A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.
The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)
Macrocyclic polyethers with the repeating unit of (-CH2-CH2-O)n where n is greater than 2 and some oxygens may be replaced by nitrogen, sulfur or phosphorus. These compounds are useful for coordinating CATIONS. The nomenclature uses a prefix to indicate the size of the ring and a suffix for the number of heteroatoms.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)
Technique combining controlled eruptive tooth movement and incision of the supracrestal gingival attachment to allow for proper restoration of a destroyed or damaged crown of a tooth. Controlled eruption of the tooth is obtained using ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES. During this eruptive phase, repeated incisions are made at the junctional epithelium of the sulcus and the supracrestal connective tissue to prevent coronal displacement of the gingiva and of the attachment apparatus.
The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The use of a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or acrylic resin, applied to the surface of natural teeth, crowns, or pontics by fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention.
The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Holding a DENTAL PROSTHESIS in place by its design, or by the use of additional devices or adhesives.
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.
Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.
Use of a metal casting, usually with a post in the pulp or root canal, designed to support and retain an artificial crown.
Measurement of tooth characteristics.
The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)
The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A material used for cementation of inlays, crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances and occasionally as a temporary restoration. It is prepared by mixing zinc oxide and magnesium oxide powders with a liquid consisting principally of phosphoric acid, water, and buffers. (From Bouchers' Clinical Dental Terminology, 3d ed)
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.
Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.
Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.
Occlusal wear of the surfaces of restorations and surface wear of dentures.
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
A denture replacing one or more (but not all) natural teeth. It is supported and retained by underlying tissue and some or all of the remaining teeth.
The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.
The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
The joining of objects by means of a cement (e.g., in fracture fixation, such as in hip arthroplasty for joining of the acetabular component to the femoral component). In dentistry, it is used for the process of attaching parts of a tooth or restorative material to a natural tooth or for the attaching of orthodontic bands to teeth by means of an adhesive.
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Y, atomic number 39, and atomic weight 88.91. In conjunction with other rare earths, yttrium is used as a phosphor in television receivers and is a component of the yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Material from which the casting mold is made in the fabrication of gold or cobalt-chromium castings. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p168)
A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.
A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.
A partial denture intended for short-term use in a temporary or emergency situation.
The plan, delineation, and location of actual structural elements of dentures. The design can relate to retainers, stress-breakers, occlusal rests, flanges, framework, lingual or palatal bars, reciprocal arms, etc.
Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
The constricted part of the tooth at the junction of the crown and root or roots. It is often referred to as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), the line at which the cementum covering the root of a tooth and the enamel of the tooth meet. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p530, p433)
Any restorative and replacement device that is used as a therapeutic aid in the treatment of periodontal disease. It is an adjunct to other forms of periodontal therapy and does not cure periodontal disease by itself. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 3d ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
A partial denture attached to prepared natural teeth, roots, or implants by cementation.
A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)
The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Procedures carried out with regard to the teeth or tooth structures preparatory to specified dental therapeutic and surgical measures.
An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.
The wearing away of a tooth as a result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It is chiefly associated with aging. It is differentiated from TOOTH ABRASION (the pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by friction, as brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes) and from TOOTH EROSION (the loss of substance caused by chemical action without bacterial action). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p86)
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Macrocyclic compounds analogous to CROWN ETHERS but which lack any OXYGEN atoms.
A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.
A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)
The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)
A normal developing tooth which has not yet perforated the oral mucosa or one that fails to erupt in the normal sequence or time interval expected for the type of tooth in a given gender, age, or population group.
The retention of a denture in place by design, device, or adhesion.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
Restorations of metal, porcelain, or plastic made to fit a cavity preparation, then cemented into the tooth. Onlays are restorations which fit into cavity preparations and overlay the occlusal surface of a tooth or teeth. Onlays are retained by frictional or mechanical factors.
The process of reuniting or replacing a broken or worn dental prosthesis or its part.
A prosthesis that gains its support, stability, and retention from a substructure that is implanted under the soft tissues of the basal seat of the device and is in contact with bone. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processes
The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Coloring, shading, or tinting of prosthetic components, devices, and materials.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
Methods of preparing tissue specimens for visualization using an electron microscope, usually a scanning electron microscope. The methods involve the creation of exact copies of the specimens by making a mold or cast (i.e., replica) of the specimen.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.
Devices, usually alloplastic, surgically inserted into or onto the jawbone, which support a single prosthetic tooth and serve either as abutments or as cosmetic replacements for missing teeth.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The 32 teeth of adulthood that either replace or are added to the complement of deciduous teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.

