesthetics, they are not meant to be a permanent replacement for missing teeth. A dental professional should be consulted for a comprehensive evaluation and treatment plan to address long-term oral health needs.

Denture design refers to the plan and configuration of a removable dental prosthesis, which is created to replace missing teeth and surrounding tissues in the mouth. The design process involves several factors such as:

1. The number and position of artificial teeth (pontics) used to restore the functional occlusion and aesthetics.
2. The type and arrangement of the denture base material that supports the artificial teeth and conforms to the oral tissues.
3. The selection and placement of various rests, clasps, or attachments to improve retention, stability, and support of the denture.
4. The choice of materials used for the construction of the denture, including the type of acrylic resin, metal alloys, or other components.
5. Consideration of the patient's individual needs, preferences, and oral conditions to ensure optimal fit, comfort, and functionality.

The design process is typically carried out by a dental professional, such as a prosthodontist or denturist, in close collaboration with the patient to achieve a custom-made solution that meets their specific requirements.

Gold alloys are not strictly a medical term, but they are often used in medical applications, particularly in the field of dentistry. Therefore, I will provide both a general definition and a dental-specific definition for clarity.

A gold alloy is a mixture of different metals, where gold is the primary component. The other metals are added to modify the properties of gold, such as its hardness, melting point, or color. These alloys can contain varying amounts of gold, ranging from 30% to 75%, depending on their intended use.

In dentistry, gold alloys refer to a specific type of alloy used for dental restorations like crowns, inlays, and onlays. These alloys typically contain between 60% and 90% gold, along with other metals such as silver, copper, and sometimes palladium or zinc. The high gold content ensures excellent biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and durability, making these alloys a popular choice for dental applications. Additionally, their malleability allows for precise shaping and adjustment during the fabrication process.

The maxilla is a paired bone that forms the upper jaw in vertebrates. In humans, it is a major bone in the face and plays several important roles in the craniofacial complex. Each maxilla consists of a body and four processes: frontal process, zygomatic process, alveolar process, and palatine process.

The maxillae contribute to the formation of the eye sockets (orbits), nasal cavity, and the hard palate of the mouth. They also contain the upper teeth sockets (alveoli) and help form the lower part of the orbit and the cheekbones (zygomatic arches).

Here's a quick rundown of its key functions:

1. Supports the upper teeth and forms the upper jaw.
2. Contributes to the formation of the eye sockets, nasal cavity, and hard palate.
3. Helps shape the lower part of the orbit and cheekbones.
4. Partakes in the creation of important sinuses, such as the maxillary sinus, which is located within the body of the maxilla.

The term "tooth cervix" is not commonly used in medical dentistry with a specific technical definition. However, if you are referring to the "cervical region of a tooth," it generally refers to the area where the crown (the visible part of the tooth) meets the root (the portion of the tooth that is below the gum line). This region is also sometimes referred to as the "cementoenamel junction" (CEJ), where the enamel covering of the crown meets the cementum covering of the root. Dental issues such as tooth decay, receding gums, or abrasion can affect this area and may require professional dental treatment.

A periodontal prosthesis is a removable dental appliance that is used to replace missing teeth and surrounding tissues in patients who have advanced periodontal disease, also known as gum disease. This type of prosthesis is designed to restore both function and aesthetics, helping individuals to chew, speak, and smile with confidence.

Periodontal prostheses are typically made from a combination of materials, including acrylic resins, metals, and sometimes porcelain. They can be used to replace one or more missing teeth, or even an entire arch of teeth. The design of the prosthesis will depend on the individual's specific needs and the extent of their periodontal disease.

There are several types of periodontal prostheses, including:

1. Removable Partial Dentures (RPDs): These are used when some natural teeth remain in the upper or lower jaw. The RPD is designed to fit around the remaining teeth and provide support for the replacement teeth.
2. Overdentures: These are removable dental appliances that fit over a small number of remaining natural teeth or implants, providing additional stability and support.
3. Complete Dentures: When all the teeth in an arch are missing, a complete denture is used to replace them. The denture is held in place by suction, muscle tension, and sometimes dental adhesives.

It's important to note that periodontal prostheses require regular maintenance and professional cleaning to ensure their longevity and effectiveness. Patients should follow their dentist's or dental specialist's instructions for caring for their prosthesis and maintain good oral hygiene to prevent further issues with their gums and remaining teeth.

A partial denture that is fixed, also known as a fixed partial denture or a dental bridge, is a type of prosthetic device used to replace one or more missing teeth. Unlike removable partial dentures, which can be taken out of the mouth for cleaning and maintenance, fixed partial dentures are permanently attached to the remaining natural teeth or implants surrounding the gap left by the missing tooth or teeth.

A typical fixed partial denture consists of an artificial tooth (or pontic) that is fused to one or two crowns on either side. The crowns are cemented onto the prepared surfaces of the adjacent teeth, providing a stable and secure attachment for the pontic. This creates a natural-looking and functional replacement for the missing tooth or teeth.

Fixed partial dentures offer several advantages over removable options, including improved stability, comfort, and aesthetics. However, they typically require more extensive preparation of the adjacent teeth, which may involve removing some healthy tooth structure to accommodate the crowns. Proper oral hygiene is essential to maintain the health of the supporting teeth and gums, as well as the longevity of the fixed partial denture. Regular dental check-ups and professional cleanings are also necessary to ensure the continued success of this type of restoration.

Rhizobium is not a medical term, but rather a term used in microbiology and agriculture. It refers to a genus of gram-negative bacteria that can fix nitrogen from the atmosphere into ammonia, which can then be used by plants as a nutrient. These bacteria live in the root nodules of leguminous plants (such as beans, peas, and clover) and form a symbiotic relationship with them.

The host plant provides Rhizobium with carbon sources and a protected environment within the root nodule, while the bacteria provide the plant with fixed nitrogen. This mutualistic interaction plays a crucial role in maintaining soil fertility and promoting plant growth.

While Rhizobium itself is not directly related to human health or medicine, understanding its symbiotic relationship with plants can have implications for agricultural practices, sustainable farming, and global food security.

'Agrobacterium tumefaciens' is a gram-negative, soil-dwelling bacterium that is known for its ability to cause plant tumors or crown galls. It does this through the transfer and integration of a segment of DNA called the Ti (Tumor-inducing) plasmid into the plant's genome. This transferred DNA includes genes that encode enzymes for the production of opines, which serve as a nutrient source for the bacterium, and genes that cause unregulated plant cell growth leading to tumor formation.

