Tooth Preparation, Prosthodontic
Dental Prosthesis Design
Metal Ceramic Alloys
Dental Prosthesis Retention
Dental Restoration Failure
Post and Core Technique
Dental Casting Technique
Dental Stress Analysis
Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
Zinc Phosphate Cement
Dental Marginal Adaptation
Dental Casting Investment
Root Canal Therapy
Denture, Partial, Temporary
Denture, Partial, Fixed
Dental Restoration, Permanent
Molecular Sequence Data
Dental Enamel Hypoplasia
Glass Ionomer Cements
Dental Prosthesis Repair
Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported
Axial Length, Eye
Dental Implants, Single-Tooth
Individual growth patterns in the first trimester: evidence for difference in embryonic and fetal growth rates. (1/203)OBJECTIVE: To evaluate individual fetal growth during the first trimester in pregnancies resulting from spontaneous and in vitro fertilization (IVF). METHODS: The growth of 11 fetuses conceived by spontaneous fertilization (known dates of ovulation) in nine patients and 15 fetuses conceived by IVF in 12 patients were evaluated at weekly intervals from 6 weeks, menstrual age, to 14 weeks. Fetal length was determined at each examination. Measures of fetal length included the crown-rump length (CRL), maximum straight line length (MSLL) and maximum axial length (MAL). Comparisons of CRL and MSLL to MAL were carried out. The MSLL was used as the measure of length except when the MAL was available. Linear and quadratic functions were fitted to the complete data sets of individual fetuses in the two groups. Individual data sets from ten fetuses in each group were then divided into early and late growth phases, and linear functions were fitted to each data subset. Start points and pivotal points for each fetus were estimated from the coefficients of these two functions. Growth in these two groups of fetuses was compared, on the basis of slope values. RESULTS: Evaluation of length measures indicated that, before 8 weeks, only MSLL could be measured. After 8 weeks, all three measures could be obtained, with the MAL being the largest. Both the linear and quadratic models performed well with individual data sets (mean R2(+/- SD): linear 98.1 (1.0)%; quadratic 99.4 (0.4)%), with no differences found between spontaneous and IVF groups (maximum possible differences in mean slopes (95% probability): 5-8%). Similar findings were obtained for the early and late growth phase data subsets. Slope values in the early and late growth phases showed low variability (CV: early 13.5%; late 11.6%), but were significantly different (early 0.72 (+/- 0.10 SD) cm/week; late 1.21 (+/- 0.14 SD) cm/week). The mean start point was 5.9 (+/- 0.3 SD) weeks' menstrual age, while the mean pivotal point was 9.2 (+/- 0.7 SD) weeks, menstrual age. CONCLUSIONS: First-trimester growth studies in individual fetuses indicate that there is a change in length growth rate between 9 and 10 weeks, menstrual age. This is consistent with a shift in development from organogenesis to growth. These results can be used for more accurate assessment of first-trimester growth and may aid in the detection of fetal problems that manifest themselves as growth abnormalities. (+info)
The 'Mickey Mouse' sign and the diagnosis of anencephaly in early pregnancy. (2/203)OBJECTIVES: To assess the sonographic screening for anencephaly in the first trimester in a low-risk obstetric population. METHODS: Since 1994, 5388 women attended our clinic for a first-trimester scan (11-14 weeks of gestation) and screening for structural and chromosomal abnormalities. The patients underwent transabdominal scanning, and transvaginal scanning if necessary. RESULTS: The ultrasonographic appearances of anencephaly in the first trimester are different from the familiar second-trimester signs. The cerebral hemispheres are present and exposed to the surrounding amniotic fluid. The ultrasound appearances in the coronal section of the head are best described as 'Mickey Mouse face'. There were six cases of anencephaly (incidence 1.1:1000). All cases were diagnosed in the first trimester and five demonstrated this sign. There were no false-positive diagnoses. The crown-rump length was significantly reduced in all affected fetuses. CONCLUSION: First-trimester ultrasonographic diagnosis of anencephaly is accurate, but sonographers should be familiar with the ultrasound appearances that are different from those in the second trimester. (+info)