Individual growth patterns in the first trimester: evidence for difference in embryonic and fetal growth rates. (1/203)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate individual fetal growth during the first trimester in pregnancies resulting from spontaneous and in vitro fertilization (IVF). METHODS: The growth of 11 fetuses conceived by spontaneous fertilization (known dates of ovulation) in nine patients and 15 fetuses conceived by IVF in 12 patients were evaluated at weekly intervals from 6 weeks, menstrual age, to 14 weeks. Fetal length was determined at each examination. Measures of fetal length included the crown-rump length (CRL), maximum straight line length (MSLL) and maximum axial length (MAL). Comparisons of CRL and MSLL to MAL were carried out. The MSLL was used as the measure of length except when the MAL was available. Linear and quadratic functions were fitted to the complete data sets of individual fetuses in the two groups. Individual data sets from ten fetuses in each group were then divided into early and late growth phases, and linear functions were fitted to each data subset. Start points and pivotal points for each fetus were estimated from the coefficients of these two functions. Growth in these two groups of fetuses was compared, on the basis of slope values. RESULTS: Evaluation of length measures indicated that, before 8 weeks, only MSLL could be measured. After 8 weeks, all three measures could be obtained, with the MAL being the largest. Both the linear and quadratic models performed well with individual data sets (mean R2(+/- SD): linear 98.1 (1.0)%; quadratic 99.4 (0.4)%), with no differences found between spontaneous and IVF groups (maximum possible differences in mean slopes (95% probability): 5-8%). Similar findings were obtained for the early and late growth phase data subsets. Slope values in the early and late growth phases showed low variability (CV: early 13.5%; late 11.6%), but were significantly different (early 0.72 (+/- 0.10 SD) cm/week; late 1.21 (+/- 0.14 SD) cm/week). The mean start point was 5.9 (+/- 0.3 SD) weeks' menstrual age, while the mean pivotal point was 9.2 (+/- 0.7 SD) weeks, menstrual age. CONCLUSIONS: First-trimester growth studies in individual fetuses indicate that there is a change in length growth rate between 9 and 10 weeks, menstrual age. This is consistent with a shift in development from organogenesis to growth. These results can be used for more accurate assessment of first-trimester growth and may aid in the detection of fetal problems that manifest themselves as growth abnormalities.  (+info)

The 'Mickey Mouse' sign and the diagnosis of anencephaly in early pregnancy. (2/203)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the sonographic screening for anencephaly in the first trimester in a low-risk obstetric population. METHODS: Since 1994, 5388 women attended our clinic for a first-trimester scan (11-14 weeks of gestation) and screening for structural and chromosomal abnormalities. The patients underwent transabdominal scanning, and transvaginal scanning if necessary. RESULTS: The ultrasonographic appearances of anencephaly in the first trimester are different from the familiar second-trimester signs. The cerebral hemispheres are present and exposed to the surrounding amniotic fluid. The ultrasound appearances in the coronal section of the head are best described as 'Mickey Mouse face'. There were six cases of anencephaly (incidence 1.1:1000). All cases were diagnosed in the first trimester and five demonstrated this sign. There were no false-positive diagnoses. The crown-rump length was significantly reduced in all affected fetuses. CONCLUSION: First-trimester ultrasonographic diagnosis of anencephaly is accurate, but sonographers should be familiar with the ultrasound appearances that are different from those in the second trimester.  (+info)

Biometrical threshold of biparietal diameter for certain fetal sex assignment by ultrasound. (3/203)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to establish the biometric threshold of biparietal diameter (BPD), assumed to be an independent variable of gestational age, at which 100% accuracy in the assessment of fetal sex by ultrasonography is achievable. METHODS: Transvaginal and/or transabdominal sonography was used for detecting the 'sagittal sign' as a marker of fetal sex in 385 fetuses with BPD between 18 and 29 mm. The results of ultrasound examination were compared with sex at birth or with karyotype obtained from amniotic fluid cells or chorionic villus sampling. RESULTS: Fetal sex assignment was feasible in 337 of 385 cases (87.5%). Of the 312 fetuses with known fetal sex outcome, 164 were males and 148 were females. An accuracy rate of 100% was achieved when a BPD of > or = 23 mm was obtained. CONCLUSION: This study provides important information about the earliest stage of fetal development, expressed in terms of BPD, at which a diagnosis of fetal sex can be made with 100% accuracy.  (+info)

Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and infant ponderal index at birth in the Swedish Medical Birth Register, 1991-1992. (4/203)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on infant body proportion. METHODS: The ponderal index, defined as birthweight divided by crown-heel length cubed, was examined in 207,607 infants from the Swedish Medical Birth Register for 1991 and 1992. RESULTS: Infant ponderal index was used as the outcome variable in an ordinary least squares continuous regression, which included early pregnancy smoking status, gestational age, and birthweight among the predictors. Ponderal index increased by 0.030 (+/- 0.0014) among infants of moderate smokers and by 0.040 (+/- 0.0017) among infants of heavy smokers, showing a dose response. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking differentially alters the trajectory of weight vs length growth in the fetus.  (+info)

Relationship between fetal femur diaphysis length and neonatal crown-heel length: the effect of race. (5/203)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether racial differences affect the relationship between the fetal femur diaphysis length and the neonatal crown-heel length. DESIGN: A prospective study in a teaching hospital with a multiracial population. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and fifty pregnant women (150 Malays, 150 Chinese and 150 Indians) who delivered live infants. METHODS: Ultrasound scan measurement of the fetal femur diaphysis length was carried out within 48 h of delivery in all cases. The relationship between the neonatal crown-heel length and the femur diaphysis length was obtained by regression using the method of least squares. Dummy or indicator variables were used to determine the effect of race on the relationship. RESULTS: The relationship between the neonatal crown-heel length and the femur diaphysis length in all three races was well described by a linear model but a quadratic model described the relationship better. There was no significant difference in relationship of the neonatal crown-heel length and the femur diaphysis length between the Malay and Chinese populations, but the relationship in the Indian population was significantly different was from both the Chinese and Malay. For a given femur diaphysis length, the crown-heel length of the Indian population was found on average to be 1.1 cm shorter than the crown-heel length of the Malay and Chinese populations. CONCLUSION: Differences in fetal body proportions exist between some races. The longer femur diaphysis length noted in certain races does not necessarily imply that the corresponding crown-heel length is longer. These inter-racial differences may increase the error of fetal weight and length estimates if formulae, which have been derived from samples racially dissimilar to that of the target population are used.  (+info)

Gestational age in pregnancies conceived after in vitro fertilization: a comparison between age assessed from oocyte retrieval, crown-rump length and biparietal diameter. (6/203)