This unique ability of 'Agrobacterium tumefaciens' to transfer and integrate foreign DNA into plants has been exploited in genetic engineering to create transgenic plants with desired traits. The Ti plasmid is often used as a vector to introduce new genes into the plant genome, making it an essential tool in plant biotechnology.

Chromium alloys are materials made by combining chromium with other metals, such as nickel, cobalt, or iron. The addition of chromium to these alloys enhances their properties, making them resistant to corrosion and high temperatures. These alloys have a wide range of applications in various industries, including automotive, aerospace, and medical devices.

Chromium alloys can be classified into two main categories: stainless steels and superalloys. Stainless steels are alloys that contain at least 10.5% chromium by weight, which forms a passive oxide layer on the surface of the material, protecting it from corrosion. Superalloys, on the other hand, are high-performance alloys designed to operate in extreme environments, such as jet engines and gas turbines. They contain significant amounts of chromium, along with other elements like nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum.

Chromium alloys have several medical applications due to their excellent properties. For instance, they are used in surgical instruments, dental implants, and orthopedic devices because of their resistance to corrosion and biocompatibility. Additionally, some chromium alloys exhibit superelasticity, a property that allows them to return to their original shape after being deformed, making them suitable for use in stents and other medical devices that require flexibility and durability.

Tooth discoloration, also known as tooth staining or tooth color change, refers to the darkening or staining of teeth. It can be categorized into two main types: extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic discoloration occurs when the outer layer of the tooth (enamel) becomes stained due to exposure to colored substances such as coffee, tea, wine, tobacco, and certain foods. Intrinsic discoloration, on the other hand, occurs when the inner structure of the tooth (dentin) darkens or gets a yellowish tint due to factors like genetics, aging, trauma, or exposure to certain medications during tooth development. Tooth discoloration can also be caused by dental diseases or decay. It is important to note that while some forms of tooth discoloration are cosmetic concerns, others may indicate underlying oral health issues and should be evaluated by a dental professional.

A dental restoration, permanent, is a type of dental treatment that involves the use of materials such as gold, silver amalgam, porcelain, or composite resin to repair and restore the function, form, and aesthetics of a damaged or decayed tooth. Unlike temporary restorations, which are meant to be replaced with a permanent solution, permanent restorations are designed to last for many years, if not a lifetime.

Examples of permanent dental restorations include:

1. Dental fillings: These are used to fill cavities caused by tooth decay. The decayed portion of the tooth is removed, and the resulting space is filled with a material such as amalgam, composite resin, or gold.
2. Inlays and onlays: These are similar to dental fillings but are made in a laboratory and then bonded to the tooth. They are used when there is not enough tooth structure left to support a filling.
3. Dental crowns: Also known as caps, these are used to cover and protect a tooth that has been damaged or weakened by decay, injury, or wear. The crown fits over the entire tooth, restoring its shape, size, and strength.
4. Dental bridges: These are used to replace one or more missing teeth. A bridge consists of one or more artificial teeth (pontics) that are held in place by crowns on either side.
5. Dental implants: These are used to replace missing teeth. An implant is a small titanium post that is surgically placed in the jawbone, where it functions as an anchor for a replacement tooth or bridge.

Permanent dental restorations are custom-made for each patient and require careful planning and preparation. They are designed to blend in with the surrounding teeth and provide a natural-looking appearance. With proper care and maintenance, these restorations can last for many years and help preserve the health and function of the teeth and mouth.

Tooth preparation is a term used in dentistry to refer to the process of altering the tooth structure to receive a dental restoration, such as a filling, crown, or veneer. This procedure involves removing decayed or damaged portions of the tooth and shaping the remaining tooth structure to provide a stable foundation for the restoration. The preparation may also include reducing the size of the tooth to make room for the restoration and creating a smooth, uniform surface to ensure a proper fit and seal. The ultimate goal of tooth preparation is to restore the function, health, and aesthetics of the damaged tooth while preserving as much of the natural tooth structure as possible.

Dental enamel hypoplasia is a condition characterized by the deficiency or reduction in the thickness of the tooth's enamel surface. This results in the enamel being thin, weak, and prone to wear, fractures, and dental cavities. The appearance of teeth with enamel hypoplasia may be yellowish, brownish, or creamy white, and they can have pits, grooves, or bands of varying widths and shapes.

Enamel hypoplasia can occur due to various factors, including genetics, premature birth, low birth weight, malnutrition, infections during childhood (such as measles or chickenpox), trauma, exposure to environmental toxins, and certain medical conditions that affect enamel formation.

The condition is usually diagnosed through a dental examination, where the dentist can observe and assess the appearance and structure of the teeth. Treatment options depend on the severity of the hypoplasia and may include fluoride treatments, sealants, fillings, crowns, or extractions in severe cases. Preventive measures such as maintaining good oral hygiene, a balanced diet, and regular dental check-ups can help reduce the risk of developing enamel hypoplasia.

Bite force refers to the amount of force or pressure that can be exerted by the teeth and jaw when biting down or clenching together. It is a measure of an individual's maximum biting strength, typically expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or newtons (N). Bite force is an important factor in various biological and medical contexts, including oral health, nutrition, and the study of animal behavior and evolution.

In humans, bite force can vary widely depending on factors such as age, sex, muscle strength, and dental health. On average, a healthy adult human male may have a maximum bite force of around 150-200 pounds (670-890 newtons), while an adult female may have a bite force of around 100-130 pounds (445-578 newtons). However, these values can vary significantly from person to person.

Abnormalities in bite force can be indicative of various medical conditions or injuries, such as temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD), muscle weakness, or neurological disorders affecting the facial muscles. Assessing and measuring bite force may also be useful in evaluating the effectiveness of dental treatments or appliances, such as dentures or orthodontic devices.

Tooth attrition is a type of wear on the teeth that results from normal dental occlusal forces during biting, chewing, and grinding of food. It involves the loss of tooth structure by mechanical forces and is typically seen as a flattening or reduction in the vertical height of the crowns of teeth.

Attrition differs from other types of tooth wear such as abrasion (which is caused by external factors like toothbrush bristles, toothpaste, or habitual pen/pencil biting), erosion (which is caused by chemical dissolution of tooth structure due to acid exposure), and abfraction (which is caused by flexural forces leading to cervical lesions).

While some degree of attrition is considered a normal part of the aging process, excessive attrition can lead to dental sensitivity, aesthetic concerns, and even affect the functionality of the teeth and overall oral health. Dental professionals may recommend various treatments such as fillings, crowns, or even orthodontic interventions to manage the consequences of severe tooth attrition.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "crown compounds" is not a standard medical term or concept. It seems that the term might be related to some other fields such as chemistry or pharmacology, where it could refer to certain types of chemical structures or compounds with specific functional groups. However, without more context, it's difficult to provide an accurate definition.