Biometrical threshold of biparietal diameter for certain fetal sex assignment by ultrasound. (3/203)OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to establish the biometric threshold of biparietal diameter (BPD), assumed to be an independent variable of gestational age, at which 100% accuracy in the assessment of fetal sex by ultrasonography is achievable. METHODS: Transvaginal and/or transabdominal sonography was used for detecting the 'sagittal sign' as a marker of fetal sex in 385 fetuses with BPD between 18 and 29 mm. The results of ultrasound examination were compared with sex at birth or with karyotype obtained from amniotic fluid cells or chorionic villus sampling. RESULTS: Fetal sex assignment was feasible in 337 of 385 cases (87.5%). Of the 312 fetuses with known fetal sex outcome, 164 were males and 148 were females. An accuracy rate of 100% was achieved when a BPD of > or = 23 mm was obtained. CONCLUSION: This study provides important information about the earliest stage of fetal development, expressed in terms of BPD, at which a diagnosis of fetal sex can be made with 100% accuracy. (+info)
Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and infant ponderal index at birth in the Swedish Medical Birth Register, 1991-1992. (4/203)OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on infant body proportion. METHODS: The ponderal index, defined as birthweight divided by crown-heel length cubed, was examined in 207,607 infants from the Swedish Medical Birth Register for 1991 and 1992. RESULTS: Infant ponderal index was used as the outcome variable in an ordinary least squares continuous regression, which included early pregnancy smoking status, gestational age, and birthweight among the predictors. Ponderal index increased by 0.030 (+/- 0.0014) among infants of moderate smokers and by 0.040 (+/- 0.0017) among infants of heavy smokers, showing a dose response. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking differentially alters the trajectory of weight vs length growth in the fetus. (+info)
Relationship between fetal femur diaphysis length and neonatal crown-heel length: the effect of race. (5/203)OBJECTIVE: To determine whether racial differences affect the relationship between the fetal femur diaphysis length and the neonatal crown-heel length. DESIGN: A prospective study in a teaching hospital with a multiracial population. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and fifty pregnant women (150 Malays, 150 Chinese and 150 Indians) who delivered live infants. METHODS: Ultrasound scan measurement of the fetal femur diaphysis length was carried out within 48 h of delivery in all cases. The relationship between the neonatal crown-heel length and the femur diaphysis length was obtained by regression using the method of least squares. Dummy or indicator variables were used to determine the effect of race on the relationship. RESULTS: The relationship between the neonatal crown-heel length and the femur diaphysis length in all three races was well described by a linear model but a quadratic model described the relationship better. There was no significant difference in relationship of the neonatal crown-heel length and the femur diaphysis length between the Malay and Chinese populations, but the relationship in the Indian population was significantly different was from both the Chinese and Malay. For a given femur diaphysis length, the crown-heel length of the Indian population was found on average to be 1.1 cm shorter than the crown-heel length of the Malay and Chinese populations. CONCLUSION: Differences in fetal body proportions exist between some races. The longer femur diaphysis length noted in certain races does not necessarily imply that the corresponding crown-heel length is longer. These inter-racial differences may increase the error of fetal weight and length estimates if formulae, which have been derived from samples racially dissimilar to that of the target population are used. (+info)
Gestational age in pregnancies conceived after in vitro fertilization: a comparison between age assessed from oocyte retrieval, crown-rump length and biparietal diameter. (6/203)OBJECTIVE: To compare gestational age (GA) and day of delivery estimated from the time of in vitro fertilization (IVF) (oocyte retrieval + 14 days), the ultrasonic measurement of the crown-rump length (CRL) and the biparietal diameter (BPD) in pregnancies conceived in an IVF setting. DESIGN: Included were 208 singletons and 72 twin pregnancies conceived after IVF. GA estimated from the time of IVF was compared with the GA estimated from the ultrasonic measurement of the CRL in the first trimester and the BPD in the second trimester. RESULTS: In singletons the mean difference in gestational age was 0.9 days between IVF and CRL estimates and 2.1 days between IVF and BPD estimates. The gestational age as estimated from CRL or BPD was shorter than the GA estimated from IVF. There was no systematic variation in the mean differences in GA between the methods. In three pregnancies there was a difference of more than 7 days between the gestational age estimated from IVF and CRL and in 22 pregnancies between gestational age estimated from IVF and BPD. A difference of > 14 days for any of the estimates was not found in any case. In singletons there was a high correlation in the gestational age at birth assessed from the time of IVF and from CRL, from the time of IVF and from BPD. CONCLUSION: Assessment of gestational age from the time of IVF, CRL and BPD in pregnancies conceived after IVF shows equally high agreement between the three methods. This supports the use of ultrasound as a reliable method for estimation of gestational age. (+info)