OBJECTIVE: To compare gestational age (GA) and day of delivery estimated from the time of in vitro fertilization (IVF) (oocyte retrieval + 14 days), the ultrasonic measurement of the crown-rump length (CRL) and the biparietal diameter (BPD) in pregnancies conceived in an IVF setting. DESIGN: Included were 208 singletons and 72 twin pregnancies conceived after IVF. GA estimated from the time of IVF was compared with the GA estimated from the ultrasonic measurement of the CRL in the first trimester and the BPD in the second trimester. RESULTS: In singletons the mean difference in gestational age was 0.9 days between IVF and CRL estimates and 2.1 days between IVF and BPD estimates. The gestational age as estimated from CRL or BPD was shorter than the GA estimated from IVF. There was no systematic variation in the mean differences in GA between the methods. In three pregnancies there was a difference of more than 7 days between the gestational age estimated from IVF and CRL and in 22 pregnancies between gestational age estimated from IVF and BPD. A difference of > 14 days for any of the estimates was not found in any case. In singletons there was a high correlation in the gestational age at birth assessed from the time of IVF and from CRL, from the time of IVF and from BPD. CONCLUSION: Assessment of gestational age from the time of IVF, CRL and BPD in pregnancies conceived after IVF shows equally high agreement between the three methods. This supports the use of ultrasound as a reliable method for estimation of gestational age.  (+info)

Alobar holoprosencephaly at 9 weeks gestational age visualized by two- and three-dimensional ultrasound. (7/203)

We present the ultrasound detection of alobar holoprosencephaly (HPE) with cyclopia in an embryo of 9 weeks 2 days last menstrual period (LMP)-based gestational age; the crown-rump length (CRL) was 22 mm. The use of three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound made additional diagnostic ultrasound tomograms possible, and the volume reconstructions improved the imaging and the understanding of the condition.  (+info)

The prenatal cranial base complex and hand in Turner syndrome. (8/203)

From early childhood, Turner syndrome patients have a flattened cranial base, maxillary retrognathism, and short hands. There are, however, no studies that show when these genotype-determined abnormalities occur prenatally. The purpose of the present study was to measure craniofacial profile and hand radiographs of second trimester foetuses with Turner syndrome and compare the results with similar measurements from normal foetuses. The subjects consisted of 12 Turner syndrome foetuses, gestational age (GA) varying between 15 and 24 weeks, and crown-rump length (CRL) between 108 and 220 mm. The mid-sagittal block of each cranium was analysed as part of the requested brain analysis (pituitary gland analysis). This block and the right hand from seven foetuses were radiographed, and the skeletal maturity of the cranial base complex, i.e. the cranial base and the maxilla, was evaluated from the profile radiographs. Shape and size measurements in the cranial base were performed, and compared with normal values according to cranial maturity and to CRL. The cranial base angle in Turner syndrome was greater and the maxillary prognathism was reduced compared with the normal group. The dimensions in the cranial complex and in the hand showed that the bone lengths and distances in relation to CRL were generally smaller compared with normal foetuses. This investigation showed that the abnormal shape of the cranial base complex and the short hands in Turner syndrome are present prenatally.  (+info)

Crown ethers are a class of organic compounds that consist of a cyclic ring with several ether groups attached to it. These compounds are named after their crown-like shape, which resembles a crown or a wreath. Crown ethers are used in various applications in the medical field, including as chelating agents, solvents, and drugs. One of the most important applications of crown ethers in medicine is as chelating agents. Chelating agents are compounds that can bind to metal ions and form stable complexes with them. Crown ethers are particularly effective at binding to metal ions such as calcium, strontium, and barium, which are important for various physiological processes in the body. By binding to these metal ions, crown ethers can help to prevent their accumulation in tissues and organs, which can be harmful if they are present in excess. Crown ethers are also used as solvents in the medical field. They are particularly useful for dissolving polar and ionic compounds, which are difficult to dissolve in nonpolar solvents such as oils and fats. Crown ethers are often used in the preparation of pharmaceuticals and other medical compounds, as well as in the analysis of biological samples. In addition to their use as chelating agents and solvents, crown ethers are also being investigated as potential drugs for the treatment of various diseases. For example, some crown ethers have been shown to have antiviral activity against HIV, while others have been found to be effective at treating certain types of cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic applications of crown ethers in medicine.

Metal Ceramic Alloys are a type of dental restoration that is commonly used in the medical field. They are made by fusing a metal base with a ceramic veneer, creating a strong and durable restoration that can withstand the wear and tear of daily use. Metal Ceramic Alloys are often used to replace missing teeth or to repair damaged teeth. They are particularly popular because they are strong, long-lasting, and can be customized to match the color and shape of a patient's natural teeth. In addition to their use in dentistry, Metal Ceramic Alloys are also used in other medical applications, such as in the manufacturing of orthopedic implants and prosthetic devices.

Zirconium is a chemical element with the symbol Zr and atomic number 40. It is a lustrous, grey-white metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and has a high melting point. In the medical field, zirconium is commonly used in the production of dental implants, as it is biocompatible and has a similar density to human bone. It is also used in the production of orthopedic implants, such as hip and knee replacements, as well as in the fabrication of prosthetic devices. Additionally, zirconium is used in the production of certain types of medical equipment, such as MRI machines, due to its low magnetic susceptibility.