If you are referring to a medical concept or term and I am not able to provide a satisfactory answer, please provide more context or check your spelling to help me give you a better response.

Glass Ionomer Cements (GICs) are a type of dental restorative material that have the ability to chemically bond to tooth structure. They are composed of a mixture of silicate glass powder and an organic acid, such as polyacrylic acid. GICs have several clinical applications in dentistry, including as a filling material for small to moderate sized cavities, as a liner or base under other restorative materials, and as a cement for securing crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances.

GICs are known for their biocompatibility, caries inhibition, and adhesion to tooth structure. They also have the ability to release fluoride ions, which can help protect against future decay. However, they are not as strong or wear-resistant as some other dental restorative materials, such as amalgam or composite resin, so they may not be suitable for use in high-load bearing restorations.

GICs can be classified into two main types: conventional and resin-modified. Conventional GICs have a longer setting time and are more prone to moisture sensitivity during placement, while resin-modified GICs contain additional methacrylate monomers that improve their handling properties and shorten their setting time. However, the addition of these monomers may also reduce their fluoride release capacity.

Overall, glass ionomer cements are a valuable dental restorative material due to their unique combination of adhesion, biocompatibility, and caries inhibition properties.

Dental esthetics refers to the branch of dentistry concerned with the aesthetic appearance of teeth and smile. It involves the use of various dental treatments and procedures to improve the color, shape, alignment, and position of teeth, thereby enhancing the overall facial appearance and self-confidence of a person. Some common dental esthetic treatments include tooth whitening, dental veneers, composite bonding, orthodontic treatment (braces), and dental implants. It is important to note that dental esthetics not only focuses on improving the appearance but also maintaining or improving oral health and function.

'Avena sativa' is the scientific name for a type of grass species known as common oat or cultivated oat. It is widely grown as a crop for its seed, which is used as a food source for both humans and animals. Oats are rich in fiber, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, making them a popular choice for breakfast cereals, baked goods, and animal feeds. In addition to their nutritional value, oats have also been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating skin irritation and promoting hair growth.

A tooth is classified as "unerupted" when it has not yet penetrated through the gums and entered the oral cavity. This can apply to both primary (baby) teeth and permanent (adult) teeth. The reasons for a tooth's failure to erupt can vary, including crowding of teeth, lack of sufficient space, or anatomical barriers such as bone or soft tissue. In some cases, unerupted teeth may need to be monitored or treated, depending on the specific situation and any symptoms experienced by the individual.

Denture retention, in the field of dentistry, refers to the ability of a dental prosthesis (dentures) to maintain its position and stability within the mouth. It is achieved through various factors including the fit, shape, and design of the denture, as well as the use of dental implants or adhesives. Proper retention helps ensure comfortable and effective chewing, speaking, and smiling for individuals who have lost some or all of their natural teeth.

Dentin is the hard, calcified tissue that lies beneath the enamel and cementum of a tooth. It forms the majority of the tooth's structure and is composed primarily of mineral salts (hydroxyapatite), collagenous proteins, and water. Dentin has a tubular structure, with microscopic channels called dentinal tubules that radiate outward from the pulp chamber (the center of the tooth containing nerves and blood vessels) to the exterior of the tooth. These tubules contain fluid and nerve endings that are responsible for the tooth's sensitivity to various stimuli such as temperature changes, pressure, or decay. Dentin plays a crucial role in protecting the dental pulp while also providing support and structure to the overlying enamel and cementum.

The mandible, also known as the lower jaw, is the largest and strongest bone in the human face. It forms the lower portion of the oral cavity and plays a crucial role in various functions such as mastication (chewing), speaking, and swallowing. The mandible is a U-shaped bone that consists of a horizontal part called the body and two vertical parts called rami.

The mandible articulates with the skull at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) located in front of each ear, allowing for movements like opening and closing the mouth, protrusion, retraction, and side-to-side movement. The mandible contains the lower teeth sockets called alveolar processes, which hold the lower teeth in place.

In medical terminology, the term "mandible" refers specifically to this bone and its associated structures.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "trees" is not a medical term. It is a common term used in various fields, including biology, ecology, and dendrology, to refer to a woody perennial plant with a single stem or trunk that supports branches and leaves in most species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, please provide more context so I can offer an accurate and helpful response.

Inlays are a type of dental restoration used to repair and restore teeth that have been damaged by decay or trauma. They are custom-made fillings made in a laboratory, typically from materials such as gold, porcelain, or composite resin. Inlays are designed to fit precisely into the cavity or damaged area of a tooth, restoring its strength, function, and appearance. Unlike traditional fillings, which are molded directly onto the tooth, inlays are created outside of the mouth and then bonded or cemented into place during a separate dental appointment. This makes them a more durable and long-lasting solution for repairing damaged teeth. Inlays can also be used to replace old or failing fillings, providing a stronger and more aesthetically pleasing alternative.

Dental prosthesis repair refers to the process of fixing or mending a broken or damaged dental prosthesis. A dental prosthesis is a device that replaces missing teeth and can be removable or fixed. Examples of dental prostheses include dentures, bridges, and crowns.

Repairs to dental prostheses may be necessary due to damage caused by normal wear and tear, accidents, or poor oral hygiene. The repair process typically involves cleaning the prosthesis, identifying the damaged or broken parts, and replacing or fixing them using appropriate dental materials. The repaired prosthesis should then be properly fitted and adjusted to ensure comfortable and effective use.

It is important to seek professional dental care for dental prosthesis repair to ensure that the repairs are done correctly and safely. A dentist or a dental technician with experience in prosthodontics can perform dental prosthesis repair.

Dental occlusion refers to the alignment and contact between the upper and lower teeth when the jaws are closed. It is the relationship between the maxillary (upper) and mandibular (lower) teeth when they approach each other, as occurs during chewing or biting.

A proper dental occlusion, also known as a balanced occlusion, ensures that the teeth and jaw joints function harmoniously, reducing the risk of tooth wear, damage, and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Malocclusion, on the other hand, refers to improper alignment or contact between the upper and lower teeth, which may require orthodontic treatment or dental restorations to correct.

Dental bonding is a cosmetic dental procedure in which a tooth-colored resin material (a type of plastic) is applied and hardened with a special light, which ultimately "bonds" the material to the tooth to improve its appearance. According to the American Dental Association (ADA), dental bonding can be used for various purposes, including:

1. Repairing chipped or cracked teeth
2. Improving the appearance of discolored teeth
3. Closing spaces between teeth
4. Protecting a portion of the tooth's root that has been exposed due to gum recession
5. Changing the shape and size of teeth

Dental bonding is generally a quick and painless procedure, often requiring little to no anesthesia. The surface of the tooth is roughened and conditioned to help the resin adhere properly. Then, the resin material is applied, molded, and smoothed to the desired shape. A special light is used to harden the material, which typically takes only a few minutes. Finally, the bonded material is trimmed, shaped, and polished to match the surrounding teeth.