Alobar holoprosencephaly at 9 weeks gestational age visualized by two- and three-dimensional ultrasound. (7/203)We present the ultrasound detection of alobar holoprosencephaly (HPE) with cyclopia in an embryo of 9 weeks 2 days last menstrual period (LMP)-based gestational age; the crown-rump length (CRL) was 22 mm. The use of three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound made additional diagnostic ultrasound tomograms possible, and the volume reconstructions improved the imaging and the understanding of the condition. (+info)
The prenatal cranial base complex and hand in Turner syndrome. (8/203)From early childhood, Turner syndrome patients have a flattened cranial base, maxillary retrognathism, and short hands. There are, however, no studies that show when these genotype-determined abnormalities occur prenatally. The purpose of the present study was to measure craniofacial profile and hand radiographs of second trimester foetuses with Turner syndrome and compare the results with similar measurements from normal foetuses. The subjects consisted of 12 Turner syndrome foetuses, gestational age (GA) varying between 15 and 24 weeks, and crown-rump length (CRL) between 108 and 220 mm. The mid-sagittal block of each cranium was analysed as part of the requested brain analysis (pituitary gland analysis). This block and the right hand from seven foetuses were radiographed, and the skeletal maturity of the cranial base complex, i.e. the cranial base and the maxilla, was evaluated from the profile radiographs. Shape and size measurements in the cranial base were performed, and compared with normal values according to cranial maturity and to CRL. The cranial base angle in Turner syndrome was greater and the maxillary prognathism was reduced compared with the normal group. The dimensions in the cranial complex and in the hand showed that the bone lengths and distances in relation to CRL were generally smaller compared with normal foetuses. This investigation showed that the abnormal shape of the cranial base complex and the short hands in Turner syndrome are present prenatally. (+info)
Crown ethers are a class of organic compounds that consist of a cyclic ring with several ether groups attached to it. These compounds are named after their crown-like shape, which resembles a crown or a wreath. Crown ethers are used in various applications in the medical field, including as chelating agents, solvents, and drugs. One of the most important applications of crown ethers in medicine is as chelating agents. Chelating agents are compounds that can bind to metal ions and form stable complexes with them. Crown ethers are particularly effective at binding to metal ions such as calcium, strontium, and barium, which are important for various physiological processes in the body. By binding to these metal ions, crown ethers can help to prevent their accumulation in tissues and organs, which can be harmful if they are present in excess. Crown ethers are also used as solvents in the medical field. They are particularly useful for dissolving polar and ionic compounds, which are difficult to dissolve in nonpolar solvents such as oils and fats. Crown ethers are often used in the preparation of pharmaceuticals and other medical compounds, as well as in the analysis of biological samples. In addition to their use as chelating agents and solvents, crown ethers are also being investigated as potential drugs for the treatment of various diseases. For example, some crown ethers have been shown to have antiviral activity against HIV, while others have been found to be effective at treating certain types of cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic applications of crown ethers in medicine.
Metal Ceramic Alloys are a type of dental restoration that is commonly used in the medical field. They are made by fusing a metal base with a ceramic veneer, creating a strong and durable restoration that can withstand the wear and tear of daily use. Metal Ceramic Alloys are often used to replace missing teeth or to repair damaged teeth. They are particularly popular because they are strong, long-lasting, and can be customized to match the color and shape of a patient's natural teeth. In addition to their use in dentistry, Metal Ceramic Alloys are also used in other medical applications, such as in the manufacturing of orthopedic implants and prosthetic devices.