In the medical field, "Tooth, Nonvital" refers to a tooth that has lost its blood supply and is no longer alive. This can occur due to injury, infection, or other factors that damage the tooth's pulp, which is the soft tissue inside the tooth that contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue. A nonvital tooth may become sensitive to hot and cold temperatures, pain when biting or chewing, or may have an unpleasant taste. If left untreated, a nonvital tooth can lead to further complications such as infection, abscess, or tooth loss. Treatment options for a nonvital tooth may include root canal therapy, which involves removing the damaged pulp and filling the tooth with a special material to prevent further infection, or extraction and replacement with a dental implant or bridge.

Tooth fractures refer to the partial or complete breakage of the hard outer layer of a tooth, known as the enamel. Tooth fractures can occur as a result of trauma, such as a blow to the face, or from excessive force applied to the tooth during biting or chewing. There are several types of tooth fractures, including: 1. Fractures of the enamel: These occur when the outer layer of the tooth is broken, but the underlying dentin and pulp are not affected. 2. Fractures of the dentin: These occur when the dentin, the layer of tooth beneath the enamel, is broken. 3. Fractures of the pulp: These occur when the innermost layer of the tooth, the pulp, is damaged. 4. Complete tooth fractures: These occur when the entire tooth is broken into two or more pieces. Tooth fractures can cause pain, sensitivity, and difficulty chewing or speaking. Treatment options depend on the severity of the fracture and may include filling the tooth, root canal therapy, or extraction and replacement with a dental implant or bridge.

In the medical field, composite resins are a type of dental filling material that is used to restore teeth that have been damaged by decay or trauma. They are made up of a mixture of glass particles and a resin binder, and are often used to fill small to medium-sized cavities. Composite resins are popular among dentists because they are tooth-colored, which means they can be matched to the natural color of the patient's teeth. This makes them an attractive option for patients who want to restore their teeth without the use of metal fillings. In addition, composite resins are relatively easy to use and can be shaped and polished to blend in with the surrounding teeth. While composite resins are generally considered safe and effective, they may not be suitable for all patients. For example, they may not be a good choice for patients who grind their teeth or who have a high risk of developing cavities. In these cases, other types of dental fillings, such as amalgam or gold, may be a better option.

Resin cements are dental materials that are used to bond dental restorations, such as fillings, crowns, and bridges, to the tooth structure. They are made from a combination of resin monomers, polymers, and other ingredients that are cured with light or heat to form a strong, durable bond. Resin cements are preferred over traditional dental cements because they have a number of advantages, including: 1. Improved adhesion: Resin cements bond to both tooth structure and dental restorations, providing a stronger and more durable bond than traditional cements. 2. Better esthetics: Resin cements can be matched to the color of the tooth, providing a more natural-looking restoration. 3. Increased strength: Resin cements are stronger than traditional cements, which can reduce the risk of fractures and other types of damage to the tooth. 4. Faster curing: Resin cements can be cured in just a few seconds, which can reduce the time required for dental procedures. Overall, resin cements are a popular choice for dental restorations because of their improved adhesion, esthetics, strength, and curing time.

Yttrium is a chemical element with the symbol Y and atomic number 39. It is a soft, silvery-white metal that is highly reactive and is used in a variety of applications in the medical field. One of the main uses of yttrium in medicine is in the production of medical imaging agents. Yttrium-90 (90Y) is a radioactive isotope that is commonly used in targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) to treat cancer. In TRT, a radioactive compound is attached to a molecule that specifically targets cancer cells, allowing the radiation to be delivered directly to the tumor while minimizing damage to healthy tissue. Yttrium is also used in the production of certain medical devices, such as dental implants and orthopedic implants. Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) is used as a ceramic material in the production of dental implants because of its high strength and biocompatibility. In addition, yttrium is used in the production of certain medical instruments, such as surgical lasers and dental drills. Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) is a crystal that is used in the production of high-power laser systems, which are used in a variety of medical procedures, including eye surgery and cancer treatment. Overall, yttrium plays an important role in the medical field due to its unique properties and versatility in a variety of applications.

Aluminum oxide is a chemical compound that is commonly used in the medical field as a desiccant, an agent that removes moisture from a substance. It is also used as a polishing agent for dental work and as a component in some types of dental fillings. In addition, aluminum oxide is used in the production of certain types of medical equipment, such as surgical instruments and implants. It is generally considered to be safe for medical use, but it can cause irritation or allergic reactions in some people.

Stainless steel is a type of steel that is resistant to corrosion and rust due to the presence of chromium in its composition. In the medical field, stainless steel is commonly used in the manufacturing of medical devices and implants due to its durability, biocompatibility, and resistance to corrosion. Stainless steel is used in a variety of medical applications, including surgical instruments, dental equipment, orthopedic implants, and cardiovascular devices. It is also used in the construction of medical facilities, such as hospital beds, surgical tables, and examination tables. One of the key benefits of using stainless steel in the medical field is its biocompatibility. Stainless steel is generally considered to be non-toxic and non-reactive with human tissue, making it a safe material for use in medical devices and implants. Additionally, stainless steel is easy to clean and sterilize, which is important in preventing the spread of infection in healthcare settings. Overall, stainless steel is a versatile and reliable material that is widely used in the medical field due to its durability, biocompatibility, and resistance to corrosion.

In the medical field, gold alloys are a type of metal that is commonly used in dental restorations, such as fillings, crowns, and bridges. Gold alloys are made by combining gold with other metals, such as silver, copper, and tin, to create a strong and durable material that is resistant to corrosion and wear. Gold alloys are often used in dental restorations because they have a number of properties that make them ideal for this purpose. For example, they are biocompatible, meaning that they are generally well-tolerated by the body and do not cause allergic reactions or other adverse effects. They are also highly resistant to wear and tear, which means that they can withstand the forces of chewing and biting without breaking or cracking. In addition to their use in dental restorations, gold alloys are also used in other medical applications, such as in the manufacture of orthopedic implants and surgical instruments. They are known for their strength, durability, and resistance to corrosion, which makes them well-suited for use in these types of applications.