While dental bonding can be an effective solution for minor cosmetic concerns, it may not be as durable or long-lasting as other dental restoration options like veneers or crowns. The lifespan of a dental bonding procedure typically ranges from 3 to 10 years, depending on factors such as oral habits, location of the bonded tooth, and proper care. Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices can help extend the life of dental bonding.

A dental prosthesis that is supported by dental implants is an artificial replacement for one or more missing teeth. It is a type of dental restoration that is anchored to the jawbone using one or more titanium implant posts, which are surgically placed into the bone. The prosthesis is then attached to the implants, providing a stable and secure fit that closely mimics the function and appearance of natural teeth.

There are several types of implant-supported dental prostheses, including crowns, bridges, and dentures. A single crown may be used to replace a single missing tooth, while a bridge or denture can be used to replace multiple missing teeth. The specific type of prosthesis used will depend on the number and location of the missing teeth, as well as the patient's individual needs and preferences.

Implant-supported dental prostheses offer several advantages over traditional removable dentures, including improved stability, comfort, and functionality. They also help to preserve jawbone density and prevent facial sagging that can occur when teeth are missing. However, they do require a surgical procedure to place the implants, and may not be suitable for all patients due to factors such as bone density or overall health status.

Tooth wear is the progressive loss of tooth structure that can occur as a result of various factors. According to the medical definition, it refers to the wearing down, rubbing away, or grinding off of the hard tissues of the teeth (enamel and dentin) due to mechanical forces or chemical processes.

There are three primary types of tooth wear:

1. Abrasion: This is the loss of tooth structure caused by friction from external sources, such as incorrect brushing techniques, bite appliances, or habits like nail-biting and pipe smoking.
2. Attrition: This type of tooth wear results from the natural wearing down of teeth due to occlusal forces during biting, chewing, and grinding. However, excessive attrition can occur due to bruxism (teeth grinding) or clenching.
3. Erosion: Chemical processes, such as acid attacks from dietary sources (e.g., citrus fruits, sodas, and sports drinks) or gastric reflux, cause the loss of tooth structure in this type of tooth wear. The enamel dissolves when exposed to low pH levels, leaving the dentin underneath vulnerable to further damage.

Professional dental examination and treatment may be necessary to address significant tooth wear and prevent further progression, which can lead to sensitivity, pain, and functional or aesthetic issues.

Dentition refers to the development, arrangement, and appearance of teeth in the dental arch. It includes the number, type, size, and shape of teeth, as well as their alignment and relationship with each other and the surrounding structures in the oral cavity. Dentition can be classified into two main types: deciduous (primary) dentition and permanent (secondary) dentition. Deciduous dentition consists of 20 temporary teeth that erupt during infancy and childhood, while permanent dentition consists of 32 teeth that replace the deciduous teeth and last for a lifetime, excluding the wisdom teeth which may or may not erupt. Abnormalities in dentition can indicate various dental and systemic conditions, making it an essential aspect of oral health assessment and diagnosis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Glass" is not a medical term. Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has various uses in everyday life, including medical devices and equipment. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, please provide them, and I'll be happy to help.

"Prosthesis coloring" is not a recognized medical term or concept in the field of prosthetics. However, I can provide you with some context that might help clarify what you are looking for.

In the context of artificial limbs (prostheses), patients may want their devices to match their skin tone as closely as possible to make them less noticeable and more aesthetically appealing. This process is called "prosthetic covering" or "cosmesis," which involves applying custom-made covers, sleeves, or skins over the prosthesis to mimic the appearance of natural skin color and texture.

Prosthetic covering materials can be painted, printed, or dyed to achieve the desired color match. This process is often referred to as "coloring" or "painting the prosthesis." The coloring technique may involve using various shades, tones, and textures to create a natural-looking appearance that blends well with the user's remaining limb or body.

In summary, while there is no formal medical definition for "prosthesis coloring," it likely refers to the process of applying custom colors, shading, or patterns to an artificial limb (prosthesis) to create a more natural and aesthetically pleasing appearance that matches the user's skin tone.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "replica techniques" is not a standard term in medical terminology. It may be used in various scientific or clinical contexts to refer to the creation of reproductions or replicas of biological samples, tissues, or organs, often for research, teaching, or therapeutic purposes. However, without more specific context, it's difficult to provide a precise medical definition.

In general, "replica" refers to a copy or reproduction of something, especially one that is very close in appearance or character to the original. In science and medicine, replicas may be used for various purposes such as:

* Creating backup copies of important research samples or data
* Developing teaching tools or educational materials
* Testing medical devices, drugs, or other treatments before they are used on humans
* Conducting experiments that would be difficult or unethical to perform on living organisms.

If you could provide more context or clarify what specific field of medicine or science you are interested in, I may be able to give a more accurate definition or explanation.

Odontogenesis is the process of tooth development that involves the formation and calcification of teeth. It is a complex process that requires the interaction of several types of cells, including epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, and odontoblasts. The process begins during embryonic development with the formation of dental lamina, which gives rise to the tooth bud. As the tooth bud grows and differentiates, it forms the various structures of the tooth, including the enamel, dentin, cementum, and pulp. Odontogenesis is completed when the tooth erupts into the oral cavity. Abnormalities in odontogenesis can result in developmental dental anomalies such as tooth agenesis, microdontia, or odontomas.

A dental implant is a surgical component that interfaces with the bone of the jaw or skull to support a dental prosthesis such as a crown, bridge, denture, facial prosthesis or to act as an orthodontic anchor.

A single-tooth dental implant specifically refers to the replacement of a single missing tooth. The process typically involves three stages:

1. Placement: A titanium screw is placed into the jawbone where the missing tooth once was, acting as a root for the new tooth.
2. Osseointegration: Over several months, the jawbone grows around and fuses with the implant, creating a strong and stable foundation for the replacement tooth.
3. Restoration: A custom-made crown is attached to the implant, restoring the natural appearance and function of the missing tooth.

Single-tooth dental implants are a popular choice because they look, feel, and function like natural teeth, and they do not require the alteration of adjacent teeth, as is necessary with traditional bridgework.

Permanent dentition is the second and final set of teeth that humans grow during their lifetime. These teeth are also known as adult or secondary teeth and typically begin to erupt in the mouth around the age of 6 or 7 years old, with all permanent teeth usually present by the time a person reaches their late teens or early twenties.