Zirconium is a chemical element with the symbol Zr and atomic number 40. It is a lustrous, grey-white metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and has a high melting point. In the medical field, zirconium is commonly used in the production of dental implants, as it is biocompatible and has a similar density to human bone. It is also used in the production of orthopedic implants, such as hip and knee replacements, as well as in the fabrication of prosthetic devices. Additionally, zirconium is used in the production of certain types of medical equipment, such as MRI machines, due to its low magnetic susceptibility.
In the medical field, "Tooth, Nonvital" refers to a tooth that has lost its blood supply and is no longer alive. This can occur due to injury, infection, or other factors that damage the tooth's pulp, which is the soft tissue inside the tooth that contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue. A nonvital tooth may become sensitive to hot and cold temperatures, pain when biting or chewing, or may have an unpleasant taste. If left untreated, a nonvital tooth can lead to further complications such as infection, abscess, or tooth loss. Treatment options for a nonvital tooth may include root canal therapy, which involves removing the damaged pulp and filling the tooth with a special material to prevent further infection, or extraction and replacement with a dental implant or bridge.
Tooth fractures refer to the partial or complete breakage of the hard outer layer of a tooth, known as the enamel. Tooth fractures can occur as a result of trauma, such as a blow to the face, or from excessive force applied to the tooth during biting or chewing. There are several types of tooth fractures, including: 1. Fractures of the enamel: These occur when the outer layer of the tooth is broken, but the underlying dentin and pulp are not affected. 2. Fractures of the dentin: These occur when the dentin, the layer of tooth beneath the enamel, is broken. 3. Fractures of the pulp: These occur when the innermost layer of the tooth, the pulp, is damaged. 4. Complete tooth fractures: These occur when the entire tooth is broken into two or more pieces. Tooth fractures can cause pain, sensitivity, and difficulty chewing or speaking. Treatment options depend on the severity of the fracture and may include filling the tooth, root canal therapy, or extraction and replacement with a dental implant or bridge.
In the medical field, composite resins are a type of dental filling material that is used to restore teeth that have been damaged by decay or trauma. They are made up of a mixture of glass particles and a resin binder, and are often used to fill small to medium-sized cavities. Composite resins are popular among dentists because they are tooth-colored, which means they can be matched to the natural color of the patient's teeth. This makes them an attractive option for patients who want to restore their teeth without the use of metal fillings. In addition, composite resins are relatively easy to use and can be shaped and polished to blend in with the surrounding teeth. While composite resins are generally considered safe and effective, they may not be suitable for all patients. For example, they may not be a good choice for patients who grind their teeth or who have a high risk of developing cavities. In these cases, other types of dental fillings, such as amalgam or gold, may be a better option.
Resin cements are dental materials that are used to bond dental restorations, such as fillings, crowns, and bridges, to the tooth structure. They are made from a combination of resin monomers, polymers, and other ingredients that are cured with light or heat to form a strong, durable bond. Resin cements are preferred over traditional dental cements because they have a number of advantages, including: 1. Improved adhesion: Resin cements bond to both tooth structure and dental restorations, providing a stronger and more durable bond than traditional cements. 2. Better esthetics: Resin cements can be matched to the color of the tooth, providing a more natural-looking restoration. 3. Increased strength: Resin cements are stronger than traditional cements, which can reduce the risk of fractures and other types of damage to the tooth. 4. Faster curing: Resin cements can be cured in just a few seconds, which can reduce the time required for dental procedures. Overall, resin cements are a popular choice for dental restorations because of their improved adhesion, esthetics, strength, and curing time.
Yttrium is a chemical element with the symbol Y and atomic number 39. It is a soft, silvery-white metal that is highly reactive and is used in a variety of applications in the medical field. One of the main uses of yttrium in medicine is in the production of medical imaging agents. Yttrium-90 (90Y) is a radioactive isotope that is commonly used in targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) to treat cancer. In TRT, a radioactive compound is attached to a molecule that specifically targets cancer cells, allowing the radiation to be delivered directly to the tumor while minimizing damage to healthy tissue. Yttrium is also used in the production of certain medical devices, such as dental implants and orthopedic implants. Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) is used as a ceramic material in the production of dental implants because of its high strength and biocompatibility. In addition, yttrium is used in the production of certain medical instruments, such as surgical lasers and dental drills. Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) is a crystal that is used in the production of high-power laser systems, which are used in a variety of medical procedures, including eye surgery and cancer treatment. Overall, yttrium plays an important role in the medical field due to its unique properties and versatility in a variety of applications.