Chromium alloys are a type of metal that are commonly used in the medical field due to their unique properties. These alloys are typically composed of chromium, which is combined with other metals such as molybdenum, nickel, and cobalt to create a strong, durable, and corrosion-resistant material. In the medical field, chromium alloys are often used to make orthopedic implants, such as hip and knee replacements, dental implants, and spinal implants. These implants are designed to be strong and long-lasting, and to withstand the wear and tear of daily use. They are also biocompatible, meaning that they are less likely to cause an adverse reaction in the body. Chromium alloys are also used in other medical applications, such as in the production of surgical instruments and medical devices. They are known for their high strength, corrosion resistance, and ability to withstand high temperatures, which makes them ideal for use in these applications. Overall, chromium alloys are an important material in the medical field due to their unique properties and versatility. They are used in a wide range of medical applications, and are known for their durability, strength, and biocompatibility.

Tooth discoloration refers to a change in the color of the tooth's surface or enamel. It can be caused by various factors, including age, genetics, diet, tobacco use, certain medications, and dental procedures such as teeth whitening. Tooth discoloration can range from mild to severe and can affect one or multiple teeth. In some cases, tooth discoloration may be a sign of an underlying dental or medical condition, such as tooth decay, gum disease, or a systemic illness. Treatment options for tooth discoloration depend on the cause and severity of the discoloration and may include professional teeth whitening, dental veneers, or tooth bonding.

Dental Enamel Hypoplasia is a condition characterized by the incomplete or abnormal development of dental enamel, the hard outer layer of the tooth. It can occur during tooth development in the womb or in early childhood, and can be caused by a variety of factors, including malnutrition, illness, and exposure to certain medications or toxins. The severity of dental enamel hypoplasia can vary, ranging from mild white spots on the teeth to severe pitting or grooving of the enamel surface. It can lead to increased tooth sensitivity and an increased risk of tooth decay. Treatment options may include fluoride therapy, dental bonding, or dental crowns.

Tooth attrition is the gradual wearing down of the tooth enamel and dentin caused by normal tooth-to-tooth contact during chewing, grinding, or clenching. It is a natural process that occurs throughout a person's life, and it can be accelerated by factors such as bruxism (teeth grinding), acid erosion, and aging. Tooth attrition can lead to a variety of dental problems, including sensitivity, cracking, and even tooth loss. It can also affect the shape and size of the teeth, which can impact the way they fit together and affect the function of the jaw. In some cases, tooth attrition may require dental treatment, such as tooth crowns, fillings, or root canal therapy. Preventive measures, such as wearing a mouthguard during sports or sleep, can also help to reduce the risk of tooth attrition.

In the medical field, "Crown Compounds" refers to a class of coordination compounds that are characterized by a central metal atom or ion surrounded by a coordination sphere of ligands, typically organic molecules or ions. The ligands are arranged in a way that resembles a crown or a wreath, hence the name "crown compounds". Crown compounds are often used in medicine as chelating agents, which means they can bind to metal ions and form stable complexes that can be excreted from the body. This property makes them useful for treating conditions such as heavy metal poisoning, where excess metal ions in the body can be harmful. Some examples of crown compounds used in medicine include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), which is used to treat lead poisoning, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which is used to treat copper and mercury poisoning.

In the medical field, an "unerupted tooth" refers to a tooth that has not yet broken through the gums and become visible in the mouth. This can happen for a variety of reasons, including genetic factors, hormonal changes, or dental problems that prevent the tooth from erupting properly. Unerupted teeth can be found in both children and adults, and they can affect the alignment and spacing of the teeth in the mouth. In some cases, an unerupted tooth may need to be surgically removed or guided into the correct position in order to prevent dental problems such as overcrowding or malocclusion.

Tooth wear is a common dental condition that refers to the gradual loss of tooth structure due to various factors. It can occur on the surface of the tooth or extend deeper into the tooth structure, affecting the shape, size, and function of the tooth. There are several types of tooth wear, including: 1. Attrition: This is the most common type of tooth wear, which occurs when the tooth surfaces rub against each other, causing the enamel and dentin to wear down. 2. Abrasion: This type of tooth wear occurs when the tooth surface is worn down by external factors such as brushing too hard, grinding teeth, or consuming acidic foods and drinks. 3. Erosion: This type of tooth wear occurs when the tooth surface is worn down by chemical factors such as acid reflux, stomach acid, or frequent exposure to acidic foods and drinks. Tooth wear can cause a variety of dental problems, including sensitivity, pain, difficulty chewing, and even tooth loss. Treatment options for tooth wear depend on the severity of the condition and may include dental bonding, dental crowns, or dental veneers. It is important to maintain good oral hygiene and visit a dentist regularly to prevent and manage tooth wear.

Titanium is a metal that is commonly used in the medical field due to its unique properties, such as its high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. It is often used in medical implants, such as hip and knee replacements, dental implants, and spinal implants, due to its ability to integrate well with the body and its durability. Titanium is also used in surgical instruments and medical equipment, such as pacemakers and defibrillators, due to its resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand high temperatures. Additionally, titanium is sometimes used in the fabrication of prosthetic limbs and other medical devices.