There are 32 teeth in a complete set of permanent dentition, including 8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 premolars (also called bicuspids), and 12 molars (including 4 third molars or wisdom teeth). The primary function of permanent teeth is to help with biting, chewing, and grinding food into smaller pieces that are easier to swallow and digest. Proper care and maintenance of permanent teeth through good oral hygiene practices, regular dental checkups, and a balanced diet can help ensure their longevity and health throughout a person's life.

In the context of medical terminology, 'color' is not defined specifically with a unique meaning. Instead, it generally refers to the characteristic or appearance of something, particularly in relation to the color that a person may observe visually. For instance, doctors may describe the color of a patient's skin, eyes, hair, or bodily fluids to help diagnose medical conditions or monitor their progression.

For example, jaundice is a yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes that can indicate liver problems, while cyanosis refers to a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to insufficient oxygen in the blood. Similarly, doctors may describe the color of stool or urine to help diagnose digestive or kidney issues.

Therefore, 'color' is not a medical term with a specific definition but rather a general term used to describe various visual characteristics of the body and bodily fluids that can provide important diagnostic clues for healthcare professionals.

Dental etching is a dental procedure that involves the use of a chemical agent, such as phosphoric or maleic acid, to create microscopic roughness on the surface of teeth. This process is typically used to prepare the tooth enamel for the application of bonding agents, such as dental adhesives and composite resins, which are used in various restorative and cosmetic dental procedures, such as fillings, veneers, and crowns.

During dental etching, the chemical agent is applied to the tooth surface for a specific amount of time, usually between 15-60 seconds, depending on the strength of the acid and the desired level of etching. The acid dissolves the minerals in the enamel, creating small pores or irregularities that increase the surface area and improve the bonding of the restorative material to the tooth. After etching, the tooth is rinsed with water and dried, and the bonding agent is applied and cured to create a strong and durable bond between the restoration and the tooth.

Dental etching is a safe and effective procedure when performed by a trained dental professional. However, over-etching or improper use of the acid can weaken the tooth structure and lead to sensitivity or other complications. Therefore, it is important to follow proper techniques and guidelines for dental etching to ensure optimal outcomes and patient satisfaction.