Aluminum oxide is a chemical compound that is commonly used in the medical field as a desiccant, an agent that removes moisture from a substance. It is also used as a polishing agent for dental work and as a component in some types of dental fillings. In addition, aluminum oxide is used in the production of certain types of medical equipment, such as surgical instruments and implants. It is generally considered to be safe for medical use, but it can cause irritation or allergic reactions in some people.
Stainless steel is a type of steel that is resistant to corrosion and rust due to the presence of chromium in its composition. In the medical field, stainless steel is commonly used in the manufacturing of medical devices and implants due to its durability, biocompatibility, and resistance to corrosion. Stainless steel is used in a variety of medical applications, including surgical instruments, dental equipment, orthopedic implants, and cardiovascular devices. It is also used in the construction of medical facilities, such as hospital beds, surgical tables, and examination tables. One of the key benefits of using stainless steel in the medical field is its biocompatibility. Stainless steel is generally considered to be non-toxic and non-reactive with human tissue, making it a safe material for use in medical devices and implants. Additionally, stainless steel is easy to clean and sterilize, which is important in preventing the spread of infection in healthcare settings. Overall, stainless steel is a versatile and reliable material that is widely used in the medical field due to its durability, biocompatibility, and resistance to corrosion.
In the medical field, gold alloys are a type of metal that is commonly used in dental restorations, such as fillings, crowns, and bridges. Gold alloys are made by combining gold with other metals, such as silver, copper, and tin, to create a strong and durable material that is resistant to corrosion and wear. Gold alloys are often used in dental restorations because they have a number of properties that make them ideal for this purpose. For example, they are biocompatible, meaning that they are generally well-tolerated by the body and do not cause allergic reactions or other adverse effects. They are also highly resistant to wear and tear, which means that they can withstand the forces of chewing and biting without breaking or cracking. In addition to their use in dental restorations, gold alloys are also used in other medical applications, such as in the manufacture of orthopedic implants and surgical instruments. They are known for their strength, durability, and resistance to corrosion, which makes them well-suited for use in these types of applications.
Chromium alloys are a type of metal that are commonly used in the medical field due to their unique properties. These alloys are typically composed of chromium, which is combined with other metals such as molybdenum, nickel, and cobalt to create a strong, durable, and corrosion-resistant material. In the medical field, chromium alloys are often used to make orthopedic implants, such as hip and knee replacements, dental implants, and spinal implants. These implants are designed to be strong and long-lasting, and to withstand the wear and tear of daily use. They are also biocompatible, meaning that they are less likely to cause an adverse reaction in the body. Chromium alloys are also used in other medical applications, such as in the production of surgical instruments and medical devices. They are known for their high strength, corrosion resistance, and ability to withstand high temperatures, which makes them ideal for use in these applications. Overall, chromium alloys are an important material in the medical field due to their unique properties and versatility. They are used in a wide range of medical applications, and are known for their durability, strength, and biocompatibility.
Tooth discoloration refers to a change in the color of the tooth's surface or enamel. It can be caused by various factors, including age, genetics, diet, tobacco use, certain medications, and dental procedures such as teeth whitening. Tooth discoloration can range from mild to severe and can affect one or multiple teeth. In some cases, tooth discoloration may be a sign of an underlying dental or medical condition, such as tooth decay, gum disease, or a systemic illness. Treatment options for tooth discoloration depend on the cause and severity of the discoloration and may include professional teeth whitening, dental veneers, or tooth bonding.
Dental Enamel Hypoplasia is a condition characterized by the incomplete or abnormal development of dental enamel, the hard outer layer of the tooth. It can occur during tooth development in the womb or in early childhood, and can be caused by a variety of factors, including malnutrition, illness, and exposure to certain medications or toxins. The severity of dental enamel hypoplasia can vary, ranging from mild white spots on the teeth to severe pitting or grooving of the enamel surface. It can lead to increased tooth sensitivity and an increased risk of tooth decay. Treatment options may include fluoride therapy, dental bonding, or dental crowns.