Crown rump length before a gestational age of 9 weeks is extrapolated by assuming a crown rump length of 0 at a gestational age ... Crown-rump length (CRL) is the measurement of the length of human embryos and fetuses from the top of the head (crown) to the ... "Estimation of gestational age in early pregnancy from crown-rump length when gestational age range is truncated: the case study ... The length of the umbilical cord is approximately equal to the CRL throughout pregnancy. Gestational age is not the same as ...
Robinson HP, Fleming JE (September 1975). "A critical evaluation of sonar "crown-rump length" measurements". British Journal of ... Jukic AM, Baird DD, Weinberg CR, McConnaughey DR, Wilcox AJ (October 2013). "Length of human pregnancy and contributors to its ...
Robinson, H. P.; Fleming, J. E. E. (1975). "A Critical Evaluation of Sonar "crown-Rump Length" Measurements". BJOG: An ... crown-rump length and biparietal diameter". Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 15 (1): 41-46. doi:10.1046/j.1469- ... By gestational sac diameter By crown-rump length (CRL) By biparietal diameter (BPD) The fertilization or conceptional age (also ... Babies who were fewer than 28 weeks of gestational age, or weighed fewer than 1000 grams, or fewer than 35 cm in length - even ...
For decades, the topic of question pertaining to crown-rump length (CR), crown-heel length (CH), head circumference (HC) with ... Berger GS, Edelman DA, Kerenyi TD (1975). "Fetal crown-rump length and biparietal diameter in the second trimester of pregnancy ... Drumm JE, Clinch J, Mackenzie G (1976). "The ultrasonic measurement of fetal crown-rump length as a method assessing ... Mukherjee B, Mitra SC, Gunasegaran JP (1986). "Fetal crown-rump length and body weight at different gestational periods". ...
Normal thickness depends on the crown-rump length (CRL) of the fetus. Among those fetuses whose nuchal translucency exceeds the ...
The fetal pole may be seen at 2-4 mm crown-rump length (CRL). "Fetal pole , Radiology Reference Article , Radiopaedia.org". ...
The length of the umbilical cord is approximately equal to the crown-rump length of the fetus throughout pregnancy. The ... The length of umbilical left attached to the newborn varies by practice; in most hospital settings the length of cord left ... in length is left attached to the newborn. The remaining umbilical stub remains for up to 10 days as it dries and then falls ...
Crown-rump length can be used as the best ultrasonographic measurement for correct diagnosis of gestational age during the ... This correlation between crown-rump length and gestational age would be most effectively shown when no growth defects are ... Many research studies agree that SGA babies are those with birth weight or crown-heel length measured at two standard ... then the measurement of the date of last menstrual period becomes quite important since the crown-heel length has become less ...
... the short one is crown rump length and the long one extended to the knees. According to the sacrificial and ceremonial apparel ... The length of the skirts and ku could vary from knee-length to ground-length. Common people in the Zhou dynasty, including the ... men and women tend to wear that knee-length tunic over trousers for men and long, ground-length skirts for women. When their ... The length of those worn by civil officials is one inch from the ground. The sleeves should be long enough to reach the elbows ...
... crown-rump length and biparietal diameter". Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 15 (1): 41-46. doi:10.1046/j.1469- ... Given that these gestation lengths are only estimates of an average, it is helpful to consider gestation time as a range of ... The calculation method does not always result in 280 days because not all calendar months are the same length; it does not ... H. Kieler; O. Axelsson; S. Nilsson; U. Waldenströ (1995). "The length of human pregnancy as calculated by ultrasonographic ...
... crown-rump length and biparietal diameter". Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology. 15 (1): 41-46. doi:10.1046/j.1469-0705.2000. ... The exact length of each trimester can vary between sources. The first trimester begins with the start of gestational age as ... At this stage, a fetus is about 30 mm (1.2 inches) in length, the heartbeat is seen via ultrasound, and the fetus makes ... The fetus continues to grow in both weight and length, although the majority of the physical growth occurs in the last weeks of ...
... and number Identification of the embryo and/or yolk sac Measurement of fetal length (known as the crown-rump length) Fetal ... The most accurate measurement for dating is the crown-rump length of the fetus, which can be done between 7 and 13 weeks of ... the length of the femur, the crown-heel length (head to heel), and other fetal parameters.[citation needed] Dating is more ... 1996). "The Length of the Cervix and the Risk of spontaneous Premature Delivery". New England Journal of Medicine. 334 (9): 567 ...
... and the crown-rump length after week 6. Multiple gestation is evaluated by the number of placentae and amniotic sacs present. ...
At the start of the fetal stage, the fetus is typically about 30 millimetres (1+1⁄4 in) in length from crown-rump, and weighs ... It may be 48 to 53 cm (19 to 21 in) in length when born. Control of movement is limited at birth, and purposeful voluntary ...
Crown-rump length is the measurement of the length of human embryos and fetuses from the top of the head (crown) to the bottom ... Length measures the same dimension as height, but height is measured standing up while the length is measured lying down. In ... variants that primarily determine leg length, (2) variants that primarily determine spine and head length, or (3) variants that ... Note there is a discontinuity in the growth curves at age 2, which reflects the difference in recumbent length (with the child ...
... without transvaginal scanning may be sufficient for diagnosing early pregnancy failure when an embryo whose crown-rump length ...