... was a baseball team that played a single season in 1952 in the Kansai Farm League. Formed in September 1950 by the ...
... was established as the Invitation by Chūbu Japan, All Japan Amateur and Professional Golf Championship (中部日本招待全日本アマ・ ... The Crowns (中日クラウンズ, Chūnichi kuraunzu) is a professional golf tournament that is played over Nagoya Golf Club's Wagō Course in ... "The Crowns". Chubu-Nippon Broadcasting (in Japanese). Retrieved 11 March 2020. Coverage on the Japan Golf Tour's official site ... hicbc.com:中日クラウンズ 50年の歴史|第1回大会 "The Crowns 2019 - Past Champions". Japan Golf Tour Organisation. Retrieved 11
Rolling Stone July 9, 1999 "The Amazing Royal Crowns - The Amazing Crowns, The Amazing Royal Crowns , Songs, Reviews, Credits ... The Amazing Crowns (formerly Amazing Royal Crowns) was a rock band that began in Providence, Rhode Island in 1993. The lineup ... The Amazing Royal Crowns should have no problem breaking through in the retro-heavy '90s. Amazing Royal Crowns (1997) Royal ( ... "Royal Crown Revue Wins Legal Battle With Amazing Royal Crowns Over Name Confusion". MTV News. Retrieved 2018-06-27. "Velvel ...
In January 2013, Crowns opened for The Dropkick Murphys at the London shows on their European tour. On 22 September, Crowns ... Crowns were invited to support The King Blues on their UK tour alongside Cerebral Ballzy. On 29 October 2012, Crowns released ... In July 2011, Crowns played the Eden Project as part of the Eden Sessions gig series, opening the main stage before Mystery ... Crowns are an English folk punk band from Launceston, Cornwall, England, formed in 2010. The band consisted of lead singer and ...
"New Casting Crowns Acoustic Album". Castingcrowns.com. November 15, 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2012. "Casting Crowns Mark ... On August 30, 2009, Casting Crowns performed on Huckabee, Mike Huckabee's political show. Casting Crowns' fourth major studio ... Casting Crowns broke their own record in 2007 when the single "East to West" from The Altar and the Door hit sixteen ... Casting Crowns is a contemporary Christian and Christian rock band started in 1999 by youth pastor Mark Hall, who serves as the ...
Pitchfork placed Roots & Crowns at number 168 on its list of top 200 albums of the 2000s. "Reviews for Roots & Crowns by ... Roots & Crowns is the sixth studio album by American indie rock band Califone. It was released on October 10, 2006, on Thrill ... Roots & Crowns at ThrillJockey.com v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, ... "Califone: Roots and Crowns". Uncut (114): 101. November 2006. Pitchfork staff (September 28, 2009). "The Top 200 Albums of the ...
... (stylized as CrownsDown) is the third studio album by American hip hop duo Themselves. It was released on Anticon ... Crowns Down at Discogs (list of releases) (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, ... A remix version of the album, Crowns Down & Company, was released in 2010. At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average ... "Themselves may not have snatched the crown but they've certainly thrown down the gauntlet with CrownsDown, their confident and ...
The Sasanian crowns (Persian: تاج‌های ساسانی) refers to the crowns used by the monarchs of the Sasanian dynasty of Iran. Each ... Coin of Boran, an example of a crown used by a female monarch. A golden ring showing a Sasanian king with a crescent moon crown ... A crown was also suspended during the birth of a royal heir. The Byzantines adopted this custom from the Iranian court. An ... Many of the later Sasanian crowns were suspended by a chain of gold from the top of an arch in the audience-hall as the ruler's ...
... three ancient crowns or). Earlier it is recorded to have been three gold crowns on a blue background (azure, three crowns or). ... Three crowns also form the logo of Coutts, the London-based private bankers, but in this case the design comprises one crown at ... and was crowned three times. A symbol with three crowns was used by Chrysler on some of its New Yorker models in the 1960s. A ... three antique crowns or). The three gold crowns on blue design appears on the coat of arms of the Spanish city of Burriana in ...
... are dental crowns used for restoring lost or damaged or decayed teeth of children. These crowns encircle the ... "Dental Crowns". Medquestcollege. 11 December 2020. Carol, Lisa. "Pediatric Dental Crowns". academia.edu. "Pediatric Crowns: ... These crowns provide esthetic restoration and the materials used in this crown are affordable, but they are more prone to ... "Stainless steel crowns". dhsv.org.au. "Paediatrics: The Stainless Steel Crown - An Underused Restoration in Paediatric ...
... these being the Crown of Life; the Incorruptible Crown; the Crown of Righteousness; the Crown of Glory; and the Crown of ... 4:8), the crown of life (James 1:12; Rev. 2:10), the crown of glory (1 Pet. 5:4), and the crown of rejoicing or exultation (1 ... The Crown of Rejoicing is also known as the Crown of Exultation, or Crown of Auxiliary. Delineated in 1 Thessalonians 2:19 and ... and I will give you the crown of life." The Incorruptible Crown is also known as the Imperishable Crown, and is referenced in 1 ...
Crown of justification Radiant crown Vulture crown Modius (headdress) Nemes Baines, John; Málek, Jaromír (1980). Atlas of ... this crown is one half of the double crown, the pschent. No crowns are known to have been found in any archeological digs. Some ... The crowns include the Atef, the Deshret, the Hedjet, the Khepresh, the Pschent, and the Hemhem. Atef, the crown of Osiris, is ... The crown of Lower Egypt, also known as deshret, is a red bowl shaped crown with a protruding curlicue. It is typically ...
... (January 24, 1922 - October 13, 2008) was a member of the Wisconsin State Assembly. Crowns was born on January ... Crowns was elected to the Assembly in 1956 before being defeated for re-election in 1958. He was a Republican. 'Wisconsin Blue ... Obituary "Crowns, Arthur J." Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2013-06-18. (Articles with short description, Short description ... Book 1956,' Biographical Sketch of Arthur J. Crowns, pg. 68 "Members of the Assembly". Wisconsin Blue Book. 1956. Retrieved ...
"Game of Crowns Season 1 Ep 8: "The Legends of the Crowns"". Bravo Media. NBCUniversal. 14 August 2014. Retrieved January 5, ... "Game of Crowns Season 1 Ep 9: "Bound by the Crown"". Bravo Media. NBCUniversal. 22 August 2014. Retrieved January 5, 2015. ... Television portal Official website Game of Crowns at IMDb Game of Crowns at TV Guide (Articles with short description, Short ... Game Of Crowns' Premiere: Married Women Competing For A Crown". Hollywood Life. Retrieved May 23, 2015. Bibel, Sara (July 24, ...
... was an imprint of Oxford University Press devoted to writing from the British colonies in Africa and South ... MacPhee, Josh (1 December 2014), "Three Crowns Africa", Just Seeds Davis, Caroline (2005), "The Politics of Postcolonial ... "Editing Three Crowns", Creating Postcolonial Literature: African Writers and British Publishers, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 123- ... Publishing: Oxford University Press's Three Crowns Series 1962-1976", Book History, 8: 227-244, JSTOR 30227377 Davis, Caroline ...
... (stylized as CrownsDown & Company) is a remix album by American hip hop duo Themselves. It includes ... Crowns Down & Company at Discogs (list of releases) (Articles with short description, Short description is different from ... remixes of songs from the duo's third studio album Crowns Down. It was released on Anticon in 2010. Timothy Archer of The 405 ...
"Casting Crowns - Casting Crowns". AllMusic. Retrieved February 18, 2012. "Casting Crowns - Lifesong". AllMusic. Retrieved ... "Casting Crowns - The Altar and the Door". AllMusic. Retrieved February 18, 2012. "Casting Crowns - Until the Whole World Hears ... "Casting Crowns - The Very Next Thing". AllMusic. Retrieved September 23, 2016. "Casting Crown New Album Called Only Jesus". ... "Casting Crowns - The Altar and the Door Live". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved February 18, 2012. "Casting Crowns - Until ...
... was a rare pure pot still whiskey distilled by Dunville & Co at the Royal Irish Distillery in Belfast. ... Dunville's Three Crowns Irish Whiskey and Dunville's VR Old Irish Whiskey are now being produced at the Echlinville Distillery ... Though similar to Dunville's other whiskey Dunville's VR, Three Crowns was distilled longer and used more sherry casks for the ...
The Silla crown is also notably distinct from the crown of Baekje, the crown of Gaya, and the crown of Goguryeo kingdoms. The ... Korean art Three Kingdoms of Korea History of Korea Crown of Baekje Crown of Gaya Crown jewels 현진, 형규, 박, 이 (2010). "A Study on ... The crown is impractical to wear and some believe that the crown may have been made specifically as a burial good. There may ... Some of the crowns are made of pure gold and were probably reserved for kings. Other crowns have been discovered made from gilt ...