Tooth attrition is the gradual wearing down of the tooth enamel and dentin caused by normal tooth-to-tooth contact during chewing, grinding, or clenching. It is a natural process that occurs throughout a person's life, and it can be accelerated by factors such as bruxism (teeth grinding), acid erosion, and aging. Tooth attrition can lead to a variety of dental problems, including sensitivity, cracking, and even tooth loss. It can also affect the shape and size of the teeth, which can impact the way they fit together and affect the function of the jaw. In some cases, tooth attrition may require dental treatment, such as tooth crowns, fillings, or root canal therapy. Preventive measures, such as wearing a mouthguard during sports or sleep, can also help to reduce the risk of tooth attrition.
In the medical field, "Crown Compounds" refers to a class of coordination compounds that are characterized by a central metal atom or ion surrounded by a coordination sphere of ligands, typically organic molecules or ions. The ligands are arranged in a way that resembles a crown or a wreath, hence the name "crown compounds". Crown compounds are often used in medicine as chelating agents, which means they can bind to metal ions and form stable complexes that can be excreted from the body. This property makes them useful for treating conditions such as heavy metal poisoning, where excess metal ions in the body can be harmful. Some examples of crown compounds used in medicine include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), which is used to treat lead poisoning, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which is used to treat copper and mercury poisoning.
In the medical field, an "unerupted tooth" refers to a tooth that has not yet broken through the gums and become visible in the mouth. This can happen for a variety of reasons, including genetic factors, hormonal changes, or dental problems that prevent the tooth from erupting properly. Unerupted teeth can be found in both children and adults, and they can affect the alignment and spacing of the teeth in the mouth. In some cases, an unerupted tooth may need to be surgically removed or guided into the correct position in order to prevent dental problems such as overcrowding or malocclusion.
Tooth wear is a common dental condition that refers to the gradual loss of tooth structure due to various factors. It can occur on the surface of the tooth or extend deeper into the tooth structure, affecting the shape, size, and function of the tooth. There are several types of tooth wear, including: 1. Attrition: This is the most common type of tooth wear, which occurs when the tooth surfaces rub against each other, causing the enamel and dentin to wear down. 2. Abrasion: This type of tooth wear occurs when the tooth surface is worn down by external factors such as brushing too hard, grinding teeth, or consuming acidic foods and drinks. 3. Erosion: This type of tooth wear occurs when the tooth surface is worn down by chemical factors such as acid reflux, stomach acid, or frequent exposure to acidic foods and drinks. Tooth wear can cause a variety of dental problems, including sensitivity, pain, difficulty chewing, and even tooth loss. Treatment options for tooth wear depend on the severity of the condition and may include dental bonding, dental crowns, or dental veneers. It is important to maintain good oral hygiene and visit a dentist regularly to prevent and manage tooth wear.
Titanium is a metal that is commonly used in the medical field due to its unique properties, such as its high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. It is often used in medical implants, such as hip and knee replacements, dental implants, and spinal implants, due to its ability to integrate well with the body and its durability. Titanium is also used in surgical instruments and medical equipment, such as pacemakers and defibrillators, due to its resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand high temperatures. Additionally, titanium is sometimes used in the fabrication of prosthetic limbs and other medical devices.
Anthropometric measurement of the developing fetus
Estimated date of delivery
List of MeSH codes (G03)
List of MeSH codes (G07)
List of MeSH codes (E01)
Reproducibility of an image scoring system for crown rump length measurements - Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health
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- In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. (bvsalud.org)
- Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. (bvsalud.org)
- The average crown-rump length of the fetus at term is 36 cm. (bvsalud.org)
- The crown-rump (C-R) length of the fetus is also illustrated. (medscape.com)
- Placenta volumes (PV) and embryo volume/fetal volume ratios are correlated with crown-rump length (CRL) or gestational age. (medscape.com)
- No differences were observed between irradiated and sham irradiated rats with respect to the number of implantations per litter, percentage of dead or resorbed implantations, percentage of malformed fetuses, fetal weights, fetal crown rump lengths, or fetal sex ratios. (cdc.gov)
- In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. (nih.gov)