Crown-rump length before a gestational age of 6 weeks is extrapolated by assuming a gestational sac diameter of 0 at a ... "Normal Ranges of Embryonic Length, Embryonic Heart Rate, Gestational Sac Diameter and Yolk Sac Diameter at 6-10 Weeks". Fetal ...
... crown-rump length MeSH G03.850.505.400 - demography MeSH G03.850.505.400.050 - age distribution MeSH G03.850.505.400.225 - ...
The regression formula which describes this acceleration before the embryo reaches 25 mm in crown-rump length or 9.2 LMP weeks ...
... pes length 2.94 cm (1.16 in), manus 2.30 cm (0.91 in), shank 4.16 cm (1.64 in), forearm 4.34 cm (1.71 in) and crown-rump length ... a crown-snout length of 5.87 cm (2.31 in), tail length of 5.78 cm (2.28 in), ... It has a squat, thick build, with a large head and a tail which is about half its body length. Unusually for a marsupial, its ... Males are usually larger than females, having an average head and body length of 652 mm (25.7 in), a 258 mm (10.2 in) tail and ...
In two caves surveyed on Grande Comore in November 2006, all females were pregnant with single embryos with crown-rump lengths ... With a forearm length of 35 to 38 mm (1.4 to 1.5 in), M. griveaudi is a small Miniopterus. It is usually dark brown, but ...
... crown-rump length MeSH G07.290.100.660 - organ size MeSH G07.290.100.803 - skinfold thickness MeSH G07.290.100.960 - waist-hip ...
... crown-rump length MeSH E01.370.600.115.100.660 - organ size MeSH E01.370.600.115.100.803 - skinfold thickness MeSH E01.370. ...
... the official FDA response to a New Drug Application Crown-rump length, the ultrasound measurement of a foetus Brussels South ...
The adult has brown upperparts with some faint streaking and a plain brown rump. The head has a finely white-streaked crown, ... The streaky-headed seedeater is 13-14 cm in length. ...
The thrasher is 21.5 to 24 centimetres (8.5 to 9.4 in) in length. The adult has a brown crown, back, shoulders, and rump that ... 26.5-29 centimetres or 10.4-11.4 inches in length), but is smaller, darker in color, has a blacker bill, and the markings are ... becomes more red in its tint on its lower back and rump. Greater and lesser coverts are a warm brown with concealed white tips ...
The tawny-breasted myiobius grows to a length of about 14 cm (5.5 in). The upper parts are mainly dark olive, and the rump is ... There is usually a yellow patch on the crown in males that is normally kept hidden; this patch is cinnamon-brown in females. ...
Their crown and back are medium brown and their rump and uppertail coverts bright pale buff. Their tail's innermost pair of ... feathers are black with a small length of creamy buff at their bases; the rest have progressively more creamy buff. The ...
There are three migratory subspecies in the United States and Canada, differing in size, bill length, back and rump colours, ... The golden-crowned kinglet has a wingspan of 5.5-7.1 in (14-18 cm). The golden-crowned kinglet forages actively in trees or ... Golden-crowned Kinglet Species Account - Cornell Lab of Ornithology Golden-crowned Kinglet - Regulus satrapa - USGS Patuxent ... Its length, at 8 to 11 cm (3.1 to 4.3 in), is probably the shortest of any American passerine. However, its weight, which ...
The yellow-crowned canary is 11-13 cm in length. The adult male has a green back with black edging to the wings and tail. The ... underparts, rump and tail sides are yellow, and the lower belly is white. The head is brighter in color than the Cape canary, ... The yellow-crowned canary is a common and gregarious seedeater. Its call is tsit-it-it, and the song is warbled goldfinch-like ... The yellow-crowned canary (Serinus flavivertex) is a small passerine bird in the finch family. It is a resident breeder in ...
Reproducibility of an image scoring system for crown rump length measurements Wanyonyi S., Napolitano R., Ohuma E., Salomon L ...
Crown-rump length of ≥ 7 mm with no detectable fetal heart rate Crown-rump length of , 7 mm and with no detectable fetal heart ... Crown-rump length of ≥ 7 mm with no detectable fetal heart rate Crown-rump length of , 7 mm and with no detectable fetal heart ... Small gestational sac in relation to the size of the embryo (, 5 mm difference between mean sac diameter and crown-rump length ... Small gestational sac in relation to the size of the embryo (, 5 mm difference between mean sac diameter and crown-rump length ...
... correlation with crown-rump length, biochemical placenta parameters and uterine artery doppler. *Bokučava, D. (Speaker) ... correlation with crown-rump length, biochemical placenta parameters and uterine artery doppler. Research output: Contribution ...
487-489 Crown Rump Length Tape Counts Source Location Item Description and Code M C P and Notes 487-489 Crown rump length (Ages ... Crown-Rump Length (Three Years Old and Under) a. Have the child lie on his back on the infant measuring board with his hips ... 483-486 Recumbent Length Tape Counts Source Location Item Description and Code M C P and Notes 483-486 Recumbent length (Ages 6 ... Recumbent Length (Three Years Old and Under) a. Have the child lie on his back on the infant measuring board. b. Find another ...
Crown rump length. 10. Within 4 days of Crown Rump Length of external scan review of image. ... 2. Diagnose gestational age from crown rump length pregnancies 6 - 13 weeks - 10 scans ...
Fetal body weight and crown rump length were reduced in all ethylene-oxide exposed groups. External, visceral, and skeletal ...
Accuracy of measurements of crown-rump length and biparietal diameter made by inexperienced operators using a real-time scanner ...
The fetus is around 4-5.5 inches long (CRL = crown-rump length) and weighs approx. 3.5-5 ounces. The feet are a dinky 1 inch ...
Crown-Rump Length, Down Syndrome/diagnosis, Female, Humans, Male, Pregnancy, Pregnancy Outcome, Pregnancy-Associated Plasma ...
... crown-to-rump length, thoracic girth circumference, abdominal girth circumference, and radial bone length for 2 months. ... DM did not significantly decrease BW at birth but did prolong gestation length. DM decreased maternal estradiol before lambing ... prolonged gestation length, decreased newborn brain weight, and BPD. ...