"Kingdom Two Crowns". Metacritic. Archived from the original on May 23, 2019. Retrieved November 13, 2022. "Kingdom Two Crowns ... The game only ends if both players lose their crowns. Kingdom Two Crowns was developed by the Kingdom franchise creator Thomas ... Shive, Chris (March 28, 2018). "GDC 2018: Kingdom: Two Crowns Could Be the Crown Jewel of the Series". Hardcore Gamer. Archived ... Kingdom Two Crowns is a 2018 strategy video game developed by Thomas van den Berg and Coatsink and published by Raw Fury. It is ...
... is an Italian literary fairy tale written by Giambattista Basile in his 1634 work, the Pentamerone. A ... only her oath by her three crowns was trustworthy. The ogress praised the dinner and made many fine oaths about what she would ... do for the cook, but only when she swore by her three crowns did Marchetta come out. The ogress said that Marchetta had ...
Casting Crowns is the first studio album by American Christian rock band Casting Crowns. Produced by Mark A. Miller and Steven ... Casting Crowns (DualDisc) (Media notes). Casting Crowns. Beach Street Records. 2003. p. 10.{{cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: ... "Casting Crowns - Casting Crowns". Cross Rhythms. January 1, 2004. Archived from the original on May 15, 2013. Retrieved July 12 ... Casting Crowns (Gift Edition) at AllMusic. Retrieved May 28, 2019. Casting Crowns (LP) at AllMusic. Retrieved May 28, 2019. ( ...
In March 2011, These Kids Wear Crowns did a Canada-wide tour with Fefe Dobson. In May/June 2011, These Kids Wear Crowns did ... In 2011, These Kids Wear Crowns toured Australia. In 2011, These Kids Wear Crowns filmed music videos for their singles ... These Kids Wear Crowns is a six-member Canadian power pop and pop-rock band, formed in 2009 in Chilliwack, British Columbia, ... These Kids Wear Crowns will be appearing on the Soundwave Festival 2012. In January 2015, singer Alexander Johnson announced he ...
Tyresö Royal Crowns is a Swedish sports club established in 1990 with American football as its only section. The club currently ... 1990-1997 Centralparken/Fornuddsängen The club elected the name of Royal Crowns by voting. Truckers and Wild Oxen were other ...
... , also Three Crowns Chagford, is a historical hotel in Chagford, Devon, England. The hotel, noted for its ... Three Crowns Chagford "THE THREE CROWNS - 1106177". Historic England. Retrieved 4 November 2016. Official site v t e v t e (Use ...
... 400th anniversary − educational website Ulster-Scots Agency.com: "1603 - The Union of the Crowns" (All ... The union was personal or dynastic, with the Crown of England and the Crown of Scotland remaining both distinct and separate ... The Union of the Crowns (Scottish Gaelic: Aonadh nan Crùintean; Scots: Union o the Crouns) was the accession of James VI of ... Whilst a misnomer, therefore, what is popularly known as "The Union of the Crowns" followed the death of James's cousin, ...
... (German: Nike krönt den Sieger) is an outdoor 1853 sculpture by Friedrich Drake, installed on ...
The following is a list of royal crowns: Heraldic Crown of the Order of Malta (Heraldic royal crown with eight half-arches. ... Five half-arches its two-dimensional representation) Oba's crown (Ritually potent crown composed of steel wires, beadwork and ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Royal crowns. Crown Jewels Imperial crown List of monarchies https://archive.today/ ...
"Thrive - Casting Crowns : Credits". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Archived from the original on August 28, 2015. Retrieved March ... "Thrive - Casting Crowns". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Archived from the original on May 30, 2014. Retrieved February 3, 2014. ... Thrive (stylized as THRIVE) is the sixth studio album by American contemporary Christian music band Casting Crowns. Released on ... Bellomy, Brianne (March 13, 2014). "Review of Thrive by Casting Crowns". CM Addict. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014 ...
Sanyo Crowns was a baseball team that played a single season in 1952 in the Kansai Farm League. Formed in September 1950 by the ...
The Concept of the Crown and Its Potential Role in the Downfall of Coronavirus Terence Chorba. ... The Concept of the Crown and Its Potential Role in the Downfall of Coronavirus. ...
Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Interior for his generous initiative to fund the cholera ... Media centre , News , WHO expresses thanks and appreciation to His Royal Highness, Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, for his ... WHO expresses thanks and appreciation to His Royal Highness, Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, for his generous initiative to fund ... Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defence for his nobel initiative in the humanitarian field ...
It was observed that all prosthetic crowns analyzed failed, identifying in a single crown more than one failure. It was ... compared to posterior crowns, as well as association (p=0.022) between the cervical margin of the posterior crowns in relation ... GUSMAO, Estela Santos et al. Radiographic diagnosis of prosthetics crowns. Odontol. Clín.-Cient. (Online) [online]. 2011, vol. ... where after a clinical evaluation of the crowns, was conducted a radiographic procedure for optimal viewing. The radiographic ...
Åkesson, L. (1998). Cloning - Crowning Glory of Creation? (Aspects of gene technology : report from an IVA seminar series 1997- ... Åkesson, L 1998, Cloning - Crowning Glory of Creation? Aspects of gene technology : report from an IVA seminar series 1997-98, ... Cloning - Crowning Glory of Creation? / Åkesson, Lynn. Kungliga Ingenjörsvetenskapsakademin, 1998. (Aspects of gene technology ... Cloning - Crowning Glory of Creation? Kungliga Ingenjörsvetenskapsakademin, 1998. (Aspects of gene technology : report from an ...
Clinical retention force development of double crowns.. Bayer, Stefan; Stark, Helmut; Gölz, Lina; Keilig, Ludger; Kraus, ... Within the limitations of this study, it can be stated that wear does not influence the retentive forces of double crowns ... Twenty-five combined fixed-removable prostheses with a total of 84 double crowns were included in the study. The intraoral ... The results indicate that retention force values of double crowns, measured intraorally at the patient, do not relevantly ...
Some monarchies have existed for over one thousand years, such as the Japanese and Swedish crowns. They are not corporations ... As a case in point, the Swedish Crown has, by any branding measure, impeccable credentials. Its brand loyalty (from its ...
Crown LA, May JA. Zinc toxicity: denture adhesives, bone marrow failure and polyneuropathy. Tenn Med. 2012 Feb;105:39-40, 42. ...
Haikal A, Everist BM, Jetanalin P, Maz M. Cervical CT-Dependent Diagnosis of Crowned Dens Syndrome in Calcium Pyrophosphate ... Crowned dens syndrome. Radiopaedia. Available at https://radiopaedia.org/articles/crowned-dens-syndrome?lang=us. August 15, ...
... crowns. Crowns were excluded because most crowns for this age group may be associated with accidents rather than caries. ... D2750 Crown, porcelain fused to high noble metal. 742. 10.7. D2751 Crown, porcelain fused to predominantly based metal. 684. ... To control for the use of crowns for purposes other than decay, we assumed that the rate of such usage in older age groups ... Roberts J. The fate and survival of amalgam and preformed crown molar restorations placed in a specialist pediatric dental ...
"Quality stamp of a Triple Crown". Erik Renström, Vice Chancellor of Lund University, recognises LUSEMs efforts and hard work ... We have an excellent portfolio of academic partners, and as a Triple Crown accredited business school, we now have the ... Through its third accreditation, LUSEM achieves "Triple Crown" status and can be counted among the business schools in the ... LUSEM joins the ranks of top business schools worldwide awarded with a "Triple Crown". Published: 2021-03-03 ...
"Quality stamp of a Triple Crown". Erik Renström, Vice Chancellor of Lund University, recognises LUSEMs efforts and hard work ... We have an excellent portfolio of academic partners, and as a Triple Crown accredited business school, we now have the ... Through its third accreditation, LUSEM achieves "Triple Crown" status and can be counted among the business schools in the ... LUSEM joins the ranks of top business schools worldwide awarded with a "Triple Crown". Published: 2021-03-03 ...