Crown Rump Length Crown-Rump Lengths Length, Crown-Rump Lengths, Crown-Rump ... Crown Rump Length. Crown-Rump Lengths. Length, Crown-Rump. Lengths, Crown-Rump. ... Crown-Rump Length - Preferred Concept UI. M0027833. Scope note. In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown ... Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. The average crown-rump length of the ...
Crown-rump length (CRL) and NT measurements were obtained in all cases before chorionic villus sampling. Fetuses were diagnosed ... Crown-rump length (CRL) and NT measurements were obtained in all cases before chorionic villus sampling. Fetuses were diagnosed ... Crown-rump length (CRL) and NT measurements were obtained in all cases before chorionic villus sampling. Fetuses were diagnosed ... Crown-rump length (CRL) and NT measurements were obtained in all cases before chorionic villus sampling. Fetuses were diagnosed ...
... crown-rump length and bone length. These effects showed evidence of reversibility, and no histopathological effects on bone ...
... and crown-rump length. If these findings are present, serial evaluation is required to confirm whether a pregnancy is viable. ...
Crown-rump length. (mm). Sex differentiating events. 0. blastocyst. Inactivation of one X chromosome. ... such as arm length to stature ratio) but not with characters that become dimorphic during puberty (such as shoulder width) ( ... relative hair length). Many differences, though, such as gender identity, appear to be influenced by both biological and social ...
... cases with the crown-rump length ≥ 23 mm (≥9+0 weeks of gestation), but in none of 44 women presenting with a crown-rump length ... The median crown-rump length was 9.3 mm (range 1.4-85.7). Median blood loss at the time of surgery was 100 ml (range, 10-2300 ... Crown-rump length and presence of placental lacunae were significant predictive factors for the need for blood transfusion and ... only crown-rump length was a significant predictor for need for blood transfusion (OR = 1.072; 95% CI 1.02-1.11). Blood ...
The crown-rump (C-R) length of the fetus is also illustrated. View Media Gallery ... The crown-rump (C-R) length of the fetus is also illustrated. ... At the beginning of the fetal period (30 mm crown-rump [C-R] ... Length of the trachea from birth to age 20 years. View Media Gallery ... The trachea measures about 11 cm in length and is chondromembranous. This structure starts from the inferior part of the larynx ...
The crown-rump (C-R) length of the fetus is also illustrated. View Media Gallery ... The crown-rump (C-R) length of the fetus is also illustrated. ... At the beginning of the fetal period (30 mm crown-rump [C-R] ... Length of the trachea from birth to age 20 years. View Media Gallery ... The trachea measures about 11 cm in length and is chondromembranous. This structure starts from the inferior part of the larynx ...
... crown to rump length 0.1862 ) (514). 10,000. BMI = body weight. (crown to rump length 100). 2. Next, body composition was ... We measured body composition by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, weight, crown-to-rump length, and body condition score ... crown to rump), and assessed for body condition score (BCS) on a standardized scale.4,29 Surface area and body mass index were ... to crown-torump length (CRL):19 surface area = ( body weight 0.6046 )( ...
Crown-to-rump length is 14 inches and total length is around 19 inches (1). Its a little on the small side, but he or she is ...
Prediction of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes Using CrownRump Length at 11 to 13 + 6 Weeks of Gestation ... Korean reference for full-term birth length by sex: data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey ( ...
Neonatal measurements within 72 hours of birth (Crown-rump, crown-heel lengths, weight, arm, thigh, head, abdominal ... Length of stay in neonatal unit (and level of care) ,. 3.12. Apgar score (5minutes). 3.13. Umbilical arterial pH at birth. 3.14 ... Ponderal index (fetal weight in grams X 100/(fetal length in centimeters) - measurement after birth. 4.6. ...
crown rump length (CRL). * fetal heart rate *fetal tachycardia. *fetal bradycardia. *fetal bradyarrhythmia(s) ...
When youre 6 weeks pregnant, your babys crown-to-rump measurement (more on this below) is anywhere from a fifth to a quarter ... Thats because as your baby grows, her legs will be bent, making it hard to get an accurate read on the full length of the body ... practitioners measure babies as small as yours from precious little crown to cute little rump. ...
crown-rump length. * immunoblotting. * chromatography. * dosimetry. * transcranial magnetic stimulation. * diagnostic imaging. ...
In the right cornual fetus with a crown-rump length of 10 weeks of gestation was detected with a positive heart rate. The ... In the right cornu a fetus measured to have a crownrump length of 10 weeks of gestation was detected with a positive heart rate ...
  • Fetal body weight and crown rump length were reduced in all ethylene-oxide exposed groups. (cdc.gov)
  • At the beginning of the fetal period (30 mm crown-rump [C-R] stage), the chondrocytes are well identified within the incomplete rings of the trachea. (medscape.com)
  • In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. (bvsalud.org)
  • The average crown-rump length of the fetus at term is 36 cm. (bvsalud.org)
  • The crown-rump (C-R) length of the fetus is also illustrated. (medscape.com)
  • Placenta volumes (PV) and embryo volume/fetal volume ratios are correlated with crown-rump length (CRL) or gestational age. (medscape.com)
  • No differences were observed between irradiated and sham irradiated rats with respect to the number of implantations per litter, percentage of dead or resorbed implantations, percentage of malformed fetuses, fetal weights, fetal crown rump lengths, or fetal sex ratios. (cdc.gov)
  • In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. (nih.gov)