Crown Rump (Ages 3 and Under) TAPE CONTROL NHANES II DATA SOURCE POS. ITEM DESCRIPTION & CODES COUNTS OR NOTES 403- Crown Rump ... 9. Sitting height, recumbent (crown-rump length), children under 3 years--Measure on the infant measuring board with the child ... Crown Rump 403-405 Is examinee right or left handed? 406 Weight In pounds 407-411 In kilograms 412-416 Imputation Code 417 ... Crown Rump; Is examinee right or left handed?; Recumbent length APPENDIX A - DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES AND CONTENT The plan ...
Mean DCP exposures by job category were: mulch machine attendants, 1019 parts per billion (ppb); crown unloader, 310ppb; mulch ... Personal and area air samples were collected from mulch machine attendants, crown unloaders, mulch sled drivers, planting ...
A Comprehensive Analysis of Clinical Crowns in Young of Han Nationality with Normal Occlusion Using Intraoral Scanning. June 05 ...
As he was putting the crown in, tears swelled up in my eyes and I had to take a break to gather myself. I was very appalled at ... I had a dental crown put in today. I paid attention to see if the dentist washed his hands before putting on his gloves. I ... the fact that even when Im paying $1,600 for a crown I did not speak up for clean hands. It was definitely a traumatic ...
Limited access to the crown due to limited mouth opening might complicate the procedure. An artificial crown or a large crown ... Following the crown sectioning, the crown is removed gently and the enamel rests are removed by a diamond round bur with ... In cases of dilacerated or divergent roots or in cases of a brittle crown due to decay or a large reconstruction, it is ... The technique involves total sectioning of the crown of the tooth, removal of all enamel, and removal of enough of the coronal ...
That is why the nations took over the Academic Society, bought Sylwanska gården, all with support from crown prince Oscar. A ... The university chancellor of the time (1839), Crown Prince Oscar I, had donated 2000 riksdaler to the Academic Society and in ...
As a committed Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) Partner, Crown Agents recognizes the significance of this EPI review in ... said Crown Agents Managing Director, Mrs Muchaneta Mwonzora. ...
Macaca mulatta (Rhesus macaque), and Cercocebus torquatus atys (Red-crowned mangabey) (Sooty mangabey). ...
  • Study participants included 292 patients enrolled for treatment at the Faculdade de Odontologia de Pernambuco - FOP/UPE, where after a clinical evaluation of the crowns, was conducted a radiographic procedure for optimal viewing. (bvsalud.org)
  • Clinical retention force development of double crowns. (bvsalud.org)
  • A Comprehensive Analysis of Clinical Crowns in Young of Han Nationality with Normal Occlusion Using Intraoral Scanning. (medscape.com)
  • Sanyo Crowns was a baseball team that played a single season in 1952 in the Kansai Farm League. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence and absence of failures by radiographic images of single prosthetic crowns, related to proximal contour, proximal contact, excess and lack of material, marginal fit and relation of the end of the preparation with the alveolar bone crest. (bvsalud.org)
  • It was observed that all prosthetic crowns analyzed failed, identifying in a single crown more than one failure. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cement the crown in place. (medlineplus.gov)
  • They injected a light PVS material into the crown and seated the crown on the tooth preparation to record the cement space. (medscape.com)
  • The light PVS recorded the space available for the cement between the preparation and the crown, and the heavy material replicated the crown preparation. (medscape.com)
  • The investigators also recorded the time needed to cement the crowns in place, and found no difference between the conventional and digital crowns. (medscape.com)
  • To see which approach resulted in better-fitting crowns, the researchers made a crown with a zirconia core and a crown with a ceramic veneer for each of 50 cases, for a total of 100 crowns. (medscape.com)
  • Study participants included 292 patients enrolled for treatment at the Faculdade de Odontologia de Pernambuco - FOP/UPE, where after a clinical evaluation of the crowns, was conducted a radiographic procedure for optimal viewing. (bvsalud.org)
  • March 28, 2012 (Tampa, Florida) - Zirconia crowns with veneers made with digital impressions fit better than those made with conventional impressions, researchers reported here at the American Association for Dental Research 2012 Annual Meeting. (medscape.com)
  • One crown in each matched pair was made with a conventional polyvinylsiloxane (PVS) impression, in which a stone die was made to fabricate the veneer by hand. (medscape.com)
  • The other crown was made with a digital impression - an intraoral scanner was used to create a veneer made with computer-aided design and manufacturing. (medscape.com)
  • The crowns made with PVS impressions had margins of 78.62 µ (±25.62). (medscape.com)
  • The crowns made with PVS impressions had axial adaptation of 93.75 µ (±35.89), whereas the digital crowns had axial adaptation of 79.06 µ (±23.98). (medscape.com)
  • The crowns made with PVS impressions had occlusal adaptation of 162.03 µ (±47.22). (medscape.com)
  • Half of the crowns made with each process were Lava DVS and half were Lava Zirconia (both by 3M Espe). (medscape.com)
  • If you have a porcelain crown, you may want to avoid chewing on hard candy or ice to avoid chipping your crown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Getting a dental crown usually takes two dental visits. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Take an impression of your tooth to send to the dental lab where they make the permanent crown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A crown is a tooth-shaped cap that replaces your normal tooth above the gum line. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You may need a crown to support a weak tooth or to make your tooth look better. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Numb the neighboring teeth and gum area around the tooth that is getting the crown so you do not feel anything. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Reshape your tooth to prepare it for a crown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some dentists can digitally scan the tooth and make the crown in their office. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Make and fit your tooth with a temporary crown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your tooth under the crown can still get a cavity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This can happen if the core of the tooth that holds the crown in place is too weak. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The crown falls out when the child loses the baby tooth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Slide your floss out, rather than lifting it up, which can pull the crown off the tooth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • After the light material was set, they removed the crown and injected a heavy PVS material into the crown lined with the light PVS. (medscape.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence and absence of failures by radiographic images of single prosthetic crowns, related to proximal contour, proximal contact, excess and lack of material, marginal fit and relation of the end of the preparation with the alveolar bone crest. (bvsalud.org)
  • It was observed significant association (p=0.034) between the variable excess of material in the anterior crowns, compared to posterior crowns, as well as association (p=0.022) between the cervical margin of the posterior crowns in relation to the proximity to the alveolar bone crest. (bvsalud.org)
  • 23 June 2017 - The World Health Organization (WHO) expresses deep thanks and appreciation to His Royal Highness, Prince Mohammad bin Salman, Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defence for his generous initiative to fund cholera response activities in Yemen. (who.int)
  • Immediate and often incapacitating pain is described following puncture wounds from the crown-of-thorns starfish ( Acanthaster planci ), long-spined urchins ( Diadema species, Echinothrix species), and some short-spined urchins ( Phormosoma species). (medscape.com)
  • Tree crown characteristics strongly determin the magnitude of light capture (Binkley et al. (uni-leipzig.de)
  • Summary record of the third meeting, Grand Ballroom III, Crown Princess Hotel, Kuala Lumpur, Tuesday, 20 September 1994 at 1:30 p.m. (who.int)
  • Summary record of the first meeting, Grand Ballroom I and Grand Ballroom II of the Crown Princess Hotel, Kuala Lumpur, Monday, 19 September 1994 at 9:00 a.m. and 1:30 p.m. (who.int)